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Sample records for crete greece 23rd-28th

  1. A 7-year survey of dermatophytoses in Crete, Greece.

    PubMed

    Maraki, Sofia; Nioti, Eleni; Mantadakis, Elpis; Tselentis, Yannis

    2007-11-01

    Dermatophytoses are of worldwide distribution. Epidemiological studies concerning dermatophyte infections have been performed in many countries and differences in the incidence and the aetiological agents have been reported in different geographical locations. This study was undertaken to investigate the prevailing species of dermatophytes in the island of Crete, Greece, and their pattern of infection during a 7-year period (1997-2003). A total of 5544 samples obtained from 3751 patients with clinically suspected dermatomycoses were examined mycologically in the laboratory of Clinical Microbiology at the University Hospital of Crete, Greece. Skin, hair and nail specimens were subjected to direct microscopy and culture. Dermatophytes were isolated from 520 patients (13.9%). Trichophyton rubrum was the most frequently isolated dermatophyte accounting for 48% of the infections, followed by Microsporum canis (17.9%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale (14.2%) and Epidermophyton floccosum (6%). Tinea unguium, tinea pedis, tinea corporis, tinea capitis, tinea cruris, tinea manuum and tinea facei were the clinical types of dermatophytoses in decreasing order of frequency. Trichophyton rubrum is the predominant dermatophyte in our area. As the epidemiology of dermatophytoses is changing over time it is important to review periodically the incidence of dermatophytes and their distribution.

  2. First results on video meteors from Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maravelias, G.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the first systematic video meteor observations from a, forthcoming permanent, station in Crete, Greece, operating as the first official node within the International Meteor Organization's Video Network. It consists of a Watec 902 H2 Ultimate camera equipped with a Panasonic WV-LA1208 (focal length 12mm, f/0.8) lens running MetRec. The system operated for 42 nights during 2011 (August 19-December 30, 2011) recording 1905 meteors. It is significantly more performant than a previous system used by the author during the Perseids 2010 (DMK camera 21AF04.AS by The Imaging Source, CCTV lens of focal length 2.8 mm, UFO Capture v2.22), which operated for 17 nights (August 4-22, 2010) recording 32 meteors. Differences - according to the author's experience - between the two softwares (MetRec, UFO Capture) are discussed along with a small guide to video meteor hardware.

  3. A Fiducial Reference Stie for Satellite Altimetry in Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertikas, Stelios; Donlon, Craig; Mavrocordatos, Constantin; Bojkov, Bojan; Femenias, Pierre; Parrinello, Tommaso; Picot, Nicolas; Desjonqueres, Jean-Damien; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2016-08-01

    With the advent of diverse satellite altimeters and variant measuring techniques, it has become mature in the scientific community, that an absolute reference Cal/Val site is regularly maintained to define, monitor, control the responses of any altimetric system.This work sets the ground for the establishment of a Fiducial Reference Site for ESA satellite altimetry in Gavdos and West Crete, Greece. It will consistently and reliably determine (a) absolute altimeter biases and their drifts; (b) relative bias among diverse missions; but also (c) continuously and independently connect different missions, on a common and reliable reference and also to SI-traceable measurements. Results from this fiducial reference site will be based on historic Cal/Val site measurement records, and will be the yardstick for building up capacity for monitoring climate change. This will be achieved by defining and assessing any satellite altimeter measurements to known, controlled and absolute reference signals with different techniques, processes and instrumentation.

  4. Extension for Organic Agriculture: A Comparative Study between Baden-Württemberg, Germany and Crete, Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Österle, Nina; Koutsouris, Alex; Livieratos, Yannis; Kabourakis, Emmanuil

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to compare the extension services offered in the field of organic agriculture (OA) in Baden-Württemberg (BW), Germany and Crete, Greece. Design/methodology approach: 16 in-depth interviews, 10 in BW and 6 in Crete, were carried out with representatives of OA extension providers; interviews were qualitatively…

  5. Extension for Organic Agriculture: A Comparative Study between Baden-Württemberg, Germany and Crete, Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Österle, Nina; Koutsouris, Alex; Livieratos, Yannis; Kabourakis, Emmanuil

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to compare the extension services offered in the field of organic agriculture (OA) in Baden-Württemberg (BW), Germany and Crete, Greece. Design/methodology approach: 16 in-depth interviews, 10 in BW and 6 in Crete, were carried out with representatives of OA extension providers; interviews were qualitatively…

  6. Tsunami Questionnaire Survey in Heraklion Test Site, Crete Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papageorgiou, Antonia; Tsimi, Christina; Orfanogiannaki, Katerina; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos; Sachpazi, Maria; Lavigne, Franck; Grancher, Delphine

    2015-04-01

    The Heraklion city (Crete Island, Greece) has been chosen as one of the test-sites for the EU-FP7ASTARTE tsunami project. Heraklion is the biggest city in Crete Isl. and the fourth biggest in Greece with a population of about 120,000 which, however, during the summer vacation period nearly doubles. In the past, Heraklion was hit by strong, destructive tsunamis such as the ones of AD 8 August 1303, 10 October 1650 and 9 July 1956. The first and the third were caused by large tectonic earthquakes associated with the eastern segment of the Hellenic Arc the first and with the back-arc extensional regime the third. The one of 1650 was associated with the eruption of the Columbo submarine volcano in the Santorini volcanic complex. One of the activities scheduled for WP9 of ASTARTE project, which aims at building tsunami resilient societies in Europe, is dedicated to organize questionnaire surveys among the populations of the several ASTARTE test-sites. Although the questionnaire is comprised by more than 50 questions, the central concept is to better understand what people know about tsunamis and if they are ready to cope with risks associated with future tsunami occurrences. In Heraklion the survey was conducted during tourism peak season of July 2014, thus questionnaires were collected by both local people and tourists, thus representing a variety of countries. We attempted to keep balance between males and females, while the age ranged from 15 to 65. Totally, 113 persons were interviewed of which 62 were females and 51 males. From the point of view of origin, 58 out of 113 were local people and residents, 22 were Greek tourists and 29 foreign tourists. Generally, the questionnaire consists of four parts. In the first, people were asked about their relation with the area of Heraklion. In the second part, the questions considered the knowledge that people have on tsunamis as a natural, hazardous phenomenon. More precisely, people were asked questions such as what a

  7. Atherogenic risk factors among preschool children in Crete, Greece.

    PubMed

    Hatzis, Christos M; Papandreou, Christopher; Vardavas, Constantine I; Athanasopoulos, Dimitris; Balomenaki, Euaggelia; Kafatos, Anthony G

    2012-09-01

    To investigate the presence of atherogenic factors among preschool children of Crete, Greece. This was a cross-sectional study. The study population included 1189 children, aged four to seven years, examined from January to May 2005, in public kindergartens. Biochemical, anthropometric, and blood pressure measurements were performed. Of the boys 27.4% were classified as overweight or obese (obese 10.8%). The respective percentage for girls was 28.5% (obese 9%); 7.4% percent of the boys and 7.9% of the girls had blood pressure above the ninety-fifth percentile. TC of > 200 mg / dl was found in 14.4% and LDL-C of > 130 mg / dl in 13.8% of the children. Children with serum TG of > 100 mg / dl had a significantly higher mean WC and BMI than those with triglyceride levels of ≤ 80 mg / dl (59.7 vs. 55.9 cm and 17.9 vs. 16.6 kg / m(2); P < 0.05). Similarly, children with HDL-C < 45 mg / dl had significantly higher WC and BMI than children with HDL-C ≥ 60 mg / dl (57.7 vs. 53.5 cm and 17.1 vs. 16.5 kg / m(2); P < 0.05). Obese children had an Odds Ratio of 2.87 (95% confidence interval, 1.05 - 7.85, P = 0.041) for hypertriglyceridemia, as compared to non-obese children. Levels of obesity and especially central obesity were strongly related to other atherogenic risk factors in Cretan preschool children indicating the presence of this major public health problem in early ages.

  8. Assessment of bioclimatic conditions in Crete Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleta, A.; Nastos, P. T.; Matzarakis, A.

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study is to assess and analyze the human bioclimatic conditions of Crete Island, using the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET), which is one of the most popular human thermal indices derived from the human energy balance. Bioclimatic studies provide a framework linking biophysical climate sensitivity to social/economic factors that mitigate or amplify the consequences of environmental changes. PET is defined as the physiological equivalent temperature at any given place (outdoors or indoors). It is equivalent to the air temperature at which, in a typical indoor setting, the heat balance of the human body (work metabolism 80 W of light activity, added to basic metabolism; heat resistance of clothing 0.9 clo) is maintained with core and skin temperatures equal to those of the under assessment conditions. It has been realized that, to estimate the thermal effect of the environment to the human body, the total of effects of all of the thermal components, not only as individual parameters, should be taken into account. The climatic data (air temperature, relative humidity, cloudiness, wind speed) for Crete Island, were obtained by archives of fifteen meteorological stations of the Hellenic National Meteorological Service (HNMS). These data of period 1955-2010 were used for the calculation of PET in order to interpret the grade of the thermo-physiological stress. Crete Island, as it is located in the Southeastern Mediterranean basin, is of great touristic interest due to its splendid landscapes, archaeological sites and coastal areas combined with its excellent climatic conditions. However, Crete Island is frequently affected by Saharan outbreaks which are associated with miscellaneous phenomena, such as Föhn winds - hot and dry winds - causing extreme bioclimatic conditions (strong heat stress). The exploitation of the results of this analysis, such as bioclimatic diagrams, temporal and spatial distributions of PET as well as trends and

  9. Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in a population sample from continental Greece, and the islands of Crete and Chios.

    PubMed

    Robino, C; Varacalli, S; Gino, S; Chatzikyriakidou, A; Kouvatsi, A; Triantaphyllidis, C; Di Gaetano, C; Crobu, F; Matullo, G; Piazza, A; Torre, C

    2004-10-04

    Eight Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (STRs)--DYS19, DYS389-I, DYS389-II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, and DYS385--were typed in a population sample (n = 113) of unrelated males from seven different regions of Greece (Macedonia, Thessaly, Epirus, Central Greece, Peloponnese, Crete Island, and Chios Island).

  10. Isotope hydrology of the Aghios Nikolaos area of Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leontiadis, I. L.; Payne, B. R.; Christodoulou, Th.

    1988-03-01

    Deuterium and oxygen-18 data have been used to identify the origin of recharge to a coastal complex of springs and also aquifers developed for supplying water to Aghios Nikolaos, Crete. Tritium data have been used to estimate the age of groundwater at different sampling locations. The results of this study indicate that the Almyros Aghios Nikolaos springs are recharged mainly from the part of the Gavrovo-Tripolitza limestones forming the mountains of Selena, Katharo Tsivi and Lassithiotika, while the part of the same limestones forming the mountainous area of Mavro Dassos provides recharge to the northern part of the Aghios Nikolaos plateau. The total surfaces of these areas, their corresponding potential annual recharges, as well as the flow velocity of the water recharging the springs of Almyros Aghios Nikolaos during the last few kilometers of its way are estimated.

  11. Kinematic evolution of southern Hellenides (western Crete, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatzaras, V.; Xypolias, P.; Kokkalas, S.; Koukouvelas, I. K.

    2010-05-01

    Combined kinematic, structural and paleostress analyses were performed to reevaluate the tectonic evolution of the southern Hellenides in western Crete. Our work shows that the structural architecture of the study area was mainly established by two contractional deformation phases. SSW-directed thrusting from Oligocene to lower Miocene times (D1 phase) lead to brittle stacking of the upper thrust sheets and concomitant ductile exhumation-related imbrication of the lower HP tectonic units (Phyllite-Quartzite (PQ), Tripali and Plattenkalk units). Kinematic analysis in the PQ unit reveals a main southward ductile transport followed by late bulk coaxial deformation. The PQ unit rocks comprise the body of a crustal scale shear zone confined at its base by a major ductile thrust and in accordance with the proposed models we suggest that the exhumation process of the PQ unit involved S-directed ductile extrusion. Structural trends of ductile D1 thrusts define a salient bounded to the east by a NE-trending transverse zone situated in the western margin of the Lefka Ori window. At the eastern limb of the salient, the trajectories of L1 stretching lineation formed on a gently dipping S1 foliation in the PQ unit, show a clockwise rotation with proximity to the transverse zone. This suggests that the latter acted as an oblique buttress against the southward extruding PQ unit rocks causing their lateral escape. D2 phase was governed by regional NNW to NNE compression and involved significant folding and out-of-sequence with respect to D1 thrusting. The early D2a phase is related to the brittle-stage of exhumation of the HP-units and spans from middle to upper Miocene. D2a deformation involved thrust-related folding, tectonic imbrication and the formation of a middle Miocene thrust-top basin. The F2a folds are characterized by a predominant S(SE)-vergence and show a pronounced curvature of their hinge orientations from a regional E-W to a local NE-SW trend, the latter only

  12. Tsunami Evacuation Exercises: the Case of Heraklion, Crete Isl., Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triantafyllou, I.; Charalampakis, M.; Bocchini, G. M.; Novikova, T.; Papadopoulos, G. A.

    2016-12-01

    Effective tsunami evacuation requires appropriate awareness as regards good shelters selection. Field exercises may improve public awareness. A field exercise was organized in Heraklion, Crete Isl., in 2016. The area is part of the Hellenic Arc which is the most active structure in the Mediterranean. Large earthquakes triggered tsunamis that hit Heraklion in the past, such in AD 1303. After selecting various fault models, simulation of the 1303 tsunami showed important inundation zone in Heraklion. For the exercise needs a team of 30 volunteers was divided in 3 groups of 10 people each. Everyone was equipped with a mobile phone and a GPS device. The 3 groups were gathered in 3 coastal spots Heraklion situated 400 m apart each other. The scenario was that immediately after receiving in their mobile a tsunami warning message they will set on their personal GPS device and start evacuating inland on the best way they believed to do so. In each group, only 5 out of 10 volunteers were notified beforehand that the Eleftherias Square, located inland at distance satisfying evacuation needs in case of repeat of the 1303 tsunami, would be a good shelter to go. Using the Road Graph Plugin of QGIS, we calculated the shortest path distances which found equal to 800, 700 and 680 m. Adopting average velocity of 3 km/h we found that these distances can be covered within 18, 16 and 15 min, respectively. The routes towards the settlement spots as well as the times needed to arrive there by each one of the 30 volunteers were recorded by their personal GPS devices. The processing of the GPS tracks and their comparison with the theoretical routes and times showed good evacuation performance which is encouraging for the next phases of the Heraklion tsunami hazard mitigation program. This is contribution to the EU-FP7 projects ZIP (Zooming In between Plates, grant no: 604713, 2013) and ASTARTE (Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe), grant no: 603839, 2013.

  13. Integrated protecting plan for beach erosion. A case study in Plaka beach, E. Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrakis, Stelios; Alexandrakis, George; Kozyrakis, George; Hatziyanni, Eleni; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    Coastal zones are among the most active areas on Earth, being subjected to extreme wind / wave conditions, thus vulnerable to erosion. In Greece and Crete in particular, beach zones are extremely important for the welfare of the inhabitants, since, apart for the important biological and archaeological value of the beach zones, the socio-economic value is critical since a great number of human activities are concentrated in such areas (touristic facilities, fishing harbors etc.). The present study investigates the erosional procedures observed in Plaka beach, E. Crete, Greece, a highly touristic developed area with great archaeological interest and proposes a cost-effective solution. The factors taken into consideration for the proposed solution in reducing the erosion of the beach were the study of the climatological, geological and geomorphological regime of the area, the recent (~70 years) shifting of the coastline through the study of topographic maps, aerial photographs and satellite images, the creation of detailed bathymetric and seabed classification maps of the area and finally, a risk analysis in terms of erosional phenomena. On the basis of the above, it is concluded that the area under investigation is subjected to an erosional rate of about 1 m/10 years and the total land-loss for the past 70 years is about 4600 m2. Through the simulation of the wave regime we studied 3 possible scenarios, the "do-nothing" scenario, the construction of a detached submerged breakwater at the depth of 3 meters and, finally, the armoring of the existing beach-wall through the placement of appropriate size and material boulders, forming an artificial slope for the reducing of the wave breaking energy and a small scale nourishment plan. As a result, through the modeling of the above, the most appropriate and cost-effective solution was found to be the third, armoring of the existing coastal wall and nourishment of the beach periodically, thus the further undermining of the

  14. Tamarix minoa (Tamaricaceae), a new species from the island of Crete (Greece) based on morphological and plastid molecular sequence data

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tamarix minoa is described from material collected on the S Aegean island of Crete (Kriti), Greece. A morphological comparison with the species considered to be closest, T. africana and T. hampeana, is provided. An original illustration showing the main morphological characters of the new species is...

  15. Centipede assemblages along an urbanization gradient in the city of Heraklion, Crete (Greece).

    PubMed

    Papastefanou, Gabriella; Panayiotou, Eleni; Mylonas, Moisis; Simaiakis, Stylianos Michail

    2015-01-01

    Global urbanization is a major force that causes alteration and loss of natural habitats. Urban ecosystems are strongly affected by humans and there is a gradient of decreasing human influence from city centers to natural habitats. To study ecological changes along this continuum, researchers introduced the urban-rural gradient approach. The responses of centipedes to an urbanization gradient (urban-suburban-rural areas) were studied using pitfall traps in and near the city of Heraklion, in the island of Crete, Greece, from November 2010 to November 2011. Our results do not support the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, in which suburban areas located in the transitional zone between urban and rural habitats failed to indicate significant increase in terms of species richness and diversity.

  16. Antimicrobial resistance and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from Crete, Greece.

    PubMed

    Maraki, S; Christidou, A; Tselentis, Y

    2001-06-01

    Susceptibility to 14 antibiotics was determined for 125 clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae collected over a 3-year period in Crete, Greece. Twenty-three isolates (18.4%) showed intermediate resistance and 15 (12%) high-level resistance to penicillin. Erythromycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole and sparfloxacin resistance rates were 16.8, 10.4, 19.2, 24.8 and 9.6%, respectively. Multiple resistance was observed in 22 strains. Vancomycin and levofloxacin were the most active agents tested. The most prevalent serotype among penicillin-susceptible pneumococci was 14, followed by 9, 7 and 1, while among penicillin-intermediate or -resistant strains serotype 23 was predominant followed by 19 and 9. These results show that as well as a high level of penicillin resistance in this region, some strains are also resistant to other antibiotics and may show multi-drug resistance.

  17. Centipede assemblages along an urbanization gradient in the city of Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    PubMed Central

    Papastefanou, Gabriella; Panayiotou, Eleni; Mylonas, Moisis; Simaiakis, Stylianos Michail

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Global urbanization is a major force that causes alteration and loss of natural habitats. Urban ecosystems are strongly affected by humans and there is a gradient of decreasing human influence from city centers to natural habitats. To study ecological changes along this continuum, researchers introduced the urban-rural gradient approach. The responses of centipedes to an urbanization gradient (urban-suburban-rural areas) were studied using pitfall traps in and near the city of Heraklion, in the island of Crete, Greece, from November 2010 to November 2011. Our results do not support the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, in which suburban areas located in the transitional zone between urban and rural habitats failed to indicate significant increase in terms of species richness and diversity. PMID:26257541

  18. Drought, flood and rainfall analysis under climate change in Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapoglou, Evdokia; Vozinaki, Anthi-Eirini; Tsanis, Ioannis; Nerantzaki, Sofia; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos

    2017-04-01

    In this study an analysis on the drought frequency and magnitude under climate change in Crete, Greece is performed. The analysis was performed for the time period from 1983-2100, divided into three sub-periods (1983-1999, 2000-2049 and 2050-2099) for inter-comparison. Two climate models were studied MPI-ESM-LR-r1-CSC-REMO and EC-EARTH-r12-SMHI-RCA4, following three possible representative concentration pathways (+2.6, +4.5 and +8.5 W/m2). In order to perform the analysis the results of a SWAT simulation which covered the entity of Crete using 352 subbasins, was used. Drought events are recognized by using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) to identify the meteorological drought events and Standardized Runoff Index (SRI) for hydrological droughts. SPI and SRI drought indices, were used in order to identify the number of drought events for each climate model and scenario. In all cases, an increase in both severity and number of drought events was calculated for the future periods, compared to the baseline period 1983-1999. This increase was smaller for the +2.6 W/m2 scenario and largest for the +8.5 W/m2. The magnitude of events with 10 and 100 years return period was calculated for the subbasins of Crete and the most vulnerable were identified, both in terms of severity and the change throughout the years in index magnitude. Next a flood frequency analysis was performed for the entity of Crete Island in order to calculate the magnitude of events with 10 and 100 years return period. In order to perform the flood frequency analysis, the results of the SWAT simulation in terms of runoff in each subbasin are used. By calculating the magnitude of flood events with 10 and 100 years return period and the change in the magnitude throughout the time periods the most vulnerable subbasins are identified. The same frequency analysis was performed for the precipitation at each subbasin, and the magnitude of extreme precipitation events with 10 and 100 years return

  19. Impact of the financial crisis on adherence to treatment of a rural population in Crete, Greece.

    PubMed

    Tsiligianni, Ioanna G; Papadokostakis, Polyvios; Prokopiadou, Dimitra; Stefanaki, Ioanna; Tsakountakis, Nikolaos; Lionis, Christos

    2014-01-01

    The global economic crisis has affected Greece. Data on patients' adherence to medications for chronic diseases are missing. The objective of this study was to identify to what extent the financial crisis and the repeated pharmacists strike have influenced patients adherence to therapy. A quantitative and qualitative study in rural Crete was designed and implemented in February 2013 with the use of a pretested questionnaire with opened and closed questions. Setting Rural practices in a well-defined geographical area of Crete. The questionnaire was addressed in all patients that visited the rural practices with chronic or acute diseases for two consecutive weeks. Main Outcome(s) and Measure(s): Age, annual income, adherence to therapy, patient's views and feelings. 288 patients participated. The mean age was 68±6.87. The majority of the patients have lowered the doses of several medications by themselves as they weren't able to afford the cost ie; all patients receiving insulin had lowered the dosages; 46.42% of patients with COPD or asthma had stopped their medications completely, decreased dosages or used similar medications that had in the past; patients with dislipidemia received their medications as suggested only in 51.8%. Patients with cardiovascular diseases received their medications as suggested in 75.6% while the rest have dismissed or skipped dosages. Most common emotions reported were those of sadness, fear, stress, anxiety and isolation. The economic crisis has influenced patients' adherence to therapy in rural areas as well as their psychological and emotional status. There is an urgent need for action within the context of primary care.

  20. Attitudes to kidney donation among primary care patients in rural Crete, Greece

    PubMed Central

    Symvoulakis, Emmanouil K; Komninos, Ioannis D; Antonakis, Nikos; Morgan, Myfanwy; Alegakis, Athanasios; Tsafantakis, Emmanouil; Chatziarsenis, Marios; Philalithis, Anastas; Jones, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Background In Greece, there is limited research on issues related to organ donation, and the low rate of registration as donors requires explanation. This study reports the findings of a survey of knowledge and attitudes to kidney donation among primary care patients in rural Crete, Greece. Methods Two rural primary care settings in the island of Crete, Anogia Health Centre and Vrachasi Practice, were involved in a questionnaire survey. This was conducted among primary care patients (aged 18 years and over) with routine appointments, to assess their knowledge and attitudes to kidney donation. General practitioners (GPs) recruited patients and questionnaires were completed following the patients' medical consultation. Pearson's chi square tests were used and crude odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated in order to investigate into the possible associations between the respondents' knowledge, attitudes and specific concerns in relation to their socio-demographic features. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine differences by geographical location. Results The 224 (92.5%) of the 242 primary care attenders who were approached agreed to participate. Only 2.2% (5/224) of the respondents carried a donor card. Most participants (84.4%, 189/224) did not feel well informed about registering as a kidney donor. More than half of the respondents (54.3%, 121/223) were unwilling to register as a kidney donor and donate kidneys for transplant after death. Over a third of respondents (35.4%, 79/223) were not confident that medical teams would try as hard as possible to save the life of a person who has agreed to donate organs. People with a higher level of education were more likely to be willing to register as kidney donors [(OR: 3.3; 95% CI: 1.8–6.0), p < 0.001)] and to be less worried about their kidneys being removed after death [(OR: 0.3; 95% CI: 0.1–0.5), p < 0.001)] than those having a lower level of education. Conclusion Lack

  1. Ethical issues arising in pharmacoepidemiologic research in a community hospital in Crete, Greece.

    PubMed

    Tzimis, L

    2001-12-01

    This paper presents the various issues encountered in planning, designing, performing, and reporting pharmacoepidemiologic research. Five hundred and fifty-one indigent patients insured by Social Care visited the Hospital Pharmacy of Chania General Hospital, and were compared with 551 patients insured under Social Security funds who visited three community pharmacies. The study had no external funding. Before we started the study, we officially sought approval from the Scientific Committee of our Hospital and from the local Pharmaceutical Association. We asked also for approval from the Medical School of the University of Crete. Patient privacy was of great concern in the design and performance of the study. The law in Greece, according to the directives of European Union, affects the way we use records in hospitals and protect patient rights. After these studies were completed, we made proposals to the authorities concerning continuous health education for both patients and health workers. Pharmacoepidemiologic research is difficult in hospitals outside universities or institutions, because of the lack of adequate funding and grants to support research staff.

  2. Measurements of particulate matter concentrations at a landfill site (Crete, Greece)

    SciTech Connect

    Chalvatzaki, E.; Kopanakis, I.; Kontaksakis, M.; Glytsos, T.; Kalogerakis, N.; Lazaridis, M.

    2010-11-15

    Large amounts of solid waste are disposed in landfills and the potential of particulate matter (PM) emissions into the atmosphere is significant. Particulate matter emissions in landfills are the result of resuspension from the disposed waste and other activities such as mechanical recycling and composting, waste unloading and sorting, the process of coating residues and waste transport by trucks. Measurements of ambient levels of inhalable particulate matter (PM{sub 10}) were performed in a landfill site located at Chania (Crete, Greece). Elevated PM{sub 10} concentrations were measured in the landfill site during several landfill operations. It was observed that the meteorological conditions (mainly wind velocity and temperature) influence considerably the PM{sub 10} concentrations. Comparison between the PM{sub 10} concentrations at the landfill and at a PM{sub 10} background site indicates the influence of the landfill activities on local concentrations at the landfill. No correlation was observed between the measurements at the landfill and the background sites. Finally, specific preventing measures are proposed to control the PM concentrations in landfills.

  3. Mineralogical investigation of soils formed in calcareous gravelly alluvium, eastern Crete, Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Timpson, M.E.; Lee, S.Y.; Ammons, J.T.; Foss, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    The mineralogical composition of soils along a toposequence formed on Quaternary-aged alluvium from the northeastern portion of the island of Crete, Greece, and the examination of their mineral weathering characteristics should help provide an insight into the stage of weathering and relative age of the soils. Four soils were described and sampled from three landscape positions along the toposequence and the clay and silt fractions from all horizons of each soil were examined using a combination of x-ray diffraction and electron microprobe techniques. Coarse and fine silt fractions from each soil contained dolomite, calcite, quartz, feldspars, mica, and chlorite. Feldspar content generally decreased with depth, whereas calcite increased with depth. Minerals identified in the silt fractions resulted from a combination of physical and chemical weathering and possible eolian additions. Clay fractions were dominated by trioctahedral ferrous chlorite and dioctahedral mica (muscovite), with minor amounts of kaolinite, quartz, dolomite, and calcite. Goethite was also identified in the clay fraction of some soil horizons. The source of the phyllosilicates was inheritance from phyllite gravels in the alluvium and chemical dissolution of the dolostone releasing entrained clay minerals. Some portion of the kaolinite in surface horizons was probably the result of eolian additions. All evidence suggests that these soils are still in the initial stages of weathering. 40 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Evaluation of tsunami risk in Heraklion city, Crete, Greece, by using GIS methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triantafyllou, Ioanna; Fokaefs, Anna; Novikova, Tatyana; Papadopoulos, Gerasimos A.; Vaitis, Michalis

    2016-04-01

    The Hellenic Arc is the most active seismotectonic structure in the Mediterranean region. The island of Crete occupies the central segment of the arc which is characterized by high seismic and tsunami activity. Several tsunamis generated by large earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and landslides were reported that hit the capital city of Heraklion in the historical past. We focus our tsunami risk study in the northern coastal area of Crete (ca. 6 km in length and 1 km in maximum width) which includes the western part of the city of Heraklion and a large part of the neighboring municipality of Gazi. The evaluation of tsunami risk included calculations and mapping with QGIS of (1) cost for repairing buildings after tsunami damage, (2) population exposed to tsunami attack, (3) optimum routes and times for evacuation. To calculate the cost for building reparation after a tsunami attack we have determined the tsunami inundation zone in the study area after numerical simulations for extreme tsunami scenarios. The geographical distribution of buildings per building block, obtained from the 2011 census data of the Hellenic Statistical Authority (EL.STAT) and satellite data, was mapped. By applying the SCHEMA Damage Tool we assessed the building vulnerability to tsunamis according to the types of buildings and their expected damage from the hydrodynamic impact. A set of official cost rates varying with the building types and the damage levels, following standards set by the state after the strong damaging earthquakes in Greece in 2014, was applied to calculate the cost of rebuilding or repairing buildings damaged by the tsunami. In the investigation of the population exposed to tsunami inundation we have used the interpolation method to smooth out the population geographical distribution per building block within the inundation zone. Then, the population distribution was correlated with tsunami hydrodynamic parameters in the inundation zone. The last approach of tsunami risk

  5. Present and future responses of growing degree days for Crete Island in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paparrizos, Spyridon; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    Climate affects practically all the physiological processes that determine plant life (IPCC, 2014). A major challenge and objective of the agricultural science is to predict the occurrences of specific physical or biological events. For this reason, flower phenology has been widely used to study the flowering in plant species of economic interest, and in this concept, temperature and heat units have been widely accepted as the most important factors affecting processes leading to flowering. The determination of heat requirements in the first developing phases of plants has been expressed as Growing Degree Days (GDD). Determination of GDD is useful for achieving a better understanding of the flowering season development in several plant species, and for forecasting when flowering will occur (Paparrizos and Matzarakis, 2017). Temperature and GDD represent two important spatially-dynamic climatic variables, as they both play vital roles in influencing forest development by directly affecting plant functions such as evapotranspiration, photosynthesis and plant transpiration. Understanding the spatial distribution of GDD is crucial to the practice of sustainable agricultural and forest management, as GDD relates to the integration of growth and provides precise point estimates (Hasan et al., 2007; Matzarakis et al., 2007). The aim of the current study was to estimate and map through downscaling spatial interpolation and multi-linear regression techniques, the future variation of GDD for the periods 2021-2050 and 2071-2100, under the A1B and B1 IPCC emission scenarios in relation with the reference periods for Crete Island in Greece. Future temperature data were obtained, validated and analysed from the ENSEMBLES European project. A combination of dynamical and statistical approach was conducted in order to downscale and perform the spatial interpolation of GDD through ArcGIS 10.2.1. The results indicated that in the future, GDD will be increased and the existing

  6. Present and Future Human Thermal Bioclimatic Conditions and Impacts on Respiratory Admissions in Crete Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleta, Anastasia; Nastos, Panagiotis

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study is to assess and quantify the association between present and future human thermal bioclimatic conditions and daily counts of respiratory problems in Heraklion city, Crete Island, Greece. The bioclimatic conditions were analyzed in terms of the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) and Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), which are two of the most popular human thermal indices based on the human energy balance. The PET and UTCI analysis was performed by the application of the bioclimate model, "RayMan", which is well-suited to calculate radiation fluxes and human biometeorological indices. Future changes in meteorological parameters such as air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and cloudiness (used as input variables in the estimation of PET and UTCI) were derived by the simulations of the regional atmospheric climate model KNMI under SRES A1B, for the near (2021-2050) and far (2071-2100) future with respect to the reference period 1961-1990. Generalized linear models (GLM) with Poisson distribution were applied to the time series of daily numbers of outpatients (total, males and females) with respiratory problems against present and future bioclimatic changes, after controlling for possible confounders and adjustment for season and trends. The interpretation of the results of this analysis suggests a significant association between cold weather and increased respiratory admissions. For the near future, the projected increase of 1.6oC in PET may result in reducing the incidence of respiratory problemsby almost 3% against 7.5% in the far future, when PET is projected to increase by 4oC.

  7. Helicobacter pylori Seropositivity and Childhood Neurodevelopment, the Rhea Birth Cohort in Crete, Greece.

    PubMed

    Karachaliou, Marianna; Chatzi, Leda; Michel, Angelika; Kyriklaki, Andriani; Kampouri, Mariza; Koutra, Katerina; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Chalkiadaki, Georgia; Stiakaki, Eftichia; Pawlita, Michael; Waterboer, Tim; Kogevinas, Manolis; de Sanjose, Silvia

    2017-07-01

    Limited evidence exists on the association between exposure to Helicobacter pylori infection early in life, including fetal life, and neurodevelopment in childhood. We used prospective data on 352 mother-child pairs and cross-sectional data on 674 children to assess the association of maternal and child's H. pylori seropositivity correspondingly on child's neurodevelopment at age four in the Rhea birth cohort in Crete, Greece. Blood levels of immunoglobulin G antibodies to 12 H. pylori proteins were measured using multiplex serology. Child's neurodevelopment at age four was assessed using the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities. Linear regression models were used to explore the associations after adjusting for potential confounders. Helicobacter pylori seroprevalence (95% CI) in cord blood, representing maternal status, was 41.5% (36.3%, 46.8%) and in 4 years old children was 6.5% (95% CI 4.8%, 8.7%). Children of H. pylori seropositive mothers had lower score in the general cognitive (-3.87, 95% CI -7.02, -0.72), verbal (-2.96, 95% CI -6.08, 0.15), perceptual performance (-3.37, 95% CI -6.60, -0.15), quantitative (-2.85, 95% CI -6.28, 0.58), and memory scale (-3.37, 95% CI -6.67, -0.07) compared to those of seronegative mothers. Seropositivity in cord blood specifically to GroEl and NapA - two of the 12 H. pylori proteins investigated - was associated with lower scores in almost all scales. At age four, H. pylori seropositive children performed worst in neurodevelopment assessment compared to their seronegative counterparts although no association reached statistically significant level. Helicobacter pylori infection in early life may be an important but preventable risk factor for poor neurodevelopment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Paleoenvironmental and sclerochronological reconstruction of Crassostrea gryphoides Miocene biostromes from Crete island (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koskeridou, E.; Agiadi, K.

    2012-04-01

    The mangrove oyster Crassostrea gasar (Adanson, 1757) is a keystone species mainly along the African Atlantic coasts. It forms biostromes on muddy coasts and typically associated with river mouths in the intertidal zone in depths of 0.60 up to 1 m1. Similarly, many biostrome structures of the fossilized Crassostrea gryphoides are found within Cenozoic deposits of Greece2. Since Crassostrea gasar is the phyllogenetically corresponding species of Crassostrea gryphoides, it is investigated whether the fossil biostromes formed under environmental conditions similar to those favored by modern Crassostrea gasar and if growth rate and longevity are comparable. A biostrome from the Tortonian of Heraklion district, Crete island (southern Greece) was studied to investigate the paleoenvironmental conditions and the life history of these oysters. The shells are big, ranging up to 40 cm in length, thick and positioned mainly horizontally. The biostrome is approximately 2 m in thickness and a few meters in length. Individual oysters, associated fauna and lithologic samples were collected. Paleoenvironmental interpretation was based on the analysis of the oyster taphonomy, the associated fauna and the sclerochronology/stable isotopic geochemistry of the oyster shells. The biostrome is observed in sandy marl which laterally contains Veneridae, Melongena, Terebralia bidentata and oligospecific microfossils, mainly Ammonia beccarii and Miliolids. Borings by many ichnotaxa occur on the external and internal surface of the oyster shells during the pre and /or post-mortem. Using a micromill, successive samples were taken along the hinge/ligament region of an oyster for isotopic analyses. The δ18O values ranged from -2.9 to 0.1. The wide range of values supports the interpretation of changing environmental conditions. The δ13C values ranged from -2.6 to -0.1. A correlation between δ18O and δ13C was observed. The profiles exhibit cyclicity with respect to isotopic and Sr/Ca ratios

  9. Greece

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... panels covering a region to the west of the top panels. Data from each of the four dates have been processed identically, and relative ... MD. The MISR data were obtained from the NASA Langley Research Center Atmospheric Science Data Center in Hampton, VA. Image ... Maria Kanakidou and Nikos Mihalopoulos, Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece. Other formats ...

  10. First Report of Longidorus kuiperi and Rotylenchus eximius from Coastal Sand Dunes in Crete, Greece.

    PubMed

    Tzortzakakis, Emmanuel A; Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, Carolina; Archidona-Yuste, Antonio; Palomares-Rius, Juan E; Castillo, Pablo

    2016-09-01

    Plant-parasitic nematode species have been reported on several occasions from coastal sand dunes, including Longidorus and Rotylenchus species (Vovlas et al., 2008; De Luca et al., 2009; Mateille et al., 2014). In April 2016, 10 soil samples of 3 to 4 kg from the rhizosphere of Tamarix smyrnensis with different vegetation around (viz. Elymus farctus, Lycium schweinfurthii, Crithmum maritimum, and Arthrocnemum sp.) were collected for diagnosis of plant-parasitic nematodes. The area of sampling was a coastal sand dune near the archeological site of Komos, southwest of Crete, Greece. Low soil populations of a needle and a spiral nematode were detected (3 and 8 individuals/1,000 cm(3) of soil, respectively), which prompted us to undertake a detailed morphological and molecular comparative study with previous reported data. Nematodes were extracted from soil with the wet sieving and decanting method (Cobb, 1918). Morphological and molecular analyses of females identified these species as Longidorus kuiperi Brinkman, Loof and Barbez, 1987, and Rotylenchus eximius Siddiqi, 1964. The morphology of L. kuiperi females (six specimens studied) was characterized by having a slender body; very broad lip region (27 ± 1.5 [25 to 30] μm in width); short, hemispherical tail; body length of (7.1 ± 0.8 [6.5 to 8.5] mm); vulva position at 47% to 55% of body length; odontostyle length of (105 ± 6.5 [90 to 115] μm); males very common (but less frequent than females [45% vs 55%]); tail region with 15 to 20 supplements and bulged terminal cuticle. The morphology of R. eximius females (four specimens studied) was characterized by having a hemispherical lip region clearly set off; with four annuli; body without longitudinal striations; lateral fields areolated in the pharyngeal region only; stylet 36 to 38 μm; and broadly rounded tail. The morphology of the isolated nematodes agreed with previous descriptions of L. kuiperi (Brinkman et al., 1987; De Luca et al., 2009), and R. eximius

  11. First Report of Longidorus kuiperi and Rotylenchus eximius from Coastal Sand Dunes in Crete, Greece

    PubMed Central

    Tzortzakakis, Emmanuel A.; Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, Carolina; Archidona-Yuste, Antonio; Palomares-Rius, Juan E.; Castillo, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematode species have been reported on several occasions from coastal sand dunes, including Longidorus and Rotylenchus species (Vovlas et al., 2008; De Luca et al., 2009; Mateille et al., 2014). In April 2016, 10 soil samples of 3 to 4 kg from the rhizosphere of Tamarix smyrnensis with different vegetation around (viz. Elymus farctus, Lycium schweinfurthii, Crithmum maritimum, and Arthrocnemum sp.) were collected for diagnosis of plant-parasitic nematodes. The area of sampling was a coastal sand dune near the archeological site of Komos, southwest of Crete, Greece. Low soil populations of a needle and a spiral nematode were detected (3 and 8 individuals/1,000 cm3 of soil, respectively), which prompted us to undertake a detailed morphological and molecular comparative study with previous reported data. Nematodes were extracted from soil with the wet sieving and decanting method (Cobb, 1918). Morphological and molecular analyses of females identified these species as Longidorus kuiperi Brinkman, Loof and Barbez, 1987, and Rotylenchus eximius Siddiqi, 1964. The morphology of L. kuiperi females (six specimens studied) was characterized by having a slender body; very broad lip region (27 ± 1.5 [25 to 30] μm in width); short, hemispherical tail; body length of (7.1 ± 0.8 [6.5 to 8.5] mm); vulva position at 47% to 55% of body length; odontostyle length of (105 ± 6.5 [90 to 115] μm); males very common (but less frequent than females [45% vs 55%]); tail region with 15 to 20 supplements and bulged terminal cuticle. The morphology of R. eximius females (four specimens studied) was characterized by having a hemispherical lip region clearly set off; with four annuli; body without longitudinal striations; lateral fields areolated in the pharyngeal region only; stylet 36 to 38 μm; and broadly rounded tail. The morphology of the isolated nematodes agreed with previous descriptions of L. kuiperi (Brinkman et al., 1987; De Luca et al., 2009), and R. eximius

  12. Seismicity at the convergent plate boundary offshore Crete, Greece, observed by an amphibian network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, D.; Meier, T.; Bohnhoff, M.; Harjes, H.-P.

    2010-04-01

    We investigate microseismic activity at the convergent plate boundary of the Hellenic subduction zone on- and offshore south-eastern Crete with unprecedented precision using recordings from an amphibian seismic network. The network configuration consisted of up to eight ocean bottom seismometers as well as five temporary short-period and six permanent broadband stations on Crete and surrounding islands. More than 2,500 local and regional events with magnitudes up to M L = 4.5 were recorded during the time period July 2003-June 2004. The magnitude of completeness varies between 1.5 on Crete and adjacent areas and increases to 2.5 in the vicinity of the Strabo trench 100 km south of Crete. Tests with different localization schemes and velocity models showed that the best results were obtained from a probabilistic earthquake localization using a 1-D velocity model and corresponding station corrections obtained by simultaneous inversion. Most of the seismic activity is located offshore of central and eastern Crete and interpreted to be associated with the intracrustal graben system (Ptolemy and Pliny trenches). Furthermore, a significant portion of events represents interplate seismicity along the NNE-ward dipping plate interface. The concentration of seismicity along the Ptolemy and Pliny trenches extends from shallow depths down to the plate interface and indicates active movement. We propose that both trenches form transtensional structures within the Aegean plate. The Aegean continental crust between these two trenches is interpreted as a forearc sliver as it exhibits only low microseismic activity during the observation period and little or no internal deformation. Interplate seismicity between the Aegean and African plates forms a 100-km wide zone along dip from the Strabo trench in the south to the southern shore-line of Crete in the north. The seismicity at the plate contact is randomly distributed and no indications for locked zones were observed. The plate

  13. Mold allergy in the Mediterranean Island of Crete, Greece: a 10-year volumetric, aerobiological study with dermal sensitization correlations.

    PubMed

    Gonianakis, Michael I; Neonakis, Ioannis K; Gonianakis, Ioannis M; Baritaki, Maria A; Bouros, Demosthenis; Potamias, George; Kontou-Fili, Kalliopi S

    2006-01-01

    Mold spores are universal outdoor and indoor components and generally are recognized as possible sources of respiratory allergies. A 10-year aerobiological study (1994-2003) was conducted in the city of Heraklion located at the center of the Mediterranean island of Crete, Greece. Eighteen mold species exhibiting a normal annual seasonal pattern have been identified and recorded. The most abundant mold species include (a) Cladosporium, (b) Alternaria, (c) miscellaneous ascosporas (d) Leptosphaeria, and (e) basidiomycete Coprinus. In parallel, 571 atopic individuals were tested by skin-prick tests (SPTs). Among these 571 patients 42.5% showed dermal positivity to mold allergens. Most positive SPTs were those of (a) Alternaria, (b) Cladosporium, (c) Fusarium, (d) Aspergillus, and (e) Mucor. No linear relationship was noted between SPT frequencies and percentages of mold species. All of these aerobiological and sensitization data constitute a firm basis for further medical and biological research and application.

  14. Serotypes and Antimicrobial Resistance of Human Nontyphoidal Isolates of Salmonella enterica from Crete, Greece.

    PubMed

    Maraki, Sofia; Papadakis, Ioannis S

    2014-01-01

    We report on the serotype distribution and the antimicrobial resistance patterns to 20 different antimicrobials of 150 Salmonella enterica strains isolated from stools of diarrhoeal patients on the island of Crete over the period January 2011-December 2012. Among the S. enterica serotypes recovered, Enteritidis was the most prevalent (37.3%), followed by Typhimurium (28.7%) and Newport (8.7%). No resistance was detected to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and carbapenems. Rates of resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and cotrimoxazole were 9.3%, 4%, 2%, 15.3%, and 8.7%, respectively. Resistance to ≥4 antibiotics was primarily observed for serotypes Typhimurium and Hadar. Enteritidis remains the predominant serotype in Crete. Although low resistance to most antimicrobials was detected, continued surveillance of susceptibility is needed due to the risk of resistance.

  15. Fault displacement rates and recent activity on the Ierapetra Fault Zone, Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veliz, V.

    2015-12-01

    Crete is an eastern Mediterranean island that includes the highest forearc topography of the Hellenic subduction margin, along which the African and Eurasian plates converge at rates of ~40 mm/yr. The island is currently experiencing regional uplift and is broken up by numerous active normal faults that contribute to the shaping of its topography. The largest of these onshore tectonic features is, the Ierapetra Fault Zone (IFZ), a normal fault that traverses the entire width of eastern Crete (>20 km) with a NNE strike and west diping. Here we use geomorphologic, structural and kinematic indicators to discuss fault segmentation along the IFZ and to provide quantitative constraints on the late Quaternary (~16.5 and 33 kyr) displacement rate on the fault, including evidence of Holocene earthquake activity on its central segment.

  16. Potential impact of the financial crisis on outpatient hospital visits due to otorhinolaryngologic disorders in Crete, Greece.

    PubMed

    Karatzanis, Alexander D; Symvoulakis, Emmanouil K; Nikolaou, Vasilios; Velegrakis, George A

    2012-01-01

    The public health effect of financial crises has been emphasized in previous studies. In addition, a series of otorhinolaryngologic disorders and manifestations has been related to psychological factors in the literature. Such conditions include temporomandibular joint disorders, laryngopharyngeal reflux, chronic tinnitus, and vertigo. Focusing on the outpatient database records of a large hospital in Crete, Greece, the objective of this retrospective study was to explore possible occurrence variations within the prementioned otorhinolaryngologic morbidity which may be potentially attributed to increased levels of socioeconomic stress. Results revealed that although the total number of visits between two periods - before and after the beginning of the financial crisis in Greece - was comparable, a significant increase in the diagnosis of two disorders, namely vertigo and tinnitus was found. In addition, a trend toward increased rate of diagnosis for reflux and temporomandibular joint disorders was noted. Potential implications of these findings are discussed. In conclusion, health care providers in this as well as in other countries facing similar socio-economic conditions should be aware of potential changes in the epidemiologic figures regarding specific medical conditions.

  17. Using geoinformatics and geomorphometrics to quantify the geodiversity of Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argyriou, Athanasios V.; Sarris, Apostolos; Teeuw, Richard M.

    2016-09-01

    The geodiversity of Crete is quantified in this study, based on the classification of geomorphometric, geological and climatic factors. A number of geomorphometric variables, extracted from the ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER G-DEM) in conjunction with geological and climatic information, are evaluated through various algorithms incorporated into Geographical Information System (GIS) software's. The derived geoinformatic data sets are then analyzed to produce the geodiversity of Crete. The geodiversity map is used to quantify the geodiversity, by calculating landscape diversity and other spatial pattern indices. Those indices are evaluating the richness, evenness, fragmentation and shape of the landscape patch types. The outcome of this study has highlighted that western Crete is characterized by complex geodiversity with more irregular, elongated and fragmented landscape patterns relative to the eastern part of the island. The geodiversity indices provide insights into the processes shaping landscapes, particularly the "battle" between neotectonic landscape deformation and erosion/deposition. The methodology presented can be useful for decision makers when evaluating a regions geological heritage, planning the management of natural resources, or designating areas for conservation.

  18. Active simultaneous uplift and margin-normal extension in a forearc high, Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallen, S. F.; Wegmann, K. W.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; Pazzaglia, F. J.; Brandon, M. T.; Fassoulas, C.

    2014-07-01

    The island of Crete occupies a forearc high in the central Hellenic subduction zone and is characterized by sustained exhumation, surface uplift and extension. The processes governing orogenesis and topographic development here remain poorly understood. Dramatic topographic relief (2-6 km) astride the southern coastline of Crete is associated with large margin-parallel faults responsible for deep bathymetric depressions known as the Hellenic troughs. These structures have been interpreted as both active and inactive with either contractional, strike-slip, or extensional movement histories. Distinguishing between these different structural styles and kinematic histories here allows us to explore more general models for improving our global understanding of the tectonic and geodynamic processes of syn-convergent extension. We present new observations from the south-central coastline of Crete that clarifies the role of these faults in the late Cenozoic evolution of the central Hellenic margin and the processes controlling Quaternary surface uplift. Pleistocene marine terraces are used in conjunction with optically stimulated luminesce dating and correlation to the Quaternary eustatic curve to document coastal uplift and identify active faults. Two south-dipping normal faults are observed, which extend offshore, offset these marine terrace deposits and indicate active N-S (margin-normal) extension. Further, marine terraces preserved in the footwall and hanging wall of both faults demonstrate that regional net uplift of Crete is occurring despite active extension. Field mapping and geometric reconstructions of an active onshore normal fault reveal that the subaqueous range-front fault of south-central Crete is synthetic to the south-dipping normal faults on shore. These findings are inconsistent with models of active horizontal shortening in the upper crust of the Hellenic forearc. Rather, they are consistent with topographic growth of the forearc in a viscous orogenic

  19. Maternal social capital and birth outcomes in the mother-child cohort in Crete, Greece (Rhea study).

    PubMed

    Kritsotakis, George; Vassilaki, Maria; Chatzi, Leda; Georgiou, Vaggelis; Philalithis, Anastassios E; Kogevinas, Manolis; Koutis, Antonis

    2011-12-01

    This cohort study aimed to estimate the effect of individual maternal social capital during pregnancy on birth outcomes in the context of the Mother-child cohort (Rhea study), in Crete-Greece. Women were recruited from four prenatal clinics in Heraklion-Crete for one year beginning in February 2007. 610 women completed the self-administered Social Capital Questionnaire at about the 24th week of gestation. The scale assessed total maternal social capital and four social capital subscales: Participation in the Community, Feelings of Safety, Value of Life and Social Agency, and Tolerance of Diversity. Potential confounders included characteristics that have an established or potential association with the maternal social capital, and the birth outcomes (preterm birth, small weight for the gestational age, fetal weight growth restriction, weight, length and head circumference). The results of logistic and linear regression models indicated that there was an increase in the risk of preterm birth for every unit increase in maternal participation (range 12-48), and especially in the risk of medically indicated preterm birth. Although the findings suggest that participation is associated with an increased probability for preterm birth, we cannot know whether this is a protective or damaging social capital effect. Women who participate more in their communities may have enhanced access to information and/or resources, easier access to health care and support when they face maternal and fetal conditions that trigger the need for medical intervention. On the other hand, women may be more exposed to social and/or environmental stressors. Future research needs to distinguish between different types of participation and different components of social capital to better understand their associations with birth outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Human thermal bioclimatic conditions associated with acute cardiovascular syndromes in Crete Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleta, Anastasia G.; Nastos, Panagiotis T.

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the association between bioclimatic conditions and daily counts of admissions for non-fatal acute cardiovascular (acute coronary syndrome, arrhythmia, decompensation of heart failure) syndromes (ACS) registered by the two main hospitals in Heraklion, Crete Island, during a five-year period 2008-2012. The bioclimatic conditions analyzed are based on human thermal bioclimatic indices such as the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI). Mean daily meteorological parameters, such as air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and cloudiness, were acquired from the meteorological station of Heraklion (Hellenic National Meteorological Service). These parameters were used as input variables in modeling the aforementioned thermal indices, in order to interpret the grade of the thermo-physiological stress. The PET and UTCI analysis was performed by the use of the radiation and bioclimate model, "RayMan", which is well-suited to calculate radiation fluxes and human biometeorological indices. Generalized linear models (GLM) were applied to time series of daily numbers of outpatients with ACS against bioclimatic variations, after controlling for possible confounders and adjustment for season and trends. The interpretation of the results of this analysis suggests a significant association between cold weather and increased coronary heart disease incidence, especially in the elderly and males. Additionally, heat stress plays an important role in the configuration of daily ACS outpatients, even in temperate climate, as that in Crete Island. In this point it is worth mentioning that Crete Island is frequently affected by Saharan outbreaks, which are associated in many cases with miscellaneous phenomena, such as Föhn winds - hot and dry winds - causing extreme bioclimatic conditions (strong heat stress). Taking into consideration the projected increased ambient temperature in the future, ACS

  1. Tectonic Motion Monitoring at the Altimeter Calibration Facility on Gavdos, Crete, Greece.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Ibanez, F.; Soto, J. I.; Morales, J.; Comas, C.; Evans, K.; Pavlis, E. C.; Cadeddu, M. P.; Mertikas, S. P.

    2004-12-01

    The intense tectonic activity of Eastern Mediterranean is of great interest for many decades. Recently, sea-level monitoring and climate change studies generated great interest as well as for its regional oceanography. A plethora of observations has convincingly demonstrated the importance of the area for regional meteorological and climatologic changes affecting Eurasia and North Africa. GPS monitors tectonics, while tide gauges record the variations in Mean Sea Level (MSL). Continuous monitoring of tide gauge locations with GPS removes the uncertainties introduced by local tectonics, that contaminate the observed sea level variations. Such a global tide gauge network with long historical records is already used to calibrate satellite altimeters (e.g. on TOPEX/POSEIDON, GFO, JASON-1, ENVISAT, etc.), at present, a common IOC-GLOSS-IGS effort --TIGA. Crete hosts two of the oldest tide gauges in the regional network, at Souda Bay and Heraklion. A third site, state-of-the-art MSL monitoring facility in southwestern Crete was established, on the isle of Gavdos, the southernmost European parcel of land, under a joint effort of the European Union, NASA, and the Swiss Federal Government. The site at Souda Bay is only 5 km away from the continuously operating GPS site at TUC, Chania, with a nearly seven year record of operation. The Gavdos facility is an ideal altimeter calibration site if the tectonic motions are monitored precisely and continuously. This presentation focuses on this aspect of the project, the local and regional tectonic motions relative to the "stable" part of the Eurasian plate. The facility hosts in addition to two tide gauges, multiple GPS receivers, a DORIS beacon for positioning and orbit control, and a transponder for direct calibration. During 2003, the French Transportable Laser Ranging System (FTLRS) completed a co-location campaign at Chania, Crete, for improved orbit control over the site, and to ensure the best possible and most reliable

  2. Distinct phases of eustatic and tectonic forcing for late Quaternary landscape evolution in southwest Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouslopoulou, Vasiliki; Begg, John; Fülling, Alexander; Moraetis, Daniel; Partsinevelos, Panagiotis; Oncken, Onno

    2017-09-01

    The extent to which climate, eustasy and tectonics interact to shape the late Quaternary landscape is poorly known. Alluvial fans often provide useful indexes that allow the decoding of information recorded on complex coastal landscapes, such as those of the eastern Mediterranean. In this paper we analyse and date (using infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) dating) a double alluvial fan system on southwest Crete, an island straddling the forearc of the Hellenic subduction margin, in order to constrain the timing and magnitude of its vertical deformation and discuss the factors contributing to its landscape evolution. The studied alluvial system is exceptional because each of its two juxtaposed fans records individual phases of alluvial and marine incision, thus providing unprecedented resolution in the formation and evolution of its landscape. Specifically, our analysis shows that the fan sequence at Domata developed during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 due to five distinct stages of marine transgressions and regressions and associated river incision, in response to sea-level fluctuations and tectonic uplift at averaged rates of ˜ 2.2 mm yr-1. Interestingly, comparison of our results with published tectonic uplift rates from western Crete shows that uplift during 20-50 kyr BP was minimal (or even negative). Thus, most of the uplift recorded at Domata must have occurred in the last 20 kyr. This implies that eustasy and tectonism impacted the landscape at Domata over mainly distinct time intervals (e.g. sequentially and not synchronously), with eustasy forming and tectonism preserving the coastal landforms.

  3. The Topology of Cyclones Related with Rain Events in Crete Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iordanidou, Vasiliki; Koutroulis, Aristeidis; Tsanis, Ioannis

    2017-04-01

    The topology of cyclones triggering rain events for the case study of Crete island is examined, for different parameters of analysis. The varying parameters concern different rain scenarios, seasonality, historical and projection data as well as different realizations of the EC-EARTH model. The data of 70 gauging stations all over Crete are evaluated, along with the cyclones from ERA-Interim reanalysis data and different realizations of EC-EARTH model data for the historical period 1979-2010. Cyclones and cyclone tracks identification is established with the use of Melbourne algorithm on Mean Sea Level Pressure (MSLP) field. Gridded probability maps of the cyclones in the European region are estimated according to the selected scenario. The various probability maps are compared to identify differences in the climatology of cyclones triggering rain in different cases. The study of the topological differences in cyclones gives insight to the way the organization of cyclones changes due to seasonality or different rain scenarios. Also, an evaluation of the EC-EARTH model is possible in order to examine the cyclones behavior in future projections.

  4. Luminescence dating of deltaic deposits from eastern Crete, Greece: Geoarchaeological implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharias, Nikolaos; Bassiakos, Yannis; Hayden, Barbara; Theodorakopoulou, Katie; Michael, Christodoulos T.

    2009-08-01

    Within the framework of an ongoing geoarchaeological project undertaken in the area of Istron, Gulf of Mirabello, eastern Crete, sediment dating using optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) was employed to provide information on the landscape evolution of the area. In addition to detailed field-survey, geophysical prospection, and archaeological excavations, drilling of five boreholes provided undisturbed and light protected sediments to depths up to 12 m below sea level. OSL dating using blue-light stimulation was undertaken on pure quartz grain samples from two cores. In addition, chemical and spectrometric studies on selected deltaic deposits are enlightening for paleoenvironmental differentiations that prevailed at neighboring sites. The reported ages, with a span of 770 to ca. 15,000 a, along with the results of field work and chemical analysis provide insight for landscape evolution, influenced mainly by environmental changes at an area occupied by the man since Neolithic onwards.

  5. Soil erosion prediction using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) in a GIS framework, Chania, Northwestern Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouli, Maria; Soupios, Pantelis; Vallianatos, Filippos

    2009-04-01

    Soil erosion is a growing problem in southern Greece and particularly in the island of Crete, the biggest Greek island with great agricultural activity. Soil erosion not only decreases agricultural productivity, but also reduces the water availability. In the current study, an effort to predict potential annual soil loss has been conducted. For the prediction, the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) has been adopted in a Geographical Information System framework. The RUSLE factors were calculated (in the form of raster layers) for the nine major watersheds which cover the northern part of the Chania Prefecture. The R-factor was calculated from monthly and annual precipitation data. The K-factor was estimated using soil maps available from the Soil Geographical Data Base of Europe at a scale of 1:1,000,000. The LS-factor was calculated from a 30-m digital elevation model. The C-factor was calculated using Remote Sensing techniques. The P-factor in absence of data was set to 1. The results show that an extended part of the area is undergoing severe erosion. The mean annual soil loss is predicted up to ˜200 (t/ha year-1) for some watersheds showing extended erosion and demanding the attention of local administrators.

  6. Introducing seasonal hydro-meteorological forecasts in local water management. First reflections from the Messara site, Crete, Greece.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutroulis, Aristeidis; Grillakis, Manolis; Tsanis, Ioannis

    2017-04-01

    Seasonal prediction is recently at the center of the forecasting research efforts, especially for regions that are projected to be severely affected by global warming. The value of skillful seasonal forecasts can be considerable for many sectors and especially for the agricultural in which water users and managers can benefit to better anticipate against drought conditions. Here we present the first reflections from the user/stakeholder interactions and the design of a tailored drought decision support system in an attempt to bring seasonal predictions into local practice for the Messara valley located in the central-south area of Crete, Greece. Findings from interactions with the users and stakeholders reveal that although long range and seasonal predictions are not used, there is a strong interest for this type of information. The increase in the skill of short range weather predictions is also of great interest. The drought monitoring and prediction tool under development that support local water and agricultural management will include (a) sources of skillful short to medium term forecast information, (b) tailored drought monitoring and forecasting indices for the local groundwater aquifer and rain-fed agriculture, and (c) seasonal inflow forecasts for the local dam through hydrologic simulation to support management of freshwater resources and drought impacts on irrigated agriculture.

  7. Aquatic and semiaquatic Heteroptera (Nepomorpha and Gerromorpha) fauna of Greek holiday islands (Rhodes, Crete and Corfu) with first records of three species from Europe and Greece.

    PubMed

    Csabai, Zoltán; Soós, Nándor; Berchi, Gavril Marius; Cianferoni, Fabio; Boda, Pál; Móra, Arnold

    2017-02-09

    A comprehensive survey on aquatic and semiaquatic bugs (Heteroptera: Nepomorpha and Gerromorpha) of three Greek holiday islands, Rhodes, Crete and Corfu, was conducted from 2007 to 2010 at 237 localities. In this paper, hundreds of detailed records for 30 taxa in nine families are given. The occurrences of Rhagovelia infernalis africana Lundblad, 1936 and Velia mariae Tamanini, 1971 are confirmed and recorded for the first time from Europe sensu stricto. Additionally, some notes on morphology, taxonomy and distribution of the European species of Rhagovelia and Velia are also given, Velia mariae is recorded for the first time not only from several Greek islands, but from continental Greece and Bulgaria as well. Gerris asper (Fieber, 1860), a common European species, was also found for the first time in Greece. Furthermore, new occurrence data are given for endemic taxa; Sigara nigrolineata mendax Heiss & Jansson, 1986 and Velia rhadamantha rhadamantha Hoberlandt, 1941 (whose distribution is restricted to Crete and small adjacent islands) are very common throughout Crete, whereas Ilyocoris cimicoides jonicus (Lindberg, 1922) apparently is rare in Corfu.

  8. First Report of the Carolina Spiral Nematode, Scutellonema brachyurus, from Soil of a Garden in Crete, Greece

    PubMed Central

    Tzortzakakis, Emmanuel A.; Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, Carolina; Archidona-Yuste, Antonio; Palomares-Rius, Juan E.; Castillo, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Members of the genus Scutellonema can cause substantial crop losses to ornamental and cultivated plants directly by feeding ectoparasitically on plant roots (Bridge et al., 2005; Coyne et al., 2006). In May 2015, a soil sample from a house garden from Heraklion city in Crete, Greece, was sent for diagnosis of plant-parasitic nematodes. In this place, there had been cactus (Opuntia sp.) plants (probably imported), which were uprooted 3 to 4 years earlier. After that, the area was cropped with cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in spring–summer and leaf vegetables such as spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) in autumn–winter. The soil was collected 1 mon after the end of chicory crop. A population density (ca. 30 individuals/100 cm3 of soil) of spiral nematodes (Scutellonema sp.) was found by extracting soil with the wet sieving and decanting method (Cobb, 1918). Morphological and molecular analyses of females identified the species as Scutellonema brachyurus (Steiner, 1938) Andrássy, 1958. The morphology of females was characterized by a hemispherical lip region with four to six annuli, morphometric data for 12 females were L, 640 to 760 μm; a, 24.6 to 30.6; b, 5.8 to 7.4; c, 69.1 to 99.3; c´ 0.5 to 0.6; stylet, 24.5 to 27.5 μm with anterior part shorter than posterior; and spermatheca nonfunctional and male absent. The morphology agreed with the description of S. brachyurus (van den Berg et al., 2013). Alignment indicated that the D2-D3 and ITS sequences (KU059494 and KU059495, respectively) showed 99% and 100% to 99% similarity, respectively, to other sequences of S. brachyurus (type A) deposited in GenBank from the United States, Italy, and Korea (JX472037-JX472046, DQ328753, FJ485643; and JX472069, JX472070, JX472071, respectively), differing from one to six nucleotides. Phylogenetic analyses using Bayesian inference of these sequences placed the Scutellonema sp. in a highly supported (100%) clade that included all S. brachyurus

  9. Morphotectonic analysis, structural evolution/pattern of a contractional ridge: Giouchtas Mt., Central Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eleni, Kokinou; D, Skilodimou Hariklia; D, Bathrellos George; Assimina, Antonarakou; Evangelos, Kamberis

    2015-04-01

    The Giouchtas Mountain is situated south of Heraklion, Central Crete. It is a N-S trending morphological asymmetric ridge with a steep western slope, whilst its eastern slope is characterized by a smoother relief, composed of Mesozoic limestone and Eocene-lower Oligocene flysch of the Gavrovo-Tripolis zone. The present study focusses on the structural pattern and development of Giouchtas Mountain. Morphotectonic analyses in combination with field mapping and tectonic analysis were performed for this purpose. GIS techniques were used for mapping the spatial distribution of the geological features on the topographic relief of the area. Geomorphic indices, used in the present study, are the mountain front sinuosity index (Smf) and the valley floor/width ratio index (Vf). Based on Smf and Vf values, it is implied that this area can be assigned to a tectonic class I, corresponding to higher tectonic activity. However, spatial variations of the tectonic activity along the segmented fronts point to a general trend of increasing activity towards the north and especially, northeast. The model of this possibly active structural feature corresponds to a compressional mechanism followed by an earliest Mid. Miocene to Holocene late-stage deformation related to extensional faulting.

  10. Pregnancy, perinatal and postpartum complications as determinants of postpartum depression: the Rhea mother-child cohort in Crete, Greece.

    PubMed

    Koutra, K; Vassilaki, M; Georgiou, V; Koutis, A; Bitsios, P; Kogevinas, M; Chatzi, L

    2016-12-22

    Few epidemiological studies evaluated associations between perinatal complications and maternal mood at the early postpartum period and the findings are inconsistent. We aimed at investigating a wide range of complications during pregnancy, at delivery, and at the early postpartum period as determinants of postpartum depression (PPD) at 8 weeks postpartum. A total of 1037 women who enrolled in the Rhea mother-child cohort in Crete, Greece participated in the present study. Information on pregnancy, perinatal and postpartum complications was obtained from clinical records or by questionnaires. Postpartum depressive symptoms were assessed at 8 weeks postpartum using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Multivariable linear and logistic regression models were fit to estimate the association between pregnancy, perinatal and postpartum complications and maternal depressive symptoms, adjusting also for potential confounders. The prevalence of women with probable depression (EPDS score ≥ 13) was 13.6% at 8 weeks postpartum. Gestational hypertension and/or preeclampsia (β coefficient 1.86, 95% CI: 0.32, 3.41) and breastfeeding difficulties (β coefficient 0.77, 95% CI: 0.02, 1.53) were significantly associated with higher PPD symptoms. Sleep patterns during pregnancy, such as sleep deprivation (OR = 3.57, 95% CI: 1.91, 6.67) and snoring (OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.11, 2.93), and breastfeeding duration less than 2 months (OR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.19, 2.64) were significantly associated with increase in the odds for PPD. Some other complications, such as unplanned pregnancy and hospitalisation during pregnancy were also associated with EPDS score, but these associations were explained by socio-demographic characteristics of the mother. We found that several pregnancy, perinatal and postpartum complications may have an adverse effect on maternal mood at the early postpartum period. These findings have considerable implications for developing effective prevention and

  11. Greece.

    PubMed

    1985-04-01

    A brief description of the population characteristics, geographical features, history, current political situation, economy, energy supply, foreign relations of Greece is presented. Greece's population of 9.95 million is 98% Greek, and the official language is Greek. 97% of the population is Greek Orthodox, and 2% is Muslim. Schooling is compulsory for 9 years, and the literacy rate is 89% for women and 96% for men. The infant mortality rate is 13.8, and life expectancy is 72 years for males and 75 years for female. Greece is situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula and consists of the mainland, the Peleponnesos, and numerous islands including Crete. Most of the land mass is mountainous, large areas are dry, and only 28% of the land is arable. From the earliest time until recently, emigration from Greece to other countries was a common pattern. Since the 1960s, internal migration to urban areas was the dominant migration trend. Currently, 30% of the population lives in Athens. Despite the growing industrialization and urbanization of the population, the Greeks retain many traditional family and social values. Greece was part of the cradle of civilization, and its history is characterized by the rise of the Minoan culture on Crete, the rise and fall of the Myceneans on the Peleponnesos, the development of the city states of Athens and Sparta, the destruction of Athens during the Peloponnesian War, domination by the Macedonians, the creation of the Hellenistic cilivization, conquest by the Roman Empire, the establishment of the Byzantine Empire, and in 1459 conquest by the Ottoman Empire. In the 1820's Greece fought for and finally won its independence, In World War I Greece fought on the side of the Allies. In World War II, the Greeks successfully resisted an invasion from Italy. In 1941, the country was taken over by the Germans, but the Greek resistance movement continued to fight the Germans until liberation. Between 1944-49, there were 2 unsuccessful

  12. Exploring the association of sense of coherence, and spiritual and religious beliefs in a rural population group on the island of Crete, Greece.

    PubMed

    Stefanaki, Ioanna N; Shea, Sue; Linardakis, Manolis; Symvoulakis, Emmanouil K; Wynyard, Robin; Lionis, Christos

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the results of an observation study, aimed at exploring an association between spirituality, religiousness, and sense of coherence in a population group residing in a rural area of Crete, Greece. The study was conducted during the period 2007-2009. Subjects aged 65 years and older (n = 118) living in two remote and rural villages in the Heraklion county (Crete) were eligible. Eighty-nine people (51 women and 38 men) participated. Demographic data were obtained, and all participants were asked to complete the Greek version of the self-reported Royal Free Interview for Spiritual and Religious Beliefs, and the Sense of Coherence Scale. Most participants reported strong religious beliefs and this was found to be related with increased age. Widowed participants expressed greater religiousness and spirituality (p = 0.029). The total score for Sense of Coherence was negatively correlated with gender (women have lower scores, p < 0.05), marital status (widows presented lower scores, p < 0.001), and increased age. A strong positive correlation of the Sense of Coherence score with the Spiritual Scale as measured by three questions of the Royal Free Interview was also identified (p = 0.039). The impact of gender and marital status seem to be emerging determinants in defining sense of coherence among inhabitants of rural Crete. The positive association between religious/spiritual beliefs and sense of coherence deserves further attention to promote a multidimensional approach in its study.

  13. Is Kissamos Bay in NW Crete, Greece worth to be exploited as a marine aggregates deposit? An integrated approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastasatou, Marianthi; Tsoutsia, Antonia; Petrakis, Stelios; Rousakis, Grigoris; Karditsa, Aikaterini; Hasiotis, Thomas; Kapsimalis, Vasilios; Poulos, Serafim; Stamatakis, Michael

    2017-04-01

    This study uses an integrated approach to investigate the offshore area of Kissamos Bay, NW Crete Island, Greece, as a prospective marine aggregate (MA) deposit. Non-fuel marine minerals and especially marine aggregates (sand and gravel) are reviewed from the perspective of resources during the last decades. The possible MA deposit of Kissamos Bay was explored during the implementation of the research project THALES-MARE, considering existing information of previous extraction activities in the wider area. Kissamos Bay is located at the inner continental shelf off NW Crete. The onshore basement rocks are composed of Mesozoic to Eocene limestones, shale and sandstone units, along with Neogene sediments such as marls, sandstones and claystones, which locally host Messinian gypsum layers. Sixteen sea-bottom sediment samples were collected with a Smith-McIntyretype grab along four transects, vertical to the shoreline, at water depths of 11 to 44m. A sub-bottom acoustic profiler survey was conducted in order to quantitatively determine the deposit (dimensions and structure). Mineralogical, geochemical, sedimentological and benthic analyses of the samples were carried out, in order to determine the quality of the reservoir and the environmental impact of a potential exploitation. Mineralogical results indicated that the bulk samples consist predominantly of quartz, while calcite occurs as a second significant phase. Chemical analysis of major and trace elements revealed that the average SiO2 content is around 55% with samples closer to the beach (depths <15m) reaching 70%. SO3 content, attributed to the presence of gypsum, is lower than 1%. The Cl- content of the unwashed material reflected mainly the presence of halite and is approximately 0.2%. The results of the benthic analysis indicated that no pressure will occur at the local ecosystem due to a potential exploitation of the deposit. Granulometric analysis of the sediments indicated that the main particle size

  14. Description of female nymphal instars and adult female of Kermes echinatus Balachowsky (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Kermesidae) based on specimens from Crete and mainland Greece, with a discussion on geographical variation.

    PubMed

    Porcelli, Francesco; Pellizzari, Giuseppina

    2014-10-22

    The first-instar nymph, second- and third-instar female nymphs and the adult female of Kermes echinatus Balachowsky (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Kermesidae) are described and illustrated; micrographs of morphological details are also provided. The species was collected on the island of Crete (Greece) and on mainland Greece, new localities for this species, and are compared with Israeli specimens from where it was originally described.

  15. Upwelling history of the Mediterranean Sea revealed by stunted growth in the planktic foraminifera Orbulina universa (early Messinian, Crete, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brachert, T. C.; Bornemann, A.; Reuter, M.; Galer, S. J.; Grimm, K. I.; Fassoulas, C.

    2015-01-01

    Microfossil and stable isotope data (δ13C, δ18O) from deep-water sediments of Late Miocene age in the Mediterranean region have revealed a stepwise restriction of the Mediterranean prior to the Messinian Salinity Crisis which was modulated by a cyclicity responding to orbital precession. Very little is known with regard to the effects of these changes on shallow water environments of carbonate platforms and ramps. This work is based on a geological section on Crete (Greece) exposing sediments of early Messinian age, which documents the coeval response of pelagic and neritic systems to oceanographic changes. We discuss a dataset of planktic and benthic foraminifera assemblages in conjunction with size measurements ( n = 6,777) and isotope analyses (δ18O, δ13C) of the planktic foraminifera Orbulina universa with regard to reef growth patterns. The planktic foraminifera fauna displays pronounced cyclical abundance changes of warm, oligotrophic ( O. universa) and cold, meso- to eu-trophic taxa (globigerinids, neogloboquadrinids). This cyclicity corresponds to lithological changes from laminated to homogeneous marls on the precessional frequency band. In beds rich in mesotrophic foraminifera, O. universa is rare and the test is ~50 % smaller than average. Growth and size of O. universa is affected by various environmental factors, including temperature, trophic resources, illumination and O2 content of ambient water. Explaining size variability by water temperature implies a change of ~11 °C over one precessional cycle. This estimate is in disagreement with growth patterns and stable isotope data of displaced reef corals ( Porites, Tarbellastraea) documenting almost constant sea-surface temperatures, but substantial evaporation. Therefore, moderate temperature changes in a context of intense evaporation (high salinity) and water column destabilization associated with upward mixing of colder water masses with higher nutrient concentrations and low O2 content better

  16. Upwelling history of the Mediterranean Sea revealed by stunted growth in the planktic foraminifera Orbulina universa (early Messinian, Crete, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brachert, T. C.; Bornemann, A.; Reuter, M.; Galer, S. J.; Grimm, K. I.; Fassoulas, C.

    2014-09-01

    Microfossil and stable isotope data (δ13C, δ18O) from deep-water sediments of Late Miocene age in the Mediterranean region have revealed a stepwise restriction of the Mediterranean prior to the Messinian Salinity Crisis which was modulated by a cyclicity responding to orbital precession. Very little is known with regard to the effects of these changes on shallow water environments of carbonate platforms and ramps. This work is based on a geological section on Crete (Greece) exposing sediments of early Messinian age, which documents the coeval response of pelagic and neritic systems to oceanographic changes. We discuss a dataset of planktic and benthic foraminifera assemblages in conjunction with size measurements (n = 6,777) and isotope analyses (δ18O, δ13C) of the planktic foraminifera Orbulina universa with regard to reef growth patterns. The planktic foraminifera fauna displays pronounced cyclical abundance changes of warm, oligotrophic (O. universa) and cold, meso- to eu-trophic taxa (globigerinids, neogloboquadrinids). This cyclicity corresponds to lithological changes from laminated to homogeneous marls on the precessional frequency band. In beds rich in mesotrophic foraminifera, O. universa is rare and the test is ~50 % smaller than average. Growth and size of O. universa is affected by various environmental factors, including temperature, trophic resources, illumination and O2 content of ambient water. Explaining size variability by water temperature implies a change of ~11 °C over one precessional cycle. This estimate is in disagreement with growth patterns and stable isotope data of displaced reef corals (Porites, Tarbellastraea) documenting almost constant sea-surface temperatures, but substantial evaporation. Therefore, moderate temperature changes in a context of intense evaporation (high salinity) and water column destabilization associated with upward mixing of colder water masses with higher nutrient concentrations and low O2 content better

  17. Outdoor air pollution exposures and micronuclei frequencies in lymphocytes from pregnant women and newborns in Crete, Greece (Rhea cohort).

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan-Gordo, Cristina; Fthenou, Eleni; Pedersen, Marie; Espinosa, Ana; Chatzi, Leda; Beelen, Rob; Chalkiadaki, Georgia; Decordier, Ilse; Hoek, Gerard; Merlo, Domenico Franco; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Vafeiadi, Marina; Vande Loock, Kim; Kleinjans, Jos; Stephanou, Euripides; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2015-11-01

    Micronuclei (MN) are biomarkers of early genetic effects that have been used to investigate the association between environmental exposures and cancer. However, few studies have examined the association between environmental exposures during pregnancy and MN in mothers and newborns. We examined MN frequency in maternal blood and in cord blood, in relation to maternal air pollution exposure, and the potential interaction with maternal vitamin C intake and maternal smoking. We used the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay to assess MN frequency per 1000 bi-nucleated T-lymphocytes from 181 mothers and 183 newborns born in 2007-2008 in Heraklion (Crete, Greece). The ESCAPE land-use regression methods were used to estimate annual mean exposure to outdoor air pollution [particulate matter (PM), black carbon, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx)] at maternal home addresses. Food frequency questionnaires were used to estimate maternal dietary vitamin C intake during pregnancy. Smoking habits were self-reported using questionnaires which were checked by measuring maternal urinary cotinine levels. Exposure to PM2.5 was associated with increased MN frequencies in pregnant women [rate ratio [RR (95%CI)] per 5 µg/m(3)=1.53 (1.02, 2.29)]. This increase was considerably higher among women who did not fulfill the recommended vitamin C dietary allowances [RR=9.35 (2.77, 31.61); n=20]. Exposure to PM2.5-10, PM10, NO2 and NOx were also associated with a higher incidence of MN frequencies in smoker women (n=56). No associations were found for newborns. We found an association between air pollution, particularly PM2.5, and MN frequency in mothers but not in newborns. This association was more pronounced among women with a lower dietary intake of vitamin C during pregnancy and among women who smoked during pregnancy. While results are clear in mothers, the association between maternal carcinogenic exposures during pregnancy and biomarkers of early biologic effect in the

  18. Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) for spatio-temporal monitoring of soil erosion and roughness in Chania, Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexakis, Dimitrios; Seiradakis, Kostas; Tsanis, Ioannis

    2016-04-01

    This article presents a remote sensing approach for spatio-temporal monitoring of both soil erosion and roughness using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Soil erosion by water is commonly known as one of the main reasons for land degradation. Gully erosion causes considerable soil loss and soil degradation. Furthermore, quantification of soil roughness (irregularities of the soil surface due to soil texture) is important and affects surface storage and infiltration. Soil roughness is one of the most susceptible to variation in time and space characteristics and depends on different parameters such as cultivation practices and soil aggregation. A UAV equipped with a digital camera was employed to monitor soil in terms of erosion and roughness in two different study areas in Chania, Crete, Greece. The UAV followed predicted flight paths computed by the relevant flight planning software. The photogrammetric image processing enabled the development of sophisticated Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) and ortho-image mosaics with very high resolution on a sub-decimeter level. The DTMs were developed using photogrammetric processing of more than 500 images acquired with the UAV from different heights above the ground level. As the geomorphic formations can be observed from above using UAVs, shadowing effects do not generally occur and the generated point clouds have very homogeneous and high point densities. The DTMs generated from UAV were compared in terms of vertical absolute accuracies with a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) survey. The developed data products were used for quantifying gully erosion and soil roughness in 3D as well as for the analysis of the surrounding areas. The significant elevation changes from multi-temporal UAV elevation data were used for estimating diachronically soil loss and sediment delivery without installing sediment traps. Concerning roughness, statistical indicators of surface elevation point measurements were estimated and various

  19. International conference on "Photosynthesis research for sustainability-2015" in honor of George C. Papageorgiou", September 21-26, 2015, Crete, Greece.

    PubMed

    Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I; Tomo, Tatsuya; Stamatakis, Kostas; Govindjee

    2016-12-01

    During September 21-26, 2015, an international conference entitled ''Photosynthesis Research for Sustainability-2015'' was held in honor of George C. Papageorgiou at the Conference Center of the Orthodox Academy of Crete, an exceptionally beautiful location right on the Mediterranean Sea coast, Kolymvari, Chania, Crete, (Greece) (see http://photosynthesis2015.cellreg.org/ ). The meeting was held under the auspices of the Greek "General Secretariat for Research and Technology" (GSRT). We first provide a brief introduction and key contributions of George C. Papageorgiou, the honored scientist, and then information on the conference, on the speakers, and the program. A special feature of this conference was awards given to 13 young investigators, who are recognized in this Report. Several photographs are also included; they show the pleasant ambience at this conference. We invite the readers to the next conference on "Photosynthesis Research for Sustainability-2016," which will honor Nathan Nelson and T. Nejat Veziroglu; it will be held during June 19-25, 2016, in Pushchino, Moscow Region, Russia (see http://photosynthesis2016.cellreg.org/ ).

  20. A comparison of attitudes toward lesbians and gay men among students of helping professions in Crete, Greece: the cases of social work, psychology, medicine, and nursing.

    PubMed

    Papadaki, Vasileia; Plotnikof, Kyriaki; Gioumidou, Meropi; Zisimou, Vasiliki; Papadaki, Eleni

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the attitudes toward lesbians and gay men among social work, psychology, medical, and nursing students in Crete, Greece, using Herek's ATLG scale. No respondents held completely heterosexist attitudes; only 1.6% held completely non-heterosexist attitudes. The 44.96 total ATLG score indicates a slightly positive attitude toward lesbians and gay men. Psychology students scored higher than all others on positive attitudes, followed by social work students, medical students, and nursing students. Gender, having lesbian or gay acquaintances or friends, and religiosity were significant factors influencing students' attitudes, while no impact on attitudes due to the effects of higher education could be discerned. Implications for curriculum design and teaching methods are discussed.

  1. Dietary and other lifestyle correlates of serum folate concentrations in a healthy adult population in Crete, Greece: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Hatzis, Christos M; Bertsias, George K; Linardakis, Manolis; Scott, John M; Kafatos, Anthony G

    2006-01-01

    Background Folate has emerged as a key nutrient for optimising health. Impaired folate status has been identified as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, various types of cancers, and neurocognitive disorders. The study aimed at examining the distribution and determinants of serum folate concentrations in a healthy adult population in Crete, Greece. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 486 healthy adults (250 men, 236 women) aged 39 ± 14 years, personnel of the Medical School and the University Hospital of Crete in Greece, was examined. Serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations were measured by microbiological assay, and total homocysteine was determined fluorometrically and by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Lifestyle questionnaires were completed, and nutrient intakes and food consumption were assessed by 24-h dietary recalls. Multivariate analyses were performed using SPSS v10.1. Results The geometric mean (95% confidence interval) concentrations of serum folate were 15.6 μmol/l (14.6–16.8) in men and 19.2 μmol/l (17.9–20.7) in women (p < 0.001). Inadequate folate levels (≤7 nmol/l) were present in 6.8% of men and 2.1% of women (p < 0.001). Approximately 76% of men and 87% of women did not meet the reference dietary intake for folate (400 μg/day). Serum folate was inversely related to total homocysteine levels (p < 0.001). Increased tobacco and coffee consumption were associated with lower folate concentrations (p < 0.05 for both) but these associations disappeared after controlling for nutrient intakes. In multivariate analysis, intakes of MUFA, fibre, calcium, magnesium, folate, and vitamins A, E, C, B1, and B6 were positively associated with serum folate. Consumption of potatoes, legumes, fruits, and vegetables were favourably related to the serum folate status. Conclusion Serum folate concentrations were associated with various demographic, lifestyle and dietary factors in healthy Cretan adults. Large-scale epidemiological studies should

  2. Association of Prenatal Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants with Obesity and Cardiometabolic Traits in Early Childhood: The Rhea Mother–Child Cohort (Crete, Greece)

    PubMed Central

    Georgiou, Vaggelis; Chalkiadaki, Georgia; Rantakokko, Panu; Kiviranta, Hannu; Karachaliou, Marianna; Fthenou, Eleni; Venihaki, Maria; Sarri, Katerina; Vassilaki, Maria; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A.; Oken, Emily; Kogevinas, Manolis; Chatzi, Leda

    2015-01-01

    Background Prenatal exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may increase risk of obesity later in life. Objective We examined the relation of in utero POPs exposure to offspring obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors at 4 years of age in the Rhea mother–child cohort in Crete, Greece (n = 689). Methods We determined concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in first-trimester maternal serum. We measured child weight, height, waist circumference, skinfold thicknesses, blood pressure (BP), blood levels of lipids, C-reactive protein, and adipokines at 4 years of age. Childhood obesity was defined using age- and sex-specific cut points for body mass index (BMI) as recommended by the International Obesity Task Force. Results On multivariable regression analyses, a 10-fold increase in HCB was associated with a higher BMI z-score (adjusted β = 0.49; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.86), obesity [relative risk (RR) = 8.14; 95% CI: 1.85, 35.81], abdominal obesity (RR = 3.49; 95% CI: 1.08, 11.28), greater sum of skinfold thickness (β = 7.71 mm; 95% CI: 2.04, 13.39), and higher systolic BP (β = 4.34 mmHg; 95% CI: 0.63, 8.05) at 4 years of age. Prenatal DDE exposure was associated with higher BMI z-score (β = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.5), abdominal obesity (RR = 3.76; 95% CI: 1.70, 8.30), and higher diastolic BP (β = 1.79 mmHg; 95% CI: 0.13, 3.46). PCBs were not significantly associated with offspring obesity or cardiometabolic risk factors. Conclusions Prenatal exposure to DDE and HCB was associated with excess adiposity and higher blood pressure levels in early childhood. Citation Vafeiadi M, Georgiou V, Chalkiadaki G, Rantakokko P, Kiviranta H, Karachaliou M, Fthenou E, Venihaki M, Sarri K, Vassilaki M, Kyrtopoulos SA, Oken E, Kogevinas M, Chatzi L. 2015. Association of prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants with obesity and cardiometabolic traits in

  3. A 10-year aerobiological study (1994-2003) in the Mediterranean island of Crete, Greece: trees, aerobiologic data, and botanical and clinical correlations.

    PubMed

    Gonianakis, Michael I; Baritaki, Maria A; Neonakis, Ioannis K; Gonianakis, Ioannis M; Kypriotakis, Zacharias; Darivianaki, Eleftheria; Bouros, Dimosthenis; Kontou-Filli, Kalliopi

    2006-01-01

    Pollen grains from the plant cover of a given area participate largely in the composition of aeroflora (pollen and molds) of this area. Association of allergic respiratory disorders with concentration of allergenic particles in the atmosphere is well documented, and aerobiologic studies are of great relevance. A 10-year volumetric aerobiologic study was conducted in the city of Heraklion, located in the center of the north-shore of the island of Crete, Greece. Main allergenic families and genera encountered were, in descending order of frequency Oleaceae, Quercus, Platanaceae, Cupressaceae, Pinaceae, Populus, Moraceae, and Corylaceae. Concentrations noted for most of these aeroallergens were much lower than those reported from other European regions. In parallel, an atopic population of 576 individuals, exhibiting allergic symptoms mainly of the respiratory tract were subjected to a battery of skin-prick tests. A fair degree of agreement between total pollen counts and positive skin-prick test frequencies for the families of Oleaceae, Platanaceae, and Cupressaceae was noted. On the contrary a poor degree of concordance was noted for the rest of the families and genera.

  4. European radar altimeter calibration and sea-level monitoring site for Jason-1 and Envisat at the island of Gavdos, Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertikas, Stelios P.; Pavlis, Erricos C.; Drakopoulos, Panos; Palamartchouk, Kirill

    2003-02-01

    An absolute sea level monitoring and altimeter calibration permanent facility is being established on the isle of Gavdos, south of the island of Crete, Greece. This calibration facility has been chosen because Gavdos is under a crossing point of the ground-tracks of TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason-1, and adjacent to an ENVISAT pass. Satellite altimeter missions will be evaluated at that site using external measurements from tide gauges, GPS, a DORIS beacon, meteorological sensors, wave height sensors, airborne campaigns for gravity and sea surface topography, water vapor radiometry, solar atmospheric spectrometry, GPS buoys, altimeter transponder, Satellite Laser Ranging, etc. The mean sea level and the earth's tectonic deformation field in the region will be also determined accurately. The GAVDOS project has started in December 2001 and has been in the context of an international calibration/validation effort of the Jason-1 Science Working Team. This paper describes the objectives, current status and future plans for the establishment of the GAVDOS calibration facility for satellite altimeter missions.

  5. The phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity assessment of orange peel (Citrus sinensis) cultivated in Greece-Crete indicates a new commercial source of hesperidin.

    PubMed

    Kanaze, Firas I; Termentzi, Aikaterini; Gabrieli, Chrysi; Niopas, Ioannis; Georgarakis, Manolis; Kokkalou, Eugene

    2009-03-01

    The flavonoid content of several methanolic extract fractions of Navel orange peel (flavedo and albedo of Citrus sinensis) cultivated in Crete (Greece) was first analysed phytochemically and then assessed for its antioxidant activity in vitro. The chemical structures of the constituents fractionated were originally determined by comparing their retention times and the obtained UV spectral data with the available bibliographic data and further verified by detailed LC-DAD-MS (ESI+) analysis. The main flavonoid groups found within the fractions examined were polymethoxylated flavones, O-glycosylated flavones, C-glycosylated flavones, O-glycosylated flavonols, O-glycosylated flavanones and phenolic acids along with their ester derivatives. In addition, the quantitative HPLC analysis confirmed that hesperidin is the major flavonoid glycoside found in the orange peel. Interestingly enough, its quantity at 48 mg/g of dry peel permits the commercial use of orange peel as a source for the production of hesperidin. The antioxidant activity of the orange peel methanolic extract fractions was evaluated by applying two complementary methodologies, DPPH(*) assay and the Co(II)/EDTA-induced luminol chemiluminescence approach. Overall, the results have shown that orange peel methanolic extracts possess moderate antioxidant activity as compared with the activity seen in tests where the corresponding aglycones, diosmetin and hesperetin were assessed in different ratios.

  6. Presence of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents and University students in Crete (Greece), according to different levels of snack consumption.

    PubMed

    Vergetaki, Anna; Linardakis, Manolis; Papadaki, Angeliki; Kafatos, Anthony

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of cardiovascular and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) risk factors in adolescents and University students in Crete (Greece), according to different levels of snack consumption. 237 adolescents (14.2-16.3 years) and 196 University students (19.5-31.5 years) participated during 2002/3 and 2004/5. Dietary intake (24-h dietary recalls), cardiorespiratory fitness, smoking habits, time spent watching television, anthropometric, blood pressure and biochemical measurements were assessed in all subjects. Adolescents consumed snacks more often than University students (62% vs. 49.5%, P < 0.05) and had significantly higher total energy intake (8629 vs. 7641 kJ, P < 0.05) and energy intake from snacks (2537 vs. 1767 kJ, P < 0.001). Snack consumers had higher energy intake than non-consumers in both groups. No relationship was found between snack consumption and MetSyn risk factors, cardiorespiratory fitness and smoking. However, University students who consumed snacks had 15.36 times higher risk of having ≥ 2 MetSyn risk factors than adolescent snack consumers, had considerably higher LDL-cholesterol levels, total: HDL-cholesterol ratio and watched more television than non-consumers. These findings emphasize the need for developing effective nutrition interventions to promote healthier snack choices in adolescents and young adults with characteristics similar to our sample, in order to prevent cardiovascular risk later in adulthood.

  7. Optimal management of saltwater intrusion in the coastal aquifer of Malia, Crete (Greece), using particle swarm optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karatzas, George P.; Dokou, Zoi

    2015-09-01

    Saltwater intrusion is a common phenomenon in coastal aquifers that can affect the quality of water intended for drinking and irrigation purposes. In order to provide sustainable management options for the coastal aquifer of Malia, located on the Greek island of Crete, a weighted multi-objective optimization methodology is employed. The methodology involves use of the particle swarm optimization algorithm combined with groundwater modelling. The sharp-interface approximation combined with the Ghyben-Herztberg equation is used to estimate the saltwater-intrusion front location. The prediction modelling results show that under the current pumping strategies (over-exploitation), the saltwater-intrusion front will continue to move inland, posing a serious threat to the groundwater quality. The management goal is to maximize groundwater withdrawal rates in the existing pumping wells while inhibiting the saltwater-intrusion front at locations closer to the coastal zone. This is achieved by requiring a minimum hydraulic-head value at pre-selected observation locations. In order to control the saltwater intrusion, a large number of pumping wells must be deactivated and alternative sources of water need to be considered.

  8. Spatial spectral variations of microtremors and electrical resistivity tomography surveys for fault determination in southwestern Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moisidi, M.; Vallianatos, F.; Soupios, P.; Kershaw, S.

    2012-06-01

    The horizontal to vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) technique using microtremors and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys reveal a potentially seismic active source in southwestern Crete located within the outer forearc of the Hellenic subduction zone in one of the most seismically active deformed regions in Europe. The combined approach is applied on the Pahia Ammos coast southwest of the Paleohora peninsula and reveals an almost E-W-striking fault crosscutting the dense populated area. Spatial HVSR variations in the fundamental frequencies and HVSR shapes using microtremors pattern the effects of surface and subsurface structure on seismic ground motion and are capable of delineating fault zones. One clear HVSR peak in the low frequencies is related to the thickness of the alluvial deposits. Two amplified frequencies are attribute to lateral heterogeneities/irregularities induced by the fault zone and thickness variations of the geological column overlying the lateral irregularities of near-subsurface structure. Dipole-dipole and Wenner-Schlumberger configuration arrays are conducted to model the surface and subsurface structure variations. The identified fault zone striking E-W inland is capable of enhancing ground seismic motion and significantly contributes to the seismic hazard assessment of the studied area. Geophysical results are cross-correlated, verifying the validity of the research outcome.

  9. Cross validation of geotechnical and geophysical site characterization methods: near surface data from selected accelerometric stations in Crete (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loupasakis, C.; Tsangaratos, P.; Rozos, D.; Rondoyianni, Th.; Vafidis, A.; Kritikakis, G.; Steiakakis, M.; Agioutantis, Z.; Savvaidis, A.; Soupios, P.; Papadopoulos, I.; Papadopoulos, N.; Sarris, A.; Mangriotis, M.-D.; Dikmen, U.

    2015-06-01

    The specification of the near surface ground conditions is highly important for the design of civil constructions. These conditions determine primarily the ability of the foundation formations to bear loads, the stress - strain relations and the corresponding settlements, as well as the soil amplification and corresponding peak ground motion in case of dynamic loading. The static and dynamic geotechnical parameters as well as the ground-type/soil-category can be determined by combining geotechnical and geophysical methods, such as engineering geological surface mapping, geotechnical drilling, in situ and laboratory testing and geophysical investigations. The above mentioned methods were combined, through the Thalis ″Geo-Characterization″ project, for the site characterization in selected sites of the Hellenic Accelerometric Network (HAN) in the area of Crete Island. The combination of the geotechnical and geophysical methods in thirteen (13) sites provided sufficient information about their limitations, setting up the minimum tests requirements in relation to the type of the geological formations. The reduced accuracy of the surface mapping in urban sites, the uncertainties introduced by the geophysical survey in sites with complex geology and the 1D data provided by the geotechnical drills are some of the causes affecting the right order and the quantity of the necessary investigation methods. Through this study the gradual improvement on the accuracy of site characterization data is going to be presented by providing characteristic examples from a total number of thirteen sites. Selected examples present sufficiently the ability, the limitations and the right order of the investigation methods.

  10. Neogene non-tropical carbonate sedimentation in a warm temperate biogeographic province (Rethymnon Formation, Eastern Crete, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomoni-Papaioannou, F.; Drinia, H.; Dermitzakis, M. D.

    2003-01-01

    The Apostoli Basin, in the central-west part of Crete, was formed as a fore-arc type basin related to the convergent plate boundary between the African and the Eurasian plates. Most of the Neogene sediments filling the basin were deposited in a terrestrial to shallow marine environment. The succession is a transgressive cycle, which culminates in the alternation of Rethymnon bioclastic limestones with marls, documenting the important Tortonian marine transgression. The Rethymnon limestones are classified as a typical non-tropical carbonate lithofacies. Two particular lithofacies have been recognized: (a) a rhodalgal-type lithofacies, characterized by predominance of encrusting coralline algae and bryozoans, and (b) an echinofor-type lithofacies, characterized by predominance of echinoderms and/or benthic foraminifera. The coralline algae occur mostly as in situ spheroidal or branched rhodoliths, whereas benthic foraminifera are mainly represented by larger foraminifera. In both lithofacies, typical tropical carbonate elements are lacking. Skeletal elements consisted of low- and high-Mg calcite. Although the observed lithofacies possess many similarities with facies of non-tropical carbonates, the presence of large benthic foraminifera suggests development in a warm temperate biogeographic province. The depositional environment corresponds to a shallow ramp, the sediments being deposited in a nearshore environment and under conditions analogous to those prevailing in the present-day circalittoral bottoms of the Mediterranean Sea. The main carbonate accumulation area is located at the factory area itself (rhodalgal-type sediments), and downslope from the factory area (echinofor-type sediments). In the classic zonation of Mediterranean benthic assemblages of Peres and Picard [Rec. Trav. Stn. Mar. (1964)], the rhodalgal-type sediments of the Rethymnon Fm correspond to the "Facies a Pralines", developed in areas strongly controlled by currents (e.g., tops of plateaus

  11. Maternal depression and personality traits in association with child neuropsychological and behavioral development in preschool years: Mother-child cohort (Rhea Study) in Crete, Greece.

    PubMed

    Koutra, Katerina; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Kyriklaki, Andriani; Kampouri, Mariza; Sarri, Katerina; Vassilaki, Maria; Bitsios, Panos; Kogevinas, Manolis; Chatzi, Leda

    2017-08-01

    Poor perinatal maternal mental health has been linked with negative outcomes on early child development; however, the importance of maternal personality has been neglected thus far. We aimed to examine the effects of antenatal and postnatal maternal mental health, including assessment of maternal personality characteristics, on child neuropsychological and behavioral development at preschool years in a population based mother-child cohort (Rhea Study) in Crete, Greece. Self-reported measures of maternal depression (EPDS), trait anxiety (STAI-Trait) and personality traits (EPQ-R) were assessed in a sample of 288 women at 28-32 weeks of gestation. A larger sample of 642 mothers completed the EPDS scale at 8 weeks postpartum. Children's neuropsychological (MSCA) and behavioral (ADHDT and SDQ) development were assessed at 4 years of age. Linear regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between the exposures and outcomes of interest after adjustment for potential confounders. Regarding child neuropsychological development, increased postnatal depressive symptoms were associated with child's perceptual performance, whereas increased maternal psychoticism was linked with child's motor ability at 4 years of age. Furthermore, elevated levels of maternal depression during pregnancy and postpartum, and the predisposing personality characteristics of trait anxiety and neuroticism, were associated with children's behavioral difficulties. A clinical diagnostic instrument for maternal mental health was not used and assessment of children's behavior was based on maternal report. These findings suggest that poor perinatal maternal mental health and an adverse personality profile may be associated with impaired child neuropsychological and behavioral development at preschool years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Human thermal perception related to Föhn winds due to Saharan dust outbreaks in Crete Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastos, P. T.; Bleta, A. G.; Matsangouras, I. T.

    2016-01-01

    Crete Island is located in the southmost border of East Mediterranean basin, facing exacerbating atmospheric conditions (mainly concentrations of particulates) due to Saharan dust outbreaks. It is worth to note that these episodes are more frequent during spring and autumn, when mild biometeorological conditions become intolerable due to the synergy of the so called Föhn winds. Cretan mountains, especially Psiloritis Mt. (summit at 2456 m), are orientated perpendicularly to the southwest air mass flow, generating the Föhn winds. Propagating from the leeward of the mountains, these dry, hot winds have an effect on prevailing biometeorological conditions. While descending to the lowlands on the leeward side of the range, the wind becomes strong, gusty, and desiccating. This wind often lasts less than an hour to several days, with gradual weakening after the first or the second day. Sometimes, it stops very abruptly. In this work, the authors examined and analyzed the abrupt changes of human thermal perception within specific case studies during which Föhn winds appeared in Heraklion city at the leeward of Psiloritis Mt, associated with extreme Saharan dust episodes, observed within the period 2006-2010. In order to verify the development of Föhn winds, Meteorological Terminal Aviation Routine Weather Reports (METARs, meteorological observations every half hour), were acquired from the Heraklion meteorological station installed by the Hellenic National Meteorological Service (HNMS). The biometeorological conditions analyzed are based on human thermal bioclimatic indices such as the Physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI). METAR recordings of meteorological variables, such as air temperature, vapor pressure, wind speed, and cloudiness, were used as input variables in modeling the aforementioned thermal indices, so that to interpret the grade of the thermo-physiological stress. The PET and UTCI analysis was

  13. Human thermal perception related to Föhn winds due to Saharan dust outbreaks in Crete Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastos, P. T.; Bleta, A. G.; Matsangouras, I. T.

    2017-05-01

    Crete Island is located in the southmost border of East Mediterranean basin, facing exacerbating atmospheric conditions (mainly concentrations of particulates) due to Saharan dust outbreaks. It is worth to note that these episodes are more frequent during spring and autumn, when mild biometeorological conditions become intolerable due to the synergy of the so called Föhn winds. Cretan mountains, especially Psiloritis Mt. (summit at 2456 m), are orientated perpendicularly to the southwest air mass flow, generating the Föhn winds. Propagating from the leeward of the mountains, these dry, hot winds have an effect on prevailing biometeorological conditions. While descending to the lowlands on the leeward side of the range, the wind becomes strong, gusty, and desiccating. This wind often lasts less than an hour to several days, with gradual weakening after the first or the second day. Sometimes, it stops very abruptly. In this work, the authors examined and analyzed the abrupt changes of human thermal perception within specific case studies during which Föhn winds appeared in Heraklion city at the leeward of Psiloritis Mt, associated with extreme Saharan dust episodes, observed within the period 2006-2010. In order to verify the development of Föhn winds, Meteorological Terminal Aviation Routine Weather Reports (METARs, meteorological observations every half hour), were acquired from the Heraklion meteorological station installed by the Hellenic National Meteorological Service (HNMS). The biometeorological conditions analyzed are based on human thermal bioclimatic indices such as the Physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI). METAR recordings of meteorological variables, such as air temperature, vapor pressure, wind speed, and cloudiness, were used as input variables in modeling the aforementioned thermal indices, so that to interpret the grade of the thermo-physiological stress. The PET and UTCI analysis was

  14. Breastfeeding duration and cognitive, language and motor development at 18 months of age: Rhea mother-child cohort in Crete, Greece.

    PubMed

    Leventakou, Vasiliki; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Koutra, Katerina; Vassilaki, Maria; Mantzouranis, Evangelia; Bitsios, Panos; Kogevinas, Manolis; Chatzi, Leda

    2015-03-01

    Breast feeding duration has been associated with improved cognitive development in children. However, few population-based prospective studies have evaluated dose-response relationships of breastfeeding duration with language and motor development at early ages, and results are discrepant. The study uses data from the prospective mother-child cohort ('Rhea' study) in Crete, Greece. 540 mother-child pairs were included in the present analysis. Information about parental and child characteristics and breastfeeding practices was obtained by interview-administered questionnaires. Trained psychologists assessed cognitive, language and motor development by using the Bayley Scales of Infant Toddler Development (3rd edition) at the age of 18 months. Duration of breast feeding was linearly positively associated with all the Bayley scales, except of gross motor. The association persisted after adjustment for potential confounders with an increase of 0.28 points in the scale of cognitive development (β=0.28; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.55), 0.29 points in the scale of receptive communication (β=0.29; 95% CI 0.04 to 0.54), 0.30 points in the scale of expressive communication (β=0.30; 95% CI 0.04 to 0.57) and 0.29 points in the scale of fine motor development (β=0.29; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.56) per accumulated month of breast feeding. Children who were breast fed longer than 6 months had a 4.44-point increase in the scale of fine motor development (β=4.44; 95% CI 0.06 to 8.82) compared with those never breast fed. Longer duration of breast feeding was associated with increased scores in cognitive, language and motor development at 18 months of age, independently from a wide range of parental and infant characteristics. Additional longitudinal studies and trials are needed to confirm these results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Metabolic Profile in Early Pregnancy Is Associated with Offspring Adiposity at 4 Years of Age: The Rhea Pregnancy Cohort Crete, Greece

    PubMed Central

    Daraki, Vasiliki; Georgiou, Vaggelis; Papavasiliou, Stathis; Chalkiadaki, Georgia; Karahaliou, Marianna; Koinaki, Stella; Sarri, Katerina; Vassilaki, Maria; Kogevinas, Manolis; Chatzi, Leda

    2015-01-01

    Context Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity may increase the risk of childhood obesity but it is unknown whether other metabolic factors in early pregnancy such as lipid profile and hypertension are associated with offspring cardiometabolic traits. Objective Our objective was to investigate whether fasting lipid, glucose, and insulin levels during early pregnancy and maternal pre-pregnancy weight status, are associated with offspring adiposity measures, lipid levels and blood pressure at preschool age. Design and Methods The study included 618 mother-child pairs of the pregnancy cohort “Rhea” study in Crete, Greece. Pregnant women were recruited at the first prenatal visit (mean: 12weeks, SD: 0.7). A subset of 348 women provided fasting serum samples for glucose and lipid measurements. Outcomes measures were body mass index, abdominal circumference, sum of skinfold thickness, and blood pressure measurements at 4 years of age. A subsample of 525 children provided non-fasting blood samples for lipid measurements. Results Pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity was associated with greater risk of offspring overweight/obesity (RR: 1.83, 95%CI: 1.19, 2.81), central adiposity (RR: 1.97, 95%CI: 1.11, 3.49), and greater fat mass by 5.10mm (95%CI: 2.49, 7.71) at 4 years of age. These associations were more pronounced in girls. An increase of 40mg/dl in fasting serum cholesterol levels in early pregnancy was associated with greater skinfold thickness by 3.30mm (95%CI: 1.41, 5.20) at 4 years of age after adjusting for pre-pregnancy BMI and several other confounders. An increase of 10mmHg in diastolic blood pressure in early pregnancy was associated with increased risk of offspring overweight/obesity (RR: 1.22, 95%CI: 1.03, 1.45), and greater skinfold thickness by 1.71mm (95% CI: 0.57, 2.86) at 4 years of age. Conclusions Metabolic dysregulation in early pregnancy may increase the risk of obesity at preschool age. PMID:25970502

  16. A GIS policy approach for assessing the effect of fertilizers on the quality of drinking and irrigation water and wellhead protection zones (Crete, Greece).

    PubMed

    Kourgialas, Nektarios N; Karatzas, George P; Koubouris, Georgios C

    2017-03-15

    Fertilizers have undoubtedly contributed to the significant increase in yields worldwide and therefore to the considerable improvement of quality of life of man and animals. Today, attention is focussed on the risks imposed by agricultural fertilizers. These effects include the dissolution and transport of excess quantities of fertilizer major- and trace-elements to the groundwater that deteriorate the quality of drinking and irrigation water. In this study, a map for the Fertilizer Water Pollution Index (FWPI) was generated for assessing the impact of agricultural fertilizers on drinking and irrigation water quality. The proposed methodology was applied to one of the most intensively cultivated with tree crops area in Crete (Greece) where potential pollutant loads are derived exclusively from agricultural activities and groundwater is the main water source. In this region of 215 km(2), groundwater sampling data from 235 wells were collected over a 15-year time period and analyzed for the presence of anionic (ΝΟ(-3), PO(-3)4) and cationic (K(+1), Fe(+2), Mn(+2), Zn(+2), Cu(+2), B(+3)) fertilizer trace elements. These chemicals are the components of the primary fertilizers used in local tree crop production. Eight factors/maps were considered in order to estimate the spatial distribution of groundwater contamination for each fertilizer element. The eight factors combined were used to generate the Fertilizer Water Pollution Index (FWPI) map indicating the areas with drinking/irrigation water pollution due to the high groundwater contamination caused by excessive fertilizer use. Moreover, by taking into consideration the groundwater flow direction and seepage velocity, the pathway through which groundwater supply become polluted can be predicted. The groundwater quality results show that a small part of the study area, about 8 km(2) (3.72%), is polluted or moderately polluted by the excessive use of fertilizers. Considering that in this area drinking water sources

  17. Low prevalence of liver-kidney microsomal autoantibodies of type 1 (LKM1) in hepatitis C seropositive subjects on Crete, Greece.

    PubMed

    Drygiannakis, D; Lionis, C; Drygiannakis, I; Pappas, G; Kouroumalis, E

    2001-01-01

    Hepatitis C is a serious problem on the Greek island of Crete, where a high prevalence of antibodies against hepatitis C (anti-HCV) has recently been reported. This article reports the findings of a study carried out in Crete, which investigated the prevalence of serum autoantibodies in patients with chronic hepatitis C. One hundred and forty two patients (59 men and 83 women), who were found anti-HCV seropositive in two hospitals and two Primary Health Care Centres in Crete, were eligible. Sixty healthy blood donors (46 men, 14 women), which were negative to anti-HCV, were used as the control group. They were randomly selected from those attending Rethymnon Hospital. Autoantibodies were identified using the indirect immunofluorescence (IFL) technique on human epithelial cells from larynx cancer (HEp-2 cells), rat liver-kidney-stomach substrate (CT3) and Chrithidia Luciliae (CL). Serum autoantibodies were detected in 104 HCV patients, yielding an overall prevalence of 73.2%. The most frequent autoantibodies were antinuclear antibodies (ANA), positive in 72 patients (50.7%). Anti-smooth muscle antibodies (ASMA) were detected in 33 patients (23.2%). Only one patient was positive for LKM1 autoantibodies. No autoantibodies were found in 38 patients (26.7%). Autoantibodies were also found in 5 out of the 60 examined healthy blood donors (8.3%). Autoantibodies, mainly ANA and ASMA are very common in HCV seropositive patients from Crete. By contrast LKM1 autoantibodies are exceptionally rare in these patients.

  18. Greece

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... across 800 kilometers from north to south and between Greece and western Turkey, are uniquely situated at the intersection of Europe, ... as well as part of mainland Turkey. Many sites important to ancient and modern history can be found here. The largest modern city in the ...

  19. U-Pb zircon and biostratigraphic data of high-pressure/low-temperature metamorphic rocks of the Talea Ori: tracking the Paleotethys suture in central Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulauf, G.; Dörr, W.; Krahl, J.; Lahaye, Y.; Chatzaras, V.; Xypolias, P.

    2016-10-01

    Inherited deformation microfabrics of detrital quartz grains and U-Pb (Laser ablation (LA)-ICPMS and ID TIMS) ages of detrital zircons separated from the Phyllite-Quartzite Unit s.l. of the Talea Ori, central Crete, suggest strikingly different source rocks. Albite gneiss of the lower Rogdia Beds includes Cambrian and Neoproterozoic rounded zircons with main U-Pb age peaks at 628 and 988 Ma. These and minor Paleoproterozoic and Archean peaks, together with the lack of Variscan-aged and Mesoproterozoic zircons, are similar to the age spectra obtained from the Phyllite-Quartzite Unit s.str. of the Peloponnesus and eastern Crete and from the Taurides. All of these zircons should be derived from the northeastern passive margin of Gondwana (Cimmeria). Metatuffites of the uppermost Rogdia Beds and metasandstone of Bali beach, on the other hand, include euhedral detrital zircons displaying a Variscan U-Pb age spectra at ca. 300 Ma with concordia ages at 291 ± 3, 300 ± 1 Ma (Rogdia) and 286 ± 3, 300 ± 3, 313 ± 2 Ma (Bali). Both types of metasediments and their zircons are similar to those of the pre-Alpine basement and overlying Tyros Beds of eastern Crete, revealing a provenance at the southern active margin of Laurasia. Thus, in central Crete the Paleotethys suture should be situated inside the Rogdia Beds. Magmatic zircons separated from a rhyolite boulder of the lower Achlada Beds yielded a concordant U-Pb zircon age at 242 ± 2 Ma placing a maximum age for the deposition of the (meta)conglomerate from which the boulder was collected. This age is compatible with an Olenekian-early Anisian age of the underlying Vasilikon marble suggested by new findings of the foraminifera Meandrospira aff. pusilla. Both the Achlada Beds and the Vasilikon marble can be attributed to the lower Tyros Beds of eastern Crete. The Alpine deformation led to a pervasive mylonitic foliation, which is affecting most of the studied rocks. This foliation results from D2 top

  20. Architecture and Late Pliocene to recent evolution of outer-arc basins of the Hellenic subduction zone (south-central Crete, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterek, Andreas; Schwarze, Jochen

    2004-08-01

    The Island of Crete is situated in the subaerially exposed part of the Hellenic fore-arc and was uplifted up to 1000-2000 m during Middle Pliocene to recent time. The onset of the overall emergence and northward tilting of central Crete was accompanied by the deposition of the continental Agia Galini Formation ( AGF) during early Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene time. The basin evolution during that time was probably related to sinistral wrench tectonics along ENE-WSW faults, which might have been active during an early stage of the incipient collision of the Hellenic fore-arc with the edge of the African continental plate at the longitude of western Crete. The development of the pronounced relief of south-central Crete strongly profits from a second stage of accelerated uplift and differential block movement starting not earlier than Early Pleistocene time or even later (post-AGF). Synchronously, the modern Timbaki basin and the extensive Messara basin (Messara plain) became striking elements in the study area. Across the study area, differences in both the morphostructural features and the amount of extension are obvious from the west to the east. Most likely, they reflect regional differences in the Pleistocene subduction process, due to the incipient continental collision at the longitude of western Crete. In the western part of the study area, arc-normal extension is driven primarily by the accumulation of high gravitational potential energy that results from the rapid uplift of the region. In the eastern part, the NW-SE to NNW-SSE regional extensional stress field is induced by the ongoing subduction of the oceanic African plate and the roll-back resulting in an arc-normal extensional component, and the extrusion of the Anatolian plate. The latter and the lengthening of the Hellenic arc, which is caused by the southward migration of the central part of the arc, support an arc-parallel extensional component. The Psiloritis Southern Escarpment Fault ( PSEF

  1. River profile response to normal fault growth and linkage: an example from the Hellenic forearc of south-central Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallen, Sean F.; Wegmann, Karl W.

    2017-02-01

    Topography is a reflection of the tectonic and geodynamic processes that act to uplift the Earth's surface and the erosional processes that work to return it to base level. Numerous studies have shown that topography is a sensitive recorder of tectonic signals. A quasi-physical understanding of the relationship between river incision and rock uplift has made the analysis of fluvial topography a popular technique for deciphering relative, and some argue absolute, histories of rock uplift. Here we present results from a study of the fluvial topography from south-central Crete, demonstrating that river longitudinal profiles indeed record the relative history of uplift, but several other processes make it difficult to recover quantitative uplift histories. Prior research demonstrates that the south-central coastline of Crete is bound by a large ( ˜ 100 km long) E-W striking composite normal fault system. Marine terraces reveal that it is uplifting between 0.1 and 1.0 mm yr-1. These studies suggest that two normal fault systems, the offshore Ptolemy and onshore South-Central Crete faults, linked together in the recent geologic past (ca. 0.4-1 My BP). Fault mechanics predict that when adjacent faults link into a single fault the uplift rate in footwalls of the linkage zone will increase rapidly. We use this natural experiment to assess the response of river profiles to a temporal jump in uplift rate and to assess the applicability of the stream power incision model to this setting. Using river profile analysis we show that rivers in south-central Crete record the relative uplift history of fault growth and linkage as theory predicts that they should. Calibration of the commonly used stream power incision model shows that the slope exponent, n, is ˜ 0.5, contrary to most studies that find n ≥ 1. Analysis of fluvial knickpoints shows that migration distances are not proportional to upstream contributing drainage area, as predicted by the stream power incision model

  2. A Geochemical and Mineralogical Approach for the Identification of Provenance of Stone Implements and Tempers in Ceramics from the Area of Mirabello in East Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsikouras, B.; Dierckx, H. M. C.; Nodarou, E.; Papoutsa, A. D.; Hatzipanagiotou, K.

    2009-04-01

    The Minoans of East Crete used a variety of rocks, usually in the form of water worn cobbles or pebbles, for use as ground stone implements. Generally, these were collected locally, not too distant from their settlement and hence easily accessible to them. The Minoans chose rock types that would be effective in domestic or industrial tasks which depended for the most part on the physical properties of the rocks. The most common rock types include sedimentary rocks such as limestones, sandstones, and breccias. However, an adequate amount of igneous and metamorphic rocks were employed as well for stone implements, such as basalt, dolerite, gabbro and various intermediate to acid plutonic rocks. Some of these were also used in crushed form as tempers in clay thus improving the properties of their ceramics. Pottery shards and ground stone implements form a large quantity of total assemblage of finds on recently excavated sites in East Crete ranging in date from Early Minoan to the Iron Age (ca. 3000-1000 B.C.), which revealed both domestic and/or extensive industrial activities. Moreover, the raw materials used for ground stone tools and ceramic temper deriving from the area of Mirabello Bay indicate the degree and range of the distribution of Mirabello products across the island over two millennia. In this study we employed petrographic and mineralogical methods to investigate the composition of the raw materials encountered in the area, and we compare them to materials with similar lithologies from other parts of Crete in an attempt to discriminate between similar sources of raw materials used for lithics and pottery production across the island and not only within the area of Mirabello. More specifically, we investigated a series of intermediate to acid plutonic lithologies ranging in composition from diorite through quartz-diorite and granodiorite towards granite, as well as metamorphic rocks that include amphibolites and amphibolitic schists. Cretaceous

  3. REE profiles in continuous leach ICP-MS (CL-ICP-MS) experiments in soil linked to REE profiles in surface water in the Koiliaris River Critical Zone Observatory (CZO), Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roskam, Gerlinde; Verheul, Marc; Moraetis, Daniel; Giannakis, George; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos

    2014-05-01

    The Koiliaris River CZO watershed is situated 25 km east from the city of Chania, Crete, Greece. The total surface area of the watershed is 130 km2 with a total length of 36 km and a maximum altitude difference of 2120 m. The outcropping rocks at higher altitudes are Plattenkalke nappe topped by the Trypali nappe, which are mainly bedded- and recrystallized brecciated un-bedded limestones and contain large karstic sinkholes. The Trypali nappe is topped by the Western Crete phyllites and is comprised of quartz and micaceous minerals. At lower elevation neogene marls and marly limestones and recent alluvial sand and conglomerate deposits are dominating. The hydrology at the Koiliaris River watershed is dominated by spring outflow at the limestone- fluvial sediment boundaries at lower elevation (<200 m), (largely) dry rivers through the limestone nappes and one ephemeral river on the top of the phyllites. The springs at lower altitudes are fed by rain and the snow melt from the karstic aquifers. Stylos spring is the main water supply for the Koiliaris River while other tributaries are mainly in karstic areas and flow is limited. Throughout the watershed at 5 locations soil samples were taken at two different depths and water samples in various springs and rivers were collected and REE were analysed. Progressively reactive solvents (0.01M CaCl, 0.1M HNO3, 1M HNO3, 4M HNO3) were pumped through the sample column, and then directly into the ICP-MS. All the major and the rare earth elements (REE) were continuously measured. The REE concentrations are normalized to NASC and are mineral specific. The mineral specific REE profiles can be linked to the REE profiles measured in the springs and rivers in the watershed.

  4. An Integrated Study of the Kinematics and Evolution of Fault Systems in the Hellenic Margin, Crete, Greece: Insight into Forearc Development above a Retreating Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallen, S. F.; Wegmann, K. W.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.

    2012-12-01

    Accommodating ~ 36 mm/yr of convergence between the African and Eurasian tectonic plates the Hellenic Subduction zone is the largest, fastest and most seismically active subduction zone in the Mediterranean. Long-lived Cenozoic subduction of the African slab has resulted in the construction of a large south-facing subduction wedge. Rollback of the African slab likely initiated sometime in the Eocene and continues today. This geodynamic setting has given rise to a forearc characterized by a series of dramatic 2-4 km high topographic escarpments south of the Island of Crete; one of the few subaerial forearc highs along the Hellenic margin. It is generally agreed that these escarpments represent the surface expression of large intra-crust faults, yet the kinematics of faulting remains contentious in contemporary scientific literature. Different geologic and geophysical datasets have been used to argue that these structures accommodate either shortening due to continued plate convergence or extension driven by processes related to slab rollback. Resolving the debate over the kinematics of the large-scale structures embedded in the Hellenic forearc is paramount to our understanding of seismic hazards, the development of forearc basins, and the geodynamic processes operating in this region. We present results from a study of the tectonic geomorphology and structural geology of the south-central coastline of Crete that constrain the kinematics and evolution of one of the aforementioned fault systems that is related to the construction of a large forearc basin known as the Ptolemy trough. Field surveys and geochronology of marine terraces reveal the pattern of late Quaternary uplift along the south-central coastline. Two large south-dipping extensional faults, which extend offshore into the Ptolemy trough, are found to offset Pleistocene marine terraces and are inferred to be active with average slip rates of ca. 0.5 mm/yr. The hanging walls and footwalls of these faults

  5. The Development of Topography in Ancient and Active Orogens: Case Studies of Landscape Evolution in the Southern Appalachians, USA and Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallen, Sean Francis

    valley bottoms and mountain peaks > 160%. The most parsimonious driving mechanism to explain all evidence presented is uplift by dynamic topography. Chapter 2 confronts a long-standing debate over the style of orogenesis above the Hellenic subduction zone where two competing hypotheses are used to explain the rise of topography. Distinguishing between these hypotheses hinges on the kinematics of large faults associated with a series to topographic escarpments, known as the Hellenic troughs. Late Pleistocene marine terraces, optically stimulated luminescence geochronology, and structural mapping in South-central Crete and the Late Quaternary eustatic curve provide the dataset to test the kinematics of the Ptolemy fault, one of the Hellenic trough faults. Long term (104 -- 105 yr) rock uplift rates are synthesized and active faults identified. Fault-scaling properties demonstrate that active onshore extensional faulting is geometrically inconsistent with contractional shortening along the Ptolemy fault. This finding indicates that the Ptolemy, and probably all of the Hellenic trough faults, accommodates extension-to-transtension. The regional uplift of South-central Crete is interpreted as the result of underplating along the plate interface, as demonstrated by uplift of both the foot-and-hanging walls of active extensional faults with respect to sea level. The Hellenic troughs are grabens rising over an inflating subduction wedge. Chapter 3 exploits fortuitous geologic circumstances in South-central Crete to document the landscape response to changes in the rate of rock uplift and the impact that lithology has on geomorphic sensitivity to tectonic signals. Suites of topographic and drainage basin metrics responsive to rock uplift are used to evaluate how changing conditions are manifested in the landscape. Findings indicate that the landscape is insensitive to changes in rock uplift rate that initiated > 400 Ka, suggesting geomorphic response times here are long

  6. The importance of geological data and derived information in seismic response assessment for urban sites. An example from the Island of Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsangaratos, Paraskevas; Loupasakis, Constantinos; Rozos, Dimitrios; Rondoyianni, Theodora; Vafidis, Antonios; Savvaidis, Alexandros; Soupios, Pantelis; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Sarris, Apostolos

    2015-04-01

    The magnitude, frequency content and duration of an earthquake ground motion depends mainly on the surrounding geological, tectonic and geomorphological conditions. Numerous reports have been contacted illustrating the necessity of providing accurate geological information in order to estimate the level of seismic hazard. In this context, geological information is the outcome of processing primary, raw field data and geotechnical investigation data that are non - organized and associated with the geological model of the study area. In most cases, the geological information is provided as an advance element, a key component of the "function" that solves any geo-environmental problem and is primarily reflected on analogue or digital maps. The main objective of the present study is to illustrate the importance of accurate geological information in the thirteen (13) selected sites of the Hellenic Accelerometric Network (HAN) in the area of Crete Island, in order to estimate the seismic action according to Eurocode (EC8). As an example the detailed geological-geotechnical map of the area around HAN site in Rethymno city, Crete is presented. The research area covers a 250m radius surrounding the RTHE HAN-station at a scale of 1: 2000 with detail description of the geological and geotechnical characteristics of the formations as well as the tectonic features (cracks, upthrust, thrust, etc) of the rock mass. The field survey showed that the RTHE station is founded over limestones and dolomites formations. The formations exhibit very good geomechanical behaviour; however they present extensive fragmentation and karstification. At this particular site the identification of a fault nearby the station proved to be significant information for the geophysical research as the location and orientation of the tectonic setting provided new perspective on the models of seismic wave prorogation. So, the geological data and the induced information along with the tectonic structure of

  7. Application of data mining techniques and data analysis methods to measure cancer morbidity and mortality data in a regional cancer registry: The case of the island of Crete, Greece.

    PubMed

    Varlamis, Iraklis; Apostolakis, Ioannis; Sifaki-Pistolla, Dimitra; Dey, Nilanjan; Georgoulias, Vassilios; Lionis, Christos

    2017-07-01

    Micro or macro-level mapping of cancer statistics is a challenging task that requires long-term planning, prospective studies and continuous monitoring of all cancer cases. The objective of the current study is to present how cancer registry data could be processed using data mining techniques in order to improve the statistical analysis outcomes. Data were collected from the Cancer Registry of Crete in Greece (counties of Rethymno and Lasithi) for the period 1998-2004. Data collection was performed on paper forms and manually transcribed to a single data file, thus introducing errors and noise (e.g. missing and erroneous values, duplicate entries etc.). Data were pre-processed and prepared for analysis using data mining tools and algorithms. Feature selection was applied to evaluate the contribution of each collected feature in predicting patients' survival. Several classifiers were trained and evaluated for their ability to predict survival of patients. Finally, statistical analysis of cancer morbidity and mortality rates in the two regions was performed in order to validate the initial findings. Several critical points in the process of data collection, preprocessing and analysis of cancer data were derived from the results, while a road-map for future population data studies was developed. In addition, increased morbidity rates were observed in the counties of Crete (Age Standardized Morbidity/Incidence Rates ASIR= 396.45 ± 2.89 and 274.77 ±2.48 for men and women, respectively) compared to European and world averages (ASIR= 281.6 and 207.3 for men and women in Europe and 203.8 and 165.1 in world level). Significant variation in cancer types between sexes and age groups (the ratio between deaths and reported cases for young patients, less than 34 years old, is at 0.055 when the respective ratio for patients over 75 years old is 0.366) was also observed. This study introduced a methodology for preprocessing and analyzing cancer data, using a

  8. Secular trends in fitness, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and TV-viewing among first grade school children of Crete, Greece between 1992/93 and 2006/07.

    PubMed

    Smpokos, Emmanouil A; Linardakis, Manolis; Papadaki, Angeliki; Lionis, Christos; Kafatos, Anthony

    2012-03-01

    To assess secular changes in physical fitness (PF), moderate-to-vigorous-physical activity (MVPA) and TV-viewing in 1st-grade children from Crete, Greece. Cross-sectional cohorts examined in academic years 1992/93 and 2006/07. Two representative samples of children, aged 5.9-7.8 years, were studied during 1992/93 (N=606) and 2006/07 (N=361). PF (sit-and-reach, standing-broad-jump, sit-ups and 20 m-shuttle-run-test) was assessed by the European-PF test battery and MVPA by a physical activity (PA) questionnaire. Data on the frequency of TV-viewing was also collected. Between 1992/93 and 2006/07, there was a significant increase in all fitness tests in both genders (P<0.001) and in MVPA in boys (76.5 min/week vs. 38.7 min/week, P<0.001). Time spent watching TV on weekdays was significantly more in both genders in 2006/07, compared to 1992/93 (P<0.001). In 2006/07, active boys and active girls spent more time in MVPA than active boys and girls in 1992/93 (P<0.001). Significantly higher proportions of boys and girls engaged in vigorous activities in 2006/07, than 1992/93 (P<0.001 and P=0.027, respectively). A significant increase in physical and cardiorespiratory fitness in both genders and MVPA in boys was observed in children from Crete between 1992/93 and 2006/07. The increase in weekday TV-viewing, despite being parallel to an increase in leisure-time MVPA, could have an unfavorable effect on health and should be tackled in future interventions in this population. Dietary, anthropometric and biochemical indices should also be investigated to assess their impact on the secular changes in physical fitness and activity observed in this sample of children. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Groundwater footprint methodology as policy tool for balancing water needs (agriculture & tourism) in water scarce islands - The case of Crete, Greece.

    PubMed

    Kourgialas, Nektarios N; Karatzas, George P; Dokou, Zoi; Kokorogiannis, Andreas

    2017-10-04

    In many Mediterranean islands with limited surface water resources, the growth of agricultural and touristic sectors, which are the main water consumers, highly depends on the sustainable water resources management. This work highlights the crucial role of groundwater footprint (GF) as a tool for the sustainable management of water resources, especially in water scarce islands. The groundwater footprint represents the water budget between inflows and outflows in an aquifer system and is used as an index of the effect of groundwater use in natural resources and environmental flows. The case study presented in this paper is the island of Crete, which consists of 11 main aquifer systems. The data used for estimating the groundwater footprint in each system were groundwater recharges, abstractions through 412 wells, environmental flows (discharges) from 76 springs and 19 streams present in the area of study. The proposed methodology takes into consideration not only the water quantity but also the water quality of the aquifer systems and can be used as an integrated decision making tool for the sustainable management of groundwater resources. This methodology can be applied in any groundwater system. The results serve as a tool for assessing the potential of sustainable use and the optimal distribution of water needs under the current and future climatic conditions, considering both quantitative and qualitative factors. Adaptation measures and water policies that will effectively promote sustainable development are also proposed for the management of the aquifer systems that exhibit a large groundwater footprint. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Near surface geotechnical and geophysical data cross validated for site characterization applications. The cases of selected accelerometric stations in Crete island (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loupasakis, Constantinos; Tsangaratos, Paraskevas; Rozos, Dimitrios; Rondoyianni, Theodora; Vafidis, Antonis; Steiakakis, Emanouil; Agioutantis, Zacharias; Savvaidis, Alexandros; Soupios, Pantelis; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Sarris, Apostolos; Mangriotis, Maria-Dafni; Dikmen, Unal

    2015-04-01

    The near surface ground conditions are highly important for the design of civil constructions. These conditions determine primarily the ability of the foundation formations to bear loads, the stress - strain relations and the corresponding deformations, as well as the soil amplification and corresponding peak ground motion in case of dynamic loading. The static and dynamic geotechnical parameters as well as the ground-type/soil-category can be determined by combining geotechnical and geophysical methods, such as engineering geological surface mapping, geotechnical drilling, in situ and laboratory testing and geophysical investigations. The above mentioned methods were combined for the site characterization in selected sites of the Hellenic Accelerometric Network (HAN) in the area of Crete Island. The combination of the geotechnical and geophysical methods in thirteen (13) sites provided sufficient information about their limitations, setting up the minimum tests requirements in relation to the type of the geological formations. The reduced accuracy of the surface mapping in urban sites, the uncertainties introduced by the geophysical survey in sites with complex geology and the 1-D data provided by the geotechnical drills are some of the causes affecting the right order and the quantity of the necessary investigation methods. Through this study the gradual improvement on the accuracy of the site characterization data in regards to the applied investigation techniques is presented by providing characteristic examples from the total number of thirteen sites. As an example of the gradual improvement of the knowledge about the ground conditions the case of AGN1 strong motion station, located at Agios Nikolaos city (Eastern Crete), is briefly presented. According to the medium scale geological map of IGME the station was supposed to be founded over limestone. The detailed geological mapping reveled that a few meters of loose alluvial deposits occupy the area, expected

  11. Hydrocarbon prospectivity in the Hellenic trench system: organic geochemistry and source rock potential of upper Miocene-lower Pliocene successions in the eastern Crete Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelilidis, A.; Tserolas, P.; Chamilaki, E.; Pasadakis, N.; Kostopoulou, S.; Maravelis, A. G.

    2016-09-01

    Results of the current and already published studies suggest that the Tortonian in age deposits could serve a major source rocks (for both oil and gas) beneath the Messinian evaporites in the Hellenic trench system. Additionally, the strong terrestrial input in Pliocene deposits could lead to the production of biogenic gas, similar to the Po basin in Adriatic Sea (Italy). In the current study, fourteen samples from late Miocene Faneromeni section and twelve samples from the early Pliocene Makrilia section in eastern Crete were collected in order to evaluate their hydrocarbon generation potential. For this purpose, Rock-Eval analysis and characterization of the organic matter were performed. The results document a clear distinction between the two sections. Faneromeni section contains organic matter of kerogen type III, whereas the Makrilia section contains organic matter of kerogen type IV. The HI/TOC plot diagram, in both sections, indicates poor oil generating potential, with the exception of several samples showing fair to good gas and oil potential. Although thermal maturities of the samples from the two successions are similar, according to the T max values, samples from Faneromeni succession exhibit higher hydrogen index values, indicating a better quality of organic matter in terms of hydrocarbon generation. Very low obtained concentrations of bitumen (mg/g of rock), as well as the predominance of NSO compounds, compared to the saturates and aromatics, indicate low maturation level. The n-alkanes profiles exhibit a bimodal distribution, indicating a mixed origin (marine and terrestrial) of the organic matter in both areas. Terrestrial organic matter input is more pronounced in Makrilia section. The analysis of saturated biomarkers indicates that Faneromeni deposits were accumulated under constant organic matter input in an environment influenced by cyclic changes (from marine to lagoon origin and vice versa). Faneromeni section corresponds to a restricted

  12. Second hand smoke exposure and excess heart disease and lung cancer mortality among hospital staff in Crete, Greece: a case study.

    PubMed

    Vardavas, Constantine I; Mpouloukaki, Izolde; Linardakis, Manolis; Ntzilepi, Penelope; Tzanakis, Nikos; Kafatos, Anthony

    2008-09-01

    Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) is a serious threat to public health, and a significant cause of lung cancer and heart disease among non-smokers. Even though Greek hospitals have been declared smoke free since 2002, smoking is still evident. Keeping the above into account, the aim of this study was to quantify the levels of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and to estimate the attributed lifetime excess heart disease and lung cancer deaths per 1000 of the hospital staff, in a large Greek public hospital. Environmental airborne respirable suspended particles (RSP) of PM2.5 were performed and the personnel's excess mortality risk was estimated using risk prediction formulas. Excluding the intensive care unit and the operating theatres, all wards and clinics were polluted with environmental tobacco smoke. Mean SHS-RSP measurements ranged from 11 to 1461 microg/m3 depending on the area. Open wards averaged 84 microg/m3 and the managing wards averaged 164 microg/m3 thus giving an excess lung cancer and heart disease of 1.12 (range 0.23-1.88) and 11.2 (range 2.3-18.8) personnel in wards and 2.35 (range 0.55-12.2) and 23.5 (range 5.5-122) of the managing staff per 1000 over a 40-year lifespan, respectively. Conclusively, SHS exposure in hospitals in Greece is prevalent and taking into account the excess heart disease and lung cancer mortality risk as also the immediate adverse health effects of SHS exposure, it is clear that proper implementation and enforcement of the legislation that bans smoking in hospitals is imperative to protect the health of patients and staff alike.

  13. A focus of Fasciola hepatica in Crete without human cases.

    PubMed

    Antoniou, M; Lionis, C; Tselentis, Y

    1997-01-01

    In Greece, Fasciola hepatica, the sheep liver fluke, is common in sheep but only three human cases of fascioliasis have been reported. An epidemiological study was conducted in central Crete which proved to be a focus of F. hepatica. Sheep and snails were found positive for this parasite, but none of the 205 persons tested serologically.

  14. Entire Island of Crete

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-06-22

    SL2-05-364 (22 June 1973) --- Lying in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, the entire Island of Crete (35.0N, 25.0E) can be seen in great detail in this cloud free view. The volcanic origins of this island can also be observed in the many sharp and angular ridgelines and rugged coastal features. Photo credit: NASA

  15. The Hellenic Seismological Network of Crete (HSNC): validation and results of the 2013 aftershock sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatzopoulos, G.; Papadopoulos, I.; Vallianatos, F.

    2016-02-01

    The last century, the global urbanization has leaded the majority of population to move into big, metropolitan areas. Small areas on the Earth's surface are being built with tall buildings in areas close to seismogenic zones. Such an area of great importance is the Hellenic arc in Greece. Among the regions with high seismicity is Crete, located on the subduction zone of the Eastern Mediterranean plate underneath the Aegean plate. The Hellenic Seismological Network of Crete (HSNC) has been built to cover the need on continuous monitoring of the regional seismicity in the vicinity of the South Aegean Sea and Crete Island. In the present work, with the use of Z-map software the spatial variability of Magnitude of Completeness (Mc) is calculated from HSNC's manual analysis catalogue of events from the beginning of 2008 till the end of September 2015, supporting the good coverage of HSNC in the area surrounding Crete Island. Furthermore, we discuss the 2013 seismicity when two large earthquakes occurred in the vicinity of Crete Island. The two main shocks and their aftershock sequences have been relocated with the use of HYPOINVERSE earthquake location software. Finally, the quality of seismological stations is addressed using the standard PQLX software.

  16. Psychometric Validation of the Youth Social Capital Scale in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutra, Kleio; Orfanos, Philippos; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Kritsotakis, George; Kokkevi, Anna; Philalithis, Anastasios

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This article describes the psychometric validation of the Youth Social Capital scale (YSCS) in 16- to 17-year-old students living in rural and urban areas in Crete, Greece. Methods: Sampling was performed among 27 secondary education units of Heraklion Prefecture. The self-reported questionnaire was answered by 692 participants…

  17. Brackish karstic springs model: application to Almiros spring in Crete.

    PubMed

    Maramathas, Athanasios; Maroulis, Zacharias; Marinos-Kouris, Dimitrios

    2003-01-01

    A mathematical model is proposed to simulate brackish karstic springs. Rainfall data constitutes model input information while output information is the discharge and the chloride concentration of the water versus time. The model was constructed by considering the mass and mechanical energy balance on the hydrodynamic analog, which includes three reservoirs outflowing in a tube that lies adjacent to the spring. Two reservoirs emulate the karstic system, and the third one emulates the sea. The discharge of the spring is given by the sum of the discharge of the reservoirs, and the chloride concentration by the solution of the mixing problem between the fresh and the salty water, which exists in the tube leading to the spring. The model is applied to the spring of Almiros at Heraklion, Crete, Greece. The agreement between model values and field measurements is very good for depletion periods and satisfactory for recharge periods.

  18. Excessive noise levels are noted in kindergarten classrooms in the island of Crete.

    PubMed

    Chatzakis, Nikolaos S; Karatzanis, Alexander D; Helidoni, Meropi E; Velegrakis, Stelios G; Christodoulou, Panagiotis; Velegrakis, Georgios A

    2014-03-01

    Ambient noise in classrooms may present a serious obstacle to the academic achievement of children. There is relatively little information on noise levels in teaching facilities in Greece and particularly in the island of Crete. The purpose of this study was to provide objective data on the internal noise levels inside kindergartens in Crete. The study was conducted in the city of Heraklion in the island of Crete, Greece. Ten kindergartens were selected and a total of 18 classrooms were chosen. Noise levels were measured in occupied and unoccupied classrooms. Noise levels in occupied classrooms ranged from 71.6 to 82.9 dBA with an average of 75.8 dBA. Noise levels in empty classrooms varied from 48.2 to 59.6 dBA with an average of 53.1 dBA. All values are well above international standards. Excessive classroom noise seems to be very common in kindergartens. Results may indicate that school facilities are not built in compliance with international standards. School administrators and local authorities should become aware of the problem, and make any necessary interventions to improve the learning capabilities of children.

  19. Correlation between Seismicity and Mental Health: Crete, 2008-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anagnostopoulos, George C.

    2013-04-01

    We present, for the first time, the results from a research on the possible influence of seismicity to the mental health of a population not exposed to trauma. The research was inspired by the results of (a) recent research on various electromagnetic phenomena related with earthquakes, (b) several experiments of electric, magnetic and electromagnetic effects on animals' behavior, (c) the electric and electromagnetic activity of the neural network of the brain and (d) the treatment of brain functions with traditional electric or electromagnetic methods. The Research was basically baised on a comparison of the number of M>2 earthquakes NE in a area including the island of Crete (210-290E, 32.50-380N), Greece, to the admissions to the Psychiatric Inpatient Unit of the University of Crete IPU/UoC) during the years 2008-2010. It was found that the number of monthly admissions to the Acute Care Unit of the IPU/UoC NAA reached their lowest values during, and in particular at the end (NAA=2; July 2008) of "a storm of strong earthquakes" in 2008 (G. Papadopoulos, EOS, 90, 46, 2009). On the contrary, the number of monthly admissions NAA increased with increasing the monthly number NE of earthquakes (EQs) during the rest of the time period 2008-2010, and showed a maximum rate (NAA= 31) during the month with the highest number of EQs (NE=70; August 2010) throughout the entire period examined. During the second period (October 2008-December 2010) we found a positive correlation between the total number of monthly admissions NA with the number of EQs NE (r=0.601 / P=0.001). When a daily resolution analysis was performed for the month with highest number of EQs NE(August 2010), we found that an abrupt appearance of a cluster of small earthquakes near Crete was followed by an increase in the number of acute admissions NAA, with a delay time of ~2 days. We hypothesize that seismic activity might be a major factor influencing the frequency of admissions of psychotic disorders in

  20. Check list and zoogeographic analysis of the scale insect fauna (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) of Greece.

    PubMed

    Pellizzari, Giuseppina; Chadzidimitriou, Evangelia; Milonas, Panagiotis; Stathas, George J; Kozár, Ferenc

    2015-09-02

    This paper presents an updated checklist of the Greek scale insect fauna and the results of the first zoogeographic analysis of the Greek scale insect fauna. According to the latest data, the scale insect fauna of the whole Greek territory includes 207 species; of which 187 species are recorded from mainland Greece and the minor islands, whereas only 87 species are known from Crete. The most rich families are the Diaspididae (with 86 species), followed by Coccidae (with 35 species) and Pseudococcidae (with 34 species). In this study the results of a zoogeographic analysis of scale insect fauna from mainland Greece and Crete are also presented. Five species, four from mainland Greece and one from Crete are considered to be endemic. Comparison with the scale insect fauna of other countries is provided.

  1. Statistical and Geostatistical analysis of interannual rainfall data in the island of Crete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotsopoulou, Anastasia; Varouchakis, Emmanouil

    2017-04-01

    Hydrological modeling requires spatially distributed precipitation data of high accuracy. However, precipitation is usually measured at a limited number of locations. In particular, in areas of complex terrain, where the topography plays a key role in the precipitation process, rainfall stations are usually sparse. Spatial interpolation techniques can be applied both to interpolate rainfall data and to combine them with secondary information that may improve the results. Regression Kriging (RK) is an interpolation methodology that combines a regression approach with a geostatistical approach. RK along with Ordinary Kriging (OK) are applied to represent the rainfall spatial distribution on the island of Crete, Greece. A period of 30 years is examined, and the statistical analysis of rainfall data is performed to identify key hydrological years and to analyze the interannual behavior of the rainfall. Then, geostatistical analysis is conducted to present the average spatial distribution of rainfall on the island of Crete.

  2. Evaluation of Soil Salinity Amelioration Technologies in Timpaki, Crete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagea, Ioanna; Daliakopoulos, Ioannis; Tsanis, Ioannis; Schwilch, Gudrun

    2015-04-01

    Salinization is a soil threat that adversely affects ecosystem services and diminishes soil functions in many arid and semi-arid regions. Soil salinity management depends on a range of factors, and can be complex expensive and time demanding. Besides taking no action, possible management strategies include amelioration and adaptation measures. The WOCAT Technologies Questionnaire is a standardized methodology for monitoring, evaluating and documenting sustainable land management practices through interaction with the stakeholders. Here we use WOCAT for the systematic analysis and evaluation of soil salinization amelioration measures, for the RECARE project Case Study in Greece, the Timpaki basin, a semi-arid region in south-central Crete where the main land use is horticulture in greenhouses irrigated by groundwater. Excessive groundwater abstractions have resulted in a drop of the groundwater level in the coastal part of the aquifer, thus leading to seawater intrusion and in turn to soil salinization due to irrigation with brackish water. Amelioration technologies that have already been applied in the case study by the stakeholders are examined and classified depending on the function they promote and/or improve. The documented technologies are evaluated for their impacts on ecosystem services, cost and input requirements. Preliminary results show that technologies which promote maintaining existing crop types while enhancing productivity and decreasing soil salinity such as composting, mulching, rain water harvesting and seed biopriming are preferred by the stakeholders. Further work will include result validation using qualitative approaches. Keywords: soil salinity; salinization; evaluation of soil salinization amelioration techniques; WOCAT; RECARE FP7 project; Timpaki Crete

  3. The woman in Minoic Crete.

    PubMed

    Grammatikakis, Ioannis Emm

    2011-07-01

    Minoan Civilization (3000-1150 BC) was the first European civilization on the GREEK island of Crete. Fabulous architectonical constructions like great palaces, wonderful frescoes, and pottery as well as jewellery characterize this amazing civilization. According to all existing descriptions from ancient Greek historians and philosophers like Plato, Thucydides, Strabon but also from all the archaeological findings men and women lived freely and peacefully participating equal in all daily activities, sports, and games. The women were predominating. Minoan women enjoyed a higher social status than other women in later civilizations. Investigation of all the existing data concerning the Minoan culture. Archaeological databases, as well as data from the National University of Athens and other Greek historical institutions were collected and analyzed in order to present the Minoan culture. The Minoic civilization represents a paradigm of a well being society in which the woman played a dominant role. She was the 'mother' but also the 'active woman', who participated in all city activities. Four thousand years later a prototype of a society in which the role of the mother was recognized in an admirably way remains a magnificent paradigm.

  4. The Hellenic Seismological Network Of Crete (HSNC): Validation and results of the 2013 aftershock sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatzopoulos, Georgios; Papadopoulos, Ilias; Vallianatos, Filippos

    2015-04-01

    The number and quality of seismological networks in Europe has increased in the past decades. Nevertheless, the need for localized networks monitoring areas of great seismic and scientific interest is constant. Hellenic Seismological Network of Crete (HSNC) covers this need for the vicinity of the South Aegean Sea and Crete Island. In the present work with the use of Z-map software (www.seismo.ethz.ch) the spatial variability of Magnitude of Completeness (Mc) is calculated from HSNC's manual analysis catalogue of events for the period 2011 until today, proving the good coverage of HSNC in the areas. Furthermore the 2013, South Aegean seismicity where two large shallow earthquakes occurred in the vicinity of Crete Island, is discussed. The first event takes place on 15th June 2013 in the front of the Hellenic Arc, south from central Crete, while the second one on 12th October, 2013 on the western part of Crete. The two main shocks and their aftershock sequences have been relocated with the use of hypoinverse earthquake location software and an appropriate crust model. The HSNC identified more than 500 and 300 aftershocks respectively followed after the main events. The detailed construction of aftershocks catalogue permits the applicability of modern theories based on complexity sciences as described recently in the frame of non extensive statistical physics. In addition site effects in the stations locations are presented using event and noise recordings. This work was implemented through the project IMPACT-ARC in the framework of action "ARCHIMEDES III-Support of Research Teams at TEI of Crete" (MIS380353) of the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" and is co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund) and Greek national funds References A. Tzanis and F. Vallianatos, "Distributed power-law seismicity changes and crustal deformation in the EW Hellenic Arc", Natural Hazards and Earth Systems Sciences, 3, 179-195, 2003 F. Vallianatos, G

  5. A long-term rock uplift rate for eastern Crete from exposure dating of marine terraces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strobl, M.; Hetzel, R.; Ivy-Ochs, S.; Alfimov, V.; Kubik, P. W.; Fassoulas, C.; Palumbo, L.

    2009-04-01

    The island of Crete in the forearc of the Hellenic subduction zone has a rugged topography with a relief exceeding 2 km. Rock uplift rates of 2-4 mm/a were estimated previously from raised Late Holocene shorelines (Lambeck, 1995) but may not be representative on longer timescales, because earthquakes with up to 9 m of coseismic uplift have recently affected Crete (Stiros, 2001). Here we use marine terraces near Kato Zakros to quantify the long-term rock uplift rate for eastern Crete. Our field investigations and topographic profiles document a flight of at least 15 marine bedrock terraces carved into limestone bedrock. Age constraints for the terraces were obtained by 36Cl exposure dating of bedrock samples and 10Be dating of sandstone cobbles found on some terraces. Our results suggest that the terraces T4 and T5 at elevations of 68 and 76 m, respectively, formed during sea level highstands associated with marine isotope stage 5e, i.e. ~125 ka ago. Correlating the other terraces (T1 to T11) to a sea-level curve for the Red Sea (Siddall et al., 2003) indicates an uplift rate of 0.5-0.6 mm/a during the last 400 ka; significantly lower than previous estimates based on the elevation of Late Holocene shorelines. References Lambeck, K. (1995), Late Pleistocene and Holocene sea-level change in Greece and SW Turkey - a separation of eustatic, isostatic and tectonic contributions. Geophys. J. Int. 122, 1022-1044. Siddall, M., Rohling, E.J., Almogi-Labin, A., Hemleben, C., Meischner, D., Schmelzer, I., and Smeed, D.A. (2003), Sea-level fluctuations during the last glacial cycle. Nature, 423, 853-858. Stiros, S.C. (2001), The AD 365 Crete earthquake and possible seismic clustering during the fourth to sixth centuries AD in the Eastern Mediterranean: a review of historical and archaeological data. J. Struct. Geol., 23, 545-562.

  6. Ups and downs in western Crete (Hellenic subduction zone)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiberti, Mara Monica; Basili, Roberto; Vannoli, Paola

    2014-07-01

    Studies of past sea-level markers are commonly used to unveil the tectonic history and seismic behavior of subduction zones. We present new evidence on vertical motions of the Hellenic subduction zone as resulting from a suite of Late Pleistocene - Holocene shorelines in western Crete (Greece). Shoreline ages obtained by AMS radiocarbon dating of seashells, together with the reappraisal of shoreline ages from previous works, testify a long-term uplift rate of 2.5-2.7 mm/y. This average value, however, includes periods in which the vertical motions vary significantly: 2.6-3.2 mm/y subsidence rate from 42 ka to 23 ka, followed by ~7.7 mm/y sustained uplift rate from 23 ka to present. The last ~5 ky shows a relatively slower uplift rate of 3.0-3.3 mm/y, yet slightly higher than the long-term average. A preliminary tectonic model attempts at explaining these up and down motions by across-strike partitioning of fault activity in the subduction zone.

  7. Ups and downs in western Crete (Hellenic subduction zone)

    PubMed Central

    Tiberti, Mara Monica; Basili, Roberto; Vannoli, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Studies of past sea-level markers are commonly used to unveil the tectonic history and seismic behavior of subduction zones. We present new evidence on vertical motions of the Hellenic subduction zone as resulting from a suite of Late Pleistocene - Holocene shorelines in western Crete (Greece). Shoreline ages obtained by AMS radiocarbon dating of seashells, together with the reappraisal of shoreline ages from previous works, testify a long-term uplift rate of 2.5–2.7 mm/y. This average value, however, includes periods in which the vertical motions vary significantly: 2.6–3.2 mm/y subsidence rate from 42 ka to 23 ka, followed by ~7.7 mm/y sustained uplift rate from 23 ka to present. The last ~5 ky shows a relatively slower uplift rate of 3.0–3.3 mm/y, yet slightly higher than the long-term average. A preliminary tectonic model attempts at explaining these up and down motions by across-strike partitioning of fault activity in the subduction zone. PMID:25022313

  8. Ups and downs in western Crete (Hellenic subduction zone).

    PubMed

    Tiberti, Mara Monica; Basili, Roberto; Vannoli, Paola

    2014-07-14

    Studies of past sea-level markers are commonly used to unveil the tectonic history and seismic behavior of subduction zones. We present new evidence on vertical motions of the Hellenic subduction zone as resulting from a suite of Late Pleistocene - Holocene shorelines in western Crete (Greece). Shoreline ages obtained by AMS radiocarbon dating of seashells, together with the reappraisal of shoreline ages from previous works, testify a long-term uplift rate of 2.5-2.7 mm/y. This average value, however, includes periods in which the vertical motions vary significantly: 2.6-3.2 mm/y subsidence rate from 42 ka to 23 ka, followed by ~7.7 mm/y sustained uplift rate from 23 ka to present. The last ~5 ky shows a relatively slower uplift rate of 3.0-3.3 mm/y, yet slightly higher than the long-term average. A preliminary tectonic model attempts at explaining these up and down motions by across-strike partitioning of fault activity in the subduction zone.

  9. The AD 365 earthquake: high resolution tsunami inundation for Crete and full scale simulation exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalligeris, N.; Flouri, E.; Okal, E.; Synolakis, C.

    2012-04-01

    In the eastern Mediterranean, historical and archaeological records document major earthquake and tsunami events in the past 2000 year (Ambraseys and Synolakis, 2010). The 1200km long Hellenic Arc has allegedly caused the strongest reported earthquakes and tsunamis in the region. Among them, the AD 365 and AD 1303 tsunamis have been extensively documented. They are likely due to ruptures of the Central and Eastern segments of the Hellenic Arc, respectively. Both events had widespread impact due to ground shaking, and e triggered tsunami waves that reportedly affected the entire eastern Mediterranean. The seismic mechanism of the AD 365 earthquake, located in western Crete, has been recently assigned a magnitude ranging from 8.3 to 8.5 by Shaw et al., (2008), using historical, sedimentological, geomorphic and archaeological evidence. Shaw et al (2008) have inferred that such large earthquakes occur in the Arc every 600 to 800 years, with the last known the AD 1303 event. We report on a full-scale simulation exercise that took place in Crete on 24-25 October 2011, based on a scenario sufficiently large to overwhelm the emergency response capability of Greece and necessitating the invocation of the Monitoring and Information Centre (MIC) of the EU and triggering help from other nations . A repeat of the 365 A.D. earthquake would likely overwhelm the civil defense capacities of Greece. Immediately following the rupture initiation it will cause substantial damage even to well-designed reinforced concrete structures in Crete. Minutes after initiation, the tsunami generated by the rapid displacement of the ocean floor would strike nearby coastal areas, inundating great distances in areas of low topography. The objective of the exercise was to help managers plan search and rescue operations, identify measures useful for inclusion in the coastal resiliency index of Ewing and Synolakis (2011). For the scenario design, the tsunami hazard for the AD 365 event was assessed for

  10. Proceedings of the International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM) (5th, Chania, Greece, June 19-21, 2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Educational Data Mining Society, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The 5th International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM 2012) is held in picturesque Chania on the beautiful Crete island in Greece, under the auspices of the International Educational Data Mining Society (IEDMS). The EDM 2012 conference is a leading international forum for high quality research that mines large data sets of educational…

  11. Geostatistical Study of Precipitation on the Island of Crete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agou, Vasiliki D.; Varouchakis, Emmanouil A.; Hristopulos, Dionissios T.

    2015-04-01

    Understanding and predicting the spatiotemporal patterns of precipitation in the Mediterranean islands is an important topic of research, which is emphasized by alarming long-term predictions for increased drought conditions [4]. The analysis of records from drought-prone areas around the world has demonstrated that precipitation data are non-Gaussian. Typically, such data are fitted to the gamma distribution function and then transformed into a normalized index, the so-called Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) [5]. The SPI can be defined for different time scales and has been applied to data from various regions [2]. Precipitation maps can be constructed using the stochastic method of Ordinary Kriging [1]. Such mathematical tools help to better understand the space-time variability and to plan water resources management. We present preliminary results of an ongoing investigation of the space-time precipitation distribution on the island of Crete (Greece). The study spans the time period from 1948 to 2012 and extends over an area of 8 336 km2. The data comprise monthly precipitation measured at 56 stations. Analysis of the data showed that the most severe drought occurred in 1950 followed by 1989, whereas the wettest year was 2002 followed by 1977. A spatial trend was observed with the spatially averaged annual precipitation in the West measured at about 450mm higher than in the East. Analysis of the data also revealed strong correlations between the precipitation in the western and eastern parts of the island. In addition to longitude, elevation (masl) was determined to be an important factor that exhibits strong linear correlation with precipitation. The precipitation data exhibit wet and dry periods with strong variability even during the wet period. Thus, fitting the data to specific probability distribution models has proved challenging. Different time scales, e.g. monthly, biannual, and annual have been investigated. Herein we focus on annual

  12. Coastal erosion and accretion rates in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foteinis, Spyros; Papadopoulos, Costas; Koutsogiannaki, Irini; Synolakis, Costas

    2010-05-01

    initiated to protect the coastal zone and educate government and local authorities on sustainable management, several beaches will disappear within the next two decades. References Papadopoulos, C., 2009, Comperative assessment of coastal erosion in the regions of north Amvrakikos gulf, Acheloos delta, Nestos delta, Kos, Limnos, and Kitros, Diploma Thesis, Technical Univerity of Crete, Chanea, Greece, 130 p.( In greek). Synolakis, C.E., Kalligeris, N., Foteinis, S., Voukouvalas, E., 2008, The Plight of the Beaches of Crete, Solutions to Coastal Disasters 2008, Conference Proceedings ASCE, pp. 495-506, (doi 10.1061/40968(312)45)

  13. Tsunami disaster risk management capabilities in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marios Karagiannis, Georgios; Synolakis, Costas

    2015-04-01

    Greece is vulnerable to tsunamis, due to the length of the coastline, its islands and its geographical proximity to the Hellenic Arc, an active subduction zone. Historically, about 10% of all world tsunamis occur in the Mediterranean region. Here we review existing tsunami disaster risk management capabilities in Greece. We analyze capabilities across the disaster management continuum, including prevention, preparedness, response and recovery. Specifically, we focus on issues like legal requirements, stakeholders, hazard mitigation practices, emergency operations plans, public awareness and education, community-based approaches and early-warning systems. Our research is based on a review of existing literature and official documentation, on previous projects, as well as on interviews with civil protection officials in Greece. In terms of tsunami disaster prevention and hazard mitigation, the lack of tsunami inundation maps, except for some areas in Crete, makes it quite difficult to get public support for hazard mitigation practices. Urban and spatial planning tools in Greece allow the planner to take into account hazards and establish buffer zones near hazard areas. However, the application of such ordinances at the local and regional levels is often difficult. Eminent domain is not supported by law and there are no regulatory provisions regarding tax abatement as a disaster prevention tool. Building codes require buildings and other structures to withstand lateral dynamic earthquake loads, but there are no provisions for resistance to impact loading from water born debris Public education about tsunamis has increased during the last half-decade but remains sporadic. In terms of disaster preparedness, Greece does have a National Tsunami Warning Center (NTWC) and is a Member of UNESCO's Tsunami Program for North-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected seas (NEAM) region. Several exercises have been organized in the framework of the NEAM Tsunami Warning

  14. Santorini, Greece

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-07-21

    This ASTER image of Santorini was acquired on November 21, 2000 and covers an area of 18 by 18 km. The eruption of Santorini in 1650 B.C. was one of the largest in the last 10,000 years. About 30 cubic kilometers of magma was erupted, forming a plinian column 36 km high. The removal of such a large volume of magma caused the volcano to collapse, producing a caldera. Ash fell over a large area of the eastern Mediterranean. The eruption probably caused the end of the Minoan civilization on the island of Crete. The largest island is Thera, and the smaller is Therasia. The Kameni Islands (dark in the image center) formed after the caldera., with the most recent eruptions occurring in 1950. The image is centered at 36.4 degrees north latitude, 25.4 degrees east longitude. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02673

  15. Assessing tsunami vulnerability, an example from Herakleio, Crete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papathoma, M.; Dominey-Howes, D.; Zong, Y.; Smith, D.

    Recent tsunami have caused massive loss of life, destruction of coastal infrastructures and disruption to economic activity. To date, tsunami hazard studies have concentrated on determining the frequency and magnitude of events and in the production of simplistic flood maps. In general, such maps appear to have assumed a uniform vulnerability of population, infrastructure and business. In reality however, a complex set of factors interact to produce a pattern of vulnerability that varies spatially and temporally. A new vulnerability assessment approach is described, that incorporates multiple factors (e.g. parameters relating to the natural and built environments and socio-demographics) that contribute to tsunami vulnerability. The new methodology is applied on a coastal segment in Greece and, in particular, in Crete, westof the city of Herakleio. The results are presented within a Geographic Information System (GIS). The application of GIS ensures the approach is novel for tsunami studies, since it permits interrogation of the primary database by several different end-users. For example, the GIS may be used: (1) to determine immediate post-tsunami disaster response needs by the emergency services; (2) to preplan tsunami mitigation measures by disaster planners; (3) as a tool for local planning by the municipal authorities or; (4) as a basis for catastrophe modelling by insurance companies. We show that population density varies markedly with the time of the year and that 30% of buildings within the inundation zone are only single story thus increasing the vulnerability of their occupants. Within the high inundation depth zone, 11% of buildings are identified as in need of reinforcement and this figure rises to 50% within the medium inundation depth zone. 10% of businesses are located within the high inundation depth zone and these may need to consider their level of insurance cover to protect against primary building damage, contents loss and business interruption

  16. Trends in metabolic syndrome risk factors among adolescents in rural Crete between 1989 and 2011.

    PubMed

    Girvalaki, Charis; Vardavas, Constantine; Papandreou, Christopher; Christaki, Georgia; Vergetaki, Anna; Tsiligianni, Ioanna G; Hatzis, Christos; Kafatos, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    To investigate all the important factors contributing to the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) as well as to explore the changes of these factors, over time, by comparing adolescent populations of rural areas of Heraklion, Crete, for the years 2011 and 1989. This study was carried out within two rural areas of the Heraklion region in Crete, Greece. The 1989 study was conducted in the village of Agia Varvara and the respective 2011 study within the municipality of Minoa Pediados. The study population consisted of 150 high school students (97 girls and 69 boys) in 1989 and 66 (30 girls and 36 boys) elementary (6th grade) and high school students in 2011, aged from 12 to 14 years old. Anthropometric, blood pressure and biochemical information was obtained. Of the MetS risk factors studied, only obesity incidence was found higher in 2011 compared to 1989 (obese adolescents 1.3% in 1989 versus 21.2% in 2011, p<0.001). On the other hand, hypertension levels were higher in 1989 compared to 2011 (46.7% versus 6.3%, respectively, p<0.001). In addition, glucose and LDL-C levels were lower in 2011. The present study supports the fact that there are significant changes in metabolic risk factors through time in adolescent populations of Crete, mainly due to the rise in obesity levels as well as to the decrease in hypertension, total cholesterol and LDL- cholesterol, as observed from the comparison of the years 1989 and 2011.

  17. Mammography screening: views from women and primary care physicians in Crete

    PubMed Central

    Trigoni, Maria; Griffiths, Frances; Tsiftsis, Dimitris; Koumantakis, Eugenios; Green, Eileen; Lionis, Christos

    2008-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women and a leading cause of death from cancer in women in Europe. Although breast cancer incidence is on the rise worldwide, breast cancer mortality over the past 25 years has been stable or decreasing in some countries and a fall in breast cancer mortality rates in most European countries in the 1990s was reported by several studies, in contrast, in Greece have not reported these favourable trends. In Greece, the age-standardised incidence and mortality rate for breast cancer per 100.000 in 2006 was 81,8 and 21,7 and although it is lower than most other countries in Europe, the fall in breast cancer mortality that observed has not been as great as in other European countries. There is no national strategy for screening in this country. This study reports on the use of mammography among middle-aged women in rural Crete and investigates barriers to mammography screening encountered by women and their primary care physicians. Methods Design: Semi-structured individual interviews. Setting and participants: Thirty women between 45–65 years of age, with a mean age of 54,6 years, and standard deviation 6,8 from rural areas of Crete and 28 qualified primary care physicians, with a mean age of 44,7 years and standard deviation 7,0 serving this rural population. Main outcome measure: Qualitative thematic analysis. Results Most women identified several reasons for not using mammography. These included poor knowledge of the benefits and indications for mammography screening, fear of pain during the procedure, fear of a serious diagnosis, embarrassment, stress while anticipating the results, cost and lack of physician recommendation. Physicians identified difficulties in scheduling an appointment as one reason women did not use mammography and both women and physicians identified distance from the screening site, transportation problems and the absence of symptoms as reasons for non-use. Conclusion Women

  18. New paleontological and geochemical results from Pindos remnants in southern Crete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandelli, Alessia; Vachard, Daniel; Martini, Rossana; Kozur, Heinz W.; Moix, Patrice; Stampfli, Gérard M.

    2010-05-01

    The Pindos domain of Greece was a deep-water basin located between the Gavrovo-Tripolitza (Greater Apulia) and the Pelagonian units. In the Peloponnese, the Pindos-Olonos zone exposes a continuous sedimentary sequence of pelagic facies from the Late Triassic to the Paleocene, overlain by a Paleocene-Oligocene flysch. Other remnants of the Pindos Ocean, known as the Ethia-Pindos and Mangassa series, are well documented in Crete, but their stratigraphic relationships with the Lentas series has never been investigated. Indeed, the Lentas unit has been classically described as a Triassic sequence composed of platform carbonates, polygenic conglomerates, sandstones and limestones alternations finally overlain by a flysch of unknown age. However, some authors argue that the Lentas unit could represent an olistolith constituted by an Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous platform fragment into the Oligocene Pindos 2nd flysch. We present new biostratigraphic data (conodonts, radiolarians, foraminifers and algae) from sections logged in the Lentas and Pindos series in southern Crete, in order to provide accurate dating and hence constrain the relationship of these units. For the Lentas series, the platform presented a Paleozoic assemblage of foraminifers and carbonate algae. Reworked pebbles in the conglomerate gave a Permian age. A particular sample yielded the first occurrence in Greece of late Kungurian (latest Early Permian) foraminifers and carbonate algae. The identified assemblage belongs to the Misellina parvicostata Zone and has a North Paleotethyan affinity. The pelagic limestones interbedded with sandstones yielded conodonts species typical for the Lacian (early Norian) Epigondolella rigoi Zone and the Sevatian (late Norian) Mockina bidentata Zone. A newly recognized volcanoclastic series, occurring between the conglomerate and the pelagic limestones, has been characterized by petrological and geochemical analyses. The samples are trachy-andesites showing a weak

  19. Cardiovascular disease risk factors and dietary habits of farmers from Crete 45 years after the first description of the Mediterranean diet.

    PubMed

    Vardavas, Constantine I; Linardakis, Manolis K; Hatzis, Christos M; Saris, Wim H M; Kafatos, Anthony G

    2010-08-01

    Farmers from Crete as first studied within the framework of the Seven Countries Study, were historically known for holding the title of the 'gold standard' of health status globally and had a very low prevalence of both cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer. Taking the above into account we evaluated the changes in CVD risk factors among farmers in Crete, Greece and compared our findings with data from the 1960s. Cross-sectional. Five hundred and two farmers (18-79 years old) from the Valley of Messara in Crete were randomly selected and examined in 2005. Complete clinical, biochemical, dietetic, anthropometrical and lifestyle CVD risk factors were assessed, matched and compared with published data from the 1960s. In comparison with 45 years ago, present day male farmers from Crete were found to have a 30% higher BMI (29.8 vs. 22.9 kg/m, P<0.001) and a 16% higher total cholesterol level (239.6 vs. 206.9 mg/dl, P<0.001) and also a not so favourable daily dietary intake (increase in meat and saturated fat and decrease in fruit, P<0.001, respectively), while a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure and energy intake was noticed. In regards to changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue fatty acid composition, a decrease in monounsaturated (P<0.001) and an increase in saturated fatty acids (P<0.001) was also found elucidating the temporal change in dietary habits. The population's lack of adherence to the Mediterranean diet, have led to the fact that currently farmers from Crete are likely to be at a higher risk for developing CVD in comparison with earlier generations.

  20. Santorini, Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This ASTER image of Santorini was acquired on November 21, 2000 and covers an area of 18 by 18 km. The eruption of Santorini in 1650 B.C. was one of the largest in the last 10,000 years. About 30 cubic kilometers of magma was erupted, forming a plinian column 36 km high. The removal of such a large volume of magma caused the volcano to collapse, producing a caldera. Ash fell over a large area of the eastern Mediterranean. The eruption probably caused the end of the Minoan civilization on the island of Crete. The largest island is Thera, and the smaller is Therasia. The Kameni Islands (dark in the image center) formed after the caldera., with the most recent eruptions occurring in 1950.

    The image is centered at 36.4 degrees north latitude, 25.4 degrees east longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes

  1. Will the introduction of Leishmania tropica MON-58, in the island of Crete, lead to the settlement and spread of this rare zymodeme?

    PubMed

    Ntais, Pantelis; Christodoulou, Vasiliki; Tsirigotakis, Nikolaos; Dokianakis, Emmanouil; Dedet, Jean-Pierre; Pratlong, Francine; Antoniou, Maria

    2014-04-01

    The rare zymodeme, Leishmania tropica MON-58, was isolated from a young Afghan refugee with a facial cutaneous lesion who had come to live in Crete early 2008. The same zymodeme variant was isolated from a local dog that had never travelled outside the island, with symptoms of visceral leishmaniasis, which stayed in the area where the patient worked during the summer months. This is the first record of L. tropica in a host, other than human, in Greece and another example of introduction of a vector borne pathogen in a focus where local vector/s can sustain it, with the risk of initiation of new transmission cycle/s.

  2. Evaluating Renewable Groundwater Stress with GRACE data in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshmi, V.; Gemitzi, A.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater is a resilient water source and its importance as a fundamental resource is even greater in times of drought where groundwater stress conditions are greatest for areas like Mediterranean and adverse climate change effects are expected. The present study evaluates Renewable Groundwater Stress (RGS) as the ratio of groundwater use to groundwater availability, quantifying use as the trend in GRACE-derived subsurface anomalies (ΔGWtrend) and renewable groundwater availability as mean annual recharge. Estimates for mean annual recharge were used from groundwater studies conducted for the various regions in Greece, mainly in the form of numerical models. Our results highlighted two RGS regimes in Greece out of the four characteristic stress regimes, i.e. Overstressed, Variable Stress, Human-Dominated Stress and Unstressed, defined as a function of the sign of use and the sign of groundwater availability (positive or negative). Variable Stress areas are found in central Greece (Thessaly region), where intense agricultural activities take place, with negative ΔGWtrend values combined with positive mean annual recharge rates. RGS values range from -0.05 - 0, indicating however a low impact area. Within this region, adverse effects of groundwater overexploitation are already evident, based on the negative GRACE anomalies, recharge however still remains positive, amending the adverse over pumping impacts. The rest of Greek aquifers fall within the unstressed category, with RGS values from 0.02 - 0.05, indicating that the rate of use is less than the natural recharge rate. The highest Unstressed RGS values are observed in Crete Island and in Northeastern Greece. However, the case of Crete is highly uncertain, as precipitation and recharge in this area demonstrate exceptionally high variability and the coarse resolution of GRACE results does not allow for reliable estimates.

  3. On the dynamics of synoptic scale cyclones associated with flood events in Crete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flocas, Helena; Katavoutas, George; Tsanis, Ioannis; Iordanidou, Vasiliki

    2015-04-01

    Flood events in the Mediterranean are frequently linked to synoptic scale cyclones, although topographical or anthropogenic factors can play important role. The knowledge of the vertical profile and dynamics of these cyclones can serve as a reliable early flood warning system that can further help in hazard mitigation and risk management planning. Crete is the second largest island in the eastern Mediterranean region, being characterized by high precipitation amounts during winter, frequently causing flood events. The objective of this study is to examine the dynamic and thermodynamic mechanisms at the upper and lower levels responsible for the generation of these events, according to their origin domain. The flooding events were recorded for a period of almost 20 years. The surface cyclones are identified with the aid of MS scheme that was appropriately modified and extensively employed in the Mediterranean region in previous studies. Then, the software VTS, specially developed for the Mediterranean cyclones, was employed to investigate the vertical extension, slope and dynamic/kinematic characteristics of the surface cyclones. Composite maps of dynamic/thermodynamic parameters, such as potential vorticity, temperature advection, divergence, surface fluxes were then constructed before and during the time of the flood. The dataset includes 6-hourly surface and isobaric analyses on a 0.5° x 0.5° regular latitude-longitude grid, as derived from the ERA-INTERIM Reanalysis of the ECMWF. It was found that cyclones associated with flood events in Crete mainly generate over northern Africa or southern eastern Mediterranean region and experience their minimum pressure over Crete or southwestern Greece. About 84% of the cyclones extend up to 500hPa, demonstrating that they are well vertically well-organized systems. The vast majority (almost 84%) of the surface cyclones attains their minimum pressure when their 500 hpa counterparts are located in the NW or SW, confirming

  4. Regional scale hydrologic modeling of a karst-dominant geomorphology: The case study of the Island of Crete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malagò, Anna; Efstathiou, Dionissios; Bouraoui, Fayçal; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P.; Franchini, Marco; Bidoglio, Giovanni; Kritsotakis, Marinos

    2016-09-01

    Crete Island (Greece) is a karst dominated region that faces limited water supply and increased seasonal demand, especially during summer for agricultural and touristic uses. In addition, due to the mountainous terrain, interbasin water transfer is very limited. The resulting water imbalance requires a correct quantification of available water resources in view of developing appropriate management plans to face the problem of water shortage. The aim of this work is the development of a methodology using the SWAT model and a karst-flow model (KSWAT, Karst SWAT model) for the quantification of a spatially and temporally explicit hydrologic water balance of karst-dominated geomorphology in order to assess the sustainability of the actual water use. The application was conducted in the Island of Crete using both hard (long time series of streamflow and spring monitoring stations) and soft data (i.e. literature information of individual processes). The KSWAT model estimated the water balance under normal hydrological condition as follows: 6400 Mm3/y of precipitation, of which 40% (2500 Mm3/y) was lost through evapotranspiration, 5% was surface runoff and 55% percolated into the soil contributing to lateral flow (2%), and recharging the shallow (9%) and deep aquifer (44%). The water yield was estimated as 22% of precipitation, of which about half was the contribution from spring discharges (9% of precipitation). The application of the KSWAT model increased our knowledge about water resources availability and distribution in Crete under different hydrologic conditions. The model was able to capture the hydrology of the karst areas allowing a better management and planning of water resources under scarcity.

  5. CONFERENCE REPORT: Report on the 11th European Fusion Physics Workshop (Heraklion, Crete, 8 10 December 2003)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, D. J.; Bécoulet, A.; Counsell, G.; Federici, G.; Imbeaux, F.; Kirschner, A.; Krieger, K.; Ortolani, S.; Pitts, R.; Philipps, V.; Zastrow, K.-D.

    2005-08-01

    The 11th EFPW took place in December 2003 at Heraklion in Crete, hosted by the Association EURATOM-Greece and the FORTH Institute, Heraklion and sponsored by the European Commission. Within the overall theme of 'plasma-wall interactions (PWI) and their implications for impurity generation and transport', four topics of importance to the future development of magnetically confined fusion were discussed in detail. Key PWI issues for ITER were also reviewed, the programmes of the two European physics task forces, on PWI and on integrated tokamak modelling, were discussed, and several topical reviews on key physics R&D issues for ITER were presented. The main issues discussed and the areas identified as requiring further study are summarized here.

  6. Environmental tobacco smoke in hospitality venues in Greece.

    PubMed

    Vardavas, Constantine I; Kondilis, Barbara; Travers, Mark J; Petsetaki, Elisabeth; Tountas, Yiannis; Kafatos, Anthony G

    2007-10-23

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a major threat to public health. Greece, having the highest smoking prevalence in the European Union is seriously affected by passive smoking. The purpose of this study was to measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in the non smoking areas of hospitality venues and offices in Greece and to compare the levels of exposure to levels in the US, UK and Ireland before and after the implementation of a smoking ban. Experimental measurements of particulate matter 2.5 microm (PM2.5), performed during a cross sectional study of 49 hospitality venues and offices in Athens and Crete, Greece during February - March 2006. Levels of ETS ranged from 19 microg/m3 to 612 microg/m3, differing according to the place of measurement. The average exposure in hospitality venues was 268 microg/m3 with ETS levels found to be highest in restaurants with a mean value of 298 microg/m3 followed by bars and cafes with 271 microg/m3. ETS levels were 76% lower in venues in which smoking was not observed compared to all other venues (p < 0.001). ETS levels in Greek designated non-smoking areas are similar to those found in the smoking sections of UK hospitality venues while levels in Ireland with a total smoking ban are 89% lower and smoke-free communities in the US are 91 - 96% lower than levels in Greece. Designated non-smoking areas of hospitality venues in Greece are significantly more polluted with ETS than outdoor air and similar venues in Europe and the United States. The implementation of a total indoor smoking ban in hospitality venues has been shown to have a positive effect on workers and patrons' health. The necessity of such legislation in Greece is thus warranted.

  7. Environmental tobacco smoke in hospitality venues in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Vardavas, Constantine I; Kondilis, Barbara; Travers, Mark J; Petsetaki, Elisabeth; Tountas, Yiannis; Kafatos, Anthony G

    2007-01-01

    Background Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a major threat to public health. Greece, having the highest smoking prevalence in the European Union is seriously affected by passive smoking. The purpose of this study was to measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in the non smoking areas of hospitality venues and offices in Greece and to compare the levels of exposure to levels in the US, UK and Ireland before and after the implementation of a smoking ban. Methods Experimental measurements of particulate matter 2.5 μm (PM2.5), performed during a cross sectional study of 49 hospitality venues and offices in Athens and Crete, Greece during February – March 2006. Results Levels of ETS ranged from 19 μg/m3 to 612 μg/m3, differing according to the place of measurement. The average exposure in hospitality venues was 268 μg/m3 with ETS levels found to be highest in restaurants with a mean value of 298 μg/m3 followed by bars and cafes with 271 μg/m3. ETS levels were 76% lower in venues in which smoking was not observed compared to all other venues (p < 0.001). ETS levels in Greek designated non-smoking areas are similar to those found in the smoking sections of UK hospitality venues while levels in Ireland with a total smoking ban are 89% lower and smoke-free communities in the US are 91 – 96% lower than levels in Greece. Conclusion Designated non-smoking areas of hospitality venues in Greece are significantly more polluted with ETS than outdoor air and similar venues in Europe and the United States. The implementation of a total indoor smoking ban in hospitality venues has been shown to have a positive effect on workers and patrons' health. The necessity of such legislation in Greece is thus warranted. PMID:17956612

  8. Spatial and temporal variability of the Aridity Index in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastos, Panagiotis T.; Politi, Nadia; Kapsomenakis, John

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the spatial and temporal variability of the Aridity Index (AI) in Greece, per decade, during the 50-year period (1951-2000). Besides, the projected changes in ensemble mean AI between the period 1961-1990 (reference period) and the periods 2021-2050 (near future) and 2071-2100 (far future) along with the inter-model standard deviations were presented, based on the simulation results, derived from a number of Regional Climatic Models (RCMs), within the ENSEMBLE European Project. The projection of the future climate was done under SRES A1B. The climatic data used, concern monthly precipitation totals and air temperature from 28 meteorological stations (22 stations from the Hellenic National Meteorological Service and 6 stations from neighboring countries, taken from the Monthly Climatic Data for the World). The estimation of the AI was carried out based on the potential evapotranspiration (PET) defined by Thornthwaite (1948). The data processing was done by the application of the statistical package R-project and the Geographical Information Systems (GIS). The results of the analysis showed that, within the examined period (1951-2000), a progressive shift from the "humid" class, which characterized the wider area of Greece, towards the "sub-humid" and "semi-arid" classes appeared in the eastern Crete Island, the Cyclades complex, the Evia and Attica, that is mainly the eastern Greece. The most significant change appears during the period 1991-2000. The future projections at the end of twentieth century, using ensemble mean simulations from 8 RCMs, show that drier conditions are expected to establish in regions of Greece (Attica, eastern continental Greece, Cyclades, Dodecanese, eastern Crete Island and northern Aegean). The inter-model standard deviation over these regions ranges from 0.02 to 0.05 against high values (0.09-0.15) illustrated in western mountainous continental Greece, during 2021-2050. Higher values of inter

  9. Evaluation of soil salinity amelioration technologies in Timpaki, Crete: a participatory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagea, I. S.; Daliakopoulos, I. N.; Tsanis, I. K.; Schwilch, G.

    2015-10-01

    Soil salinity management can be complex, expensive and time demanding, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Besides taking no action, possible management strategies include amelioration and adaptation measures. Here we use the World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies (WOCAT) framework for the systematic analysis and evaluation of soil salinisation amelioration technologies in close collaboration with stakeholders. The participatory approach is applied in the RECARE Project Case Study of Timpaki, a semi-arid region in south-central Crete (Greece) where the main land use is horticulture in greenhouses irrigated by groundwater. Excessive groundwater abstractions have resulted in a drop of the groundwater level in the coastal part of the aquifer, thus leading to seawater intrusion and in turn to soil salinisation. The documented technologies are evaluated for their impacts on ecosystem services, cost and input requirements using a participatory approach and field evaluations. Results show that technologies which promote maintaining existing crop types while enhancing productivity and decreasing soil salinity are preferred by the stakeholders. The evaluation concludes that rain water harvesting is the optimal solution for direct soil salinity mitigation, whereas green manuring and the use of biological agents can support increasing production/efficiency and improving soil properties.

  10. Evaluation of promising technologies for soil salinity amelioration in Timpaki (Crete): a participatory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagea, I. S.; Daliakopoulos, I. N.; Tsanis, I. K.; Schwilch, G.

    2016-02-01

    Soil salinity management can be complex, expensive, and time demanding, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Besides taking no action, possible management strategies include amelioration and adaptation measures. Here we apply the World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies (WOCAT) framework for the systematic analysis and evaluation and selection of soil salinisation amelioration technologies in close collaboration with stakeholders. The participatory approach is applied in the RECARE (Preventing and Remediating degradation of soils in Europe through Land Care) project case study of Timpaki, a semi-arid region in south-central Crete (Greece) where the main land use is horticulture in greenhouses irrigated by groundwater. Excessive groundwater abstractions have resulted in a drop of the groundwater level in the coastal part of the aquifer, thus leading to seawater intrusion and in turn to soil salinisation. The documented technologies are evaluated for their impacts on ecosystem services, cost, and input requirements using a participatory approach and field evaluations. Results show that technologies which promote maintaining existing crop types while enhancing productivity and decreasing soil salinity are preferred by the stakeholders. The evaluation concludes that rainwater harvesting is the optimal solution for direct soil salinity mitigation, as it addresses a wider range of ecosystem and human well-being benefits. Nevertheless, this merit is offset by poor financial motivation making agronomic measures more attractive to users.

  11. Urban heat island in southern Europe: The case study of Hania, Crete

    SciTech Connect

    Kolokotsa, D.; Psomas, A.; Karapidakis, E.

    2009-10-15

    The aim of the present paper is to analyze the results of the urban heat island research for a coastal densely built small Mediterranean town namely Hania, Crete, Greece. The specific research targets to verify the existence, the intensity, the size and the form of the urban heat island phenomenon in the specific region as well as to understand its correlation with the local weather conditions. Nine urban and three rural meteorological stations are used for this study. Temperature and relative humidity measurements are collected from May 26, 2007 until October 24, 2007. In parallel, meteorological data including wind speed and direction, barometric pressure, sunlight and precipitation for the specific region are collected and elaborated for cross-correlation with the appearance of the urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon. During summer period, where the temperature is high, the UHI takes its maximum intensity, of about 8 C. Also, the form of the UHI is strongly influenced from the wind speed and direction. The northern winds expand the UHI front, while the western winds contribute to the UHI reduction. Finally the Discomfort Index (DI) is calculated for the 2007 summer period to indicate the outdoor living conditions. (author)

  12. Cat-scratch disease in Crete: an update

    PubMed Central

    Minadakis, Georgios; Angelakis, Emmanouil; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

    2011-01-01

    There are few epidemiological and clinical studies about the presence of cat scratch disease (CSD) on the island of Crete. The objective of this study was to analyze a large number of patients with suspected CSD to define the frequency of Bartonella infections in Crete. From January 2005 to October 2008, we studied patients with suspected CSD from hospitals in Crete. Sera of the referred patients were tested by immunofluorescence assay (IFA). For some patients, we also received lymph nodes and blood samples that we tested for the presence of Bartonella henselae by molecular assays. Overall, we tested 507 serum samples and we found 56 (11%) cases of CSD. PCR assay was positive for 2 patients; one had a B. henselae positive lymph node and the other a positive whole blood sample. Significantly more CSD cases (62.5%, 35 of 56) were reported in children than in infants and adults (P<0.05). Moreover, we identified that most cases of CSD occurred between May and September (P=0.002) and December and January. CSD is prevalent in Crete and is mostly associated with an increase in outdoor activity. PMID:24470912

  13. Classroom and Socialization: A Case Study through an Action-Research in Crete, Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calogiannakis, Pella; Eleftherakis, Theodoros

    2012-01-01

    The classroom, the teacher and the students, mostly, through their activities and contacts, as well as their daily presence and personality form the classroom atmosphere that is unique and different from any other (Bikos, 2004: 104. cf. also: Bakirtzis, 2002) and it helps or hinders the school progress of each student and school process in…

  14. Climatological aspects of cyclonic tracks associated with flood events in Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flocas, H. A.; Tsanis, I. K.; Katavoutas, G.; Kouroutzoglou, J.; Iordanidou, V.; Alexakis, D. D.

    2016-10-01

    There are primarily two ways of estimating hail size: the first is the direct interpolation of point observations, and the second is the transformation of remote sensing fields into measurements of hail properties. Both techniques have advantages and limitations as regards generating the resultant map of hail damage. This paper presents a new methodology that combines the above mentioned techniques in an attempt to minimise the limitations and take advantage of the benefits of interpolation and the use of remote sensing data. The methodology was tested for several episodes with good results being obtained for the estimation of hail size at practically all the points analysed. The study area presents a large database of hail episodes, and for this reason, it constitutes an optimal test bench.

  15. Aeroallergens in West Crete, Greece: A five year (2010-2014) aerobiological study.

    PubMed

    Papadakis, Chariton E; Kiagiadaki, Devora E; Bonatos, Stilianos I; Katotomichelakis, Michael; Danielides, Vassilios; Proimos, Efklidis K

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the analytic observational study was to present air-pollen counting program results for a 5-year period. Airborne pollens and fungi collection, from both urban and sub-urban areas, were obtained using a special Burkard pollen trap installed on the roof of Chania General Hospital. Aeroallergen concentration measurement was made in a standardized way with fixation of the material collected and then counting using an optical microscope. Annual and total circulating pollen and fungi counts for the study period are presented. In the year 2014, the highest total annual count was recorded, while 2013 was the year with the lowest one. Months with the highest average concentrations were June for the years 2010 and 2011 (1291 and 1114.6 grains/m(3), respectively) and May for the consecutive 3 years 2012-2014 (1120, 890 and 1353.1 g/m(3), respectively). Peak periods for circulating aeroallergens were April-June. Trees pollen accounted for the majority of circulating aeroallergens (615.9 and 677.1 g/m(3) during peak periods in the years 2012 and 2014), while fungi accounted for the majority of circulating aeroallergens (818.5, 729.4, 890.7 spores/m(3)), during the peak periods in the years 2010, 2011 and 2013. Variability in peak airborne allergen periods could be partly explained by the differences in climatic conditions during the study period.

  16. Adult Education in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokkos, Alexios

    2008-01-01

    The central aim of this article is to analyse the current situation of adult education in Greece. The article focuses on the following points: (a) the degree of participation in programmes of continuing professional training and general adult education courses, (b) the quality and the outcomes of the adult education provision in Greece, and (c)…

  17. Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment In Greece Using Gis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papathoma, M.; Dominey-Howes, D.; Zong, Y.; Smith, D.

    A new methodology is described that uses GIS (Geographical Information System)to determine tsunami vulnerability at different spatial and temporal scales. The method- ology is based on the construction of a GIS database, which may be used by different end-users and under varying hazard scenarios. Primary data are collected for a range of parameters that relate to the natural environment, land use, the built environment, the local economy and services, as well as socio-economic parameters. The methodol- ogy permits interrogation of the primary datasets by several different end-user groups. For example, the GIS may be used: (1) by the emergency services in order to locate large numbers of casualties, to organise the immediate post-tsunami disaster response and to design evacuation routes; (2) by insurance companies in order to set the premi- ums of individual buildings and businesses and (3) by the municipal authorities as a tool for local planning (planning regulations, relocation of buildings). The results of two applications of the methodology in Greece are presented. The first application in Herakleio (Crete) relates to the impact that the 1650AD tsunami would have in the area under the current circumstances. The worse case scenario for the second application is based on the 1963 tsunami, which affected the coastal segment west of Aeghio in Peloponnese. The two case studies provide valuable information for civil protection, disaster management and planning.

  18. Influence of the habitat altitude on the (proto)hypericin and (proto)pseudohypericin levels of hypericum plants from Crete.

    PubMed

    Xenophontos, Marina; Stavropoulos, Ilias; Avramakis, Emmanuel; Navakoudis, Eleni; Dörnemann, Dieter; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2008-10-01

    Environmental factors are known to influence strongly the accumulation of secondary metabolites in plant tissues. In a previous paper, we studied the contents of (pseudo)hypericin and its immediate precursors in wild populations of various HYPERICUM species on the island of Crete, Greece, in dependence on their developmental stage. In this study, we investigated the effect of the habitat altitude on the total hypericins content of the plants, which is defined as the sum of protohypericin, hypericin, protopseudohypericin and pseudohypericin. Taking into account our previous finding that the highest accumulation is found during the flowering period in June, we collected the aerial parts of spontaneously growing H. PERFORATUM L. , H. TRIQUENTRIFOLIUM Turra , H. EMPETRIFOLIUM Willd. and H. PERFOLIATUM L. during that time frame at elevations between 100 and 600 m above sea level, however, bearing in mind the time lag in development with increasing altitude. HPLC analysis of the plant material, separated again into a flowers and a leaves/petioles fraction, revealed great differences in the total hypericin content in dependence on the altitude of the habitat. Specifically, a clear trend was revealed, showing an increase of the total hypericin content with increasing altitude. However, no changes could be observed in the ratio of hypericin to protohypericin and in that of pseudohypericin to protopseudohypericin. The habitats of the employed plants were again randomly distributed all over Crete. It is proposed that higher light intensities accompanied by enhanced UV-B radiation and lower air temperature might be responsible for the increasing levels of total hypericins with increasing altitude

  19. Corinth Canal, Greece

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-15

    The Isthmus of Corinth has played a very important role in the history of Greece. It is the only land bridge between the country north Attica and south Peloponnese. This image was acquired by NASA Terra spacecraft.

  20. An analysis of photovoltaic irrigation system for olive orchards in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taousanidis, N.; Gavros, K.

    2016-11-01

    Olive tree cultivation is of major importance in Greece. It has been proved that irrigation of olive orchards increases their production. The classic method followed is diesel pump irrigation. Since Greece favours high insolation the alternative of photovoltaic pumping is proposed. A case study for an olive orchard in Crete is studied with the two alternatives. The photovoltaic pumping system is a direct pumping system as olive trees tolerate even deficit irrigation and storage tank increases the cost. A comparison using the Life Cycle Costing method is proposed. Considerations about climate and economic conditions are taken into account and the study concludes with the profound advantage of the renewable system over the conventional one in strict economic terms.

  1. Ecological soil quality affected by land use and management on semi-arid Crete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, J. P.; Moraetis, D.; Lair, G. J.; Bloem, J.; Nikolaidis, N. P.; Hemerik, L.; de Ruiter, P. C.

    2015-03-01

    Land use and soil management practice can have strong effects on soil quality, defined in terms of soil fertility, carbon sequestration and conservation of biodiversity. In this study, we investigate whether ecological soil quality parameters are adequate to assess soil quality under harsh conditions, and are able to reflect different land uses and intensities of soil management practices. We selected three sites as main representatives for the dominant types of land use in the region: an intensively cultivated olive orchard (annually tilled), an extensively used olive orchard (not tilled) and a heavily grazed pasture site in the Koiliaris catchment (Crete/Greece). Soil quality was analysed using an ecosystem approach, studying soil biological properties such as soil organism biomass and activity, and taxonomic diversity of soil microarthropods, in connection to abiotic soil parameters, including soil organic matter contents, and soil aggregate stability. The intensively cultivated olive orchard had a much lower aggregate water stability than the extensive olive orchard and the pasture. Contents of soil organic C and N were higher in the extensively used olive orchard than in the intensively cultivated orchard, with intermediate concentrations in the pasture. This was mainly caused by the highest input of organic matter, combined with the lowest organic matter decomposition rate. Soil organism biomasses in all sites were relatively low compared to values reported from less harsh systems, while microarthropod richness was highest in the pasture compared to both the intensive and extensive olive orchards. From the present results we conclude that microarthropod taxonomic richness is a very useful indicator for ecological soil quality, because it is not only able to separate harsh sites from other systems, but it is also sensitive enough to show differences between land management practices under harsh conditions. Microbial biomass and especially microarthropod

  2. E.N. Economou's contribution to the establishment and development of the University of Crete and the Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sifakis, Grigoris M.

    2001-02-01

    This paper offers a sketch of E.N. Economou's career in the context of historical and political developments in Greece during the past 40 years, and attempts to evaluate his multifaceted contribution to the University of Crete and the Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas as a teacher and administrator. He was one of the first senior faculty members of UC, and played a vital role, not only in the creation of a first rate department of physics, but in the development of the University as a whole, in a critical period for Greek higher education. FORTH was his brain child and, under his leadership, has become - and been recognized - as an international center of excellence.

  3. Strengthening the University-Industry Relationship: A Case Study of the Electronics Department, TEI Crete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liodakis, George; Vardiambasis, Ioannis O.; Kartsonakis, Evangelos; Kaliakatsos, Ioannis A.

    2012-01-01

    The Department of Electronics of the Technological Educational Institute of Crete (DoE/TEI Crete) enjoys good approval ratings from the market and its graduates have a high rate of employability. However, survey data collected over the last ten years from graduates and from the enterprises in which they have been employed, or have carried out…

  4. Strengthening the University-Industry Relationship: A Case Study of the Electronics Department, TEI Crete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liodakis, George; Vardiambasis, Ioannis O.; Kartsonakis, Evangelos; Kaliakatsos, Ioannis A.

    2012-01-01

    The Department of Electronics of the Technological Educational Institute of Crete (DoE/TEI Crete) enjoys good approval ratings from the market and its graduates have a high rate of employability. However, survey data collected over the last ten years from graduates and from the enterprises in which they have been employed, or have carried out…

  5. Pathology in Greece.

    PubMed

    Sakellariou, S; Patsouris, E

    2015-11-01

    Pathology is the field of medicine that studies diseases. Ancient Greece hosted some of the earliest societies that laid the structural foundations of pathology. Initially, knowledge was based on observations but later on the key elements of pathology were established based on the dissection of animals and the autopsy of human cadavers. Christianized Greece under Ottoman rule (1453-1821) was not conducive to the development of pathology. After liberation, however, a series of events took place that paved the way for the establishment and further development of the specialty. The appointment in 1849 of two Professors of Pathology at the Medical School of Athens for didactical purposes proved to be the most important step in fostering the field of pathology in modern Greece. Presently in Greece there are seven university departments and 74 pathology laboratories in public hospitals, employing 415 specialized pathologists and 90 residents. The First Department of Pathology at the Medical School of Athens University is the oldest (1849) and largest in Greece, encompassing most pathology subspecialties.

  6. CRETE: Comet RadiativE Transfer and Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Val-Borro, Miguel; Wilson, Thomas G.

    2016-12-01

    CRETE (Comet RadiativE Transfer and Excitation) is a one-dimensional water excitation and radiation transfer code for sub-millimeter wavelengths based on the RATRAN code (ascl:0008.002). The code considers rotational transitions of water molecules given a Haser spherically symmetric distribution for the cometary coma and produces FITS image cubes that can be analyzed with tools like MIRIAD (ascl:1106.007). In addition to collisional processes to excite water molecules, the effect of infrared radiation from the Sun is approximated by effective pumping rates for the rotational levels in the ground vibrational state.

  7. Formation of Late Quaternary paleoshorelines in Crete, Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouslopoulou, Vasiliki; Begg, John; Nicol, Andrew; Oncken, Onno; Prior, Christine

    2015-12-01

    Paleoshorelines of Late Quaternary age in western Crete do not exclusively increase in age with rising altitude as is generally observed worldwide. At numerous sites, for example, Late-Holocene paleoshorelines decrease in age with increasing altitude while in other cases paleoshorelines at similar altitude vary in age by tens of thousands of years. We propose that the observed paleoshoreline altitude-age relationships can be accounted for by eustatic sea-level changes and tectonic rock uplift without requiring substantial errors on radiocarbon ages or tectonic subsidence, as has been previously proposed. To test this model we use a dataset consisting of altitude and age data for 71 individual paleoshorelines sampled from 21 sites distributed along the entire Cretan coastline. These data include radiocarbon ages of marine biota (40 new dates) within beachrock resting on paleoshorelines ranging up to 48 kyr BP in age and ≤20 m above present sea-level. We find that paleoshoreline formation reflects Late Holocene tectonic rock uplift in western Crete, preceded by eustatic sea-level rise and by >10 kyr BP rock uplift along the entire island. Our observations contravene existing models as they suggest that some paleoshorelines, and their associated lithified beachrock, survived passage through the wave-zone multiple times and formed throughout the sea-level cycle (i.e., preservation is not restricted to highstand deposits). These results may have application globally in regions where erosion-resistant carbonate beachrock mantles paleoshorelines.

  8. Climate Impacts on Sea Turtle Breeding Phenology in Greece and Associated Foraging Habitats in the Wider Mediterranean Region.

    PubMed

    Patel, Samir H; Morreale, Stephen J; Saba, Vincent S; Panagopoulou, Aliki; Margaritoulis, Dimitris; Spotila, James R

    2016-01-01

    Sea turtles are vulnerable to climate change impacts in both their terrestrial (nesting beach) and oceanic habitats. From 1982 to 2012, air and sea surface temperatures at major high use foraging and nesting regions (n = 5) of loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) nesting in Greece have steadily increased. Here, we update the established relationships between sea surface temperature and nesting data from Zakynthos (latitude: 37.7°N), a major nesting beach, while also expanding these analyses to include precipitation and air temperature and additional nesting data from two other key beaches in Greece: Kyparissia Bay (latitude: 37.3°N) and Rethymno, Crete (latitude: 35.4°N). We confirmed that nesting phenology at Zakynthos has continued to be impacted by breeding season temperature; however, temperature has no consistent relationship with nest numbers, which are declining on Zakynthos and Crete but increasing at Kyparissia. Then using statistically downscaled outputs of 14 climate models assessed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), we projected future shifts in nesting for these populations. Based on the climate models, we projected that temperature at the key foraging and breeding sites (Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, Crete, Gulf of Gabès and Zakynthos/Kyparissia Bay; overall latitudinal range: 33.0°-45.8°N) for loggerhead turtles nesting in Greece will rise by 3-5°C by 2100. Our calculations indicate that the projected rise in air and ocean temperature at Zakynthos could cause the nesting season in this major rookery to shift to an earlier date by as much as 50-74 days by 2100. Although an earlier onset of the nesting season may provide minor relief for nest success as temperatures rise, the overall climatic changes to the various important habitats will most likely have an overall negative impact on this population.

  9. Climate Impacts on Sea Turtle Breeding Phenology in Greece and Associated Foraging Habitats in the Wider Mediterranean Region

    PubMed Central

    Morreale, Stephen J.; Saba, Vincent S.; Panagopoulou, Aliki; Margaritoulis, Dimitris; Spotila, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Sea turtles are vulnerable to climate change impacts in both their terrestrial (nesting beach) and oceanic habitats. From 1982 to 2012, air and sea surface temperatures at major high use foraging and nesting regions (n = 5) of loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) nesting in Greece have steadily increased. Here, we update the established relationships between sea surface temperature and nesting data from Zakynthos (latitude: 37.7°N), a major nesting beach, while also expanding these analyses to include precipitation and air temperature and additional nesting data from two other key beaches in Greece: Kyparissia Bay (latitude: 37.3°N) and Rethymno, Crete (latitude: 35.4°N). We confirmed that nesting phenology at Zakynthos has continued to be impacted by breeding season temperature; however, temperature has no consistent relationship with nest numbers, which are declining on Zakynthos and Crete but increasing at Kyparissia. Then using statistically downscaled outputs of 14 climate models assessed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), we projected future shifts in nesting for these populations. Based on the climate models, we projected that temperature at the key foraging and breeding sites (Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, Crete, Gulf of Gabès and Zakynthos/Kyparissia Bay; overall latitudinal range: 33.0°—45.8°N) for loggerhead turtles nesting in Greece will rise by 3–5°C by 2100. Our calculations indicate that the projected rise in air and ocean temperature at Zakynthos could cause the nesting season in this major rookery to shift to an earlier date by as much as 50–74 days by 2100. Although an earlier onset of the nesting season may provide minor relief for nest success as temperatures rise, the overall climatic changes to the various important habitats will most likely have an overall negative impact on this population. PMID:27332550

  10. Sugar-added beverages consumption among kindergarten children of Crete: effects on nutritional status and risk of obesity

    PubMed Central

    Linardakis, Manolis; Sarri, Katerina; Pateraki, Maria-Styliani; Sbokos, Manolis; Kafatos, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Objective To assess the intake of sugar-added beverages such as soft drinks and commercially available fruit juices in kindergarten children, and to examine its association with obesity indices, physical activity levels and dietary habits. Methods A total of 856 children aged 4–7 years living in Crete, Greece in 2004–5 were included in this cross-sectional study. Nutrient and food intake was assessed with the use of 3-day weighed food records. Body measurements were used in order to assess BMI and waist circumference, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was calculated with the use of a questionnaire. Results Approximately 59.8% of all children consumed sugar-added beverages on a daily basis. High intake of sugar-added beverages (> 250 g/day) was associated with low intakes of calcium (p < 0.001), vitamin A and E (p < 0.010), fruits and vegetables (p = 0.007), and milk and yogurt (p = 0.048). Compared to non or low consumers, high consumers of sugar-added beverages (> 250 g/day) had higher BMI levels and two times greater risk of being overweight and/or obese (OR:2.35, p = 0.023). Conclusion High intake of sugar-added beverages in kindergarten children is associated with poor eating habits and inadequate nutrient intake, as well as increased risk for developing childhood obesity. PMID:18684334

  11. Sugar-added beverages consumption among kindergarten children of Crete: effects on nutritional status and risk of obesity.

    PubMed

    Linardakis, Manolis; Sarri, Katerina; Pateraki, Maria-Styliani; Sbokos, Manolis; Kafatos, Anthony

    2008-08-06

    To assess the intake of sugar-added beverages such as soft drinks and commercially available fruit juices in kindergarten children, and to examine its association with obesity indices, physical activity levels and dietary habits. A total of 856 children aged 4-7 years living in Crete, Greece in 2004-5 were included in this cross-sectional study. Nutrient and food intake was assessed with the use of 3-day weighed food records. Body measurements were used in order to assess BMI and waist circumference, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was calculated with the use of a questionnaire. Approximately 59.8% of all children consumed sugar-added beverages on a daily basis. High intake of sugar-added beverages (> 250 g/day) was associated with low intakes of calcium (p < 0.001), vitamin A and E (p < 0.010), fruits and vegetables (p = 0.007), and milk and yogurt (p = 0.048). Compared to non or low consumers, high consumers of sugar-added beverages (> 250 g/day) had higher BMI levels and two times greater risk of being overweight and/or obese (OR:2.35, p = 0.023). High intake of sugar-added beverages in kindergarten children is associated with poor eating habits and inadequate nutrient intake, as well as increased risk for developing childhood obesity.

  12. Evaluation of a health and nutrition education program in primary school children of Crete over a three-year period.

    PubMed

    Manios, Y; Moschandreas, J; Hatzis, C; Kafatos, A

    1999-02-01

    No national policy for health education in schools exists to date in Greece. The first attempt to apply a school-based health education intervention program was launched in 1992 on all 4,171 pupils registered in the first grade in two counties of Crete. The 1,510 pupils registered in a third county served as controls. The school-based intervention and the seminars organized for parents were primarily aimed at improving children's diet, fitness, and physical activity. Pupils in the first grade in a representative sample of 40 schools were examined prior to the intervention program on a variety of health knowledge, dietary, physical activity, fitness, anthropometric, and biochemical indices. The same measurements were taken after 3 years of the program on 288 intervention group and 183 control group pupils. Positive serum lipid level changes occurred to a greater extent in the intervention group than the control group. BMI increased less in the intervention group than for controls. The increase in health knowledge and physical activity and fitness levels occurred to a higher extent in the intervention group compared to controls. The short-term changes observed in the present study are markedly encouraging and indicate great potential for progressive improvement. Continuation and expansion of such a program may prove to be beneficial in initiating long-term changes.

  13. Greece Plus 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, James E.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    For the past 10 years all students have been enrolled in the industrial arts program for 13 weeks each year in the Greece Central School District, New York. The orientation phase in grades 7-8 concentrates on the construction, graphic communication, transportation, and manufacturing clusters. Grades 9 through 12 continue three levels of career and…

  14. Alternative Use in Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEB Exchange, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Situating the University of Thessaly in Volos and Larissa, Greece, represents the idea that the university has a role to play in the community, and, therefore, its facilities are integrated within the city. Describes an old factory warehouse converted to create "a building within a building," while preserving style of the former factory…

  15. Counseling in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malikiosi-Loizos, Maria; Ivey, Allen E.

    2012-01-01

    There is rapid growth in Greece's professional and research activity in counseling, despite the lack of a clear professional identity for the field. It is hoped this will be overcome through the newly started graduate programs. Opportunities, objectives, and strategies for counseling's advancement should be directed toward close and essential…

  16. Greece. [CME Country Reports].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.

    There is no immigration problems in Greece today. On the contrary, the country's economic development makes it necessary for Greek workers who have emigrated temporarily to return and be integrated into the production system. The educational policy for emigrant workers' children involves: (1) ensuring that children who have settled abroad know…

  17. [Midwifes in ancient Greece].

    PubMed

    Arata, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with the evidence about obstetrics and in particular midwifes in ancient Greece. The substantives which mean "obstetrician" in Greek are quite numerous, but the most attested and common is [see text]. This work examines all the tasks which were connected with this profession (e.g. in the legal field).

  18. Spatial analysis of the Chania prefecture: Crete triangulation network quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achilleos, Georgios

    2016-08-01

    The network of trigonometric points of a region is the basis upon which any form of cartographic work is attached to the national geodetic coordinate system (data collection, processing, output presentations) and not only. The products of the cartographic work (cartographic representations), provide the background which is used in cases of spatial planning and development strategy. This trigonometric network, except that, provides to a single cartographic work, the ability to exist within a unified official state geodetic reference system, simultaneously determines the quality of the result, since the trigonometric network data that are used, have their own quality. In this paper, we present the research of spatial quality of the trigonometric network of Chania Prefecture in Crete. This analysis examines the triangulation network points, both with respect to their spatial position (distribution in space), and in their accuracy (horizontally and vertically).

  19. Chemical and genetic characterization of Phlomis species and wild hybrids in Crete.

    PubMed

    Georgescu, Luciana; Stefanakis, Michalis K; Kokkini, Stella; Katerinopoulos, Haralambos E; Pirintsos, Stergios A

    2016-02-01

    The genus Phlomis is represented in the island of Crete (Greece, Eastern Mediterranean) by three species Phlomis cretica C. Presl., Phlomis fruticosa L., the island endemic Phlomis lanata Willd. and three hybrids Phlomis x cytherea Rech.f. (P. cretica x P. fruticosa), Phlomis x commixta Rech.f. (P. cretica x P. lanata) and Phlomis x sieberi Vierh. (P. fruticosa x P. lanata). This work describes (a) the profile of hybrids and parental species concerning their volatile compounds, (b) the suitability of ribosomal nuclear (ITS region), chloroplast (trnH-psbA), and AFLP markers to identify hybrids and (c) their competence to characterize the different chemotypes of both hybrids and their parental species. The cluster analysis and PCA constructed from chemical data (volatile oils) suggest that there are three groups of taxa. Group IA includes P. cretica and P. fruticosa, group IB includes P. x cytherea, whereas group II consists of P. x commixta, P. x sieberi and P. lanata. Volatile compounds detected only in the hybrids P. x sieberi and P. x commixta correspond to the 3% of the total compounds, value that is much higher in P. x cytherea (21%). Neighbor-joining, statistical parsimony analysis and the observations drawn from ribotypes spectrum of ITS markers divided Phlomis species in two groups, P. lanata and the complex P. cretica/P. fruticosa. In contrast to the ITS region, the plastid DNA marker follows a geographically related pattern. Neighbor-Net, PCA and Bayesian assignment analysis performed for AFLP markers separated the genotypes into three groups corresponding to populations of P. cretica, P. fruticosa, and P. lanata, respectively, while populations of P. x commixta, P. x cytherea, and P. x sieberi presented admixed ancestry. Most of the P. x cytherea samples were identified as F1 hybrids by Bayesian assignment test, while those of P. x commixta and P. x sieberi were identified as F2 hybrids. Overall, high chemical differentiation is revealed in one of the

  20. Recent trend analysis of mean air temperature in Greece based on homogenized data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamara, A.; Argiriou, A. Α.; Anadranistakis, M.

    2016-11-01

    Numerous studies analyze the temperature variations in the Mediterranean area due to the anticipated impact of climate change in this part of the world. A number of studies examined the temperature climate in Greece, but few are based on a large number of synoptic stations covering all regions and climatic zones and even fewer are based on homogenized data set series, despite the fact that climatological studies must use high-quality homogeneous data series. The present work reviews previous studies dealing with climatic changes in Greece and addresses changes of mean air temperature, based on a large set of homogenized data from 52 synoptic stations. A statistically significant negative trend during 1960-1976 and a positive one during 1977-2004 were revealed. During 1960-1976, the lowest negative annual temperature trend is observed in Crete. During 1977-2004, the northern region of Greece was characterized by prominent annual warming, whereas the north and central Aegean Sea and the semi-mountainous area were characterized by the lowest warming. All stations are characterized by high seasonal trends in summer; the most extreme trends are observed in the northern and eastern regions and in the Attica area. Positive temperature trends occur from May to October, while negative trends dominate from November to February. The most pronounced warming is recorded in June and July, and the most strongly decreasing trend occurs in November. Annual temperature trends in northern Greece follow the hemispheric pattern, and the overall summer warming in Greece is greater than the hemisphere's.

  1. Magnus Hirschfeld in Greece.

    PubMed

    Vyras, P

    1997-01-01

    In 1932 Magnus Hirschfeld, the eminent German sexologist, visited Greece. It was after a long journey that took him round the world, lecturing about the new science he had created. In the Greek capital his unconventional theories concerning an intermediate "third sex" and his ideas about sexual reform became the object of an attack in the local press. Close examination of the debate which followed reveals some interesting points regarding Hirschfeld's approach to publicity and his attempts to foster an emancipation movement for homosexual issues.

  2. Greece and Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Summer is in full swing in this stunning true-color image of the southeastern European countries and Turkey captured by MODIS on June 29, 2002. Clockwise from left, the mountains of Greece, Albania, Macedonia, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, and Turkey are swathed in brilliant greens and shades of golden brown; meanwhile (counterclockwise from left) the Ionian, Mediterranean, Aegean, and Black Seas are beautifully blue and green.Running diagonally across the image from the bottom middle to the top right is a gray streak that is caused by the angle of reflection of the sun on the water (called sun glint). The darker areas within this gray swath denote calmer water, and make visible currents that would not otherwise be noticeable.Surprisingly few fires were burning hot enough to be detectable by MODIS when this image was acquired during the height of the summer dry season. A single fire is visible burning in mainland Greece, six are visible in northwestern Turkey, and one burns on the western coast (marked with red outlines). Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  3. Magnetotellurics and Transient Electromagnetics to Investigate the Geoelectric Structure of Southern Aegean, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makris, J. P.; Kalisperi, D.; Smirnov, M.; Rigakis, H.; Romano, G.; Kokologiannakis, A.; Pentes, G.; Pentaris, F.; Skoulakis, A.; Perrone, A.; Kouli, M.; Vallianatos, F.

    2014-12-01

    Since 2012 a great number of onshore magnetotelluric (MT) and Transient Electromagnetic (TEM) measurements have been conducted in Southern Aegean, Greece. The survey included Crete, almost all the islands of Dodecanese and Southern Cyclades, Southern Peloponnese, and the islands Kithira, Antikithira and Gavdos. Southern Aegean Sea, featuring the Southern Hellenic Arc (HA) of the Hellenic Subduction Zone (HSZ) and the Hellenic Volcanic Arc (HVA), depicts complex geotectonics and the most intense seismicity and geodynamics of Western Eurasia. In this work we summarize the most important results of the MT and TEM combined analysis and modelling. Furthermore, two permanent telemetric MT stations were installed and operated in Western Crete and Rhodes, respectively, to be used as remote reference and to investigate possible transient seismoelectromagnetic signals. The case of the October 12, 2013 strong earthquake (Mb6.4) is discussed. The research was conducted in the framework of the project entitled "MagnetoTellurics in studying Geodynamics of the hEllenic Arc (MT-GEAR)", co-funded by the European Social Fund (ESF) and National Resources within the context of the Action "Supporting Postdoctoral Researchers" of the Operational Programme 'Education and Lifelong Learning'.

  4. Leptin, acylcarnitine metabolites and development of adiposity in the Rhea mother–child cohort in Crete, Greece

    PubMed Central

    Oken, E.; Roumeliotaki, T.; Sood, D.; Siskos, A. P.; Chalkiadaki, G.; Dermitzaki, E.; Vafeiadi, M.; Kyrtopoulos, S.; Kogevinas, M.; Keun, H. C.; Chatzi, L.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective This study aims to investigate relations of serum leptin at age 4 with development of adiposity and linear growth during 3 years of follow‐up among 75 Greek children and to identify serum metabolites associated with leptin at age 4 and to characterize their associations with adiposity gain and linear growth. Methods Linear regression models that accounted for maternal age, education and gestational weight gain and child's age and sex were used to examine associations of leptin and leptin‐associated metabolites measured at age 4 with indicators of adiposity and linear growth at age 7. Results Each 1‐unit increment in natural log‐(ln)‐transformed leptin corresponded with 0.33 (95% CI: 0.10, 0.55) units greater body mass index‐for‐age z‐score gain during follow‐up. Likewise, higher levels of the leptin‐associated metabolites methylmalonyl‐carnitine and glutaconyl‐carnitine corresponded with 0.14 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.27) and 0.07 (95% CI: −0.01, 0.16) units higher body mass index‐for‐age z‐score gain, respectively. These relationships did not differ by sex or baseline weight status and were independent of linear growth. Conclusions These findings suggest that leptin, methylmalonyl‐carnitine and possibly glutaconyl‐carnitine are associated with weight gain during early childhood. Future studies are warranted to confirm these findings in other populations. PMID:28090353

  5. A Multidisciplinary Workshop: Self-Assembling Peptide Systems in Biology, Medicine and Engineering, Crete, Greece, July 1-6, 1999

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-31

    like Properties. J. Am. Client. Soc. 119. 5302-5306. Rojas NR , Kamtekar S, Simons CT, McLean JE, Vogel KM, Spiro TG, Farid RS & Hecht MH (1997) De...form trimers when associated to the head (residues 396-582) (Hong and Engler, (1996) J. Virol. 70: 7071- 7078 ). The peptide could only be dissolved

  6. [Suicide rates and mental health services in Greece].

    PubMed

    Giotakos, O; Tsouvelas, G; Kontaxakis, V

    2012-01-01

    Some studies have shown that access to mental health services can have an impact on mental health outcomes, including the suicide rates. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between regional and prefecture suicide rates (suicides per 100.000 residents) and both the number of primary and mental health-care service providers and the number of mental health infrastructures in Greece. Data were taken mainly from the Hellenic Statistical Authority (EL.STAT.) and the Ministry of Health for the period 2002-2009. Spearman correlations were used to examine the relationship between primary health-care, mental health providers and suicide rates per 100,000 residents at the prefecture, administrative region and geographical region levels. Men showed significantly higher suicide rates than women (U=-7.20, p<0.001). For the period 2002-2009, the highest suicide rate at the prefecture level were in Rethymno (6.99), Rodopi (5.62) and Zakynthos (5.28). For the same period, the highest suicide rates at the geographical level were in Peloponnisos (4.01), Ionian Islands (4.03) and Grete (3.65). Increase in suicide rates (2009 vs 2002-2009) was observed in the following geographical regions of Greece: Crete (4.76 vs 3.65), Thrace (4.45 vs 2.02) Central Greece (3.61 vs 1.39) Aegean Islands (3.03 vs 1.28). The highest correlations between suiciderutes and health services at the geographic regional level were found to be during the period 2007-2009, where suicide rates showed a significant negative correlation with privately practicing psychiatrists (rho=-0.71, p<0.05), privately practicing psychologists (rho=-0.56, p<0.05), pathologists (rho=-0.73, p<0.01), and the number of the official mental health services (psychiatric clinics, day centers, mobile mental health units etc.) (rho=-0.73, p<0.01). In conclusion it was found that at all regional levels, suicide rates were reversely related to the number of primary health-care and mental health service providers, as

  7. Quantification of crustal deformation based on analysis of Persistent Scatterer Interferometry of W-Crete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieger, S.; Adam, N.; Friedrich, A. M.

    2012-04-01

    Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) is a powerful tool for detecting crustal deformation processes such as strain accumulation along convergent margins during the interseismic period. This technique allows the detection of vertical motion of the Earth's surface with millimeter accuracy at wide spatial coverage of hundreds of km2. Persistent Scatterers (PSs) are phase stable point scatterers with a consistent and strong reflectivity observed over a long time (Ferretti et al., IEEE GRSS, 2001). We used the PSI Wide Area Product (PSI WAP) of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) for the detection of the vertical surface motion of the western part of the island of Crete. Therefore, we used data of the radar satellites ERS-1 and ERS-2 of the European Space Agency (ESA). The western part of the island of Crete is covered by 39 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images acquired between 1992 and 2000 of the ERS Track 193. The island of Crete is located adjacent to the Hellenic subduction zone, which is currently one of the most seismically active regions in Europe. Historical records document a devastating earthquake on July 21st, 365 A.D. near the island of Crete. (M > 8.5, Stiros, Quat. Int., 2010). The event resulted in coseismic uplift of the western part of the island of Crete of up to 9 m (Pirazolli et al., JGR, 1996). By analyzing the vertical surface motion of SW-Crete during the interseismic period we are able to determine whether the hypocenter of the 365 A.D. earthquake was located on the subduction interface or on a fault in the overriding plate (Shaw et al., Nature Geosci., 2008). If the 365 A.D. earthquake occurred along the subduction interface, then the region (W-Crete) experiencing coseismic uplift should undergo interseismic subsidence and vice versa (Hyndman & Wang, JGR 1993). The results of the PSI WAP analysis for W-Crete indicate uplift of the SW corner of the island of up to 5 mm/yr in the line-of-sight (LOS). The central part of W-Crete is more or

  8. Fire in Southern Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The last major fire in southern Greece was brought under control this weekend, but not until over 469,000 acres of mostly forest and farmland were destroyed. An estimated 4000 people lost their homes, and over 60 deaths were reported. These were the worst fires ever to occur in Greece. In this Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image acquired September 4 over the western coast of the Peloponnesus Peninsula, burned areas appear in dark red, and unburned vegetation is green. The area includes the ancient site of Olympia, the site of the Olympic Games in classical times. The fires came within 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) of the archaeological site, but spared it.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 56.4 by

  9. Fire in Southern Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The last major fire in southern Greece was brought under control this weekend, but not until over 469,000 acres of mostly forest and farmland were destroyed. An estimated 4000 people lost their homes, and over 60 deaths were reported. These were the worst fires ever to occur in Greece. In this Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image acquired September 4 over the western coast of the Peloponnesus Peninsula, burned areas appear in dark red, and unburned vegetation is green. The area includes the ancient site of Olympia, the site of the Olympic Games in classical times. The fires came within 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) of the archaeological site, but spared it.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 56.4 by

  10. Processes, Strategies and Practices for Turning the University of Crete into a Sustainable University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostoulas-Makrakis, Nelly; Makrakis, Vassilios

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we look at the University of Crete experience to integrate the concept of sustainable development across all its operations. Through a review of current sustainability practices of universities worldwide, this paper has identified a number of principles for developing a sustainable university. These principles are then used as a…

  11. Processes, Strategies and Practices for Turning the University of Crete into a Sustainable University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostoulas-Makrakis, Nelly; Makrakis, Vassilios

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we look at the University of Crete experience to integrate the concept of sustainable development across all its operations. Through a review of current sustainability practices of universities worldwide, this paper has identified a number of principles for developing a sustainable university. These principles are then used as a…

  12. Models to study ancient host-pathogen interactions: lessons from Crete.

    PubMed

    Means, Terry K; Aballay, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    The Aegean Conferences' first International Conference on Model Hosts took place on the picturesque Greek island of Crete. This meeting was the first of its kind and gathered together international experts who are using a vast array of hosts as models of infection, including worms, insects, mice, fish, rats, humans, squids, pigs, monkeys, protozoa, amoebae and ticks.

  13. NATO, Greece and the 2004 Summer Olympics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    42 Tayfur, 55. 43 Kondonassis, Alexander J., “Greece and the European Common Market ,” Greece: Today...Athens News Agency, 14 September 2004 and “Greek, Albanian Foreign Ministers Said to ‘Continue’ Political Rapprochement,” Athens Elevtheros Tipos ...FBIS, 05 August 2004. Kondonassis, Alexander J., “Greece and the European Common Market ,” Greece: Today and Tomorrow, Essays on Issues and Problems

  14. Latrodectus Envenomation in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Garyfallia Nikolaos; Iliopoulos, Dimitrios; Kalkouni, Rania; Iliopoulou, Sofia; Rigakos, Giorgos; Baka, Agoritsa

    2014-01-01

    During the summer period 2011–2012, seven widow spider bites in Greece were reported to the Hellenic Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Widow spiders (in the genus Latrodectus) are found all over the world, including Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, and the US. Alpha-latrotoxin (main mammalian toxin) causes the toxic effects observed in humans. Victims should receive timely medical care to avoid suffering. Latrodectus bites are very rarely fatal. All the patients reported having an insect bite 30 minutes to 2 hours before they arrived at the Emergency Department of the local hospital. Severe muscle cramps, weakness, tremor, abdominal pain, and increased levels of creatinine phosphokinase were present in all patients. The Emergency Operation Center of the Hellenic Center for Disease Control and Prevention was informed immediately in all cases. Antivenin was administered to four patients upon the request of their physicians. All patients recovered fully. It is essential that health care workers recognize early the symptoms and signs of Latrodectus bites to provide the necessary care. The management of mild to moderate Latrodectus envenomations is primarily supportive. Hospitalization and possibly antivenin should be reserved for patients exhibiting serious systemic symptoms or inadequate pain control. The most important thing for all of these patients is early pain relief. PMID:25662533

  15. Tornadoes and waterspouts in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sioutas, Michalis V.

    Tornadoes and waterspouts occur in various parts of Greece and may often reach the media as remarkable events, depending of their intensity and the level of damage. This paper is based on a research started from the beginning of 2000 for identifying and recording tornadoes and waterspouts in Greece and evaluating their intensity and other fundamental characteristics. Search of historical events for obtaining more comprehensive tornado climatology is in progress. In an almost 3-year period, January 2000-September 2002, tornadoes and waterspouts have been reported from various parts of Greece, including western Greece, the Ionian islands and western Peloponnese mainly during autumn and winter. Northern Greece is affected by tornadic activity mostly during summer and early autumn. The geographical distribution showed a preference for tornado occurrence mainly in coastal areas. Based on this almost 3-year data sample, a mean number of six tornadoes per year has resulted, corresponding to a density of 0.45 10 -4 km -2 year -1. Maximum intensity of tornadoes recorded was rated as T6 of the Tornado and Storm Research Organization (TORRO) scale (F3 of the Fujita scale). A basic synoptic typing scheme is presented, including four synoptic circulation patterns associated to tornado occurrence.

  16. The Sirius Cult in Ancient Greece. Aristaios and the Formation of the Attico-Cycladic Mythological Substratum.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laoupi, A.

    Pivotal figure of Sirius myth among the inhabitants of Late Bronze Age Greece (ca.1600-1100 B.C.) is Aristaios protector of the shepherds and hunters teacher of cheese-making and the art of hunting , of oil-making and bee-keeping , honey and honey - mead, god of medicinal herbs and the cooling Etesian winds of mid-summer. The aim of this paper is to detect a) the inventors of Sirius astromyth within the boundaries of prehistoric Greek maritime Civilization (the Pelasgian substratum), b)the geographical distribution of this myth via its main divine figure (colonization of Western Mediterranean and the Prehistoric trade of silphium with the North African Coast , Kadmos and cultural relationships with Eastern Mediterranean connection with Thesaly, Northern Greece, Arcadia, Argos, Attica, Minoan Crete and Cyclades, N.W. Greece), c)the elements of Sirius cult worshipped by the insular population of the Aegean, d)the historical pathway of this astromyth and its survival to the later periods of Cycladic history (Keians coins, Keian traditions, modern Keian names and localities) e)the immigration of its symbols (the hunting lion, the motif of the dogs, deities with fertilizing and creative properties) and f) the environmental setting which gave birth to this astromyth (disturbance of wind patterns, teleconnections with Indian monsoons and NAO, climatic oscillations, pestilence in Eastern Mediterranean).

  17. 14C dating of the Early to Late Bronze Age stratigraphic sequence of Aegina Kolonna, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, E. M.; Gauß, W.; Forstenpointner, G.; Lindblom, M.; Smetana, R.; Steier, P.; Thanheiser, U.; Weninger, F.

    2010-04-01

    Aegina Kolonna, located in the center of the Saronic Gulf in the Aegean Mediterranean (Greece), is one of the major archaeological sites of the Aegean Bronze Age with a continuous stratigraphic settlement sequence from the Late Neolithic to the Late Bronze Age. Due to its position next to the maritime cross roads between central mainland Greece, the northeast Peloponnese, the Cyclades and Crete, the island played an important role in the trade between these regions. In the course of new excavations, which focused on the exploration of the Early, Middle and Late Bronze Age at Kolonna, several short lived samples from different settlement phases have been 14C-dated with the AMS method at the VERA laboratory. Bayesian sequencing of the 14C data according to the stratigraphic position of the samples in the profile was performed to enable estimates of the transition time between the cultural phases. The Aegina Kolonna 14C sequence is one of the longest existing so far for the Aegean Bronze Age, and therefore of major importance for the absolute Bronze Age chronology in this region. Preliminary results indicate that the Middle Helladic period seems to have started earlier and lasted longer than traditionally assumed. Further, at the present stage of our investigation we can give also a very tentative time frame for the Santorini volcanic eruption which seems to be in agreement with the science derived VDL date.

  18. School Building Organisation in Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEB Exchange, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the past and current organizational structure of Greece's School Building Organisation, a body established to work with government agencies in the design and construction of new buildings and the provisioning of educational equipment. Future planning to incorporate culture and creativity, sports, and laboratory learning in modern school…

  19. Education and Modernization in Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazamias, Andreas M.

    This history of Greek education traces the path of modernization from the emergence of Greece as an independent state in the early 1800's up to the present date. Educational philosophy and content are seen as pawns in the social and political struggles of those years. Detailed coverage of the historical events describes the structure of education…

  20. The Educational System of Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massialas, Byron G.

    Education in Greece is examined in this document. The first section describes the basic system. Reform legislation of 1976 and 1977 modernized Greek education. The new laws required that school instruction at all levels be given in demotic or spoken Greek rather than formal or purist Greek; that compulsory school attendance be extended from six to…

  1. [Toxoplasmosis in dogs in Greece].

    PubMed

    Chambouris, R; Stünzner, D; Sebek, Z; Sixl, W; Köck, M

    1989-01-01

    In Greece, not only raw meat feeding but also the possible faecal transmission of disease from the vast amount of strayed domestic cats play an important role in the incidence of toxoplasmosis among dogs. This must be concluded from the high contamination rate of 21.2% to 30.8% in all four presented investigations.

  2. Corinth Canal, Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The Isthmus of Corinth has played a very important role in the history of Greece. It is the only land bridge between the country's north (Attica) and south (Peloponnese). It is a 6 km wide tongue of land separating the Gulf of Corinth from the Saronic Sea. Populations, armies and commodities have got to move through it. In the 6th century BCE, the Greeks built the Diolkos, a 10 meter-wide stone roadway to pull ships across the Isthmus on wooden cylinders and wheeled vehicles. In 1882, a canal was started and completed 11 years later. It is 6343 meters long, 25 meters wide, and 8 meters deep.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 25.3 by 37.7 kilometers (15.7 by 23.4 miles) Location: 37.9 degrees North latitude, 23 degrees East longitude

  3. Development of a Coastal Inventory in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karditsa, Aikaterini; Poulos, Serafim; Velegrakis, Adonis; Ghionis, George; Petrakis, Stelios; Alexandrakis, George; Andreadis, Olympos; Monioudi, Isavella

    2015-04-01

    Greek coastline that accounts more than 16.000 km hosts hundreds of beaches, which constitute a great touristic destination. However, no gathered information exists relative to its qualitative and quantitative characteristics (e.g. physicogeographical characteristics, artificial structures, nearby land use). Therefore, the development of a coastal database that would successfully concentrate all relative data, in the form of a National Inventory, could be a valuable tool for the management and the sustainable use and exploitation of beaches and the coastal zone. This work presents an example of the development of a beach inventory in the case of the beach zones of Heraklion and Lassithi counties in the Island of Crete, which is one of the most touristic areas in Greece. Data were initially abstracted from satellite images and combined with in situ observations carried out along 98 beaches with shoreline length >100 m. The collected data included geomorphological, topographic and bathymetric mapping, sediment sampling from the subaerial and underwater part and recording of artificial structures. The initial mapping showed that beaches represent only the 18%, with 74% of the total coastline to be rocky while 8% of the coastline host some kind of artificial intervention. The combination of satellite and in situ mapping led to the development of a coastal geomorphological map. Beach widths were found to be limited with the majority of beaches (59%) to have maximum widths less than 25 m, 35% to range between 25 and 50m and about 6% with maximum widths >50m. Concerning beach length, the threshold of 1000 m is overcome only by the 46% of the beaches. Beaches with very smooth slopes (<2.5) are infrequent (~6%), whilst beaches with low slopes (2.5-5%) are the majority (42%) along with beaches with moderate slopes (5-7.5%) that account approximately the 32%. Beaches with high slopes (7.5-10%) are about 11%, whereas very high slopes and extremely high slopes are much less

  4. The Emergence and Development of a Round Building Tradition in the Aegean and Crete.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yiannouli, Evyenia

    This paper examines the emergence of the non-submerged type of round building in the settlements of prehistoric Aegean, including Crete. It complements our earlier discussion of the Minoan evidence that concentrated on the properties of architectural form and the cultural semantics of its perishable structure. This work explores the common characteristics that this particular architectural genre acquires in the prehistoric communities of the Greek mainland, the Aegean islands and Crete, along with the features that seem to demarcate distinct chronological and geographical groupings. More specifically, the systematic co-occurrence of features warrant, in our view, the identification of a hitherto unidentified round building type, detected in the iconography of Minoan Crete. It is the Minoan evidence par excellence that presents the greatest diversity of architectural variants, contexts and apparently function. On a more general level, the tradition of a round building type is inferred on the basis of the persistent adoption of a particular architectural form, along with the local adaptation of certain peculiarities that impinge on its cultural semantics. Our treatment of the material defines a conspectus of topics for further research, posing a frame for the historical understanding of a general building shape that in the Aegean may often, but not always, preserve the form and contents of a typical settlement house.

  5. History of leucotomies in Greece.

    PubMed

    Ploumpidis, D; Tsiamis, C; Poulakou-Rebelakou, E

    2015-03-01

    In order to present the social, scientific and institutional context which permitted the use of leucotomies in Greece, we have reviewed the Archives of the Medical Associations, the medical literature of the years 1946-56, a reader's dissertation and the memoirs of two psychiatrists. More than 250 leucotomies were done in the two public psychiatric hospitals in Athens from 1947 to 1954, as well as 40 leucotomies in the public psychiatric hospital in Thessaloniki. Although aware of the side effects, psychiatrists justified the use of the procedure. The performance of leucotomies in Greece declined because of reports of the dangers of the operation and its unpredictable outcome for the patients, but mainly because of the encouraging results with psychotropic drugs in the early 1950s. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. A Study of the Groundwater Level Spatial Variability in the Messara Valley of Crete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varouchakis, E. A.; Hristopulos, D. T.; Karatzas, G. P.

    2009-04-01

    The island of Crete (Greece) has a dry sub-humid climate and marginal groundwater resources, which are extensively used for agricultural activities and human consumption. The Messara valley is located in the south of the Heraklion prefecture, it covers an area of 398 km2, and it is the largest and most productive valley of the island. Over-exploitation during the past thirty (30) years has led to a dramatic decrease of thirty five (35) meters in the groundwater level. Possible future climatic changes in the Mediterranean region, potential desertification, population increase, and extensive agricultural activity generate concern over the sustainability of the water resources of the area. The accurate estimation of the water table depth is important for an integrated groundwater resource management plan. This study focuses on the Mires basin of the Messara valley for reasons of hydro-geological data availability and geological homogeneity. The research goal is to model and map the spatial variability of the basin's groundwater level accurately. The data used in this study consist of seventy (70) piezometric head measurements for the hydrological year 2001-2002. These are unevenly distributed and mostly concentrated along a temporary river that crosses the basin. The range of piezometric heads varies from an extreme low value of 9.4 meters above sea level (masl) to 62 masl, for the wet period of the year (October to April). An initial goal of the study is to develop spatial models for the accurate generation of static maps of groundwater level. At a second stage, these maps should extend the models to dynamic (space-time) situations for the prediction of future water levels. Preliminary data analysis shows that the piezometric head variations are not normally distributed. Several methods including Box-Cox transformation and a modified version of it, transgaussian Kriging, and Gaussian anamorphosis have been used to obtain a spatial model for the piezometric head. A

  7. Precession control on intraspecific size variation of the planktic foraminifer Orbulina universa (Early Messinian, Late Miocene, Crete): temperature and/or salinity effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brachert, Thomas; Bornemann, André; Grimm, Kirsten I.; Reuter, Markus; Fassoulas, Charolampos

    2010-05-01

    Microfossil and stable isotope data from deep-water sediments of Late Miocene age in the Mediterranean region have revealed a stepwise restriction of the Mediterranean prior to the Messinian crisis modulated by cyclical changes in palaeoevironments responding to orbital precession. The understanding of these changes, however, remains semi-quantitative, because thresholds governing foraminiferal distributions only explain the presence or absence of taxa, and their use in palaeoenvironment reconstructions is complicated be side effects induced by additional variables. This work is based on a geological section in Crete (Greece) exposing sediments of Early Messinian age. We use abundance data of planktic and benthic foraminifers in combination with size measurements of the planktonic foraminifer Orbulina universa (n = 6777). The foraminifer fauna is dominated by planktic taxa and displays a pronounced cylclicity of warm, oligotrophic (i.e. O. universa) and cold, eutrophic taxa. This cyclicity corresponds with the lithological changes from laminated into homogeneous marl related to the precessional cycle. In beds rich in O. universa, the size of the tests exactly falls into the range known from the (global) tropical Miocene ocean. In beds rich in cool, eutrophic foraminifers, the test of O. universa are reduced in size by up to 50 %. Factors controlling size variation in modern O. universa are complex, however, water temperature in combination with primary productivity explains most of the variation. Using the modern relationship, average annual water temperature change over the precessional cycle was ~8°C. Because primary productivity was high when O. universa grew to small size only, size variation might have been controlled by temperature alone. Nonetheless, the temperature variation found is larger than that inferred from other methods and implies additional influences caused by other factors, i.e. salinity, on growth.

  8. The Pattern of Change in the Abundances of Specific Bacterioplankton Groups Is Consistent across Different Nutrient-Enriched Habitats in Crete

    PubMed Central

    Fodelianakis, Stilianos; Papageorgiou, Nafsika; Pitta, Paraskevi; Kasapidis, Panagiotis; Karakassis, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    A common source of disturbance for coastal aquatic habitats is nutrient enrichment through anthropogenic activities. Although the water column bacterioplankton communities in these environments have been characterized in some cases, changes in α-diversity and/or the abundances of specific taxonomic groups across enriched habitats remain unclear. Here, we investigated the bacterial community changes at three different nutrient-enriched and adjacent undisturbed habitats along the north coast of Crete, Greece: a fish farm, a closed bay within a town with low water renewal rates, and a city port where the level of nutrient enrichment and the trophic status of the habitat were different. Even though changes in α-diversity were different at each site, we observed across the sites a common change pattern accounting for most of the community variation for five of the most abundant bacterial groups: a decrease in the abundance of the Pelagibacteraceae and SAR86 and an increase in the abundance of the Alteromonadaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, and Cryomorphaceae in the impacted sites. The abundances of the groups that increased and decreased in the impacted sites were significantly correlated (positively and negatively, respectively) with the total heterotrophic bacterial counts and the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and/or dissolved nitrogen and chlorophyll α, indicating that the common change pattern was associated with nutrient enrichment. Our results provide an in situ indication concerning the association of specific bacterioplankton groups with nutrient enrichment. These groups could potentially be used as indicators for nutrient enrichment if the pattern is confirmed over a broader spatial and temporal scale by future studies. PMID:24747897

  9. The History of Adult Education in Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucouvalas, Marcie

    Adult education in Greece dates back to the time of Homer. Poetry and Panhellenic festivals were the earliest forms of adult education in Greece. By classical times, however, an entire learning society of human and material resources had been developed. Greek society experienced periods of high levels of culture and learning only to be conquered…

  10. Education Policy in Greece: A Preliminary Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2017

    2017-01-01

    The future of Greece's well-being will depend on improving educational performance to raise employment and social outcomes. The challenges are significant, as public education expenditure in Greece has declined in recent years and learning outcomes are weak. To help the Greek government address these challenges, this report proposes a set of…

  11. GREECE Mission Launching Into Aurora

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Caption: A NASA-funded sounding rocket launches into an aurora in the early morning of March 3, 2014, over Venetie, Alaska. The GREECE mission studies how certain structures – classic curls like swirls of cream in coffee -- form in the aurora. Credit: NASA/Christopher Perry More info: On March 3, 2014, at 6:09 a.m. EST, a NASA-funded sounding rocket launched straight into an aurora over Venetie, Alaska. The Ground-to-Rocket Electrodynamics – Electron Correlative Experiment, or GREECE, sounding rocket mission, which launched from Poker Flat Research Range in Poker Flat, Alaska, will study classic curls in the aurora in the night sky. The GREECE instruments travel on a sounding rocket that launches for a ten-minute ride right through the heart of the aurora reaching its zenith over the native village of Venetie, Alaska. To study the curl structures, GREECE consists of two parts: ground-based imagers located in Venetie to track the aurora from the ground and the rocket to take measurements from the middle of the aurora itself. At their simplest, auroras are caused when particles from the sun funnel over to Earth's night side, generate electric currents, and trigger a shower of particles that strike oxygen and nitrogen some 60 to 200 miles up in Earth's atmosphere, releasing a flash of light. But the details are always more complicated, of course. Researchers wish to understand the aurora, and movement of plasma in general, at much smaller scales including such things as how different structures are formed there. This is a piece of information, which in turn, helps paint a picture of the sun-Earth connection and how energy and particles from the sun interact with Earth's own magnetic system, the magnetosphere. GREECE is a collaborative effort between SWRI, which developed particle instruments and the ground-based imaging, and the University of California, Berkeley, measuring the electric and magnetic fields. The launch is supported by a sounding rocket team from

  12. Sources of atmospheric aerosols controlling PM10 levels in Heraklion, Crete during winter time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalivitis, Nikolaos; Kouvarakis, Giorgos; Stavroulas, Iasonas; Kandilogiannaki, Maria; Vavadaki, Katerina; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos

    2016-04-01

    High concentrations of Particulate Matter (PM) in the atmosphere have negative impact to human health. Thresholds for ambient concentrations that are defined by the directive 2008/50/EC are frequently exceeded even at background conditions in the Mediterranean region as shown in earlier studies. The sources of atmospheric particles in the urban environment of a medium size city of eastern Mediterranean are studied in the present work in order to better understand the causes and characteristics of exceedances of the daily mean PM10limit value of 50 μg m-3. Measurements were performed at the atmospheric quality measurement station of the Region of Crete, at the Heraklion city center on Crete island, during the winter/spring period of 2014-2015 and 2015-2016. Special emphasis was given to the study of the contribution of Black Carbon (BC) to the levels of PM10. Continuous measurements were performed using a beta-attenuation PM10monitor and a 7-wavelength Aethalometer with a time resolution of 30 and 5 minutes respectively. For direct comparison to background regional conditions, concurrent routine measurements at the atmospheric research station of University of Crete at Finokalia were used as background reference. Analysis of exceedances in the daily PM10 mass concentration showed that the total of the exceedances was related to long range transport of Saharan dust rather than local sources. However, compared to the Finokalia station it was found that there were 20% more exceedances in Heraklion, the addition of transported dust on the local pollution was the reason for the additional exceedance days. Excluding dust events, it was found that the PM10variability was dependent on the BC abundance, traffic during rush hours in the morning and biomass burning for domestic heating in the evening contributed significantly to PM10levels in Heraklion.

  13. Greek Orthodox fasting rituals: a hidden characteristic of the Mediterranean diet of Crete.

    PubMed

    Sarri, Katerina O; Linardakis, Manolis K; Bervanaki, Frosso N; Tzanakis, Nikolaos E; Kafatos, Anthony G

    2004-08-01

    The longevity and excellent health status of the population of Crete has been attributed to its lifestyle and dietary habits. The impact of Greek Orthodox Christian Church fasting on these dietary habits has never been studied. One hundred and twenty Greek Orthodox Christians living in Crete participated in a 1-year prospective study. One half of the subjects, who fasted regularly (fasters), and sixty non-faster controls were followed longitudinally for the three main fasting periods over 1 year; Christmas (40 d), Lent (48 d) and the Assumption (15 d). Pre- and end-holy days measurements were performed in each fasting period including: 24 h dietary recall, blood collection and anthropometric measurements. Based on the 24 h recall, fasters as compared with controls had lower intakes of end-holy days dietary cholesterol, total fat, saturated fatty acids, trans-fatty acids and protein (P < 0.001). Fasters presented a decrease of 753 kJ (180 kcal) in end-holy days energy intake (P < 0.05) compared with an increase of 573 kJ (137 kcal) in the controls (P < 0.05). Fasters had a decrease in end-holy days Ca intake (P < 0.001) and an increase in end-holy days total dietary fibre (P < 0.001) and folate (P < 0.05), attributed to their higher consumption of fruit and vegetables in end-holy periods (P < 0.001). There were no differences for other vitamins or minerals between pre- and end-holy periods in both groups except for vitamin B2. The Orthodox Christian dietary regulations are an important component of the Mediterranean diet of Crete characterised by low levels of dietary saturated fatty acids, high levels of fibre and folate, and a high consumption of fruit, vegetables and legumes.

  14. Metallic mineral resources of Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsirambides, Ananias; Filippidis, Anestis

    2012-12-01

    Today Greece produces and exports raw bauxite and alumina, concentrates of galena and sphalerite and ferronickel. The indicated reserves of bauxite, located in the Mt Helikon-Mt Parnassus-Mt Giona-Mt Iti zone, are estimated at approximately 100 mt and those of aluminum 2.5 mt. The probable and indicated reserves of lead and zinc from Chalkidiki are approximately 3.125 mt. The total production of concentrates of galena and sphalerite is approximately 220,000 tpa. The proven reserves of nickel are approximately 1.392 mt and the production of ferronickel is approximately 18,500 tpa. Production of copper, silver and gold is pending in 2015. The probable and indicated reserves of copper from Skouries Chalkidiki are approximately 1.943 mt. In the Prefecture Units of Chalkidiki and Evros the probable and indicated reserves of gold are approximately 19.37 million ounces and those of silver 131.6 million ounces. Chromium, manganese and molybdenum present good prospects of exploitation. Calculated at current prices, the total gross value of the probable and indicated reserves of the metallic minerals of Greece is €79.4 billion.

  15. Health technology assessment in Greece.

    PubMed

    Liaropoulos, L; Kaitelidou, D

    2000-01-01

    In 1983 a health reform aimed to assure universal coverage and equity in the distribution of services in Greece. The reform implied state responsibility for the financing and delivery of services and a reduction of the private sector. The model was a Bismarckian scheme for social insurance. However, healthcare delivery remains fragmented and uncoordinated and the private sector is getting stronger. The dominant payment system is fee-for-service for the private sector and administered prices and salaries for public hospitals and social insurance funds. The many insurers have their own eligibility requirements, validation procedures, etc. Coverage of services by social security funds, probably among the most comprehensive in Europe, is determined more on historical and political grounds than on efficiency or cost-effectiveness. The system is plagued by problems, including geographical inequalities, overcentralization, bureaucratic management, poor incentives in the public sector, open-ended financing, inefficient use of hospital beds, and lack of cost-effectiveness. There are no specific legal provisions for the control of health technology. Technologies are introduced without standards or formal consideration of needs. There are no current efforts to control health technology in Greece. However, health technology assessment (HTA) has gained increasing visibility. In 1997 a law provided for a new government agency responsible for quality control, economic evaluation of health services, and HTA. The hope is that the new law may introduce evaluation and assessment elements into health policy formulation and assure that cost effectiveness, quality, and appropriate use of health technology will receive more attention.

  16. Macrobenthic community structure over the continental margin of Crete (South Aegean Sea, NE Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tselepides, Anastasios; Papadopoulou, Konstantia-N.; Podaras, Dimitris; Plaiti, Wanda; Koutsoubas, Drosos

    2000-08-01

    Macrobenthic faunal composition, abundance, biomass and diversity together with a suite of sedimentary environmental parameters were investigated on a seasonal basis in order to determine factors regulating faunal distribution over the oligotrophic continental margin of the island of Crete (South Aegean Sea, North Eastern Mediterranean). Macrofaunal species composition was similar to that of the western Mediterranean and the neighboring Atlantic having several common dominant species. Mean benthic biomass, abundance and diversity decreased with depth, with a major transition zone occurring at 540 m, beyond which values declined sharply. At comparable depths biomass and abundance values were considerably lower to those found in the Atlantic, high-lighting the extreme oligotrophy of the area. The continental margin of Crete was characterised by a high diversity upper continental shelf environment (dominated by surface deposit feeding polychaetes) and a very low diversity slope and deep-basin environment (dominated by carnivorous and filter feeding polychaetes). Classification and ordination analyses revealed the existence of four principle clusters divided by a faunal boundary between 200 and 540 m, as well as beyond 940 m depth. Significant correlations between macrofauna and sediment parameters led to the conclusion that besides depth, food availability (as manifested by the concentration of chloroplastic pigments) is the principle regulating factor in the system. Such being the case, the prevailing hydrographic features that structure the pelagic food web and are directly responsible for the propagation of organic matter to the benthos also affect its community structure.

  17. Origin of anthropogenic hydrocarbons and halocarbons measured in the summertime European outflow (on Crete in 2001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gros, V.; Williams, J.; van Aardenne, J. A.; Salisbury, G.; Hofmann, R.; Lawrence, M. G.; von Kuhlmann, R.; Lelieveld, J.; Krol, M.; Berresheim, H.; Lobert, J. M.; Atlas, E.

    2003-04-01

    During the Mediterranean Intensive Oxidant Study MINOS in August 2001, 87 air samples were collected at the ground-based station Finokalia (35° 19' N, 25° 40' E) on the north coast of Crete and subsequently analysed by GC-MS. The analysis includes various hydrocarbons, organo-halogens, HCFCs and CFCs. These compounds have a wide variety of sources and sinks and a large range of atmospheric lifetimes. By plotting the measured variability of these species against lifetime, we found that the compounds describe a linear relationship. It is shown, based on air mass origin analysis and chemical ratios, that several distinct anthropogenic sources influenced the atmospheric composition in Crete. Propane observations are compared to a global model to assess the fossil fuel related emission inventory. Although the model reproduces the general pattern of the propane variations, the model mixing ratios are systematically too low by a factor of 1.5 to 3, probably due to an underestimation of the propane emissions from east European countries in the underlying global database EDGAR. Another important finding was that methyl chloroform, a compound banned under the Montreal protocol, showed significant enhancements from background, which were well correlated with CFC-113. This suggests continued use and emission of methyl chloroform by one or more European countries. We also discuss the observed variations of bromomethane and suggest that the significant peak observed on 12 August 2001 reflects heavy agricultural use as a soil fumigant in Italy.

  18. Non-extensive statistical physics applied to heat flow and the earthquake frequency-magnitude distribution in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadakis, Giorgos; Vallianatos, Filippos; Sammonds, Peter

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates seismicity in Greece and its relation to heat flow, based on the science of complex systems. Greece is characterised by a complex tectonic setting, which is represented mainly by active subduction, lithospheric extension and volcanism. The non-extensive statistical physics formalism is a generalisation of Boltzmann-Gibbs statistical physics and has been successfully used for the analysis of a variety of complex systems, where fractality and long-range interactions are important. Consequently, in this study, the frequency-magnitude distribution analysis was performed in a non-extensive statistical physics context, and the non-extensive parameter, qM, which is related to the frequency-magnitude distribution, was used as an index of the physical state of the studied area. Examination of the spatial distribution of qM revealed its relation to the spatial distribution of seismicity during the period 1976-2009. For focal depths ≤40 km, we observe that strong earthquakes coincide with high qM values. In addition, heat flow anomalies in Greece are known to be strongly related to crustal thickness; a thin crust and significant heat flow anomalies characterise the central Aegean region. Moreover, the data studied indicate that high heat flow is consistent with the absence of strong events and consequently with low qM values (high b-values) in the central Aegean region and around the volcanic arc. However, the eastern part of the volcanic arc exhibits strong earthquakes and high qM values whereas low qM values are found along the North Aegean Trough and southwest of Crete, despite the fact that strong events are present during the period 1976-2009 in both areas.

  19. Antimicrobial resistance trends among community-acquired respiratory tract pathogens in Greece, 2009-2012.

    PubMed

    Maraki, Sofia; Papadakis, Ioannis S

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance trends of respiratory tract pathogens isolated from patients with community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CARTIs) in Crete, Greece, over a 4-year period (2009-2012). A total of 588 community-acquired respiratory pathogens were isolated during the study period. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most common organism responsible for 44.4% of CARTIs, followed by Haemophilus influenzae (44.2%) and Moraxella catarrhalis (11.4%). Among S. pneumoniae, the prevalence of isolates with intermediate- and high-level resistance to penicillin was 27.2% and 12.3%, respectively. Macrolide resistance slightly decreased from 29.4% over the period 2009-2010 to 28.8% over the period 2011-2012. Multiresistance was observed among 56 (54.4%) penicillin nonsusceptible isolates. A nonsignificant increase in resistance of H. influenzae isolates was noted for β -lactams, cotrimoxazole, and tetracycline. Among the 67 M. catarrhalis tested, 32 produced beta-lactamase and were resistant to ampicillin. Macrolide resistance decreased over the study period. All isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, chloramphenicol, rifampicin, and the fluoroquinolones. Although a decreasing trend in the prevalence of resistance of the three most common pathogens involved in CARTIs was noted, continuous surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility at the local and national level remains important, in order to guide appropriate empirical antimicrobial therapy.

  20. Radiometric dates of uplifted marine fauna in Greece: Implications for the interpretation of recent earthquake and tectonic histories using lithophagid dates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, B.; Jackson, J. A.; Higham, T. F. G.; England, P. C.; Thomas, A. L.

    2010-09-01

    In AD 365 a great ( Mw > 8) earthquake lifted up western Crete, exposing a shoreline encrusted by marine organisms, and up to 10 m of marine substrate beneath it. Radiocarbon ages determined for corals and bryozoans exposed between the paleo-shoreline and present sea level are consistent, within measurement error, with each other and with the date of the earthquake. But radiocarbon ages determined for the boring bivalve Lithophaga lithophaga found on the same substrate are at least 350 years, and up to 2000 years, older than the date of the earthquake that lifted them above sea level. These observations reveal two important effects that limit the use of radiocarbon lithophagid ages in tectonic and paleoseismological studies. The first is that the exceptional preservation potential of lithophagids allows them to remain intact and in situ long after natural death, while the substrate continues to be colonised until eventual uplift. The second, which we confirm with radiocarbon analysis of museum specimens of known age, is the incorporation of old ( 14C-free) carbon into lithophagid shells from the limestone host rock into which the lithophagids bored. The two effects are both significant in Crete and central Greece, and can cause the radiocarbon lithophagid ages to be up to 2000 years older than the uplift event which exposed them. Understanding these effects is important because lithophagids are far more abundantly preserved, and used to date uplift, than most other marine organisms. This study shows that they can rarely be used to distinguish uplift events, or date them to better than 1000 years, or even to distinguish whether observed uplift occurred in a single or in multiple events. After taking account of these uncertainties, the ages of the lithophagids are, however, consistent with the hypothesis that the highest prominent marine notches and exposed lithophagid holes within a few metres of sea level in Greece formed when sea level became relatively stable

  1. Deinstitutionalization in Greece: Ethical problems.

    PubMed

    Ploumpidis, D; Garanis-Papadatos, T; Economou, M

    2008-10-01

    The following paper is based on a Concerted Action which focused on the "Ethical aspects of deistinstutionalisation in mental health care" in 2001. It investigates the development and the ethical dilemmas posed by deinstitutionalization in Greece. This movement has recently undergone a very active phase but the transition from the traditional model of psychiatric care to the community based system unavoidably creates many ethical problems related to the professionals' attitude towards individual liberties, dignity and other fundamental rights of mentally ill persons. These problems exist not only in the level of the therapist-patient relationship but in the level of policy making as well as its implementation. Moreover, the paper deals with specific ethical problems such as stigmatisation and isolation in the community context, as well as the role of the family.

  2. The zeolite deposits of Greece

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamatakis, M.G.; Hall, A.; Hein, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Zeolites are present in altered pyroclastic rocks at many localities in Greece, and large deposits of potential economic interest are present in three areas: (1) the Evros region of the province of Thrace in the north-eastern part of the Greek mainland; (2) the islands of Kimolos and Poliegos in the western Aegean; and (3) the island of Samos in the eastern Aegean Sea. The deposits in Thrace are of Eocene-Oligocene age and are rich in heulandite and/or clinoptilolite. Those of Kimolos and Poliegos are mainly Quaternary and are rich in mordenite. Those of Samos are Miocene, and are rich in clinoptilolite and/or analcime. The deposits in Thrace are believed to have formed in an open hydrological system by the action of meteoric water, and those of the western Aegean islands in a similar way but under conditions of high heat flow, whereas the deposits in Samos were formed in a saline-alkaline lake.

  3. The 365 AD tsunami imprint on the coasts of southwestern Crete - Sougia and Palaiochora case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Vera; Baika, Kalliopi; Tzigounaki, Anastasia; Tsigkou, Aggeliki; Fischer, Peter; Reicherter, Klaus; Papanikolaou, Ioannis; Vött, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The southwestern coast of Crete, one of the most seismically active regions in Europe, is supposed to have been uplifted by up to 9 m during the mega-earthquake that struck the eastern Mediterranean world on July 21, 365 AD. An associated tsunami event is known to have caused thousands of fatalities and destroyed many coastal settlements and infrastructure between the Levante in the east and the Adriatic Sea in the northwest. Since this event, the entire southwestern coast of Crete has experienced strong erosion so that near-coast geological archives showing relevant Holocene sedimentary records are rare. So far, distinct palaeotsunami fingerprints from coastal archives in this region were unknown. A multi-proxy study including sedimentological, geochemical, geochronological and microfaunal methods was conducted at Sougia, within an ancient harbour basin, and around the promontory of Palaiochora. Detailed multi-electrode geoelectrical studies and several near-coast vibracores helped to detect promising local sedimentary archives. In addition, prominent elevated shorelines, evidenced by notches and algal rims, were measured with DGPS. Sedimentary archives found at Sougia and Palaiochora revealed distinct sedimentological, geochemical and geomorphological traces of high-energy inundation from the marine side. At Sougia, we found a sheet of allochthonous marine sand, partly cemented, intersecting silt-dominated harbour deposits. At Palaiochora, we found high-energy channels eroded in the local bedrock and filled with marine-borne sand and gravel on top of the Palaiochora isthmus, today some 400 m inland. Based on geochemical and microfaunal fingerprints and on sedimentary features, high-energy deposits are interpreted as tsunamites. 14C-AMS- and OSL dating approaches revealed that the tsunami sequences from both Sougia and Palaiochora were deposited during the 365 AD tsunami event. We also present and discuss conceptual tsunami landfall scenarios for both study sites.

  4. Origin of anthropogenic hydrocarbons and halocarbons measured in the summertime european outflow (on Crete in 2001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gros, V.; Williams, J.; van Aardenne, J. A.; Salisbury, G.; Hofmann, R.; Lawrence, M. G.; von Kuhlmann, R.; Lelieveld, J.; Krol, M.; Berresheim, H.; Lobert, J. M.; Atlas, E.

    2003-08-01

    During the Mediterranean Intensive Oxidant Study MINOS in August 2001, 87 air samples were collected at the ground-based station Finokalia (35°19'N, 25°40'E) on the north coast of Crete and subsequently analysed by GC-MS. The analysis includes various hydrocarbons, organo-halogens, HCFCs and CFCs. These compounds have a wide variety of sources and sinks and a large range of atmospheric lifetimes. We evaluated the characteristics of the sampling site in terms of proximity to individual sources by plotting the measured variability of these species against lifetime. The resulting linear relationship suggests that the sampling site is representative of intermediate conditions between a remote site and one that is in the vicinity of a wide variety of sources. Our analysis of air mass origin and chemical ratios also shows that several distinct anthropogenic sources influenced the atmospheric composition over Crete. Propane observations are compared to a global model to assess the fossil fuel related emission inventory. Although the model reproduces the general pattern of the propane variations, the model mixing ratios are systematically too low by a factor of 1.5 to 3, probably due to an underestimation of the propane emissions from east European countries in the underlying global database EDGAR. Another important finding was that methyl chloroform, a compound banned under the Montreal protocol, showed significant enhancements from background, which were well correlated with CFC-113. This suggests continued use and emission of methyl chloroform by one or more European countries. We also discuss the observed variations of methyl bromide and suggest that the significant peak observed on 12 August 2001 reflects heavy agricultural use as a soil fumigant in Italy.

  5. Anisotropy Studies in Central Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaviris, G.; Papadimitriou, P.; Makropoulos, K.

    2007-12-01

    The Gulf of Corinth, located in Central Greece, is a tectonic graben characterized by high seismicity level. GPS measurements indicate extension of the Gulf in an approximately N-S direction, with a rate of 10 to 15 mm/year. The southern part of the Gulf is dominated by the presence of large active normal faults in an almost E-W direction, dipping north, resulting to the subsidence of the central part of the graben. Analysis of data recorded by the Cornet network, which is the permanent network of the University of Athens, revealed the existence of an anisotropic upper crust at the eastern part of the Gulf of Corinth. Anisotropy was also observed at the western part of Corinth Gulf, using data recorded by a temporary seismological network installed in the area. Furthermore, shear wave splitting analysis was performed in the region of Attica (to the NE of the Gulf) that hosts Athens, the capital of Greece, using aftershocks of the 1999 Athens earthquake (Mw=6.0) that caused 143 fatalities. The methods used for the determination of the splitting parameters are the polarization vector as a function of time (polarigram) and the hodogram. For each selected event the direction of polarization of the fast shear wave, the delay between the two split shear waves and the polarization of the source were measured. Concerning both parts of the Gulf of Corinth, the obtained mean values of anisotropy vary between N90° and N142°. In the region of Attica the mean values of the anisotropy direction of all stations vary between N95° and N100°, almost parallel to the azimuth of the Parnitha fault. The time delay between the split shear waves vary between 0.020s and 0.130s. The obtained anisotropy measurements are in agreement with the extensive dilatancy anisotropy (EDA) model, since the direction of anisotropy is independent from the event-station azimuth and perpendicular to the direction of extension. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The present study was co-funded by the European Social Fund

  6. Keys for the identification of the mosquitoes of Greece.

    PubMed

    Darsie, R F; Samanidou-Voyadjoglou, A

    1997-09-01

    Keys to the adult females and 4th instar larvae of the mosquitoes of Greece are presented. In all, 53 species in 7 genera are included. Also, Aedes albopictus is added because of the potential for its introduction into Greece.

  7. New country records for mosquito species in Greece.

    PubMed

    Samanidou-Voyadjoglou, A; Darsie, R F

    1993-12-01

    A study of the literature and mosquito collections in Greece has yielded 3 species that have not been recorded from Greece. They are Aedes annulipes, Aedes berlandi, and Culex pusillus. Notes on their recognition and geographic distribution are also given.

  8. Pleural calcification in northwest Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Bazas, T.; Oakes, D.; Gilson, J.C.; Bazas, B.; McDonald, J.C.

    1985-12-01

    Mass miniature radiography in 1969 detected a high prevalence of pleural calcification in three villages in northwest Greece. In 1980 a survey of a 15% sample of the population over the age of 10 was carried out with a 80% response rate. Full-size radiographs, ventilatory capacity measurements, and a detailed questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, type of work, and residence were used. Independent classification of the 408 films by two readers using the ILO/UC scheme showed very few small opacities but a very high prevalence of pleural calcification first evident in young adults and rising to 70% in the elderly. The overall prevalence was 34.7% in men and 21.5% in women. A comparison with the 1969 survey showed a progression rate of 5% per annum. In neither sex was there a significant relation of pleural calcification to smoking, ventilatory capacity, nor type of work, though those classified as field croppers had a slightly higher prevalence. There was no obvious evidence of increased lung cancer or mesothelioma in the village. The agent responsible for this apparently benign condition was not identified.

  9. GREECE Sounding Rocket Mission Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samara, M.; Michell, R.; Grubbs, G. A., II; Bonnell, J. W.; Ogasawara, K.; Hampton, D. L.; Jahn, J. M.; Donovan, E.; Gustavsson, B.; Lanchester, B. S.; McHarg, M. G.; Spanswick, E.; Trondsen, T. S.; Valek, P. W.

    2014-12-01

    On 03 March 2014 at 11:09:50 UT the Ground-to-Rocket Electrodynamics-Electrons Correlative Experiment (GREECE) sounding rocket successfully launched from Poker Flat, Alaska . It reached an apogee of approximately 335 km over the native village of Venetie during a dynamic post-midnight auroral event. A wide range of precipitating electrons were measured with the Acute Precipitating Electron Spectrometer (APES) and Medium-energy Electron SPectrometer (MESP), cumulatively covering 300 ev to 200 keV in varying time resolutions. DC to low frequency electric and magnetic fields were measured at the same time and a langmuir probe was also employed. In addition to the on board instrumentation a suite of ground based imagers was deployed under apogee. We used several electron-multiplying charge-coupled devices (EMCCDs) with different filters and field of views imaging along magnetic zenith. This yielded multi-emission line information about the auroral brightness at the magnetic footprint of the rocket critical for our main goal of exploring the correlation of the sheer flows often observed in high resolution imagery during aurora and the in situ signatures of precipitating particles and waves. The instruments used will be discussed in further detail along with preliminary results of an event rich in particle and wave signatures.

  10. Porifera of Greece: an updated checklist

    PubMed Central

    Bailly, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The checklist of Porifera of Greece was created in the framework of the Greek Taxon Information System (GTIS), an initiative of the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure (ESFRI) that has resumed efforts to compile a complete checklist of species recorded from Greece. An updated checklist of Porifera was created on the basis of a list of the Aegean Demospongiae and Homoscleromorpha published one decade ago. All records of species known to occur in Greek waters were taxonomically validated and cross-checked for possible inaccuracies and omissions. Then, all recent publications were reviewed and the species recorded from 2006 to date were added to the list. New information The updated checklist of Porifera of Greece comprises 215 species, classified to 111 genera, 65 families, 24 orders, and 4 classes. In total, 34 new additions were made to the previous species list (8 Calcarea, 17 Demospongiae, 1 Hexactinellida, and 6 Homoscleromorpha) with Calcarea being listed for the first time from the area. The demosponge orders Poecilosclerida, Dictyoceratida, Tetractinellida, Haplosclerida, and Suberitida have the highest number of species covering 62% of the known Greek sponge species richness. It is worth mentioning that 8 species have been first described from Greek waters, 7 of which are considered endemic to this area. Our bibliographic overview also revealed knowledge gaps with regard to specific habitats typically rich in sponge diversity, and marine sectors of Greece. PMID:27932903

  11. Cystic echinococcosis in Greece. Past and present.

    PubMed

    Sotiraki, S; Chaligiannis, I

    2010-09-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease with a wide geographical distribution, Greece included, and is considered to be a serious problem for the public health and the livestock economy. Although the disease was widespread in Greece since ancient times, cystic echinococcosis was identified as a serious problem around 1970, and since then national surveillance programmes are running, based on meat inspection and stray dogs management. Ever since, there are official records of the parasite's prevalence in humans and livestock which show a continuous decline. More precisely, human hydatidosis, according to the official records, declines from an annual incidence of 14.8 per 100,000 inhabitants during 1967-1971 to 0.3 in 2008. Late surveys reveal that in Greece the prevalence of echinococcosis was 23-39.2% for sheep, 7.6-14.7% for goats, 0% in cattle and 0.6% in pigs, while further molecular analyses in Southern Greece showed the existence of the genotypes G1 and G3 in sheep and G7 in goats in that area. All data presented demonstrate that the parasite is still present in Greece. Surveillance is nowadays being performed under EU regulations but it is highly important to improve and adopt corrective and preventive measures to avoid animal and human infection.

  12. Proceedings of the International Conference on the Teaching of Mathematics (at the Undergraduate Level) (2nd, Hersonissos, Crete, Greece, July 1-6, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallett, Deborah Hughes, Ed.; Tzanakis, Constantinos, Ed.

    This document contains the proceedings of the Second International Conference on the Teaching of Mathematics at the Undergraduate Level. It provides a forum for bringing together faculty from countries with varied educational systems who are committed to introducing innovative teaching methods and new pedagogies. The conference presentations are…

  13. Field testing Diorhabda elongata (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae) from Crete, Greece to assess potential impact to non-target native California plants in the genus Frankenia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    When laboratory host specificity tests on weed biological control agents produce ambiguous results or are suspected of producing false positives, field cage or open field tests can be utilized in an attempt to determine the true ecological host range of the agent. The leaf beetle Diorhabda elongata ...

  14. Morphological characterisation and phylogenetic relationships of Zschokkella candia n. sp. from the gall-bladder of Sparisoma cretense (L.) (Perciformes: Scaridae) in the Sea of Crete off Greece.

    PubMed

    Kalatzis, Panos G; Kokkari, Constantina; Katharios, Pantelis

    2015-11-01

    A new myxosporean parasite, Zschokkella candia n. sp., from the gall-bladder of the wild parrotfish Sparisoma cretense (L.) (Perciformes: Scaridae) is described based on light and scanning electron microscopy. Mature spores are elliptical, with mean dimensions 11.2 ± 0.5 × 7.8 ± 0.1 μm and possess spherical polar capsules with mean diameter of 2.3 ± 0.3 μm. The new species is differentiated from other similar species of the genus based on spore morphology, its coelozoic life-style and molecular data. The phylogenetic tree constructed using maximum likelihood analysis of small subunit (SSU) rDNA sequence data complements the characterisation of Zschokkella candia n. sp. by defining its phylogenetic position among the species of Zschokkella Auerbach, 1909 sequenced to date. The phylogenetic analysis supports the existing knowledge on the complicated polyphyletic relationships among the members of the genus Zschokkella.

  15. Common Infections with Polyomaviruses and Herpesviruses and Neuropsychological Development at 4 Years of Age, the Rhea Birth Cohort in Crete, Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karachaliou, Marianna; Chatzi, Leda; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Kampouri, Mariza; Kyriklaki, Andriani; Koutra, Katerina; Chalkiadaki, Georgia; Michel, Angelika; Stiakaki, Eftichia; Kogevinas, Manolis; Pawlita, Michael; Waterboer, Tim; de Sanjose, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Viral infections of the central nervous system may have detrimental effects for the developing brain, but the effects of less virulent common infections are unclear. We aim to investigate the impact of common viral infections of early childhood on neuropsychological performance of children at age four. Methods: We used cross-sectional…

  16. Global Flow Instability and Control IV Held in Crete, Greece on September 28-October 2, 2009: A Synthesis of Presentations and Discussions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    non-uniform, stationary rotation / non- Distribution A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 8 stationary rotation , mass...Cayley spectral transformation as a means of rotating the basin of convergence of the Arnoldi algorithm. Instead of doing the inversion of the large...pair of counter rotating streamwise vortices embedded in uniform shear flow. Consistently with earlier work by the same group, the main present finding

  17. Community-based medical systems advancement in a hospital-primary health care centre in Crete, Greece: concepts, methods, and the new role of the general practitioner.

    PubMed

    Chatziarsenis, M; Lionis, C; Faresjö, T; Fioretos, M; Trell, E

    1998-06-01

    Modern health systems research and development emphasize the transition from hospital to primary health care. Importantly, this transition is projected to be coordinated and interactive, as facilitated, e.g., by improved information systems and collaboration between the involved parties, including Universities and health authorities. An ideal combination of this might accordingly be offered by a synthesis of a basic hospital and primary health care center in an area of suitable site, size, and structure. We believe that our institution, Nosokomion Neapolis, in; the moderate-size Cretan township of Neapolis (New-city) offers an interesting model example of this, because of its affiliation with the University of Heraklion and its international and EU-supported project status. In the present report we want to emphasize the elements that are particularly well suited and manageable and in many ways both opportunistic and conscientious "back to the future" instances of a successful Hospital/Primary Health Care integration. Specifically, we think that the advantages in local area epidemiology, prevention, and quality assurance are apparent, and nurture a--rather renewed that new-role of the general practitioner as both a holistic population doctor and a health systems researcher for the year 2,000 and beyond.

  18. Common Infections with Polyomaviruses and Herpesviruses and Neuropsychological Development at 4 Years of Age, the Rhea Birth Cohort in Crete, Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karachaliou, Marianna; Chatzi, Leda; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Kampouri, Mariza; Kyriklaki, Andriani; Koutra, Katerina; Chalkiadaki, Georgia; Michel, Angelika; Stiakaki, Eftichia; Kogevinas, Manolis; Pawlita, Michael; Waterboer, Tim; de Sanjose, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Viral infections of the central nervous system may have detrimental effects for the developing brain, but the effects of less virulent common infections are unclear. We aim to investigate the impact of common viral infections of early childhood on neuropsychological performance of children at age four. Methods: We used cross-sectional…

  19. Storms from the past in a warmer climate. Results from high-res non-hydrostatic modeling over Crete.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutroulis, Aristeidis; Grillakis, Manolis; Tsanis, Ioannis

    2016-04-01

    Weather extremes such as precipitation can be a hazard for life and property. The region of Crete has suffered from numerous severe flood events in the past decades and local authorities have a great interest in future scenarios in order to develop measures against natural calamities. In this study we use high-res non-hydrostatic modeling outputs provided by three modeling groups (GERICS, UNI and SMHI) at horizontal resolution of about 2km. Three recent, high impact, extreme storms were selected for simulation. High spatiotemporal resolution precipitation fields were compared to observations. Simulations proved to be sufficiently efficient in realistic capturing storm events and thus valuable in impact modelling. Similar simulations, but with a perturbation of +2 degrees were conducted for the representation of warmer climate conditions. Similar storm events of today's climate over Crete could result in significantly higher precipitation accumulations and intensities in a warmer climate.

  20. Marine Bryozoa of Greece: an annotated checklist

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Until today, a complete checklist of Bryozoa of the Greek seas had never been published and species records were scattered in several taxonomic and ecological studies. The aim of this paper is to produce a first checklist of marine bryozoan species of Greece, in the framework of the Greek Taxon Information System (GTIS) initiative of the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure (ESFRI), by reviewing the existing literature and following the recent trends in the taxonomy of this group.  New information The marine bryozoan fauna of Greece comprises 237 species, classified in 127 genera, 66 families, 3 orders, and 2 classes. The vast majority belongs to the class Gymnolaemata (177 Cheilostomatida and 21 Ctenostomatida), while the remaining 39 species are Stenolaemata (all Cyclostomatida). Among these species, 12 are considered endemic to the eastern Mediterranean, while another 12 species are non-indigenous. PMID:27956854

  1. Marine Bryozoa of Greece: an annotated checklist.

    PubMed

    Gerovasileiou, Vasilis; Rosso, Antonietta

    2016-01-01

    Until today, a complete checklist of Bryozoa of the Greek seas had never been published and species records were scattered in several taxonomic and ecological studies. The aim of this paper is to produce a first checklist of marine bryozoan species of Greece, in the framework of the Greek Taxon Information System (GTIS) initiative of the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure (ESFRI), by reviewing the existing literature and following the recent trends in the taxonomy of this group. . The marine bryozoan fauna of Greece comprises 237 species, classified in 127 genera, 66 families, 3 orders, and 2 classes. The vast majority belongs to the class Gymnolaemata (177 Cheilostomatida and 21 Ctenostomatida), while the remaining 39 species are Stenolaemata (all Cyclostomatida). Among these species, 12 are considered endemic to the eastern Mediterranean, while another 12 species are non-indigenous.

  2. Brachiopoda of Greece: an annotated checklist

    PubMed Central

    Bailly, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Until today, only scattered species records of Brachiopoda from Greece have been included in publications on the Mediterranean brachiopod fauna. These records were mostly based on material collected during marine expeditions in the eastern Mediterranean decades ago, while few recent additional records appear in ecological studies. The aim of this paper was to give the first checklist of brachiopod species of Greece, in the framework of the Greek Taxon Information System (GTIS) initiative of the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure (ESFRI), by reviewing the existing literature. New information Twelve brachiopod species have been found in Greek waters so far. The nomenclature, distribution, fossil records, ecology, and literature sources are discussed for each species. PMID:27932904

  3. Municipal solid waste composition determination supporting the integrated solid waste management system in the island of Crete

    SciTech Connect

    Gidarakos, E. . E-mail: gidarako@mred.tuc.gr; Havas, G.; Ntzamilis, P.

    2006-07-01

    A one-year survey was conducted in the greater region of Crete (located at the lower region of the Aegean Sea) for the purpose of identifying waste composition (including chemical and physical characterization), as well as any seasonal variation. The investigation was carried out repeatedly at seven landfills and one transfer station in Crete, in four phases. Each sampling phase corresponded to a season (autumn, winter, spring, summer). ASTM D5231-92(2003) standard method and RCRA Waste Sampling Draft Technical Guidance were used. Hand sorting was used for classifying the collected wastes into the following categories: plastics, paper, metals, aluminium, leather-wood-textiles-rubbers, organic wastes, non-combustibles and miscellaneous. Further analysis included proximate and ultimate analysis of combustible materials. Metals such as lead, cadmium and mercury were also investigated. The results show that there has been a significant decrease of organic wastes during the last decade due to the increase of packaging materials, as a result of a change in consumption patterns. Three main waste categories were determined: organic wastes, paper and plastics, which combined represent 76% of the total waste in Crete. Furthermore, a high fraction of glass and a seasonal variation of aluminium indicate a strong correlation of waste composition with certain human activities, such as tourism. There is also a variation between the municipal solid waste (MSW) composition in the region of Crete (2003-2004) and MSW composition suggested in the National Solid Waste Planning (2000) [National Solid Waste Planning, 2000. Completion and particularization of Common Ministerial Act 113944//1944/1997: National Solid Waste Planning, June 2000]. The results of this survey are to be utilized by the regional solid waste authorities in order to establish an integrated waste treatment site, capable of fulfilling the regional waste management demands.

  4. Municipal solid waste composition determination supporting the integrated solid waste management system in the island of Crete.

    PubMed

    Gidarakos, E; Havas, G; Ntzamilis, P

    2006-01-01

    A one-year survey was conducted in the greater region of Crete (located at the lower region of the Aegean Sea) for the purpose of identifying waste composition (including chemical and physical characterization), as well as any seasonal variation. The investigation was carried out repeatedly at seven landfills and one transfer station in Crete, in four phases. Each sampling phase corresponded to a season (autumn, winter, spring, summer). ASTM D5231-92(2003) standard method and RCRA Waste Sampling Draft Technical Guidance were used. Hand sorting was used for classifying the collected wastes into the following categories: plastics, paper, metals, aluminium, leather-wood-textiles-rubbers, organic wastes, non-combustibles and miscellaneous. Further analysis included proximate and ultimate analysis of combustible materials. Metals such as lead, cadmium and mercury were also investigated. The results show that there has been a significant decrease of organic wastes during the last decade due to the increase of packaging materials, as a result of a change in consumption patterns. Three main waste categories were determined: organic wastes, paper and plastics, which combined represent 76% of the total waste in Crete. Furthermore, a high fraction of glass and a seasonal variation of aluminium indicate a strong correlation of waste composition with certain human activities, such as tourism. There is also a variation between the municipal solid waste (MSW) composition in the region of Crete (2003-2004) and MSW composition suggested in the National Solid Waste Planning (2000) [National Solid Waste Planning, 2000. Completion and particularization of Common Ministerial Act 113944//1944/1997: National Solid Waste Planning, June 2000]. The results of this survey are to be utilized by the regional solid waste authorities in order to establish an integrated waste treatment site, capable of fulfilling the regional waste management demands.

  5. Harmonic analysis of the precipitation in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastos, P. T.; Zerefos, C. S.

    2009-04-01

    Greece is a country with a big variety of climates due to its geographical position, to the many mountain ranges and also to the multifarious and long coastline. The mountainous volumes are of such orientation that influences the distribution of the precipitation, having as a result, Western Greece to present great differentiations from Central and Eastern Greece. The application of harmonic analysis to the annual variability of precipitation is the goal of this study, so that the components, which compose the annual variability, be elicited. For this purpose, the mean monthly precipitation data from 30 meteorological stations of National Meteorological Service were used for the time period 1950-2000. The initial target is to reduce the number of variables and to detect structure in the relationships between variables. The most commonly used technique for this purpose is the application of Factor Analysis to a table having as columns the meteorological stations-variables and rows the monthly mean precipitation, so that 2 main factors were calculated, which explain the 98% of total variability of precipitation in Greece. Factor 1, representing the so-called uniform field and interpreting the most of the total variance, refers in fact to the Mediterranean depressions, affecting mainly the West of Greece and also the East Aegean and the Asia Minor coasts. In the process, the Fourier Analysis was applied to the factor scores extracted from the Factor Analysis, so that 2 harmonic components are resulted, which explain above the 98% of the total variability of each main factor, and are due to different synoptic and thermodynamic processes associated with Greece's precipitation construction. Finally, the calculation of the time of occurrence of the maximum precipitation, for each harmonic component of each one of the two main factors, gives the spatial distribution of appearance of the maximum precipitation in the Hellenic region.

  6. Pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement reforms in Greece.

    PubMed

    Yfantopoulos, John

    2008-02-01

    Pharmaceutical price regulation in Greece is centralized. The National Drug Organization (EOF) is the main regulatory authority functioning under the auspices of the Ministry of Health and Social Solidarity. In 2004, total pharmaceutical expenditure in Greece reached the level of 2.9 billion euro, of which 77.9% were public expenditure and the remaining 22.1% private. According to Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) data the total per-capita expenditure on pharmaceutical care in Greece is among the lowest in Europe, representing 58% of the EU-12 average. In 1998, Greece introduced a reimbursement list, and the lowest reference pricing system among the 15 European Union member states with the purpose of controlling the growth of pharmaceutical expenditure. The measures proved to be ineffective since pharmaceutical expenditure, after a short-term reduction, continued to increase at similar rates to those before the introduction of price control mechanisms. The average annual increase of pharmaceutical expenditure in Greece over the period 1998-2003 was 7.9%, which is among the highest in the OECD countries (average 6.1%). New pharmaceutical legislation, no. 3457, was enacted on May 8th 2006, aiming at greater access to medicines, improvements to citizens' quality of life, effective and efficient utilization of health resources, transparency in public management, protecting public health, and maintaining long-term financial viability of the insurance system. The innovative aspect of the new legislation is the abolition of the positive list and the establishment of a rebate system granting the National Insurance Funds a rebate rate paid by the pharmaceutical companies. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First to assess the effectiveness of the positive list introduced in 1988 in Greece, using simple econometric models. Second to present the recent pharmaceutical reforms aimed at the introduction of a rebate system and establishing

  7. Gis-based assessment of marine oil spill hazard and environmental vulnerability for the coasts of Crete in South Aegean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanoudaki, Katerina; Nikiforakis, Ioannis K.; Kampanis, Nikolaos A.

    2017-04-01

    Developing effective early warning and coordination systems can save thousands of lives and protect people, property and the environment in the event of natural and man-made disasters. In its document "Towards Better Protection of Citizens against Disaster Risks: Strengthening Early Warning Systems in Europe", the Commission points out that it seeks to follow a multi-hazard approach, to develop near real time alert systems, to ensure a near real time dissemination of alerts to Participating States, and to improve its rapid analytical capacity. In this context, the EU project DECATASTROPHIZE (http://decatastrophize.eu/project/) co-financed by the EU Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection aims to develop a Geospatial Early warning Decision Support System (GE-DSS) to assess, prepare for and respond to multiple and/or simultaneous natural and man-made hazards, disasters, and environmental incidents by using existing models/systems in each partner country (Cyprus, France, Greece, Italy and Spain) in a synergistic way on ONE multi-platform, called DECAT. Specifically, project partners will establish appropriate geo-databases for test areas and use existing hazard models to produce hazard and vulnerability geo-spatial information for earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis, floods, forest fires and marine oil spills. The GE-DSS in will consist of one source code with six geodatabases, i.e., one for each partner and risk data in the respective test area. Each partner organization will be able to manage and monitor its own data/database and their results using Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA). The GE-DSS will be demonstrated at the local, regional and national levels through a set of Command Post and Table Top Disaster Exercises. As part of the DECAT GE-DSS, the gis-based geo-database and assessment of marine oil spill hazard and environmental vulnerability for the coasts of Crete in South Aegean Sea are presented here. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are

  8. Assessing Soil Salinity with the use of WorldView-2 Hyperspectral Images in Timpaki, Crete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexakis, Dimitrios D.; Daliakopoulos, Ioannis N.; Panagea, Ioanna S.; Tsanis, Ioannis K.

    2016-04-01

    Salinization is one of the major soil degradation threats occurring worldwide, with its effects being observed in numerous vital ecological and non-ecological soil functions. Traditionally, soil salinity is assessed by laboratory determination of the soil electrical conductivity (ECe), rendering large scale studies labor and cost intensive. This study evaluates the feasibility of surface soil salinity estimation, monitoring, and mapping based on images acquired by the WorldView-2 and Landsat 8 multispectral sensors after calibration with a limited number of soil samples. A range of satellite image processing techniques are applied, starting with geometric, radiometric and atmospheric preprocessing corrections. More than 10 spectral salinity indices (algebric equations between visible and infrared band) including three newly introduced salinity indices, as well as vegetation indices (NDVI, SAVI, etc.) are implemented to detect surface salt deposition and vegetation health. Spectral unmixing is used to monitor salinity employing sophisticated classification approaches. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is applied to a WorldView-2 images in order to determine the initial axes used for the orthogonal transformation, followed by a subsequent 3D rotation of the PCA axes. The linear coefficients of the transformation are retrieved and adjusted to detect salinity in all the range of WorldView-2 image. Furthermore, Landsat 8 images are used to establish and compare the diachronic vegetation regime and plant health in both brackish irrigation and salinity-free olive groves areas. The proposed methods are tested in the RECARE FP7 Project Case Study of Timpaki, a coastal semi-arid region in south-central Crete. Long term agricultural over-exploitation in the area and little irrigation alternatives have led to seawater intrusion and in turn to soil salinization. EO products are calibrated using soil samples collected from bare soil plots at 0-5 cm depth and representing a

  9. Coastal geomorphological study of pocket beaches in Crete, with the use of planview indices.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrakis, George; Karditsa, Aikaterini; Poulos, Serafim; Kampanis, Nikos

    2013-04-01

    The formation of pocket beaches is a result of a large number of processes and mechanisms that vary on space and time scales. This study aims in defining the planform characteristics of pocket beaches in Crete Isl. and to determine their sheltering effect, embaymentization and their status of equilibrium. Thus, data from 30 pocket beaches along the coastline of Crete, with different geomorphological and hydrodynamical setting, were collected. Planform parameters were applied and coastal planview indices from the bibliography were applied. The parameters included: length and orientation of the headlands between the pocket beach; length between the bay entrance and the center of the beach; lengths of the i) embayed shoreline, ii) embayed beach, iii) beach segment located at the shadow of a headland; linear distance and orientation between the edges of the embayed beach; direction of the incident wave energy flux; wave crest obliquity to the control line; beach area, maximum beach width and headland orientation and river/ torrent catchment areas in beach zones that an active river system existed (Bowman et al.2009). For the morphological mapping of the study areas, 1:5000 orthophoto maps were used. Wave regime has been calculated with the use of prognostic equations and utilising local wind data (mean annual frequency of wind speed and direction), provided by the Wind and Wave Atlas of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. The diffraction and refraction of the waves has been simulated with the use of numerical models. The study shows that Cretan pocket beaches display a wide range of indentation, suggesting that is the result of several parameters that include tectonics, coastal hydrodynamics and river catchment areas. The more indented bays are, the shorter their beaches become, while low-indented pocket beaches are the widest and the longest ones. Beaches with headland with large length appear to be more protected and receive smaller amount of wave energy. Most of the

  10. Intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in stray and free-roaming cats living in continental and insular Greece

    PubMed Central

    Diakou, Anastasia; Di Cesare, Angela; Accettura, Paolo Matteo; Barros, Luciano; Iorio, Raffaella; Paoletti, Barbara; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Halos, Lénaïg; Beugnet, Frederic; Traversa, Donato

    2017-01-01

    This survey investigated the distribution of various intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in stray and free-roaming cats living in four regions of Greece. A total number of one hundred and fifty cats living in three Islands (Crete, Mykonos and Skopelos) and in Athens municipality was established as a realistic aim to be accomplished in the study areas. All cats were examined with different microscopic, serological and molecular assays aiming at evaluating the occurrence of intestinal parasites, and exposure to or presence of vector-borne infections. A total of 135 cats (90%) was positive for one or more parasites and/or pathogens transmitted by ectoparasites. Forty-four (29.3%) cats were positive for one single infection, while 91 (60.7%) for more than one pathogen. A high number of (n. 53) multiple infections caused by feline intestinal and vector-borne agents including at least one zoonotic pathogen was detected. Among them, the most frequently recorded helminths were roundworms (Toxocara cati, 24%) and Dipylidium caninum (2%), while a high number of examined animals (58.8%) had seroreaction for Bartonella spp., followed by Rickettsia spp. (43.2%) and Leishmania infantum (6.1%). DNA-based assays revealed the zoonotic arthropod-borne organisms Bartonella henselae, Bartonella clarridgeiae, Rickettsia spp., and L. infantum. These results show that free-ranging cats living in areas of Greece under examination may be exposed to a plethora of internal parasites and vector-borne pathogens, some of them potentially able to infect humans. Therefore, epidemiological vigilance and appropriate control measures are crucial for the prevention and control of these infections and to minimize the risk of infection for people. PMID:28141857

  11. Intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in stray and free-roaming cats living in continental and insular Greece.

    PubMed

    Diakou, Anastasia; Di Cesare, Angela; Accettura, Paolo Matteo; Barros, Luciano; Iorio, Raffaella; Paoletti, Barbara; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Halos, Lénaïg; Beugnet, Frederic; Traversa, Donato

    2017-01-01

    This survey investigated the distribution of various intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in stray and free-roaming cats living in four regions of Greece. A total number of one hundred and fifty cats living in three Islands (Crete, Mykonos and Skopelos) and in Athens municipality was established as a realistic aim to be accomplished in the study areas. All cats were examined with different microscopic, serological and molecular assays aiming at evaluating the occurrence of intestinal parasites, and exposure to or presence of vector-borne infections. A total of 135 cats (90%) was positive for one or more parasites and/or pathogens transmitted by ectoparasites. Forty-four (29.3%) cats were positive for one single infection, while 91 (60.7%) for more than one pathogen. A high number of (n. 53) multiple infections caused by feline intestinal and vector-borne agents including at least one zoonotic pathogen was detected. Among them, the most frequently recorded helminths were roundworms (Toxocara cati, 24%) and Dipylidium caninum (2%), while a high number of examined animals (58.8%) had seroreaction for Bartonella spp., followed by Rickettsia spp. (43.2%) and Leishmania infantum (6.1%). DNA-based assays revealed the zoonotic arthropod-borne organisms Bartonella henselae, Bartonella clarridgeiae, Rickettsia spp., and L. infantum. These results show that free-ranging cats living in areas of Greece under examination may be exposed to a plethora of internal parasites and vector-borne pathogens, some of them potentially able to infect humans. Therefore, epidemiological vigilance and appropriate control measures are crucial for the prevention and control of these infections and to minimize the risk of infection for people.

  12. Source Mechanisms and Stress Fields of the 15-16 June 2013 Crete Earthquake Sequence along Hellenic Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorgun, E.

    2016-12-01

    15 June 2013 Mw 6.1 off-shore southern Crete earthquake and its aftershock sequence along Hellenic Subduction Zone are examined. Centroid moment tensors (CMT) for 40 earthquakes with moment magnitudes (Mw) between 3.5 and 6.1 are determined by applying a waveform inversion method. The mainshock is shallow focus thrust event with a minor strike-slip component at a depth of 20 km. The seismic moment (Mo) of the mainshock is estimated as 2.07 × 1018 Nm and rupture duration of the mainshock is 4 s. The focal mechanisms of aftershocks are mainly thrust faulting with a strike-slip component. The geometry of the moment tensors (Mw≥3.5) reveals a thrust faulting regime with N-S trending direction of P-axis in the entire activated region. According to high-resolution CMT solutions of the off-shore southern Crete earthquake sequence, one main cluster consisting of 40 events is revealed. The aftershock activity in the observation period between 15 June and 15 July 2013 extends from N to S direction. Seismic cross-sections indicate that a complex pattern of the hypocenter distribution with the activation of two segments. The subduction interface is clearly revealed with high-resolution hypocenter source relocation and moment tensor solution. The best constrained focal depths indicate that the aftershock sequence is mainly confined in the upper plate (depth < 30 km) and are ranging from about 5 - 28 km depth. A stress tensor inversion of focal mechanism data is performed to obtain a more precise picture of the off-shore southern Crete stress field. The stress tensor inversion results indicate a predominant thrust stress regime with a NE-SW oriented maximum horizontal compressive stress (SH). According to variance of the stress tensor inversion, to first order, the southern Crete region is characterized by a homogeneous interplate stress field. We also investigate the Coulomb stress change associated with the mainshock to evaluate any significant enhancement of stresses along

  13. Source Mechanisms and Stress Fields of the 15-16 June 2013 Crete Earthquake Sequence Along Hellenic Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Görgün, Ethem

    2017-03-01

    15 June 2013 M w 6.1 off-shore southern Crete earthquake and its aftershock sequence along Hellenic Subduction Zone are examined. Centroid moment tensors (CMTs) for 40 earthquakes with moment magnitudes ( M w) between 3.5 and 6.1 are determined by applying a waveform inversion method. The mainshock is shallow focus thrust event with a minor strike-slip component at a depth of 20 km. The seismic moment ( M o) of the mainshock is estimated as 2.07 × 1018 Nm, and rupture duration of the mainshock is 4 s. The focal mechanisms of aftershocks are mainly thrust faulting with a strike-slip component. The geometry of the moment tensors ( M w ≥ 3.5) reveals a thrust faulting regime with N-S trending direction of P axis in the entire activated region. According to high-resolution CMT solutions of the off-shore southern Crete earthquake sequence, one main cluster consisting of 40 events is revealed. The aftershock activity in the observation period between 15 June and 15 July 2013 extends from N to S and NW to SE directions. Seismic cross sections indicate a complex pattern of the hypocenter distribution with the activation of two segments. The subduction interface is clearly revealed with high-resolution hypocenter source relocation and moment tensor solution. The best-constrained focal depths indicate that the aftershock sequence is mainly confined in the upper plate (depth < 30 km) and is ranging from about 5-28 km depth. A stress tensor inversion of focal mechanism data is performed to obtain a more precise picture of the off-shore southern Crete stress field. The stress tensor inversion results indicate a predominant thrust stress regime with a NE-SW-oriented maximum horizontal compressive stress ( S H). According to variance of the stress tensor inversion, to first order, the southern Crete region is characterized by a homogeneous interplate stress field. We also investigate the Coulomb stress change associated with the mainshock to evaluate any significant

  14. A long-term rock uplift rate for eastern Crete and geodynamic implications for the Hellenic subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strobl, M.; Hetzel, R.; Fassoulas, C.; Kubik, P.

    2014-12-01

    The island of Crete in the forearc of the Hellenic subduction zone has a rugged topography with a local relief exceeding 2 km. Based on the elevation of marine shorelines, rates of rock uplift during the Late Holocene were previously estimated to range between 1 and 4 mm/a in different parts of the island (e.g. Lambeck, 1995). These rates may, however, not be representative for longer timescales, because subduction earthquakes with up to 9 m of vertical coseismic displacement have recently affected Crete (Stiros, 2001). Here we use a well preserved sequence of marine terraces near Kato Zakros in eastern Crete to determine the rate of rock uplift over the last ˜600 ka. Field investigations and topographic profiles document a flight of more than 13 marine bedrock terraces that were carved into limestones of the Tripolitza unit. Preliminary age constraints for the terraces were obtained by 10Be exposure dating of rare quartz-bearing sandstone clasts, which are present on some terraces. The 10Be ages of these samples, which have been corrected for an inherited nuclide component, yielded exposure ages between ˜100 ka and zero. Combined with geomorphologic evidence the two oldest 10Be ages suggest that the terraces T4 and T5, with shoreline angles at an elevation of ca. 68 and ca. 76 m above sea level, respectively, formed during the marine isotope stage 5e about 120 ka ago. The correlation of the higher terraces (T6 to T13) with regional sea-level high-stands (Siddall et al., 2003) indicates sustained rock uplift at a rate of ˜0.5 m/ka since at least ˜600 ka. As normal faulting has dominated the tectonics of Crete during the last several million years, upper crustal shortening can be ruled out as a cause for rock uplift. We argue that the sustained uplift of the island results from the continuous underplating of sediments, which are transferred from the subducting African plate to the base of the crust beneath Crete. Lambeck, 1995, Geophys. J. Int. 122, 1022

  15. Spreading of Thelazia callipaeda in Greece.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, E; Komnenou, A; Thomas, A; Ioannidou, E; Colella, V; Otranto, D

    2017-02-26

    Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae), the so-called oriental eyeworm, has been increasingly reported as an agent of infection in animals and humans from many European countries. Clinical signs range from subclinical to moderate or severe ocular disorders (e.g., epiphora, photophobia, conjunctivitis, keratitis, ulcers). The disease has been also diagnosed in animals from countries of the Balkan area (e.g., Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia), but only a single case of canine thelaziosis, presumably autochthonous, was reported in Northern Greece. In this study, we provide robust information of the occurrence of thelaziosis in Greece by reporting autochthonous cases of thelaziosis in dogs (n = 46), cats (n = 3) and in one rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) living in Northern and Central regions of Greece. The occurrence of a single haplotype of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene confirms that the same zoonotic haplotype of the parasite circulating in Europe is also spreading in Greece. The increased awareness of this parasitosis is crucial to limit the risk of further infections in both humans and animals in European countries.

  16. Higher Education in Greece Compared to Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miliotis, Helen

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares and contrasts higher education in Canada and Greece. An overview of the systems in place is followed by an analysis centred on the triad of funding, access and quality. Similarities and differences are highlighted, and the current challenges and issues faced by both nations will be examined, especially in terms of world…

  17. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Greece.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anna; Sidira, Persefoni; Larichev, Victor; Gavrilova, Ludmila; Kuzmina, Ksenia; Mousavi-Jazi, Mehrdad; Mirazimi, Ali; Ströher, Ute; Nichol, Stuart

    2014-02-01

    Seroprevalence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is high in some regions of Greece, but only 1 case of disease has been reported. We used 4 methods to test 118 serum samples that were positive for CCHFV IgG by commercial ELISA and confirmed the positive results. A nonpathogenic or low-pathogenicity strain may be circulating.

  18. Reviews of National Policies for Education - Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This volume contains the Educational Policy Review of Greece undertaken in 1995-96 at the request of the Greek authorities. The book contains two parts with 13 chapters. Part 1 provides the full text of the Background Report, prepared by the Greek authorities for the purpose of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)…

  19. Cyanobacteria of Greece: an annotated checklist

    PubMed Central

    Ourailidis, Iordanis; Panou, Manthos; Pappas, Nikos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The checklist of Greek Cyanobacteria was created in the framework of the Greek Taxon Information System (GTIS), an initiative of the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure (ESFRI) that has resumed efforts to compile a complete checklist of species reported from Greece. This list was created from exhaustive search of the scientific literature of the last 60 years. All records of taxa known to occur in Greece were taxonomically updated. New information The checklist of Greek Cyanobacteria comprises 543 species, classified in 130 genera, 41 families, and 8 orders. The orders Synechococcales and Oscillatoriales have the highest number of species (158 and 153 species, respectively), whereas these two orders along with Nostocales and Chroococcales cover 93% of the known Greek cyanobacteria species. It is worth mentioning that 18 species have been initially described from Greek habitats. The marine epilithic Ammatoidea aegea described from Saronikos Gulf is considered endemic to this area. Our bibliographic review shows that Greece hosts a high diversity of cyanobacteria, suggesting that the Mediterranean area is also a hot spot for microbes. PMID:27956851

  20. Prostate cancer screening in Greece: current facts.

    PubMed

    Stamatiou, Konstantinos; Lardas, Michael; Kostakos, Evagelos; Koutsonasios, Vasilios; Lepidas, Dimitrios

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current article is to summarize the existing literature focusing on the current status of prostate cancer screening behavior in Greece. We identified studies published from 2000 onwards by searching the MEDLINE database of the National Library of Medicine. Initial search terms were prostate-specific antigen screening, prostate cancer screening, and Greece. Bibliographic information of the selected publications was checked for relevant publications not included in the MEDLINE search. Currently in Greece, there is no official recommendation for prostate cancer screening, and thus, its practice depends on the social and educational status of the patient and where the patient lives in Greece. We conclude that patients should be thoroughly informed of the limitations of prostate cancer screening by prostate-specific antigen test, and in consultation with urological specialists, make their personal decision of whether to receive it. Therefore, a project to support shared decision-making and informed choice for men considering testing for prostate cancer should be undertaken.

  1. The Preparation of School Psychologists in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatzichristou, Chryse; Polychroni, Fotini

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes the preparation of school psychologists in Greece. It discusses the social and cultural contexts that have influenced the evolution of the discipline of psychology, the beginning of training programs in school psychology, and the current status of school psychological services. The structure of the Graduate Program of School…

  2. Women of Ancient Greece: Participating in Sport?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Brett D.

    Based on evidence obtained from Greek literature and artifacts, this paper examines the extent to which women in ancient Greece participated in physical activity, sports, and games. Homer's "Odyssey" describes women playing ball and driving chariots; vases dating back to 700-675 B.C. portray women driving light chariots in a procession;…

  3. The Demand for Higher Education in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saiti, Anna; Prokopiadou, Georgia

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the reasons for enrolment demand in higher education in Greece through data collected from 400 students enrolled in the final year of post-secondary education in the Athens area. Results showed that Greek students choose to follow higher studies for a number of reasons but mainly because higher education offers high-level…

  4. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Greece

    PubMed Central

    Sidira, Persefoni; Larichev, Victor; Gavrilova, Ludmila; Kuzmina, Ksenia; Mousavi-Jazi, Mehrdad; Mirazimi, Ali; Ströher, Ute; Nichol, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Seroprevalence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is high in some regions of Greece, but only 1 case of disease has been reported. We used 4 methods to test 118 serum samples that were positive for CCHFV IgG by commercial ELISA and confirmed the positive results. A nonpathogenic or low-pathogenicity strain may be circulating. PMID:24447877

  5. Epidemiology of hepatitis C in Greece.

    PubMed

    Triantos, Christos; Konstantakis, Christos; Tselekouni, Paraskeui; Kalafateli, Maria; Aggeletopoulou, Ioanna; Manolakopoulos, Spilios

    2016-09-28

    Hepatitis C is a global health issue and constitutes a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. In this article, a comprehensive literature search was conducted for the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Greece, since data on the HCV prevalence, viremia and genotypes are important for developing strategies to manage or eliminate HCV infection. In addition, the pattern of HCV infection was analyzed according to the geographic region and the risk factors. These differences reflect not only distinct epidemiological characteristics among populations, but also differences on the strategy of data acquisition and quantification. Although there are not enough data, the estimation of the current prevalence of Hepatitis C in Greece ranges from 0.5% to 2%. The most important risk factors for HCV infection include blood product transfusion, intravenous drug use, chronic hemodialysis, organ transplantation, occupational exposure, sexual transmission, and vertical transmission. Because of lack of vaccine or effective post-exposure prophylaxis for HCV, the main focus of prevention is to recognize and control these risk factors. HCV infection in Greece is closely associated with the development of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, and primary hepatocellular carcinoma. As far as the genotype distribution is concerned genotype 1 estimated to be 45%-47% and it constitutes the prevalent genotype in Greece, followed by genotype 3.

  6. Classical Greece, Black Historians, and Martin Bernal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squeri, Lawrence

    1989-01-01

    Explores the work of Martin Bernal in tracing the roots of Greek civilization to Africa. Discusses the Ancient, Aryan, and Revised Ancient models for explaining Greek origins. Observes that Bernal's thesis comes at a time of increased interest in non-Western history. Suggests that views of ancient Greece will never be the same. (SG)

  7. GIS-based landform classification of Bronze Age archaeological sites on Crete Island.

    PubMed

    Argyriou, Athanasios V; Teeuw, Richard M; Sarris, Apostolos

    2017-01-01

    Various physical attributes of the Earth's surface are factors that influence local topography and indirectly influence human behaviour in terms of habitation locations. The determination of geomorphological setting plays an important role in archaeological landscape research. Several landform types can be distinguished by characteristic geomorphic attributes that portray the landscape surrounding a settlement and influence its ability to sustain a population. Geomorphometric landform information, derived from digital elevation models (DEMs), such as the ASTER Global DEM, can provide useful insights into the processes shaping landscapes. This work examines the influence of landform classification on the settlement locations of Bronze Age (Minoan) Crete, focusing on the districts of Phaistos, Kavousi and Vrokastro. The landform classification was based on the topographic position index (TPI) and deviation from mean elevation (DEV) analysis to highlight slope steepness of various landform classes, characterizing the surrounding landscape environment of the settlements locations. The outcomes indicate no interrelationship between the settlement locations and topography during the Early Minoan period, but a significant interrelationship exists during the later Minoan periods with the presence of more organised societies. The landform classification can provide insights into factors favouring human habitation and can contribute to archaeological predictive modelling.

  8. Hydro-geochemical aspects of Mediterranean temporary ponds in western Crete.

    PubMed

    Stamati, Fotini; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos; Dimitriou, Elias; Koussouris, Theodore

    2008-01-01

    The hydrologic and geochemical conditions that prevail in Mediterranean temporary ponds (MTPs), create a unique environment for many rare and endangered species. Mediterranean temporary ponds are habitats of high ecological value, which are vulnerable to imminent climatic changes, as well as to human activities. This article examines the hydrology and the nitrogen and phosphorous geochemical cycles of four MTPs in Crete. Field and laboratory studies provided the necessary information for the development of a conceptual understanding of the hydrologic and biogeochemical processes that affect the fate of nitrogen and phosphorous in these MTPs. Their hydrology was driven by deposition, infiltration, and evaporation. The hydroperiod of the ponds varied between 40 and 160 d. Mineralization and nutrient release capacity experiments illustrated the significant role that MTP sediments played in enhancing the geochemistry of the aqueous phase. Such ecosystem functions (i.e., mineralization, nutrient release) exhibited high variability among MTPs necessitating site-specific studies with immediate implications to management. It is very important to understand the local hydrogeochemical and climatic conditions to ensure appropriate environmental measures for their management and conservation.

  9. 2014 Southern δ-Aquariid observing campaign - carried out from Crete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiland, T.

    2016-01-01

    With a peak ZHR of 15-20 at the end of July, the Southern δ-Aquariids rank as a major annual shower, but observation is often neglected in favor of the much more active Perseids of August, mainly as a consequence of their southerly radiant, which makes the stream a prominent target from low latitudes and the southern hemisphere. The extended activity period of more than a month, lacking a distinctive peak, and the paucity of bright meteors does not enhance interest of most observers, either. Nevertheless, one has not to go too far south in order to monitor the stream properly to gain scientific results. The Greek island of Crete, at the southernmost tip of Europe, is such a place, offering sufficiently dark skies and a 90 % probability of clear weather in July and August. Encouraged by a New Moon on July 26th an eight-night-long visual observing campaign was carried out in 2014. As a consequence, I managed to record nearly 250 Southern δ-Aquariids within 40 hours of effective observing time. An impression of the campaign together with a summary of the results is presented.

  10. GIS-based landform classification of Bronze Age archaeological sites on Crete Island

    PubMed Central

    Argyriou, Athanasios V.; Teeuw, Richard M.; Sarris, Apostolos

    2017-01-01

    Various physical attributes of the Earth’s surface are factors that influence local topography and indirectly influence human behaviour in terms of habitation locations. The determination of geomorphological setting plays an important role in archaeological landscape research. Several landform types can be distinguished by characteristic geomorphic attributes that portray the landscape surrounding a settlement and influence its ability to sustain a population. Geomorphometric landform information, derived from digital elevation models (DEMs), such as the ASTER Global DEM, can provide useful insights into the processes shaping landscapes. This work examines the influence of landform classification on the settlement locations of Bronze Age (Minoan) Crete, focusing on the districts of Phaistos, Kavousi and Vrokastro. The landform classification was based on the topographic position index (TPI) and deviation from mean elevation (DEV) analysis to highlight slope steepness of various landform classes, characterizing the surrounding landscape environment of the settlements locations. The outcomes indicate no interrelationship between the settlement locations and topography during the Early Minoan period, but a significant interrelationship exists during the later Minoan periods with the presence of more organised societies. The landform classification can provide insights into factors favouring human habitation and can contribute to archaeological predictive modelling. PMID:28222134

  11. Orientations of the Bronze Age Villa Complex at Vathypetro in Crete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomberg, M.; Henriksson, G.

    We present the results of our archaeoastronomical study of the villa and the tripartite shrine at Vathypetro. We found orientations to three major celestial events (counting the equinoxes as one): to sunrise at the equinoxes and the winter solstice in the case of the villa and to sunset at the summer solstice in the case of the tripartite stone. The axis of symmetry of the major room of the villa was oriented to sunrise of the 22nd of October in the Late Minoan period. This was also the orientation of the axis of symmetry of the main cult room in the west wing of the palace at Malia. We propose that this orientation marked the time for planting and thus the beginning of the agricultural year. It is unusual that archaeoastronomical studies make contributions to historical debates. However certain orientations dating after Late Minoan I seem to reflect the Mycenaean presence in Crete. The orientation of the tripartite shrine to sunset at the summer solstice is the same as the orientations of the small shrines at Malia and Agia Triada, all of which we argue to have been built for Mycenaeans. We propose that there are two types of orientations in the island: those to the east within the limits for sunrise - made by Minoans, and some to the west - made by (or for) Mycenaeans.

  12. Orientations Of Minoan Buildings On Crete May Indicate The First Recorded Use Of The Magnetic Compass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downey, W. S.

    Archaeomagnetic research has enabled the determination of the secular variation record of the past geomagnetic field and has been used as a tool for absolute and relative dating. The archaeomagnetic secular variation of declination can be used in conjunction with architectural building plan orientation angles (strike directions) to establish, whether or not, a magnetic compass was possibly used to align buildings. Until now, it has been speculative as to, how or why, Minoan buildings were orientated in an approximate North-South direction or at 'askew' angles to one another. Here, it is observed, that, the orientation angles, of some significant Minoan buildings on Crete which have been compared to the archaeomagnetic (secular variation of declination) reference curve record (Bulgaria) for that period, are consistent with the possible use of a magnetic compass. Four of the six main Palaces and other significant buildings may have been oriented using this method. This may indicate the first recorded use, by the Minoans of a magnetic compass. These findings have archaeological implications (chronology) and are of significant interest architecturally. They are also relevant to Minoan religious and cult studies and may have implications for Minoan maritime navigation studies.

  13. Investigating the relationship of lightning activity and rainfall: A case study for Crete Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iordanidou, V.; Koutroulis, A. G.; Tsanis, I. K.

    2016-05-01

    The relationship of lightning activity and rainfall is investigated for rain events of variable intensity. Rain data from 22 gauging stations over the island of Crete and lightning activity from the Global Lightning Network including both cloud-to-ground and some cloud flashes are analyzed for the period September 2012 to June 2014. Local thunderstorms' characteristics are investigated both individually as well as in groups according to the results of k-means clustering algorithm in 3 dimensions (space (x, y) and time (t)) in which the number of clusters is decided by G-means algorithm. Correlation of non-zero pairs of rain intensity and number of flashes is examined at various time intervals, time lags and effective radii. Also, correlation of flash count within 50 km radius around the stations is examined for the rain events of maximum hourly intensity for each gauging station. The highest coincidence of lightning clusters with intense rain events reaches 60% when gauges are 25-30 km from the cluster center. Maximum correlation within non-zero pairs of rain intensity and flashes number is obtained for more intense rain (99th percentile) and for increased flash count within the searching area (more than 10 flashes). Also, correlation is stronger for shorter time windows. The findings of this study improve the understanding of thunderstorm events and could provide staple information for the improvement of forecasting extreme events.

  14. A chronology of alluvial fan response to Late Quaternary sea level and climate change, Crete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Richard J. J.; Candy, Ian; Skourtsos, Emmanuel

    2016-09-01

    To better understand how fluvial systems respond to late Quaternary climatic forcing OSL and U-series dating was applied to stratigraphically significant sedimentary units within a small (<6.5 km2) alluvial fan system (the Sphakia fan) in southwest Crete. The resultant chronology (comprising 32 OSL and U-series ages) makes Sphakia fan one of the best dated systems in the Mediterranean and suggests that Cretan fans responded to climate in two ways. First, during the transitions between Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5a/4 and MIS 2/1 Sphakia fan was characterised by significant entrenchment and distal shift in the zone of deposition. It is proposed that the phases of entrenchment were driven by sea level induced base level fall during MIS 5a/4 and landscape stabilisation during the onset of the current interglacial (MIS 2/1). Second, with the exception of these two entrenchment episodes fan alluviation occurred across the entire last interglacial/glacial cycle in all climatic settings i.e. interglacials, interstadials and stadials. It is likely that the topographic setting of the catchment supplying sediment to Sphakia fan maintained high sediment transfer rates during most climatic settings enabling fan aggradation to occur except during major climatic driven transitions i.e. major sea level fall and postglacial vegetation development.

  15. Migration and HIV epidemic in Greece.

    PubMed

    Nikolopoulos, Georgios; Arvanitis, Michail; Masgala, Aikaterini; Paraskeva, Dimitra

    2005-06-01

    Over the last decade, Greece has experienced a massive influx of migrants from countries in South Eastern/Central Europe, the Middle East, Asia and Africa. This study aimed to estimate the percentage and the specific characteristics of HIV-positive migrants reported in Greece, and to describe the secular trend of migrants' proportion among HIV-infected individuals. Secondary analysis of data reported to the Hellenic Centre for Infectious Diseases Control (HCIDC) during the years 1989-2003. From 1989 to 2003, 6292 HIV-positive cases were reported to HCIDC. Data show that 749 people (439 males, 303 females) originated from countries other than Greece. Most HIV-positive migrants come from Sub-Saharan Africa (32.44%) and nearly 20% from Central and Eastern Europe. In the Greek population, men who have sex with men (MSM) constitute 50.47% of cases, while 16.15% are heterosexuals. The epidemic profile follows a different pattern among migrants (P<0.05). Heterosexual transmission accounts for 41.52% of HIV-positive reported migrants, while 19.09% are MSM. An 11% increase for each subsequent year in the rate of HIV-positive migrants reported in Greece has been estimated using a Poisson regression model fitted to the data (IR 1.11; 95% confidence interval 1.08-1.13). The results suggest an increasing trend of HIV-seropositive migrants in Greece during recent years. Group-based interventions, better access to health care and a comprehensive public approach should be applied to migrants.

  16. Marine research in Greece and the additional Greek marine research centres: Progress and present situation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haritonidis, S.

    1995-03-01

    Greece, as is known, has a coastline of 17 000 km, and over 2000 small and large islands. As expected, the quest of humankind for new sources of matter and energy has been focussed on the sea, with fishery being its primary interest. A number of philosophers and scientists have been involved in the study of this vast ecosystem since ancient times (Aristotle). The political, social and geographical upheavals witnessed in the Greek area, have, however resulted in bringing all these activities to a halt. The first contemporary research work commenced at the end of the 18th century/beginning of the 19th — with marine flora and fauna as its starting point. The first investigations had, of course, been limited to random collections of marine material done in the frame of international exploratory expeditions. Studies became more systematic by the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century, with priority being given to the animal kingdom (fish, molluscs, etc.). Investigation of the marine phytobenthos (macrophyceae, phytoplankton) was to follow. The past 40 years research has been more extensive, not limited only to biogeographical evaluations, but also having expanded to physiological and ecological levels. The relevant institutes of Greek universities have all the while watched and contributed to this effort. Today, this kind of research is being supported by the N.M.R.C., the Center of Marine Research, University of Crete, and two research boats which sail the Greek seas. In the ever-changing world, the study of marine flora and fauna has certainly made great progress; however, there are still two big problems to be faced. The first deals with increasing pollution of the seas, the second, with the difficulties in finding and affording adequate financial resources that would enable a more detailed and complete execution of this research work.

  17. Satellite remote sensing of long-range transported dust storm over Eastern Mediterranean and Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaskaoutis, D. G.; Kambezidis, H. D.; Nastos, P. T.; Kosmopoulos, P. G.; Kharol, S. K.; Badarinath, K. V. S.

    2009-04-01

    In springtime several Saharan dust events are transported over Eastern Mediterranean mainly driven by the thermal cyclones. Some of these events are characterized of large intensity since the dust is uplifted from the North African desert regions by the strong surface winds and is transported in the vertical (from surface to about 5 km), thus strongly enhancing the columnar AODs and the surface PM concentrations. In this study we mainly focus on the intense dust event of 16-17 April 2005, when a thick dust layer transported from Libya affected the whole Greek territory. Very high aerosol optical depth values obtained from Aqua-MODIS sensor were observed over Greece (mean 2.42±1.25) on 17 April, while the respective mean April value is 0.31±0.09. The AOD550 values over Crete were even larger, reaching ~4.0. In addition, during the dust event the AI values derived from TOMS and OMI sensors exhibited very high (above 3.0) values. As a consequence, the PM10 concentrations over Athens are dramatically increased reaching up to 200 μgm-3. On the other hand, the fine-mode fraction values obtained from Terra-MODIS showed a substantial decrease in the whole Greek area on 17 April, with values below 0.2 in the Southern regions. The intense dust layer showed a complex behavior concerning its spatial and temporal evolution and allowed us to study the changes in the optical properties of the desert-dust particles along their transport routes due to mixing processes with other aerosol types. The Saharan dust event on 17 April was clearly evident via satellite true-color images as an intense dust plume originating from Libya, traversing the Mediterranean and arriving over Greece and the Balkan countries. The dust characteristics along its pathway from the African coast to continental Europe showed significant spatial inhomogeneity, since the larger particles were deposited near the source and the smaller transported to long distances. As a consequence, the AOD550 continuously

  18. Contribution of Seismology to the Protection of the Cultural Heritage of Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makropoulos, K.; Voulgaris, N.; Kaviris, G.

    2007-12-01

    Greece is an earthquake prone country, as evidenced by the fact that almost half the seismic energy in Europe is released in its territory both on land and offshore. Numerous large earthquakes have occurred since the antiquity causing considerable damages. Furthermore, as it is well known, Greece is a country of rich cultural heritage, that incorporates a large number of archeological (more than 50%), Byzantine and recent sites and monuments, as well as a continuously growing number of museums. The Greek Seismic Design Code (NEAK, 2004) which governs building, repairing and retrofitting practices divides the country into three zones corresponding to acceleration values of 0.16g, 0.24g and 0.36g. According to the results obtained from a detailed GIS implementation the majority of Greek monuments lie within the boundaries of the second zone (more than 60%). In addition, their geographical distribution in association with the available geological data reveals that more than 50% are sited on soft soils, in contrast to a 30% on rock formations. The effects of these factors are reflected to earthquake related damages observed (evidenced) or reported at various cultural sites. Therefore, the detailed estimation of the seismic hazard for each monument, microzonation studies in the vicinity of each site and estimation of hazard due to tsunamis, liquefaction and landslides related to earthquakes, should be considered as a necessary step towards retrofitting. Applications that reveal the contribution of seismology to the preservation of Greek monuments will be presented and discussed, such as studies performed in Knossos (Crete) leading to representative design values, the church of Kapnikarea (Athens), where the influence of man-made seismic energy sources was examined and the Cathedral of Athens where it was found that local geological conditions amplify the ground velocity for frequencies close to the dominant frequency, a fact that was taken into account during the

  19. Spatial distribution of summertime particulate matter and its composition in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiflikiotou, Maria; Papanastasiou, Dimitris; Zarmpas, Paulos; Paraskevopoulou, Despoina; Diapouli, Evangelia; Kostenidou, Evangelia; Kaltsonoudis, Christos; Bougiatioti, Aikaterini; Theodosi, Christina; Kouvarakis, George; Liakakou, Eleni; Vassilatou, Vassiliki; Siakavaras, Dimitris; Biskos, George; Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Gerasopoulos, Evangelos; Mihalopoulos, Nikos; Pandis, Spyros

    2014-05-01

    A field campaign was conducted in Greece during the summer of 2012 (8 June - 26 July) to investigate ambient particulate matter (PM) levels, chemical composition and contribution of regional and local sources. Simultaneous collection of PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 samples from seven different sampling sites in Greece were collected, two sites in Athens - Ag. Paraskevi Demokritos campus (suburban background), - Penteli (National Observatory of Athens NOA premises, suburban background), one in Thessaloniki (suburban background), two stations in Patras - Centre (urban background), - suburbs/ICE FORTH campus (suburban background), one at Finokalia in the northeast part of Crete (remote background) and the last one at the Navarino Environmental Observatory (NEO) in southwest Peloponnese (rural background). These different background sites were chosen in order to estimate both the local emissions sources and the long range transport. A suite of continuous/online instruments were deployed in selected sites including an Aerodyne High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF AMS), an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM), a Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS), a Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM), Nephelometers and Aethalometers, gas-phase monitors, etc. The collected filter samples from all sites were analyzed for major ions, OC/EC, metals, etc. The fine PM mass concentration and chemical measurements were quite similar in all sites suggesting significant contributions of transported regional pollution and smaller contributions of local sources. The campaign average PM2.5 ranged from 17.5 to 20 μg m-3 for the different sites. The Athens suburban site in Demokritos had the highest concentration PM2.5 levels. Sulphates and organics were the major PM2.5 components while nitrates, mineral dust and sea-salt for the coastal areas were also important for the PM10 fraction. The sulphate levels were similar in all sites, while the

  20. Variscan tectonics in Dodecanese, Kalymnos island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatziioannou, Eleftheria; Grasemann, Bernhard; Schneider, David; Hubmann, Bernhard; Soukis, Konstantinos

    2015-04-01

    Kalymnos island is located in the Dodecanese, southeastern Aegean Sea, and geologically appears to be part of the external Hellenides. Pre-Alpidic basement rocks on the Dodecanese islands have been suggested to record compelling similarities with the basement rocks in Eastern Crete with respect to their lithologies and pre-Alpidic metamorphic evolution. The lithotectonic units experienced greenschist to amphibolite facies conditions during the Variscan orogeny. Whereas the rocks in Eastern Crete reveal Alpine high-pressure overprint, the Variscan basement units in the Dodecanese record no or low-grade Alpine metamorphism. A field study of basement rocks below Mesozoic limestones and dolomites in the NW part of Kalymnos near Emporios uncovered a complex history of metamorphism, folding and faulting. Three different tectonic units can be discriminated from top to bottom: a) a quartz-mica schist, b) a white-grey, fossiliferous coarse grained marble and c) a fine-grained fossiliferous blue-grey marble. In the marbles macrofossils such as brachiopods, ammonoid cephalopods (Goniatids?) and crinoids suggest a Middle-Upper Devonian deposition age (Givetian- Frasnian). Structural mapping the area resolved a dominant W-E shortening event, resulting in an overall inverted metamorphic gradient. The lowermost blue-grey marble unit is folded into large-scale upright folds, which are truncated by top-to-east overthrusting of the white-grey marble unit. Whereas deformation mechanisms in the blue-grey marble unit are dominated by dissolution-precipitation creep, the white-grey marble suffered intense crystal plastic deformation with localized high-strain mylonitic shear zones. The uppermost quartz-mica schist unit is separated from the lower units by a cataclastic phyllonitic shear zone. 40Ar/39Ar geochronological dating on white micas from the quartz-mica schists yielded cooling ages between 240 and 334 Ma indicative of Variscan cooling. Our data suggest that this part of the

  1. Geological record of the 365 A.D. Crete tsunami in south-eastern Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerardi, Flavia; Serafina Barbano, Maria; de Martini, Paolo Marco; Pirrotta, Claudia; Smedile, Alessandra; Pinzi, Stefania; Del Carlo, Paola

    2010-05-01

    Five years ago we started a coring campaign with the purpose to identify evidence for tsunami inundations along the coastal areas of eastern Sicily, that were affected in historical times by devastating tsunamis, generated both by local earthquakes, such as the 1169, 1693 and 1908 events, and by distant seismic sources, such as those belonging to the Aegean subduction zone (e.g. the A.D. 365 Crete earthquake). Following a multi-theme approach, we used the available historical information to address geomorphological study of the coastal landscape: aerial-photographs analysis, satellite images interpretation and field surveys allowed us to select areas likely invaded by tsunami waves in the past, representing potential trap-site for high energy deposits sedimentation and preservation. Given the variability in the nature of tsunami deposit characteristics, they are not uniquely identifiable, and other kinds of high energy deposits may share some of their features. Despite the abundant literature regarding diagnostic criteria for tsunami deposits, their distinction from storm and hurricane deposits remains a debated issue. We present the geological evidence of a tsunami inundation that left continuous onshore sandy deposit inside the Pantano Morghella along the south-eastern Sicilian coast. Pantano Morghella an almost flat area, about 1.3 km long and 0.8 km wide, surrounded by Upper Cretaceous lavas and volcanoclastic deposits, Late Cretaceous limestone calciruditi, calcarenites and marls. To the east Quaternary deposits, beach sands and 3 m high, partially cemented, dunal system (Holocene and Late Pleistocene) separate the Pantano from the sea forming the intertidal pond with a little channel from which sea water can rush into. The site was partially used as salt-pans in the recent past. In this site, we dug 33 cores down to a maximum depth of 5.80 m, from 200 m up to 1200 m from the coastline. The sedimentological core analysis reveals a fine stratigraphic sequence

  2. Pregestational excess weight, maternal obstetric complications and mode of delivery in the Rhea cohort in Crete.

    PubMed

    Vassilaki, Maria; Chatzi, Leda; Georgiou, Vaggelis; Philalithis, Anastas; Kritsotakis, Giorgos; Koutis, Antonis; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2015-08-01

    There has been a significant increase in overweight and obesity worldwide reaching global epidemic, with dramatic increase also among women of reproductive age or entering pregnancy. Aims of the study were to estimate the prevalence of maternal pregestational overweight and obesity and their association with and contribution to maternal obstetric complications and mode of delivery. One thousand two hundred eighty-six women with singleton pregnancies were followed-up prospectively from early pregnancy to delivery in Crete. The prevalence of pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity were 20 and 11.5%, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders, overweight and/or obesity were associated with an increased risk for caesarean deliveries [RR(overweight_vs._normal) BMI = 1.21, 95% CI (1.06, 1.38), RR(obese_vs._normal) BMI = 1.21, 95% CI (1.02, 1.42)], gestational diabetes mellitus [RR(obese_vs._normal) BMI = 2.11, 95% CI (1.28, 3.47)] and high blood pressure [RR(severy.obese_vs._normal) BMI = 3.32, 95% CI (1.36, 8.06)] any time in pregnancy. Pre-pregnancy excess weight has potentially contributed to 21% of planned caesarean deliveries in primiparae (almost 45% of such cases among overweight/obese primiparea were potentially attributed to pregestational excess weight). One-third of gestational hypertension and gestational diabetes cases among overweight/obese mothers could be attributed to pregestational excess weight, although results did not reach statistical significance. Pregestational overweight and obesity continued to increase even more in recent years. Findings further support that maternal excess weight has a significant effect on and contribution to multiple maternal obstetric complications and the mode of delivery, underlining the necessity of obesity prevention, health policy strategies and health care that can result in significant individual and societal benefits. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public

  3. Fault structure and deformation rates at the Lastros-Sfaka Graben, Crete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, J.; Schneiderwind, S.; Pallikarakis, A.; Wiatr, T.; Mechernich, S.; Papanikolaou, I.; Reicherter, K.

    2016-06-01

    The Lastros and Sfaka faults have an antithetic relationship and form a ca. 2 km wide graben within the Ierapetra fault zone in eastern Crete. Both faults have impressive bedrock fault scarps many metres in height which form prominent features within the landscape. t-LiDAR investigations undertaken on the Lastros fault are used to accurately determine vertical displacements along a ca. 1.3 km long scanned segment. Analyses show that previous estimations of post glacial slip rate are too high because there are many areas along strike where the scarp is exhumed by natural erosion and/or anthropogenic activity. In areas not affected by erosion there is mean scarp height of 9.4 m. This leads to a slip rate of 0.69 ± 0.15 mm/a using 15 ± 3 ka for scarp exhumation. Using empirical calculations the expected earthquake magnitudes and displacement per event are discussed based on our observations. Trenching investigations on the Sfaka fault identify different generations of fissure fills. Retrodeformation analyses and 14C dating of the fill material indicate at least four events dating back to 16,055 ± 215 cal BP, with the last event having occurred soon after 6102 ± 113 cal BP. The Lastros fault is likely the controlling fault in the graben, and ruptures on the Lastros fault will sympathetically affect the Sfaka fault, which merges with the Lastros fault at a depth of 2.4 km. The extracted dates from the Sfaka fault fissure fills therefore either represent activity on the Lastros fault, assuming they formed coseismically, or accommodation events. Cross sections show that the finite throw is limited to around 300 m, and the derived slip rate for the Lastros fault therefore indicates that both faults are relatively young having initiated 435 ± 120 ka.

  4. Protective effect of fruits, vegetables and the Mediterranean diet on asthma and allergies among children in Crete.

    PubMed

    Chatzi, Leda; Apostolaki, Gianna; Bibakis, Ioannis; Skypala, Isabel; Bibaki-Liakou, Vasilki; Tzanakis, Nikolaos; Kogevinas, Manolis; Cullinan, Paul

    2007-08-01

    Atopy is not uncommon among children living in rural Crete, but wheeze and rhinitis are rare. A study was undertaken to examine whether this discrepancy could be attributed to a high consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables or adherence to a traditional Mediterranean diet. A cross-sectional survey was performed in 690 children aged 7-18 years in rural Crete. Parents completed a questionnaire on their child's respiratory and allergic symptoms and a 58-item food frequency questionnaire. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet was measured using a scale with 12 dietary items. Children underwent skin prick tests with 10 common aeroallergens. 80% of children ate fresh fruit (and 68% vegetables) at least twice a day. The intake of grapes, oranges, apples, and fresh tomatoes-the main local products in Crete-had no association with atopy but was protective for wheezing and rhinitis. A high consumption of nuts was found to be inversely associated with wheezing (OR 0.46; 95% CI 0.20 to 0.98), whereas margarine increased the risk of both wheeze (OR 2.19; 95% CI 1.01 to 4.82) and allergic rhinitis (OR 2.10; 95% CI 1.31 to 3.37). A high level of adherence to the Mediterranean diet was protective for allergic rhinitis (OR 0.34; 95% CI 0.18 to 0.64) while a more modest protection was observed for wheezing and atopy. The results of this study suggest a beneficial effect of commonly consumed fruits, vegetables and nuts, and of a high adherence to a traditional Mediterranean diet during childhood on symptoms of asthma and rhinitis. Diet may explain the relative lack of allergic symptoms in this population.

  5. Projections of water resources availability in Crete for the 21st century under the global change perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutroulis, A. G.; Tsanis, I. K.; Jacob, D.

    2012-04-01

    A robust signal of a warmer and drier climate over the western Mediterranean region is projected from the majority of climate models. This effect appears more pronounced during warm periods, when the seasonal decrease of precipitation can exceed control climatology by 25-30%. The rapid development of Crete in the last 30 years has exerted strong pressures on the natural resources of the region. Urbanization and growth of agriculture, tourism and industry had strong impact on the water resources of island by substantially increasing water demand. The objective of this study is to analyze and assess the impact of global change on the water resources status for the island of Crete for a range of 24 different scenarios of projected hydro-climatological regime, demand and supply potential. Water resources application issues analyzed and facilitated within this study, focusing on a refinement of the future water demands of the island, and comparing with "state of the art" global climate model (GCM) results and an ensemble of regional climate models (RCMs) under three different emission scenarios, to estimate water resources availability, during the 21st century. A robust signal of water scarcity is projected for all the combinations of emission (A2, A1B and B1), demand and infrastructure scenarios. Despite the uncertainty of the assessments, the quantitative impact of the projected changes on water availability indicates that climate change plays an equally important role to water use and management in controlling future water status in a Mediterranean island like the island of Crete. The outcome of this analysis will assist in short and long-term strategic water resources planning by prioritizing water related infrastructure development.

  6. Education For Sustainability - Experiences From Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baronos, Athena

    2016-11-01

    One of the main issues involved is changing people's attitudes, values, behavior and consumption patterns. University education in Greece aims to educate engineers so that besides acquiring theoretical knowledge, they also learn to show competences and are motivated to act accordingly. Educating for sustainable development also entails the development of critical capacities and the necessary skills to be able to identify and formulate problems. This paper outlines the way in which an approach to teaching sustainability has been embodied in the Industrial Design, West Macedonia Greece. More specifically, it describes a course to develop comprehensive case studies and support material in order to aid, Industrial Design students in understanding the sustainability concepts and how solutions can be developed

  7. Albanian and Polish undocumented workers in Greece: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Lazaridis, G; Romaniszyn, K

    1998-01-01

    "This article deals with the migration of undocumented workers from Albania and Poland to Greece. Its underlying assumption is that migration from the former post-communist countries to Greece is not a homogeneous phenomenon, thus allowing for a distinction and comparison between the migration waves from Poland and Albania to Greece. The article shows that economic migration from Albania and Poland to Greece is primarily an economically triggered phenomenon which results from both individual rational choices and social, structural settings, and which verifies a general tendency of mass flows, characteristic of the era of disorganized capitalism." (EXCERPT)

  8. Medical Informatics Education & Research in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Chouvarda, I.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives This paper aims to present an overview of the medical informatics landscape in Greece, to describe the Greek ehealth background and to highlight the main education and research axes in medical informatics, along with activities, achievements and pitfalls. Methods With respect to research and education, formal and informal sources were investigated and information was collected and presented in a qualitative manner, including also quantitative indicators when possible. Results Greece has adopted and applied medical informatics education in various ways, including undergraduate courses in health sciences schools as well as multidisciplinary postgraduate courses. There is a continuous research effort, and large participation in EU-wide initiatives, in all the spectrum of medical informatics research, with notable scientific contributions, although technology maturation is not without barriers. Wide-scale deployment of eHealth is anticipated in the healthcare system in the near future. While ePrescription deployment has been an important step, ICT for integrated care and telehealth have a lot of room for further deployment. Conclusions Greece is a valuable contributor in the European medical informatics arena, and has the potential to offer more as long as the barriers of research and innovation fragmentation are addressed and alleviated. PMID:26123910

  9. Medical Informatics Education & Research in Greece.

    PubMed

    Chouvarda, I; Maglaveras, N

    2015-08-13

    This paper aims to present an overview of the medical informatics landscape in Greece, to describe the Greek ehealth background and to highlight the main education and research axes in medical informatics, along with activities, achievements and pitfalls. With respect to research and education, formal and informal sources were investigated and information was collected and presented in a qualitative manner, including also quantitative indicators when possible. Greece has adopted and applied medical informatics education in various ways, including undergraduate courses in health sciences schools as well as multidisciplinary postgraduate courses. There is a continuous research effort, and large participation in EU-wide initiatives, in all the spectrum of medical informatics research, with notable scientific contributions, although technology maturation is not without barriers. Wide-scale deployment of eHealth is anticipated in the healthcare system in the near future. While ePrescription deployment has been an important step, ICT for integrated care and telehealth have a lot of room for further deployment. Greece is a valuable contributor in the European medical informatics arena, and has the potential to offer more as long as the barriers of research and innovation fragmentation are addressed and alleviated.

  10. Novel phleboviruses detected in ticks, Greece.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anna; Kontana, Anastasia; Tsioka, Katerina; Chaligiannis, Ilias; Sotiraki, Smaragda

    2016-07-01

    Since 2009, when severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus and Heartland virus have been identified and associated with disease in humans, the interest on tick-borne phleboviruses is increasing rapidly. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of tick-borne phleboviruses in Greece and compare them with respective ones detected worldwide. Ticks collected from goats and sheep in 60 sites of 13 regional units of Greece were grouped in pools (1-3 ticks per pool) and tested for the presence of phleboviral RNA. Six of 210 pools were positive; they consisted of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks collected from sheep in 3 regional units of Greece: Pella (2/30, 6.7%), Imathia (2/21, 9.5%), and Ioannina (2/28, 7.1%). The overall tick minimum infection rate was 2.1%. The sequences of the Greek phlebovirus (provisionally named Antigone virus) form a distinct clade in the tick-borne phleboviruses, differing by >40% from the currently known phleboviruses. Any probable implication of these viruses to public health remains to be elucidated.

  11. Ship emissions and their externalities for Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzannatos, Ernestos

    2010-06-01

    The existing and emerging international and European policy framework for the reduction of ship exhaust emissions dictates the need to produce reliable national, regional and global inventories in order to monitor emission trends and consequently provide the necessary support for future policy making. Furthermore, the inventories of ship exhaust emissions constitute the basis upon which their external costs are estimated in an attempt to highlight the economic burden they impose upon the society and facilitate the cost-benefit analysis of the proposed emission abatement technologies, operational measures and market-based instruments prior to their implementation. The case of Greece is of particular interest mainly because the dense ship traffic within the Greek seas directly imposes the impact of its exhaust emission pollutants (NO x, SO 2 and PM) upon the highly populated, physically sensitive and culturally precious Greek coastline, as well as upon the land and seas of Greece in general, whereas the contribution of Greece in the global CO 2 inventory at a time of climatic change awareness cannot be ignored. In this context, this paper presents the contribution of Greece in ship exhaust emissions of CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM from domestic and international shipping over the last 25 years (1984-2008), utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) emission methodology. Furthermore, the ship exhaust emissions generated within the Greek seas and their externalities are estimated for the year 2008, through utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) approach for domestic shipping and the activity-based (ship traffic) approach for international shipping. On this basis, it was found that during the 1984 to 2008 period the fuel-based (fuel sales) ship emission inventory for Greece increased at an average annual rate of 2.85%. In 2008, the CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM emissions reached 12.9 million tons (of which 12.4 million tons of CO 2) and their externalities were found to be around 3

  12. The impact of changing climate conditions on the hydrological behavior of several Mediterranean sub-catchments in Crete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eirini Vozinaki, Anthi; Tapoglou, Evdokia; Tsanis, Ioannis

    2017-04-01

    Climate change, although is already happening, consists of a big threat capable of causing lots of inconveniences in future societies and their economies. In this work, the climate change impact on the hydrological behavior of several Mediterranean sub-catchments, in Crete, is presented. The sensitivity of these hydrological systems to several climate change scenarios is also provided. The HBV hydrological model has been used, calibrated and validated for the study sub-catchments against measured weather and streamflow data and inputs. The impact of climate change on several hydro-meteorological parameters (i.e. precipitation, streamflow etc.) and hydrological signatures (i.e. spring flood peak, length and volume, base flow, flow duration curves, seasonality etc.) have been statistically elaborated and analyzed, defining areas of increased probability risk associated additionally to flooding or drought. The potential impacts of climate change on current and future water resources have been quantified by driving HBV model with current and future scenarios, respectively, for specific climate periods. This work aims to present an integrated methodology for the definition of future climate and hydrological risks and the prediction of future water resources behavior. Future water resources management could be rationally effectuated, in Mediterranean sub-catchments prone to drought or flooding, using the proposed methodology. The research reported in this paper was fully supported by the Project "Innovative solutions to climate change adaptation and governance in the water management of the Region of Crete - AQUAMAN" funded within the framework of the EEA Financial Mechanism 2009-2014.

  13. The large earthquake of 8 August 1303 in Crete: seismic scenario and tsunami in the Mediterranean area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidoboni, Emanuela; Comastri, Alberto

    By conducting a historical review of this large seismic event in the Mediterranean, it has been possible to identify both the epicentral area and the area in which its effects were principally felt. Ever since the nineteenth century, the seismological tradition has offered a variety of partial interpretations of the earthquake, depending on whether the main sources used were Arabic, Greek or Latin texts. Our systematic research has involved the analysis not only of Arab, Byzantine and Italian chronicle sources, but also and in particular of a large number of never previously used official and public authority documents, preserved in Venice in the State Archive, in the Marciana National Library and in the Library of the Museo Civico Correr. As a result, it has been possible to establish not only chronological parameters for the earthquake (they were previously uncertain) but also its overall effects (epicentral area in Crete, Imax XI MCS). Sources containing information in 41 affected localities and areas were identified. The earthquake also gave rise to a large tsunami, which scholars have seen as having certain interesting elements in common with that of 21 July 365, whose epicentre was also in Crete. As regards methodology, this research made it clear that knowledge of large historical earthquakes in the Mediterranean is dependent upon developing specialised research and going beyond the territorial limits of current national catalogues.

  14. DNA sequencing confirms PCR-RFLP identification of wild caught Larroussius sand flies from Crete and Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Dokianakis, Emmanouil; Tsirigotakis, Nikolaos; Christodoulou, Vasiliki; Poulakakis, Nikos; Antoniou, Maria

    2016-12-01

    Many Phlebotomine sand fly species (Diptera, Psychodidae) are vectors of the protozoan parasite Leishmania causing a group of diseases called the leishmaniases. The subgenus Larroussius includes sand fly vectors found in South East Mediterranean Basin responsible for Visceral (VL) and Cutaneous human leishmaniasis (CL). It is important to monitor these medically important insects in order to safely predict possible Leishmania transmission cycles. Leishmania infantum is endemic in the islands of Crete and Cyprus with increasing VL cases in humans and dogs and in Cyprus the newly introduced Leishmania donovani causes both VL and CL in humans. The morphological identification of the females of the subgenus Larroussius often presents difficulties. Morphology and COI PCR - RFLP were used to identify wild caught Larroussius sand flies belonging to Phlebotomus tobbi, P. perfiliewi, and P. neglectus species from Crete and Cyprus. The identification results were further confirmed by sequencing (DNA barcoding) and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis. COI PCR - RFLP, when correctly optimized and with respect to geographical origin, can serve as an initial patterning identification tool when large sand fly numbers need to be identified. It could accurately assign Larroussius females and males to their taxa overcoming the difficulties of morphological identification. Finally, DNA barcoding will contribute to a molecular identification database to be used for in-depth species studies.

  15. Variation of some Planetary seismic hazard indices on the occasion of Lefkada, Greece, earthquake of 17 November, 2015.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contadakis, Michael E.; Arabelos, Demetrios N.; Vergos, George; Spatala, Spyrous; Skeberis, Christos; Xenos, Tomas D.

    2017-04-01

    , Annals of Geophysics, 59, 1, S0102. Contadakis, M. E., Arabelos, D. N., Spatalas, S., 2009, Evidence for tidal triggering on the shallow earthquakes of the seismic area of Mygdonia basin, North Greece, in Terrestrial and Stellar Environment, eds. D. Arabelos, M.E. Contadakis, C. Kaltsikis, I.N. Tziavos, Ziti Press Thessaloniki,Greece,pp 223-235. Contadakis, M. E., Arabelos, D.N., Spatalas, S.D., 2012, Evidence for tidal triggering for the earthquakes of the Ionian geological zone, Greece, Annals of Geophysics, Vol. 55, No. 1, p. 73-81. Vergos, G., Arabelos, D.N., Contadakis, M.E., 2015, Evidence for Tidal triggering on the earthquakes of the Hellenic Arc, Greece., Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 85-86, 210-215. Contadakis, M.E., Arabelos, D.N., Asteriadis, G., Spatalas, S.D., Pikridas, C. TEC variations over the Mediterranean during the seismic activity period of the last quarter of 2005 in the area of Greece, Nat. Hazards and Earth Syst. Sci., 8, 1267-1276, 2008. Contadakis, M.E., Arabelos, D.N., Asteriadis, G., Spatalas, S.D., Pikridas, C. TEC variations over Southern Europe before and during the M6.3 Abruzzo earthquake of 6th April 2009, Annals of Geophysics, vol. 55, iss. 1, p. 83-93, 2012a. Contadakis, M. E., Arabelos, D.N., Vergos, G., Spatalas, S. D., Skordilis, M., 2015,TEC variations over the Mediterranean before and during the strong earthquake (M = 6.5) of 12th October 2013 in Crete, Greece, Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Volume 85, p. 9-16. Skeberis, C., Zaharis, Z. D., Xenos, T. D., Spatalas, S., Arabelos, D. N., & Contadakis, M. E. (2015). Time-frequency analysis of VLF for seismic-ionospheric precursor detection: Evaluation of Zhao-Atlas-Marks and Hilbert-Huang Transforms. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, 85, 174-184

  16. Lifelong Education in Greece: Recent Developments and Current Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karalis, Thanassis; Vergidis, Dimitris

    2004-01-01

    This article concerns recent developments and current trends in lifelong education in Greece, specifically those related with funding from European Social Fund (ESF). The analysis undertaken focuses mainly on (a) the expansion of continuing training activities in Greece during the past ten years and the development of new training organizations as…

  17. Intellectual Assessment of Children and Adolescents: The Case of Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bablekou, Zoe; Kazi, Smaragda

    2016-01-01

    The article reviews the history of intellectual assessment of children and adolescents in Greece, as well as procedures, current practices, and future directions. Although the history of special education is long in Greece, there has been very sporadic and incoherent legislation and decision making on the subject. Currently, intelligence tests are…

  18. Conducting Qualitative Research on Desertification in Western Lesvos, Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iosifides, Theodoros; Politidis, Theodoros

    2005-01-01

    The main aim of this article is to present some critical methodological strategies employed in a qualitative research study on local socioeconomic development and desertification in western Lesvos, Greece. Through in-depth qualitative interviews with local producers in western Lesvos, Greece, an effort was made to identify and analyze the links…

  19. Intellectual Assessment of Children and Adolescents: The Case of Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bablekou, Zoe; Kazi, Smaragda

    2016-01-01

    The article reviews the history of intellectual assessment of children and adolescents in Greece, as well as procedures, current practices, and future directions. Although the history of special education is long in Greece, there has been very sporadic and incoherent legislation and decision making on the subject. Currently, intelligence tests are…

  20. Educational Reform in Greece: Central Concepts and a Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gounari, Panayota; Grollios, George

    2012-01-01

    The case of Greece as the most recent neoliberal experiment can provide valuable insights not only about a generalized attack on the welfare state and the public good, but also about the radical changes in public education that are altering its public mission, vision, and goals. In this paper first we trace the educational landscape in Greece as…

  1. Educational Reform in Greece: Central Concepts and a Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gounari, Panayota; Grollios, George

    2012-01-01

    The case of Greece as the most recent neoliberal experiment can provide valuable insights not only about a generalized attack on the welfare state and the public good, but also about the radical changes in public education that are altering its public mission, vision, and goals. In this paper first we trace the educational landscape in Greece as…

  2. Academic Libraries in Greece: The Present Situation and Future Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Dean H., Ed.

    The purpose of this collection of essays is to examine academic libraries in Greece at a time when the potential for changes and advance in librarianship is great. The 15 papers are as follows: "International Interlibrary Cooperation: Exchanging Goals, Values and Culture" (Don L. Tolliver); "Academic Libraries in Greece" (James…

  3. Conducting Qualitative Research on Desertification in Western Lesvos, Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iosifides, Theodoros; Politidis, Theodoros

    2005-01-01

    The main aim of this article is to present some critical methodological strategies employed in a qualitative research study on local socioeconomic development and desertification in western Lesvos, Greece. Through in-depth qualitative interviews with local producers in western Lesvos, Greece, an effort was made to identify and analyze the links…

  4. Association of IRF5 polymorphisms with increased risk for systemic lupus erythematosus in population of Crete, a southern-eastern European Greek island.

    PubMed

    Zervou, M I; Dorschner, J M; Ghodke-Puranik, Y; Boumpas, D T; Niewold, T B; Goulielmos, G N

    2017-04-30

    Interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) regulates type I interferon (IFN)-responsive genes, and has been one of the most consistently associated genes with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We sought to investigate whether IRF5 haplotypes are associated with risk for SLE in the genetically homogeneous Greek population of the island of Crete, as well as whether these haplotypes are associated with increased type I IFN. 322 SLE patients and 247 healthy controls from Crete were genotyped for rs2004640, rs3807306, rs10488631 and rs2280714 SNPs of IRF5 gene by using Taqman primer-probe sets. Type I IFN levels were measured using a functional reporter cell assay. All IRF5 SNPs examined were found to be associated with SLE in univariate case-control analysis. The 4 SNPs formed 5 major haplotypes and the Neanderthal-derived TACA risk haplotype was present in Crete and enriched in the SLE cases (OR=2.01, P=0.0003). Serum IFN levels were measured in a subset of the SLE patients, and carriage of the TACA haplotype was associated with higher circulating type I IFN levels (P=0.037). This study demonstrates the association of IRF5 with an increased susceptibility for SLE in the population of Crete and emphasizes the association of the Neanderthal-derived IRF5 haplotype with SLE susceptibility. Patients carrying allele the Neanderthal allele C had greater type I IFN, supporting a functional consequence of this polymorphism.

  5. Characteristics of farm injuries in Greece.

    PubMed

    Alexe, D M; Petridou, E; Dessypris, N; Skenderis, N; Trichopoulos, D

    2003-08-01

    To assess the characteristics of occupational and leisure farm injuries in Greece. During a five-year period (1996-2000), 4,326 unintentional farm injuries have been recorded by the Emergency Department Injury Surveillance System in Greece. Data concerning demographic variables, accident conditions, and injury characteristics were collected by in person interviews. The data were analyzed by simple cross-tabulation and hierarchical cluster analysis. Injuries from falls on the same level are mainly lower-limb fractures and occur during the winter among older women. Falls from higher level concern migrant workers, who also tend to suffer severe multiple injuries, including concussions, particularly during autumn. Injuries resulting from cutting and piercing instruments, as well as from machinery, are generally open wounds in the upper-limbs, suffered by young migrant workers. Head injuries resulting from striking against an object are more generally spread across socio-demographic variables. Overexertion is the dominant mechanism for dislocations and sprains in the lower limbs. Snake and insect bites are common among younger migrant workers during summer, and they affect the upper limbs during manual work close to the ground. Non-traffic injuries from vehicles are frequently severe, involving head concussion of generally young individuals. In Greece, farm injuries are frequently serious and require hospitalization. These injuries show distinct patterns among older women (lower-limb fractures), young individuals (non-traffic vehicle-related injuries) and migrant workers (injuries from cutting and piercing instruments, falls from high level, and bites). Prevention strategies should give priority to these population groups. These prevention strategies should include guidance for poorly educated workers, including migrants, enforcement of safety regulations concerning farming machinery, and discouragement of risky farming activities among elderly individuals, particularly

  6. Vascular nursing in Greece: luxury or necessity?

    PubMed

    Georgakarakos, Efstratios; Bitza, Christina; Papanas, Nikolaos; Matsagkas, Miltiadis; Lazarides, Miltos K

    2013-09-01

    Although peripheral arterial disease is prevalent in the primary care setting, insufficient vascular education among nurses and physicians coupled with certain economic constraints undermines treatment efficacy. Moreover, the burden of advanced venous pathology such as posthrombotic syndrome, venous ulcers, and lymphedema remains suboptimally treated. This article advocates the development of a vascular nursing specialty as a means to improving vascular care especially nowadays, when health care providers dictate comprehensive and cost-effective nursing practice and patient management. It also presents the first attempt to organize a Vascular Nursing Educational Session in Greece.

  7. Archaeomagnetism in Macedonia, Greece: a progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, M. E.; Kontopoulou, D.

    A project has been initiated to gather archaeomagnetic data from the rich archaeological heritage of Macedonia. We report here results from the first five kilns studied, which range in age from Hellenistic to Byzantine (broadly speaking, from 500BC to 1500AD). With so few data, and such a long time interval, we are obviously far from defining the geomagnetic secular variation in northern Greece. Nevertheless, a useful first step has been taken, and the results obtained so far compare favourably with the much larger data set from nearby Bulgaria.

  8. Distributional effects of environmental policies in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekakis, Joseph N.

    1990-07-01

    Environmental protection policies generate an equity question concerning the fair allocation of environmental benefits and costs. This paper presents evidence from Greece during the 1980s. The findings reveal that Greek environmental policies, in the form of government self-regulatory programs, are mostly regressive in nature. At the regional level these programs combine all forms of vertical equity. Since the public sector finances the majority of related expenditures out of taxes, the regressive elements of environmental policies have been reinforced by discretionary fiscal measures and tax evasion, accompanied by inflation, which have distorted the country's progressive tax system.

  9. Seismic hazard in Greece. I. Magnitude recurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makropoulos, Kostas C.; Burton, Paul W.

    1985-08-01

    Two different methods are applied to the earthquake catalogue for Greece (Makropoulos and Burton, 1981), MB catalogue, to evaluate Greek seismic hazard in terms of magnitude: earthquake strain energy release and Gumbel's third asymptotic distribution of extreme values. It is found that there is a close relationship between results from the two methods. In places where the cumulative strain energy release graphs include at least one well defined cycle of periodicity of strain release, then the parameters of the third type asymptote are well defined with small uncertainties. In almost all cases the magnitude distribution shows a remarkably good third type asymptotic behaviour. The results are presented in the form of graphs and contour maps of annual and 80-year modes, and magnitudes with 70% probability of not being exceeded in the next 50 and 100 years. For six of the most heavily industrial and highly populated centres of Greece magnitude hazard parameters are also derived and examined in more detail, thereby illustrating the direct applicability of the methods in terms of zoning. The close agreement between observed and predicted extreme magnitudes shows that the sample period considered (1900-1978), is long enough to obtain statistically stable estimates. For Athens the upper bound magnitude is found to be 6.7 ± 0.3 (within 100 km) and 6.8 ± 0.4 (100 km) from the two methods respectively, whereas for Corinth an earthquake of magnitude 6.5 has a mean return period of 43 years. Greece as a whole has an upper bound magnitude 8.7 ± 0.6 and earthquakes of a size similar to the 1903 Kithira event ( M ≈ 8.0) have a mean return period of about 200 years. The significantly different maps contouring magnitudes of the annual and 80-year modes result from the fact that each place has its own distribution curvature for magnitude occurrence, and thus they are not a linear extrapolation of each other. However, as longer return periods are considered, these differences

  10. Mediterranean diet adherence during pregnancy and risk of wheeze and eczema in the first year of life: INMA (Spain) and RHEA (Greece) mother-child cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Chatzi, Leda; Garcia, Raquel; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Basterrechea, Mikel; Begiristain, Haizea; Iñiguez, Carmen; Vioque, Jesus; Kogevinas, Manolis; Sunyer, Jordi

    2013-12-14

    Maternal diet during pregnancy might influence the development of childhood allergic disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence during pregnancy on wheeze and eczema in the first year of life in two population-based mother-child cohorts in Spain and Greece. We studied 1771 mother-newborn pairs from the Spanish multi-centre 'INMA' (INfancia y Medio Ambiente) study (Gipuzkoa, Sabadell and Valencia) and 745 pairs from the 'RHEA' study in Crete, Greece. The symptoms of wheeze and eczema were based on the criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Maternal diet during pregnancy was assessed by FFQ and MD adherence was evaluated through an a priori score. Multivariate log-binomial regression models were used to adjust for several confounders in each cohort and summary estimates were obtained by a meta-analysis. MD adherence was not associated with the risk of wheeze and eczema in any cohort, and similar results were identified in the meta-analysis approach. High meat intake (relative risk (RR) 1·22, 95 % CI 1·00, 1·49) and 'processed' meat intake (RR 1·18, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·37) during pregnancy were associated with an increased risk of wheeze in the first year of life, while a high intake of dairy products was significantly associated with a decreased risk of infantile wheeze (RR 0·83, 95 % CI 0·72, 0·96). The results of the present study show that high meat intake during pregnancy may increase the risk of wheeze in the first year of life, while a high intake of dairy products may decrease it.

  11. TEC variations over the Mediterranean during the seismic activity period of the last quarter of 2005 in the area of Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contadakis, M. E.; Arabelos, D. N.; Asteriadis, G.; Spatalas, S. D.; Pikridas, C.

    2008-11-01

    In this paper the Total Electron Content (TEC) data of eight Global Positioning System (GPS) stations of the EUREF network (AUT1, Thessaloniki, TUC2, Crete in Greece, MATE, Matera, LAMP, Lampedusa in Italy, GAIA, in Portugal, RABT, Rabat, EVPA, Evpatoria in Ukrain and TRAB, Trabson in Turkey) were analysed using wavelet analysis in order to detect any frequency dependence of the correlation between TEC over different stations. In the same time frequency dependence of Dst (Global geomagnetic field disturbances) and TEC variations over each GPS station are searched in order to detect any correlation between them. The main conclusion of this analysis is that the components of TEC variation with periods <3 h are more suitable in searching for earthquake precursors. On the base of this conclusion the analyzed TEC series are searched for possible precursory phenomena on the occasion of the seismic activity of the last quarter of 2005 in the area of Greece. An exalting (i.e. an increase in the amplitude) of variations with periods up to the tidal ones (period of 6 h,8 h,12 h) may be observed a month before and during the seismic activity over the stations TUC2 and AUT1 and may be attributed to this tectonic activity. Statistical properties of the 1.5 h component of the Total Vertical Electron Content (TVEC) over the nearest GPS stations (TUC2 and AUT1) of the areas of the seismic activity indicate that this component present characteristic exalting in the time period of 15 days before the shock.

  12. TEC variations over the Mediterranean during the seismic activity period of the last quarter of 2005 in the area of Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contadakis, M. E.; Arabelos, D. N.; Asteriadis, G.; Spatalas, S. D.; Pikridas, Ch.

    2008-04-01

    TEC variations over a particular site sustain variations of different causality, global (earth revolution, earth rotation, earth-tides, variations of the geomagnetic field etc.) or local (atmospheric or underground explosions, earthquakes, volcanoes etc. A lot of work has been done by a great number of researchers on the characteristics of ionospheric variations according to their causality (wave - length, attenuation and velocity and way of propagation). In order that TEC variations over a particular site be used as earthquake precursory diagnostic a concrete sense of the interrelation of TEC variations over different sites as well as their respond of the geomagnetic field variations would be of great interest. In this paper the TEC data of eight GPS stations of the EUREF network (AUT1, Thessaloniki and TUC2, Crete in Greece, MAT, Matera and LAMP, Lampedusa in Italy, GAIA in Portugal, RABT in Rabat, EVPA, Evpatoria in Ukrain and TRAB, Trabson in Turkey) were analyzed using wavelet and DFTanalysis in order to detect any frequency dependence of the correlation of TEC over different stations. In the same time, frequency dependence of Dst and TEC variations are searched in order to detect any correlation. The main conclusion of this analysis is that the constituents of TEC variation with periods <3h are more suitable in searching for earthquake precursors. On the base of this conclusion the analyzed TEC series are searched for possible precursory phenomena, during the seismic activity of the last quarter of 2005, in the area of Greece. Variation in TEC constituents with periods <3h over the stations AUT1 and TUC2 occurred ±10days of the seismic activity may be attributed to this tectonic activity.

  13. Patients' perceptions of generic drugs in Greece.

    PubMed

    Skaltsas, Leonora N; Vasileiou, Konstantinos Z

    2015-11-01

    The use of generic drugs is growing increasingly around the world and in Greece, in particular, in order to reduce pharmaceutical expenditure. However, patients' perceptions and attitudes about generics have only partially been studied so far in Greece. This study aimed to examine the factors that influence the attitude of patients and consumers regarding generic drugs. A questionnaire survey of 364 patients visiting a pharmacy was conducted. The questionnaire consisted of 29 questions, including questions regarding their knowledge about generics, the reasons for using them, their previous experience, their willingness for generic substitution, and the factors behind these choices. Nearly half of the participants in the survey know the term 'generic' and that it has a lower price compared to the brand name drug. Their views on safety and efficacy vary significantly and the main source of information on generics is the media and the internet. The lack of knowledge is the main barrier for attitudes of doctors. Health professionals play the most influential role for the substitution of a branded drug by a generic, followed by the cost of the generic. Almost half of the patients know about generic drugs, with their lower price being the most popular feature which most patients are familiar with. It seems that primarily the doctor and, subsequently the pharmacist play the most important role in a patient's decision to replace his/her medicine with a generic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Epidemiology of aids defining conditions in Greece.

    PubMed

    Masgala, A; Nikolopoulos, G; Tsantes, A; Paraskeva, D

    2004-12-01

    To examine the secular trends of all AIDS opportunistic infections to occur first (OIs) in Greece, by year, by gender and by mode of transmission. The study included all AIDS defining conditions reported among Greek residents diagnosed with AIDS from 1981 to June 2003 and notified to the Hellenic Centre of Infectious Diseases Control. The analysis of trends in AIDS defining conditions in Greece has been performed only for the period 1993--2003. From 1981 to the first six months of 2003, 2,394 AIDS cases, 2,361 adults and 33 children, have been reported. HIV wasting syndrome was the most frequent OI to occur first followed by PCP pneumonia and Kaposi sarcoma. The frequency at which OIs occurred first varied by sex. Kaposi sarcoma was more frequent in males while tuberculosis and oesophageal candidiasis were more frequent in females. The frequency at which OIs occurred first varied also by exposure mode. Kaposi sarcoma was more frequent among men who have sex with men but that was not the case for the remaining transmission categories. From 1993 to the first six months of 2003 a downward trend was noticed only for chronic simplex disease. Since the introduction of HAART, an increasing trend was noticed for CMV disease, recurrent pneumonia, oesophageal candidiasis, Burkitt and immunoblastic lymphoma. Further epidemiological studies are needed to assess the OIs trends in coming years in order to plan prevention strategies and future medical care needs.

  15. Anciet marble quarries in Lesvos island Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mataragkas, M.; Mataragkas, D.

    2009-04-01

    ANCIENT MARBLE QUARRIES IN LESBOS ISLAND, GREECE Varti- Matarangas M.1 & Matarangas D. 1 Institute of Geological and Mining Exploration (IGME), Olympic Village, Entrance C, ACHARNAE 13677, GREECE myrsini@igme.gr , myrsini@otenet.g r A B S T R A C T Ten ancient marble quarries of Lesbos Island, most of them previously unknown, have been studied, in the frame of the research study on the ancient marble quarries in the Aegean Sea. In the present paper the geological, petrological and morphological features of the aforementioned quarries are examined. Concerning the six ancient quarries located in the areas of Tarti, Agia Paraskevi (Tsaf), Mageiras, Loutra, Latomi (Plomari) and Thermi, the authochthonous neopaleozoic unit constitutes their geological formation, while their hosting lithological formations are the included crystalline limestone lens like beds. In two ancient quarries in the areas Moria and Alyfanta, the geological formation is the authochthonous upper Triassic series and the hosting lithological formation the upper Triassic carbonate sequence, while in the areas of Akrasi-Abeliko and Karyni, the geological formation is the thrust Triassic unit and the lithological hosting formations are the included strongly deformed or not crystalline limestone lenticular beds. Furthermore, the petrographic features were also determined permitting the identification of the building stones that have been used.

  16. Depression and adipose polyunsaturated fatty acids in the survivors of the Seven Countries Study population of Crete.

    PubMed

    Mamalakis, George; Kiriakakis, Michael; Tsibinos, George; Kafatos, Anthony

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relation between adipose tissue polyunsaturated fatty acids, an index of long-term or habitual fatty acid dietary intake and depression. The sample consisted of 150 elderly males from the island of Crete. The subjects were survivors of the Greek Seven Countries Study group. The mean age was 84 years. The number of subjects with complete data on all variables studied was 63. Subjects were examined by the Preventive Medicine and Nutrition Clinic of the University of Crete. Depression was assessed through the use of the short form of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15). Depression correlated negatively with adipose tissue alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3). Depressed subjects had significantly reduced (-10.5%) adipose tissue C18:3n-3 levels than non-depressed subjects. The observed negative relation between adipose tissue C18:3n-3 and depression, in the present study, appears to indicate increasing long-term dietary C18:3n-3 intakes with decreasing depression. This agrees with findings of other studies indicating an inverse relation between depression and consumption of fish and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. This is the first literature report of a relation between adipose tissue C18:3n-3 and depression. Furthermore, this is the first report of a relation between adipose PUFA and depression in an elderly sample. Depression has been reported to be associated with elevated cytokines, such as, IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, INF-gamma and INF-alpha. Fish oil and omega-3 fatty acids, on the other hand, have been reported to inhibit cytokine production. The observed negative relation between adipose C18:3n-3 and depression, therefore, may stem from the inhibiting effect of C18:3n-3 or its long-chain metabolites on cytokine synthesis.

  17. Protective effect of fruits, vegetables and the Mediterranean diet on asthma and allergies among children in Crete

    PubMed Central

    Chatzi, Leda; Apostolaki, Gianna; Bibakis, Ioannis; Skypala, Isabel; Bibaki‐Liakou, Vasilki; Tzanakis, Nikolaos; Kogevinas, Manolis; Cullinan, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Background Atopy is not uncommon among children living in rural Crete, but wheeze and rhinitis are rare. A study was undertaken to examine whether this discrepancy could be attributed to a high consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables or adherence to a traditional Mediterranean diet. Methods A cross‐sectional survey was performed in 690 children aged 7–18 years in rural Crete. Parents completed a questionnaire on their child's respiratory and allergic symptoms and a 58‐item food frequency questionnaire. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet was measured using a scale with 12 dietary items. Children underwent skin prick tests with 10 common aeroallergens. Results 80% of children ate fresh fruit (and 68% vegetables) at least twice a day. The intake of grapes, oranges, apples, and fresh tomatoes—the main local products in Crete—had no association with atopy but was protective for wheezing and rhinitis. A high consumption of nuts was found to be inversely associated with wheezing (OR 0.46; 95% CI 0.20 to 0.98), whereas margarine increased the risk of both wheeze (OR 2.19; 95% CI 1.01 to 4.82) and allergic rhinitis (OR 2.10; 95% CI 1.31 to 3.37). A high level of adherence to the Mediterranean diet was protective for allergic rhinitis (OR 0.34; 95% CI 0.18 to 0.64) while a more modest protection was observed for wheezing and atopy. Conclusion The results of this study suggest a beneficial effect of commonly consumed fruits, vegetables and nuts, and of a high adherence to a traditional Mediterranean diet during childhood on symptoms of asthma and rhinitis. Diet may explain the relative lack of allergic symptoms in this population. PMID:17412780

  18. Mysida and Lophogastrida of Greece: a preliminary checklist

    PubMed Central

    Gerovasileiou, Vasilis; Bailly, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The checklist of Mysida and Lophogastrida of Greece was created within the framework of the Greek Taxon Information System (GTIS), which is one of the applications of the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure (ESFRI) resuming efforts to develop a complete checklist of species recorded and reported from Greek waters. The objectives of the present study were to update and cross-check taxonomically all records of Mysida and Lophogastrida species known to occur in Greek waters in order to search for inaccuracies and omissions. New information The up-to-date checklist of Mysida and Lophogastrida of Greece comprises 49 species, classified to 25 genera. PMID:27932912

  19. New constraints on the rapid crustal motion of the Aegean region: recent results inferred from GPS measurements (1993-1998) across the West Hellenic Arc, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocard, M.; Kahle, H.-G.; Peter, Y.; Geiger, A.; Veis, G.; Felekis, S.; Paradissis, D.; Billiris, H.

    1999-10-01

    In this paper we present the most recent observations of crustal motion across the entire West Hellenic Arc (WHA). These are based on repeated GPS measurements carried out in the period from 1993 to 1998. The results are presented in terms of trajectories and rates, relative to Eurasia. Within these five years southwestern Greece has moved to the southwest by an average rate of 30 mm/a, increasing from 10 mm/a at the island of Lefkada, in the center of the Ionian islands, to nearly 40 mm/a along the southwest part of the Peloponnesus and to 35 mm/a on the islands of Crete and Gavdhos. The data provide strong evidence that distributed shear strain starts at the Kephalonia Fault Zone (KFZ), were an anomalously high earthquake activity is also observed. A striking interruption of the motion is seen at the island of Strofades, at the southwest leading edge of the WHA, where a south-oriented displacement of 12 cm was detected, coincident with the M = 6.4 Strofades earthquake of Nov. 18, 1997.

  20. Case-mix adjustment approach to benchmarking prevalence rates of nosocomial infection in hospitals in Cyprus and Greece.

    PubMed

    Kritsotakis, Evangelos I; Dimitriadis, Ioannis; Roumbelaki, Maria; Vounou, Emelia; Kontou, Maria; Papakyriakou, Panikos; Koliou-Mazeri, Maria; Varthalitis, Ioannis; Vrouchos, George; Troulakis, George; Gikas, Achilleas

    2008-08-01

    To examine the effect of heterogeneous case mix for a benchmarking analysis and interhospital comparison of the prevalence rates of nosocomial infection. Cross-sectional survey. Eleven hospitals located in Cyprus and in the region of Crete in Greece. The survey included all inpatients in the medical, surgical, pediatric, and gynecology-obstetrics wards, as well as those in intensive care units. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria were used to define nosocomial infection. The information collected for all patients included demographic characteristics, primary admission diagnosis, Karnofsky functional status index, Charlson comorbidity index, McCabe-Jackson severity of illness classification, use of antibiotics, and prior exposures to medical and surgical risk factors. Outcome data were also recorded for all patients. Case mix-adjusted rates were calculated by using a multivariate logistic regression model for nosocomial infection risk and an indirect standardization method.Results. The overall prevalence rate of nosocomial infection was 7.0% (95% confidence interval, 5.9%-8.3%) among 1,832 screened patients. Significant variation in nosocomial infection rates was observed across hospitals (range, 2.2%-9.6%). Logistic regression analysis indicated that the mean predicted risk of nosocomial infection across hospitals ranged from 3.7% to 10.3%, suggesting considerable variation in patient risk. Case mix-adjusted rates ranged from 2.6% to 12.4%, and the relative ranking of hospitals was affected by case-mix adjustment in 8 cases (72.8%). Nosocomial infection was significantly and independently associated with mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 3.6 [95% confidence interval, 2.1-6.1]). The first attempt to rank the risk of nosocomial infection in these regions demonstrated the importance of accounting for heterogeneous case mix before attempting interhospital comparisons.

  1. Long term characterization of organic and elemental carbon in the PM2.5 fraction: the case of Athens, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paraskevopoulou, D.; Liakakou, E.; Gerasopoulos, E.; Theodosi, C.; Mihalopoulos, N.

    2014-06-01

    Organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and main ions were measured in a total of 1510 PM2.5 daily aerosol samples collected from May 2008 to April 2013, in Athens, Greece. OC and EC concentrations were 2.1 ± 1.3 μg m-3 and 0.54 ± 0.39 μg m-3, accounting for 11 ± 3% and 3 ± 1% of PM2.5 mass respectively, with an average OC/EC ratio of 4.7 ± 3.1. Significant correlation was found between OC and EC during the whole period, indicating emissions by common primary sources at a~regional scale. WSOC concentration ranged from 0.03 to 10.6 μg m-3, with an average of 1.5 ± 0.9 μg m-3. By considering Finokalia (Crete) station as a reference, it was estimated that during the warm season in Athens 67 ± 7% of emitted OC and 53 ± 12% of emitted EC is regional, while during cold months, the regional contribution for OC is only 33 ± 7% and for EC 29 ± 8%. Furthermore, secondary organic carbon (SOC) was calculated for the warm period of the year (April to October). The estimated SOC constituted about 75 ± 6% of PM2.5 organic carbon in Athens, highlighting significant aging processes, at a regional scale. In the period 2011-2013 and during wintertime, an increase in OC and EC levels was observed, attributed to increase of wood burning for domestic heating due to the economic crisis.

  2. Focal Mechanisms at the convergent plate boundary in Southern Aegean, Greece.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshou, Alexandra; Papadimitriou, Eleftheria; Drakatos, George; Evangelidis, Christos; Karakostas, Vasilios; Vallianatos, Filippos; Makropoulos, Konstantinos

    2014-05-01

    Greece is characterized by high seismicity, mainly due to the collision between the European and the African lithospheric plates and the dextral strike slip motion along the North Anatolia Fault zone and North Aegean Trough. The subduction of the Eastern Mediterranean oceanic plate along the Hellenic Arc under the Aegean microplate along with the accompanied roll back of the descending slab is considered the main tectonic feature of the region (Papazachos and Comninakis 1971; Makropoulos and Burton 1984; Papazachos et al. 2000a, b). The divergent motion between the Aegean block and mainland Europe is indicated by an extension zone in the northern Aegean, with Crete and Aegean diverging from mainland Europe at a rate of about 3.5 cm yr-1 with Africa moving northward relative to Europe at a rate of about 1 cm yr-1 (Dewey et al., 1989; Papazachos et al., 1998; Mc-Clusky et al., 2000; Reilinger et al., 2006). In this tectonically complicated area diverge types of deformation are manifested, in addition to the dominant subduction processes. Aiming to shed more light in the seismotectonic properties and faulting seismological data from the Hellenic Unified Seismological Network (HUSN) were selected and analyzed for determining focal mechanisms using the method of moment tensor inversion, additional to the ones being available from the routine moment tensor solutions and several publications. Thus, 31 new fault plane solutions for events with magnitude M>4.0, are presented in this study, by using the software of Ammon (Randall et al., 1995). For this scope the data from at least 4 stations were used with an adequate azimuthal coverage and with an epicentral distance not more than 350 km. The preparation of the data includes the deconvolution of instruments response, then the velocity was integrated to displacement and finally the horizontal components were rotated to radial and transverse. Following, the signal was inverted using the reflectivity method of Kennett (1983

  3. Vocational Education and Training in Greece: The European Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paleocrassas, Stamatis

    1992-01-01

    Gives a brief review of Greece's current vocational education/training system, compares it to European models, describes the European Community process of harmonization of vocational qualifications, and discusses new legislation establishing a national vocational education/training system. (SK)

  4. Suicide in Greece: 2001-2011.

    PubMed

    Kontaxakis, V; Papaslanis, Th; Havaki-Kontaxaki, B; Tsouvelas, G; Giotakos, O; Papadimitriou, G Ν

    2013-01-01

    Since 2008 several European countries have fallen into a financial crisis. This crisis has mainly affected the Greek population. The lower of income and the increase of unemployment as consequences of crisis lead to negative effects on people's mental health. Usually, in periods of economic crisis there is an increase of suicidality of population. The aim of this study is to examine the changes of suicide rates in Greece during the last decade (2001-2011) with particular consideration in the recent period of economic crisis (2008-2011). Data regarding the greek general population and the crude data on suicides were obtained from the Hellenic Statistical Authority (ELSTAT). We assessed the specific suicide rate, i.e. the number of suicide cases per 100.000 inhabitants (SSR) using population data on the 2001 and 2011 census. Yearly and mean total, age and sex-SSR were calculated in five years age groups. There were no suicide cases among children under the age of fifteen. We compared total and male, female SSR during the period before the crisis (2001-2007) and during the crisis (2008-2011). During the decade 2001-2011 a total number of 4133 suicide cases were recorded. There were 3423 (82.8%) male suicides and 710 (17.2%) female suicides. During the decade 2001-2011 total SSR increased by 38.4%. In males increased by 33.1% and in females by 69.6%. In the period before the crisis (2001-2007) total SSR decreased by 3.9%. In males decreased by 8.4% but in females increased by 22.3%. During the period of crisis (2008-2011) total SSR increased by 27.2%. In males increased by 26.9% and in females by 28.5%. There was a statistically significant increase in total SSR during the crisis regarding subjects 50-54 years old (t=3.43, p=0.007) and in total SSR of males (t=2.31, p=0.047) as well as of the males age groups 50-54 (t=3.56, p=0.006), 45-49 (t=2.87, p=0.02), 30-34 (t=2.96, p=0.02). There were no statistically significant differences both in total SSR and in SSR of all

  5. Greece's health crisis: from austerity to denialism.

    PubMed

    Kentikelenis, Alexander; Karanikolos, Marina; Reeves, Aaron; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2014-02-22

    Greece's economic crisis has deepened since it was bailed out by the international community in 2010. The country underwent the sixth consecutive year of economic contraction in 2013, with its economy shrinking by 20% between 2008 and 2012, and anaemic or no growth projected for 2014. Unemployment has more than tripled, from 7·7% in 2008 to 24·3% in 2012, and long-term unemployment reached 14·4%. We review the background to the crisis, assess how austerity measures have affected the health of the Greek population and their access to public health services, and examine the political response to the mounting evidence of a Greek public health tragedy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Twins in Ancient Greece: a synopsis.

    PubMed

    Malamitsi-Puchner, Ariadne

    2016-01-01

    This brief outline associates twins with several aspects of life in Ancient Greece. In Greek mythology twins caused ambivalent reactions and were believed to have ambivalent feelings for each other. Very often, they were viewed as the representatives of the dualistic nature of the universe. Heteropaternal superfecundation, which dominates in ancient myths, explains on one hand, the god-like qualities and, on the other hand, the mortal nature of many twins. An assumption is presented that legends referring to twins might reflect the territorial expansions of Ancient Greeks in Northern Mediterranean, around the Black Sea, in Asia Minor, as well as North East Africa. In conclusion, in Greek antiquity, twins have been used as transitional figures between myth and reality.

  7. Greece Financial Crisis and Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Mechili, Aggelos E; Kalokairinou, Athena; Kaitelidou, Dafni; Diomidous, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    The last six years the global community is facing an economic crisis that first appeared in USA. This crisis has a lot of impacts especially in health sector. Unemployment, job insecurity and the loss of disposable income have a significant impact in health too. The main objective of this research was to investigate the quality of life of the general population in Greece during the financial crisis. To collect the data it has been used the Greek version of Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36v2). In general, income, level of education, cohabitation and parenthood had a significant impact in quality of life. As a conclusion, unemployed participants' score was lower in the entire dimensions and in the two summary scales too.

  8. Preterm birth in ancient Greece: a synopsis.

    PubMed

    Malamitsi-Puchner, Ariadne

    2017-01-01

    This report refers to preterm birth in Ancient Greece based on mythological, historical and archeological data. The two antique goddesses, patronesses of labor and birth, Artemis and Eileithyia, cared for full-term, as well as preterm infants, among them for the mythological preterms Dionysos and Eurystheus. The former was rapidly transported by Hermes and received special care by the nymphs Hyades in a mountain cave with "incubator" properties. Historical data are related to the nine months duration of a normal pregnancy, to the definition of "Elitomina" (preterms), the lower limit of viability, the causes for preterm birth, the existence of small for gestational age infants and relevant causes, the physical examination of neonates and postpartum care. Lastly, excavations in Athens and Astypalaia discovered burials - in wells or pots - of preterm infants with gestational age 24-37 weeks.

  9. Nowcasting extreme weather events over Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsafados, Petros; Nomikou, Vera; Mavromatidis, Elias; Papadopoulos, Anastasios; Lagouvardos, Konstantinos; Kotroni, Vassiliki

    2014-05-01

    Accurate and consistent very short-term prediction (nowcasting) of high-impact weather events can lead to significant improvement in warnings and advisories providing a direct impact on the risk management. To this end, an advanced mesoscale meteorological data assimilation tool, the Local Analysis and Prediction System (LAPS), has been implemented in order to serve as an early warning system. LAPS incorporates surface and upper air observations (METAR, SYNOP, satellite, soundings, radar, aircraft etc) into large-scale gridded data (as background fields) and produces high spatial and temporal resolution analysis fields and early forecasts. This study presents the performance of the LAPS system in describing two unusual events of hazardous weather conditions over Greece. The first case study is characterized by the passage of a cyclonic system accompanied with cold fronts over Southern Greece. Heavy downpour, lightning and flooding were the main characteristics of the storm that affected Athens metropolitan area on February 22nd 2013. In the second case study the passage of a cold front over SE Aegean Sea led in a destructive and deadly flash flooding that affected the Northern areas of Rhodes Island on November 22nd 2013. This second flash flood event was triggered by the extreme precipitation (almost 100 mm in 4 hours) and killed 4 people making it the deadliest ever for the area. For both case studies, the conventional numerical weather prediction models operating at various research institutes and universities provided a rather insufficient spatiotemporal estimation of the extreme precipitation. For these cases, the LAPS-based nowcasting procedure has been applied with and without the ingestion of high resolution remote sensed precipitation estimates. The LAPS outputs have been evaluated against independent observations obtained from a dense network of surface meteorological stations. Results indicate that LAPS outputs were better than those obtained from the

  10. The practice of electroconvulsive therapy in Greece.

    PubMed

    Kaliora, Styliani C; Braga, Raphael J; Petrides, Georgios; Chatzimanolis, John; Papadimitriou, George N; Zervas, Iannis M

    2013-09-01

    To describe the practice of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in Greece. A survey was conducted during the academic year 2008-2009. Electroconvulsive therapy use was investigated for 2007. All civilian institutions providing inpatient care were included. Centers that provided ECT completed a 57-item questionnaire. Centers that did not offer ECT completed a 13-item questionnaire. Fifty-five (82.1%) of 67 institutions responded. Electroconvulsive therapy was offered in 18 hospitals. Only 2 of 10 university hospitals offered ECT. Overall, 137 patients were treated with 1271 sessions in 2007. Only 1.47% discontinued treatment owing to adverse events. There were no deaths. Schizophrenia was the most common diagnosis (41.3%) among those receiving ECT, followed by major depression (28.9%), bipolar depression (9.1%), catatonia (4.1%), suicidal ideation (3.3%), and schizoaffective disorder (2.5%). Physicians considered major depression (93.8%), catatonia (86.5%), schizophrenia (56.3%), and mania (50%) the most appropriate indications. Written informed consent was required in 77.8% of the institutions, whereas the rest required verbal consent. Bilateral ECT was the preferred electrode placement (88.9%). Modified ECT was used exclusively. Propofol was the preferred anesthetic (44.4%), followed by thiopental (38.9%). Seven (38.9%) of 18 hospitals used a fixed stimulus dose at first treatment. Five (27.8%) of 18 hospitals used the half-age method. Continuation/maintenance ECT was used in 33.3% of the hospitals. Outpatient ECT was seldom used. Lack of training, difficult access to anesthesiology, billing issues, and stigma were cited as the main impediments to the practice of ECT. Electroconvulsive therapy is practiced in moderate numbers in Greece and almost exclusively on an inpatient basis. Lack of training and lack of availability of anesthesiologists were cited as the most common obstacles to providing ECT.

  11. Greece’s Debt Crisis: Overview, Policy Responses, and Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-07

    economic downturn (which requires expansionary fiscal policies ) – are at odds with each other. Some question, then, how long the government will be able to...countries, like Greece, have had higher levels of wage growth and more expansionary fiscal policies , leading to less competitive exports and lower...unified monetary policy and diverse fiscal policies . It has also come to light that complex financial instruments may have played a role in helping Greece

  12. Isolation of Legionella pneumophila from hotels of Greece.

    PubMed

    Alexiou, S D; Antoniadis, A; Papapaganagiotou, J; Stefanou, T

    1989-03-01

    Twenty water samples collected from 6 hotels situated in various areas of Greece were examined for the presence of Legionella pneumophila and Legionella-like organisms. Five of the six hotels included in this investigation were associated with cases of legionellosis. Legionella pneumophila serogroups 1 and 8 were isolated from four of six hotels, mainly from the hot water supply system. This is the first isolation and identification of L. pneumophila in Greece.

  13. Ascidiacea (Chordata: Tunicata) of Greece: an updated checklist.

    PubMed

    Antoniadou, Chryssanthi; Gerovasileiou, Vasilis; Bailly, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The checklist of the ascidian fauna (Tunicata: Ascidiacea) of Greece was compiled within the framework of the Greek Taxon Information System (GTIS), an application of the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure (ESFRI) aiming to produce a complete checklist of species recorded from Greece. This checklist was constructed by updating an existing one with the inclusion of recently published records. All the reported species from Greek waters were taxonomically revised and cross-checked with the Ascidiacea World Database. The updated checklist of the class Ascidiacea of Greece comprises 75 species, classified in 33 genera, 12 families, and 3 orders. In total, 8 species have been added to the previous species list (4 Aplousobranchia, 2 Phlebobranchia, and 2 Stolidobranchia). Aplousobranchia was the most speciose order, followed by Stolidobranchia. Most species belonged to the families Didemnidae, Polyclinidae, Pyuridae, Ascidiidae, and Styelidae; these 4 families comprise 76% of the Greek ascidian species richness. The present effort revealed the limited taxonomic research effort devoted to the ascidian fauna of Greece, which is attributed to the lack of experts and low sampling effort. Therefore, major knowledge gaps on the ascidian diversity of Greece occur and further research in this field is needed.

  14. Ascidiacea (Chordata: Tunicata) of Greece: an updated checklist

    PubMed Central

    Gerovasileiou, Vasilis; Bailly, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The checklist of the ascidian fauna (Tunicata: Ascidiacea) of Greece was compiled within the framework of the Greek Taxon Information System (GTIS), an application of the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure (ESFRI) aiming to produce a complete checklist of species recorded from Greece. This checklist was constructed by updating an existing one with the inclusion of recently published records. All the reported species from Greek waters were taxonomically revised and cross-checked with the Ascidiacea World Database. New information The updated checklist of the class Ascidiacea of Greece comprises 75 species, classified in 33 genera, 12 families, and 3 orders. In total, 8 species have been added to the previous species list (4 Aplousobranchia, 2 Phlebobranchia, and 2 Stolidobranchia). Aplousobranchia was the most speciose order, followed by Stolidobranchia. Most species belonged to the families Didemnidae, Polyclinidae, Pyuridae, Ascidiidae, and Styelidae; these 4 families comprise 76% of the Greek ascidian species richness. The present effort revealed the limited taxonomic research effort devoted to the ascidian fauna of Greece, which is attributed to the lack of experts and low sampling effort. Therefore, major knowledge gaps on the ascidian diversity of Greece occur and further research in this field is needed. PMID:27932910

  15. The Balance Sheet of the Battle of Crete: How Allied Indecision, Bureaucracy, and Pretentiousness Lost the Battle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    Romanian oil fields, Hitler issued 5 the Axis orders to invade Yugoslavia and Greece. In concert, he deployed Field Marshal Erwin Rommel and the...to solidify control of the Middle East and northern Africa . Neither Germany nor the Allies had designs for the eastern Mediterranean. Enter Benito...operations occurred in North Africa and Egypt where C-in-C Middle East, General Archibald Percival Wavell, battled the Italian Tenth Army to retain

  16. The oldest sediments of Greece revealed by detrital zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating: Cambro-Ordovician sandstones from northern Gondwana in the External Hellenides - implications on the evolution of the eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kydonakis, Konstantinos; Kostopoulos, Dimitrios; Poujol, Marc; Brun, Jean-Pierre; Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Paquette, Jean-Louis

    2013-04-01

    Detrital zircon U-Pb ages of a quartzite from the Feneos locality of Peloponnesus, S. Greece, were determined by LA-ICPMS. The rock classifies as a mature quartz arenite and belongs to an original shale-sandstone succession now metamorphosed into a phyllite-quartzite unit. The latter chiefly represents the External Blueschist Belt of the Hellenides widely known as the Arna or Phyllite - Quartzite (PQ) Unit. Zircon age clusters at 0.5-0.75, 0.85, 0.95-1.1, 1.75-2 and 2.4-3 Ga point at the Saharan Metacraton and the Transgondwanan Supermountain as contributing sources; the youngest concordant grain is 522 Ma old. Based on great similarities in lithology, zircon age-distribution patterns and depositional setting between the Feneos quartzite and intact Cambro-Ordovician sandstone-shale sequences of Libya (Murzuq and Kufrah basins) we propose that the protolith of the former was deposited in an epeiric sea north of Libya during the Cambro-Ordovician. Feneos, as part of the Cimmerian block, had become detached from the NE Gondwanan margin during Late Carboniferous - Early Permian times and drifted northward. In central Crete, similar-looking sequences (Galinos beds) were originally deposited in an accretionary/fore-arc complex outboard of the south Laurussian active margin (Pelagonia) between ~297-230 Ma. The southern Pelagonian margin eventually collided (mild docking) with the northward drifting Cimmerian block signaling the closure of Palaeotethys by early Late Triassic. The Gondwanan affinity of the Feneos quartzite strongly contrasts the European one of the Galinos beds; the suture of Palaeotethys can thus be traced in S. Greece within the pre-Triassic sedimentary sequences of Peloponnesus and Crete. In the eastern Mediterranean realm, rocks with similar age clusters crop out in Greece (Peloponnesus, this study; eastern Crete, Sfaka locality; north-central Macedonia, Vertiskos terrane), NW Turkey (central Sakarya terrane), Libya (Murzuq and Kufrah basins), Israel

  17. A three-step model to assess shoreline and offshore susceptibility to oil spills: the South Aegean (Crete) as an analogue for confined marine basins.

    PubMed

    Alves, Tiago M; Kokinou, Eleni; Zodiatis, George

    2014-09-15

    This study combines bathymetric, geomorphological, geological data and oil spill predictions to model the impact of oil spills in two accident scenarios from offshore Crete, Eastern Mediterranean. The aim is to present a new three-step method of use by emergency teams and local authorities in the assessment of shoreline and offshore susceptibility to oil spills. The three-step method comprises: (1) real-time analyses of bathymetric, geomorphological, geological and oceanographic data; (2) oil dispersion simulations under known wind and sea current conditions; and (3) the compilation of final hazard maps based on information from (1) and (2) and on shoreline susceptibility data. The results in this paper show that zones of high to very-high susceptibility around the island of Crete are related to: (a) offshore bathymetric features, including the presence of offshore scarps and seamounts; (b) shoreline geology, and (c) the presence near the shore of sedimentary basins filled with unconsolidated deposits of high permeability. Oil spills, under particular weather and oceanographic conditions, may quickly spread and reach the shoreline 5-96 h after the initial accident. As a corollary of this work, we present the South Aegean region around Crete as a valid case-study for confined marine basins, narrow seaways, or interior seas around island groups.

  18. April 16, 2015 Crete Island Earthquake (Mw=5.9) Series and its Seismotectonic Significance, Southern Aegean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalçın, Hilal; Kürçer, Akın; Gülen, Levent

    2016-04-01

    The active deformation of the southern Aegean Sea is a result of the northward motion of the African and Arabian Plates with respect to the Eurasian Plate in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. The Hellenic subduction zone plays a key role in the active tectonics of the region. On 16 April, 2015, a moderate earthquake occurred on the eastern part of Hellenic arc (south of Crete island), with a moment magnitude of Mw=5.9. A series of aftershocks were occurred within four months following the mainshock, which have magnitudes varying from Mw = 3.4 to 5.4. Source parameters of the 16 April 2015 earthquake have been modeled in order to reveal the regional stress tensor and the tectonic style of the region. In this study, the source parameters of the main shock and 36 aftershocks that have magnitudes M≥3.4 have been determined and modeled by seismic moment tensor waveform inversion method developed by Sokos and Zahradnik (2006) algorithm using the near-field and regional waveforms. The depth of earthquakes are varied from 2 to 61 km. Stress tensor can describe reliably principle stress axes (σ1, σ2, σ3), their relative size and stress field variations. Stress tensor inversions have been carried out using the Micheal method (1984, 1987). In this study, 16 April 2015 Crete Earthquake mainshock (Mw=5.9), a total of 36 earthquake moment tensor solutions that belong to the Crete earthquake sequence and 24 earthquake moment tensor solutions of previous main shocks in the region have been compiled and used in the stress inversion calculation. Orientations of σ1, σ2 and σ3 were computed and the principal directions are projected onto a lower hemisphere Wulff net. The best fit was attained for Phi = 0.38+/-0.13609 and indicated that the stress regime revealed strike-slip faulting with reverse component and for the azimuth and plunge pair of (-161.6°, 21.7°) for σ1, (-11.1°, 65.4°) for σ2 and (103.8°, 10.9°) for σ3. At the final step of the study, Gutenberg and

  19. The 16 April 2015 M w 6.0 offshore eastern Crete earthquake and its aftershock sequence: implications for local/regional seismotectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Görgün, Ethem; Kekovalı, Kıvanç; Kalafat, Doğan

    2017-07-01

    We examine the 16 April 2015 M w 6.0 offshore eastern Crete earthquake and its aftershock sequence in southern Aegean Sea. Centroid moment tensors for 45 earthquakes with moment magnitudes ( M w) between 3.3 and 6.0 are determined by applying a waveform inversion method. The mainshock is shallow focus thrust event with a strike-slip component at a depth of 30 km. The seismic moment ( M o) of the mainshock is estimated as 1.33 × 1018 Nm, and rupture duration of the mainshock is 3.5 s. The focal mechanisms of aftershocks are mainly thrust faulting with a strike-slip component. The geometry of the moment tensors ( M w ≥ 3.3) reveals a thrust-faulting regime with NE-SW-trending direction of T axis in the entire activated region. According to high-resolution hypocenter relocation of the eastern Crete earthquake sequence, one main cluster consisting of 352 events is revealed. The aftershock activity in the observation period between 5 January 2015 and 7 July 2015 extends from N to S direction. Seismic cross sections indicate a complex pattern of the hypocenter distribution with the activation of three segments. The subduction interface is clearly revealed with high-resolution hypocenter relocation and moment tensor solution. The best constrained focal depths indicate that the aftershock sequence is mainly confined in the upper plate (depth <40 km) and are ranging from about 4.5 to 39 km depth. A stress tensor inversion of focal mechanism data is performed to obtain a more precise picture of the offshore eastern Crete stress field. The stress tensor inversion results indicate a predominant thrust stress regime with a NW-SE-oriented maximum horizontal compressive stress ( S H). According to variance of the stress tensor inversion, to first order, the Crete region is characterized by a homogeneous interplate stress field. We also investigate the Coulomb stress change associated with the mainshock to evaluate any significant enhancement of stresses along Crete and

  20. Prevalence and geographic variation of abdominal obesity in 7- and 9-year-old children in Greece; World Health Organization Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative 2010.

    PubMed

    Hassapidou, Maria; Tzotzas, Themistoklis; Makri, Evangelia; Pagkalos, Ioannis; Kaklamanos, Ioannis; Kapantais, Efthymios; Abrahamian, Annet; Polymeris, Antonis; Tziomalos, Konstantinos

    2017-01-28

    In children, abdominal obesity is a better predictor of the presence of cardiovascular risk factors than body mass index (BMI)-defined obesity. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of abdominal obesity in the Greek pediatric population and to assess the impact of residence on the prevalence of both BMI-defined and abdominal obesity. In the context of the Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative of the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe, a national representative sample of 7.0-7.9 and 9.0-9.9-year-old children was evaluated (n = 2,531 and 2,700, respectively). Overweight and obesity according to BMI were estimated using both the WHO and International Obesity Task Force cut-off points. Abdominal obesity was defined as waist circumference/height ratio >0.5. The prevalence of abdominal obesity did not differ between 7-year-old boys and girls (25.2 and 25.3%, respectively; p = NS). Among 9-year-old children, abdominal obesity was more prevalent in boys than in girls (33.2 and 28.2%, respectively; p = 0.005). Among normal weight and overweight children, the prevalence of abdominal obesity was 1.6-6.8 and 21.8-49.1%, respectively. The prevalence of abdominal and BMI-defined obesity did not differ between children living in the mainland, in Crete and in other islands except in 7-year-old girls, where the prevalence of BMI-defined obesity was highest in those living in Crete, intermediate in those living in other islands and lowest in those living in the mainland. In 9-year-old boys and in 7- and 9-year-old girls, the prevalence of abdominal obesity was highest in children living in Athens and lowest in children living in Thessaloniki, whereas children living in other cities and in villages showed intermediate rates. The prevalence of abdominal obesity in 7-year-old boys and the prevalence of BMI-defined obesity did not differ between children living in cities and villages. The prevalence of pediatric abdominal obesity in Greece is among

  1. Laron syndrome. First report from Greece.

    PubMed

    Galli-Tsinopoulou, Assimina; Nousia-Arvanitakis, Sanda; Tsinopoulos, Ioannis; Bechlivanides, Christos; Shevah, Orit; Laron, Zvi

    2003-01-01

    Laron-type dwarfism is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by deletions or mutations of the growth hormone receptor gene. It is characterized by high circulating levels of growth hormone (GH) and low levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). Patients are refractory to both endogenous and exogenous GH, and present severe growth retardation and obesity. Therapy with recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I (rhIGF-I) accelerates linear growth. We describe a 2-year old girl with Laron syndrome, who presented with postnatal growth failure and hypoglycaemic seizures. Her evaluation disclosed high GH values during a glucagon test (peak GH value 170 ng/ml) and very low IGF I value (0.1 ng/ml) with no rise following GH administration. The growth velocity improved considerably with the administration of IGF I. Molecular analysis showed a heterozygous mutation on exon 4 of the GH receptor gene, inherited from the mother, a rather puzzling finding considering the clinical findings in mother and infant. This case constitutes the first report of Laron syndrome from Greece.

  2. Space Radar Image of Athens, Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This space radar image of Athens, Greece, shows the sprawling, modern development of this ancient capital city. Densely populated urban areas appear in shades of pink and light green. The Acropolis the dark green triangular patch in the center of the image. Archaeological discoveries indicate Athens has been continuously occupied for at least the last 5,000 years. Numerous ships, shown as bright dots, are seen in the harbor areas in the upper left part of the image. The port city of Piraeus is at the left center. This image is 45 kilometers by 45 kilometers (28 miles by 28 miles) and is centered at 37.9 degrees north latitude, 23.7 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations are as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on October 2, 1994 onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  3. Burns during Easter festivities in Greece.

    PubMed

    Pallantzas, A; Kourakos, P; Stampolidis, N; Papagianni, E; Balagoura, A; Stathopoulos, A; Polizoi, A; Emvalomata, A; Evaggelopoulou, M; Castana, O

    2012-12-31

    Easter is the most important holiday for the Greek Church. It is rich in traditions and rituals but during the Greek Easter festivities, especially at midnight Mass on Easter Saturday night, it is customary to throw fireworks around. These fireworks are not part of the true Easter tradition and they are potentially fatal. Unfortunately, in the past few years, the custom has become more and more popular in Greece. There are some local variations, mainly in the Aegean islands, where homemade rockets are used to have a "rocket war". The rockets consist of wooden sticks loaded with an explosive mixture containing gunpowder and launched from special platforms. Many severe injuries involving loss of sight and limbs as well as major burns are also caused by the use of illegal fireworks at Easter. Every year numerous burn victims are hospitalized. The most affected areas are the face, the upper extremities, and the chest, often in association with slight or severe wounds and injuries. This study presents our department's experience with incidents due to the use of fireworks during Easter festivities.

  4. Monitoring Santorini volcano (Greece) breathing from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foumelis, Michael; Trasatti, Elisa; Papageorgiou, Elena; Stramondo, Salvatore; Parcharidis, Issaak

    2013-04-01

    Since its last eruption in 1950, Santorini volcano (Greece) remained in a dormant state. This is also evidenced for the period 1992-2010 by the gradual deflation signal over Nea Kameni as measured by satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) with low rates of about 5-6 mm yr-1 as well as by the absence of seismic activity within the caldera. However, at the beginning of 2011 the volcano showed signs of unrest with increased microseismic activity and significant ground uplift, reaching 14 cm within a year (2011 March-2012 March), according to InSAR time-series. ALOS PALSAR data indicate the onset of the phenomenon in early 2010 where an aseismic pre-unrest phase of increased subsidence (1-3 cm) preceded the uplift. Joint inversions of SAR and GPS velocities using spherical and spheroidal magmatic source types indicate their location offshore at about 1 km north of Nea Kameni and between 3.5 and 3.8 km depth. The estimated volume variation rate is 6 × 106 m3 yr-1 to 9 × 106 m3 yr-1. A gradual slowing in the rate of inflation within the first quarter of 2012 is apparent by ENVISAT data, while subsequent observations from RADARSAT-2 confirm the observed trend.

  5. Euthanasia in Greece: moral and ethical dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Vidalis, A; Dardavessis, T; Kaprinis, G

    1998-04-01

    Euthanasia as a concept and a practice has led to enormous debate in Greece, as well as in other countries. In this study, we examined the views of the public and of professionals on the issue of euthanasia. A self-administered questionnaire of 28 items was completed by 417 subjects, and provided information about attitudes towards the moral and ethical problems of euthanasia. Psychiatric speculations which arose during the approach of this issue were seen in the majority of the responses (88.3%). Psychodynamic unconscious processes reinforced and violated mechanisms and motives in favour of, or against euthanasia. Of the respondents, 44.3% were against life extension with mechanical devices. Putative main risk factors for suicidal ideation and the desire for death were: pain 66.2%, despair 60.2%, depression 59.7%, and psychopathology 38.6%. This study thus revealed that apart from pain, psychosocial factors play a key role in leading people to ask for euthanasia. On the other hand, the knowledge of the public and professionals regarding this issue is not sufficient, and thus discussion of euthanasia by Medical Societies is needed and necessary.

  6. Burns during Easter festivities in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Pallantzas, A.; Kourakos, P.; Stampolidis, N.; Papagianni, E.; Balagoura, A.; Stathopoulos, A.; Polizoi, A.; Emvalomata, A.; Evaggelopoulou, M.; Castana, O.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Easter is the most important holiday for the Greek Church. It is rich in traditions and rituals but during the Greek Easter festivities, especially at midnight Mass on Easter Saturday night, it is customary to throw fireworks around. These fireworks are not part of the true Easter tradition and they are potentially fatal. Unfortunately, in the past few years, the custom has become more and more popular in Greece. There are some local variations, mainly in the Aegean islands, where homemade rockets are used to have a “rocket war”. The rockets consist of wooden sticks loaded with an explosive mixture containing gunpowder and launched from special platforms. Many severe injuries involving loss of sight and limbs as well as major burns are also caused by the use of illegal fireworks at Easter. Every year numerous burn victims are hospitalized. The most affected areas are the face, the upper extremities, and the chest, often in association with slight or severe wounds and injuries. This study presents our department’s experience with incidents due to the use of fireworks during Easter festivities. PMID:23766749

  7. Space Radar Image of Athens, Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This space radar image of Athens, Greece, shows the sprawling, modern development of this ancient capital city. Densely populated urban areas appear in shades of pink and light green. The Acropolis the dark green triangular patch in the center of the image. Archaeological discoveries indicate Athens has been continuously occupied for at least the last 5,000 years. Numerous ships, shown as bright dots, are seen in the harbor areas in the upper left part of the image. The port city of Piraeus is at the left center. This image is 45 kilometers by 45 kilometers (28 miles by 28 miles) and is centered at 37.9 degrees north latitude, 23.7 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations are as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on October 2, 1994 onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  8. Attenuation of coda waves in northern Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzidimitriou, P. M.

    1993-03-01

    The single scattering model has been applied for the estimation of coda Q values for local earthquakes that occurred in northern Greece during the period 1983 1989 and recorded by the telemetered network of the Geophysical Laboratory of the University of Thessaloniki. Coda Q estimations were made for four frequency bands centered at 1.5 Hz, 3.0 Hz, 6.0 Hz and 12.0 Hz and for the lapse time windows 10 20 sec, 15 30 sec, 20 45 sec, 30 60 sec and 50 100 sec. The coda Q values obtained show a clear frequency dependence of the form Q c =Q 0 f n , while Q 0 and n depend on the lapse time window. Q 0 was found equal to 33 and n equal to 1.01 for the time window of 10 to 20 sec, while for the other windows Q 0 increased from 60 to 129, with n being stable, close to 0.75. This lapse time dependence is interpreted as due to a depth dependent attenuation. The high attenuation and the strong frequency dependence found are characteristic of an area with high seismicity, in agreement with studies in other seismic regions.

  9. PTC simulations, stochastic optimization and safety strategies for groundwater pumping management: case study of the Hersonissos Coastal Aquifer in Crete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratis, P. N.; Dokou, Z. A.; Karatzas, G. P.; Papadopoulou, E. P.; Saridakis, Y. G.

    2017-09-01

    Recently, the well-known Princeton Transport Code (PTC), a groundwater flow and contaminant transport simulator, has been coupled with the ALgorithm of Pattern EXtraction (ALOPEX), a real-time stochastic optimization method, to provide a freshwater pumping management tool for coastal aquifers, aiming in preventing saltwater intrusion. In our previous work (Proceedings of INASE/CSCC-WHH 2015, Recent Advances in Environmental and Earth Sciences and Economics, pp 329-334, 2015), the PTC-ALOPEX approach was used in studying the saltwater contamination problem for the coastal aquifer at Hersonissos, Crete. Extending these results, in the present study the PTC-ALOPEX approach is equipped with a nodal safety strategy that effectively controls saltwater front's advancement inside the aquifer. In cooperation with an appropriate penalty system, the performance of PTC-ALOPEX algorithm is studied considering several pumping and weather condition scenarios. This study also establishes pumping/well scenarios that ensure the needed volume of fresh water to the local community without risking saltwater contamination.

  10. GIS multi-criteria decision analysis for assessment and mapping of neotectonic landscape deformation: A case study from Crete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argyriou, Athanasios V.; Teeuw, Richard M.; Rust, Derek; Sarris, Apostolos

    2016-01-01

    This study of drainage systems in a tectonically active region is based on the Geographical Information Systems (GIS) integration of data from an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and a weighted linear combination (WLC) procedure with multiple criteria data. A set of thematic maps were produced, based on existing geological maps and freely-available ASTER Global DEM elevation data, using various geological information (i.e. lineaments and lithologies), geomorphometric indices (i.e. slope gradient, drainage density, stream frequency, and the topographic wetness index) and morphotectonic indices (i.e. amplitude of relief and stream length gradient) that highlight areas of neotectonic landscape deformation. The weights of the factors were determined using AHP and WLC. A neotectonic landscape deformation index (NLDI) is computed as the sum of the various weighted factors to provide a map of NLDI distribution across the study region (western Crete). The main objective of this study was to analyse and map the intra-basin spatial variations in neotectonic landscape deformation: five classes, very low to very high, were determined. High to very high deformation zones are linked with known and newly detected active fault zones. The methodology could be developed into a low-cost technique for assessing seismic hazard, guiding disaster risk reduction activities. It can provide an alternative to the Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) approach for highlighting zones of neotectonic deformation, particularly in regions where dense vegetation or snow cover renders InSAR ineffective.

  11. PTC simulations, stochastic optimization and safety strategies for groundwater pumping management: case study of the Hersonissos Coastal Aquifer in Crete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratis, P. N.; Dokou, Z. A.; Karatzas, G. P.; Papadopoulou, E. P.; Saridakis, Y. G.

    2016-06-01

    Recently, the well-known Princeton Transport Code (PTC), a groundwater flow and contaminant transport simulator, has been coupled with the ALgorithm of Pattern EXtraction (ALOPEX), a real-time stochastic optimization method, to provide a freshwater pumping management tool for coastal aquifers, aiming in preventing saltwater intrusion. In our previous work (Proceedings of INASE/CSCC-WHH 2015, Recent Advances in Environmental and Earth Sciences and Economics, pp 329-334, 2015), the PTC-ALOPEX approach was used in studying the saltwater contamination problem for the coastal aquifer at Hersonissos, Crete. Extending these results, in the present study the PTC-ALOPEX approach is equipped with a nodal safety strategy that effectively controls saltwater front's advancement inside the aquifer. In cooperation with an appropriate penalty system, the performance of PTC-ALOPEX algorithm is studied considering several pumping and weather condition scenarios. This study also establishes pumping/well scenarios that ensure the needed volume of fresh water to the local community without risking saltwater contamination.

  12. A Spatio-Temporal Algorithmic Procedure for Environmental Policymaking in the Municipality of Arkalochori in the Greek Island of Crete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batzias, F. A.; Sidiras, D. K.; Giannopoulos, Ch.; Spetsidis, I.

    2009-08-01

    This work deals with a methodological framework designed/developed under the form of a spatio-temporal algorithmic procedure for environmental policymaking at local level. The procedure includes 25 activity stages and 9 decision nodes, putting emphasis on (i) mapping on GIS layers water supply/demand and modeling of aquatic pollution coming from point and non-point sources, (ii) environmental monitoring by periodically measuring the main pollutants in situ and in the laboratory, (iii) design of environmental projects, decomposition of them into sub-projects and combination of the latter to form attainable alternatives, (iv) multicriteria ranking of alternatives, according to a modified Delphi method, by using as criteria the expected environmental benefit, the attitude of inhabitants, the priority within the programme of regional development, the capital required for the investment and the operating cost, and (v) knowledge Base (KB) operation/enrichment, functioning in combination with a data mining mechanism to extract knowledge/information/data from external Bases. An implementation is presented referring to the Municipality of Arkalochori in the Greek island of Crete.

  13. Seismicity and seismic hazard parameters evaluation in the island of Crete and the surrounding area inferred from mixed data files

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manakou, Maria V.; Tsapanos, Theodoros M.

    2000-05-01

    A study of the spatial distribution of seismicity and seismic hazard is undertaken for Crete and the surrounding area (CISA). For the estimation of seismicity parameters, CISA is divided in rectangular subregions. By applying the centroid of strain energy technique, we obtain seismicity parameter maps closely related to the tectonics of the area. The b-value from the magnitude-frequency distribution is calculated by a maximum likelihood technique ( Page, 1968. Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 58, 1131-1168), as well as by Gumbel's first asymptotic distribution of extreme values technique. The b-value shows consistent spatial variation along CISA for both techniques. Low b-values are dominant in the western part of CISA, while higher b-values are present to the east side, forming a pattern like a 'sleeping letter S'. This pattern may be attributed to the variation of the regional velocity of deformation. Finally, we performed seismic hazard analysis for shallow and intermediate events. From mixed (historical and instrumental) data files, we estimated the regional maximum magnitude M̂max, as well as the other parameters like the activity rate of seismic events λ̂ and the well-known b̂ parameter ( Kijko and Sellevoll, 1989. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 79, 645-654).

  14. Strong Performers and Successful Reformers in Education: Education Policy Advice for Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    The future of Greece's well-being will depend on improving educational performance to boost productivity and improve social outcomes. In the current economic context, with the need to get best value for spending, Greece must and can address inefficiencies in its education system. The challenges are significant. For example, Greece lags behind many…

  15. Strong Performers and Successful Reformers in Education: Education Policy Advice for Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    The future of Greece's well-being will depend on improving educational performance to boost productivity and improve social outcomes. In the current economic context, with the need to get best value for spending, Greece must and can address inefficiencies in its education system. The challenges are significant. For example, Greece lags behind many…

  16. Voice risk factors in kindergarten teachers in Greece.

    PubMed

    Helidoni, Meropi; Murry, Thomas; Chlouverakis, Gregory; Okalidou, Areti; Velegrakis, George

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify voice risk factors for female kindergarten teachers and nurses in Heraklion, Crete. A questionnaire consisting of voice use and lifestyle activities was given to 200 kindergarten teachers in Heraklion, Crete, of which 151 were returned (75.5%). A group of 89 nurses served as the control group. Both groups also completed the Greek version of the Voice Handicap Index (VHI-G). Kindergarten teachers sing more often, speak loudly more often when they are at work and present with more infections of the upper respiratory tract compared to nurses. They talk less than 30 min per day on the phone, drink less alcohol and water and smoke less in comparison with nurses. The median VHI-G score for the kindergarten teachers was significantly higher than that for the nurses. The results suggest that there is a difference in the factors that may be responsible for the appearance of voice problems in kindergarten teachers and in nurses. For kindergarten teachers, the risk factors for voice disorders are primarily related to vocal load factors and for nurses appear to be lifestyle-related more than voice use alone. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Epidemiological Observations on Cryptosporidiosis in Diarrheic Goat Kids in Greece.

    PubMed

    Giadinis, Nektarios D; Papadopoulos, Elias; Lafi, Shawkat Q; Papanikolopoulou, Vasiliki; Karanikola, Sofia; Diakou, Anastasia; Vergidis, Vergos; Xiao, Lihua; Ioannidou, Evi; Karatzias, Harilaos

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in diarrheic goat kids in Greece and the risk factors associated with cryptosporidiosis. Altogether, 292 diarrheic 4-15-day-old goat kids from 54 dairy goat herds of Northern Greece were examined. Oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 223 of 292 (76.4%) goat kids and the intensity of infection was scored as "high" in 142 samples, "moderate" in 45 samples, and "low" in 36 samples. Larger herds (>200 animals) had higher infection rates than smaller ones, although this difference was not statistically significant. Significantly higher infection rates were observed in herds during late kidding season (1 January to 30 April) compared to the early one (1 September to 31 December). These results suggest that cryptosporidiosis is very common in diarrheic goat kids in Greece, especially in large herds during the late parturition season.

  18. An annotated checklist of earthworms of Greece (Clitellata: Megadrili).

    PubMed

    Szederjesi, Tímea; Vavoulidou, Evangelia; Chalkia, Christina; Dányi, László; Csuzdi, Csaba

    2017-05-26

    The earthworm fauna of Greece is reviewed. According to the up-to-date checklist, the earthworm fauna of Greece consists of 67 species and subspecies, of which 59 taxa belong to the family Lumbricidae, three to Megascolecidae, two to Acanthodrilidae and to Ocnerodrilidae and one taxon to the family Criodrilidae. Three species are recorded for the first time from the country: Allolobophora kosowensis kosowensis Karaman, 1968, Amynthas gracilis (Kinberg, 1867) and Eukerria saltensis (Beddard, 1895). Eisenia spelaea var. athenica Černosvitov, 1938 is proposed to be a synonym of Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826). The earthworm fauna of Greece is characterized by a large number of strict endemic species belonging to the family Lumbricidae (9 taxa), together with the occurrence of another 10 Balkanic endemic species.

  19. Growth, distribution and rank stability of urban settlements in Greece.

    PubMed

    Petsimeris, P

    1986-01-01

    "This paper aims at analyzing the structure of the system in Greece of urban settlements, from 1870 to 1981. It is based on a study by the author concerning the process of urbanization and the problems of the 'residential subsystem' in countries of intermediate development with special reference to Greece. The analysis takes as sole indicator of the evolution of the urban centers network, the long term variation of population of urban settlements in Greece and as tools of analysis, the Rank-Size Rule (RSR) and Hoover's Index." Distinctions are drawn between the urban settlement patterns in the pre-capitalist and capitalist periods, the latter being marked by an unbalanced hierarchy dominated by Athens and without medium-sized cities, other than Thessaloniki. excerpt

  20. Immigration to Greece: a critical evaluation of Greek policy.

    PubMed

    Lazaridis, G

    1996-04-01

    "In the light of the EU's interest in the movement of labour within the Union, the first part of this article looks at the character of Greek migrant labour with the aim of providing an overview of changes in the flow of migrant labour into Greece and of the policies adopted in relation to immigrant labour. It discusses the failure of the Greek government to formulate strategic measures to combat illegal immigration...and the limited (if any) efforts being made to aid the integration of Albanians. The second part of the article concentrates on [the experiences of] Albanian migrant labourers in Greece....[It] also assesses the similarities and differences in the employment positions of Albanian men and women in Greece and the way in which mechanisms of marginalisation differently affect these two categories."

  1. A Trephined Late Bronze Age Skull From Peloponnesus, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mountrakis, C.; Georgaki, S.; Manolis, S. K.

    Cranial trepanation is one of the most ancient surgical operations. This kind of "operation" has been reported in prehistoric Greece with several specific case studies. In this paper, a significant case of trepanation, on a male skull, dated to the Late Bronze Age, is presented. Our interest was pointed firstly to the verification of the technique, secondly the description of the trepanation's shape and finally to the surgical procedure. A series of imaging techniques were implemented including X-ray diffraction and CT scan imaging. The observations of the skull support our statement as to the nature of the trepanation. This specimen represents one of the earlier confirmed cases of trepanation in Greece. We also discuss when and how this technique came to Greece.

  2. Crete Public School, Crete, Nebraska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, M.T.

    1982-02-01

    A solar greenhouse-solar collector was built to supplement the science rooms. The solar green house serves as a facility which will enable the students a practical solar energy research area, and the Biology Department to investigate the area of horticulture and plant science. The facilities also have a liquid and solid heat storage units which is to be used to supplement the heat to four science rooms. The heat storage consist of the present brick-concrete block and 55 gallon drums for storage of water. The possibility of growing plants hydrophonically to supplement food in our school lunch program is also examined.

  3. Aquatic animal resources in Prehistoric Aegean, Greece.

    PubMed

    Mylona, Dimitra

    2014-12-01

    This paper explores the early stages in the history of fishing in the Aegean Sea in Greece, and highlights its formative phases and its specific characteristics in different points in time. This is testified by various physical remains, such as fish bones, fishing tools, and representations in art, which are gathered in the course of archaeological research. The aquatic resources in the Aegean Sea have been exploited and managed for millennia by communities that lived near the water and often made a living from it. The earliest evidence for a systematic, intensive exploitation of marine resources in the Aegean Sea dates to the Mesolithic, eleven millennia ago. In the Neolithic period, the adoption of a sedentary, agro-pastoral way of life led to a reduction in the intensity of fishing and shellfish gathering. Its importance as an economic resource remained high only in certain regions of rich, eutrophic waters. In the Bronze Age, an era of social complexity and centralized economy, the exploitation of aquatic, mostly marine, resources became a complex, multi-faceted activity which involved subsistence, industry and ideology. The range of preferred fish and invertebrate species, the fishing technology, and the processing of fish and shellfish in order to produce elaborate foods or prestige items are all traceable aspects of the complex relationship between humans and the aquatic resources throughout the prehistory of fishing and shellfish gathering in the Aegean area. The broadening of collaboration between archaeology and physical sciences offers new means to explore these issues in a more thorough and nuanced manner.

  4. Informal payments in public hospitals in Greece.

    PubMed

    Liaropoulos, Lycourgos; Siskou, Olga; Kaitelidou, Daphne; Theodorou, Mamas; Katostaras, Theofanis

    2008-07-01

    Informal payments are an ingrained social institution in Greece. In some cases, they are also part of corruption in the health area, which includes a variety of other forms. The objective of this paper is to measure and analyze the size and nature of informal payments in the Greek public hospitals, concentrating on payments made to health personnel to facilitate access to services and preferred providers. We used a randomized countrywide sample of 1616 households, amounting to 4738 individuals. The survey methodology was telephone interviews with a questionnaire supported by the software of Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing. Out of the total number of those reporting treatment in public hospitals (N=336), 36% reported at least one informal payment to a doctor. Of these, 42% reported it was given because of the fear of receiving sub-standard care (if they did not pay) and another 20% claimed that the doctor demanded such a payment. None of the socio-economic characteristics of the family were related to the size of extra (informal) payments. The probability of extra payments is 72% higher for patients aiming to "jump the queue", compared to those admitted through normal procedures. Also, surgical cases had a 137% higher probability for extra payments compared to non-surgical patients. A very high percentage of informal payments are made in order to gain access to public hospitals and to receive a higher quality of services. Despite near universal coverage of the population by public health insurance, informal payments are widespread and a major source of inequity and inefficiency in the Greek health care system.

  5. Dermatophytosis in northern Greece during the decade 1981-1990.

    PubMed

    Devliotou-Panagiotidou, D; Koussidou-Eremondi, T; Badillet, G

    1995-01-01

    Dermatophytic infections are very common in Greece. In the Mycological Laboratory of the Venereal and Skin Diseases Hospital in Thessaloniki, 6572 isolates of different dermatophytes were obtained from 17,120 patients examined. It is suggested that 5% of the people who present with skin problems in Greece suffer from dermatophyte infections. They are frequent causative agents of tinea pedis, tinea cruris, tinea corporis, tinea capitis and tinea unguium. In this paper, the species, the number and the prevalence of the dermatophytes were studied according to location and sex of the patients. The contribution of dermatophyte infections to the overall incidence of superficial fungal infection over 10 years was also studied.

  6. Preliminary GIS based analysis of seismic risk in water pipeline lifeline system in urban infrastructure of Chania (Crete)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouli, Maria; Papadopoulos, Ilias; Vallianatos, Filippos

    2013-08-01

    The lifelines seismic risk assessment is based on a fuzzy classification on parameters related to geometry (effective length distribution L) and constructive details (material type C) along with urban (U) and economic (E) parameters. Then a functional value G = f(L, C, U, E) is constructed as an indicator of risk of the element/system under investigation. In the present study a new functional Fg is introduced in a GIS environment. The application of spatial analysis methods provides a better understanding of the possible failure patterns and trends in water distribution networks. The Fg parameter takes into account the influence of geological and seismotectonic environment in a local scale, constructed in a way to reflect the amplification factor A (X), where X local coordinate of the cell, which experimentally could be estimated. The Fg= f(A(X), U(X), L(X)) is strongly affected by the local geotectonic conditions as well the spatial distribution of population and the geometrical lattice of pipe line system. The proposed index was applied in the city of Chania, Crete island, as the functioning of the infrastructure during and especially after a destructive earthquake, in the front of the Hellenic Arc, is of vital importance for the society and contributes to the rescue and emergency operations. We propose Fg mainly for systems where site effects are important and present a significant spatial inhomogeneity while at the same time the examined urban system has no constructive variability it time and space.

  7. Epidemiology and molecular analysis of hepatitis A, B and C in a semi-urban and rural area of Crete.

    PubMed

    Drositis, I; Bertsias, A; Lionis, C; Kouroumalis, E

    2013-12-01

    An observational seroepidemiological study was carried out in a well-defined primary-care district on the island of Crete in order to determine the recent endemicity of viral hepatitis in Cretan-population. The setting consisted of a semi-urban group and a remote & rural group. Serum samples were collected from 876 subjects (437 males, 439 females) aged 15 years or above. Subjects were randomly selected from the permanent population of the area that consisted of 5705 individuals. The aim was to measure the prevalence of selected viral-hepatitis markers. Hepatitis B surface-antigen (HBsAg) was found positive in twenty-nine individuals, (3.3%). Antibodies to hepatitis B virus core-antigen (HBcAb) were detected in 287 subjects (32.8%) and antibodies to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) were detected in nineteen subjects (2.2%). Seropositivities for the semi-urban group were: 3.4%, 19.1%, 2.1% and 3.2%, 48.8%, 2.2% in remote & rural group respectively. Virtually, all subjects >45 years old were seropositive for antibodies to hepatitis A, whereas approximately 80% of those in the 15-44 age-group were found to be seropositive. A threefold increase in the HBV exposure and carrier proportion was found in Cretan native-population and in rural-areas compared to older studies carried out in other rural-populations of the island. It is still unknown whether the recent economic crisis or the demographic changes in Cretan-population contributed to these findings. HCV endemicity remains relatively constant, however an alteration of hepatitis C genotypes was observed. Exposure to HAV was found to be higher in remote and rural areas compared to semi-urban areas. © 2013.

  8. Reconstruction of Holocene Climate Variability within the Central Mediterranean Using Lake Sediments from the Akrotiri Peninsula, Crete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magill, C. R.; Rosenmeier, M. F.; Cavallari, B. J.; Curtis, J. H.; Weiss, H.

    2005-12-01

    Middle and late Holocene geochemical records from the Limnes depression, a small sinkhole located within the Akrotiri Peninsula, Crete, document centennial and millennial-scale climate variability within the central Mediterranean region. The oldest sediments of the basin consist largely of fibrous plant macrofossils and organic matter and likely indicate lake filling and expansion of wetland vegetation beginning ~5700 radiocarbon years before present (14C-yrs B.P.) (4550 B.C.). The basal peat layers grade into predominantly open water and less shallow lacustrine deposits by 4500 14C-yrs B.P (3200 B.C.). Continuous open water sedimentation within the Limnes core is interrupted by a number of distinct lag deposits and peaty deposits centered at 3700, 1600, and 350 14C-yrs B.P (2100 B.C., 500 A.D., and 1500 A.D.) indicating periods of significantly lowered lake level or perhaps lake desiccation. These ages coincide roughly with oxygen isotope (δ18O) minima measured in biogenic carbonates (ostracod shells) and support the inference for low lake stage. Trace element (Ca, Mg, and Sr) concentrations in ostracod shells from the Limnes core parallel the oxygen isotope record, suggesting that the data reflect basin hydrology rather than changes in the isotopic composition of rainfall. Furthermore, covariance in both δ18O and Mg concentrations eliminate temperature as a control on the oxygen isotope record. Sediments from the basin also contain aragonite remains of the green alga Chara and isotope analysis of the calcite may record additional paleoenvironmental information. The paleoclimate history inferred from the Limnes record correlates temporally (albeit tenuously) to previous paleoenvironmental data that document abrupt onset of arid conditions in the eastern Mediterranean and western Asia ca. 2200 B.C. Moreover, stratigraphic and geochemical evidence of low lake level (drying) within the Limnes basin at 2100 B.C. may correspond to the termination of the Early Minoan

  9. Human induced coastal changes and their impact on the coastal urban landscape. The case of Heraklion, Crete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rempis, Nikolaos; Alexandrakis, George; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2017-04-01

    Coastal zone is a vital part of human society due to sea activities. Α variety of activities and uses are present and are further developing in the coastal and marine are. Coastal ecosystems and landscape are under severe pressure due to population growth and continuous expansion of human activities and supplemented from the effects of climate change (e.g. coastal flooding, erosion). Heraklion is the largest urban center in Crete. Its suburban and coastal area receives intensive urban sprawl pressures, changing the urban landscape and resulting negative impacts on the human and natural environment. The saturation of coastal area of Heraklion creates the need for new development interventions (e.g. new marina, coastal protection, urban regeneration). This study examine the impacts of the new programmed coastal development intervention in the coastal landscape of Heraklion. A decision analytic approach was implemented, based on the need of stakeholders for the protection and further development of coastal area of Heraklion. In this direction, local authorities have proposed the realization of several development interventions which include a new marina, expansion of bathing beaches and coastal regeneration project in a large beach. The results indicate that the realization of any coastal development projects, also increases the negative effects that are related to land-sea interaction. The negative effects are a result of the interaction between different human activities but also between human activities and the environment. The development of the marina in the selected location, increases the pressure on the sea area as the navigation will increase, but also increases the pressure on land space, as traffic flows will change, creating new pressures in urban areas. The extension of bathing beaches implies larger number of bathers, thus creating greater needs for infrastructures in land area for their service. Coastal protection projects, as planned, will upgrade the

  10. The Messinian/Early Pliocene transition in Eastern Mediterranean: New palaeoenvironmental data from the Kalamaki section (Zakynthos Island, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drinia, Hara; Antonarakou, Assimina; Tsourou, Theodora; Tzortzaki, Evi; Filippidi, Amalia; Nikolaou, Konstantinos

    2010-05-01

    foraminiferal facies distribution in the studied part of the Kalamaki section is in accordance with isotope oxygen data from basins in the central and eastern Mediterranean basin which indicates the existence of a salinity gradient during this time span. Ostracod fauna is characterised by low diversity and abundance. It is consisting mainly of Bythocypris and Cytherella species, which confirm the bathyal depositional environment. The study of the late Messinian-Early Pliocene sediments in Zakynthos island (Kalamaki section) correlated with time equivalent sections in Crete (e.g. Drinia et al., 2007) and the comparison with the offshore coeval deposits drilled in the ODP Leg 160 boreholes, illustrate the environmental changes which occurred in the Eastern Mediterranean at the end of the salinity crisis. References Dermitzakis, M.D., 1978. Stratigraphy and sedimentary history of the Miocene of Zakynthos (Ionian Islands, Greece). Ann. Geol. Pays Hell., 29:47 186. Drinia, H., Antonarakou, A., Kontakiotis, G., 2007. On the occurrence of Early Pliocene marine deposits in the Ierapetra Basin, Eastern Crete, Greece. Bulletin of Geosciences, 83 (1), 63-78. Jorissen, F.J., 1988. Benthic foraminifera from the Adriatic Sea: principles of phenotypic variation. Utrecht Micropaleontological Bulletins, 37, 1-174. Murray, J., 2006. Ecology and applications of Benthic foraminifera. Cambridge University press, 426pp. Nikolaou, K.A., 1986. Contribution to the knowledge of the Neogene , the geology and the limits of the Ionian and Preapulian zones, in relation to the petroleum exploration , observations in Strofades , Zakynthos and Kefallinia islands. The doct. University of Athens. Pierre, C., Caruso, A., Blanc-Valleron, M., Rouchy, J. M., Orzsag-Sperber, F., 2006. Reconstruction of the paleoenvironmental changes around the Miocene-Pliocene boundary along a West-East transect across the Mediterranean. Sedimentary Geology 188-189, 319-340. The Messinian Salinity Crisis Revisited. Pujos, M., 1976

  11. Assessing the knowledge of bronchial asthma among primary health care physicians in Crete: A pre- and post-test following an educational course

    PubMed Central

    Rovithis, Emmanouil; Lionis, Christos; Schiza, Sofia E; Bouros, Dimosthenis; Karokis, Antonis; Vlachonikolis, loannis; Siafakas, Nikolaos M

    2001-01-01

    Aim To assess the level of knowledge for bronchial asthma of the primary healthcare physicians serving a rural population on the island of Crete, both before and immediately after a one-day educational course. Methods Twenty-one primary health care physicians, randomly selected from a list of 14 Health Care Centres on the island of Crete were invited to participate in the study and attended an educational course. Nine of the 21 physicians were fully qualified general practitioners, while the remainder were non-specialized (NSs) physicians who had recently graduated from the University of Crete, Medical School. A questionnaire of 20 items based on current bronchial asthma clinical guidelines was used. Three scores, the mean total, knowledge subscore and attitudes subscore, were calculated for each group of physicians, both before and after the course. Results At baseline mean total score and knowledge and attitudes subscores were higher for non-specialized physicians than for the general practitioners, but the differences were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The knowledge subscore was improved in both groups, however the difference was statistically significant only for the non-specialized physicians (t = 2.628, d.f. = 11, p < 0.05). The mean total score after the course was significantly higher for the non-specialized physicians in comparison to that of the general practitioners (t=-2.688, d.f. = 19, p < 0.05). Conclusions This study adds to the information about the success of continuing medical education, and also demonstrates that the recent graduates in the studied population, could be educated with more positive results than the fully qualified practitioners PMID:11511327

  12. Elevational gradient of vascular plant species richness and endemism in Crete--the effect of post-isolation mountain uplift on a continental island system.

    PubMed

    Trigas, Panayiotis; Panitsa, Maria; Tsiftsis, Spyros

    2013-01-01

    Understanding diversity patterns along environmental gradients and their underlying mechanisms is a major topic in current biodiversity research. In this study, we investigate for the first time elevational patterns of vascular plant species richness and endemism on a long-isolated continental island (Crete) that has experienced extensive post-isolation mountain uplift. We used all available data on distribution and elevational ranges of the Cretan plants to interpolate their presence between minimum and maximum elevations in 100-m elevational intervals, along the entire elevational gradient of Crete (0-2400 m). We evaluate the influence of elevation, area, mid-domain effect, elevational Rapoport effect and the post-isolation mountain uplift on plant species richness and endemism elevational patterns. Furthermore, we test the influence of the island condition and the post-isolation mountain uplift to the elevational range sizes of the Cretan plants, using the Peloponnese as a continental control area. Total species richness monotonically decreases with increasing elevation, while endemic species richness has a unimodal response to elevation showing a peak at mid-elevation intervals. Area alone explains a significant amount of variation in species richness along the elevational gradient. Mid-domain effect is not the underlying mechanism of the elevational gradient of plant species richness in Crete, and Rapoport's rule only partly explains the observed patterns. Our results are largely congruent with the post-isolation uplift of the Cretan mountains and their colonization mainly by the available lowland vascular plant species, as high-elevation specialists are almost lacking from the Cretan flora. The increase in the proportion of Cretan endemics with increasing elevation can only be regarded as a result of diversification processes towards Cretan mountains (especially mid-elevation areas), supported by elevation-driven ecological isolation. Cretan plants have

  13. Elevational Gradient of Vascular Plant Species Richness and Endemism in Crete – The Effect of Post-Isolation Mountain Uplift on a Continental Island System

    PubMed Central

    Trigas, Panayiotis; Panitsa, Maria; Tsiftsis, Spyros

    2013-01-01

    Understanding diversity patterns along environmental gradients and their underlying mechanisms is a major topic in current biodiversity research. In this study, we investigate for the first time elevational patterns of vascular plant species richness and endemism on a long-isolated continental island (Crete) that has experienced extensive post-isolation mountain uplift. We used all available data on distribution and elevational ranges of the Cretan plants to interpolate their presence between minimum and maximum elevations in 100-m elevational intervals, along the entire elevational gradient of Crete (0–2400 m). We evaluate the influence of elevation, area, mid-domain effect, elevational Rapoport effect and the post-isolation mountain uplift on plant species richness and endemism elevational patterns. Furthermore, we test the influence of the island condition and the post-isolation mountain uplift to the elevational range sizes of the Cretan plants, using the Peloponnese as a continental control area. Total species richness monotonically decreases with increasing elevation, while endemic species richness has a unimodal response to elevation showing a peak at mid-elevation intervals. Area alone explains a significant amount of variation in species richness along the elevational gradient. Mid-domain effect is not the underlying mechanism of the elevational gradient of plant species richness in Crete, and Rapoport's rule only partly explains the observed patterns. Our results are largely congruent with the post-isolation uplift of the Cretan mountains and their colonization mainly by the available lowland vascular plant species, as high-elevation specialists are almost lacking from the Cretan flora. The increase in the proportion of Cretan endemics with increasing elevation can only be regarded as a result of diversification processes towards Cretan mountains (especially mid-elevation areas), supported by elevation-driven ecological isolation. Cretan plants have

  14. Relocation of the Mw 6.4 July 1, 2009 earthquake to the south of Crete and modeling of its associated small tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocchini, Gian Maria; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.; Novikova, Tatiana; Karastathis, Vassilis K.; Mouzakiotis, Aggelos; Voulgaris, Nikolaos

    2016-04-01

    On July 1, 2009 (09:30 UTC) a Mw6.4 earthquake ruptured south of Crete Island triggering a small tsunami. Eyewitness reported the tsunami from Myrtos and Arvi Port, in the SE coast of Crete, and in Chrisi islet. In Arvi 4 or 5 wave arrivals were reported after a withdrawal of the sea of about 1 m. The sea disturbance lasted for about 1 h. The earthquake occurred as the result of the subduction of the oceanic African Plate beneath the continental Eurasian Plate along the Hellenic Subduction Zone (HSZ). South of Crete the Nubia-Aegean convergence rate (~3.5 cm/yr) is partially accommodated by low-angle (~20-25°) thrust faults at 20-40km depths and by steeper (>30°) reverse-faults at shallower depths. The area of interest has been struck by large magnitude earthquakes in historical times that in some cases triggered damaging tsunamis (e.g AD 1303). Routine earthquake locations performed by NOA do not provide good quality hypocenters for the area under investigation given the poor azimuthal coverage and the low density of the seismic stations. The 2009 earthquake, given its tsunamigenic nature, has been identified as a key event to study the central segment of the HSZ. We performed the relocation of the 2009 mainshock along with the seismicity of the area (ML>=3, period 2008-2015) using the NLLoc algorithm and testing several 1D velocity models available for the area and a 2D velocity model obtained from a published N-S seismic refraction profile across Crete. The hypocenters obtained from NLLoc have been subsequently relocated with HypoDD algorithm using catalog phase data. The results from the various relocation procedures showed a shallow hypocentral depth (12-17km) of the 2009 event and its likely intraplate nature. A set of hypocentral solutions were selected on the basis of minimum RMS and smaller errors with the aim to perform tsunami simulations with varying source parameters. Two different fault dips were used to discriminate between the intraplate (dip 32

  15. A Comparative Evaluation of Geography Schoolbooks of Greece and Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadimitriou, Fivos

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on geographical education in Greece and Cyprus (Southern Cyprus). The two countries have different sets of books for their educational systems, approved by the relevant Ministries of Education. Since the teaching of these officially approved sets of books is compulsory, the context of geographical education in these countries…

  16. Antibiotic resistance and irrational prescribing in paediatric clinics in Greece.

    PubMed

    Toska, Aikaterini; Geitona, Mary

    Greece is among the countries with the highest rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and simultaneous antibiotic consumption. The aim of this study was to assess the perceptions and knowledge of AMR and irrational antibiotic prescribing of nurses working in paediatric hospitals in Greece. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to nurses in paediatric hospitals and paediatric clinics in Greece. Descriptive and multivariate statistical analyses were performed. Levels of significance were two-tailed and statistical significance was p=0.05. A total of 87% of participants reported irrational prescribing to be an important cause of AMR. Diagnostic uncertainty was stated by 55.5% as the main cause of irrational antibiotic prescribing and 94% suggested the use of protocols and guidelines as the main measure to control overprescribing. Parental demand for antibiotics in hospitals has increased according to 51.8% of respondents. Strong correlation was observed between social-demographic characteristics and antibiotic resistance, as well as irrational prescribing. Assessing nurses' knowledge and perceptions of antimicrobial resistance and irrational prescribing is vital as nurses actively participate in the antibiotics administration process and antimicrobial management in Greece. Their involvement could contribute to educate patients and parents on the public-health implications of overprescribing and antimicrobial resistance.

  17. Mutual relationship between mathematics and astronomy in the ancient Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obradovic, S.

    2006-05-01

    In the paper we consider the foundations of mathematics in the ancient Greece as a deductive system, especially the Euclidean geometry. We investigate the concepts of continuum and discreteness in mathematics and nature. A special attention is given to the mathematics applied to the foundation of the Pythagorean concept of the universe and adoption of Aristotle's and Ptolemy's worldviews.

  18. Pedagogical Beliefs and Attitudes of Computer Science Teachers in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fessakis, Georgios; Karakiza, Tsampika

    2011-01-01

    Pedagogical beliefs and attitudes significantly determine the professional skills and practice of teachers. Many professional development programs for teachers aim to the elaboration of the pedagogical knowledge in order to improve teaching quality. This paper presents the study of pedagogical beliefs of computer science teachers in Greece. The…

  19. Huntington's disease in Greece: the experience of 14 years.

    PubMed

    Panas, M; Karadima, G; Vassos, E; Kalfakis, N; Kladi, A; Christodoulou, K; Vassilopoulos, D

    2011-12-01

    A large scale genetic and epidemiological study of Huntington's disease (HD) was carried out in Greece from January 1995 to December 2008. Diagnostic testing was carried out in 461 symptomatic individuals, while 256 were tested for presymptomatic purposes. The diagnosis of HD with a CAG expansion ≥ 36 was confirmed in 278 symptomatic individuals. The prevalence of HD in Greece was estimated at approximately 2.5 to 5.4:100,000, while the mean minimum incidence was estimated at 2.2 to 4.4 per million per year. The molecular diagnosis of HD was confirmed in the majority of patients (84.4%) sent for confirmation. The false-positive cases 15.6% were characterized by the absence of a family history of HD and the presence of an atypical clinical picture. The uptake of predictive testing for HD was 8.6%. A prenatal test was requested in six pregnancies. The findings of our study do not differ significantly from those of similar studies from other European countries despite the relative genetic isolation of Greece. Of interest is the identification of clusters of HD in Greece. The presence or absence of a family history of HD should be interpreted cautiously, during the diagnostic process.

  20. Vocational Training in the Textiles and Clothing Industries in Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drimousis, I.; Zisimopoulos, A.

    This document examines the circumstances under which vocational training in Greece is provided for jobs in the textile and clothing industries. Its objective is to identify guidelines for vocational training for a skilled work force at regional and national levels and to contribute to job mobility between industries. Statistical data,…

  1. The History of Teaching Quantum Mechanics in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tampakis, Constantin; Skordoulis, Constantin

    2007-01-01

    In this work, our goal is to examine the attitude of the Greek scientific community towards Quantum Mechanics and establish the history of teaching of this theory in Greece. We have examined Physics textbooks written by professors of the University of Athens, as well as records of public speeches, university yearbooks from 1923 to 1970, articles…

  2. "Running the Gauntlet": The Bologna Process in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattheou, Dimitrios

    2011-01-01

    Greece has not been among the signatory countries that rushed enthusiastically into the implementation of the Bologna process; it has only gradually and grudgingly managed to adopt some of its provisions over the past decade. This paper sheds light on the forces and factors that have put obstacles in its way, including: (1) the epistemological…

  3. Outbreak of West Nile Virus Infection in Greece, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Papa, Anna; Theocharopoulos, George; Dougas, Georgios; Athanasiou, Maria; Detsis, Marios; Baka, Agoritsa; Lytras, Theodoros; Mellou, Kassiani; Bonovas, Stefanos; Panagiotopoulos, Takis

    2011-01-01

    During 2010, an outbreak of West Nile virus infection occurred in Greece. A total of 197 patients with neuroinvasive disease were reported, of whom 33 (17%) died. Advanced age and a history of heart disease were independently associated with death, emphasizing the need for prevention of this infection in persons with these risk factors. PMID:22000357

  4. Notions of "Rhetoric as Epistemic" in Ancient Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, William L.

    The notion that rhetoric (and to a lesser extent, argument) is epistemic is an increasingly popular one today, although it can be traced to ancient Greece. The notion holds that rhetoric, or the art of persuasion, creates and shapes knowledge. Two ancient authors--Aristophanes and Plato--provide evidence that others had notions of rhetoric as…

  5. The History of Teaching Quantum Mechanics in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tampakis, Constantin; Skordoulis, Constantin

    2007-01-01

    In this work, our goal is to examine the attitude of the Greek scientific community towards Quantum Mechanics and establish the history of teaching of this theory in Greece. We have examined Physics textbooks written by professors of the University of Athens, as well as records of public speeches, university yearbooks from 1923 to 1970, articles…

  6. An Enlightened Use of Educational Monitoring for Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korilaki, Panayota

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to discuss the issues surrounding educational monitoring systems. Design/methodology/approach: This paper is a general review of the situation in Greece. Findings: This paper suggests that a superior educational monitoring system aiming to alleviate educational and social inequalities as well as discrepancies between…

  7. Academic Entrepreneurship, Innovation Policies and Politics in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arapostathis, Stathis

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the process of the emergence in Greece of the "Triple Helix", and the nature of the "Helix" in the context of the concurrent changes occurring in Greek socio-political affairs. The influence of politics and innovation policies on the relationships between academia and government and industry is considered.…

  8. Soviet Foreign Policy Towards Greece and Turkey: Contrast within Coherence.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    may have been motivated on the Greek side by wariness of the apparent courtship of the Soviet Union being undertaken by Greece’s traditional rival...Ulam, Adam B., The Rivals, Penguin Books, 1971. 11. Couloumbis, T.A., Petropulos, J.A. Psomiades, H.J., Foreign Interference in Greek Politics, Pella

  9. Language Shift in Second Generation Albanian Immigrants in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gogonas, Nikos

    2009-01-01

    Albanian immigration to Greece started in the beginning of the 1990s and the second generation of Albanian immigrants is a recent phenomenon. This paper presents the findings of research investigating language maintenance/shift among second generation Albanian immigrants in Athens using as main informants adolescents of Albanian origin.…

  10. Language Shift in Second Generation Albanian Immigrants in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gogonas, Nikos

    2009-01-01

    Albanian immigration to Greece started in the beginning of the 1990s and the second generation of Albanian immigrants is a recent phenomenon. This paper presents the findings of research investigating language maintenance/shift among second generation Albanian immigrants in Athens using as main informants adolescents of Albanian origin.…

  11. Family Language Policies among Albanian Immigrants in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatzidaki, Aspassia; Maligkoudi, Christina

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation of family language policies among 37 Albanian immigrant families in Northern Greece within the framework of Spolsky's language policy model. Data collection was based on semi-directed interviews with parents which were analysed using both content and discourse analysis. According to our findings, three…

  12. An Enlightened Use of Educational Monitoring for Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korilaki, Panayota

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to discuss the issues surrounding educational monitoring systems. Design/methodology/approach: This paper is a general review of the situation in Greece. Findings: This paper suggests that a superior educational monitoring system aiming to alleviate educational and social inequalities as well as discrepancies between…

  13. Lessons from Greece: A Body, Mind, Spirit Odyssey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Linda L.

    2006-01-01

    In Spring Semester 2005, the author was a visiting Fulbright professor at Aristotle University in Greece. The purpose of the Fulbright Program is to increase mutual understanding between the people of the United States and the people of the 150 or so countries that currently participate in the Fulbright Program. In this article, the author looks…

  14. Family Language Policies among Albanian Immigrants in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatzidaki, Aspassia; Maligkoudi, Christina

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation of family language policies among 37 Albanian immigrant families in Northern Greece within the framework of Spolsky's language policy model. Data collection was based on semi-directed interviews with parents which were analysed using both content and discourse analysis. According to our findings, three…

  15. Let's Play Doctor: Medical Rounds in Ancient Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockler, Donald

    1998-01-01

    Biology students are exposed to historical theories of medicine by contrasting modern medicine and germ theory with the humoral theory of medicine in ancient Greece. After spending one day describing basic theories in humoral medicine, the teacher role-plays a Hippocratic physician treating ailing Greek patients in a Hippocratic medical workshop.…

  16. Health Needs: Policy Plan and School Practice in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soultatou, Pelagia; Duncan, Peter; Athanasiou, Kyriacos; Papadopoulos, Irena

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of health-related needs on a policy design and curriculum enactment basis in terms of the national school health education curriculum in Greek secondary education. Design/methodology/approach: A single case study, using an ethnographic approach, was conducted in Greece, seeking to…

  17. Gold and gold working in Late Bronze Age Northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Vavelidis, M; Andreou, S

    2008-04-01

    Numerous objects of gold displaying an impressive variety of types and manufacturing techniques are known from the Late Bronze Age (LBA) contexts of Mycenaean Greece, but very little is known about the origin and processing of gold during the second millennium B.C: . Ancient literature and recent research indicate that northern Greece is probably the richest gold-bearing region in Greece, and yet, very little evidence exists regarding the exploitation of its deposits and the production as well as use of gold in the area during prehistory. The unusual find of a group of small stone crucibles at the prehistoric settlement of Thessaloniki Toumba, one with visible traces of gold melting, proves local production and offers a rare opportunity to examine the process of on-site gold working. Furthermore, the comparison of the chemical composition of prehistoric artefacts from two settlements with those of gold deposits in their immediate areas supports the local extraction of gold and opens up the prospect for some of the Mycenaean gold to have originated in northern Greece. The scarcity of gold items in northern Greek LBA contexts may not represent the actual amount of gold produced and consumed, but could be a result of the local social attitudes towards the circulation and deposition of artefacts from precious metals.

  18. A Report on Educational Developments in 1975-1976. Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of National Education and Religion, Athens (Greece).

    Examining the educational system of Greece, this publication discusses the reorientation of policy, organization, and curriculum after overthrow of the military regime in July 1974. In accordance with the broader democratic principles set forth in the Greek Constitution of 1975, education is now compulsory for six years, free to everyone on all…

  19. Religious Education in Greece: A New Curriculum, an Old Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koukounaras Liagkis, Marios

    2015-01-01

    Religious Education (RE) in Greece is a compulsory school subject according the 2011 new framework for compulsory education, entitled "New School". This article focuses on two statutory documents for RE, "The Curriculum for RE" and the "The Teacher's Guide for RE", and the pilot scheme of the new curriculum running in…

  20. Literacy in Ancient Greece: The Evidence from History and Archaeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollis, Karyn

    In examining the nature of literacy in ancient Athens, this paper reviews the work of key modern scholars and their positions in the debates concerning the development of literacy in Greece, the oral culture preceeding this, and the technology that enabled it to occur. Following an introduction surveying the viewpoints of Rhys Carpenter, L. H.…

  1. Implementing Innovation in Primary EFL: A Case Study in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karavas, Evdokia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight and discuss the strategies used to diffuse and manage a primary ELT innovation in Greece, strategies that proved essential for developing stakeholders' acceptance and ownership of the innovation, thereby facilitating its further development and sustainability. The PEAP Programme, launched in 2010,…

  2. Literacy in Ancient Greece: The Evidence from History and Archaeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollis, Karyn

    In examining the nature of literacy in ancient Athens, this paper reviews the work of key modern scholars and their positions in the debates concerning the development of literacy in Greece, the oral culture preceeding this, and the technology that enabled it to occur. Following an introduction surveying the viewpoints of Rhys Carpenter, L. H.…

  3. Lessons from Greece: A Body, Mind, Spirit Odyssey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Linda L.

    2006-01-01

    In Spring Semester 2005, the author was a visiting Fulbright professor at Aristotle University in Greece. The purpose of the Fulbright Program is to increase mutual understanding between the people of the United States and the people of the 150 or so countries that currently participate in the Fulbright Program. In this article, the author looks…

  4. School Adjustment Difficulties of Immigrant Children in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palaiologou, Nektaria

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and main results of a longitudinal study in Greece that explored the learning and psychosocial difficulties of immigrant pupils, as compared with those of their Greek classmates. The "Teacher-Child Rating Scale" (T-CRS) and "Child Rating Scale" (CRS) were used as instruments to measure the…

  5. Inclusive Discourse in Greece: Strong Voices, Weak Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoniou-Sideri, Athina; Deropoulou-Derou, Eudoxia; Karagianni, Panagiota; Spandagou, Ilektra

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the inclusive discourse in Greece at a period characterized by change in policy and practice. The aim is to discuss critically the distance between the strong voices and weak practices that characterizes the Greek inclusive discourse. The first part focuses on disability and presents the ways that a "common sense"…

  6. Health Needs: Policy Plan and School Practice in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soultatou, Pelagia; Duncan, Peter; Athanasiou, Kyriacos; Papadopoulos, Irena

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of health-related needs on a policy design and curriculum enactment basis in terms of the national school health education curriculum in Greek secondary education. Design/methodology/approach: A single case study, using an ethnographic approach, was conducted in Greece, seeking to…

  7. Notions of "Rhetoric as Epistemic" in Ancient Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, William L.

    The notion that rhetoric (and to a lesser extent, argument) is epistemic is an increasingly popular one today, although it can be traced to ancient Greece. The notion holds that rhetoric, or the art of persuasion, creates and shapes knowledge. Two ancient authors--Aristophanes and Plato--provide evidence that others had notions of rhetoric as…

  8. Plato and Play: Taking Education Seriously in Ancient Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Angour, Armand

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author outlines Plato's notions of play in ancient Greek culture and shows how the philosopher's views on play can be best appreciated against the background of shifting meanings and evaluations of play in classical Greece. Play--in various forms such as word play, ritual, and music--proved central to the development of…

  9. Academic Entrepreneurship, Innovation Policies and Politics in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arapostathis, Stathis

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the process of the emergence in Greece of the "Triple Helix", and the nature of the "Helix" in the context of the concurrent changes occurring in Greek socio-political affairs. The influence of politics and innovation policies on the relationships between academia and government and industry is considered.…

  10. The Kosovo Conflict: Emerging Relationships and Implications for Greece

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    Monitor and Minority Group. Greece. Available on line, http://www.duth.gr/ maillist -archives/thrace/tl54/msg00025.html. 155 Philhellenic Perspective...and Minority Group [http://www.duth.gr/ maillist - archives/thrace/tl54/msg00025.html] Greek Ministry of Defence, Hellenic Peace Support Missions

  11. Gold and gold working in Late Bronze Age Northern Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavelidis, M.; Andreou, S.

    2008-04-01

    Numerous objects of gold displaying an impressive variety of types and manufacturing techniques are known from the Late Bronze Age (LBA) contexts of Mycenaean Greece, but very little is known about the origin and processing of gold during the second millennium b.c. Ancient literature and recent research indicate that northern Greece is probably the richest gold-bearing region in Greece, and yet, very little evidence exists regarding the exploitation of its deposits and the production as well as use of gold in the area during prehistory. The unusual find of a group of small stone crucibles at the prehistoric settlement of Thessaloniki Toumba, one with visible traces of gold melting, proves local production and offers a rare opportunity to examine the process of on-site gold working. Furthermore, the comparison of the chemical composition of prehistoric artefacts from two settlements with those of gold deposits in their immediate areas supports the local extraction of gold and opens up the prospect for some of the Mycenaean gold to have originated in northern Greece. The scarcity of gold items in northern Greek LBA contexts may not represent the actual amount of gold produced and consumed, but could be a result of the local social attitudes towards the circulation and deposition of artefacts from precious metals.

  12. On an American Campus in Greece, a Chorus of Critics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebel, Sara

    2006-01-01

    Mike Frank G. Epitropoulos moved to Greece in the summer of 2005 to become chairman of the business and applied-sociology departments on a small branch campus of the University of Indianapolis, in the shadow of the Acropolis. A former sociology professor at the University of Pittsburgh, he had long wanted to live with his wife and two sons in the…

  13. Religious Education in Greece: A New Curriculum, an Old Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koukounaras Liagkis, Marios

    2015-01-01

    Religious Education (RE) in Greece is a compulsory school subject according the 2011 new framework for compulsory education, entitled "New School". This article focuses on two statutory documents for RE, "The Curriculum for RE" and the "The Teacher's Guide for RE", and the pilot scheme of the new curriculum running in…

  14. Teaching about Ancient Greece: A Model Teaching Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flouris, George

    1988-01-01

    Offers an instructional unit about city-states in Ancient Greece and provides an instructional design model that may be used in similar efforts. Appropriate for grades 6-12, this unit acquaints students with Greek city-states, their locations, main characteristics, social and political structures, origins, and evolution. (GEA)

  15. Let's Play Doctor: Medical Rounds in Ancient Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockler, Donald

    1998-01-01

    Biology students are exposed to historical theories of medicine by contrasting modern medicine and germ theory with the humoral theory of medicine in ancient Greece. After spending one day describing basic theories in humoral medicine, the teacher role-plays a Hippocratic physician treating ailing Greek patients in a Hippocratic medical workshop.…

  16. [Financial crisis and mental health in Greece].

    PubMed

    Giotakos, O; Karabelas, D; Kafkas, A

    2011-01-01

    Several studies indicate an association between economic crises and psychological burden. To investigate the possible impact of the current economic crisis on mental health in Greece, the association between two economic indicators (unemployment and average income) and mental health variables (psychiatric clinic admittance, visits to outpatients' departments and emergency units, suicides, homicides, mortality rates and divorces) was studied. The data were gathered by the Greek Statistical Service and some others were provided by the following hospitals: Eginition Hospital, Psychiatric Hospital of Attica, Athens General Hospital and Evaggelismos Hospital. Simple and multiple regression analyses were performed on the data. There was no significant correlation between the level of unemployment, as well as the average income, and admittance to the psychiatric clinics. A significant correlation was isolated between unemployment and visits to outpatients' department (R2 = 0.40, p = 0.001) and emergency unit (R2 = 0.49, p = 0.0002) of Eginition Hospital. The unemployment rate during the period 1981-2008 was positively associated with the number of homicides (R2 = 0.16, beta = 0.000049, p = 0.03), as well as the number of divorces (R2 = 0.20, beta = 0.005, p = 0.02) during the same period. The average income showed positive association with the visits to both outpatients' department (R2 = 0.55, p < 0.001) and emergency unit (R2 = 0,37, p = 0.004) of Eginition Hospital. However, the data from the 4 hospitals of the study revealed a negative correlation between average income and visits to outpatients' departments (R2 = 0.70, p = 0.02) and emergency units (R2 = 0.90, p < 0.001). Furthermore, a significant negative correlation between the average income and suicide rates (R2 = 0.37, p = 0.007), as well as a positive correlation between the average income and divorce rates (R2 = 0.73, p < 0.001) were found. The findings show several similarities with previous surveys in

  17. Information about Macedonian medicine in ancient Greece.

    PubMed

    Giannouli, Vaitsa; Syrmos, Nikolaos

    2011-01-01

    Ancient Greek Macedonians were highly interested in the improvement of their physical and psychological health. At first, they worshiped the mythical god Asclepius and his daughter Hygieia. In at least 24 places in northern Greece, in Halkidiki, Thessaloniki, Kozani, Kavala, Thassos, Serres and other places, archaelogical findings were related to Asclepius. Macedonian kings were also interested in the development of medicine, for the sake of their fellow citizens and their soldiers. Characteristic examples are the close relations of Hippocrates with king Perdikas (5(th) century B.C.) and of Nicomachus (Aristotle's father being a physician) with king Amintas. Alexander the Great had as his personal physician, the famous physician Philippos of Acarnania. An incident between Alexander and Philippos of Acarnania shows the respect of Macedonian kings to their doctors: Alexander became ill after a bath in the frozen river Cydnus (near ancient Tarsus). At this time he received a letter from his general Parmenion for not to trust his physician. Alexander gave this letter to Philippos to read it and while Philippos was reading it and was rather frightened, he saw Alexander drinking the medicine he had given him. We may note that Alexander the Great as a student of Aristotle had a general education about medicine. Archaeological findings revealed two funerary monuments of physicians: a doctor from Thasos, who practiced in Pella as a public physician during the 3rd quarter of the 4(th) century B.C. and a physician named Alexander, who lived in the 1rst half of the 5(th) century A.D. The tomb of a third physician, probably a surgeon, excavated in Pydna, near mount Olympus (3(rd) century BC)also indicates the importance of physicians in Macedonia. Archaeological findings, like surgical knives, from the Hellinistic and Roman periods, found in the city of Veria, also showed the respect of Ancient Greeks to medicine and to their physicians. An example is the skeleton of a young

  18. Analysis of synoptic conditions for tornadic days over western Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastos, P. T.; Matsangouras, I. T.

    2014-09-01

    Tornadoes have been reported in Greece during the last few decades and recent studies have given evidence that western Greece is an area vulnerable to tornadoes, waterspouts and funnel clouds In this study, the composite means and anomalies of synoptic conditions for tornadic events (tornadoes, waterspouts and funnel clouds) over western Greece are analyzed and discussed. The daily composite means of synoptic conditions were based on the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP-NCAR) reanalysis data sets, for the period 12 August 1953 to 31 December 2012. The daily composite anomalies were calculated with respect to 30 years of climatological study (1981-2010) of the synoptic conditions. The analysis was carried out in terms of seasonal and monthly variability of composite means and anomalies of synoptic conditions for specific isobaric levels of 500, 700, 850, 925 hPa and the sea level pressure (SLP). In addition, an analysis and discussion about the dynamic lifted index from NCEP-NCAR reanalysis data sets is presented. The daily composite mean analysis of 500 hPa revealed a trough line across the northern Adriatic Sea and central Italy, associated with a SW upper-air stream over western Greece. The maximum composite anomalies were depicted at the isobaric level of 500 hPa during autumn, spring and summer, against winter when the anomaly appeared at 925 hPa isobaric level. In addition, 48% of tornado events during the autumn season occurred in pre-frontal weather conditions (cold fronts) and 27% developed after the passage of the cold front. Furthermore, the main difference in synoptic patterns between tornado and waterspout days along western Greece during the autumn season is the maximum daily composite anomaly over the Gulf of Taranto.

  19. Long-term characterization of organic and elemental carbon in the PM2.5 fraction: the case of Athens, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paraskevopoulou, D.; Liakakou, E.; Gerasopoulos, E.; Theodosi, C.; Mihalopoulos, N.

    2014-12-01

    Organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and main ions were measured in a total of 1510 PM2.5 daily aerosol samples collected from May 2008 to April 2013 in Athens, Greece. OC and EC concentrations were 2.1 ± 1.3 μg m-3 and 0.54 ± 0.39 μg m-3, accounting for 11 ± 3% and 3 ± 1% of PM2.5 mass, respectively, with an average OC/EC ratio of 4.7 ± 3.1. Significant correlation was found between OC and EC during the whole period, indicating emissions by common primary sources on a regional scale. WSOC concentration ranged from 0.03 to 10.6 μg m-3, with an average of 1.5 ± 0.9 μg m-3. By considering the Finokalia (Crete) station as a reference, it was estimated that, during the warm season in Athens, 67 ± 7% of emitted OC and 53 ± 12% of emitted EC is regional, while, during cold months, the regional contribution of OC is only 33 ± 7% and of EC 29 ± 8%. Furthermore, secondary organic carbon (SOC) was calculated for the warm period of the year (April to October). The estimated SOC constituted about 75 ± 6% of PM2.5 organic carbon in Athens, highlighting significant aging processes on a regional scale. In the period 2011-2013 and during wintertime, an increase in OC and EC levels was observed, attributed to an increase in wood burning for domestic heating due to the economic crisis.

  20. The 2008 Methoni earthquake sequence: the relationship between the earthquake cycle on the subduction interface and coastal uplift in SW Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Andy; Palamartchouk, Kirill; Papanikolaou, Xanthos; Paradissis, Demitris; Raptakis, Costas; Copley, Alex; England, Philip; Jackson, James

    2017-03-01

    Seismological, GPS and historical data suggest that most of the 40 mm yr-1 convergence at the Hellenic Subduction Zone is accommodated through aseismic creep, with earthquakes of MW ≲ 7 rupturing isolated locked patches of the subduction interface. The size and location of these locked patches are poorly constrained despite their importance for assessment of seismic hazard. We present continuous GPS time-series covering the 2008 MW 6.9 Methoni earthquake, the largest earthquake on the subduction interface since 1960. Post-seismic displacements from this earthquake at onshore GPS sites are comparable in magnitude with the coseismic displacements; elastic-dislocation modelling shows that they are consistent with afterslip on the subduction interface, suggesting that much of this part of the interface is able to slip aseismically and is not locked and accumulating elastic strain. In the Hellenic and other subduction zones, the relationship between earthquakes on the subduction interface and observed long-term coastal uplift is poorly understood. We use cGPS-measured coseismic offsets and seismological body-waveform modelling to constrain centroid locations and depths for the 2008 Methoni MW 6.9 and 2013 Crete MW 6.5 earthquakes, showing that the subduction interface reaches the base of the seismogenic layer SW of the coast of Greece. These earthquakes caused subsidence of the coast in regions where the presence of Pliocene-Quaternary marine terraces indicates recent uplift, so we conclude that deformation associated with the earthquake cycle on the subduction interface is not the dominant control on vertical motions of the coastline. It is likely that minor uplift on a short length scale (˜15 km) occurs in the footwalls of normal faults. We suggest, however, that most of the observed Plio-Quaternary coastal uplift in SW Greece is the result of thickening of the overriding crust of the Aegean by reverse faulting or distributed shortening in the accretionary wedge

  1. Comparison of fundamental natural period of masonry and reinforced concrete buildings retrieved from experimental campaigns performed in Italy, Greece and Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigro, Antonella; Ponzo, Felice C.; Ditommaso, Rocco; Auletta, Gianluca; Iacovino, Chiara; Nigro, Domenico S.; Soupios, Pantelis; García-Fernández, Mariano; Jimenez, Maria-Jose

    2017-04-01

    Aim of this study is the experimental estimation of the dynamic characteristics of existing buildings and the comparison of the related fundamental natural period of the buildings (masonry and reinforced concrete) located in Basilicata (Italy), in Madrid (Spain) and in Crete (Greece). Several experimental campaigns, on different kind of structures all over the world, have been performed in the last years with the aim of proposing simplified relationships to evaluate the fundamental period of buildings. Most of formulas retrieved from experimental analyses provide vibration periods smaller than those suggested by the Italian Seismic Code (NTC2008) and the European Seismic Code (EC8). It is known that the fundamental period of a structure play a key role in the correct estimation of the spectral acceleration for seismic static analyses and to detect possible resonance phenomena with the foundation soil. Usually, simplified approaches dictate the use of safety factors greater than those related to in depth dynamic linear and nonlinear analyses with the aim to cover any unexpected uncertainties. The fundamental period calculated with the simplified formula given by both NTC 2008 and EC8 is higher than the fundamental period measured on the investigated structures in Italy, Spain and Greece. The consequence is that the spectral acceleration adopted in the seismic static analysis may be significantly different than real spectral acceleration. This approach could produces a decreasing in safety factors obtained using linear seismic static analyses. Based on numerical and experimental results, in order to confirm the results proposed in this work, authors suggest to increase the number of numerical and experimental tests considering also the effects of non-structural components and soil during small, medium and strong motion earthquakes. Acknowledgements This study was partially funded by the Italian Department of Civil Protection within the project DPC-RELUIS 2016 - RS4

  2. Constraints on the geodynamical evolution of Crete: insights from illite crystallinity, Raman spectroscopy and calcite twinning above and below the `Cretan detachment'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, T.; Craddock, J. P.; Zulauf, G.

    2013-01-01

    The Alpine nappes of Crete are commonly subdivided into a Lower and an Upper Nappe pile, both of which are considered to be separated by a low-angle extensional shear zone referred to as `Cretan detachment'. The presence of a detachment at the originally suggested position, however, is not supported by our data: (1) Neogene rocks are sandwiched between Tripolitza Unit and the Lower Nappes. (2) Calcite twinning analyses indicate that the major nappes on Crete were largely affected by subhorizontal, layer-parallel shortening rather than subvertical shortening. (3) Metamorphic Tripolitza carbonates resting on top of non-metamorphic Neogene strata on the one hand and illite crystallinity data on the other indicate inverse metamorphism along the `Cretan detachment'. (4) Raman spectra of carbonaceous material from rocks below the detachment are locally indicative for very low-grade or an absence of metamorphism within the Lower Nappes, indicating weaknesses of their present tectono-stratigraphical assignment to the Phyllite-Quartzite Unit. (5) Illite crystallinity in the Pindos Unit is substantially lower than in the Tripolitza Unit, although both Units are considered as the Upper Nappes. (6) Oxygene Isotope data indicate precipitation of twinned calcite veins at supercrustal conditions. These findings point to Miocene thrusting at supercrustal conditions, which postdates the exhumation of the Lower Nappes.

  3. [Medical myths and notions in Ancient Greece].

    PubMed

    Boulogne, J

    2001-01-01

    The article deals with the views on health and disease prevalent in Ancient Greece, the cradle of modern European medicine, focusing on the ever-present myths functioning in that realm despite attempts to rationally explain medical phenomena. On the basis of the works of Hippocrates and Galen, the author has distinguished five different epistemological attitudes towards those phenomena: the holistic, macrocosmological, monistic, anti-hypothetical and eclectic. The first was based on the idea of mechanical and logical causes. In medicine it is marked by determinism connected with climatic conditions. Hippocrates believed that health depended on the weather, in particular on the effects of winds, types of water and properties of soil. Myth emerged in this conception in the way matter - earth, water, air and fire - was conceived, particular in the properties ascribed to them: cold, humidity, aridity and warmth. The author charges that this conception was permeated with ethnocentrism and cites examples invoked by Hippocrates on the basis of his observations on the Scythians. The macrocosmological attitude involves subordinating medicine to cosmology. Man's body is a microcosm. The author cites the treatise 'On Diets', in which the greatest importance both in the universe and in processes taking place in the human body as ascribed to two factors - fire and water. Their combination was said to have played a crucial role in the typology of corporal and mental constitutions. Those features, together with the seasons of the year, mode of behaviour and food, constitute the four forces guiding vital processes. The author then presents the embryogenic conception contained in the cosmological treatise. It was based on such things as numerological speculations, hence - despite its rationalistic assumptions, consigns it to the mythic. The third attitude, the monistic approach, presents a treatise ascribed to Hippocrates 'On the Sacred Disease' and dealing with epilepsy. The

  4. Αutomated 2D shoreline detection from coastal video imagery: an example from the island of Crete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velegrakis, A. F.; Trygonis, V.; Vousdoukas, M. I.; Ghionis, G.; Chatzipavlis, A.; Andreadis, O.; Psarros, F.; Hasiotis, Th.

    2015-06-01

    Beaches are both sensitive and critical coastal system components as they: (i) are vulnerable to coastal erosion (due to e.g. wave regime changes and the short- and long-term sea level rise) and (ii) form valuable ecosystems and economic resources. In order to identify/understand the current and future beach morphodynamics, effective monitoring of the beach spatial characteristics (e.g. the shoreline position) at adequate spatio-temporal resolutions is required. In this contribution we present the results of a new, fully-automated detection method of the (2-D) shoreline positions using high resolution video imaging from a Greek island beach (Ammoudara, Crete). A fully-automated feature detection method was developed/used to monitor the shoreline position in geo-rectified coastal imagery obtained through a video system set to collect 10 min videos every daylight hour with a sampling rate of 5 Hz, from which snapshot, time-averaged (TIMEX) and variance images (SIGMA) were generated. The developed coastal feature detector is based on a very fast algorithm using a localised kernel that progressively grows along the SIGMA or TIMEX digital image, following the maximum backscatter intensity along the feature of interest; the detector results were found to compare very well with those obtained from a semi-automated `manual' shoreline detection procedure. The automated procedure was tested on video imagery obtained from the eastern part of Ammoudara beach in two 5-day periods, a low wave energy period (6-10 April 2014) and a high wave energy period (1 -5 November 2014). The results showed that, during the high wave energy event, there have been much higher levels of shoreline variance which, however, appeared to be similarly unevenly distributed along the shoreline as that related to the low wave energy event, Shoreline variance `hot spots' were found to be related to the presence/architecture of an offshore submerged shallow beachrock reef, found at a distance of 50-80 m

  5. Science and Technology of Nanostructured Magnetic Materials: Proceedings of a NATO Advanced Study Institute Conference Held in Aghia Pelaghia, Crete, Greece on 24 June -6 July 1990. NATO ASI Series B: Physics. Volume 259

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-06

    this important advantage ,wer the Fresnel and Focault methods must be set the disadvantage that, in order to obtain an unobstructed reference wave, only... Focault methods - its linearity. It can be shown 19 that the ideal DPC detector is a first moment detector whose response is proportional to spatial... Focault and DPC images for an assumed variation of induction across a pair of 1800 domain walls, illustrating the linearity of DPC. Note the similarity

  6. Vocational Education and Training in Europe on the Threshold of the 21st Century. UNEVOC-OEEK Symposium in Preparation for the International Congress on Technical and Vocational Education (2nd, Crete, Greece, September 23-26, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Berlin (Germany).

    Following nine introductory papers that explain the work of various organizations involved in vocational training in Europe, the conference papers are organized around five themes: (1) vocational education and training and new technologies; (2) environmental education and training; (3) the changing role of the public and private sectors in…

  7. Historical overview of spinal deformities in ancient Greece

    PubMed Central

    Vasiliadis, Elias S; Grivas, Theodoros B; Kaspiris, Angelos

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the history of spinal deformities in ancient Greece. The present study summarizes what we know today for diagnosis and management of spinal deformities in ancient Greece, mainly from the medical treatises of Hippocrates and Galen. Hippocrates, through accurate observation and logical reasoning was led to accurate conclusions firstly for the structure of the spine and secondly for its diseases. He introduced the terms kyphosis and scoliosis and wrote in depth about diagnosis and treatment of kyphosis and less about scoliosis. The innovation of the board, the application of axial traction and even the principle of trans-abdominal correction for correction of spinal deformities have their origin in Hippocrates. Galen, who lived nearly five centuries later impressively described scoliosis, lordosis and kyphosis, provided aetiologic implications and used the same principles with Hippocrates for their management, while his studies influenced medical practice on spinal deformities for more than 1500 years. PMID:19243609

  8. Factors determining migrant remittances: the case of Greece.

    PubMed

    Lianos, T P

    1997-01-01

    "In this study we review the literature regarding the theory and the empirical evidence regarding migrants' remittance behavior, and we examine the flow and determinants of remittances from Greek migrants for the period 1961 to 1991. The main body of data is for remittances to Greece from Germany, but for some years data are available for remittances from Belgium and Sweden as well. The objective of this study is to test the significance of certain factors in terms of their effects on remittances to Greece. These factors are the migrant's income, the migrant's family income, the rate of unemployment, the rate of interest, the exchange rate, and the rate of inflation. The study attempts to see if these factors have had any effect on the volume of remittances. It also attempts to see if there are any structural changes during this period that affect migrants' propensity to remit."

  9. Effective ultraviolet irradiance measurements from artificial tanning devices in Greece.

    PubMed

    Petri, Aspasia; Karabetsos, Efthymios

    2015-12-01

    Artificial tanning remains very popular worldwide, despite the International Agency for Research on Cancer classification of ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunbeds as 'carcinogenic to humans'. Greek Atomic Energy Commission has initiated a surveillance action of the artificial tanning devices in Greece in order to record the effective irradiance levels from the sunbeds and to inform and synchronise the domestic artificial tanning business sector with the requirements of the European Standard EN 60335-2-27:2010. In this direction, in situ measurements of UV emissions from sunbeds in solaria businesses all over Greece were performed from October 2013 until July 2014, with a radiometer and a portable single-monochromator spectrophotometer. Analysis of the measurements' results revealed that effective irradiance in ∼60 % of the measured sunbeds exceeded the 0.3 W m(-2) limit value set by EN 60335-2-27:2010 and only 20 % of the devices could be categorised as UV type 3.

  10. A clinical and educational telemedicine link between Bulgaria and Greece.

    PubMed

    Anogianakis, George; Ilonidis, George; Anogeianaki, Antonia; Milliaras, Spyros; Klisarova, Anelia; Temelkov, Temel; Vlachakis-Milliaras, Emmanuel

    2003-01-01

    During its transition to a market economy, Bulgaria benefited from foreign aid provided by Greece. One of the projects was the clinical and educational telemedicine link between the Medical University of Varna in Bulgaria and the Faculty of Medicine of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki in Greece. This began in 1997. In terms of the educational activities, the Bulgarian side of the network supports: an electronic classroom equipped with personal workstations, multimedia projectors and videoconference facilities; electronic design and publishing activities; Web hosting and mail server activities; and satellite communications. Communications are via ISDN. The main clinical experience has been remote consultations in immunology. This experience (admittedly limited) demonstrates that telemedicine can be used to provide assistance to remote colleagues. In addition, the use of telemedicine can greatly improve the quality of care available to travellers and migrant workers in cases where the patient cannot communicate with the attending physician because of a language barrier.

  11. Adoption and use of e-invoicing in Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Marinagi, C. E-mail: ptrivel@yahoo.com Trivellas, P. E-mail: ptrivel@yahoo.com Reklitis, Panagiotis E-mail: ptrivel@yahoo.com; Skourlas, C.

    2015-02-09

    This paper investigates the adoption and use of electronic invoices (e-invoices) in Greek organizations. The study attempts to evaluate current practices applied in implementing e-invoicing. A field research has been conducted, which is based on a structured questionnaire. The target sample consisted of 42 Greek enterprises. The main issues of the investigation include the existing invoice processing practices, the barriers that prevent the extended adoption and use of e-invoicing, the observed benefits from e-invoicing implementation, and the strategic drivers for transition to e-invoicing. Currently, the use of e-invoicing in Greece is low. However, the research results testify that the adoption of e-invoicing in Greece is promising. Even though, a number of enterprises state that benefits of e-invoicing are not clear yet, the majority of enterprises agree that there are crucial financial priorities that e-invoicing is expected to support.

  12. West Nile virus infections in Greece: an update.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anna

    2012-07-01

    Approximately 2 years have passed since the detection of the first human case of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in Greece, which was the starting signal of a large outbreak in 2010, followed by a second one in 2011. More than 250 neuroinvasive disease cases with 15% fatality were observed during the two WNV seasons. WNV lineage 2 sequences were obtained from blood donors, Culex mosquitoes, wild birds and sentinel chickens. The Greek WNV strain shows high genetic relatedness to the goshawk-Hungary/04 WNV strain; an amino acid substitution in nonstructural protein 3 (H249P) is observed, which has been previously associated with increased virus transmission. This article provides an overview of the WNV outbreaks in Greece and discusses the knowledge gained from these events.

  13. Diurnal variation of wind-chill at Thessaloniki, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balafoutis, Ch. J.

    1989-12-01

    The diurnal variations of wind-chill at Thessaloniki, Greece, are considered using hourly data from January 1960 to December 1977. This is the first attempt in Greece to describe bioclimatic conditions using wind-chill data. The hourly values of wind-chill were calculated by Siple-Passel's formula which still appears to be most widely used. The values of wind-chill are discussed in terms of Terjung's scale. Thessaloniki does not experience “frost-bite” conditions during the coldest months but does experience “warm” conditions during the summer period. A comparison of hourly and daily mean values show that the means do not indicate the real range of wind-chill during the day.

  14. Molecular epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in Greece.

    PubMed

    Karampatakis, Theodoros; Antachopoulos, Charalampos; Iosifidis, Elias; Tsakris, Athanassios; Roilides, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    Hospital infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) constitute a worldwide problem associated with high rates of treatment failure and mortality. In Greece, CRKP have emerged in 2002 due to VIM carbapenemase production and later due to KPC, NDM and OXA-48-like carbapenemases that have become endemic. The molecular epidemiology of CRKP strains is dynamic, as antibiotic consumption and worldwide traveling are strongly associated with global spread of CRKP isolates. Lately, porin defects, such as disruption of OmpK35 and production of OmpK36 variant, have also contributed to carbapenem resistance. In the coming years, the high prevalence of CRKP will require intense infection control measures, while novel molecular patterns may appear. To our knowledge, this is the first review analyzing the molecular epidemiology of CRKP strains in Greece.

  15. Careers education and guidance in Greece a critical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosmidou-Hardy, Chrysoula

    1990-09-01

    The paper begins with a clarification of the terms `effective' versus `successful' teacher and their implications. There follows a summary of the results of a study addressing the issues: a) which Careers Education and Guidance (CEG) aims in Greece are considered most important, and b) what constitutes a successful careers teacher. The study is based on the responses of careers coordinators in Greece and consultants at the Greek Pedagogical Institute. Issues concerning Information and Self-Awareness as Careers Education and Guidance aims are discussed, and an alternative approach to Information is suggested. The main emphasis is placed on the importance of the teacher as an indispensable factor for the implementation of CEG aims in particular, and educational aims in general.

  16. Online Communities: The Case of Immigrants in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panaretou, Ioannis; Karousos, Nikos; Kostopoulos, Ioannis; Foteinou, Georgia-Barbara; Pavlidis, Giorgos

    Immigrants in Greece are an increasing population, very often threatened by poverty and social exclusion. At the same time Greek government has no formal policy concerning their assimilation in Greek society and this situation generates multiple problems in both immigrants and native population. In this work we suggest that new technology can alleviate these effects and we present specific tools and methodologies adopted by ANCE, in order to support online communities and specifically immigrant communities in Greece. This approach has the potential to support immigrant communities' in terms of the organization of personal data, communication, and provision of a working space for dedicated use. The Information System's operational features are also presented, along with other characteristics and state-of-the-art features in order to propose a general direction to the design of online communities' mechanisms.

  17. Historical overview of spinal deformities in ancient Greece.

    PubMed

    Vasiliadis, Elias S; Grivas, Theodoros B; Kaspiris, Angelos

    2009-02-25

    Little is known about the history of spinal deformities in ancient Greece. The present study summarizes what we know today for diagnosis and management of spinal deformities in ancient Greece, mainly from the medical treatises of Hippocrates and Galen. Hippocrates, through accurate observation and logical reasoning was led to accurate conclusions firstly for the structure of the spine and secondly for its diseases. He introduced the terms kyphosis and scoliosis and wrote in depth about diagnosis and treatment of kyphosis and less about scoliosis. The innovation of the board, the application of axial traction and even the principle of trans-abdominal correction for correction of spinal deformities have their origin in Hippocrates. Galen, who lived nearly five centuries later impressively described scoliosis, lordosis and kyphosis, provided aetiologic implications and used the same principles with Hippocrates for their management, while his studies influenced medical practice on spinal deformities for more than 1500 years.

  18. Urban wastewater and stormwater technologies in ancient Greece.

    PubMed

    Angelakis, A N; Koutsoyiannis, D; Tchobanoglous, G

    2005-01-01

    The status of urban sewerage and stormwater drainage systems in ancient Greece is reviewed, based on the results of archaeological studies of the 20th century. Emphasis is given to the construction, operation, and management of sewerage and stormwater drainage systems during the Minoan period (2nd millennium B.C.). The achievements of this period in dealing with the hygienic and the functional requirements of palaces and cities, were so advanced that they can only be compared to modern urban water systems, developed in Europe and North America in the second half of the 19th century A.D. The advanced Minoan technologies were exported to all parts of Greece in later periods of the Greek civilization, i.e. in Mycenaean, Archaic, Classical, and Hellenistic periods.

  19. National Intelligence Survey. Greece. Section 23, Weather and Climate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1961-01-01

    hurricanes and tornadoes is virtually unknown. However, a variety of spe- cial winds is noted. The most common special wind over Greece is called...observations are taken at 7 sta- tions, and 54 stations are agricultural and clima - tological stations. The University of Athens has 3 primarily... clima - tological stations under the supervision of Profes- sor E. G. Mariolopoulos. The University of Thes- saloniki Department of Meteorology has 6

  20. Natural radioactivity content of granite tiles used in Greece.

    PubMed

    Papaefthymiou, H

    2008-01-01

    Measurements of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activity concentrations in commercial granite tiles imported in Greece were performed using gamma-ray spectrometry. The activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K ranged from 1 to 434, 2 to 239 and 71 to 1576 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The calculated activity concentration index (I) values for all granite samples examined were found to be within the EC limit values for superficial and other materials with restricted use.

  1. West Nile virus infections in humans--focus on Greece.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anna

    2013-10-01

    West Nile virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus causing to humans a variety of symptoms, from asymptomatic or mild infection, to severe, and often fatal, infection of the central nervous system. The present review aims to describe the main clinical characteristics of the disease, to provide the recent epidemiological data, including those from the recent outbreaks in Greece, and to discuss the environmental factors which might play a role in the virus emergence and its wider dispersal.

  2. Chewing lice from wild birds in northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Diakou, Anastasia; Pedroso Couto Soares, José Bernardo; Alivizatos, Haralambos; Panagiotopoulou, Maria; Kazantzidis, Savas; Literák, Ivan; Sychra, Oldřich

    2017-10-01

    Greece represents an important area for wild birds due to its geographical position and habitat diversity. Although the bird species in Greece are well recorded, the information about the chewing lice that infest them is practically non-existent. Thus, the aim of the present study was to record the species of lice infesting wild birds in northern Greece and furthermore, to associate the infestation prevalence with factors such as the age, sex, migration and social behaviour of the host as well as the time of the year. In total 729 birds, (belonging to 9 orders, 32 families and 68 species) were examined in 7 localities of northern Greece, during 9 ringing sessions from June 2013 until October 2015. Eighty (11%) of the birds were found to be infested with lice. In 31 different bird species, 560 specimens of lice, belonging to 33 species were recorded. Mixed infestations were recorded in 11 cases where birds were infested with 2-3 different lice species. Four new host-parasite associations were recorded i.e. Menacanthus curuccae from Acrocephalus melanopogon, Menacanthus agilis from Cettia cetti, Myrsidea sp. from Acrocephalus schoenobaenus, and Philopretus citrinellae from Spinus spinus. Moreover, Menacanthus sinuatus was detected on Poecile lugubris, rendering this report the first record of louse infestation in this bird species. The statistical analysis of the data collected showed no association between parasitological parameters (prevalence, mean and median intensity and mean abundance) in two different periods of the year (breeding vs post-breeding season). However, there was a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of infestation between a) migrating and sedentary passerine birds (7.4% vs 13.2%), b) colonial and territorial birds (54.5% vs 9.6%), and c) female and male birds in breeding period (2.6% vs 15.6%). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Analysis of synoptic conditions for tornadic days over Western Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastos, P. T.; Matsangouras, I. T.

    2014-03-01

    Tornadoes have been reported in Greece during the last decades and recent studies have given evidence that west Greece is a vulnerable area for tornadoes, waterspouts and funnel clouds to occur. In this study, the composite means and anomalies of synoptic conditions for tornadic events (tornadoes, waterspouts and funnel clouds) over west Greece are analyzed and discussed. The daily composite means of synoptic conditions were based on National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis datasets, for the period 12 August 1953 to 31 December 2012. The daily composite anomalies were calculated with respect to 30 years climatology (1981-2010) of the synoptic conditions. The analysis was carried out in terms of seasonal and monthly variability of composite means and anomalies of synoptic conditions for specific isobaric levels of 500, 700, 850, 925 hPa and the sea level pressure (SLP). In addition, an analysis and discussion about the dynamic Lifted Index from NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis datasets is presented.

  4. Genetic characterisation of Taenia multiceps cysts from ruminants in Greece.

    PubMed

    Al-Riyami, Shumoos; Ioannidou, Evi; Koehler, Anson V; Hussain, Muhammad H; Al-Rawahi, Abdulmajeed H; Giadinis, Nektarios D; Lafi, Shawkat Q; Papadopoulos, Elias; Jabbar, Abdul

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to genetically characterise the larval stage (coenurus) of Taenia multiceps from ruminants in Greece, utilising DNA regions within the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (partial cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (pnad1) mitochondrial (mt) genes, respectively. A molecular-phylogenetic approach was used to analyse the pcox1 and pnad1 amplicons derived from genomic DNA samples from individual cysts (n=105) from cattle (n=3), goats (n=5) and sheep (n=97). Results revealed five and six distinct electrophoretic profiles for pcox1 and pnad1, respectively, using single-strand conformation polymorphism. Direct sequencing of selected amplicons representing each of these profiles defined five haplotypes each for pcox1 and pnad1, among all 105 isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of individual sequence data for each locus, including a range of well-defined reference sequences, inferred that all isolates of T. multiceps cysts from ruminants in Greece clustered with previously published sequences from different continents. The present study provides a foundation for future large-scale studies on the epidemiology of T. multiceps in ruminants as well as dogs in Greece.

  5. Geochemical correlation of surface and subsurface oils, western Greece

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palacas, J.G.; Monopolis, D.; Nicolaou, C.A.; Anders, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    Biodegraded seep oils, devoid of n-alkanes and most isoprenoid hydrocarbons, were successfully correlated with subsurface crude oils in western Greece primarily using carbon isotopes and the more microbially resistant tricyclic terpane and aromatic steroid hydrocarbon distributions. All the studied oils seem to fit into three major genetic groups which are consistent with the geologic, tectonic, and geographic settings and are presumably related to different source-rock facies. Group I oils are typical of the abundant oil shows in the Epirus province, northwest Greece. Minor but consistent biomarker differences necessitated subgrouping of the Epirus oils, implying derivation from slightly different sources. Group II oils are located in the Katakolon area, northwestern Peloponnese. Group III oils, which are clearly distinct from the other groups, are centered in Zakynthos Island. An oil seep at Trifos, west central Greece, and a subsurface oil from Paxi Island, because of uncertain correlations, are classed intermediate between Group I and II oils. An aromatic steroid hydrocarbon measurement, modified after Mackenzie et al. (1981), appears useful in determining the relative maturity of biodegraded and conventional oils and carbonate rock extracts. ?? 1986.

  6. A ten year Moment Tensor database for Western Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serpetsidaki, Anna; Sokos, Efthimios; Tselentis, G.-Akis

    2016-10-01

    Moment Tensors (MTs) provide important information for seismotectonic, stress distribution and source studies. It is also important as a real time or near real time information in shakemaps, tsunami warning, and stress transfer. Therefore a reliable and rapid MT computation is a routine task for modern seismic networks with broadband sensors and real-time digital telemetry. In this paper we present the database of Moment Tensor solutions computed during the last ten years in Western Greece by the University of Patras, Seismological Laboratory (UPSL). The data from UPSL broad band network were used together with the ISOLA Moment Tensor inversion package for routine MT calculation. The procedures followed and the comparison of UPSL derived solutions with the ones provided by other agencies for Western Greece region are presented as well. The Moment Tensor database includes solutions for events in the magnitude range 2.8-6.8 and provides a unique insight into the faulting characteristics of Western Greece. Moreover it paves the way for detailed studies of stress tensor and stress transfer. The weak events' Moment Tensor included in UPSL's database are important for the comprehension of local seismotectonics and reveal the role of minor faults, which may be critical in seismic hazard estimation.

  7. Spatial Inequality in the Accessibility to Hospitals in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalogirou, S.

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to measure the spatial accessibility to public health care facilities in Greece. We look at population groups disaggregated by age and socioeconomic characteristics. The purpose of the analysis is to identify potential spatial inequalities in the accessibility to public hospitals among population groups or service areas. The data refer to the accessibility of all residents to public hospitals in Greece. The spatial datasets include the location of settlements (communities), the administrative boundaries of municipalities and the location of public hospitals. The methodology stems from spatial analysis theory (gravity models), economics theory (inequalities) and geocomputation practice (GIS and programming). Several accessibility measures have been calculated using the newly developed R package SpatialAcc, which is available in CRAN. The results are interesting and tend to show an urban-rural and social class divide: younger, working age population as well as people with the highest educational attainment have better accessibility to public hospitals compared to older or low educated residents. This finding has serious policy making implications and should be taken into account in the future spatial (re)organisation of hospitals in Greece.

  8. Rural primary care in Greece: working under limited resources.

    PubMed

    Oikonomidou, Eirini; Anastasiou, Foteini; Dervas, Dimitris; Patri, Fani; Karaklidis, Dionisis; Moustakas, Panagiotis; Andreadou, Niki; Mantzanas, Enagellos; Merkouris, Bodossakis

    2010-08-01

    Establishing sufficient primary health-care services in rural areas is of high interest in developing health systems. The objective of the present study was to describe the state of rural health services, in terms of personnel and equipment, in rural primary care settings in Greece. A questionnaire was sent to all Greek rural settings (RS) (practices) twice during 2007. The questionnaire included questions about the number of doctors in the practice, their specialty, presence of a nurse, population served and average distance from the regional Health Center and hospital. It also included questions about the average number of consultations per day, home visits, maintenance of medical records and medical equipment. Rural primary care settings in Greece. Doctors serving primary care needs during the second half of 2007. s) None. s) Data concerning staffing, function and available equipment of the RS have been collected. Five hundred eighty-two (40.9%) of the rural practitioners replied. Twenty-nine percent of the participants were general practitioners (GPs). Doctors reported average population of responsibility of 2263 citizens and a regular average of 26 consultations per day. A nurse was present in 174 RS (29.5%). Medical records of any form were kept in only 36% of the RS. GPs were more prone to maintain patients files compared with non-specialized doctors. Essential equipment proved to be limited in the majority of the RS. Rural practices in Greece report shortages of medical staff (GPs), nursing staff and equipment.

  9. Factors that motivate and hinder blood donation in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Marantidou, O; Loukopoulou, L; Zervou, E; Martinis, G; Egglezou, A; Fountouli, P; Dimoxenous, P; Parara, M; Gavalaki, M; Maniatis, A

    2007-01-01

    Donations in Greece are insufficient to cover the high transfusion needs arising from large numbers of thalassaemia and sickle cell anaemia patients and the implementation of new surgical techniques. Efforts to achieve self-sufficiency, and to render blood supplies safer and manageable must focus on recruiting and retaining more volunteer donors and on converting the large pool of replacement donors. The aim of the study was to gain insight into public perception regarding the risks of donation and transfusion and to identify the factors that would motivate more people in Greece to regularly donate blood. Questionnaires were distributed to 1600 donors at the blood bank and visitors to hospitals at 11 locations across the country. Data on demographics, donation behaviour, incentives, risk perception and attitudes towards donation and transfusion were analysed separately for volunteer and replacement donors and non-donors. The results showed that women and young people donate the least in Greece. Also, many donors do not donate because they are not reminded to. A small percentage of donors confessed to having concealed part of the truth to background questions. Overall, incentives to donate were considered important and included future availability of blood for self or family, paid leave from work and free blood tests. Recruitment and retention efforts should include better communication with current donors, and raising awareness among eligible donors. Staff should be educated in soliciting information from potential donors, and incentives should be better aligned to avoid conflict with ethical values and ensure honesty in the prescreening process. PMID:18067648

  10. Adolescence and abortion in Greece: women's profile and perceptions.

    PubMed

    Mavroforou, Anna; Koumantakis, Evgenios; Michalodimitrakis, Emmanuel

    2004-10-01

    To investigate the individual and social profile of the adolescents seeking abortion in Greece. Questionnaires were distributed from the obstetricians practicing in the capital and two major cities in Greece to adolescent pregnant women who were seeking for abortion and collected anonymously. From 150 consecutive pregnant adolescents, 38 refused to participate and from 112 who accepted to participate only 74 (66%) replied. Most of the respondents lived in a city (65%), were unmarried (73%), 62% had sex first time after the age of 15, and the educational status of their parents was rarely at higher degree (father: 20%, mother: 16%). Among them, 74% declared that they had received information on contraception (64% from friends, 47% from doctors, 36% from the media). Overall, withdrawal (49%) and male condom (28.5%) were the popular contraceptive precautions. Abortion was adolescents' decision in 65%, while the partner's influence in the case of a shared decision was as high as 73%. Most adolescents (91%) knew about the potential risks of abortion mainly by their doctor (87%) and socio-economical reasons (89%) were mostly claimed. Their parents were rarely aware about their pregnancy (28%) and decision for abortion (28%). In most cases it was the first abortion (78%) and adolescents declared that were aware about the Greek Church's opposition (89%) and the existence of an abortion law (86%). In Greece, the poor education on the issue of contraception still remains a major problem among teenagers contributing to the increased prevalence of undesired pregnancies and abortions.

  11. Generics market in Greece: the pharmaceutical industry's beliefs.

    PubMed

    Geitona, Mary; Zavras, Dimitrios; Hatzikou, Magda; Kyriopoulos, John

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the beliefs and perspectives of the pharmaceutical industry on generic medication in Greece. Questionnaires were mailed to all 58 members of the Hellenic Association of Pharmaceutical Companies from November 2002 to February 2003. The response rate was 52%, namely 30 questionnaires were completed and returned. The questionnaire requested information on companies' involvement in generics, their opinion on generics' characteristics and on public policies affecting the demand and supply of generic medication. A descriptive analysis of the outcomes, that is percentage comparison through binomial tests and Fisher tests, was performed. According to our findings, 43% of the respondents were involved in the production and distribution of generics and the mean period of their involvement was 12 years. The majority of the respondents were in favor of their companies' involvement in generics, despite the relatively small market share of generics in Greece; 9.7% of total pharmaceutical market in 2003. Bearing in mind that in Greece the promotion of generics is not encouraged, pharmaceutical companies believe that the mandatory introduction of bioequivalence studies is an indirect promotional strategy towards generics. Additionally, the majority declared that their main competitive advantages are their safety, efficacy and effectiveness as well as their economic benefit to the society. Finally, the respondents expressed their preference for the introduction of pharmacoeconomic submissions for drugs' reimbursement by social insurance funds.

  12. Preparatory works for the altimeter calibration of the Sentinel-3 mission using the dedicated calibration site in Crete and Gavdos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertikas, Stelios P.; Daskalakis, A.; Koutroulis, Ef.; Tripolitsiotis, A.; Partsinevelos, P.

    2011-11-01

    The importance of satellite altimetry in monitoring the complex ocean-atmosphere system led to the approval of the Sentinel-3 ocean topography mission. This mission is scheduled to be launched in 2013. It will incorporate new instruments and measuring modes that are expected to provide high-accuracy measurements for the determination of sea level as well as ocean and land color, sea and land surface temperature with improved spatial and temporal coverage. Nevertheless, satellite altimeter measurements, as in also the case for Sentinel-3, of homogenous quality and reliability have to be maintained over longer periods of time. Hence, the Sentinel-3 altimetry observations, such as sea-surface heights and sea-level anomaly fields, need to be continuously and independently connected in a common, reliable but also long-term manner. This can be achieved by satellite calibration using dedicated research infrastructures. A permanent calibration facility for satellite altimeters has been operating in Gavdos island, Greece as of 2004. This facility has already been successfully and continuously determined the OSTM/Jason-2 altimeter bias. This work presents the plans and actions to be performed to calibrate the altimeter of Sentinel-3, using the existing Gavdos Cal/Val facility, as well as the newly developed microwave transponder.

  13. A heuristic expert system for forest fire guidance in Greece.

    PubMed

    Iliadis, Lazaros S; Papastavrou, Anastasios K; Lefakis, Panagiotis D

    2002-07-01

    Forests and forestlands are common inheritance for all Greeks and a piece of the national wealth that must be handed over to the next generations in the best possible condition. After 1974, Greece faces a severe forest fire problem and forest fire forecasting is the process that will enable the Greek ministry of Agriculture to reduce the destruction. This paper describes the basic design principles of an Expert System that performs forest fire forecasting (for the following fire season) and classification of the prefectures of Greece into forest fire risk zones. The Expert system handles uncertainty and uses heuristics in order to produce scenarios based on the presence or absence of various qualitative factors. The initial research focused on the construction of a mathematical model which attempted to describe the annual number of forest fires and burnt area in Greece based on historical data. However this has proven to be impossible using regression analysis and time series. A closer analysis of the fire data revealed that two qualitative factors dramatically affect the number of forest fires and the hectares of burnt areas annually. The first is political stability and national elections and the other is drought cycles. Heuristics were constructed that use political stability and drought cycles, to provide forest fire guidance. Fuzzy logic was applied to produce a fuzzy expected interval for each prefecture of Greece. A fuzzy expected interval is a narrow interval of values that best describes the situation in the country or a part of the country for a certain time period. A successful classification of the prefectures of Greece in forest fire risk zones was done by the system, by comparing the fuzzy expected intervals to each other. The system was tested for the years 1994 and 1995. The testing has clearly shown that the system can predict accurately, the number of forest fires for each prefecture for the following year. The average accuracy was as high as 85

  14. Characterization of carbonaceous aerosols during the MINOS campaign in Crete, July-August 2001: a multi-analytical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciare, J.; Cachier, H.; Oikonomou, K.; Ausset, P.; Sarda-Estève, R.; Mihalopoulos, N.

    2003-07-01

    During the major part of the Mediterranean Intensive Oxidant Study (MINOS) campaign (summer 2001, Crete Isl.), the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL) air was influenced by long range transport of biomass burning from the northern and western part of the Black Sea. During this campaign, carbonaceous aerosols were collected on quartz filters at a Free Tropospheric (FT) site, and at a MBL site together with size-resolved distribution of aerosols. Three Evolution Gas Analysis (EGA) protocols have been tested in order to better characterize the collected aged biomass burning smoke: A 2-step thermal method (Cachier et al., 1989) and a thermo-optical technique using two different temperature programs. The later temperature programs are those used for IMPROVE (Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments) and NIOSH 5040 (National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health). Artifacts were observed using the NIOSH temperature program and identified as interactions between carbon and dust deposited on the filter matrix at high temperature (T=550°C) under the pure helium step of the analysis. During the MINOS campaign, Black Carbon (BC) and Organic Carbon (OC) concentrations were on average respectively 1.19±0.56 and 3.62±1.08 μgC/m3 for the IMPROVE temperature program, and 1.09±0.36 and 3.75±1.24 μgC/m3 for the thermal method. Though these values compare well on average and the agreement between the Total Carbon (TC) measurements sample to sample was excellent (slope = 1.00, r2=0.93, n=56), important discrepancies were observed in determining BC concentrations from these two methods (average error of 33±22%). BC from the IMPROVE temperature program compared well with non-sea-salt potassium (nss-K) pointing out an optical sensitivity to biomass burning. On the other hand, BC from the thermal method showed a better agreement with non-sea-salt sulfate (nss-SO4), considered as a tracer for fossil fuel combustion during the MINOS campaign. The coupling between

  15. Characterization of carbonaceous aerosols during the MINOS campaign in Crete, July August 2001: a multi-analytical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciare, J.; Cachier, H.; Oikonomou, K.; Ausset, P.; Sarda-Estève, R.; Mihalopoulos, N.

    2003-10-01

    During the major part of the Mediterranean Intensive Oxidant Study (MINOS) campaign (summer 2001, Crete Isl.), the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL) air was influenced by long range transport of biomass burning from the northern and western part of the Black Sea. During this campaign, carbonaceous aerosols were collected on quartz filters at a Free Tropospheric (FT) site, and at a MBL site together with size-resolved distribution of aerosols. Three Evolution Gas Analysis (EGA) protocols have been tested in order to better characterize the collected aged biomass burning smoke: A 2-step thermal method (Cachier et al., 1989) and a thermo-optical technique using two different temperature programs. The later temperature programs are those used for IMPROVE (Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments) and NIOSH 5040 (National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health). Artifacts were observed using the NIOSH temperature program and identified as interactions between carbon and dust deposited on the filter matrix at high temperature (T>550ºC) under the pure helium step of the analysis. During the MINOS campaign, Black Carbon (BC) and Organic Carbon (OC) mass concentrations were on average respectively 1.19±0.56 and 3.62±1.08 mgC/m3 for the IMPROVE temperature program, and 1.09±0.36 and 3.75±1.24 mgC/m3 for the thermal method. Though these values compare well on average and the agreement between the Total Carbon (TC) measurements sample to sample was excellent (slope=1.00, r2=0.93, n=56), important discrepancies were observed in determining BC concentrations from these two methods (average error of 33±22%). BC from the IMPROVE temperature program compared well with non-sea-salt potassium (nss-K) pointing out an optical sensitivity to biomass burning. On the other hand, BC from the thermal method showed a better agreement with non-sea-salt sulfate (nss-SO4), considered as a tracer for fossil fuel combustion during the MINOS campaign. The coupling between these

  16. An integrated multi-parameter monitoring approach for the quantification and mitigation of the climate change impact on the coasts of Eastern Crete, S. Aegean Sea (Project AKTAIA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghionis, George; Alexandrakis, George; Karditsa, Aikaterini; Sifnioti, Dafni; Vousdoukas, Michalis; Andreadis, Olympos; Petrakis, Stelios; Poulos, Serafim; Velegrakis, Adonis; Kampanis, Nikolaos; Lipakis, Michalis

    2014-05-01

    The AKTAIA project aims at the production of new knowledge regarding the forms of manifestation of the climate change and its influence on the stability and evolution of the coastal landforms along the shoreline of eastern Crete (approximate length: 757 km), taking into account the various aspects of human intervention. Aerial photographs, satellite images and orthophotomaps have been used to produce a detailed coastline map and to study the morphological characteristics of the coastal zone of Eastern Crete. More than 100 beach zones have been visited during three field campaigns, which included geomorphological and human intervention mapping, topographic, meteorological and oceanographic measurements and sedimentological sampling and observations. In addition, two pilot sites (one in the north and one in the south part of Crete) are being monitored, via the installation of coastal video monitoring systems, shore-based meteorological stations and wave-tide recorders installed in the nearshore zone. Detailed seafloor mapping with the use of side scan sonar and scuba diving and bathymetric surveys were conducted in the two pilot sites. Meteorological and oceanographic data from all existing land-based meteorological stations, oceanographic buoys and the ERA-interim dataset are used to determine the wind and wave climate of each beach. The collected climatic, sedimentological and coastal environmental data are being integrated in a GIS database that will be used to forecast the climatic trends in the area of Crete for the next decades and to model the impact of the climatic change on the future evolution of the coastal zone. New methodologies for the continuous monitoring of land-sea interaction and for the quantification of the loss of sensitive coastal zones due to sea-level rise and a modified Coastal Vulnerability Index for a comparative evaluation of the vulnerability of the coasts are being developed. Numerical modelling of the nearshore hydrodynamics and the

  17. A Review of the Library and Information Services In Greece: Current Developments that Shape LIS Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garoufallou, Emmanouel; Siatri, Rania; Hartley, R. J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper sets the context for this special issue on LIS education in Greece by explaining the Greek higher education system both in organisational terms and in the approaches to teaching and learning. In addition it briefly outlines the current state of development in libraries in Greece. Taken together they provide the background to the…

  18. The Effect of Education on Economic Growth in Greece over the 1960-2000 Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsamadias, Constantinos; Prontzas, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of education on economic growth in Greece over the period 1960-2000 by applying the model introduced by Mankiw, Romer, and Weil. The findings of the empirical analysis reveal that education had a positive and statistically significant effect on economic growth in Greece over the period 1960-2000. The econometric…

  19. Historical and Contemporary Aspects of the Relationship between the State and Adult Education in Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucouvalas, Marcie

    An outgrowth of earlier research on historical and contemporary adult education in Greece, this paper provides highlights of the relationship between the state and adult education in that country. The highlights are organized by the following historical periods: prehistory (c. 3000-1100 B.C.); early and archaic Greece (c. 1100-700 B.C.);…

  20. The Effect of Education on Economic Growth in Greece over the 1960-2000 Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsamadias, Constantinos; Prontzas, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of education on economic growth in Greece over the period 1960-2000 by applying the model introduced by Mankiw, Romer, and Weil. The findings of the empirical analysis reveal that education had a positive and statistically significant effect on economic growth in Greece over the period 1960-2000. The econometric…

  1. Working with Students with Special Educational Needs in Greece: Teachers' Stressors and Coping Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antoniou, Alexander-Stamatios; Polychroni, Fotini; Kotroni, Christina

    2009-01-01

    Few studies explore the specific sources of stress, and the coping strategies applied by teachers of children with special educational needs, particularly in small countries such as Greece. The present study investigated the specific work-related stressors affecting special educational needs teachers in Greece and the coping strategies applied by…

  2. Illegal immigration and local labour markets: the case of northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Lianos, T P; Sarris, A H; Katseli, L T

    1996-01-01

    "The purpose of the present study is to enhance knowledge on the impact of illegal immigrants in Greece from both Eastern European and other developing countries. Our analysis is based on direct survey information from the four regions in Greece which employ considerable numbers of illegal aliens." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA)

  3. Tracking the vector of Onchocerca lupi in a rural area of Greece.

    PubMed

    Otranto, Domenico; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Papadopoulos, Elias; Petrić, Dušan; Ćupina, Aleksandra Ignjatović; Bain, Odile

    2012-07-01

    During a hot Mediterranean summer, an expedition brought parasitologists from Brazil, France, Greece, Italy, and Serbia to a wooded area near Xanthi, Thrace, northeastern Greece, near the Turkish border, on the track of the vector of the little-known nematode Onchocerca lupi. The scientific purposes of the expedition blended then with stories of humans, animals, and parasites in this rural area.

  4. A Marvelous Journey: Calling from Greece to a U.S. Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Lana; Sucich, John

    2007-01-01

    A unit of study on Ancient Greece is a part of the fourth grade social studies curriculum at Belmont Day School. The students spend 10 weeks exploring Greek history and mythology. This article discusses a new project that the authors conducted, wherein one of them was going to Greece on a study tour, while the other one stays in Belmont Day…

  5. Maternal diet during pregnancy and micronuclei frequency in peripheral blood T lymphocytes in mothers and newborns (Rhea cohort, Crete).

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan-Gordo, Cristina; Kogevinas, Manolis; Pedersen, Marie; Fthenou, Eleni; Espinosa, Ana; Tsiapa, Xristina; Chalkiadaki, Georgia; Daraki, Vasiliki; Dermitzaki, Eirini; Decordier, Ilse; Farmer, Peter B; Georgiadis, Panagiotis; Georgiou, Vaggelis; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A; Merlo, Domenico Franco; Romaguera, Dora; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Sarri, Katerina; Törnqvist, Margareta; Loock, Kim Vande; von Stedingk, Hans; Kleinjans, Jos; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline; Chatzi, Leda

    2016-09-21

    The study assessed whether diet and adherence to cancer prevention guidelines during pregnancy were associated with micronucleus (MN) frequency in mothers and newborns. MN is biomarkers of early genetic effects that have been associated with cancer risk in adults. A total of 188 mothers and 200 newborns from the Rhea cohort (Greece) were included in the study. At early-mid pregnancy, we conducted personal interviews and a validated food frequency questionnaire was completed. With this information, we constructed a score reflecting adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research cancer prevention guidelines on diet, physical activity and body fatness. At delivery, maternal and/or cord blood was collected to measure DNA and hemoglobin adducts of dietary origin and frequencies of MN in binucleated and mononucleated T lymphocytes (MNBN and MNMONO). In mothers, higher levels of red meat consumption were associated with increased MNBN frequency [2nd tertile IRR = 1.34 (1.00, 1.80), 3rd tertile IRR = 1.33 (0.96, 1.85)] and MNMONO frequency [2nd tertile IRR = 1.53 (0.84, 2.77), 3rd tertile IRR = 2.69 (1.44, 5.05)]. The opposite trend was observed for MNBN in newborns [2nd tertile IRR = 0.64 (0.44, 0.94), 3rd tertile IRR = 0.68 (0.46, 1.01)], and no association was observed with MNMONO. Increased MN frequency in pregnant women with high red meat consumption is consistent with previous knowledge. Our results also suggest exposure to genotoxics during pregnancy might affect differently mothers and newborns. The predictive value of MN as biomarker for childhood cancer, rather than adulthood, remains unclear. With few exceptions, the association between maternal carcinogenic exposures during pregnancy and childhood cancer or early biologic effect biomarkers remains poorly understood.

  6. Pharmacoeconomic analysis of paliperidone palmitate for treating schizophrenia in Greece

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients having chronic schizophrenia with frequent relapses and hospitalizations represent a great challenge, both clinically and financially. Risperidone long-acting injection (RIS-LAI) has been the main LAI atypical antipsychotic treatment in Greece. Paliperidone palmitate (PP-LAI) has recently been approved. It is dosed monthly, as opposed to biweekly for RIS-LAI, but such advantages have not yet been analysed in terms of economic evaluation. Purpose To compare costs and outcomes of PP-LAI versus RIS-LAI in Greece. Methods A cost-utility analysis was performed using a previously validated decision tree to model clinical pathways and costs over 1 year for stable patients started on either medication. Rates were taken from the literature. A local expert panel provided feedback on treatment patterns. All direct costs incurred by the national healthcare system were obtained from the literature and standard price lists; all were inflated to 2011 costs. Patient outcomes analyzed included average days with stable disease, numbers of hospitalizations, emergency room visits, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Results The total annual healthcare cost with PP-LAI was €3529; patients experienced 325 days in remission and 0.840 QALY; 28% were hospitalized and 15% received emergency room treatment. With RIS-LAI, the cost was €3695, patients experienced 318.6 days in remission and 0.815 QALY; 33% were hospitalized and 17% received emergency room treatment. Thus, PP-LAI dominated RIS-LAI. Results were generally robust in sensitivity analyses with PP-LAI dominating in 74.6% of simulations. Results were sensitive to the price of PP-LAI. Conclusions PP-LAI appears to be a cost-effective option for treating chronic schizophrenia in Greece compared with RIS-LAI since it results in savings to the health care system along with better patient outcomes. PMID:22747533

  7. Expanded newborn screening in Greece: 30 months of experience.

    PubMed

    Loukas, Yannis L; Soumelas, Georgios-Stefanos; Dotsikas, Yannis; Georgiou, Vassiliki; Molou, Elina; Thodi, Georgia; Boutsini, Maria; Biti, Sofia; Papadopoulos, Konstantinos

    2010-12-01

    In Greece, the National Newborn Screening Program was initiated in 1974 and is performed by the Institute of Child Health (ICH). However, there is a complete absence of conditions that have high rates of mortality and a relatively high prevalence listed in the Catalogue of Disorders screened by the ICH. Our laboratory has expanded the existing NBS program to include newborn screening for inborn errors of metabolism, screening for cystic fibrosis (the most common congenital disorder in the Greek population), congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and for biotinidase deficiency. From July 2007 to December 2009, 45,000 dried blood spots (DBS) were collected from infants born in Athens, Greece, and were analyzed. We present a report of our 30-month experience in the newborn screening area. The samples were tested for amino acidopathies, fatty acid oxidation disorders (FAOD), and organic acid metabolic disorders by applying flow injection analysis-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (FIA-ESI-MS/MS); for cystic fibrosis by immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) measurement (time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay); for congenital adrenal hyperplasia by fluoroimmunoassay to measure the 17 hydroxy-progesterone level; and for biotinidase deficiency using a colorimetric method and a semiquantitative fluoroimmunoassay to determine biotinidase activity. Sample analysis resulted in establishing cutoff values for the respective disease markers for the first time in the Greek population. Four infants were identified with cystic fibrosis, two with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, two with phenylketonuria (PKU), one with medium-chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD), and one with biotinidase deficiency. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first article reporting the status of expanded newborn screening in Greece.

  8. Evaluating Renewable Groundwater Stress with GRACE Data in Greece.

    PubMed

    Gemitzi, Alexandra; Lakshmi, Venkat

    2017-09-22

    Groundwater is a resilient water source and its importance is even greater in periods of drought. Areas such as the Mediterranean where adverse climate change effects are expected are bell-weather locations for groundwater depletion and are of considerable interest. The present study evaluates renewable groundwater stress (RGS) as the ratio of groundwater use to groundwater availability, quantifying use as the trend in gravity recovery and climate experiment-derived (GRACE) subsurface anomalies (ΔGWtrend ) and renewable groundwater availability as mean annual recharge. Estimates for mean annual recharge for the various regions in Greece have been derived using numerical models. Our results highlight two RGS regimes in Greece (variable stress and unstressed) of the four characteristic stress regimes, that is, overstressed, variable stress, human-dominated stress, and unstressed, defined as a function of the sign of use and the sign of groundwater availability (positive or negative). Variable stress areas are found in Central Greece (Thessaly region), where intensive agriculture results in negative ΔGWtrend values combined with positive mean annual recharge rates. RGS values range from -0.05 to 0, indicating a low impact area. Within this region, adverse effects of groundwater overexploitation are already evident based on the negative GRACE anomalies; however, recharge is still positive, mitigating the effects of over-pumping. The rest of Greek aquifers fall within the unstressed category, with RGS values from 0.02 to 0.05, indicating that the rate of use is less than the natural recharge rate. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  9. Emerging Trichinella britovi infections in free ranging pigs of Greece.

    PubMed

    Boutsini, S; Papatsiros, V G; Stougiou, D; Marucci, G; Liandris, E; Athanasiou, L V; Papadoudis, A; Karagiozopoulos, E; Bisias, A; Pozio, E

    2014-01-31

    Trichinella infections in humans and pigs have been documented in Greece since 1945 and a high prevalence of infection in pigs occurred in the 1950s. Up to 1984 only sporadic infections in humans were documented, and this zoonosis was not considered as a public health problem until 2009 when a human outbreak caused by the consumption of pork from an organic pig farm occurred. In the present study, we describe the re-emergence of Trichinella spp. infections in free-ranging pigs from organic farms of 3 counties (Dramas, Evros and Kavala) in Northern-Eastern Greece during the period 2009-2012. Totally 37 out of 12,717 (0.29%) free-ranging pigs which were tested during the period in question, were positive for Trichinella spp. larvae. The etiological agent was identified as Trichinella britovi. The average larval burden was 13.7 in the masseter, 6.2 in the foreleg muscles and 7.5 in the diaphragm. The 37 positive animals originated from seven free range pig farms. The practice of organic pig production systems in Greece has grown in popularity over the last years due to the increasing interest of consumers for products considered as traditional. However, this type of pig production increases the risk for Trichinella spp. infections, since animals can acquire the infection by feeding on carcasses or the offal of hunted or dead wild animals. The awareness and education of hunters and farmers is extremely important to reduce the transmission among free ranging pigs and the risk for humans.

  10. Biochemical genetic variability in brown hares (Lepus europaeus) from Greece.

    PubMed

    Suchentrunk, Franz; Mamuris, Zissis; Sfougaris, Athanassios I; Stamatis, Costas

    2003-06-01

    Allozyme variability of 91 brown hares (Lepus europaeus) from seven regions in Greece was compared to existing data of Bulgarian populations to test the hypothesis of the occurrence ofspecific alleles in Greece, likely stemming from an isolated Late Pleistocene refugial population in the southern Balkans. This hypothesis is particularly suggested by some subfossil Late Pleistocene hare remains in Greece and the reported high mtDNA diversity in Greek hares. Allozymic diversity could be higher in Greek hares than in hares from neighboring regions as a result of the accumulation of variants in a long-lasting Pleistocene refugium. Conversely, Greek hares could exhibit reduced genetic diversity because of long-lasting low effective population sizes during the Late Glacial Maximum and a lower chance of postglacial gene flow from other populations into this rather marginal part in the southern Balkans. Horizontal starch gel electrophoresis of proteins from 35 loci revealed three alleles (Es-1(-162), Pep-2(114), Mpi(88)) at low frequencies, which were not found in Bulgarian or any other brown hare population. In contrast, some alleles from the populations from Bulgaria and other regions of Europe were absent in the Greek samples. Population genetic statistics indicated only a slight tendency of increased gene pool diversity in Greek hares, little substructuring in Greek and Bulgarian populations, respectively, as well as an only slightly lower level of gene flow between the two neighboring regions, as compared to the gene flow within each region. The results conform to the hypothesis of a Late Pleistocene refugial population in the southern Balkans, with some few specific nuclear gene pool characteristics, but little effect on the overall genetic differentiation between Greek and Bulgarian hares.

  11. Satellite spectral data and archaeological reconnaissance in western Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Frederick A.; Bauer, M. E.; Cullen, Brenda C.

    1991-01-01

    A Macro-geographical reconnaissance of the Western Peloponnesos adopts spectral signatures taken by Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper as a new instrument of archaeological survey in Greece. Ancient records indicate that indigenous resources contributed to the prosperity of the region. Natural resources and Ancient, Medieval, and Pre-modern Folklife in the Western Peloponnesos describes the principal lines of research. For a supervised classification of attested ancient resources, a variety of biophysical surface features were pinpointed: stone quarries, coal mines, forests of oak and silver fir, terracotta-producing clay beds, crops, and various wild but exploited shrubs such as flax.

  12. Satellite spectral data and archaeological reconnaissance in western Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Frederick A.; Bauer, M. E.; Cullen, Brenda C.

    1991-01-01

    A Macro-geographical reconnaissance of the Western Peloponnesos adopts spectral signatures taken by Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper as a new instrument of archaeological survey in Greece. Ancient records indicate that indigenous resources contributed to the prosperity of the region. Natural resources and Ancient, Medieval, and Pre-modern Folklife in the Western Peloponnesos describes the principal lines of research. For a supervised classification of attested ancient resources, a variety of biophysical surface features were pinpointed: stone quarries, coal mines, forests of oak and silver fir, terracotta-producing clay beds, crops, and various wild but exploited shrubs such as flax.

  13. Nutrient dynamics in shallow lakes of Northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Petaloti, Christina; Voutsa, Dimitra; Samara, Constantini; Sofoniou, Mihalis; Stratis, Ioannis; Kouimtzis, Themistocles

    2004-01-01

    GOAL, SCOPE, BACKGROUND: Shallow lakes display a number of features that set them apart from the more frequently studied deeper systems. The majority of lakes in Northern Greece are small to moderate in size with a relatively low depth and are considered as sites of high value of the wetland habitat. However, the water quality of these lakes has only been evaluated segmentally and occasionally. The objectives of this study were to thoroughly investigate nitrogen and phosphorus speciation in lakes of a high ecological significance located in N. Greece, in order to evaluate their eutrophication status and possible nutrient limitation factors, and to investigate the main factors/sources that affect the water quality of these systems. An extensive survey was carried out during the period from 1998-1999. Water samples were collected on a monthly basis from lakes Koronia, Volvi, Doirani, Mikri Prespa and Megali Prespa located in N. Greece. Water quality parameters (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and conductivity), organic indices (COD, BOD5), and N- and P-species (NO3(-), NO2(-), NH4(+), and PO4(3-), Kieldahl nitrogen and acid-hydrolysable phosphorus) were determined according to standard methods for surface water. Statistical treatment of the data was employed. The physicochemical parameters determined in the lakes studied revealed a high temporal variation. The trophic state of the lakes ranged from meso- to hypertrophic. The nutrient limiting factor varied among lakes suggesting either P-limitation conditions or mixed conditions changing from P- to N-limitation throughout the year. Urban/industrial activities and agricultural runoff are the major factors affecting all lakes, although with a varying contribution. This lake-specific research offers valuable information about water quality and nutrient dynamics in lakes of significant ecological value located in N. Greece that can be useful for an effective pollution control/management of these systems. Due to the

  14. Carriage of Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria lactamica in northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Kremastinou, Jenny; Tzanakaki, Georgina; Levidiotou, Stamatina; Markou, Fani; Themeli, Eleftheria; Voyiatzi, Aliki; Psoma, Eleni; Theodoridou, Maria; Blackwell, C Caroline

    2003-10-24

    In response to an increase in the number of cases of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in northern regions of Greece, a survey was carried out to determine if there was an increase in carriage of Neisseria meningitidis, particularly in areas where there have been increases in immigrant populations from neighbouring countries. The second objective was to determine if there was an increase in the serogroup C:2a:P1.5,2 a phenotype associated with recent outbreaks or changes in antibiotic sensitivities. As carriage of Neisseria lactamica is associated with development of natural immunity to IMD, the third objective was to determine the carriage rate of N. lactamica in this population. Among 3167 individuals tested, meningococci were isolated from 334 (10.5%). Compared with our previous studies, the proportion of meningococcal carriers was significantly increased among children in secondary education (11.3%) (chi2=9.67, P<0.005) and military recruits (37.4%) (chi2=21.11, P<0.000). Only 5/334 (1.5%) isolates expressed the phenotype associated with the increase in IMD in Greece. N. lactamica was isolated from 146/3167 (4.6%) participants. It was isolated from 71/987 (7.2%) children attending primary or nursery schools; however, the highest proportion of carriers (11.3%) was found in the boarding school for young Albanian men. In the 21-59-year age range, the majority of N. lactamica isolates (22/25, 88%) were from women, probably due to closer or more prolonged contact with children in the primary school age range. Smoking was significantly associated with isolation of meningococci from men but not from women. Penicillin-insensitive strains (25/334, 7.5%) were identified in all four regions examined; the majority (14/25, 56%) were obtained from military personnel. We conclude that there was a higher proportion of carriers in the population of northern Greece; however, the increase in carriage rate was not associated with the influx of immigrants from neighbouring

  15. Total Ozone Dynamics over Athens, Greece and Beijing China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzanis, C. G.; Christodoulakis, J.; Varotsos, P. K.

    2016-08-01

    We present the analysis of total ozone daily values, over Athens, Greece, and Beijing, China, for the period 2002-2012. The data for the analysis were derived from SCIAMACHY (ENVISAT) observations. The aim of the analysis is the identification of time scaling in the total ozone time series, by using a data analysis technique that would not be affected by the non-stationarity of the data. The appropriate technique satisfying this criterion is the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), which stems from random walk theory and permits the detection of intrinsic self-similarity in non-stationary time series.

  16. Cassini Scientist for a Day: an international contest in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomonidou, A.; Moussas, X.; Coustenis, A.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Bampasidis, G.; Kyriakopoulos, K.; Kouloumvakos, A.; Xystouris, G.; Sigala, E.; Patsou, I.

    2012-04-01

    The international contest 'Cassini Scientist for a Day', organized by the Cassini Outreach team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, provides school students all around the world with the opportunity to get involved in astronomy and astrophysics and planetary sciences in particular. It gives excellent opportunity for outreach and publicity for the Cassini mission and ESA and NASA activities in Greece. For the years 2010 and 2011, the Space Physics Group of the Astronomy, Astrophysics and Mechanics section of the University of Athens in association with external colleagues has been selected as the co-ordinator of NASA for the competition in Greece. This kind of school competition in Greece is particularly important since Astronomy and Astrophysics and Space Sciences, although very popular, are not included in the school curricula and thus students rarely have the opportunity to experience and participate actively in these subjects. Under the guidance of Cassini Outreach team, the members of the Space Physics Group have informed, explained and spread the rules of the competition at primary, secondary and high schools all over Greece. Our members kept open communication with students, teachers and parents throughout the holding of the competition for questions and guidance. In general, the students have the option to choose Cassini monitoring between three targets of the Saturnian system, which will bring the best scientific result. Their arguments should be summarized in an essay of 500 words more or less. They also have the option to do team work through groups of maximum three students. The participation in the contest for 2010 was unexpectedly high and thoroughly satisfied. The winners awarded through a ceremony which was held in the largest amphitheater at the central building of the University of Athens, that was fully packed. A large number of the participants of the 2010 contest are either participating in the new contest of 2011-2012 or -since some of them

  17. Lethrus (Lethrus) schneideri sp. n. (Coleoptera, Geotrupidae) from Greece

    PubMed Central

    Král, David; Hillert, Oliver; Drožová, Dana; Šípek, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Lethrus (Lethrus) schneideri Král & Hillert, sp. n. from Thrace, Greece, is described. The new species is morphologically most similar and probably closely related to Lethrus (Lethrus) apterus (Laxmann, 1770) and Lethrus (Lethrus) ares Král, Rejsek & Schneider, 2001. Diagnostic characters (shape of mandibles, ventral mandible processes, pronotum and parameres) are illustrated. Character matrix for separation of males of the Lethrus species closely related to Lethrus schneideri Král & Hillert, sp. n. and geographic ranges for all species studied are mapped. PMID:24146588

  18. Tot Graeci Tot Sententiae: Astronomical Perspective Multiplicity in Ancient Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, O.

    2011-06-01

    Ancient Greece was made of a multiplicity of thinking heads, in an atmosphere of (relative) freedom of opinions, in every field of knowledge. then we should not wonder if many astronomical and cosmological theories, survived until our 17th century, had already been formulated by different philosophers and in different regions, cities and periods of Greek history. Geocentric and heliocentric theories, as well as an atomistic theory of an infinite universe (with infinite worlds), could survive without crashing with one another. In the same time, religious opinions regarding the planets and Sun as a series of gods were present, however not on a scientific ground.

  19. Magnetic Prospecting On Ancient Towns In Turkey and Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smekalova, T.; Smekalov, S.

    Magnetic prospecting on ancient towns in Turkey and Greece. Tatyana Smekalova, Sergey Smekalov. Saint-Petersburg In 2001 archaeophysical group of Saint-Petersburg State University participated in archaeological investigation of ancient town Pisidian Antioch in Turkey (near mod- ern town Yalvach) and ancient town Kalydon in Greece (not far from modern town Mesolongy). Both sites have a big size (more than kilometer in perimeter) and com- plicated hilly relief (especially Kalydon). The mine idea of the magnetic survey on the sites was to try the method of magnetic prospecting in conditions of the sites, to estimate the possibilities and limitations of the method and to reveal ancient structures on several different parts of the site. Magnetic survey on the Pisidian Antioch carried out in four areas of the site showed that much could be recovered by this non-invasive technique. Most significantly, sur- vey of the area previously thought to contain a palestra shows instead the plan of a Christian basilica. Other areas included houses, streets, important elements in the water system and industrial establishments. The work was supported by Columbia University, USA On the Ancient Kalydon, the whole area of the site was investigated by method of Sfree searchT that is walking with magnetometers and measuring without a grid. Five ´ different areas have been chosen for detail investigation with regular grid. The most interesting result is in one of the the areas, where it seems to be an SindustrialT quar- & cedil;ter of the site. There are several workshops, revealed on this place. The work was supported by Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Denmark. During the work on both sites we used GPS equipment to put the survey areas on the maps. Simultaneously with magnetic survey archaeological teams made a usual topographical survey of the sites (team of Calgary University in Turkey, Canada and team of Greece topographers, working together with Danish archaeologist in Greece). Thanks to that

  20. Constructing the health care system in Greece: responsibility and powerlessness.

    PubMed

    Lentza, Vassiliki; Montgomery, Anthony J; Georganta, Katerina; Panagopoulou, Efharis

    2014-02-01

    Based on health care professionals' (HPs) and patients' interviews about work demands and quality of care in hospitals, the study explores the way that patients and HPs constructed their identities to describe and construct the health care system in Greece. This is a qualitative study using a focus group (FG) design. Seven FGs discussions were conducted: three FGs discussions were conducted for the assessment of job stressors (1 for doctors, 1 for nurses and 1 for residents) and four FGs discussions for the assessment of quality of care (1 for doctors, 1 for nurses, 1 for residents and 1 for patients). The sample consisted of health care professionals working in a teaching hospital in the region of Thessaloniki, Greece, and patients who had at least one experience of any kind in the same hospital. Transcripts of the FGs discussions underwent discourse analysis. The results showed that both HPs and patients construct the health care system based on bipolar constructions of responsibility and powerlessness. In particular, participants use these constructions to allocate the responsibility to different levels of the health care system hierarchy or to the system per se constructing, at the same time, themselves as the 'viewers' of this system. The study allowed a deeper understanding of issues related to quality of care in hospitals providing context-specific information. Identity in health care organizations was inextricably linked to power and responsibility. The need to deconstruct this responsibility/powerlessness ideology is discussed. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Service quality perceptions in primary health care centres in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Papanikolaou, Vicky; Zygiaris, Sotiris

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Context  The paper refers to the increased competition between health care providers and the need for patient‐centred services in Greece. Using service quality methodology, this paper investigates service quality perceptions of patients in Greek public primary health centres. Objective  To test the internal consistency and applicability of SERVQUAL in primary health care centres in Greece. Strategy  SERVQUAL was used to examine whether patients have different expectations from health care providers and whether different groups of patients may consider some dimensions of care more important than others. Results  The analysis showed that there were gaps in all dimensions measured by SERVQUAL. The largest gap was detected in empathy. Further analysis showed that there were also differences depending on gender, age and education levels. A separate analysis of expectations and perceptions revealed that this gap was because of differences in patients’ perceptions rather than expectations. Discussion and conclusions  This paper raises a number of issues that concern the applicability of SERVQUAL in health care services and could enhance current discussions about SERVQUAL improvement. Quality of health care needs to be redefined by encompassing multiple dimensions. Beyond a simple expectations–perceptions gap, people may hold different understandings of health care that, in turn, influence their perception of the quality of services. PMID:22296402

  2. Guidelines for the recognition of cemetery remains in Greece.

    PubMed

    Eliopoulos, Constantine; Moraitis, Konstantinos; Reyes, Federico; Spiliopoulou, Chara; Manolis, Sotiris

    2011-06-01

    Forensic pathologists frequently consult anthropologists for the identification of skeletonized human remains. These remains may be the result of criminal activity or remains that were unearthed because of erosion, or during construction projects. In some cases, human remains that had been previously buried in a cemetery may be the subject of a forensic investigation. Early recognition of cemetery remains prevents unnecessary efforts and conserves precious resources. One of the key characteristics of cemetery remains is the presence of embalmed tissue. However, there are countries where embalming is not a common practice, and other clues must be sought for identifying previously buried remains. Current funerary customs in Greece and, in particular, the tradition of exhumations result in a large number of misplaced human remains. The present study presents examples of cemetery remains from Greece and offers guidelines for recognizing changes on skeletal remains that may be indicative of a cemetery origin. Location of discovery, condition of the remains, and the types of associated artifacts are all factors that aid forensic anthropologists in identifying cemetery remains.

  3. Stakeholder appraisal of policy options for tackling obesity in Greece.

    PubMed

    Codrington, C; Sarri, K; Kafatos, A

    2007-05-01

    The study aimed to map stakeholders' evaluations of policy options to counter the rising prevalence of obesity in Greece, where the case for action on obesity is only now being made. The multi-criteria mapping method was used to capture and compare stakeholders' appraisals and to provide a policy analysis. Efficacy and practical feasibility were the issues most frequently used by stakeholders to evaluate options and were weighted more highly than cost criteria, which were often defined in terms of governmental costs. There was a broad favourable appraisal for downstream measures offering individuals the skills, information and opportunities to make healthier choices, rather than options to modify the obesogenic environment. Consistently, high rankings were given to educational options, for improving communal facilities and for some information-related options (food labelling, advertising), with particular support for policies targeting the young. There was also significant advocacy by a few for the creation of a new government body charged with intersectoral policy co-ordination. The Policy Options for Responding to the Growing Challenge of Obesity Research Project analyses thus point to support for a portfolio of measures to combat the problem of obesity in Greece as well as an appreciation that political will is an essential prerequisite.

  4. Organ transplantation in Greece: the need for mediation.

    PubMed

    Zanni, A

    2014-11-01

    Organ transplants are not regarded as an exclusively medical process, because they involve financial, religious, philosophic, and bioethical parameters. It becomes clear that if they are to achieve their purpose, which we believe extends well beyond the medical dimension, the creation of a comprehensive framework of communication between the involved parties is of paramount importance. The aim of this paper is to present an outline and a number of considerations regarding the communicational, bioethical, and legal issues that arise from a rather dramatic state of affairs in Greece today: In 2012 the rate of organ transplants stood at only 7 per 1 million of the population. The outdated legal framework and the lack of trust on the part of patients and the public have led to a highly inefficient system that is lagging behind in many respects. The proposition made in this paper is that there is a need for a new system of communication between doctors, patients, relatives of patients, and hospitals: bioethical mediation. This is a system that has played a vital role and has produced astounding results in other countries. There is also every indication that the introduction of such a system is crucial for Greece, especially as the symptoms of the acute financial crisis are become fully visible and tangible. Mediation aims to identify solutions that are oriented toward the interests and wishes of patients, are acknowledged and accepted by all parties involved, and are in tune with the values and the principles of medical practice.

  5. Shame and Anxiety Feelings of a Roma Population in Greece.

    PubMed

    Gouva, M; Mentis, M; Kotrotsiou, S; Paralikas, Th; Kotrotsiou, E

    2015-12-01

    Shame is a crucial issue for Roma. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the severity of shame and anxiety feelings in a Roma population living in Greece and assess the differentiation of these feelings between Roma men and women. A quota sample of 194 Roma adult men and women living in Southern Greece was retrieved. The Experiences of Shame Scale (ESS), the Other As Shamer Scale (OAS) and the Spielberg's State/Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) questionnaires were used. Women scored statistically significantly higher than men on ESS, whereas men scored higher on OAS scale (52.27 ± 16.91 vs 45.42 ± 9.98 and 35.93 ± 16.94 vs 30.87 ± 13.72 respectively). Women scored higher than men in both STAI subscales, however significant differences were observed only in State Anxiety scale (48.83 ± 9.26 vs 43.20 ± 9.81). OAS total score was inversely related to state anxiety, whereas ESS total score was positive related to trait anxiety, all correlations being significant at p < 0.05 level. Roma men and women exhibit high levels of shame and anxiety. Cultural, social and minority issues contribute to feelings of inferiority and anxiety experience.

  6. Energy Payback Time of a Rooftop Photovoltaic System in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachoutis, E.; Koubogiannis, D.

    2016-11-01

    Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) is an important tool to quantitatively assess energy consumption and environmental impact of any product. Current research related to energy consumption in buildings moves towards Nearly Zero Energy Building (NZEB). In such a building, an important issue concerns the energy production by renewable sources, including on-site production. The most feasible way to achieve renewable energy utilization in a building level in Greece is by using rooftop Photovoltaic (PV) systems, also promoted in the last decade by the national legislation concerning energy conservation measures. Apart from cost-related issues and payback times, Embodied Energy (EE) and Embodied CO2 (ECO2) emissions have also to be considered against the anticipated corresponding savings. Using a particular PV system as a case study, its basic constitutive materials are determined and their masses are calculated. Embodied energy values are estimated by using embodied energy coefficients available in the international literature. Considering a specific geographic location in Greece for the building on which the PV is installed, the annual energy generated by the system is estimated based on its performance data and curves. The Energy and CO2 Payback Times (EPBT and CO2PBT) are estimated and assessed, as well as future work is suggested.

  7. A clinical and educational telemedicine link between Bulgaria and Greece.

    PubMed

    Anogianakis, George; Ilonidis, George; Anogeianaki, Antonia; Milliaras, Spyros; Klisarova, Anelia; Temelkov, Temel; Vlachakis-Milliaras, Emmanuel

    2004-01-01

    During its transition to a free economy, Bulgaria benefited from foreign aid provided by Greece. One of the projects was the clinical and educational telemedicine link between the Medical University of Varna in Bulgaria and the Faculty of Medicine of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki in Greece. This began in 1997. In terms of the educational activities, the Bulgarian side of the network supports (a) electronic design and publishing activities, (b) web hosting and mail server activities and (c) satellite communications. In addition it supports an electronic classroom equipped with personal workstations, multimedia projectors and videoconference facilities. Communications are via the ISDN network. In terms of its telemedicine activities, the network provides remote medical assistance to "language handicapped" travellers and to migrant workers in both countries. The main clinical experience is remote consultations in immunology. This admittedly limited experience demonstrates that telemedicine can be used to provide assistance to remote colleagues. In cases where the patient cannot communicate with the attending physician, the use of telemedicine can greatly improve the quality of care available to travellers and migrant workers.

  8. Service quality perceptions in primary health care centres in Greece.

    PubMed

    Papanikolaou, Vicky; Zygiaris, Sotiris

    2014-04-01

    The paper refers to the increased competition between health care providers and the need for patient-centred services in Greece. Using service quality methodology, this paper investigates service quality perceptions of patients in Greek public primary health centres. To test the internal consistency and applicability of SERVQUAL in primary health care centres in Greece. SERVQUAL was used to examine whether patients have different expectations from health care providers and whether different groups of patients may consider some dimensions of care more important than others. The analysis showed that there were gaps in all dimensions measured by SERVQUAL. The largest gap was detected in empathy. Further analysis showed that there were also differences depending on gender, age and education levels. A separate analysis of expectations and perceptions revealed that this gap was because of differences in patients' perceptions rather than expectations. THIS paper raises a number of issues that concern the applicability of SERVQUAL in health care services and could enhance current discussions about SERVQUAL improvement. Quality of health care needs to be redefined by encompassing multiple dimensions. Beyond a simple expectations-perceptions gap, people may hold different understandings of health care that, in turn, influence their perception of the quality of services. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Groundwater quality of porous aquifers in Greece: a synoptic review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daskalaki, P.; Voudouris, K.

    2008-04-01

    Greece is dependent on groundwater resources for its water supply. The main aquifers are within carbonate rocks (karstic aquifers) and coarse grained Neogene and Quaternary deposits (porous aquifers). The use of groundwater resources has become particularly intensive in coastal areas during the last decades with the intense urbanization, tourist development and irrigated land expansion. Sources of groundwater pollution are the seawater intrusion due to over-exploitation of coastal aquifers, the fertilizers from agricultural activities and the disposal of untreated wastewater in torrents or in old pumping wells. In the last decades the total abstractions from coastal aquifers exceed the natural recharge; so the aquifer systems are not used safely. Over-exploitation causes a negative water balance, triggering seawater intrusion. Seawater intrusion phenomena are recorded in coastal aquifer systems. Nitrate pollution is the second major source of groundwater degradation in many areas in Greece. The high levels of nitrate are probably the result of over-fertilization and the lack of sewage systems in some urban areas.

  10. Medical training in Greece: A crisis in progress.

    PubMed

    Makris, Gregory C; Trigkidis, Kyriakos K; Apiranthiti, Katerina; Malietzis, George; Alexiou, Vangelis G; Falagas, Matthew E

    2015-08-01

    We sought to evaluate the opinions of medical students and graduates regarding the quality of medical education in Greece. Two online questionnaires concerning the undergraduate medical education and specialty training respectively were distributed. Regarding the quality of undergraduate medical education, 52.1% of participants replied favorably while clinical training was found satisfactory by 45.1. Dissatisfaction rates with research opportunities and support from tutors reached 88.4 and 83.3%, respectively. The majority (75.3%) supported the introduction of examinations for commencing specialty training. 52.3% of physicians were satisfied with the quality of specialty training. The most common complaint was the absence of a formal educational program. 67.2% of participants were dissatisfied with working conditions during their specialty training, with 70.1% working >60 h per week. Physicians practicing medical specialties were more satisfied with the quality of specialty training than those practicing surgical specialties (odds ratio: 1.43; 95% confidence limits: 1.09-1.87) and were less likely to work for >60 h per week (odds ratio: 0.66; 95% confidence limits: 0.48-0.9). Opinions expressed in this survey highlight the need for reforming medical education in Greece.

  11. Are operative delivery procedures in Greece socially conditioned?

    PubMed

    Skalkidis, Y; Petridou, E; Papathoma, E; Revinthi, K; Tong, D; Trichopoulos, D

    1996-04-01

    Caesarean section rates have increased in Greece by almost 50% during the last 13 years. We conducted a study in Athens, Greece, to assess the importance of a series of medical and socioeconomic factors in the use of Caesarean section or operative vaginal procedures, rather than a non-operative process, for the delivery of singleton, liveborn babies of primiparous mothers. We used a case control approach to compare 444 babies delivered through a Caesarean section and 130 delivered through operative vaginal delivery with 1235 normally delivered babies in a public and a private hospital. Data were analysed through multiple logistic regression. Caesarean section was more commonly performed in older, shorter or overweight mothers and for high and low birth-weight babies, as well as in response to several obstetric complications and following in-vitro fertilization. A similar pattern was noted with respect to operative vaginal delivery, except that this procedure was not unusually frequent among overweight women and was not encountered in this study among children born after in-vitro fertilization. Caesarean section was performed twice as often in the public teaching hospital as in a private maternity hospital, and operative vaginal delivery was several times more common in the former than in the latter, after controlling for biomedical risk factors. The unequal distribution of operative delivery procedures between the public and the private hospital raises questions about the justification of their performance in a substantial fraction of deliveries, and indicates that social factors condition their use.

  12. Tectonic field and deformation in Chalkidiki area, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alatza, Stavroula-Drosoula; Marinou, Aggeliki; Anastasiou, Demitris; Papanikolaou, Xanthos; Paradissis, Demitris

    2015-04-01

    Greece is situated on the convergence limits, between the Eurasian and the African lithospheric plate, and as a consequence, is considered as one of the most seismogenic areas on the world. Chalkidiki is part of the region of Central Macedonia in Northen Greece. The region of Chalkidiki is traversed by three faults and it is an area of great tectonic interest. On a daily basis, earthquakes occur in the seabed between the three peninsulas of Chalkidiki. Concerning the geomorphology of the area, it is covered by three types of rocks, the Serbomacedonian mass, the Perirodopiki zone and Peonia sub zone. The contact with the Serbomacedonian mass has a direct effect on tectonics of the region, since the area has a continuous tectonic activity. The neotectonic activity is characterized by normal faults, as well as horns and tectonic trenches. Velocity field and strain parameters for a deformation model are evaluated using GPS data from a geodetic network of thirty one points established in the broader area of Chalkidiki. Apart from these points, all the available observations of permanent stations in the area, were used to determine the final tectonic velocity field. All data were processed using Bernese GNSS Software v.5. The implementation of the reference system ITRF2005, was performed, using nine IGS stations, for the local network. Time series analysis for each point was used, in order to calculate the displacements and tectonic velocities. Finally, in order to investigate the strain patterns of the area, strain tensors were computed and discussed.

  13. Airborne laser altimetry in the Ionian Sea, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocard, M.; Geiger, A.; Kahle, H.-G.; Veis, G.

    2002-09-01

    Airborne laser techniques have evolved during the last years and have been tested in several pilot projects which cover a wide range of geodetic applications. In this project, airborne laser altimetry was used to determine the sea level in coastal areas of Greece, and to connect satellite radar altimetry results over the deep sea with tide gauge stations at the coast. Because airborne laser altimetry is capable to provide sea surface heights at the decimeter to centimeter level, it allows for an independent validation of spaceborne radar altimetry results. Airborne laser data acquired along densely spaced tracks of a total of 30-h flight time were used to determine instantaneous sea surface heights of the Ionian Sea, Greece. Differential GPS and inertial platform data were utilized as ancillary information for the purpose of ensuring a precise trajectography of the aircraft. Emphasis was put on the assessment of errors and the reduction of the raw data to mean sea level by crossover analysis and the incorporation of tidal predictions. The airborne laser data yield a high-resolution sea surface over the coastal areas of the Ionian Sea. The most prominent feature is a steep gradient of the sea surface amounting to 15 m over a distance of 150 km. This slope can be followed all along the bathymetric relief between the Hellenic Arc and Hellenic Trench.

  14. Cassini Scientist for a Day: an international contest in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomonidou, Anezina; Moussas, Xenophon; Xystouris, Georgios; Coustenis, Athena; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Katsavrias, Christos; Bampasidis, Georgios; Kyriakopoulos, Konstantinos; Kouloumvakos, Athanasios; Patsou, Ioanna

    2013-04-01

    The Cassini Outreach Team of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is being organizing a brilliant school contest in Astronomy focusing in the Saturnian system. This essay contest provides school students all around the worlds with the opportunity to get involved in astronomy and astrophysics and planetary sciences in particular. From 2010 the 'Cassini Scientist for a Day' contest has being one of the most successful as well as important outreach activities of ESA and NASA in Greece with hundreds of participants all over Greece. The number of participants is growing rapidly every year. This type of school competition in Greece is particularly important since Astronomy and Astrophysics and Space Sciences, although very popular, are not included in the school curricula and thus students rarely have the opportunity to experience and participate actively in these subjects. For the years 2010 and 2011, the Space Physics Group of the Astronomy, Astrophysics and Mechanics section of the University of Athens in association with external colleagues has been selected as the co-ordinator of NASA for the competition in Greece. Under the guidance of Cassini Outreach team, the members of the Space Physics Group have informed, explained and spread the rules of the competition at primary, secondary and high schools all over Greece. In general, the students have the option to choose Cassini monitoring between three targets of the Saturnian system, which the participants show that will bring the best scientific result. Their arguments should be summarized in an essay of 500 words more or less. They also have the option to do team work through groups of maximum three students. The participation in the contest for 2010 was unexpectedly high and thoroughly satisfied. The winners awarded through a ceremony which was held in the largest amphitheater at the central building of the University of Athens, that was fully packed. The following year 2011 the participation increased up to 300% while

  15. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility to isepamicin of 6,296 Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates collected at a tertiary care university hospital in Greece.

    PubMed

    Maraki, Sofia; Samonis, George; Karageorgopoulos, Drosos E; Mavros, Michael N; Kofteridis, Diamantis; Falagas, Matthew E

    2012-06-01

    The reevaluation of "forgotten" antibiotics can identify new therapeutic options against extensively drug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. We sought to investigate isepamicin in this regard. We retrospectively evaluated the antimicrobial susceptibility to isepamicin of Enterobacteriaceae sp. isolates from unique patients, collected at the microbiological laboratory of the University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete, Greece, from 2004 to 2009. Susceptibility testing was done with the automated Vitek 2 system. The breakpoints for susceptibility to isepamicin, tigecycline, and other antibiotics were those proposed by the Comité de l'Antibiogramme de la Société Française de Microbiologie (CA-SFM), the FDA, and the CLSI, respectively. A total of 6,296 isolates were studied, including primarily 3,401 (54.0%) Escherichia coli, 1,040 (16.5%) Klebsiella pneumoniae, 590 (9.4%) Proteus mirabilis, and 460 (7.3%) Enterobacter sp. isolates. Excluding the species with intrinsic resistance to each antibiotic, antimicrobial susceptibility was highest for colistin (5,275/5,441 isolates [96.9%]) and isepamicin (6,103/6,296 [96.9%]), followed by meropenem (5,890/6,296 [93.6%]), imipenem (5,874/6,296 [93.3%]), and amikacin (5,492/6,296 [87.2%]). The antimicrobial susceptibility of the 1,040 K. pneumoniae isolates was highest for isepamicin (95.3%), followed by colistin (89.3%) and meropenem (63.0%). Regarding resistant K. pneumoniae isolates, susceptibility to isepamicin was observed for 91.1% of the 392, 87.7% of the 375, and 85.6% of the 111 isolates that were nonsusceptible to the carbapenems, all other aminoglycosides, and colistin, respectively. Isepamicin exhibited high in vitro activity against almost all of the Enterobacteriaceae species. It could particularly serve as a last-resort therapeutic option for carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae in our region, where it is endemic, as it does not show considerable cross-resistance with other aminoglycosides.

  16. Peri-equatorial paleolatitudes for Jurassic radiolarian cherts of Greece

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aiello, I.W.; Hagstrum, J.T.; Principi, G.

    2008-01-01

    Radiolarian-rich sediments dominated pelagic deposition over large portions of the Tethys Ocean during middle to late Jurassic time as shown by extensive bedded chert sequences found in both continental margin and ophiolite units of the Mediterranean region. Which paleoceanographic mechanisms and paleotectonic setting favored radiolarian deposition during the Jurassic, and the nature of a Tethys-wide change from biosiliceous to biocalcareous (mainly nannofossil) deposition at the beginning of Cretaceous time, have remained open questions. Previous paleomagnetic analyses of Jurassic red radiolarian cherts in the Italian Apennines indicate that radiolarian deposition occurred at low peri-equatorial latitudes, similar to modern day deposition of radiolarian-rich sediments within equatorial zones of high biologic productivity. To test this result for other sectors of the Mediterranean region, we undertook paleomagnetic study of Mesozoic (mostly middle to upper Jurassic) red radiolarian cherts within the Aegean region on the Peloponnesus and in continental Greece. Sampled units are from the Sub-Pelagonian Zone on the Argolis Peninsula, the Pindos-Olonos Zone on the Koroni Peninsula, near Karpenissi in central Greece, and the Ionian Zone in the Varathi area of northwestern Greece. Thermal demagnetization of samples from all sections removed low-temperature viscous and moderate-temperature overprint magnetizations that fail the available fold tests. At Argolis and Koroni, however, the cherts carry a third high-temperature magnetization that generally exhibits a polarity stratigraphy and passes the available fold tests. We interpret the high-temperature component to be the primary magnetization acquired during chert deposition and early diagenesis. At Kandhia and Koliaky (Argolis), the primary declinations and previous results indicate clockwise vertical-axis rotations of ??? 40?? relative to "stable" Europe. Due to ambiguities in hemispheric origin (N or S) and thus

  17. Management Staffing and Training Development Policies in Selected Multinational Enterprises: The Case of Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xirotiri-Kufidu, Stella

    1993-01-01

    Evidence from foreign-owned companies in Greece suggests that cultural patterns and environmental influences cannot be ignored. However, such companies could influence human resource development in a developing country by following their home policies in training and staffing. (SK)

  18. Archaeological evidence for a destructive earthquake in Patras, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiros, S. C.; Pytharouli, S. I.

    2014-07-01

    Oriented collapse of columns, large-scale destruction debris and temporary abandonment of the area deduced from an archaeological excavation provide evidence for a major (intensity IX) earthquake in Patras, Greece. This, and possibly a cluster of other earthquakes, can be derived from archaeological data. These earthquakes are not included in the historical seismicity catalogues, but can be used to put constraints to the seismic risk of this city. Patras was affected by a cluster of poorly documented earthquakes between 1714 and 1806. The city seems to be exposed to risks of progressive reactivation of a major strike-slip fault. A magnitude 6.4 earthquake in 2008 has been related to it. This fault has also been associated with a total of four events in the last 20 years, a situation reminiscent of the seismic hazard at the western edge of the North Anatolian Fault.

  19. First report of Troglostrongylus brevior in a kitten in Greece.

    PubMed

    Diakou, Anastasia; Di Cesare, Angela; Aeriniotaki, Tania; Traversa, Donato

    2014-10-01

    The first case of a natural infestation with Troglostrongylus brevior in a kitten in Greece is described here. A ∼40-day-old stray cat was referred to a private veterinary clinic with signs of respiratory distress. First stage larvae of a metastrongyloid nematode were observed in the wet mount faecal preparation. Despite an anthelmintic treatment, the respiratory signs worsened and the kitten died 2 days later. The larvae in the faeces were identified morphologically and genetically as T. brevior. The present evidence suggests a vertical or direct infestation of the kitten and a severe pathogenic role of T. brevior in young cats. This report expands the recent published cases of troglostrongylosis in domestic cats to a wider geographical distribution and opens new questions on the apparent spreading of T. brevior from wild to domestic hosts.

  20. Karyomorphometric analysis of Fritillaria montana group in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Samaropoulou, Sofia; Bareka, Pepy; Kamari, Georgia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Fritillaria Linnaeus, 1753 (Liliaceae) is a genus of geophytes, represented in Greece by 29 taxa. Most of the Greek species are endemic to the country and/or threatened. Although their classical cytotaxonomic studies have already been presented, no karyomorphometric analysis has ever been given. In the present study, the cytological results of Fritillaria montana Hoppe ex W.D.J. Koch, 1832 group, which includes Fritillaria epirotica Turrill ex Rix, 1975 and Fritillaria montana are statistically evaluated for the first time. Further indices about interchromosomal and intrachromosomal asymmetry are given. A new population of Fritillaria epirotica is also investigated, while for Fritillaria montana, a diploid individual was found in a known as triploid population. Paired t-tests and PCoA analysis have been applied to compare the two species. PMID:28123688

  1. Prevalence of Secondary Traumatic Stress Among Psychiatric Nurses in Greece.

    PubMed

    Mangoulia, Polyxeni; Koukia, Evmorfia; Alevizopoulos, George; Fildissis, George; Katostaras, Theofanis

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of secondary traumatic stress/compassion fatigue (STS/CF), burnout (BO) and compassion satisfaction (CS) in psychiatric nurses, and their risk factors. The Professional Quality of Life Scale (ProQOL R-IV) and a demographic and work related characteristics questionnaire were distributed to 174 psychiatric nurses in 12 public hospitals in Greece. The majority of participants were at the high risk category for STS/CF (44.8%) and BO (49.4%), while only 8.1% of nurses expressed high potential for CS. Awareness of the factors associated with STS may help nurses to prevent or offset the development of this condition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Reengineering NHS Hospitals in Greece: Redistribution Leads to Rational Mergers

    PubMed Central

    Nikolentzos, Athanasios; Kontodimopoulos, Nick; Polyzos, Nikolaos; Thireos, Eleftherios; Tountas, Yannis

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to record and evaluate existing public hospital infrastructure of the National Health System (NHS), in terms of clinics and laboratories, as well as the healthcare workforce in each of these units and in every health region in Greece, in an attempt to optimize the allocation of these resources. An extensive analysis of raw data according to supply and performance indicators was performed to serve as a solid and objective scientific baseline for the proposed reengineering of the Greek public hospitals. Suggestions for “reshuffling” clinics and diagnostic laboratories, and their personnel, were made by using a best versus worst outcome indicator approach at a regional and national level. This study is expected to contribute to the academic debate about the gap between theory and evidence based decision-making in health policy. PMID:26156925

  3. Investigating the orientation of eleven mosques in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantazis, George; Lambrou, Evangelia

    2009-07-01

    This paper investigates the orientation of eleven mosques situated in several regions of Greece. The aim of this work is to verify whether and how accurately the monuments have been constructed according to the Muslim tradition. As geodetic and astrogeodetic methods are used, the geometric documentation of each monument is carried out and its astronomical orientation is determined. The qibla for each monument is calculated by using geodetic equations. The mosques' main axis azimuths are determined by a precision of some arc minutes. Also, their orientation, relative to the Canopus star (Alpha Carinae) - which the tradition has closely related to Kaabah in Mecca - is examined. All the mosques seem to follow the religious rule.

  4. Mental health care delivery system in Greece: a critical overview.

    PubMed

    Stefanis, C N; Madianos, M G

    1981-01-01

    The organizational profile of the mental health care delivery system in Greece is mainly characterized by centralization which is reflected in various functional parts of the system (uneven distribution of psychiatric beds and manpower, absence of psychiatric units in general hospitals serving a certain catchment area, lack of community-based psychiatric services, etc.) As a result of this centralized structure there is a centrifugal flow of the mentally ill patients toward Athens and Thessaloniki and consequently the existing possibilities for community-based care as an alternative to inpatient treatment are rather limited. Future immediate objectives of the national social policy planning should be based on decentralization and reorganization of the psychiatric services in order for the mental health delivery system to respond more effectively to the mental health needs of the Greek population.

  5. Trends in suicidality amid the economic crisis in Greece.

    PubMed

    Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Savopoulos, Christos; Siamouli, Melina; Zaggelidou, Eleni; Mageiria, Stamatia; Iacovides, Apostolos; Hatzitolios, Apostolos I

    2013-08-01

    For the decade 2000-2010, suicidal rates appear to be both low and stable in Greece and unrelated to the socioeconomic environment. It is highly possible that the recent crisis caused a significant increase in dysphoria, stress, depression and maybe suicidal ideation in the general population, but completed suicides do not seem to have increased so far. Measures are needed to make sure there will be no increase in completed suicides in the near future, since historically, periods of socioeconomic instability might be related to increased suicidality. Community interventions reduce stigma and enhance help-seeking. However, only those including the creation of social support networks are essential in the fight against suicidality.

  6. Headache during airplane travel ("airplane headache"): first case in Greece.

    PubMed

    Kararizou, Evangelia; Anagnostou, Evangelos; Paraskevas, George P; Vassilopoulou, Sofia D; Naoumis, Dimitrios; Kararizos, Grigoris; Spengos, Konstantinos

    2011-08-01

    Headache related to airplane flights is rare. We describe a 37-year-old female patient with multiple intense, jabbing headache episodes over the last 3 years that occur exclusively during airplane flights. The pain manifests during take-off and landing, and is located always in the left retro-orbital and frontotemporal area. It is occasionally accompanied by dizziness, but no additional symptoms occur. Pain intensity diminishes and disappears after 15-20 min. Apart from occasional dizziness, no other symptoms occur. The patient has a history of tension-type headache and polycystic ovaries. Blood tests and imaging revealed no abnormalities. Here, we present the first case in Greece. We review the current literature on this rare syndrome and discuss on possible pathophysiology and the investigation of possible co-factors such as anxiety and depression.

  7. [The succession of the Hippocratic corpus in modern Greece].

    PubMed

    Sugano, Yukiko; Honda, Katsuya

    2010-03-01

    This paper examines how the Hippocratic corpus was passed on during the Enlightenment of modern Greece, introducing part of the latest Greek research on the history of medicine. Although classical studies at large had stagnated at the time under the rule of the Ottoman Empire, with the movement toward independence in the second half of the 18th century the Greeks raised their consciousness of the fact that they were the successors to their ancestral great achievements. From that time classical studies, including the history of medicine, had been activated. From some medical dissertations and books written by Greek doctors or researchers of those days, we will recognize that they made efforts to deepen the substance of modern Greek medicine, seeking the principles of medical practice from the ancient heritage.

  8. Long survival in a 69,XXX triploid infant in Greece.

    PubMed

    Iliopoulos, Dimitrios; Vassiliou, Georgia; Sekerli, Eleni; Sidiropoulou, Vasiliki; Tsiga, Alexandra; Dimopoulou, Despina; Voyiatzis, Nikolaos

    2005-12-30

    The live birth of a triploidy infant is a very rare event and death usually occurs within the first hours of life. Triploid cases with a survival of more than two months are infrequent. We report on an infant with a 69,XXX chromosome constitution who survived 164 days. Chromosomal analysis demonstrated a 69,XXX karyotype with no evidence of mosaicism. This is the longest survival reported for this condition to date in Greece and the fourth longest worldwide. The infant was admitted to our clinic several times due to respiratory problems, and supplementary oxygen was required. The improved survival of our case was possibly due to better management of respiratory illness and prematurity, and these are essential factors that physicians should consider carefully with such rare cases.

  9. Groundwater quality assessment of the Limnos Island Volcanic Aquifers, Greece.

    PubMed

    Panagopoulos, George; Panagiotaras, Dionisios; Giannoulopoulos, Panagiotis

    2013-05-01

    Limnos Island in Greece, which has been the subject of extensive hydrogeological research, contains confined volcanic aquifers that overlie impermeable flysch. Groundwater salinization is usually the effect of seawater intrusion, and results from a combination of factors such as low annual areal precipitation and exploitation of aquifers for civil, commercial, and agricultural purposes. Areas with intense agricultural activities have also increasingly observed these effects. A geochemical evaluation on the basis of multiple ion (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3-, Cl-, SO4(2-), NO3-) concentrations and physicochemical parameters distribution revealed that ion exchange is the dominant hydrogeochemical process. However, the enrichment of groundwater in potassium and magnesium results from rock and mineral weathering and dissolution.

  10. Cranial trauma in ancient Greece: from Homer to classical authors.

    PubMed

    Konsolaki, Eleni; Astyrakaki, Elisabeth; Stefanakis, George; Agouridakis, Panos; Askitopoulou, Helen

    2010-12-01

    This article presents literary evidence on traumatic cranio-cerebral injuries in ancient Greece from about 900 B.C. to 100 B.C. The main sources of information are epic and classic Greek texts of that period. Homer provides the first literary source of head trauma, which he portrayed in his epic poems The Iliad and The Odyssey. He describes 41 injuries of the head, face and cervical spine, of which all but two were fatal. Subsequently, other classical authors like Plato, Plutarch and others illustrate cases of cranial trauma that occurred mainly in the battlefields, during athletic games or in unusual accidents. They describe some interesting cases of head trauma in prominent men, such as the poet Aeschylos, the kings Pyrrhos and Kyros and Alexander the Great. Most of these descriptions show that the ancient Greeks possessed very good knowledge of the anatomy of the head and neck region and also of the pathophysiological consequences of trauma in the region.

  11. [Medicine in the pre-hippocratic civilization of ancient greece].

    PubMed

    Lips Castro, Walter; Urenda Arias, Catalina

    2014-12-01

    The beginnings of the magical-religious conception of disease would go back to before the development of writing (prehistory). During ancient times the world was conceived as a place where the supernatural was essential for mankind's survival, therefore, explanations of all phenomena, including disease, were based on supernatural causes. With the development of Greek civilization began the establishment of a rational approach to the nature of the world, which gradually included medicine. But the origin of the rational and naturalist perspective of medicine is due in part to the influence of ancient Egyptian civilization. Various terms were used to refer to healing agents at the pre-Hippocratic period of ancient Greece: iatromantis, phôlarcos, ouliads, and asclepiads. Later, in the ancient Greek civilization, healing through prophecy was gradually replaced, though not entirely displaced, by a new medicine, based on a rational theoretical framework about health and disease: téchnê iatrikê.

  12. Pre-seismic radio anomaly observed on the occasion of the MW=6.5 earthquake occurred in Crete on October 12, 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggipinto, Tommaso; Colella, Roberto; Biagi, Pier Francesco; Schiavulli, Luigi; Ligonzo, Teresa; Ermini, Anita; Martinelli, Giovanni; Palangio, Paolo; Moldovan, Iren A.; Silva, Hugo G.; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Contadakis, Michael E.; Arabelos, Dimitrios N.; Scordilis, Emmanuel M.; Frantzis, Xenophon; Katzis, Konstantinos; Buyuksarac, Aydın; D'Amico, Sebastiano

    2014-05-01

    On October 12, 2013 an earthquake with Mw=6.5 occurred in the southern Hellenic Arc, about 20km off the west coast of Crete. The mainshock, whose focal depth is of the order of 40km, was followed by aftershocks felt in the nearby cities and villages, even though the aftershock sequence was rather poor. The epicenter is located at about 60 km from the CRE receiver of the European VLF/LF Radio Network. Some day before the earthquake a clear disturbance appeared in one of the ten radio signals sampled by the CRE receiver . The disturbance, considered as an anomaly, appears in the 216 kHz radio signal radiated by the transmitter MCO that is the main broadcasting facility for long and medium wave broadcasting of Radio Monte Carlo near Roumoules, France. The site is an exclave of Monaco and extraterritorial area. The signal radiated by MCO transmitter can be well received, mainly at night time, in whole Europe. The radio path MCO-CRE crosses exactly the epicenter area of the previous earthquake. Here we present a detailed study of the anomaly by means of statistical and spectral tools and analyze also the behavior of other sampled radio signals in the European network, and take into account other possible causes of disturbances. We conclude that the possibility that the disturbance in the MCO radio signal is a precursor of the earthquake is rather convincing.

  13. The significance of tectonism in the glaciations of Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bathrellos, George; Skilodimou, Hariklia; Maroukian, Habik

    2014-05-01

    In Greece, Middle to Late Pleistocene mountain glaciations appear to have been quite extensive, along the mountain range of Pindus, on Mt. Olympus and in the highlands of Peloponnesus. This study focuses on the Middle to Late Pleistocene glaciations based on the examination of cirque formations and their elevation changes due to vertical tectonism, in certain parts of Greece, namely Pindus, Mt. Olympus and Peloponnesus. An initial spatial database of these glacial forms was created including their location and mean elevation. Some of the glaciated sites have been taken from previous literature and others were recorded from topographic maps, air photos and field work. ArcGIS 10 software was used to process the glaciated sites. A map depicting the glaciated areas of Greek regions was compiled with over 230 cirques. A cirque's top, lip and margins of each location were mapped. So altitudes of apex and lip and mean altitude of each cirque ([apex+lip]/2), were calculated. A total number of 239 inactive cirques was recorded with limestone as the dominant lithology. As one moves to the south, in the case of Pindus range and its extension in the Peloponnesus, the number of cirques decreases. These glacial forms occur at altitudes varying from 2,770 to 1,600 m.a.s.l. Thus the preservation of ice for longer periods of time is more likely at altitudes higher than 1,600 m.a.s.l. Concerning the distribution of the mean elevations of cirques one should take into consideration the tectonic activity of the study area. Especially in the Pindus range, Mount Olympus, and Peloponnesus this process is in the form of uplift. This has increased the mean elevation of the cirques in every following ice age. So, in older times many cirques were a few hundred meters lower than the more recent glacial period.

  14. Occupational Dermatoses by Type of Work in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Zorba, Eleni; Karpouzis, Antony; Zorbas, Alexandros; Bazas, Theodore; Zorbas, Sam; Alexopoulos, Elias; Zorbas, Ilias; Kouskoukis, Konstantinos; Konstandinidis, Theodoros

    2013-01-01

    Background To elucidate the relationship between seven occupational dermatoses (ODs) and 20 types of work in Greece. Methods This was a prevalence epidemiologic study of certain ODs among 4,000 workers employed in 20 types of enterprise, in 104 companies, in 2006–2012, using data from company medical records, questionnaires, occupational medical, and special examinations. The χ2 test was applied to reveal statistically significant relationships between types of enterprises and occurrence of ODs. Results A high percentage (39.9%) of employees included in the study population suffered from ODs. The highest prevalence rates were noted among hairdressers (of contact dermatitis: 30%), cooks (of contact dermatitis: 29.5%), bitumen workers (of acne: 23.5%), car industry workers (of mechanical injury: 15%), construction workers (of contact urticaria: 29.5%), industrial cleaning workers (of chemical burns: 13%), and farmers (of malignant tumors: 5.5%). We observed several statistical significant correlations between ODs (acute and chronic contact dermatitis, urticaria, mechanical injury, acne, burns, skin cancer) and certain types of enterprises. There was no statistically significant correlation between gender and prevalence of ODs, except for dermatoses caused by mechanical injuries afflicting mainly men [χ2 (1) = 13.40, p < 0.001] and for chronic contact dermatitis [χ2 (1) = 5.53, p = 0.019] afflicting mainly women. Conclusion Prevalence of ODs is high in Greece, contrary to all official reports by the Greek National Institute of Health. There is a need to introduce a nationwide voluntary surveillance system for reporting ODs and to enhance skin protection measures at work. PMID:24106644

  15. Seismic Hazard Assessment in the Aspospirgos Area, Athens - Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voulgaris, N.; Drakatos, G.; Lekkas, E.; Karastathis, V.; Valadaki, A.; Plessas, S.

    2005-12-01

    The extensive damages and human life loss related to the September 7, 1999 earthquake in the Athens area (Greece) initiated an effort to re-evaluate seismic hazard in various regions around the capital. One of the target areas selected within the framework of the specially designed research project ESTIA was the industrial area of Aspropirgos, where the epicenter of the main shock was located. The multidisciplinary approach towards seismic hazard assessment included a microseismicity survey and detailed geological and tectonic studies in the area in order to delineate and define the recently activated seismic sources in the area. Initially a portable network, consisting of seventeen (17) digital seismographs was installed and operated for 2 months during the autumn of 2004. A total of five hundred forty five (545) earthquakes (M<3) have been recorded. The results of the geological survey in the region were summarised in two maps compiled at a scale of 1:5,000 and 1:25,000, respectively. These data sets were combined with all the available historical and instrumental seismological data and a revised seismic source zone model was defined for the broader area and subsequently used for hazard assessment calculations. The results were presented as maximum expected peak ground acceleration and velocity distribution maps for 475 and 949 years return period or 90% probability of NBE for the next 50 and 100 years respectively. Finally in order to facilitate the implementation of the above results according to the current Greek Aseismic Code the required distribution for the 3 different soil types was mapped using the results of the geological survey. By combining the above types of data the engineer is able to calculate specific design spectra for every site while combination with available vulnerability estimates could lead to more realistic seismic risk calculations. Acknowledgments We would like to thank the General Secretariat for Research and Technology of Greece for

  16. Integrated flash flood vulnerability assessment: Insights from East Attica, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagiorgos, Konstantinos; Thaler, Thomas; Heiser, Micha; Hübl, Johannes; Fuchs, Sven

    2016-10-01

    In the framework of flood risk assessment, vulnerability is a key concept to assess the susceptibility of elements at risk. Besides the increasing amount of studies on flash floods available, in-depth information on vulnerability in Mediterranean countries was missing so far. Moreover, current approaches in vulnerability research are driven by a divide between social scientists who tend to view vulnerability as representing a set of socio-economic factors, and natural scientists who view vulnerability in terms of the degree of loss to an element at risk. Further, vulnerability studies in response to flash flood processes are rarely answered in the literature. In order to close this gap, this paper implemented an integrated vulnerability approach focusing on residential buildings exposed to flash floods in Greece. In general, both physical and social vulnerability was comparable low, which is interpreted as a result from (a) specific building regulations in Greece as well as general design principles leading to less structural susceptibility of elements at risk exposed, and (b) relatively low economic losses leading to less social vulnerability of citizens exposed. The population show high risk awareness and coping capacity to response to natural hazards event and in the same time the impact of the events are quite low, because of the already high use of local protection measures. The low vulnerability score for East Attica can be attributed especially to the low physical vulnerability and the moderate socio-economic well-being of the area. The consequence is to focus risk management strategies mainly in the reduction of the social vulnerability. By analysing both physical and social vulnerability an attempt was made to bridge the gap between scholars from sciences and humanities, and to integrate the results of the analysis into the broader vulnerability context.

  17. Spatio-temporal activity of lightnings over Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastos, P. T.; Matsangouras, I. T.; Chronis, T. G.

    2012-04-01

    Extreme precipitation events are always associated with convective weather conditions driving to intense lightning activity: Cloud to Ground (CG), Ground to Cloud (GC) and Cloud to Cloud (CC). Thus, the study of lightnings, which typically occur during thunderstorms, gives evidence of the spatio-temporal variability of intense precipitation. Lightning is a natural phenomenon in the atmosphere, being a major cause of storm related with deaths and main trigger of forest fires during dry season. Lightning affects the many electrochemical systems of the body causing nerve damage, memory loss, personality change, and emotional problems. Besides, among the various nitrogen oxides sources, the contribution from lightning likely represents the largest uncertainty. An operational lightning detection network (LDN) has been established since 2007 by HNMS, consisting of eight time-of-arrival sensors (TOA), spatially distributed across Greek territory. In this study, the spatial and temporal variability of recorded lightnings (CG, GC and CC) are analyzed over Greece, during the period from January 14, 2008 to December 31, 2009, for the first time. The data for retrieving the location and time-of-occurrence of lightning were acquired from Hellenic National Meteorological Service (HNMS). In addition to the analysis of spatio-temporal activity over Greece, the HNMS-LDN characteristics are also presented. The results of the performed analysis reveal the specific geographical sub-regions associated with lightnings incidence. Lightning activity occurs mainly during the autumn season, followed by summer and spring. Higher frequencies of flashes appear over Ionian and Aegean Sea than over land during winter period against continental mountainous regions during summer period.

  18. Health care practices in ancient Greece: The Hippocratic ideal

    PubMed Central

    Kleisiaris, Christos F.; Sfakianakis, Chrisanthos; Papathanasiou, Ioanna V.

    2014-01-01

    Asclepius and Hippocrates focused medical practice on the natural approach and treatment of diseases, highlighting the importance of understanding the patient’s health, independence of mind, and the need for harmony between the individual, social and natural environment, as reflected in the Hippocratic Oath. The aim of this study was to present the philosophy of care provision in ancient Greece and to highlight the influence of the Hippocratic ideal in modern health care practices. A literature review was carried out using browser methods in international databases. According to the literature, “healthy mind in a healthy body” was the main component of the Hippocratic philosophy. Three main categories were observed in the Hippocratic provision of care: health promotion, interventions on trauma care, and mental care and art therapy interventions. Health promotion included physical activity as an essential part of physical and mental health, and emphasized the importance of nutrition to improve performance in the Olympic Games. Interventions on trauma care included surgical practices developed by Hippocrates, mainly due to the frequent wars in ancient Greece. Mental care and art therapy interventions were in accordance with the first classification of mental disorders, which was proposed by Hippocrates. In this category music and drama were used as management tools in the treatment of illness and in the improvement of human behavior. The role of Asclepieion of Kos was highlighted which clearly indicates a holistic health care model in care provision. Finally, all practices regarded detailed recordings and evaluation of information within the guidelines. The Hippocratic philosophy on health care provision focused on the holistic health care model, applying standards and ethical rules that are still valid today. PMID:25512827

  19. Health care practices in ancient Greece: The Hippocratic ideal.

    PubMed

    Kleisiaris, Christos F; Sfakianakis, Chrisanthos; Papathanasiou, Ioanna V

    2014-01-01

    Asclepius and Hippocrates focused medical practice on the natural approach and treatment of diseases, highlighting the importance of understanding the patient's health, independence of mind, and the need for harmony between the individual, social and natural environment, as reflected in the Hippocratic Oath. The aim of this study was to present the philosophy of care provision in ancient Greece and to highlight the influence of the Hippocratic ideal in modern health care practices. A literature review was carried out using browser methods in international databases. According to the literature, "healthy mind in a healthy body" was the main component of the Hippocratic philosophy. Three main categories were observed in the Hippocratic provision of care: health promotion, interventions on trauma care, and mental care and art therapy interventions. Health promotion included physical activity as an essential part of physical and mental health, and emphasized the importance of nutrition to improve performance in the Olympic Games. Interventions on trauma care included surgical practices developed by Hippocrates, mainly due to the frequent wars in ancient Greece. Mental care and art therapy interventions were in accordance with the first classification of mental disorders, which was proposed by Hippocrates. In this category music and drama were used as management tools in the treatment of illness and in the improvement of human behavior. The role of Asclepieion of Kos was highlighted which clearly indicates a holistic health care model in care provision. Finally, all practices regarded detailed recordings and evaluation of information within the guidelines. The Hippocratic philosophy on health care provision focused on the holistic health care model, applying standards and ethical rules that are still valid today.

  20. Climate change induced lanslide hazard mapping over Greece- A case study in Pelion Mountain (SE Thessaly, Central Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelitsa, Varvara; Loupasakis, Constantinos; Anagnwstopoulou, Christina

    2015-04-01

    Landslides, as a major type of geological hazard, represent one of the natural events that occur most frequently worldwide after hydro-meteorological events. Landslides occur when the stability of a slope changes due to a number of factors, such as the steep terrain and prolonged precipitation. Identification of landslides and compilation of landslide susceptibility, hazard and risk maps are very important issues for the public authorities providing substantial information regarding, the strategic planning and management of the land-use. Although landslides cannot be predicted accurately, many attempts have been made to compile these maps. Important factors for the the compilation of reliable maps are the quality and the amount of available data and the selection of the best method for the analysis. Numerous studies and publications providing landslide susceptibility,hazard and risk maps, for different regions of Greece, have completed up to now. Their common characteristic is that they are static, taking into account parameters like geology, mean annual precipitaion, slope, aspect, distance from roads, faults and drainage network, soil capability, land use etc., without introducing the dimension of time. The current study focuses on the Pelion Mountain, which is located at the southeastern part of Thessaly in Central Greece; aiming to compile "dynamic" susceptibility and hazard maps depending on climate changes. For this purpose, past and future precipipation data from regional climate models (RCMs) datasets are introduced as input parameters for the compilation of "dynamic" landslide hazard maps. Moreover, land motion mapping data produced by Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) are used for the validation of the landslide occurrence during the period from June 1992 to December 2003 and as a result for the calibration of the mapping procedure. The PSI data can be applied at a regional scale as support for land motion mapping and at local scale for the