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Sample records for cric ancillary study

  1. Aortic PWV in Chronic Kidney Disease: A CRIC Ancillary Study

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Raymond R.; Wimmer, Neil J.; Chirinos, Julio A.; Parsa, Afshin; Weir, Matthew; Perumal, Kalyani; Lash, James P.; Chen, Jing; Steigerwalt, Susan P.; Flack, John; Go, Alan S.; Rafey, Mohammed; Rahman, Mahboob; Sheridan, Angela; Gadegbeku, Crystal A.; Robinson, Nancy A.; Joffe, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Background Aortic PWV is a measure of arterial stiffness and has proved useful in predicting cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in several populations of patients, including the healthy elderly, hypertensives and those with end stage renal disease receiving hemodialysis. Little data exist characterizing aortic stiffness in patients with chronic kidney disease who are not receiving dialysis, and in particular the effect of reduced kidney function on aortic PWV. Methods We performed measurements of aortic PWV in a cross-sectional cohort of participants enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study to determine factors which predict increased aortic PWV in chronic kidney disease. Results PWV measurements were obtained in 2564 participants. The tertiles of aortic PWV (adjusted for waist circumference) were < 7.7 m/sec, 7.7–10.2 m/sec and > 10.2 m/sec with an overall mean (± S.D.) value of 9.48 ± 3.03 m/sec [95% CI = 9.35–9.61 m/sec]. Multivariable regression identified significant independent positive associations of age, blood glucose concentrations, race, waist circumference, mean arterial blood pressure, gender, and presence of diabetes with aortic PWV and a significant negative association with the level of kidney function. Conclusions The large size of this unique cohort, and the targeted enrollment of chronic kidney disease participants provides an ideal situation to study the role of reduced kidney function as a determinant of arterial stiffness. Arterial stiffness may be a significant component of the enhanced cardiovascular risk associated with kidney failure. PMID:20019670

  2. CKD in Hispanics: Baseline Characteristics From the CRIC (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort) and Hispanic-CRIC Studies

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Michael J.; Go, Alan; Lora, Claudia M.; Ackerson, Lynn; Cohan, Janet; Kusek, John; Mercado, Alejandro; Ojo, Akinlolu; Ricardo, Ana C.; Rosen, Leigh; Tao, Kelvin; Xie, Dawei; Feldman, Harold; Lash, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Hispanics. We compared baseline characteristics of Hispanic participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) and Hispanic-CRIC (H-CRIC) Studies with non-Hispanic CRIC participants. Study Design Cross-sectional analysis Setting and Participants Participants were aged 21–74 years with CKD using age-based glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at enrollment into the CRIC/H-CRIC Studies. H-CRIC included Hispanics recruited at the University of Illinois from 2005–2008 while CRIC included Hispanics and non-Hispanics recruited at seven clinical centers from 2003–2007. Factor Race/ethnicity Outcomes Blood pressure, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) use, CKD-associated complications Measurements Demographic characteristics, laboratory data, blood pressure, and medications were assessed using standard techniques and protocols Results Among H-CRIC/ CRIC participants, 497 were Hispanic, 1650 non-Hispanic Black, and 1638 non-Hispanic White. Low income and educational attainment were nearly twice as prevalent in Hispanics compared with non-Hispanics (p<0.01). Hispanics had self-reported diabetes (67%) more frequently than non-Hispanic Blacks (51%) and Whites (40%) (p<0.01). Blood pressure > 130/80 mmHg was more common in Hispanics (62%) compared with Blacks (57%) and Whites (35%) (p<0.05), and abnormalities in hematologic, metabolic, and bone metabolism parameters were more prevalent in Hispanics (p<0.05), even after stratifying by entry eGFR. Hispanics had the lowest receipt of ACE inhibitor/ARB among high-risk subgroups, including participants with diabetes, proteinuria, and blood pressure > 130/80 mmHg. Mean eGFR (ml/min/m2) was lower in Hispanics (39.6) than in Blacks (43.7) and Whites (46.2), while median proteinuria was higher in Hispanics (0.72 g/d) than in Blacks (0.24 g/d) and Whites (0.12 g/d) (p<0.01). Limitations Generalizability; observed

  3. CKD in Hispanics: Baseline characteristics from the CRIC (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort) and Hispanic-CRIC Studies.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Michael J; Go, Alan S; Lora, Claudia M; Ackerson, Lynn; Cohan, Janet; Kusek, John W; Mercado, Alejandro; Ojo, Akinlolu; Ricardo, Ana C; Rosen, Leigh K; Tao, Kaixiang; Xie, Dawei; Feldman, Harold I; Lash, James P

    2011-08-01

    Little is known regarding chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Hispanics. We compared baseline characteristics of Hispanic participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) and Hispanic-CRIC (H-CRIC) Studies with non-Hispanic CRIC participants. Cross-sectional analysis. Participants were aged 21-74 years with CKD using age-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at enrollment into the CRIC/H-CRIC Studies. H-CRIC included Hispanics recruited at the University of Illinois in 2005-2008, whereas CRIC included Hispanics and non-Hispanics recruited at 7 clinical centers in 2003-2007. Race/ethnicity. Blood pressure, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) use, and CKD-associated complications. Demographic characteristics, laboratory data, blood pressure, and medications were assessed using standard techniques and protocols. Of H-CRIC/CRIC participants, 497 were Hispanic, 1,650 were non-Hispanic black, and 1,638 were non-Hispanic white. Low income and educational attainment were nearly twice as prevalent in Hispanics compared with non-Hispanics (P < 0.01). Hispanics had self-reported diabetes (67%) more frequently than non-Hispanic blacks (51%) and whites (40%; P < 0.01). Blood pressure >130/80 mm Hg was more common in Hispanics (62%) than blacks (57%) and whites (35%; P < 0.05), and abnormalities in hematologic, metabolic, and bone metabolism parameters were more prevalent in Hispanics (P < 0.05), even after stratifying by entry eGFR. Hispanics had the lowest use of ACE inhibitors/ARBs among the high-risk subgroups, including participants with diabetes, proteinuria, and blood pressure >130/80 mm Hg. Mean eGFR was lower in Hispanics (39.6 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) than in blacks (43.7 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) and whites (46.2 mL/min/1.73 m(2)), whereas median proteinuria was higher in Hispanics (protein excretion, 0.72 g/d) than in blacks (0.24 g/d) and whites (0.12 g/d; P < 0.01). Generalizability; observed associations limited

  4. Association Between Retinopathy and Cardiovascular Disease in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (From the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort [CRIC] Study)

    PubMed Central

    Grunwald, Juan E.; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Maguire, Maureen; Pistilli, Maxwell; Daniel, Ebenezer; Alexander, Judith; Whittock-Martin, Revell; Parker, Candace; Mohler, Emile; Chia-Mei Lo, Joan; Townsend, Raymond; Gadegbeku, Crystal Ann; Lash, James Phillip; Fink, Jeffrey Craig; Rahman, Mahboob; Feldman, Harold; Kusek, John Walter; Xie, Dawei; Coleman, Martha; Keane, Martin Gerard

    2012-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) experience co-morbid illneses including cardiovascular disease (CVD) and retinopathy. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between retinopathy and self reported CVD in a subgroup of the participants of the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study. In this observational, ancillary investigation, 2605 CRIC participants were invited to participate in this study, and non-mydriatic fundus photographs in both eyes were obtained in 1936 subjects. Photographs were reviewed in a masked fashion at a central photograph reading center. Presence and severity of retinopathy (diabetic, hypertensive or other) and vessel diameter caliber were assessed using standard protocols by trained graders masked to information about study participants. History of self-reported cardiovascular disease was obtained using a medical history questionnaire. Kidney function measurements, traditional and non-traditional risk factors for CVD were obtained from the CRIC study. Greater severity of retinopathy was associated with higher prevalence of any cardiovascular disease and this association persisted after adjustment for traditional risk factors for CVD. Presence of vascular abnormalities usually associated with hypertension was also associated with increased prevalence of CVD. We found a direct relationship between CVD prevalence and mean venular caliber. In conclusion, presence of retinopathy was associated with CVD, suggesting that retinovascular pathology may be indicative of macrovascular disease even after adjustment for renal dysfunction and traditional CVD risk factors. This would make assessment of retinal morphology a valuable tool in chronic kidney disease studies of CVD outcomes. PMID:22516527

  5. Retinopathy and Progression of CKD: The CRIC Study

    PubMed Central

    Pistilli, Maxwell; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Daniel, Ebenezer; Maguire, Maureen G.; Xie, Dawei; Whittock-Martin, Revell; Parker Ostroff, Candace; Lo, Joan C.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Gadegbeku, Crystal A.; Lash, James P.; Fink, Jeffrey C.; Rahman, Mahboob; Feldman, Harold I.; Kusek, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Retinal abnormalities may be associated with changes in the renal vasculature. This study assessed the association between retinopathy and progression of kidney disease in participants of the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This was a prospective study in which patients with CKD enrolled in CRIC had nonmydriatic fundus photographs of both eyes. All CRIC participants in six clinical sites in which fundus cameras were deployed were offered participation. Photographs were reviewed at a reading center. The presence and severity of retinopathy and vessel calibers were assessed using standard protocols by graders masked to clinical information. The associations of retinal features with changes in eGFR and the need for RRT (ESRD) were assessed. Results Retinal images and renal progression outcomes were obtained from 1852 of the 2605 participants (71.1%) approached. During follow-up (median 2.3 years), 152 participants (8.2%) developed ESRD. Presence and severity of retinopathy at baseline were strongly associated with the risk of subsequent progression to ESRD and reductions in eGFR in unadjusted analyses. For example, participants with retinopathy were 4.4 times (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 3.12 to 6.31) more likely to develop ESRD than those without retinopathy (P<0.001). However, this association was not statistically significant after adjustment for initial eGFR and 24-hour proteinuria. Venular and arteriolar diameter calibers were not associated with ESRD or eGFR decline. The results showed a nonlinear relationship between mean ratio of arteriole/vein calibers and the risk of progression to ESRD; participants within the fourth arteriole/vein ratio quartile were 3.11 times (95% CI, 1.51 to 6.40) more likely to develop ESRD than those in the first quartile (P<0.001). Conclusions The presence and severity of retinopathy were not associated with ESRD and decline in eGFR after

  6. Estimating GFR Among Participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Amanda Hyre; Yang, Wei; Hsu, Chi-yuan; Joffe, Marshall M.; Leonard, Mary B.; Xie, Dawei; Chen, Jing; Greene, Tom; Jaar, Bernard G.; Kao, Patricia; Kusek, John W.; Landis, J. Richard; Lash, James P.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Weir, Matthew R.; Feldman, Harold I.

    2012-01-01

    Background Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is considered the best measure of kidney function, but repeated assessment is not feasible in most research studies. Study Design Cross-sectional study of 1,433 participants from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study (i.e., the GFR subcohort) to derive an internal GFR estimating equation using a split sample approach. Setting & Participants Adults from 7 US metropolitan areas with mild to moderate chronic kidney disease; 48% had diabetes and 37% were black. Index Test CRIC GFR estimating equation Reference Test or Outcome Urinary 125I-iothalamate clearance testing (measured GFR) Other Measurements Laboratory measures including serum creatinine and cystatin C, and anthropometrics Results In the validation dataset, the model that included serum creatinine, serum cystatin C, age, gender, and race was the most parsimonious and similarly predictive of mGFR compared to a model additionally including bioelectrical impedance analysis phase angle, CRIC clinical center, and 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion. Specifically, the root mean square errors for the separate model were 0.207 vs. 0.202, respectively. The performance of the CRIC GFR estimating equation was most accurate among the subgroups of younger participants, men, non-blacks, non-Hispanics, those without diabetes, those with body mass index <30 kg/m2, those with higher 24-hour urine creatinine excretion, those with lower levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and those with higher mGFR. Limitations Urinary clearance of 125I-iothalamate is an imperfect measure of true GFR; cystatin C is not standardized to certified reference material; lack of external validation; small sample sizes limit analyses of subgroup-specific predictors. Conclusions The CRIC GFR estimating equation predicts measured GFR accurately in the CRIC cohort using serum creatinine and cystatin C, age, gender, and race. Its performance was best among younger and healthier

  7. Estimating GFR among participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Amanda Hyre; Yang, Wei; Hsu, Chi-yuan; Joffe, Marshall M; Leonard, Mary B; Xie, Dawei; Chen, Jing; Greene, Tom; Jaar, Bernard G; Kao, Patricia; Kusek, John W; Landis, J Richard; Lash, James P; Townsend, Raymond R; Weir, Matthew R; Feldman, Harold I

    2012-08-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is considered the best measure of kidney function, but repeated assessment is not feasible in most research studies. Cross-sectional study of 1,433 participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study (ie, the GFR subcohort) to derive an internal GFR estimating equation using a split-sample approach. Adults from 7 US metropolitan areas with mild to moderate chronic kidney disease; 48% had diabetes and 37% were black. CRIC GFR estimating equation. Urinary (125)I-iothalamate clearance testing (measured GFR [mGFR]). Laboratory measures, including serum creatinine and cystatin C, and anthropometrics. In the validation data set, the model that included serum creatinine level, serum cystatin C level, age, sex, and race was the most parsimonious and similarly predictive of mGFR compared with a model additionally including bioelectrical impedance analysis phase angle, CRIC clinical center, and 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion. Specifically, root mean square errors for the separate models were 0.207 versus 0.202, respectively. Performance of the CRIC GFR estimating equation was most accurate for the subgroups of younger participants, men, nonblacks, non-Hispanics, those without diabetes, those with body mass index <30 kg/m(2), those with higher 24-hour urine creatinine excretion, those with lower high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, and those with higher mGFRs. Urinary clearance of (125)I-iothalamate is an imperfect measure of true GFR; cystatin C level is not standardized to certified reference material; lack of external validation; small sample sizes limit analyses of subgroup-specific predictors. The CRIC GFR estimating equation predicts mGFR accurately in the CRIC cohort using serum creatinine and cystatin C levels, age, sex, and race. Its performance was best in younger and healthier participants. Copyright © 2012 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study (CRIC): Overview and Summary of Selected Findings

    PubMed Central

    Denker, Matthew; Boyle, Suzanne; Anderson, Amanda H.; Appel, Lawrence J.; Chen, Jing; Fink, Jeffrey C.; Flack, John; Go, Alan S.; Horwitz, Edward; Hsu, Chi-yuan; Kusek, John W.; Lash, James P.; Navaneethan, Sankar; Ojo, Akinlolu O.; Rahman, Mahboob; Steigerwalt, Susan P.; Townsend, Raymond R.

    2015-01-01

    The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study is a United States multicenter, prospective study of racially and ethnically diverse patients with CKD. Although the original aims of the study were to identify novel predictors of CKD progression and to elucidate the risk and manifestations of cardiovascular disease among nearly 4000 individuals with CKD, the CRIC Study has evolved into a national resource for investigation of a broad spectrum of CKD-related topics. The study has produced >90 published scientific articles, promoted many young investigative careers in nephrology, and fostered international collaborations focused on understanding the global burden of CKD. The third phase of the CRIC Study will complete enrollment of 1500 additional study participants in 2015 and is designed to answer questions regarding morbidity and mortality in mild-to-moderate CKD and to assess the burden of CKD in older persons. This review highlights some of the salient findings of the CRIC Study in the areas of race and ethnicity, CKD progression, CKD and cognition, and cardiovascular disease outcomes; it also outlines the ongoing and forthcoming opportunities for the global nephrology community to enhance its understanding of CKD and related complications through the study. PMID:26265715

  9. Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study (CRIC): Overview and Summary of Selected Findings.

    PubMed

    Denker, Matthew; Boyle, Suzanne; Anderson, Amanda H; Appel, Lawrence J; Chen, Jing; Fink, Jeffrey C; Flack, John; Go, Alan S; Horwitz, Edward; Hsu, Chi-Yuan; Kusek, John W; Lash, James P; Navaneethan, Sankar; Ojo, Akinlolu O; Rahman, Mahboob; Steigerwalt, Susan P; Townsend, Raymond R; Feldman, Harold I

    2015-11-06

    The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study is a United States multicenter, prospective study of racially and ethnically diverse patients with CKD. Although the original aims of the study were to identify novel predictors of CKD progression and to elucidate the risk and manifestations of cardiovascular disease among nearly 4000 individuals with CKD, the CRIC Study has evolved into a national resource for investigation of a broad spectrum of CKD-related topics. The study has produced >90 published scientific articles, promoted many young investigative careers in nephrology, and fostered international collaborations focused on understanding the global burden of CKD. The third phase of the CRIC Study will complete enrollment of 1500 additional study participants in 2015 and is designed to answer questions regarding morbidity and mortality in mild-to-moderate CKD and to assess the burden of CKD in older persons. This review highlights some of the salient findings of the CRIC Study in the areas of race and ethnicity, CKD progression, CKD and cognition, and cardiovascular disease outcomes; it also outlines the ongoing and forthcoming opportunities for the global nephrology community to enhance its understanding of CKD and related complications through the study.

  10. Factors Associated With Depressive Symptoms and Use of Antidepressant Medications Among Participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) and Hispanic-CRIC Studies

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Michael J.; Xie, Dawei; Jordan, Neil; Kop, Willem J.; Krousel-Wood, Marie; Tamura, Manjula Kurella; Kusek, John W.; Ford, Virginia; Rosen, Leigh K.; Strauss, Louise; Teal, Valerie L.; Yaffe, Kristine; Powe, Neil R.; Lash, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Depressive symptoms are correlated with poor health outcomes in adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The prevalence, severity, and treatment of depressive symptoms and potential risk factors, including level of kidney function, in diverse populations with CKD have not been well studied. Study Design Cross-sectional analysis Settings and Participants Participants at enrollment into the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) and Hispanic-CRIC (H-CRIC) Studies. CRIC enrolled Hispanics and non-Hispanics at seven centers from 2003-2007, and H-CRIC enrolled Hispanics at the University of Illinois from 2005-2008. Measurement Depressive symptoms measured by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) Predictors Demographic and clinical factors Outcomes Elevated depressive symptoms (BDI >= 11) and antidepressant medication use Results Among 3853 participants, 28.5% had evidence of elevated depressive symptoms and 18.2% were using antidepressant medications; 30.8% of persons with elevated depressive symptoms were using antidepressants. The prevalence of elevated depressive symptoms varied by level of kidney function: 25.2% among participants with eGFR ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73m2, and 35.1% of those with eGFR < 30 ml/min/1.73m2. Lower eGFR (OR per 10 ml/min/1.73m2 decrease, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.03-1.16), Hispanic ethnicity (OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.12-2.45), and non-Hispanic black race (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.17-1.74) were each associated with increased odds of elevated depressive symptoms after controlling for other factors. In regression analyses incorporating BDI score, while female sex was associated with a greater odds of antidepressant use, Hispanic ethnicity, non-Hispanic black race, and higher levels of urine albumin were associated with decreased odds of antidepressant use (p<0.05 for each). Limitations Absence of clinical diagnosis of depression and use of non-pharmacologic treatments Conclusions Although elevated depressive symptoms were common in individuals with CKD, use of

  11. Factors associated with depressive symptoms and use of antidepressant medications among participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) and Hispanic-CRIC Studies.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Michael J; Xie, Dawei; Jordan, Neil; Kop, Willem J; Krousel-Wood, Marie; Kurella Tamura, Manjula; Kusek, John W; Ford, Virginia; Rosen, Leigh K; Strauss, Louise; Teal, Valerie L; Yaffe, Kristine; Powe, Neil R; Lash, James P

    2012-07-01

    Depressive symptoms are correlated with poor health outcomes in adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The prevalence, severity, and treatment of depressive symptoms and potential risk factors, including level of kidney function, in diverse populations with CKD have not been well studied. Cross-sectional analysis. Participants at enrollment into the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) and Hispanic-CRIC (H-CRIC) Studies. CRIC enrolled Hispanics and non-Hispanics at 7 centers in 2003-2007, and H-CRIC enrolled Hispanics at the University of Illinois in 2005-2008. Depressive symptoms measured by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Demographic and clinical factors. Elevated depressive symptoms (BDI score ≥11) and antidepressant medication use. Of 3,853 participants, 27.4% had evidence of elevated depressive symptoms and 18.2% were using antidepressant medications; 31.0% of persons with elevated depressive symptoms were using antidepressants. The prevalence of elevated depressive symptoms varied by level of kidney function: 23.6% for participants with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and 33.8% of those with eGFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Lower eGFR (OR per 10-mL/min/1.73 m(2) decrease, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.04-1.17), and non-Hispanic black race (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.16-1.74) were each associated with increased odds of elevated depressive symptoms after controlling for other factors. In regression analyses incorporating BDI score, whereas female sex was associated with greater odds of antidepressant use, Hispanic ethnicity, non-Hispanic black race, and higher urine albumin levels were associated with decreased odds of antidepressant use (P < 0.05 for each). Absence of clinical diagnosis of depression and use of nonpharmacologic treatments. Although elevated depressive symptoms were common in individuals with CKD, use of antidepressant medications is low. Individuals of racial and ethnic minority background and with more advanced CKD had a

  12. Retinopathy and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (From the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study [CRIC])

    PubMed Central

    Grunwald, Juan E.; Pistilli, Maxwell; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Maguire, Maureen; Daniel, Ebenezer; Whittock-Martin, Revell; Parker-Ostroff, Candace; Mohler, Emile; Lo, Joan C.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Gadegbeku, Crystal Ann; Lash, James Phillip; Fink, Jeffrey Craig; Rahman, Mahboob; Feldman, Harold; Kusek, John W.; Xie, Dawei

    2015-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) experience other diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and retinopathy. The purpose of this study was to assess whether retinopathy predicts future CVD events in a subgroup of the participants of the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study. In this ancillary investigation, 2605 CRIC participants were invited to participate and non-mydriatic fundus photographs were obtained in 1936 subjects. Using standard protocols, presence and severity of retinopathy (diabetic, hypertensive or other) and vessel diameter caliber were assessed at a central photograph reading center by trained graders masked to study participant’s information. Patients with a self-reported history of cardiovascular disease were excluded. Incident CVD events were adjudicated using medical records. Kidney function measurements, traditional and non-traditional risk factors for CVD were obtained. Presence and severity of retinopathy were associated with increased risk of development of any CVD in this population of CKD patients, and these associations persisted after adjustment for traditional risk factors for CVD. We also found a direct relationship between increased venular diameter and risk of development of CVD; however, the relationship was not statistically significant after adjustment for traditional risk factors. In conclusion, presence of retinopathy was associated with future CVD events, suggesting that retinovascular pathology may be indicative of macrovascular disease even after adjustment for renal dysfunction and traditional CVD risk factors. Assessment of retinal morphology may be valuable in assessing risk of CVD in patients with CKD, both clinically and in research settings. PMID:26409637

  13. Retinopathy and chronic kidney disease in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study.

    PubMed

    Grunwald, Juan E; Alexander, Judith; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Maguire, Maureen; Daniel, Ebenezer; Whittock-Martin, Revell; Parker, Candace; McWilliams, Kathleen; Lo, Joan C; Go, Alan; Townsend, Raymond; Gadegbeku, Crystal A; Lash, James P; Fink, Jeffrey C; Rahman, Mahboob; Feldman, Harold; Kusek, John W; Xie, Dawei; Jaar, Bernard G

    2012-09-01

    To investigate the association between retinopathy and chronic kidney disease. In this observational, cross-sectional study, 2605 patients of the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study, a multicenter study of chronic kidney disease, were offered participation. Nonmydriatic fundus photographs of the disc and macula in both eyes were obtained in 1936 of these subjects. The photographs were reviewed in a masked fashion at a central photograph reading center using standard protocols. Presence and severity of retinopathy (diabetic, hypertensive, or other) and vessel diameter caliber were assessed by trained graders and a retinal specialist using protocols developed for large epidemiologic studies. Kidney function measurements and information on traditional and nontraditional risk factors for decreased kidney function were obtained from the CRIC study. Greater severity of retinopathy was associated with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate after adjustment for traditional and nontraditional risk factors. The presence of vascular abnormalities usually associated with hypertension was also associated with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate. We found no strong direct relationship between estimated glomerular filtration rate and average arteriolar or venular calibers. Our findings show a strong association between severity of retinopathy and its features and level of kidney function after adjustment for traditional and nontraditional risk factors for chronic kidney disease, suggesting that retinovascular pathology reflects renal disease.

  14. Retinopathy and Chronic Kidney Disease in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study (CRIC)

    PubMed Central

    Grunwald, Juan E.; Alexander, Judith; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Maguire, Maureen; Daniel, Ebenezer; Whittock-Martin, Revell; Parker, Candace; McWilliams, Kathleen; Lo, Joan C.; Go, Alan; Townsend, Raymond; Gadegbeku, Crystal A.; Lash, James P.; Fink, Jeffrey C.; Rahman, Mahboob; Feldman, Harold; Kusek, John W.; Xie, Dawei; Jaar, Bernard G.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Retinal vascular and anatomic abnormalities caused by diabetes, hypertension, and other conditions can be observed directly in the ocular fundus and may reflect severity of chronic renal insufficiency. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between retinopathy and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods In this observational, cross-sectional study, 2605 participants of the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study, a multi-center study of CKD, were offered participation. Non-mydriatic fundus photographs of the disc and macula in both eyes were obtained in 1936 of these subjects. Photographs were reviewed in a masked fashion at a central photograph reading center using standard protocols. Presence and severity of retinopathy (diabetic, hypertensive or other) and vessel diameter caliber were assessed by trained graders and a retinal specialist using protocols developed for large epidemiologic studies. Kidney function measurements and information on traditional and non-traditional risk factors for decreased kidney function were obtained from the CRIC study. Results Greater severity of retinopathy was associated with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) after adjustment for traditional and non-traditional risk factors. Presence of vascular abnormalities usually associated with hypertension was also associated with lower eGFR. We found no strong direct relationship between eGFR and average arteriolar or venular calibers. Conclusions Our findings show a strong association between severity of retinopathy and its features and level of kidney function after adjustment for traditional and non-traditional risk factors for CKD, suggesting that retinovascular pathology reflects renal disease. PMID:22965589

  15. Cardiovascular Disease Among Hispanics and Non-Hispanics in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Ricardo, Ana C.; Fischer, Michael J.; Lora, Claudia M.; Budoff, Matthew; Keane, Martin G.; Kusek, John W.; Martinez, Monica; Nessel, Lisa; Stamos, Thomas; Ojo, Akinlolu; Rahman, Mahboob; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Yang, Wei; Feldman, Harold I.; Go, Alan S.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Hispanics are the largest minority group in the United States. The leading cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is cardiovascular disease (CVD), yet little is known about its prevalence among Hispanics with CKD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We conducted cross-sectional analyses of prevalent self-reported clinical and subclinical measures of CVD among 497 Hispanics, 1638 non-Hispanic Caucasians, and 1650 non-Hispanic African Americans, aged 21 to 74 years, with mild-to-moderate CKD at enrollment in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) and Hispanic CRIC (HCRIC) studies. Measures of subclinical CVD included left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), coronary artery calcification (CAC), and ankle-brachial index. Results Self-reported coronary heart disease (CHD) was lower in Hispanics compared with non-Hispanic Caucasians (18% versus 23%, P = 0.02). Compared with non-Hispanic Caucasians, Hispanics had a lower prevalence of CAC >100 (41% versus 34%, P = 0.03) and CAC >400 (26% versus 19%, P = 0.02). However, after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, these differences were no longer significant. In adjusted analyses, Hispanics had a higher odds of LVH compared with non-Hispanic Caucasians (odds ratio 1.97, 95% confidence interval, 1.22 to 3.17, P = 0.005), and a higher odds of CAC >400 compared with non-Hispanic African Americans (odds ratio, 2.49, 95% confidence interval, 1.11 to 5.58, P = 0.03). Hispanic ethnicity was not independently associated with any other CVD measures. Conclusions Prevalent LVH was more common among Hispanics than non-Hispanic Caucasians, and elevated CAC score was more common among Hispanics than non-Hispanic African Americans. Understanding reasons for these racial/ethnic differences and their association with long-term clinical outcomes is needed. PMID:21896829

  16. Cardiovascular disease among hispanics and non-hispanics in the chronic renal insufficiency cohort (CRIC) study.

    PubMed

    Ricardo, Ana C; Lash, James P; Fischer, Michael J; Lora, Claudia M; Budoff, Matthew; Keane, Martin G; Kusek, John W; Martinez, Monica; Nessel, Lisa; Stamos, Thomas; Ojo, Akinlolu; Rahman, Mahboob; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Yang, Wei; Feldman, Harold I; Go, Alan S

    2011-09-01

    Hispanics are the largest minority group in the United States. The leading cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is cardiovascular disease (CVD), yet little is known about its prevalence among Hispanics with CKD. We conducted cross-sectional analyses of prevalent self-reported clinical and subclinical measures of CVD among 497 Hispanics, 1638 non-Hispanic Caucasians, and 1650 non-Hispanic African Americans, aged 21 to 74 years, with mild-to-moderate CKD at enrollment in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) and Hispanic CRIC (HCRIC) studies. Measures of subclinical CVD included left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), coronary artery calcification (CAC), and ankle-brachial index. Self-reported coronary heart disease (CHD) was lower in Hispanics compared with non-Hispanic Caucasians (18% versus 23%, P = 0.02). Compared with non-Hispanic Caucasians, Hispanics had a lower prevalence of CAC >100 (41% versus 34%, P = 0.03) and CAC >400 (26% versus 19%, P = 0.02). However, after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, these differences were no longer significant. In adjusted analyses, Hispanics had a higher odds of LVH compared with non-Hispanic Caucasians (odds ratio 1.97, 95% confidence interval, 1.22 to 3.17, P = 0.005), and a higher odds of CAC >400 compared with non-Hispanic African Americans (odds ratio, 2.49, 95% confidence interval, 1.11 to 5.58, P = 0.03). Hispanic ethnicity was not independently associated with any other CVD measures. Prevalent LVH was more common among Hispanics than non-Hispanic Caucasians, and elevated CAC score was more common among Hispanics than non-Hispanic African Americans. Understanding reasons for these racial/ethnic differences and their association with long-term clinical outcomes is needed.

  17. Heart Rate Variability is a Predictor of Mortality in CKD - A Report from the CRIC Study

    PubMed Central

    Drawz, Paul E; Babineau, Denise C; Brecklin, Carolyn; He, Jiang; Kallem, Radhakrishna R; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Xie, Dawei; Appleby, Dina; Anderson, Amanda H; Rahman, Mahboob

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Low heart rate variability (HRV) is a risk factor for adverse outcomes in the general population. We aimed to determine the factors associated with HRV and evaluate the association between low HRV and clinical outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods A 10 second electrocardiogram was obtained at baseline in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study. HRV was measured by the standard deviation of all R-R intervals (SDNN) and the root mean square of successive differences between R-R intervals (RMSSD). Results In 3245 CRIC participants with available baseline SDNN and RMSSD, lower HRV was associated with older age, lack of exercise, heart failure, elevated phosphorus and hemoglobin A1c, and low estimated glomerular filtration rate. After a median follow-up of 4.2 years, in fully adjusted models, lower HRV was not associated with renal (SDNN: HR=0.96 (95% CI 0.88–1.05); RMSSD: HR=0.97 (95% CI 0.88–1.07)) or cardiovascular outcomes (SDNN: HR=1.02 (95% CI 0.92–1.13); RMSSD: HR=1.00 (95% CI 0.90–1.10)). There was a non-linear relationship between RMSSD and all-cause mortality with increased risk with both low and high RMSSD (P=0.04). Conclusions In a large cohort of participants with CKD, multiple risk factors for renal and cardiovascular disease were associated with lower HRV. Lower HRV was not associated with increased risk for renal or cardiovascular outcomes, but both low and high RMSSD were associated with increased risk for all-cause mortality. In conclusion, HRV as measured by RMSSD may be a novel and independent risk factor for mortality in CKD patients. PMID:24356377

  18. Prevalence and Correlates of Mitral Annular Calcification in Adults with Chronic Kidney Disease: Results from CRIC Study

    PubMed Central

    Abd alamir, Moshrik; Radulescu, Vlad; Goyfman, Michael; Mohler, Emile R; Gao, Yan Lin; Budoff, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Risk factors for mitral annular calcification (MAC) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) demonstrate significant overlap in the general population. The aim of this paper is to determine whether there are independent relationships between MAC and demographics, traditional and novel CVD risk factors using cardiac CT in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) in a cross-sectional study. Methods A sample of 2070 subjects underwent coronary calcium scanning during the CRIC study. Data were obtained for each participant at time of scan. Subjects were dichotomized into the presence and absence of MAC. Differences in baseline demographic and transitional risk factor data were evaluated across groups. Covariates used in multivariable adjustment were age, gender, BMI, HDL, LDL, lipid lowering medications, smoking status, family history of heart attack, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, phosphate, PTH, albuminuria, and calcium. Results Our study consisted of 2070 subjects, of which 331 had MAC (prevalence of 16.0%). The mean MAC score was 511.98 (SD 1368.76). Age and white race remained independently associated with presence of MAC. Decreased GFR was also a risk factor. African American and Hispanic race, as well as former smoking status were protective against MAC. In multivariable adjusted analyses, the remaining covariates were not significantly associated with MAC. Among renal covariates, elevated phosphate was significant. Conclusion In the CRIC population, presence of MAC was independently associated with age, Caucasian race, decreased GFR, and elevated phosphate. These results are suggested by mechanisms of dysregulation of inflammation, hormones, and electrolytes in subjects with renal disease. PMID:26188533

  19. DNA methylation profile associated with rapid decline in kidney function: findings from the CRIC Study

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Maria R.; Devaney, Joseph M.; Joffe, Marshall M.; Xie, Dawei; Feldman, Harold I.; Dominic, Elizabeth A.; Guzman, Nicolas J.; Ramezani, Ali; Susztak, Katalin; Herman, James G.; Cope, Leslie; Harmon, Brennan; Kwabi-Addo, Bernard; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Go, Alan S.; He, Jiang; Lash, James P.; Kusek, John W.; Raj, Dominic S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Epigenetic mechanisms may be important in the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods We studied the genome-wide DNA methylation pattern associated with rapid loss of kidney function using the Infinium HumanMethylation 450 K BeadChip in 40 Chronic Renal Insufficiency (CRIC) study participants (n = 3939) with the highest and lowest rates of decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate. Results The mean eGFR slope was 2.2 (1.4) and −5.1 (1.2) mL/min/1.73 m2 in the stable kidney function group and the rapid progression group, respectively. CpG islands in NPHP4, IQSEC1 and TCF3 were hypermethylated to a larger extent in subjects with stable kidney function (P-values of 7.8E−05 to 9.5E−05). These genes are involved in pathways known to promote the epithelial to mesenchymal transition and renal fibrosis. Other CKD-related genes that were differentially methylated are NOS3, NFKBIL2, CLU, NFKBIB, TGFB3 and TGFBI, which are involved in oxidative stress and inflammatory pathways (P-values of 4.5E−03 to 0.046). Pathway analysis using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis showed that gene networks related to cell signaling, carbohydrate metabolism and human behavior are epigenetically regulated in CKD. Conclusions Epigenetic modifications may be important in determining the rate of loss of kidney function in patients with established CKD. PMID:24516231

  20. Relation of Aortic Valve Calcium to Chronic Kidney Disease (from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort [CRIC] Study)

    PubMed Central

    Guerraty, Marie A.; Chai, Boyang; Hsu, Jesse Yenchih; Ojo, Akinlolu O.; Gao, Yanlin; Yang, Wei; Keane, Martin G.; Budoff, Matthew J.; Mohler, Emile R.

    2015-01-01

    Although subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at markedly increased risk for cardiovascular mortality, the relationship between CKD and aortic valve calcification has not been fully elucidated. Also, few data are available on the relationship of aortic valve calcification and earlier stages of CKD. We sought to assess the relationship of aortic valve calcium (AVC) with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), traditional and novel cardiovascular risk factors, and markers of bone metabolism in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study. All patients who underwent aortic valve scanning in the CRIC study were included. The relationship between AVC and eGFR, traditional and novel cardiovascular risk factors, and markers of calcium metabolism were analyzed using both unadjusted and adjusted regression models. A total of 1964 CRIC participants underwent computed tomography for AVC quantification. Decreased renal function was independently associated with increased levels of AVC (eGFR 47.11 ml/min/1.73m2, 44.17 ml/min/1.73m2, and 39 ml/min/1.73m2, respectively, p< 0.001). This association persisted after adjusting for traditional, but not novel, AVC risk factors. Adjusted regression models identified several traditional and novel risk factors for AVC in patients with CKD. There was a difference in AVC risk factors between black and non-black patients. In conclusion, our study shows that eGFR is associated in a dose-dependent manner with AVC in patients with CKD, and this association is independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25791240

  1. Race/Ethnicity and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Adults With CKD: Findings From the CRIC (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort) and Hispanic CRIC Studies.

    PubMed

    Lash, James P; Ricardo, Ana C; Roy, Jason; Deo, Rajat; Fischer, Michael; Flack, John; He, Jiang; Keane, Martin; Lora, Claudia; Ojo, Akinlolu; Rahman, Mahboob; Steigerwalt, Susan; Tao, Kaixiang; Wolf, Myles; Wright, Jackson T; Go, Alan S

    2016-10-01

    Non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics with end-stage renal disease have a lower risk for death than non-Hispanic whites, but data for racial/ethnic variation in cardiovascular outcomes for non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease are limited. Prospective cohort. 3,785 adults with entry estimated glomerular filtration rates of 20 to 70mL/min/1.73m(2) enrolled in the CRIC (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort) Study. Race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic). Cardiovascular outcomes (atherosclerotic events [myocardial infarction, stroke, or peripheral arterial disease] and heart failure) and a composite of each cardiovascular outcome or all-cause death. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards. During a median follow-up of 6.6 years, we observed 506 atherosclerotic events, 551 heart failure events, and 692 deaths. In regression analyses, there were no significant differences in atherosclerotic events among the 3 racial/ethnic groups. In analyses stratified by clinical site, non-Hispanic blacks had a higher risk for heart failure events (HR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.29-1.95), which became nonsignificant after adjustment for demographic factors and baseline kidney function. In contrast, Hispanics had similar risk for heart failure events as non-Hispanic whites. In analyses stratified by clinical site, compared with non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks were at similar risk for atherosclerotic events or death. However, after further adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, medications, and mineral metabolism markers, non-Hispanic blacks had 17% lower risk for the outcome (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.69-0.99) than non-Hispanic whites, whereas there was no significant association with Hispanic ethnicity. Hispanics were largely recruited from a single center, and the study was underpowered to evaluate the association between Hispanic ethnicity and mortality. There were no significant racial/ethnic differences in adjusted risk for atherosclerotic or heart

  2. Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study: Baseline Characteristics and Associations with Kidney Function

    PubMed Central

    Go, Alan S.; Appel, Lawrence J.; He, Jiang; Ojo, Akinlolu; Rahman, Mahboob; Townsend, Raymond R.; Xie, Dawei; Cifelli, Denise; Cohan, Janet; Fink, Jeffrey C.; Fischer, Michael J.; Gadegbeku, Crystal; Hamm, L. Lee; Kusek, John W.; Landis, J. Richard; Narva, Andrew; Robinson, Nancy; Teal, Valerie; Feldman, Harold I.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study was established to examine risk factors for the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with CKD. We examined baseline demographic and clinical characteristics. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Seven clinical centers recruited adults who were aged 21 to 74 yr and had CKD using age-based estimated GFR (eGFR) inclusion criteria. At baseline, blood and urine specimens were collected and information regarding health behaviors, diet, quality of life, and functional status was obtained. GFR was measured using radiolabeled iothalamate in one third of participants. Results: A total of 3612 participants were enrolled with mean age ± SD of 58.2 ± 11.0 yr; 46% were women, and 47% had diabetes. Overall, 45% were non-Hispanic white, 46% were non-Hispanic black, and 5% were Hispanic. Eighty-six percent reported hypertension, 22% coronary disease, and 10% heart failure. Mean body mass index was 32.1 ± 7.9 kg/m2, and 47% had a BP >130/80 mmHg. Mean eGFR was 43.4 ± 13.5 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and median (interquartile range) protein excretion was 0.17 g/24 h (0.07 to 0.81 g/24 h). Lower eGFR was associated with older age, lower socioeconomic and educational level, cigarette smoking, self-reported CVD, peripheral arterial disease, and elevated BP. Conclusions: Lower level of eGFR was associated with a greater burden of CVD as well as lower socioeconomic and educational status. Long-term follow-up of participants will provide critical insights into the epidemiology of CKD and its relationship to adverse outcomes. PMID:19541818

  3. Heart rate variability is a predictor of mortality in chronic kidney disease: a report from the CRIC Study.

    PubMed

    Drawz, Paul E; Babineau, Denise C; Brecklin, Carolyn; He, Jiang; Kallem, Radhakrishna R; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Xie, Dawei; Appleby, Dina; Anderson, Amanda H; Rahman, Mahboob

    2013-01-01

    Low heart rate variability (HRV) is a risk factor for adverse outcomes in the general population. We aimed to determine the factors associated with HRV and evaluate the association between low HRV and clinical outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). A 10-second electrocardiogram was obtained at baseline in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study. HRV was measured by the standard deviation of all R-R intervals (SDNN) and the root mean square of successive differences between R-R intervals (RMSSD). In 3,245 CRIC participants with available baseline SDNN and RMSSD, lower HRV was associated with older age, lack of exercise, heart failure, elevated phosphorus and hemoglobin A1c, and low estimated glomerular filtration rate. After a median follow-up of 4.2 years, in fully adjusted models, lower HRV was not associated with renal [SDNN: hazard rate, HR = 0.96 (95% confidence interval, CI 0.88-1.05); RMSSD: HR = 0.97 (95% CI 0.88-1.07)] or cardiovascular outcomes [SDNN: HR = 1.02 (95% CI 0.92-1.13); RMSSD: HR = 1.00 (95% CI 0.90-1.10)]. There was a nonlinear relationship between RMSSD and all-cause mortality with increased risk with both low and high RMSSD (p = 0.04). In a large cohort of patients with CKD, multiple risk factors for renal and cardiovascular diseases were associated with lower HRV. Lower HRV was not associated with increased risk for renal or cardiovascular outcomes, but both low and high RMSSD were associated with increased risk for all-cause mortality. In conclusion, HRV measured by RMSSD may be a novel and independent risk factor for mortality in CKD patients. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Interleukin-6 Is a Risk Factor for Atrial Fibrillation in Chronic Kidney Disease: Findings from the CRIC Study.

    PubMed

    Amdur, Richard L; Mukherjee, Monica; Go, Alan; Barrows, Ian R; Ramezani, Ali; Shoji, Jun; Reilly, Muredach P; Gnanaraj, Joseph; Deo, Raj; Roas, Sylvia; Keane, Martin; Master, Steve; Teal, Valerie; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Yang, Peter; Feldman, Harold; Kusek, John W; Tracy, Cynthia M; Raj, Dominic S

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this study, we examined the association between inflammation and AF in 3,762 adults with CKD, enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study. AF was determined at baseline by self-report and electrocardiogram (ECG). Plasma concentrations of interleukin(IL)-1, IL-1 Receptor antagonist, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, transforming growth factor-β, high sensitivity C-Reactive protein, and fibrinogen, measured at baseline. At baseline, 642 subjects had history of AF, but only 44 had AF in ECG recording. During a mean follow-up of 3.7 years, 108 subjects developed new-onset AF. There was no significant association between inflammatory biomarkers and past history of AF. After adjustment for demographic characteristics, comorbid conditions, laboratory values, echocardiographic variables, and medication use, plasma IL-6 level was significantly associated with presence of AF at baseline (Odds ratio [OR], 1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21 to 2.14; P = 0.001) and new-onset AF (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.53; P = 0.03). To summarize, plasma IL-6 level is an independent and consistent predictor of AF in patients with CKD.

  5. Interleukin-6 Is a Risk Factor for Atrial Fibrillation in Chronic Kidney Disease: Findings from the CRIC Study

    PubMed Central

    Amdur, Richard L.; Mukherjee, Monica; Go, Alan; Barrows, Ian R.; Ramezani, Ali; Shoji, Jun; Reilly, Muredach P.; Gnanaraj, Joseph; Deo, Raj; Roas, Sylvia; Keane, Martin; Master, Steve; Teal, Valerie; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Yang, Peter; Feldman, Harold; Kusek, John W.; Tracy, Cynthia M.; Raj, Dominic S.

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this study, we examined the association between inflammation and AF in 3,762 adults with CKD, enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study. AF was determined at baseline by self-report and electrocardiogram (ECG). Plasma concentrations of interleukin(IL)-1, IL-1 Receptor antagonist, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, transforming growth factor-β, high sensitivity C-Reactive protein, and fibrinogen, measured at baseline. At baseline, 642 subjects had history of AF, but only 44 had AF in ECG recording. During a mean follow-up of 3.7 years, 108 subjects developed new-onset AF. There was no significant association between inflammatory biomarkers and past history of AF. After adjustment for demographic characteristics, comorbid conditions, laboratory values, echocardiographic variables, and medication use, plasma IL-6 level was significantly associated with presence of AF at baseline (Odds ratio [OR], 1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21 to 2.14; P = 0.001) and new-onset AF (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.53; P = 0.03). To summarize, plasma IL-6 level is an independent and consistent predictor of AF in patients with CKD. PMID:26840403

  6. Metabolic Syndrome, Components, and Cardiovascular Disease Prevalence in Chronic Kidney Disease: Findings from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Raymond R.; Anderson, Amanda H.; Chen, Jing; Gadebegku, Crystal A.; Feldman, Harold I.; Fink, Jeffrey C.; Go, Alan S.; Joffe, Marshall; Nessel, Lisa A.; Ojo, Akinlolu; Rader, Daniel J.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Teal, Valerie; Teff, Karen; Wright, Jackson T.; Xie, Dawei

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims Metabolic syndrome may increase the risk for incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in the general population. It is unclear whether, and to what degree, metabolic syndrome is associated with CVD in chronic kidney disease (CKD). We determined metabolic syndrome prevalence among individuals with a broad spectrum of kidney dysfunction, examining the role of the individual elements of metabolic syndrome and their relationship to prevalent CVD. Methods We evaluated four models to compare metabolic syndrome or its components to predict prevalent CVD using prevalence ratios in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study. Results Among 3,939 CKD participants, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 65% and there was a significant association with prevalent CVD. Metabolic syndrome was more common in diabetics (87.5%) compared with non-diabetics (44.3%). Hypertension was the most prevalent component, and increased triglycerides the least prevalent. Using the bayesian information criterion, we found that the factors defining metabolic syndrome, considered as a single interval-scaled variable, was the best of four models of metabolic syndrome, both for CKD participants overall and for diabetics and non-diabetics separately. Conclusion The predictive value of this model for future CVD outcomes will subsequently be validated in longitudinal analyses. PMID:21525746

  7. STS ancillary equipment study. User reference book

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plough, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    A record of what is currently known about STS ancillary equipment is presented in this user-oriented design so that a potential user may evaluate whether he could use the described ancillary equipment or if he would need to design and fabricate a payload-unique item. References that the user can use to obtain additional details and requirements to aid in his evaluation and decision are included.

  8. PREVALENCE AND PROGNOSTIC SIGNIFICANCE OF APPARENT TREATMENT RESISTANT HYPERTENSION IN CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE: A REPORT FROM THE CRIC STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, George; Xie, Dawei; Chen, Hsiang-Yu; Anderson, Amanda H.; Appel, Lawrence; Bodana, Shirisha; Brecklin, Carolyn S.; Drawz, Paul; Flack, John M.; Miller, Edgar R.; Steigerwalt, Susan P.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Weir, Matthew R.; Wright, Jackson T.; Rahman, Mahboob

    2015-01-01

    The association between apparent treatment resistant hypertension (ATRH) and clinical outcomes is not well studied in chronic kidney disease (CKD). We analyzed data on 3367 hypertensive participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) to determine prevalence, associations, and clinical outcomes of ATRH in non-dialysis CKD patients. ATRH was defined as blood pressure (BP) ≥140/90 mm Hg on ≥3 antihypertensives, or use of ≥4 antihypertensives with BP at goal at baseline visit. Prevalence of ATRH was 40.4%. Older age, male gender, black race, diabetes, and higher BMI were independently associated with higher odds of having ATRH. Participants with ATRH had a higher risk of clinical events compared to participants without ATRH - composite of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, peripheral arterial disease (PAD), congestive heart failure (CHF), and all-cause mortality HR [95% CI]: (1.38 [1.22,1.56]); renal events (1.28 [1.11, 1.46]); CHF (1.66 [1.38, 2.00]); and all-cause mortality (1.24 [1.06,1.45]). The subset of participants with ATRH and BP at goal on ≥ 4 medications also had higher risk for composite of MI, stroke, PAD, CHF, and all-cause mortality HR [95% CI] (1.30 [1.12, 1.51]) and CHF (1.59 [1.28, 1.99]) compared to those without ATRH. ATRH was associated with significantly higher risk for CHF and renal events only among those with eGFR ≥30 ml/min/1.73 m2. Our findings show that ATRH is common and associated with high risk of adverse outcomes in a cohort of patients with CKD. This underscores the need for early identification and management of patients with ATRH and CKD. PMID:26711738

  9. Ancillary Studies, Including Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Studies, in Pancreatic Cytology.

    PubMed

    Reid, Michelle D; Centeno, Barbara A

    2014-03-01

    Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the pancreas is indicated for sampling of solid and cystic masses. Preoperative cytologic diagnosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and cystic lesions on cytology can be problematic, and ancillary studies may help confirm diagnosis. Ancillary studies in pancreatic cytology include special stains, immunohistochemistry, mutational analyses of specific genes, cyst fluid analysis of tumor markers and enzymes, and, in some instances, flow cytometry. Proteomics, microRNA sequencing, and whole-exome gene sequencing have been used to illustrate the progression of pancreatic neoplasms and identify key diagnostic markers. This article summarizes recent literature on ancillary studies in pancreatic fine-needle aspiration samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Blood Pressure and Risk of Cardiovascular Events in Patients on Chronic Hemodialysis: The CRIC Study (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort).

    PubMed

    Bansal, Nisha; McCulloch, Charles E; Lin, Feng; Alper, Arnold; Anderson, Amanda H; Cuevas, Magda; Go, Alan S; Kallem, Radhakrishna; Kusek, John W; Lora, Claudia M; Lustigova, Eva; Ojo, Akinlolu; Rahman, Mahboob; Robinson-Cohen, Cassianne; Townsend, Raymond R; Wright, Jackson; Xie, Dawei; Hsu, Chi-Yuan

    2017-08-01

    We recently reported a linear association between higher systolic blood pressure (SBP) and risk of mortality in hemodialysis patients when SBP is measured outside of the dialysis unit (out-of-dialysis-unit-SBP), despite there being a U-shaped association between SBP measured at the dialysis unit (dialysis-unit-SBP) with risk of mortality. Here, we explored the relationship between SBP with cardiovascular events, which has important treatment implications but has not been well elucidated. Among 383 hemodialysis participants enrolled in the prospective CRIC study (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort), multivariable splines and Cox models were used to study the association between SBP and adjudicated cardiovascular events (heart failure, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and peripheral artery disease), controlling for differences in demographics, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and dialysis parameters. Dialysis-unit-SBP and out-of-dialysis-unit-SBP were modestly correlated (r=0.34; P<0.001). We noted a U-shaped association of dialysis-unit-SBP and risk of cardiovascular events, with the nadir risk between 140 and 170 mm Hg. In contrast, there was a linear stepwise association between out-of-dialysis-unit-SBP with risk of cardiovascular events. Participants with out-of-dialysis-unit-SBP ≥128 mm Hg (top 2 quartiles) had >2-fold increased risk of cardiovascular events compared with those with out-of-dialysis-unit-SBP ≤112 mm Hg (3rd SBP quartile: adjusted hazard ratio, 2.08 [95% confidence interval, 1.12-3.87] and fourth SBP quartile: adjusted hazard ratio, 2.76 [95% confidence interval, 1.42-5.33]). In conclusion, among hemodialysis patients, although there is a U-shaped (paradoxical) association of dialysis-unit-SBP and risk of cardiovascular disease, there is a linear association of out-of-dialysis-unit-SBP with risk of cardiovascular disease. Out-of-dialysis-unit blood pressure provides key information and may be an important therapeutic target.

  11. Lipoprotein(a) and Risk of Myocardial Infarction and Death in Chronic Kidney Disease: Findings From the CRIC Study (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort).

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Archna; Damrauer, Scott M; Anderson, Amanda H; Xie, Dawei; Budoff, Matthew J; Go, Alan S; He, Jiang; Lash, James P; Ojo, Akinlolu; Post, Wendy S; Rahman, Mahboob; Reilly, Muredach P; Saleheen, Danish; Townsend, Raymond R; Chen, Jinbo; Rader, Daniel J

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the effect of LPA gene variants and renal function on lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels in people with chronic kidney disease and determine the association between elevated Lp(a) and myocardial infarction and death in this setting. The CRIC Study (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort) is an ongoing prospective study of 3939 participants with chronic kidney disease. In 3635 CRIC participants with genotype data, carriers of the rs10455872 or rs6930542 variants had a higher median Lp(a) level (mg/dL) compared with noncarriers (73 versus 23; P<0.001 and 56 versus 22; P<0.001, respectively). The 3744 participants (55% male and 41% non-Hispanic White) with available baseline Lp(a) levels were stratified into quartiles of baseline Lp(a) (mg/dL): <9.8, 9.8 to 26.0, 26.1 to 61.3, and >61.3. There were 315 myocardial infarctions and 822 deaths during a median follow-up of 7.5 years. The second quartile had the lowest event rate. After adjusting for potential confounders and using a Cox proportional hazards model, the highest quartile of Lp(a) was associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction (hazard ratio, 1.49; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-2.11), death (hazard ratio, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.57), and the composite outcome (hazard ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.56) compared with the second quartile of Lp(a). Among adults with chronic kidney disease, elevated Lp(a) is independently associated with myocardial infarction and death. Future studies exploring pharmacological Lp(a) reduction in this population are warranted. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Ancillary study management systems: a review of needs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The valuable clinical data, specimens, and assay results collected during a primary clinical trial or observational study can enable researchers to answer additional, pressing questions with relatively small investments in new measurements. However, management of such follow-on, “ancillary” studies is complex. It requires coordinating across institutions, sites, repositories, and approval boards, as well as distributing, integrating, and analyzing diverse data types. General-purpose software systems that simplify the management of ancillary studies have not yet been explored in the research literature. Methods We have identified requirements for ancillary study management primarily as part of our ongoing work with a number of large research consortia. These organizations include the Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology (CHAVI), the Immune Tolerance Network (ITN), the HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN), the U.S. Military HIV Research Program (MHRP), and the Network for Pancreatic Organ Donors with Diabetes (nPOD). We also consulted with researchers at a range of other disease research organizations regarding their workflows and data management strategies. Lastly, to enhance breadth, we reviewed process documents for ancillary study management from other organizations. Results By exploring characteristics of ancillary studies, we identify differentiating requirements and scenarios for ancillary study management systems (ASMSs). Distinguishing characteristics of ancillary studies may include the collection of additional measurements (particularly new analyses of existing specimens); the initiation of studies by investigators unaffiliated with the original study; cross-protocol data pooling and analysis; pre-existing participant consent; and pre-existing data context and provenance. For an ASMS to address these characteristics, it would need to address both operational requirements (e.g., allocating existing specimens) and data management requirements

  13. Association between Inflammation and Cardiac Geometry in Chronic Kidney Disease: Findings from the CRIC Study

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Jeffrey C.; Ojo, Akinlolu O.; Barrows, Ian R.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Joffe, Marshall M.; Rosas, Sylvia E.; Wolman, Melanie; Patel, Samir S.; Keane, Martin G.; Feldman, Harold I.; Kusek, John W.; Raj, Dominic S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and myocardial contractile dysfunction are independent predictors of mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The association between inflammatory biomarkers and cardiac geometry has not yet been studied in a large cohort of CKD patients with a wide range of kidney function. Methods Plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, high-sensitivity C-Reactive protein (hs-CRP), fibrinogen and serum albumin were measured in 3,939 Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study participants. Echocardiography was performed according to the recommendations of the American Society of Echocardiography and interpreted at a centralized core laboratory. Results LVH, systolic dysfunction and diastolic dysfunction were present in 52.3%, 11.8% and 76.3% of the study subjects, respectively. In logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, diabetic status, current smoking status, systolic blood pressure, urinary albumin- creatinine ratio and estimated glomerular filtration rate, hs-CRP (OR 1.26 [95% CI 1.16, 1.37], p<0.001), IL-1RA (1.23 [1.13, 1.34], p<0.0001), IL-6 (1.25 [1.14, 1.36], p<0.001) and TNF-α (1.14 [1.04, 1.25], p = 0.004) were associated with LVH. The odds for systolic dysfunction were greater for subjects with elevated levels of hs-CRP (1.32 [1.18, 1.48], p<0.001) and IL-6 (1.34 [1.21, 1.49], p<0.001). Only hs-CRP was associated with diastolic dysfunction (1.14 [1.04, 1.26], p = 0.005). Conclusion In patients with CKD, elevated plasma levels of hs-CRP and IL-6 are associated with LVH and systolic dysfunction. PMID:25909952

  14. Relation of Serum Lipids and Lipoproteins with Progression of CKD: The CRIC Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei; Akkina, Sanjeev; Alper, Arnold; Anderson, Amanda Hyre; Appel, Lawrence J.; He, Jiang; Raj, Dominic S.; Schelling, Jeffrey; Strauss, Louise; Teal, Valerie; Rader, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Hyperlipidemia is common in patients with CKD. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether measures of plasma lipids and lipoproteins predict progression of kidney disease in patients with CKD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Prospective cohort study in adults (n=3939) with CKD aged 21–74 years recruited between 2003 and 2008 and followed for a median of 4.1 years. At baseline, total cholesterol, triglycerides, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), apoA-I , apoB, and lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] were measured. The outcomes were composite end point of ESRD or 50% decline in eGFR from baseline (rate of change of GFR). Results Mean age of the study population was 58.2 years, and the mean GFR was 44.9 ml/min per 1.73 m2; 48% of patients had diabetes. None of the lipid or lipoprotein measures was independently associated with risk of the composite end point or rate of change in GFR. However, there were significant (P=0.01) interactions by level of proteinuria. In participants with proteinuria<0.2 g/d, 1-SD higher LDL-C was associated with a 26% lower risk of the renal end point (hazard ratio [HR], 0.74; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.59 to 0.92; P=0.01), and 1-SD higher total cholesterol was associated with a 23% lower risk of the renal end point (HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.62 to 0.96; P=0.02). In participants with proteinuria>0.2 g/d, neither LDL-C (HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.98 to 1.05) nor total cholesterol levels were associated with renal outcomes. Treatment with statins was reported in 55% of patients and was differential across lipid categories. Conclusions In this large cohort of patients with CKD, total cholesterol, triglycerides, VLDL-C, LDL-C, HDL-C, apoA-I, apoB, and Lp(a) were not independently associated with progression of kidney disease. There was an inverse relationship between LDL-C and total cholesterol levels and kidney disease outcomes in patients with

  15. Association between retinopathy and cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease (from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort [CRIC] Study).

    PubMed

    Grunwald, Juan E; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Maguire, Maureen; Pistilli, Maxwell; Daniel, Ebenezer; Alexander, Judith; Whittock-Martin, Revell; Parker, Candace; Mohler, Emile; Lo, Joan Chia-Mei; Townsend, Raymond; Gadegbeku, Crystal Ann; Lash, James Phillip; Fink, Jeffrey Craig; Rahman, Mahboob; Feldman, Harold; Kusek, John Walter; Xie, Dawei; Coleman, Martha; Keane, Martin Gerard

    2012-07-15

    Patients with chronic kidney disease experience co-morbid illnesses, including cardiovascular disease (CVD) and retinopathy. The purpose of the present study was to assess the association between retinopathy and self-reported CVD in a subgroup of the participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study. For this observational, ancillary investigation, 2,605 Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort participants were invited to participate in the present study, and nonmydriatic fundus photographs in both eyes were obtained for 1,936 subjects. The photographs were reviewed in a masked fashion at a central photograph reading center. The presence and severity of retinopathy (diabetic, hypertensive, or other) and vessel diameter caliber were assessed using standard protocols by trained graders who were masked to the information about the study participants. A history of self-reported CVD was obtained using a medical history questionnaire. Kidney function measurements and traditional and nontraditional risk factors for CVD were obtained from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study. A greater severity of retinopathy was associated with a greater prevalence of any CVD, and this association persisted after adjustment for the traditional risk factors for CVD. The presence of vascular abnormalities usually associated with hypertension was also associated with increased prevalence of CVD. We found a direct relation between CVD prevalence and mean venular caliber. In conclusion, the presence of retinopathy was associated with CVD, suggesting that retinovascular pathology might indicate macrovascular disease, even after adjustment for renal dysfunction and traditional CVD risk factors. This would make the assessment of retinal morphology a valuable tool in CKD studies of CVD outcomes.

  16. Persistent High Serum Bicarbonate and the Risk of Heart Failure in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): A Report From the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Dobre, Mirela; Yang, Wei; Pan, Qiang; Appel, Lawrence; Bellovich, Keith; Chen, Jing; Feldman, Harold; Fischer, Michael J.; Ham, L. L.; Hostetter, Thomas; Jaar, Bernard G.; Kallem, Radhakrishna R.; Rosas, Sylvia E.; Scialla, Julia J.; Wolf, Myles; Rahman, Mahboob

    2015-01-01

    Background Serum bicarbonate varies over time in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, and this variability may portend poor cardiovascular outcomes. The aim of this study was to conduct a time‐updated longitudinal analysis to evaluate the association of serum bicarbonate with long‐term clinical outcomes: heart failure, atherosclerotic events, renal events (halving of estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] or end‐stage renal disease), and mortality. Methods and Results Serum bicarbonate was measured annually, in 3586 participants with CKD, enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study. Marginal structural models were created to allow for integration of all available bicarbonate measurements and proper adjustment for time‐dependent confounding. During the 6 years follow‐up, 512 participants developed congestive heart failure (26/1000 person‐years) and 749 developed renal events (37/1000 person‐years). The risk of heart failure and death was significantly higher for participants who maintained serum bicarbonate >26 mmol/L for the entire duration of follow‐up (hazard ratio [HR] 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23 to 2.23, and HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.82, respectively) compared with participants who kept their bicarbonate 22 to 26 mmol/L, after adjusting for demographics, co‐morbidities, medications including diuretics, eGFR, and proteinuria. Participants who maintained serum bicarbonate <22 mmol/L had almost a 2‐fold increased risk of renal disease progression (HR 1.97; 95% CI, 1.50 to 2.57) compared with participants with bicarbonate 22 to 26 mmol/L. Conclusion In this large CKD cohort, persistent serum bicarbonate >26 mmol/L was associated with increased risk of heart failure events and mortality. Further studies are needed to determine the optimal range of serum bicarbonate in CKD to prevent adverse clinical outcomes. PMID:25896890

  17. Persistent high serum bicarbonate and the risk of heart failure in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD): A report from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study.

    PubMed

    Dobre, Mirela; Yang, Wei; Pan, Qiang; Appel, Lawrence; Bellovich, Keith; Chen, Jing; Feldman, Harold; Fischer, Michael J; Ham, L L; Hostetter, Thomas; Jaar, Bernard G; Kallem, Radhakrishna R; Rosas, Sylvia E; Scialla, Julia J; Wolf, Myles; Rahman, Mahboob

    2015-04-20

    Serum bicarbonate varies over time in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, and this variability may portend poor cardiovascular outcomes. The aim of this study was to conduct a time-updated longitudinal analysis to evaluate the association of serum bicarbonate with long-term clinical outcomes: heart failure, atherosclerotic events, renal events (halving of estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] or end-stage renal disease), and mortality. Serum bicarbonate was measured annually, in 3586 participants with CKD, enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study. Marginal structural models were created to allow for integration of all available bicarbonate measurements and proper adjustment for time-dependent confounding. During the 6 years follow-up, 512 participants developed congestive heart failure (26/1000 person-years) and 749 developed renal events (37/1000 person-years). The risk of heart failure and death was significantly higher for participants who maintained serum bicarbonate >26 mmol/L for the entire duration of follow-up (hazard ratio [HR] 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23 to 2.23, and HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.82, respectively) compared with participants who kept their bicarbonate 22 to 26 mmol/L, after adjusting for demographics, co-morbidities, medications including diuretics, eGFR, and proteinuria. Participants who maintained serum bicarbonate <22 mmol/L had almost a 2-fold increased risk of renal disease progression (HR 1.97; 95% CI, 1.50 to 2.57) compared with participants with bicarbonate 22 to 26 mmol/L. In this large CKD cohort, persistent serum bicarbonate >26 mmol/L was associated with increased risk of heart failure events and mortality. Further studies are needed to determine the optimal range of serum bicarbonate in CKD to prevent adverse clinical outcomes. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  18. Predictors of high sensitivity cardiac troponin T in chronic kidney disease patients: a cross-sectional study in the chronic renal insufficiency cohort (CRIC)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiac troponin T is independently associated with cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Serum levels of high sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-TnT) reflect subclinical myocardial injury in ambulatory patients. We sought to determine the distribution and predictors of hs-TnT in CKD patients without overt cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods We studied 2464 participants within the multi-ethnic Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) who did not have self-reported CVD. We considered renal and non-renal factors as potential determinants of hs-TnT, including demographics, comorbidities, left ventricular (LV) mass, serologic factors, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albumin to creatinine ratio. Results Hs-TnT was detectable in 81% of subjects, and the median (IQR) hs-TnT was 9.4 pg/ml (4.3-18.3). Analysis was performed using Tobit regression, adjusting for renal and non-renal factors. After adjustment, lower eGFR was associated with higher expected hs-TnT; participants with eGFR < 30 ml/min/1.73 m2 had 3-fold higher expected hs-TnT compared to subjects with eGFR > 60. Older age, male gender, black race, LV mass, diabetes and higher blood pressure all had strong, independent associations with higher expected hs-TnT. Conclusions Knowledge of the determinants of hs-TnT in this cohort may guide further research on the pathology of heart disease in patients with CKD and help to stratify sub-groups of CKD patients at higher cardiovascular risk. PMID:24148285

  19. Association of Serum Bicarbonate With Risk of Renal and Cardiovascular Outcomes in CKD: A Report From the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Dobre, Mirela; Yang, Wei; Chen, Jing; Drawz, Paul; Hamm, L. Lee; Horwitz, Edward; Hostetter, Thomas; Jaar, Bernard; Lora, Claudia M; Nessel, Lisa; Ojo, Akinlolu; Scialla, Julia; Steigerwalt, Susan; Teal, Valerie; Wolf, Myles; Rahman, Mahboob

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to evaluate serum bicarbonate as a risk factor for renal outcomes, cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Study Design Observational cohort study. Setting & Participants 3939 participants with CKD stages 2-4 who enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) between June 2003 - December 2008. Predictor Serum bicarbonate. Outcomes Renal outcomes, defined as end-stage renal disease (either initiation of dialysis or kidney transplantation) or 50% reduction in eGFR; atherosclerotic events (myocardial infarction, stroke, peripheral arterial disease); congestive heart failure events; and death. Measurements Time to event. Results The mean eGFR was 44.8 ± 16.8 (SD) mL/min/1.73 m2, and the median serum bicarbonate was 24 (IQR, 22-26) mEq/L. During a median follow-up of 3.9 years, 374 participants died, 767 had a renal outcome, and 332 experienced an atherosclerotic event and 391 had a congestive heart failure event. In adjusted analyses, the risk of developing a renal endpoint was 3% lower per mEq/L increase in serum bicarbonate (HR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99; p=0.01). The association was stronger for participants with eGFR> 45ml/min/1.73m2 (HR, 0.91; 95%CI, 0.85-0.97; p=0.004). The risk of heart failure increased by 14% (HR, 1.14; 95%CI, 1.03-1.26; p=0.02) per mEq/L increase in serum bicarbonate over 24 mEq/L. Serum bicarbonate was not independently associated with atherosclerotic events (HR, 0.99; 95%CI, 0.95-1.03; p=0.6) and all-cause mortality (HR, 0.98; 95%CI, 0.95-1.02; p=0.3). Limitations Single measurement of sodium bicarbonate. Conclusions In a cohort of participants with CKD, low serum bicarbonate was an independent risk factor for kidney disease progression, particularly for participants with preserved kidney function. The risk of heart failure was higher at the upper extreme of serum bicarbonate. There was no association between serum bicarbonate and all

  20. Association of serum bicarbonate with risk of renal and cardiovascular outcomes in CKD: a report from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study.

    PubMed

    Dobre, Mirela; Yang, Wei; Chen, Jing; Drawz, Paul; Hamm, L Lee; Horwitz, Edward; Hostetter, Thomas; Jaar, Bernard; Lora, Claudia M; Nessel, Lisa; Ojo, Akinlolu; Scialla, Julia; Steigerwalt, Susan; Teal, Valerie; Wolf, Myles; Rahman, Mahboob

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate serum bicarbonate level as a risk factor for renal outcomes, cardiovascular events, and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Observational cohort study. 3,939 participants with CKD stages 2-4 who enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) between June 2003 and December 2008. Serum bicarbonate level. Renal outcomes, defined as end-stage renal disease (either initiation of dialysis therapy or kidney transplantation) or 50% reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR); atherosclerotic events (myocardial infarction, stroke, or peripheral arterial disease); congestive heart failure events; and death. Time to event. Mean eGFR was 44.8 ± 16.8 (SD) mL/min/1.73 m(2), and median serum bicarbonate level was 24 (IQR, 22-26) mEq/L. During a median follow-up of 3.9 years, 374 participants died, 767 had a renal outcome, 332 experienced an atherosclerotic event, and 391 had a congestive heart failure event. In adjusted analyses, the risk of developing a renal end point was 3% lower per 1-mEq/L increase in serum bicarbonate level (HR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99; P = 0.01). The association was stronger for participants with eGFR >45 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (HR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.85-0.97; P = 0.004). The risk of heart failure increased by 14% (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.03-1.26; P = 0.02) per 1-mEq/L increase in serum bicarbonate level over 24 mEq/L. Serum bicarbonate level was not associated independently with atherosclerotic events (HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.95-1.03; P = 0.6) and all-cause mortality (HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.95-1.02; P = 0.3). Single measurement of sodium bicarbonate. In a cohort of participants with CKD, low serum bicarbonate level was an independent risk factor for kidney disease progression, particularly for participants with preserved kidney function. The risk of heart failure was higher at the upper extreme of serum bicarbonate levels. There was no association between serum bicarbonate level and all

  1. Healthy lifestyle and risk of kidney disease progression, atherosclerotic events, and death in CKD: findings from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study.

    PubMed

    Ricardo, Ana C; Anderson, Cheryl A; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoming; Fischer, Michael J; Dember, Laura M; Fink, Jeffrey C; Frydrych, Anne; Jensvold, Nancy G; Lustigova, Eva; Nessel, Lisa C; Porter, Anna C; Rahman, Mahboob; Wright Nunes, Julie A; Daviglus, Martha L; Lash, James P

    2015-03-01

    In general populations, healthy lifestyle is associated with fewer adverse outcomes. We estimated the degree to which adherence to a healthy lifestyle decreases the risk of renal and cardiovascular events among adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Prospective cohort. 3,006 adults enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study. 4 lifestyle factors (regular physical activity, body mass index [BMI] of 20-<25kg/m(2), nonsmoking, and "healthy diet"), individually and in combination. CKD progression (50% decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate or end-stage renal disease), atherosclerotic events (myocardial infarction, stroke, or peripheral arterial disease), and all-cause mortality. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards. During a median follow-up of 4 years, we observed 726 CKD progression events, 355 atherosclerotic events, and 437 deaths. BMI≥25kg/m(2) and nonsmoking were associated with reduced risk of CKD progression (HRs of 0.75 [95% CI, 0.58-0.97] and 0.61 [95% CI, 0.45-0.82] for BMIs of 25 to <30 and ≥30kg/m(2), respectively, versus 20 to <25kg/m(2); HR for nonsmoking of 0.68 [95% CI, 0.55-0.84] compared to the current smoker reference group) and reduced risk of atherosclerotic events (HRs of 0.67 [95% CI, 0.46-0.96] for BMI of 25-<30 vs 20-<25kg/m(2) and 0.55 [95% CI, 0.40-0.75] vs current smoker). Factors associated with reduced all-cause mortality were regular physical activity (HR, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.52-0.79] vs inactive), BMI≥30kg/m(2) (HR, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.43-0.96] vs 20-<25kg/m(2)), and nonsmoking (HR, 0.45 [95% CI, 0.34-0.60] vs current smoker). BMI<20kg/m(2) was associated with increased all-cause mortality risk (HR, 2.11 [95% CI, 1.13-3.93] vs 20-<25kg/m(2)). Adherence to all 4 lifestyle factors was associated with a 68% lower risk of all-cause mortality compared to adherence to no lifestyle factors (HR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.11-0.89). Lifestyle factors were measured only once. Regular physical activity, nonsmoking

  2. The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study: Sample, Design, and Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Linda C.; Penedo, Frank J.; Carnethon, Mercedes; Isasi, Carmen; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Roesch, Scott C.; Youngblood, Marston E.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Gonzalez, Patricia; Talavera, Gregory P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) Sociocultural Ancillary Study aims to examine associations between sociocultural and psychosocial factors and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic syndrome prevalence in Hispanics/Latinos. The conceptual framework is based on the Reserve Capacity and Lifespan Biopsychosocial Models, which emphasize multiple risk and protective pathways underlying socioeconomic and ethnic influences in health. This study describes the rationale, participants, and procedures for the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study. Design and Setting The Sociocultural Ancillary Study to the HCHS/SOL is a cross-sectional cohort study with future opportunities for prospective investigation. Participants Participants were 5,313 adults, aged 18-74 years, of self-identified Hispanic/Latino descent and representing multiple Hispanic/Latino background groups, recruited from the Bronx, NY, Chicago, IL, Miami, FL, and San Diego, CA. Intervention Participants completed an interview-administered sociocultural assessment battery within 9 months of their HCHS/SOL clinical baseline exam. Outcome Measures The primary outcomes are CVD and the metabolic syndrome and its component risk factors. Results The Sociocultural Ancillary Study sample is broadly representative of the HCHS/SOL cohort. Weighted demographics are: 55% male, 56% 18-44 years, 44% 45 years and older, and 37% Mexican, 20% Cuban, 16% Puerto Rican, 12% Dominican, 8% Central American, and 5% South American descent. Conclusions By testing theoretically driven hypotheses concerning sociocultural and psychosocial factors in CVD, the Sociocultural Ancillary Study seeks to inform future prevention and intervention efforts for U.S. Hispanic/Latinos. PMID:24620452

  3. Manned maneuvering unit mission definition study. Volume 3: MMU ancillary support equipment and attachment concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An analysis of Manned Maneuvering Units (MMU) ancillary support equipment and attachment concepts is presented. The major objectives of the study are defined as: (1) identifying MMU applications which would supplement space shuttle safety and effectiveness, (2) to define general MMU performance and control requirements to satisfy candidate shuttle applications, (3) to develop concepts for attaching MMUs to various worksites and equipment, and (4) to identify requirements and develop concepts for MMU ancillary equipment.

  4. Opportunities and challenges in incorporating ancillary studies into a cancer prevention randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Phyllis J; Tangen, Catherine M; Darke, Amy K; Arnold, Kathryn B; Hartline, JoAnn; Yee, Monica; Anderson, Karen; Caban-Holt, Allison; Christen, William G; Cassano, Patricia A; Lance, Peter; Klein, Eric A; Crowley, John J; Minasian, Lori M; Meyskens, Frank L

    2016-08-12

    The Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, prostate cancer prevention study funded by the National Cancer Institute and conducted by SWOG (Southwest Oncology Group). A total of 35,533 men were assigned randomly to one of four treatment groups (vitamin E + placebo, selenium + placebo, vitamin E + selenium, placebo + placebo). At the time of the trial's development, NIH had invested substantial resources in evaluating the potential benefits of these antioxidants. To capitalize on the knowledge gained from following a large cohort of healthy, aging males on the effects of selenium and/or vitamin E, ancillary studies with other disease endpoints were solicited. Four ancillary studies were added. Each drew from the same population but had independent objectives and an endpoint other than prostate cancer. These studies fell into two categories: those prospectively enrolling and following participants (studies of Alzheimer's disease and respiratory function) and those requiring a retrospective medical record review after a reported event (cataracts/age-related macular degeneration and colorectal screening). An examination of the challenges and opportunities of adding ancillary studies is provided. The impact of the ancillary studies on adherence to SELECT was evaluated using a Cox proportional hazards model. While the addition of ancillary studies appears to have improved participant adherence to the primary trial, this did not come without added complexity. Activation of the ancillary studies happened after the SELECT randomizations had begun resulting in accrual problems to some of the studies. Study site participation in the ancillary trials varied greatly and depended on the interest of the study site principal investigator. Procedures for each were integrated into the primary trial and all monitoring was done by the SELECT Data and Safety Monitoring Committee. The impact of the early

  5. Serum β-Trace Protein and β2-Microglobulin as Predictors of ESRD, Mortality, and Cardiovascular Disease in Adults With CKD in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Meredith C.; Coresh, Josef; Hsu, Chi-yuan; Xie, Dawei; Levey, Andrew S.; Nelson, Robert G.; Eckfeldt, John H.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Kimmel, Paul L.; Schelling, Jeffrey; Simonson, Michael; Sondheimer, James H.; Anderson, Amanda Hyre; Akkina, Sanjeev; Feldman, Harold I.; Kusek, John W.; Ojo, Akinlolu O.; Inker, Lesley A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Serum β-trace protein (BTP) and β2-microglobulin (B2M) are independently associated with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and mortality in the general population and high-risk groups with diabetes or advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). Less is known about their associations with outcomes and predictive ability in adults with moderate CKD. Study Design Prospective cohort study. Setting & Participants 3613 adults from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study (45% women; mean age, 57.9 years; 41.0% non-Hispanic black; 51.9% with diabetes). Predictors BTP and B2M with a reciprocal transformation to reflect their associations with filtration, creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFRcr), measured GFR (mGFR) and a 4-marker composite score combining BTP, B2M, creatinine, and cystatin C. Predictors were standardized as z scores for comparisons across filtration markers. Outcomes ESRD, all-cause mortality, and new-onset cardiovascular disease. Results: Over a six-year median follow-up, 755 (21%) participants developed ESRD, 653 died, and 292 developed new-onset cardiovascular disease. BTP, B2M, and the 4-marker composite were independent predictors of ESRD and all-cause mortality, and B2M and the 4-marker composite of cardiovascular events, after multivariable adjustment. These associations were stronger than those observed for eGFRcr (p vs. eGFRcr ≤0.02). The 4-marker composite led to improvements in the C statistic and 2.5 year risk reclassification beyond eGFRcr for all outcomes. Limitations Filtration markers measured at one time point; mGFR available in subset of cohort. Conclusions BTP and B2M may contribute additional risk information beyond eGFRcr and the use of multiple-markers may improve risk prediction beyond this well-established marker of kidney function among persons with moderate CKD. PMID:26948990

  6. Ancillary services

    SciTech Connect

    Hirst, E.; Kirby, B

    1996-01-01

    Ancillary services are those functions performed by electrical generating, transmission, system-control, and distribution-system equipment and people to support the basic services of generating capacity, energy supply, and power delivery. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission defined ancillary services as ``those services necessary to support the transmission of electric power from seller to purchaser given the obligations of control areas and transmitting utilities within those control areas to maintain reliable operations of the interconnected transmission system.`` FERC identified six ancillary services reactive power and voltage control, loss compensation, scheduling and dispatch, load following, system protection, and energy imbalance. Our earlier work identified 19 ancillary services Here we offer a revised set of seven ancillary services and mention several other services that merit consideration. In preparing its final rule on open-access transmission service, we suggest that FERC consider splitting its system-protection service into its two primary pieces, reliability reserve and supplemental-operating reserve. We also suggest that FERC define more sharply all of the ancillary services. especially load-following reserve and energy imbalance. Finally, we suggest that FERC consider other services and their provision in a restructured electricity industry; these services include black-start capability, time correction, standby service. planning reserve, redispatch. transmission services, power quality, and planning and engineering services.

  7. Background for the studies on ancillary services and primary care use.

    PubMed

    Conviser, R; Pounds, M B

    2002-08-01

    Timely and optimal HIV primary care is a key tenet of the Ryan White CARE Act, a safety net programme for vulnerable and marginalized people living with HIV in the USA. Health services researchers, local providers and policy makers suspect that ancillary services are necessary to improve entry into and retention in HIV primary care for vulnerable populations experiencing barriers to HIV services, including access to antiretroviral therapies. This paper provides background to the eight studies featured in this special supplement to AIDS Care. The eight studies examine retrospectively ancillary (support) services data collected after 1996 in six HIV epicenters (New York and Chicago, plus four sites included in the Client Demonstration project-Los Angeles, San Francisco, Orange County [California] and Washington, DC), three smaller hard-hit cities (Boston, New Orleans and St Louis) and several states (California, plus Michigan and Virginia from the Client Demonstration Projects). These varied delivery settings serve racial and ethnic minority populations, men who have sex with men, injection drug users, women and mothers. The studies use a range of analytic approaches to understand whether receipt of certain enabling services correlated with early entry into and retention in care. Ancillary services (support services such as case management, housing, food, transportation, mental health and substance abuse treatment) are used by local HIV medical and community-based organizations in facilitative strategies directed to populations that have difficulty entering or staying in HIV primary care. Understanding the contribution of ancillary services to timely entry into and consistent use of primary care, including the expanding range of HIV therapeutics, is important to service delivery system planners and resource allocation decision-makers.

  8. Ancillary Studies in Determining Human Papillomavirus Status of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Cantley, Richard L.; Gabrielli, Eleonora; Montebelli, Francesco; Cimbaluk, David; Gattuso, Paolo; Petruzzelli, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity and pharynx represents the sixth most common form of malignancy worldwide. A significant proportion of these cases are related to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. In general, HPV-associated SCC is more commonly nonkeratinizing and poorly differentiated, whereas non-HPV-associated SCC is typically keratinizing and moderately differentiated. Nevertheless, significant overlap in morphology is seen between these two forms of SCC. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the utility of ancillary studies in the establishment of HPV status of oropharyngeal SCC, including p16 immunohistochemistry, high-risk HPV in situ hybridization, polymerase chain reaction, and newer HPV detection modalities. PMID:21772959

  9. Serum aldosterone and death, end-stage renal disease, and cardiovascular events in blacks and whites: findings from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study.

    PubMed

    Deo, Rajat; Yang, Wei; Khan, Abigail M; Bansal, Nisha; Zhang, Xiaoming; Leonard, Mary B; Keane, Martin G; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Steigerwalt, Susan; Townsend, Raymond R; Shlipak, Michael G; Feldman, Harold I

    2014-07-01

    Prior studies have demonstrated that elevated aldosterone concentrations are an independent risk factor for death in patients with cardiovascular disease. Limited studies, however, have evaluated systematically the association between serum aldosterone and adverse events in the setting of chronic kidney disease. We investigated the association between serum aldosterone and death and end-stage renal disease in 3866 participants from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort. We also evaluated the association between aldosterone and incident congestive heart failure and atherosclerotic events in participants without baseline cardiovascular disease. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate independent associations between elevated aldosterone concentrations and each outcome. Interactions were hypothesized and explored between aldosterone and sex, race, and the use of loop diuretics and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors. During a median follow-up period of 5.4 years, 587 participants died, 743 developed end-stage renal disease, 187 developed congestive heart failure, and 177 experienced an atherosclerotic event. Aldosterone concentrations (per SD of the log-transformed aldosterone) were not an independent risk factor for death (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.00; 95% confidence interval, 0.93-1.12), end-stage renal disease (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.07; 95% confidence interval, 0.99-1.17), or atherosclerotic events (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.85-1.18). Aldosterone was associated with congestive heart failure (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.21; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.35). Among participants with chronic kidney disease, higher aldosterone concentrations were independently associated with the development of congestive heart failure but not for death, end-stage renal disease, or atherosclerotic events. Further studies should evaluate whether mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists may reduce adverse events in individuals with

  10. Provider-Line Ancillary Service Support: A Study of Performance and Cost Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-01

    military 21040 37 12592 760 Partner 4 68 0 0 Allergy military 846 0 1285 214 Partner 265 0 5155 0 Dermatology military 750 3051 2478 16 Partner 12 48 470 0... Allergy military 4081.0 0 1285 1212 Partner 469.7 0 5155 0 Dermatology military 2922.0 18348 2478 52 Partner 34.3 282 470 0 Ophthalmology military...inpatient; ambulatory; dental ; ancillary; support services; and special programs. Two of these functional categories - ancillary and support services - are

  11. Adherence to inhaled corticosteroids: an ancillary study of the Childhood Asthma Management Program clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Jerry A; Bender, Bruce G; Wamboldt, Frederick S; Szefler, Stanley J; Adkinson, N Franklin; Zeiger, Robert S; Wise, Robert A; Bilderback, Andrew L; Rand, Cynthia S

    2012-01-01

    Information comparing subjective and objective measurements of adherence to study medications and the effects of adherence on treatment-related differences in asthma clinical trials are limited. We sought to compare subjective and objective measurements of children's adherence to inhaled corticosteroids or placebo and to determine whether adherence to study medications modified treatment-related differences in outcomes. In an ancillary study conducted in 3 of 8 Childhood Asthma Management Program Clinical Centers, adherence was assessed by using self-reported and objective data in 5- to 12-year-old children with mild or moderate asthma who were randomly assigned to 200 μg of inhaled budesonide twice per day (n = 84) or placebo (n = 56) for 4 years. The κ statistic was used to evaluate agreement between self-reported adherence (daily diary cards) and objectively measured adherence (number of doses left in study inhalers). Multivariable analyses were used to determine whether adherence to study treatment modified treatment-related differences in outcomes. Adherence of less than 80% was seen in 75% of 140 children when adherence was measured objectively but only in 6% of children when measured by means of self-report. There was poor agreement between objective and subjective measurements of adherence of at least 80% (κ = 0.00; 95% CI, -0.05 to 0.04); self-reported adherence over the 4-year period generally overestimated objectively measured adherence (93.6% vs 60.8%, P < .0001). There was little evidence to indicate that adherence modified treatment-related differences in outcomes. Researchers should use objective rather than self-reported adherence data to identify clinical trial participants with low levels of adherence to study treatment. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Utilization of Ancillary Studies in the Cytologic Diagnosis of Biliary and Pancreatic Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Layfield, Lester J.; Ehya, Hormoz; Filie, Armando C.; Hruban, Ralph H.; Jhala, Nirag; Joseph, Loren; Vielh, Philippe; Pitman, Martha B.

    2015-01-01

    The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology has developed a set of guidelines for pancreatobiliary cytology including indications for endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration, terminology and nomenclature of pancreatobiliary disease, ancillary testing, and post-biopsy management. All documents are based on the expertise of the authors, a review of the literature, discussions of the draft document at several national and international meetings, and synthesis of selected online comments of the draft document. This document presents the results of these discussions regarding the use of ancillary testing in the cytologic diagnosis of biliary and pancreatic lesions. Currently, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) appears to be the most clinically relevant ancillary technique for cytology of bile duct strictures. The addition of FISH analysis to routine cytologic evaluation appears to yield the highest sensitivity without loss in specificity. Loss of immunohistochemical staining for the protein product of the SMAD4 gene and positive staining for mesothelin support a diagnosis of ductal adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical markers for endocrine and exocrine differentiation are sufficient for a diagnosis of endocrine and acinar tumors. Nuclear staining for beta-catenin supports a diagnosis of solid-pseudopapilary neoplasm. Cyst fluid analysis for amylase and carcinoembryonic antigen aids in the preoperative classification of pancreatic cysts. Many gene mutations (KRAS, GNAS, VHL, RNF43, and CTNNB1) may be of aid in the diagnosis of cystic neoplasms. Other ancillary techniques do not appear to improve diagnostic sensitivity sufficiently to justify their increased costs. PMID:24639398

  13. Prevalence and Correlates of Perceived Ethnic Discrimination in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study

    PubMed Central

    Arellano-Morales, Leticia; Roesch, Scott C.; Gallo, Linda C.; Emory, Kristen T.; Molina, Kristine M.; Gonzalez, Patricia; Penedo, Frank J.; Navas-Nacher, Elena L.; Teng, Yanping; Deng, Yu; Isasi, Carmen R.; Schneiderman, Neil; Brondolo, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Empirical studies examining perceived ethnic discrimination in Latinos of diverse background groups are limited. This study examined prevalence and correlates of discrimination in a diverse sample of U.S. Latinos (N=5,291) from the multi-site Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) and HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study. The sample permitted an examination of differences across seven groups (Central American, Cuban, Dominican, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South American, and Other/Multiple Background). Most participants (79.5%) reported lifetime discrimination exposure and prevalence rates ranged from 64.9% to 98% across groups. Structural Equation Models (SEM) indicated that after adjusting for sociodemographic covariates most group differences in reports of discrimination were eliminated. However, Cubans reported the lowest levels of discrimination, overall among all groups. Furthermore, regional effects were more important than group effects. Participants from Chicago reported the highest levels of discrimination in comparison to other regions. Group differences among Latinos appear to be primarily a function of sociodemographic differences in education, income, and acculturation. In addition, differences in exposure to discrimination may be tied to variables associated with both immigration patterns and integration to U.S. culture. Results highlight the importance of considering historical context and the intersection of discrimination and immigration when evaluating the mental health of Latinos. PMID:26491624

  14. STS users study (study 2.2). Volume 3: Ancillary equipment study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchard, E. I.

    1975-01-01

    The multi-mission support equipment (MMSE) applicable to six payloads is studied. Tables indicate individual satellite projects to which each MMSE is applicable, and which equipments are applicable to multiple payload configurations when more than one project's payload would be flown on the STS. An estimate of the first date on which interface definition information needed by a payload project are also shown.

  15. Ancillary studies in the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) Trial: Synergies and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Sobel, Burton E

    2006-06-19

    The definitive power of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to characterize the efficacy of putative therapeutic approaches cannot be overestimated. Such trials are expensive, and their implementation requires prolonged and intensive commitments by both investigators and subjects. Accordingly, enhancing their value, in a sense increasing the "scientific return on investment," is a laudatory objective. Ancillary studies afford a great opportunity to do so. They permit acquisition of new knowledge, elucidation of cause/consequence relation, and delineation of pathogenetic mechanisms at a much lower cost than would be possible if they were performed independently of the parent RCTs. In addition, their utility is enhanced by internal consistency under the rubric of the parent trial and the presumed external validation of the parent trial. Several ancillary studies undertaken in conjunction with the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) trial provide cogent examples. They seek to delineate causal connections linking the accelerated coronary disease typical of diabetes with phenomena such as genetic predisposition to altered expression of cytokines and fibrinolytic system proteins, inflammation, procoagulation, insulin-induced impairment of fibrinolysis, insulin resistance, and the response to insulin-sensitizing and insulin-providing treatment strategies.

  16. Demand Response for Ancillary Services

    SciTech Connect

    Alkadi, Nasr E; Starke, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Many demand response resources are technically capable of providing ancillary services. In some cases, they can provide superior response to generators, as the curtailment of load is typically much faster than ramping thermal and hydropower plants. Analysis and quantification of demand response resources providing ancillary services is necessary to understand the resources economic value and impact on the power system. Methodologies used to study grid integration of variable generation can be adapted to the study of demand response. In the present work, we describe and illustrate a methodology to construct detailed temporal and spatial representations of the demand response resource and to examine how to incorporate those resources into power system models. In addition, the paper outlines ways to evaluate barriers to implementation. We demonstrate how the combination of these three analyses can be used to translate the technical potential for demand response providing ancillary services into a realizable potential.

  17. Ancillary services market in California

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, T.; Marnay, C.; Siddiqui, A.; Liew, L.; Khavkin, M.

    1999-07-01

    This report includes sections on the following topics: (1) California restructured electricity system overview; (2) Reliability criteria; (3) Design of the California ISO ancillary services market; (4) Operation of ancillary services markets; (5) Ancillary services markets redesign; and (6) Conclusions.

  18. Ancillary benefits for caregivers of children with asthma participating in an environmental intervention study to alleviate asthma symptoms.

    PubMed

    Clougherty, Jane E; Kubzansky, Laura D; Spengler, John D; Levy, Jonathan I

    2009-03-01

    Providing care for children with asthma can be demanding and time-intensive with far-reaching effects on caregivers' lives. Studies have documented childhood asthma symptom reductions and improved asthma-related quality of life (AQOL) with indoor allergen-reducing environmental interventions. Few such studies, however, have considered ancillary benefits to caregivers or other family members. Ancillary benefits could be derived from child health improvements and reduced caregiving burden or from factors such as improved living environments or social support that often accompanies intensive residential intervention efforts. As part of the Boston Healthy Public Housing Initiative (HPHI), a longitudinal single-cohort intervention study of asthmatic children, we examined trends in caregivers' quality of life related to their child's asthma (caregiver AQOL) using monthly Juniper Caregiver Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaires (AQLQ) for 32 primary caregivers to 42 asthmatic children aged 4 to 17 years. Longitudinal analyses were used to examine caregiver AQOL trends and their relationship to the child's AQOL, then to consider additional predictors of caregiver AQOL. Caregiver AQLQ improved significantly over the course of the study with overall improvements significantly correlated with child AQOL (p = 0.005). However, caregiver AQOL improved most in the months before environmental interventions, while children's AQOL improved most in the months following. Time trends in caregiver AQOL, controlling for child AQOL, were not explained by available social support or caregiver stress measures. Our findings suggest potential participation effects not adequately captured by standard measures. Future environmental intervention studies should more formally consider social support and participation effects for both children and caregivers.

  19. Macular Pigment Imaging in AREDS2 Participants: An Ancillary Study of AREDS2 Subjects Enrolled at the Moran Eye Center

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Paul S.; Ahmed, Faisal; Liu, Aihua; Allman, Susan; Sheng, Xiaoming; Sharifzadeh, Mohsen; Ermakov, Igor; Gellermann, Werner

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) is a randomized, placebo-controlled study designed to determine whether supplementation with 10 mg of lutein and 2 mg of zeaxanthin per day can slow the rate of progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Although some biomarkers of response to carotenoid supplementation such as serum concentrations are part of the AREDS2 protocol, measurement of carotenoid concentrations in the eye and other tissues is not. In this approved ancillary study, macular pigment optical density (MPOD), macular pigment distributions, and skin carotenoid levels at enrollment and at each annual visit were measured to assess baseline carotenoid status and to monitor response to assigned interventions. Methods. All subjects enrolled at the Moran Eye Center had MPOD and macular pigment spatial distributions measured by dual-wavelength autofluorescence imaging and total skin carotenoids measured by resonance Raman spectroscopy. Results. Baseline MPOD in enrolled subjects was unusually high relative to an age-matched control group that did not consume carotenoid supplements regularly, consistent with the high rate of habitual lutein and zeaxanthin consumption in Utah AREDS2 subjects prior to enrollment. MPOD did not correlate with serum or skin carotenoid measurements. Conclusions. Useful information is provided through this ancillary study on the ocular carotenoid status of AREDS2 participants in the target tissue of lutein and zeaxanthin supplementation: The macula. When treatment assignments are unmasked at the conclusion of the study, unique tissue-based insights will be provided on the progression of AMD in response to long-term, high-dose carotenoid supplementation versus diet alone. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00345176.) PMID:22879423

  20. Finisher hog production in the Southeastern United States: Ancillary measurements derived from the National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robarge, W. P.; Lee, S.; Walker, J. T.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of emissions of gases and fine particulate matter from swine animal feeding operations (AFOs) in the southeastern US have typically been confined to relatively short periods (days to several weeks) and have generally focused on waste lagoons. Access to swine animal housing units and other ancillary information has been limited. The National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS) provided a unique opportunity to characterize emissions from swine housing units for an extended period of time (~ 2 years), and allowed access to ancillary measurements regarding nutrient flows (feed amounts and composition), manure dynamics, animal inventories, water usage and farm management. Presented here is a summary of the observations made for a NAEMS finisher site (NC3B) selected as being representative of swine production in the southeastern US. Finisher hogs are raised in rotations (~ 140 days) with a target market weight of 123 kg/hog. Among the population during a rotation (700-800 hogs/barn) the actual growth rate varies with a series of “grade-outs” of market-weight hogs starting ~ 110 days from initial load-in. Derivation of the standing live-weight in the barns during a rotation therefore requires use of a growth model and summation over several different “populations” of hogs within a single barn. Up to 5 different feed formulations are fed during a rotation with %N content ranging from (3.4 to 2.2% N; total feed consumed 181,000 kg/barn). Across 4 complete rotations, N consumed was ~50 g N per hog/day. Of this amount, we estimate ~ 60% is excreted as fecal matter and urine. The TAN (NH3 + NH4+) content of the shallow pits is consistently higher (1880 ±390 mg TAN/L) than that found in the anaerobic lagoon (800 ±70 mg TAN/L), except immediately after recharge following pit-pull (pH of the two liquids was similar). The presence of a recalcitrant layer of sludge in the shallow pits (liquid height = 20 cm; sludge depth = 5-10 cm; TAN = 2500 mg N/L; total

  1. Ancillary testing in brain death.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Andreas H

    2015-04-01

    Despite worldwide acceptance of the concept of brain death, there is marked variability in the use of ancillary testing. In most countries, ancillary tests are used primarily when confounding factors interfere with reliable completion of a clinical assessment, or physiologic instability precludes performance of an apnea test. Alternatively, in some countries, confirmatory ancillary tests are routinely required before brain death can be diagnosed. Ancillary tests assess brain function (e.g., electroencephalography) or blood flow (e.g., cerebral angiography). Evaluation of blood flow is affected less by confounding clinical factors and is now preferred in most jurisdictions. With angiographic techniques, a significant proportion of patients meeting clinical criteria for brain death have some opacification of proximal intracranial arteries. Consequently, the sensitivity of angiography is strongly influenced by the particular criteria that are used to define intracranial circulatory arrest. Lack of enhancement of the great cerebral and internal cerebral veins has the highest sensitivity. Worldwide experience with newer tests, such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance angiography, is growing. Radionuclide imaging has the advantage of not requiring use of potentially nephrotoxic contrast material. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography can be brought to the bedside to demonstrate lack of brain blood flow. The specificity of imaging techniques in the detection of intracranial circulatory arrest has not been as well studied as their sensitivity.

  2. Chronic stress, inflammation, and glucose regulation in U.S. Hispanics from the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study.

    PubMed

    McCurley, Jessica L; Mills, Paul J; Roesch, Scott C; Carnethon, Mercedes; Giacinto, Rebeca E; Isasi, Carmen R; Teng, Yanping; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Llabre, Maria M; Penedo, Frank J; Schneiderman, Neil; Gallo, Linda C

    2015-08-01

    Diabetes prevalence is rising rapidly, and diabetes disproportionately affects Hispanics and other underserved groups. Chronic stress may contribute to diabetes risk, but few studies have examined this relationship in U.S. Hispanics. We examined associations of chronic stress with fasting glucose, glucose tolerance, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in Hispanics without diabetes, and also assessed indirect effects of stress through inflammation (CRP). Participants were 3,923 men and women, aged 18-74, without diabetes, from the four U.S. field centers (Bronx, NY; Chicago, IL; Miami, FL; San Diego, CA) of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) Sociocultural Ancillary study. Participants completed a measure of chronic life stress and a physical exam with oral glucose tolerance test. In a multivariate regression analysis with adjustment for demographic and health covariates, higher chronic stress was related to higher fasting glucose (standardized regression coefficient: β = .09, p < .01), postload glucose (β = .07, p < .05), and HbA1c levels (β = .08, p < .01). However, there was no indirect effect of stress through inflammation. Findings suggest that higher chronic stress is associated with poorer glucose regulation in Hispanics, prior to the onset of a clinical diabetes diagnosis.

  3. N-Heterocyclic olefins as ancillary ligands in catalysis: a study of their behaviour in transfer hydrogenation reactions.

    PubMed

    Iturmendi, Amaia; García, Nestor; Jaseer, E A; Munárriz, Julen; Sanz Miguel, Pablo J; Polo, Victor; Iglesias, Manuel; Oro, Luis A

    2016-08-09

    The Ir(i) complexes [Ir(cod)(κP,C,P'-NHO(PPh2))]PF6 and [IrCl(cod)(κC-NHO(OMe))] (cod = 1,5-cyclooctadiene, NHO(PPh2) = 1,3-bis(2-(diphenylphosphanyl)ethyl)-2-methyleneimidazoline) and NHO(OMe) = 1,3-bis(2-(methoxyethyl)-2-methyleneimidazoline), both featuring an N-heterocyclic olefin ligand (NHO), have been tested in the transfer hydrogenation reaction; this representing the first example of the use of NHOs as ancillary ligands in catalysis. The pre-catalyst [Ir(cod)(κP,C,P'-NHO(PPh2))]PF6 has shown excellent activities in the transfer hydrogenation of aldehydes, ketones and imines using (i)PrOH as a hydrogen source, while [IrCl(cod)(κC-NHO(OMe))] decomposes throughout the reaction to give low yields of the hydrogenated product. Addition of one or two equivalents of a phosphine ligand to the latter avoids catalyst decomposition and significantly improves the reaction yields. The reaction mechanism has been investigated by means of stoichiometric studies and theoretical calculations. The formation of the active species ([Ir(κP,C,P'-NHO(PPh2))((i)PrO)]) has been proposed to occur via isopropoxide coordination and concomitant COD dissociation. Moreover, throughout the catalytic cycle the NHO moiety behaves as a hemilabile ligand, thus allowing the catalyst to adopt stable square planar geometries in the transition states, which reduces the energetic barrier of the process.

  4. Using Dimmable Lighting for Regulation Capacity and Non-Spinning Reserves in the Ancillary Services Market. A Feasibility Study.

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, Francis; Xiaolei, Li; Watson, David S.

    2010-12-03

    The objective of this Feasibility Study was to identify the potential of dimmable lighting for providing regulation capacity and contingency reserves if massively-deployed throughout the State. We found that one half of the total electric lighting load in the California commercial sector is bottled up in larger buildings that are greater an 50,000 square feet. Retrofitting large California buildings with dimmable lighting to enable fast DR lighting would require an investment of about $1.8 billion and a"fleet" of about 56 million dimming ballasts. By upgrading the existing installed base of lighting and controls (primarily in large commercial facilities) a substantial amount of ancillary services could be provided. Though not widely deployed, today's state-of-the art lighting systems, control systems and communication networks could be used for this application. The same lighting control equipment that is appropriate for fast DR is also appropriate for achieving energy efficiency with lighting on a daily basis. Thus fast DR can leverage the capabilities that are provided by a conventional dimming lighting control system. If dimmable lighting were massively deployed throughout large California buildings (because mandated by law, for example) dimmable lighting could realistically supply 380 MW of non-spinning reserve, 47percent of the total non-spinning reserves needed in 2007.

  5. Binge Drinking and Perceived Ethnic Discrimination among Hispanics/Latinos: Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study

    PubMed Central

    Ornelas, India J.; Lapham, Gwen T.; Salgado, Hugo; Williams, Emily C.; Gotman, Nathan; Womack, Veronica; Davis, Sonia; Penedo, Frank; Smoller, Sylvia; Gallo, Linda C.

    2016-01-01

    The study assessed whether overall perceived ethnic discrimination and four unique discrimination types were associated with binge drinking in participants from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) who also completed the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study (n = 5,313). In unadjusted analyses that were weighted for sampling strategy and design, each unit increase in discrimination type was associated with a 12 - 63% increase in odds of binge drinking; however, after adjusting for important demographic variables including age, sex, heritage group, language, and duration of US residence, there was no longer an association between discrimination and binge drinking. Further research still needs to identify the salient factors that contribute to increased risk for binge drinking among Hispanics/Latinos. PMID:26643869

  6. Ancillary Pilot Study for the Educational Policy Research Center Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson Inst., Croton-on-Hudson, NY.

    The role of the Hudson Institute in the policy research center program was to build on and adapt current studies of the future for the purpose of assisting the Office of Education and its five pilot centers. Part 1 of this report comments briefly on some methodological and substantive issues that arose during the pilot phase and suggests how…

  7. Modular space station phase B extension preliminary system design. Volume 7: Ancillary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, A. L.

    1972-01-01

    Sortie mission analysis and reduced payloads size impact studies are presented. In the sortie mission analysis, a modular space station oriented experiment program to be flown by the space shuttle during the period prior to space station IOC is discussed. Experiments are grouped into experiment packages. Mission payloads are derived by grouping experiment packages and by adding support subsystems and structure. The operational and subsystems analyses of these payloads are described. Requirements, concepts, and shuttle interfaces are integrated. The sortie module/station module commonality and a sortie laboratory concept are described. In the payloads size analysis, the effect on the modular space station concept of reduced diameter and reduced length of the shuttle cargo bay is discussed. Design concepts are presented for reduced sizes of 12 by 60 ft, 14 by 40 ft, and 12 by 40 ft. Comparisons of these concepts with the modular station (14 by 60 ft) are made to show the impact of payload size changes.

  8. Basic ancillary ligands promote O-O bond formation in iridium-catalyzed water oxidation: a DFT study.

    PubMed

    Vilella, Laia; Vidossich, Pietro; Balcells, David; Lledós, Agustí

    2011-11-14

    The cationic iridium complex [Ir(OH(2))(2)(phpy)(2)](+) (phpy = o-phenylpyridine) is among the most efficient mononuclear catalysts for water oxidation. The postulated active species is the oxo complex [Ir(O)(X)(phpy)(2)](n), with X = OH(2) (n = +1), OH(-) (n = 0) or O(2-) (n = -1), depending on the pH. The reactivity of these species has been studied computationally at the DFT(B3LYP) level. The three [Ir(O)(X)(phpy)(2)](n) complexes have an electrophilic Ir(v)-oxo moiety, which yields an O-O bond by undergoing a nucleophilic attack of water in the critical step of the mechanism. In this step, water transfers one proton to either the Ir(V)-oxo moiety or the ancillary X ligand. Five different reaction pathways associated with this acid/base mechanism have been characterized. The calculations show that the proton is preferably accepted by the X ligand, which plays a key role in the reaction. The higher the basicity of X, the lower the energy barrier associated with O-O bond formation. The anionic species, [Ir(O)(2)(phpy)(2)](-), which has the less electrophilic Ir(V)-oxo moiety but the most basic X ligand, promotes O-O bond formation through the lowest energy barrier, 14.5 kcal mol(-1). The other two active species, [Ir(O)(OH)(phpy)(2)] and [Ir(O)(OH(2))(phpy)(2)](+), which have more electrophilic Ir(V)-oxo moieties but less basic X ligands, involve higher energy barriers, 20.2 kcal mol(-1) and 25.9 kcal mol(-1), respectively. These results are in good agreement with experiments showing important pH effects in similar catalytic systems. The theoretical insight given by the present study can be useful in the design of more efficient water oxidation catalysts. The catalytic activity may increase by using ligand scaffolds bearing internal bases.

  9. Effect of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibition on microvascular coronary dysfunction in women: a Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) ancillary study.

    PubMed

    Denardo, Scott J; Wen, Xuerong; Handberg, Eileen M; Bairey Merz, C Noel; Sopko, George S; Cooper-Dehoff, Rhonda M; Pepine, Carl J

    2011-08-01

    Microvascular coronary dysfunction (MCD) is associated with symptoms and signs of ischemia, and also adverse outcomes in women without macrovascular obstructive coronary artery disease (M-CAD). Although MCD can be quantified using coronary flow reserve (CFR), treatment is poorly defined. Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibition acutely improves MCD in these women. The subjects were 23 symptomatic women (age 54 ± 11 y) participating in an ancillary study of the Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation with baseline CFR ≤3.0 (Doppler flow wire and intracoronary adenosine) and without M-CAD. Coronary flow reserve was remeasured 45 minutes after PDE-5 inhibition (100 mg oral sildenafil). The primary measure of interest was change in CFR adjusted for baseline variables. The relationship between log(2)-transformed CFR post-PDE-5 inhibition (adjusted) and baseline was different from the line of identity (slope: 0.55 vs 1.0, P = 0.008; intercept: 0.73 vs 0.0, P = 0.01), indicating that PDE-5 inhibition improves CFR and the lower the baseline CFR, the greater the response. Among women with baseline CFR ≤2.5 (n = 11), CFR increased from 2.1 ± 0.2 to 2.7 ± 0.6 (P = 0.006). For women with baseline CFR >2.5 (n = 12), CFR did not change (3.1 ± 0.3 to 3.0 ± 0.6; P = 0.70). For women with symptoms and signs of ischemia and no M-CAD, PDE-5 inhibition is associated with acute improvement in CFR, and the effect concentrates among those with CFR ≤2.5. If these acute effects are sustained, then PDE-5 inhibition would provide a rational strategy for management of MCD in symptomatic women without M-CAD. The longer-term effects warrant study in a randomized trial using a sustained-acting PDE-5 inhibitor. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Retinopathy and the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease (from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study).

    PubMed

    Grunwald, Juan E; Pistilli, Maxwell; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Maguire, Maureen; Daniel, Ebenezer; Whittock-Martin, Revell; Parker-Ostroff, Candace; Mohler, Emile; Lo, Joan C; Townsend, Raymond R; Gadegbeku, Crystal Ann; Lash, James Phillip; Fink, Jeffrey Craig; Rahman, Mahboob; Feldman, Harold; Kusek, John W; Xie, Dawei

    2015-11-15

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) experience other diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and retinopathy. The purpose of this study was to assess whether retinopathy predicts future CVD events in a subgroup of the participants of the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study. In this ancillary investigation, 2,605 participants of the CRIC study were invited to participate, and nonmydriatic fundus photographs were obtained in 1,936 subjects. Using standard protocols, presence and severity of retinopathy (diabetic, hypertensive, or other) and vessel diameter caliber were assessed at a central photograph reading center by trained graders masked to study participant's information. Patients with a self-reported history of cardiovascular disease were excluded. Incident CVD events were adjudicated using medical records. Kidney function measurements, traditional and nontraditional risk factors, for CVD were obtained. Presence and severity of retinopathy were associated with increased risk of development of any CVD in this population of CKD patients, and these associations persisted after adjustment for traditional risk factors for CVD. We also found a direct relation between increased venular diameter and risk of development of CVD; however, the relation was not statistically significant after adjustment for traditional risk factors. In conclusion, the presence of retinopathy was associated with future CVD events, suggesting that retinovascular pathology may be indicative of macrovascular disease even after adjustment for renal dysfunction and traditional CVD risk factors. Assessment of retinal morphology may be valuable in assessing risk of CVD in patients with CKD, both clinically and in research settings.

  11. Family Environment and the Metabolic Syndrome: Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) Sociocultural Ancillary Study (SCAS)

    PubMed Central

    Brintz, Carrie E.; LLabre, Maria M.; Arguelles, William; Isasi, Carmen R.; Arredondo, Elva M.; Navas-Nacher, Elena L.; Perreira, Krista M.; González, Hector M.; Rodriguez, Carlos J.; Daviglus, Martha; Schneiderman, Neil; Gallo, Linda C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Very limited work has evaluated associations of sociocultural processes with prevalence of the MetS. Purpose The purpose of the present study was to evaluate associations between family environment (cohesion/conflict) and the MetS, in a multi-site sample of US Hispanics/Latinos. Methods A total of 3278 participants from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos underwent a clinical exam and completed psychosocial measures including family environment (cohesion and conflict) as part of the Sociocultural Ancillary Study. Results The association between family environment and the MetS was moderated by sex. Among all women, higher family conflict was associated with MetS prevalence. Results by ancestry group showed that only among Cuban women, higher conflict was associated with the MetS, whereas only among Dominican men, greater cohesion was associated with the MetS. Conclusions The family context may be a sociocultural protective or risk factor among Hispanics/Latinos in terms of MetS risk, but these associations may vary by sex and Hispanic background. PMID:26068057

  12. Machismo, Marianismo, and Negative Cognitive-Emotional Factors: Findings From the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, Alicia; González, Patricia; Talavera, Gregory A; Sanchez-Johnsen, Lisa; Roesch, Scott C; Davis, Sonia M; Arguelles, William; Womack, Veronica Y; Ostrovsky, Natania W; Ojeda, Lizette; Penedo, Frank J; Gallo, Linda C

    2016-11-01

    There is limited research on the traditional Hispanic male and female gender roles of machismo and marianismo, respectively, in relation to negative cognitions and emotions. Given the vulnerability of Hispanics to negative cognitions and emotions, it is important to examine sociocultural correlates of emotional distress. Therefore, we examined associations of machismo and marianismo with negative cognitive-emotional factors (i.e., depression symptoms; cynical hostility; and trait anxiety and anger) in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study, a cross-sectional cohort study of sociocultural and psychosocial correlates of cardiometabolic health. Participants were aged 18-74 years and self-identified as Hispanic of Central American, Cuban, Dominican, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South American, and other Hispanic background (N = 4,426). Results revealed that specific components of machismo (traditional machismo) and marianismo (family and spiritual pillar dimensions) were associated with higher levels of negative cognitions and emotions after adjusting for socio-demographic factors (p < .05); these associations remained consistent across sex, Hispanic background group, and acculturation. Findings can inform mental health interventions and contribute to our understanding of the importance of gender role socialization in the context of self-reported negative cognitive-emotional factors in Hispanics.

  13. Does time interval between surgery and intraperitoneal chemotherapy administration in advanced ovarian cancer carry a prognostic impact? An NRG Oncology/Gynecologic Oncology Group study ancillary study.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Soto, Arlene E; Java, James J; Nieves Neira, Wilberto; Pearson, J Matthew; Cohn, David E; Lele, Shashikant B; Tewari, Krishnansu S; Walker, Joan L; Alvarez Secord, Angeles; Armstrong, Deborah K; Copeland, Larry J

    2016-12-01

    To determine the relationship of the time from surgery to intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy (TSIC) initiation with survival of patients with stage III epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients using ancillary data from cooperative group clinical trials. Data from 420 patients with stage III EOC treated with IP chemotherapy under GOG-0114 and 172 were reviewed. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate independent prognostic factors and estimate their covariate-adjusted effects on PFS and OS. The median TSIC was 62.5days (interquartile range 28-83). The median TSIC was longer for patients in GOG-0114 vs those in GOG-172 (83 vs 26days, p<0.001). TSIC was significantly associated (p=0.049) with PFS: each 10% increase in TSIC (days) decreases the risk of progression by 3%. TSIC was not significantly associated with OS in this model. In a linear regression model, gross residual disease was significantly associated with shorter TSIC (R(2) -0.141, 95%CI -0.217, -0.064, p<0.001). When only data from GOG-172 were considered, no statistical significant association was found between TSIC and PFS or OS. In this ancillary data study, TSIC was not associated with improved OS in patients with stage III epithelial ovarian cancer. TSIC was significantly associated with PFS for the entire cohort, suggesting increase in PFS with longer TSIC. However, this was not found when only data from GOG 172 or GOG 114 were analyzed separately. Hence, the relationship between IP chemotherapy initiation and time from surgery needs to be studied further. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Perceived discrimination and cancer screening behaviors in US Hispanics: the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study.

    PubMed

    Valdovinos, Cristina; Penedo, Frank J; Isasi, Carmen R; Jung, Molly; Kaplan, Robert C; Giacinto, Rebeca Espinoza; Gonzalez, Patricia; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Perreira, Krista; Salgado, Hugo; Simon, Melissa A; Wruck, Lisa M; Greenlee, Heather A

    2016-01-01

    Perceived discrimination has been associated with lower adherence to cancer screening guidelines. We examined whether perceived discrimination was associated with adherence to breast, cervical, colorectal, and prostate cancer screening guidelines in US Hispanic/Latino adults. Data were obtained from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study, including 5,313 Hispanic adults aged 18–74 from Bronx, NY, Chicago, IL, Miami, FL, and San Diego, CA, and those who were within appropriate age ranges for specific screening tests were included in the analysis. Cancer screening behaviors were assessed via self-report. Perceived discrimination was measured using the Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire. Confounder-adjusted multivariable polytomous logistic regression models assessed the association between perceived discrimination and adherence to cancer screening guidelines. Among women eligible for screening, 72.1 % were adherent to cervical cancer screening guidelines and 71.3 %were adherent to breast cancer screening guidelines. In participants aged 50–74, 24.6 % of women and 27.0 % of men were adherent to fecal occult blood test guidelines; 43.5 % of women and 34.8 % of men were adherent to colonoscopy/sigmoidoscopy guidelines; 41.0 % of men were adherent to prostate-specific antigen screening guidelines. Health insurance coverage, rather than perceived ethnic discrimination,was the variable most associated with receiving breast, cervical,colorectal, or prostate cancer screening. The influence of discrimination as a barrier to cancer screening may be modest among Hispanics/Latinos in urban US regions. Having health insurance facilitates cancer screening in this population. Efforts to increase cancer screening in Hispanics/Latinos should focus on increasing access to these services, especially among the uninsured.

  15. Perceived Discrimination and Cancer Screening Behaviors in US Hispanics: the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Socio-cultural Ancillary Study

    PubMed Central

    Valdovinos, Cristina; Penedo, Frank J.; Isasi, Carmen R.; Jung, Molly; Kaplan, Robert C.; Giacinto, Rebeca Espinoza; Gonzalez, Patricia; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Perreira, Krista; Salgado, Hugo; Simon, Melissa A.; Wruck, Lisa M.; Greenlee, Heather A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Perceived discrimination has been associated with lower adherence to cancer screening guidelines. We examined whether perceived discrimination was associated with adherence to breast, cervical, colorectal, and prostate cancer screening guidelines in US Hispanic/Latino adults. Methods Data were obtained from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study, including 5,313 Hispanic adults ages 18–74 from Bronx NY, Chicago IL, Miami FL, and San Diego CA who were within appropriate age ranges for specific screening tests were included in the analysis. Cancer screening behaviors were assessed via self-report. Perceived discrimination was measured using the Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire. Confounder-adjusted multivariable polytomous logistic regression models assessed the association between perceived discrimination and adherence to cancer screening guidelines. Results Among women eligible for screening, 72.1% were adherent to cervical cancer screening guidelines and 71.3% were adherent to breast cancer screening guidelines. In participants aged 50–74, 24.6% of women and 27.0% of men were adherent to fecal occult blood test guidelines; 43.5% of women and 34.8% of men were adherent to colonscopy/sigmoidoscopy guidelines; 41.0% of men were adherent to prostate specific antigen screening guidelines. Health insurance coverage, rather than perceived ethnic discrimination, was the variable most associated with receiving breast, cervical, colorectal, or prostate cancer screening. Conclusions The influence of discrimination as a barrier to cancer screening may be modest among Hispanics/Latinos in urban US regions. Having health insurance facilitates cancer screening in this population. Efforts to increase cancer screening in Hispanics/Latinos should focus on increasing access to these services, especially among the uninsured. PMID:26498194

  16. Neighborhood Factors as Predictors of Poor Sleep in the Sueño Ancillary Study of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.

    PubMed

    Simonelli, Guido; Dudley, Katherine A; Weng, Jia; Gallo, Linda C; Perreira, Krista; Shah, Neomi A; Alcantara, Carmela; Zee, Phyllis C; Ramos, Alberto R; Llabre, Maria M; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Wang, Rui; Patel, Sanjay R

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate whether an adverse neighborhood environment has higher prevalence of poor sleep in a US Hispanic/Latino population. A cross-sectional analysis was performed in 2156 US Hispanic/Latino participants aged 18-64 years from the Sueño ancillary study of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). Participants completed surveys of neighborhood environment including perceived safety, violence and noise, the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), and 7 days of wrist actigraphy. In age and sex-adjusted analyses, short sleep, low sleep efficiency, and late sleep midpoint were all more prevalent among those living in an unsafe neighborhood. After adjustment for background, site, nativity, income, employment, depressive symptoms, and sleep apnea, the absolute risk of sleeping <6 hours was 7.7 (95% CI [0.9, 14.6]) percentage points greater in those living in an unsafe compared to a safe neighborhood. There were no differences in the prevalence of insomnia by level of safety or violence. Insomnia was more prevalent among those living in a noisy neighborhood. In adjusted analysis, the absolute risk of insomnia was 4.4 (95% CI [0.4, 8.4]) percentage points greater in those living in noisy compared to non-noisy neighborhoods. Using validated measures of sleep duration and insomnia, we have demonstrated the existence of a higher prevalence of short sleep and insomnia by adverse neighborhood factors. An adverse neighborhood environment is an established risk factor for a variety of poor health outcomes. Our findings suggest negative effects on sleep may represent one pathway by which neighborhood environment influences health.

  17. Neighborhood Factors as Predictors of Poor Sleep in the Sueño Ancillary Study of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL).

    PubMed

    Simonelli, Guido; Dudley, Katherine A; Weng, Jia; Gallo, Linda C; Perreira, Krista; Shah, Neomi A; Alcantara, Carmela; Zee, Phyllis C; Ramos, Alberto R; Llabre, Maria M; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Wang, Rui; Patel, Sanjay R

    2016-09-26

    To evaluate whether an adverse neighborhood environment has higher prevalence of poor sleep in a US Hispanic/Latino population. A cross-sectional analysis was performed in 2156 US Hispanic/Latino participants aged 18-64 years from the Sueño ancillary study of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). Participants completed surveys of neighborhood environment including perceived safety, violence and noise, the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), and 7 days of wrist actigraphy. In age and sex-adjusted analyses, short sleep, low sleep efficiency and late sleep midpoint were all more prevalent among those living in an unsafe neighborhood. After adjustment for background, site, nativity, income, employment, depressive symptoms, and sleep apnea, the absolute risk of sleeping < 6 hrs was 7.7 (95% CI [0.9, 14.6]) percentage points greater in those living in an unsafe compared to a safe neighborhood. There were no differences in the prevalence of insomnia by level of safety or violence. Insomnia was more prevalent among those living in a noisy neighborhood. In adjusted analysis, the absolute risk of insomnia was 4.4 (95% CI [0.4, 8.4]) percentage points greater in those living in noisy compared to non-noisy neighborhoods. Using validated measures of sleep duration and insomnia, we have demonstrated the existence of a higher prevalence of short sleep and insomnia by adverse neighborhood factors. An adverse neighborhood environment is an established risk factor for a variety of poor health outcomes. Our findings suggest negative effects on sleep may represent one pathway by which neighborhood environment influences health.

  18. Ancillary effects of selected acid deposition control policies

    SciTech Connect

    Moe, R.J.; Lyke, A.J.; Nesse, R.J.

    1986-08-01

    NAPAP is examining a number of potential ways to reduce the precursors (sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) to acid deposition. However, the policies to reduce acid deposition will have other physical, biological and economic effects unrelated to acid deposition. For example, control policies that reduce sulfur dioxide emissions may also increase visibility. The effects of an acid deposition policy that are unrelated to acid deposition are referred to as ''ancillary'' effects. This reserch identifies and characterizes the principle physical and economic ancillary effects associated with acid deposition control and mitigation policies. In this study the ancillary benefits associated with four specific acid deposition policy options were investigated. The four policy options investigated are: (1) flue gas desulfurization, (2) coal blending or switching, (3) reductions in automobile emissions of NO/sub x/, and (4) lake liming. Potential ancillary benefits of each option were identified and characterized. Particular attention was paid to the literature on economic valuation of potential ancillary effects.

  19. Associations of Structural and Functional Social Support with Diabetes Prevalence in U.S. Hispanics/Latinos: Results from the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Linda C.; Fortmann, Addie L.; McCurley, Jessica L.; Isasi, Carmen R.; Penedo, Frank J.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Roesch, Scott C.; Talavera, Gregory A.; Gouskova, Natalia; Gonzalez, Franklyn; Schneiderman, Neil; Carnethon, Mercedes R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Little research has examined associations of social support with diabetes (or other physical health outcomes) in Hispanics, who are at elevated risk. Purpose We examined associations between social support and diabetes prevalence in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) Sociocultural Ancillary Study. Methods Participants were 5181 adults, 18–74 years old, representing diverse Hispanic backgrounds, who underwent baseline exam with fasting blood draw, oral glucose tolerance test, medication review, sociodemographic assessment, and sociocultural exam with functional and structural social support measures. Results In adjusted analyses, one standard deviation higher structural and functional social support related to 16% and 15% lower odds, respectively, of having diabetes. Structural and functional support were related to both previously diagnosed diabetes (OR = .84 and .88, respectively) and newly recognized diabetes prevalence (OR = .84 and .83, respectively). Conclusions Higher functional and structural social support are associated with lower diabetes prevalence in Hispanics/Latinos. PMID:25107504

  20. (abstract) Towards Ancillary Data Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acton, Charles H.

    1997-01-01

    NASA's SPICE information system for archiving, distributing, and accessing spacecraft navigation, orientation, and other ancillary data is described. A proposal is made for the further evolution of this concept to an internationally useful standard, to be.

  1. (abstract) Towards Ancillary Data Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acton, Charles H.

    1997-01-01

    NASA's SPICE information system for archiving, distributing, and accessing spacecraft navigation, orientation, and other ancillary data is described. A proposal is made for the further evolution of this concept to an internationally useful standard, to be.

  2. Combination effect of calcium channel blocker and valsartan on cardiovascular event prevention in patients with high-risk hypertension: ancillary results of the KYOTO HEART Study.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Takahisa; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Shiraishi, Jun; Kimura, Shinzo; Matsubara, Hiroaki

    2012-01-01

    The ancillary analysis of the KYOTO HEART Study (n = 3031) was designed to assess the combined treatment with calcium channel blocker (CCB) plus valsartan for high-risk hypertension. With-CCB (n = 1807) showed less primary events than without-CCB (n = 1224) (P = .037), in which acute myocardial infarction was significantly reduced. With-CCB plus valsartan (n = 773) showed lower incidence than with-CCB plus non-angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) (n = 1034) (P = .0002), in which angina pectoris and heart failure were significantly reduced. Without-CCB plus valsartan (n = 744) was superior to without-CCB plus non-ARB (n = 480) (P = .0013), in which stroke was reduced. CCB-based therapy was useful, and CCB plus valsartan combination provided a more efficient prevention for high-risk hypertensive patients.

  3. Sex Differences in the Incidence of Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Grace J.; Shaw, Pamela A.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Anderson, Amanda H.; Xie, Dawei; Wang, Xue; Nessel, Lisa C.; Mohler, Emile R.; Sozio, Stephen M.; Jaar, Bernard G.; Chen, Jing; Wright, Jackson; Taliercio, Jonathan J.; Ojo, Akinlolu; C.Ricardo, Ana; Lustigova, Eva; Fairman, Ronald M.; Feldman, Harold I.; Ky, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    Background To define how the incidence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) differs according to sex and age. Methods and Results The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) is a multi-center, prospective cohort study of CKD participants. Fine and Gray methods were used to determine the cumulative incidence of PAD, defined by an ankle brachial index (ABI) < 0.90 or a confirmed PAD event, with death as a competing event. Adjusted subdistribution hazard ratios from the Fine and Gray model determined the risk of PAD according to sex. A priori, we hypothesized that the relationship between sex and cumulative incidence of PAD differed according to age. The mean age of the 3,174 participants in this study was 56.6 years and consisted of 55% males. Over a median follow-up of 5.9 years, 17.8% developed PAD, 13.0% were lost to followup and 11.1% died. Females had a 1.53-fold greater adjusted PAD risk compared to men (95% CI 1.27-1.84, p<0.001). These sex-related differences in PAD risk also differed by age (p=0.013). Women, compared to men, were at a markedly increased risk for PAD at younger ages; however, at ages greater than 70 years, the risk was similar across both sexes. Older men had a substantially greater PAD risk compared to younger men. In women, PAD risk did not vary with age. Conclusions Females with CKD have a higher PAD risk compared to males at younger ages. There is an important need to improve our understanding of the biological and clinical basis for these differences. PMID:26908866

  4. Effects of Oral vs Transdermal Estrogen Therapy on Sexual Function in Early Postmenopause: Ancillary Study of the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS).

    PubMed

    Taylor, Hugh S; Tal, Aya; Pal, Lubna; Li, Fangyong; Black, Dennis M; Brinton, Eliot A; Budoff, Matthew J; Cedars, Marcelle I; Du, Wei; Hodis, Howard N; Lobo, Rogerio A; Manson, JoAnn E; Merriam, George R; Miller, Virginia M; Naftolin, Frederick; Neal-Perry, Genevieve; Santoro, Nanette F; Harman, Sherman M

    2017-10-01

    Sexual dysfunction, an important determinant of women's health and quality of life, is commonly associated with declining estrogen levels around the menopausal transition. To determine the effects of oral or transdermal estrogen therapy vs placebo on sexual function in postmenopausal women. Ancillary study of the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS), a 4-year prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of menopausal hormone therapy in healthy, recently menopausal women. Of 727 KEEPS enrollees, 670 agreed to participate in this multicenter ancillary study. Women were 42 to 58 years old, within 36 months from last menstrual period. Data were collected from July 2005 through June 2008 and analyzed from July 2010 through June 2017. Women were randomized to either 0.45 mg/d oral conjugated equine estrogens (o-CEE), 50 µg/d transdermal 17β-estradiol (t-E2), or placebo. Participants also received 200 mg oral micronized progesterone (if randomized to o-CEE or t-E2) or placebo (if randomized to placebo estrogens) for 12 days each month. Aspects of sexual function and experience (desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain) were assessed using the Female Sexual Function Inventory (FSFI; range, 0-36 points; higher scores indicate better sexual function). Low sexual function (LSF) was defined as an FSFI overall score of less than 26.55. Distress related to low FSFI score (required for the diagnosis of sexual dysfunction) was not evaluated. The 670 participants had a mean (SD) age of 52.7 (2.6) years. The t-E2 treatment was associated with a significant yet moderate improvement in the FSFI overall score across all time points compared with placebo (average efficacy, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.11-4.10; adjusted P = .002). With o-CEE treatment, there was no significant difference in FSFI overall score compared with placebo (mean efficacy, 1.4; 95% CI, -0.1 to 2.8; adjusted P = .13). There was no difference in FSFI overall score

  5. Is there a link between wealth and cardiovascular disease risk factors among Hispanic/Latinos? Results from the HCHS/SOL sociocultural ancillary study.

    PubMed

    López-Cevallos, Daniel F; Gonzalez, Patricia; Bethel, Jeffrey W; Castañeda, Sheila F; Isasi, Carmen R; Penedo, Frank J; Ojeda, Lizette; Davis, Sonia M; Chirinos, Diana A; Molina, Kristine M; Teng, Yanping; Bekthesi, Venera; Gallo, Linda C

    2017-04-06

    To examine the relationship between wealth and cardiovascular disease risk factors among Hispanic/Latinos of diverse backgrounds. This cross-sectional study used data from 4971 Hispanic/Latinos, 18-74 years, who participated in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) baseline exam and the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study. Three objectively measured cardiovascular disease risk factors (hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and obesity) were included. Wealth was measured using an adapted version of the Home Affluence Scale, which included questions regarding the ownership of a home, cars, computers, and recent vacations. After adjusting for traditional socioeconomic indicators (income, employment, education), and other covariates, we found that wealth was not associated with hypertension, hypercholesterolemia or obesity. Analyses by sex showed that middle-wealth women were less likely to have hypercholesterolemia or obesity. Analyses by Hispanic/Latino background groups showed that while wealthier Central Americans were less likely to have obesity, wealthier Puerto Ricans were more likely to have obesity. This is the first study to explore the relationship between wealth and health among Hispanic/Latinos of diverse backgrounds, finding only partial evidence of this association. Future studies should utilize more robust measures of wealth, and address mechanisms by which wealth may impact health status among Hispanic/Latinos of diverse backgrounds in longitudinal designs.

  6. Glycemic Control among U.S. Hispanics/Latinos with Diabetes from the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study: Do Structural and Functional Social Support Play a Role?

    PubMed Central

    Fortmann, Addie L.; Roesch, Scott C.; Penedo, Frank J.; Isasi, Carmen R.; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Corsino, Leonor; Schneiderman, Neil; Daviglus, Martha L.; Teng, Yanping; Giachello, Aida; Gonzalez, Franklyn; Gallo, Linda C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Social support is one potential source of health-related resiliency in Hispanics with diabetes. Purpose This study examined relationships of structural (i.e., social integration) and functional (i.e., perceived) social support with glycemic control (glycosylated hemoglobin; HbA1c) in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Hispanics (HCHS/SOL) Sociocultural Ancillary Study. Methods This study included 766 men and women representing multiple Hispanic ethnic backgrounds, aged 18-74 years, with diagnosed diabetes who completed fasting blood draw, medication review, and measures of sociodemographic factors, medical history, structural support (Cohen Social Network Index), and functional support (Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-12). Results After adjusting for sociodemographic covariates and medication, a one standard deviation increase in functional support was related to an 0.18 % higher HbA1c (p = 0.04). A similar trend was observed for structural support; however, this effect was non-significant in adjusted models. Conclusion Greater functional support was associated with poorer glycemic control in Hispanics. PMID:25107503

  7. Validation of interpersonal support evaluation list-12 (ISEL-12) scores among English- and Spanish-speaking Hispanics/Latinos from the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study.

    PubMed

    Merz, Erin L; Roesch, Scott C; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Penedo, Frank J; Llabre, Maria M; Weitzman, Orit B; Navas-Nacher, Elena L; Perreira, Krista M; Gonzalez, Franklyn; Ponguta, Liliana A; Johnson, Timothy P; Gallo, Linda C

    2014-06-01

    The Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-12 (ISEL-12; Cohen, Mermelstein, Kamarck, & Hoberman, 1985) is broadly employed as a short-form measure of the traditional ISEL, which measures functional (i.e., perceived) social support. The ISEL-12 can be scored by summing the items to create an overall social support score; three subscale scores representing appraisal, belonging, and tangible social support have also been proposed. Despite extensive use, studies of the psychometric properties of ISEL-12 scores have been limited, particularly among Hispanics/Latinos, the largest and fastest growing ethnic group in the United States. The current study investigated the reliability and structural and convergent validity of ISEL-12 scores using data from 5,313 Hispanics/Latinos who participated in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study. Participants completed measures in English or Spanish and identified their ancestry as Dominican, Central American, Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, or South American. Cronbach's alphas suggested adequate internal consistency for the total score for all languages and ancestry groups; coefficients for the subscale scores were not acceptable. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the one-factor and three-factor models fit the data equally well. Results from multigroup confirmatory factor analyses supported a similar one-factor structure with equivalent response patterns and variances between language groups and ancestry groups. Convergent validity analyses suggested that the total social support score related to scores of social network integration, life engagement, perceived stress, and negative affect (depression, anxiety) in the expected directions.

  8. Factor structure of the Perceived Stress Scale-10 (PSS) across English and Spanish language responders in the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study.

    PubMed

    Perera, Marisa J; Brintz, Carrie E; Birnbaum-Weitzman, Orit; Penedo, Frank J; Gallo, Linda C; Gonzalez, Patricia; Gouskova, Natalia; Isasi, Carmen R; Navas-Nacher, Elena L; Perreira, Krista M; Roesch, Scott C; Schneiderman, Neil; Llabre, Maria M

    2017-03-01

    Despite widespread use, psychometric investigation of the original English and translated Spanish versions of the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS; Cohen, Kamarck, & Mermelstein, 1983) has been limited among the U.S. Hispanic/Latino population. The present study examined the factor structure, factorial invariance, and reliability and validity of PSS scores from English and Spanish versions using data from 5,176 Hispanics/Latinos who participated in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study. The total sample and language multigroup confirmatory factor analyses supported a bifactor model with all 10 PSS items loading on a general perceived stress factor, and the 4 reverse-worded items also loading on a reverse-worded factor. Internal consistency ranged from .68 to .78, and it was indicated that reliable variance exists beyond the general perceived stress factor. The model displayed configural, metric, scalar, and residual invariance across language groups. Convergent validity analyses indicated that both the general perceived stress factor and the reverse-worded factor were related to scores of depression, anxiety, and anger in the expected directions. The reverse-worded factor added to the validity of the PSS beyond the general perceived stress factor. The total computed score of the PSS can be recommended for use with Hispanics/Latinos in the United States that complete the measure in English or Spanish and the reverse-worded factor can enhance prediction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Fatalism and hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment and control in US Hispanics/Latinos: results from HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Angela P; McCurley, Jessica L; Roesch, Scott C; Gonzalez, Patricia; Castañeda, Sheila F; Penedo, Frank J; Gallo, Linda C

    2016-08-08

    Compared with non-Hispanic whites, US Hispanics/Latinos display similar hypertension prevalence, but lower awareness, treatment, and control. Sociocultural factors may affect these patterns. Fatalism, the belief that health is predetermined by fate, relates to poorer adoption of risk reducing health behaviors. We examined the association of fatalism with hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control among 5313 Hispanics/Latinos, ages 18-74, who were enrolled from four US communities in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study. After accounting for socioeconomic status and acculturation in logistic regression analyses, higher fatalism was associated with increased odds of hypertension (OR 1.14, 95 % CI 1.02, 1.28). This association was non-significant when diabetes and other health-related covariates were statistically adjusted. Fatalism was not associated with hypertension awareness, treatment, or control. Findings suggest that the association of fatalism with hypertension may be due largely to its association with SES, acculturation, or related health conditions.

  10. Organochlorine compounds and trace elements in fish tissue and ancillary data for the Connecticut, Housatonic, and Thames river basins study unit, 1992-94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coles, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine compounds and trace elements were assayed in fish tissue collected from the Connecticut, Housatonic, and Thames River Basins Study Unit, 1992-94. These data were collected to determine the occurrence and distribution of organochlorine compounds and trace elements in the study unit. Ancillary data included are land-use categories by percentage of the sampling-site basins and the size, gender, and age of the individual fish collected for this study. Concentrations of 28 organochlorine compounds in composited whole fish samples were measured at 32 sites, and concentrations of 22 trace elements in composited fish liver samples were measured at 14 of the 32 sites. Most frequently detected organochlorines were DDT related compounds at 31 sites, total PCBs at 28 sites, and chlordane related compounds at 25 sites. Concentrations of total PCBs in fish tissue were generally higher at the large river sites than at the smaller tributary sites. Concentrations of chlordane-related compounds in fish tissue were higher at sites from more urbanized basins than at sites from predominately agriculture and forested basins. Concentrations of the DDT related compounds were undifferentiated among sites comprising different land uses. Trace elements detected at all 14 sites included boron, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, selenium, and zinc. Trace elements detected at 10 or more sites included arsenic, mercury, silver, strontium, and vanadium. Antimony, beryllium, and uranium were not detected at any site.

  11. Physician ancillary services: fad or fashion? Part 1.

    PubMed

    Reiboldt, John

    2005-01-01

    Ancillary services are quite fashionable in today's medical practice, but perhaps you've wondered if they are only a fad. If you're considering adding services to increase your revenue, you're not too late; this trend seems here to stay. Doing your homework and due diligence is key to the success of your ancillary service. Before introducing a service into your practice or investing in an ancillary venture, make sure that you get off on sound footing. Major investments call for experienced consulting and tapping into financial, operational, and legal specialists to address specific needs. Part 1 of this two-part article defines ancillary services and addresses the following topics: performing the feasibility study; writing the business plan; and addressing the legal and regulatory issues. Part 2 will discuss financing arrangements, opening, operational, and ongoing management elements critical to success.

  12. Physician ancillary services: fad or fashion? Part 2.

    PubMed

    Reiboldt, John

    2006-01-01

    Ancillary services are quite fashionable in today's medical practice, but perhaps you've wondered if they were only a fad. If you're considering adding services to increase your revenue, you're not too late; this trend seems here to stay. Doing your homework and due diligence is key to the success of your ancillary business. Before introducing a service into your practice or investing in an ancillary venture, make sure that you get off on sound footing. Major investments call for experienced consulting and tapping into financial, operational, and legal specialists to address specific needs. Part 1 defined ancillary services and addressed performing the feasibility study and writing the business plan. In this second part, legal and regulatory issues, financing arrangements, opening, and operational and ongoing management elements critical to success are all explored.

  13. A long-term study of 277 cases of equine sinonasal disease. Part 1: details of horses, historical, clinical and ancillary diagnostic findings.

    PubMed

    Tremaine, W H; Dixon, P M

    2001-05-01

    The clinical and ancillary diagnostic findings in equine sinnasal disease were studied. The diagnoses in 277 referred (1984-1996) cases of equine sinonasal disease included the following (% all cases): 67 cases (24.2%) primary sinusitis, 61 (22.0%) dental sinusitis, 37 (13.4%) sinus cysts, 22 (7.9%) sinonasal neoplasia, 21 (7.6%) progressive ethmoid haematoma, 17 (6.1%) sinonasal trauma, 13 (4.7%) sinonasal mycosis, 11 (4.0%) rostral maxillary cheek tooth infection, 7 (2.5%) sinonasal polyps, 7 (2.5%) cases of nasal epidermal inclusion cysts and 14 (5.1%) miscellaneous sinonasal disorders. Many disorders showed similar clinical signs including nasal discharge (present in 88% of all cases) and facial swelling (46%). Most disorders were chronic, with a median duration of signs of 12 weeks (range 3 days- 6 years) prior to referral. Sinus cysts and sinonasal neoplasia were significantly (P<0.05) more frequently associated with gross distortion of the nasal passages and facial bones than the other sinonasal disorders. Endoscopic changes were detected per nasum in 91% of cases, but contributed to the exact diagnosis in only 20%. Radiography revealed abnormalities in 81% of cases but was diagnostically useful in only 36%. Sinoscopy was diagnostically useful in 70% of the 61 cases where used.

  14. Options for pricing ancillary services in a deregulated power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamin, Hatim Yahya

    2001-07-01

    GENCOs in restructured systems are compensated for selling energy in the market. In a restructured market, a mechanism is required to entice participants in the market to provide ancillary services and to ensure adequate compensation that would guarantee its economic viability. The ISO controls the dispatch of generation, manages the reliability of the transmission grid, provides open access to the transmission, buys and provides ancillary services as required, coordinates day-ahead, hour-ahead schedules and performs real time balancing of load and generation, settles real time imbalances and ancillary services sales and purchases. The ISO, also, administers congestion management protocols for the transmission grid. Since the ISO does not own any generating units it must ensure that there is enough reserves for maintaining reliability according to FERC regulations, and sufficient unloaded generating capacity for balancing services in a real-time market. The ISO could meet these requirements by creating a competitive market for ancillary services, which are metered and remain unbundled to provide an accurate compensation for each supplier and cost to each consumer, In this study, we give an overview for restructuring and ancillary services in a restructured power marketplace. Also, we discuss the effect of GENCOs' actions in the competitive energy and ancillary service markets. In addition, we propose an auction market design for hedging ancillary service costs in California market. Furthermore, we show how to include the n-1 and voltage contingencies in security constrained unit commitment. Finally, we present two approaches for GENCOs' unit commitment in a restructured power market; one is based on game theory and the other is based on market price forecasting. In each of the two GENCOs' unit commitment approaches, we discuss the GENCOs' optimal bidding strategies in energy and ancillary service markets to maximize the GENCOs' profit.

  15. Associations of chronic stress burden, perceived stress, and traumatic stress with cardiovascular disease prevalence and risk factors in the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Linda C.; Roesch, Scott C.; Fortmann, Addie L.; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Penedo, Frank J.; Perreira, Krista; Birnbaum-Weitzman, Orit; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Castañeda, Sheila F.; Talavera, Gregory A.; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Daviglus, Martha L.; Schneiderman, Neil; Isasi, Carmen R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The current study examined multiple stress indicators (chronic, perceived, traumatic) in relation to prevalent coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and major cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors (i.e., diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, current smoking) in the multi-site Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) Sociocultural Ancillary Study (2010–2011). Methods Participants were 5313 men and women, 18–74 years old, representing diverse Hispanic/Latino ethnic backgrounds, who underwent a comprehensive baseline clinical exam and sociocultural exam with measures of stress. Results Chronic stress burden was related to a higher prevalence of CHD after adjusting for sociodemographic, behavioral and biological risk factors [OR (95% CI) = 1.22, (1.10–1.36)] and related to stroke prevalence in the model adjusted for demographic and behavioral factors [OR (95% CI) = 1.26, (1.03–1.55∂)]. Chronic stress was also related to a higher prevalence of diabetes [OR=1.20, (1.11–1.31)] and hypertension [OR=1.10 (1.02–1.19)] in individuals free from CVD (N=4926). Perceived stress [OR=1.03 (1.01–1.05)] and traumatic stress [OR=1.15 (1.05–1.26)] were associated with a higher prevalence of smoking. Participants who reported a greater number of lifetime traumatic events also unexpectedly showed a lower prevalence of diabetes [OR=.89 (.83–.97)] and hypertension [OR=.88 (.82–.93)]. Effects were largely consistent across age and sex groups. Conclusions The study underscores the utility of examining multiple indicators of stress in relation to health, since the direction and consistency of associations may vary across distinct stress conceptualizations. In addition, the study suggests that chronic stress is related to higher CVD risk and prevalence in Hispanics/Latinos, the largest U.S. ethnic minority group. PMID:24979579

  16. Validation of Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-12 (ISEL-12) scores among English- and Spanish-Speaking Hispanics/Latinos from the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study

    PubMed Central

    Merz, Erin L.; Roesch, Scott C.; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Penedo, Frank J.; Llabre, Maria M.; Weitzman, Orit B.; Navas-Nacher, Elena L.; Perreira, Krista M.; Gonzalez, Franklyn; Ponguta, Liliana A.; Johnson, Timothy P.; Gallo, Linda C.

    2014-01-01

    The Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-12 (ISEL-12; Cohen, Mermelstein, Kamarck, & Hoberman, 1985) is broadly employed as a short-form measure of the traditional ISEL, which measures functional (i.e., perceived) social support. The ISEL-12 can be scored by summing the items to create an overall social support score; three subscale scores representing appraisal, belonging, and tangible social support have also been proposed. Despite extensive use, studies of the psychometric properties of ISEL-12 scores have been limited, particularly among Hispanics/Latinos, the largest and fastest growing ethnic group in the United States. The present study investigated the reliability, and structural and convergent validity of ISEL-12 scores using data from 5,313 Hispanics/Latinos who participated in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary study. Participants completed measures in English or Spanish, and identified their ancestry as Dominican, Central American, Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, or South American. Cronbach’s alphas suggested adequate internal consistency for the total score for all languages and ancestry groups; coefficients for the subscale scores were not acceptable. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the one-factor and three-factor models fit the data equally well. Results from multigroup confirmatory factor analyses supported a similar one-factor structure with equivalent response patterns and variances between language groups and ancestry groups. Convergent validity analyses suggested that the total social support score related to scores of social network integration, life engagement, perceived stress, and negative affect (depression, anxiety) in the expected directions. The total score of the ISEL-12 can be recommended for use among Hispanics/Latinos. PMID:24320763

  17. Outdoor-Adventure Education as an Ancillary Component in Rehabilitation Programs for the Hearing Impaired: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckner, John L.

    This study investigated the effectiveness of using an outdoor-adventure education program as a method of intervention for enhancing the self-concept of a group of hearing impaired individuals receiving services from the Department of Vocational Rehabilitation. Nine adults (6 male, 3 female) with hearing impairments participated in a 4-day…

  18. Trajectories of Preparation for Future Care among First-Degree Relatives of Alzheimer's Disease Patients: An Ancillary Study of ADAPT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Wingyun; Sorensen, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the longitudinal patterns of Preparation for Future Care (PFC), defined as Awareness, Avoidance, Gathering Information, Decision Making, and Concrete Plans, in first-degree relatives of people with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Design and Methods: Eight time points across 6.5 years from a subsample of adults aged 70 years…

  19. Trajectories of Preparation for Future Care among First-Degree Relatives of Alzheimer's Disease Patients: An Ancillary Study of ADAPT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Wingyun; Sorensen, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the longitudinal patterns of Preparation for Future Care (PFC), defined as Awareness, Avoidance, Gathering Information, Decision Making, and Concrete Plans, in first-degree relatives of people with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Design and Methods: Eight time points across 6.5 years from a subsample of adults aged 70 years…

  20. Association of Childhood Economic Hardship with Adult Height and Adult Adiposity among Hispanics/Latinos. The HCHS/SOL Socio-Cultural Ancillary Study.

    PubMed

    Isasi, Carmen R; Jung, Molly; Parrinello, Christina M; Kaplan, Robert C; Kim, Ryung; Crespo, Noe C; Gonzalez, Patricia; Gouskova, Natalia A; Penedo, Frank J; Perreira, Krista M; Perrino, Tatiana; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Van Horn, Linda; Gallo, Linda C

    2016-01-01

    The study examined the association of childhood and current economic hardship with anthropometric indices in Hispanic/Latino adults, using data from the HCHS/SOL Socio-cultural ancillary study (N = 5,084), a community-based study of Hispanic/Latinos living in four urban areas (Bronx, NY, Chicago, IL, Miami, FL, and San Diego, CA). Childhood economic hardship was defined as having experienced a period of time when one's family had trouble paying for basic needs (e.g., food, housing), and when this economic hardship occurred: between 0-12, 13-18 years old, or throughout both of those times. Current economic hardship was defined as experiencing trouble paying for basic needs during the past 12 months. Anthropometry included height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and percentage body fat (%BF). Complex survey linear regression models were used to test the associations of childhood economic hardship with adult anthropometric indices, adjusting for potential confounders (e.g., age, sex, Hispanic background). Childhood economic hardship varied by Hispanic background, place of birth, and adult socio-economic status. Childhood economic hardship during both periods, childhood and adolescence, was associated with shorter height. Childhood economic hardship was associated with greater adiposity among US born individuals only. Current economic hardship was significantly associated with all three measures of adiposity (BMI, WC, %BF). These findings suggest that previous periods of childhood economic hardship appear to influence adult height more than adiposity, whereas current economic hardship may be a better determinant of adult adiposity in Hispanics.

  1. Association of Childhood Economic Hardship with Adult Height and Adult Adiposity among Hispanics/Latinos. The HCHS/SOL Socio-Cultural Ancillary Study

    PubMed Central

    Isasi, Carmen R.; Jung, Molly; Parrinello, Christina M.; Kaplan, Robert C.; Kim, Ryung; Crespo, Noe C.; Gonzalez, Patricia; Gouskova, Natalia A.; Penedo, Frank J.; Perreira, Krista M.; Perrino, Tatiana; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Van Horn, Linda; Gallo, Linda C.

    2016-01-01

    The study examined the association of childhood and current economic hardship with anthropometric indices in Hispanic/Latino adults, using data from the HCHS/SOL Socio-cultural ancillary study (N = 5,084), a community-based study of Hispanic/Latinos living in four urban areas (Bronx, NY, Chicago, IL, Miami, FL, and San Diego, CA). Childhood economic hardship was defined as having experienced a period of time when one’s family had trouble paying for basic needs (e.g., food, housing), and when this economic hardship occurred: between 0–12, 13–18 years old, or throughout both of those times. Current economic hardship was defined as experiencing trouble paying for basic needs during the past 12 months. Anthropometry included height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and percentage body fat (%BF). Complex survey linear regression models were used to test the associations of childhood economic hardship with adult anthropometric indices, adjusting for potential confounders (e.g., age, sex, Hispanic background). Childhood economic hardship varied by Hispanic background, place of birth, and adult socio-economic status. Childhood economic hardship during both periods, childhood and adolescence, was associated with shorter height. Childhood economic hardship was associated with greater adiposity among US born individuals only. Current economic hardship was significantly associated with all three measures of adiposity (BMI, WC, %BF). These findings suggest that previous periods of childhood economic hardship appear to influence adult height more than adiposity, whereas current economic hardship may be a better determinant of adult adiposity in Hispanics. PMID:26919283

  2. Sugar-sweetened beverage intake and cardiovascular risk factor profile in youth with type 1 diabetes: application of measurement error methodology in the SEARCH Nutrition Ancillary Study.

    PubMed

    Liese, Angela D; Crandell, Jamie L; Tooze, Janet A; Kipnis, Victor; Bell, Ronny; Couch, Sarah C; Dabelea, Dana; Crume, Tessa L; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J

    2015-08-14

    The SEARCH Nutrition Ancillary Study aims to investigate the role of dietary intake on the development of long-term complications of type 1 diabetes in youth, and capitalise on measurement error (ME) adjustment methodology. Using the National Cancer Institute (NCI) method for episodically consumed foods, we evaluated the relationship between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake and cardiovascular risk factor profile, with the application of ME adjustment methodology. The calibration sample included 166 youth with two FFQ and three 24 h dietary recall data within 1 month. The full sample included 2286 youth with type 1 diabetes. SSB intake was significantly associated with higher TAG, total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations, after adjusting for energy, age, diabetes duration, race/ethnicity, sex and education. The estimated effect size was larger (model coefficients increased approximately 3-fold) after the application of the NCI method than without adjustment for ME. Compared with individuals consuming one serving of SSB every 2 weeks, those who consumed one serving of SSB every 2 d had 3.7 mg/dl (0.04 mmol/l) higher TAG concentrations and 4.0 mg/dl (0.10 mmol/l) higher total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations, after adjusting for ME and covariates. SSB intake was not associated with measures of adiposity and blood pressure. Our findings suggest that SSB intake is significantly related to increased lipid levels in youth with type 1 diabetes, and that estimates of the effect size of SSB on lipid levels are severely attenuated in the presence of ME. Future studies in youth with diabetes should consider a design that will allow for the adjustment for ME when studying the influence of diet on health status.

  3. Sugar-sweetened beverage intake and cardiovascular risk factor profile in youth with type 1 diabetes: Application of measurement error methodology in the SEARCH Nutrition Ancillary Study

    PubMed Central

    Liese, Angela D.; Crandell, Jamie L.; Tooze, Janet A.; Kipnis, Victor; Bell, Ronny; Couch, Sarah C.; Dabelea, Dana; Crume, Tessa L.; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The SEARCH Nutrition Ancillary Study aims to investigate the role of dietary intake on the development of long-term complications of type 1diabetes in youth and capitalize on measurement error (ME) adjustment methodology. Research Design and Methods Using the National Cancer Institute (NCI) method for episodically-consumed foods, we evaluated the relationship of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake and cardiovascular risk factor profile, applying ME adjustment. The calibration sample included 166 youth with two FFQs and three 24-hour dietary recalls within one month. The full sample included 2,286 youth with type 1 diabetes. Results SSB intake was significantly associated with higher triglycerides, total and LDL-cholesterol, adjusted for energy, age, diabetes duration, race/ethnicity, gender, education. The estimated effect size was larger (model coefficients increased approximately threefold) after application of the NCI method than without ME adjustment. Compared to individuals consuming one serving of SSB every two weeks, those who consumed one serving every two days had 3.7 mg/dL higher triglycerides, 4.0 mg/dL higher total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol, adjusted for ME and covariates. SSB intake was not associated with measures of adiposity and blood pressure. Conclusions Our findings suggest that SSB intake is significantly related to increased lipid levels in youth with type 1diabetes and that estimates of the effect size of SSB on lipid levels are severely attenuated in the presence of measurement error. Future studies in youth with diabetes should consider a design that will allow for the adjustment for measurement error when studying the influence of diet on health status. PMID:26177613

  4. Study of Droplet Activation in Thin Clouds Using Ground-based Raman Lidar and Ancillary Remote Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosoldi, Marco; Madonna, Fabio; Gumà Claramunt, Pilar; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2015-04-01

    Studies on global climate change show that the effects of aerosol-cloud interactions (ACI) on the Earth's radiation balance and climate, also known as indirect aerosol effects, are the most uncertain among all the effects involving the atmospheric constituents and processes (Stocker et al., IPCC, 2013). Droplet activation is the most important and challenging process in the understanding of ACI. It represents the direct microphysical link between aerosols and clouds and it is probably the largest source of uncertainty in estimating indirect aerosol effects. An accurate estimation of aerosol-clouds microphysical and optical properties in proximity and within the cloud boundaries represents a good frame for the study of droplet activation. This can be obtained by using ground-based profiling remote sensing techniques. In this work, a methodology for the experimental investigation of droplet activation, based on ground-based multi-wavelength Raman lidar and Doppler radar technique, is presented. The study is focused on the observation of thin liquid water clouds, which are low or midlevel super-cooled clouds characterized by a liquid water path (LWP) lower than about 100 gm-2(Turner et al., 2007). These clouds are often optically thin, which means that ground-based Raman lidar allows the detection of the cloud top and of the cloud structure above. Broken clouds are primarily inspected to take advantage of their discontinuous structure using ground based remote sensing. Observations are performed simultaneously with multi-wavelength Raman lidars, a cloud Doppler radar and a microwave radiometer at CIAO (CNR-IMAA Atmospheric Observatory: www.ciao.imaa.cnr.it), in Potenza, Southern Italy (40.60N, 15.72E, 760 m a.s.l.). A statistical study of the variability of optical properties and humidity in the transition from cloudy regions to cloud-free regions surrounding the clouds leads to the identification of threshold values for the optical properties, enabling the

  5. Trajectories of preparation for future care among first-degree relatives of Alzheimer's disease patients: an ancillary study of ADAPT.

    PubMed

    Mak, Wingyun; Sörensen, Silvia

    2012-08-01

     This study examines the longitudinal patterns of Preparation for Future Care (PFC), defined as Awareness, Avoidance, Gathering Information, Decision Making, and Concrete Plans, in first-degree relatives of people with Alzheimer's disease (AD).   Eight time points across 6.5 years from a subsample of adults aged 70 years and older who were participating in the Alzheimer's Disease Anti-inflammatory Prevention Trial (ADAPT) were analyzed using latent growth modeling. Baseline attitudes toward planning for future care and demographic variables functioned as predictors in the conditional analyses.   Awareness, Gathering Information, Decision Making, and Concrete Planning increased across time, but Avoidance did not. Covariates were more often associated with the initial levels of planning behavior than with change across time. Women engaged in more initial Decision Making than men. Education was associated with more initial Gathering Information, Decision Making, and less Avoidance. Favorable attitudes toward planning were more predictive of baseline Awareness, Gathering Information, Avoidance, and less so for Decision Making or Concrete Planning.   Older adults with an elevated risk for AD increase in positive PFC behaviors gradually across time. Demographic characteristics and attitudes predict initial levels of planning, making it possible to identify individuals who might need help progressing to more advanced levels of planning. Future studies are needed to understand rates of change in planning behaviors.

  6. H. pylori seroprevalence and risk of diabetes: An ancillary case-control study nested in the diabetes prevention program.

    PubMed

    Alzahrani, Saud; Nelson, Jason; Moss, Steven F; Paulus, Jessica K; Knowler, William C; Pittas, Anastassios G

    2017-10-01

    To determine the association between H. pylori infection and risk of incident diabetes in adults at high risk for diabetes who participated in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) study. In a nested case-control study conducted among 421 adults with newly diagnosed diabetes and 421 matched controls, we examined the association between serological status of H. pylori at baseline and risk of incident diabetes over a mean follow-up period of 2.6years. Using data from the baseline visit of the DPP, we also examined the cross-sectional association between presence of H. pylori antibodies and insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and the disposition index-like measure after a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). At baseline, H. pylori antibodies were present in 40% of participants who developed diabetes and 39% of controls. After adjusting for matching factors, there was no association between exposure to H. pylori and incident diabetes (odds ratio [OR] of 1.04 (95% CI, 0.77 to 1.40). In cross-sectional analyses, H. pylori status was not significantly associated with insulin sensitivity and disposition index-like measure from OGTT. In adults at high risk for diabetes, H. pylori seropositivity was not associated with risk of developing diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Donor Age and Corneal Endothelial Cell Loss 5 Years after Successful Corneal Transplantation: Specular Microscopy Ancillary Study Results

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine whether endothelial cell loss 5 years after successful corneal transplantation is related to the age of the donor. Design Multicenter, prospective, double-masked clinical trial. Participants Three hundred forty-seven subjects participating in the Cornea Donor Study who had not experienced graft failure 5 years after corneal transplantation for a moderate-risk condition (principally Fuchs’ dystrophy or pseudophakic corneal edema). Testing Specular microscopic images of donor corneas obtained before surgery and postoperatively at 6 months, 12 months, and then annually through 5 years were submitted to a central reading center to measure endothelial cell density (ECD). Main Outcome Measure Endothelial cell density at 5 years. Results At 5 years, there was a substantial decrease in ECD from baseline for all donor ages. Subjects who received a cornea from a donor 12 to 65 years old experienced a median cell loss of 69% in the study eye, resulting in a 5-year median ECD of 824 cells/mm2 (interquartile range, 613–1342), whereas subjects who received a cornea from a donor 66 to 75 years old experienced a cell loss of 75%, resulting in a median 5-year ECD of 654 cells/mm2 (interquartile range, 538–986) (P [adjusted for baseline ECD] = 0.04). Statistically, there was a weak negative association between ECD and donor age analyzed as a continuous variable (r [adjusted for baseline ECD] = −0.19; 95% confidence interval, −0.29 to −0.08). Conclusions Endothelial cell loss is substantial in the 5 years after corneal transplantation. There is a slight association between cell loss and donor age. This finding emphasizes the importance of longer-term follow-up of this cohort to determine if this relationship affects graft survival. PMID:18387408

  8. Effect of intensive lifestyle intervention on sexual dysfunction in women with type 2 diabetes: results from an ancillary Look AHEAD study.

    PubMed

    Wing, Rena R; Bond, Dale S; Gendrano, Isaias Noel; Wadden, Thomas; Bahnson, Judy; Lewis, Cora E; Brancati, Frederick; Schneider, Stephen; Kitabchi, Abbas E; Van Dorsten, Brent; Rosen, Raymond C

    2013-10-01

    Sexual dysfunction is a prevalent problem in obese women with type 2 diabetes. This study examined the effects of intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) in these women. Look AHEAD is a 16-center, randomized, controlled trial evaluating the health effects of ILI compared with a control group (diabetes support and education [DSE]). The Look AHEAD Sexual Function Ancillary study included 375 female participants at five Look AHEAD sites. Participants completed the Female Sexual Function Inventory (FSFI) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and assessments of weight and cardiovascular risk factors at baseline and 1 year were made. At baseline, 50% of the 229 participants who reported being sexually active met criteria for female sexual dysfunction (FSD); only BDI score was related to FSD. One-year weight losses were greater in the ILI group than in the DSE group (7.6 vs. 0.45 kg; P<0.001). Among women with FSD at baseline, those in the ILI group (N=60) compared with those in the DSE group (N=53) were significantly more likely to remain sexually active (83 vs. 64%; P<0.008), reported greater improvement in total FSFI scores and in most FSFI domains (P<0.05), and were more likely to experience remission of FSD (28 vs. 11%; P<0.04) at 1 year. No significant differences between ILI and DSE were seen in women who did not have FSD at baseline. Participation in ILI appeared to have beneficial effects on sexual functioning among obese women with diabetes, particularly in those who had FSD at baseline.

  9. Nutritional factors and preservation of C-peptide in youth with recently diagnosed type 1 diabetes: SEARCH Nutrition Ancillary Study.

    PubMed

    Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J; Dabelea, Dana; Crandell, Jamie L; Crume, Tessa; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Dolan, Lawrence; King, Irena B; Lawrence, Jean M; Norris, Jill M; Pihoker, Catherine; The, Natalie

    2013-07-01

    To test the novel hypothesis that nutritional factors previously associated with type 1 diabetes etiology or with insulin secretion are prospectively associated with fasting C-peptide (FCP) concentration among youth recently diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Included were 1,316 youth with autoantibody-positive type 1 diabetes who participated in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study (baseline disease duration, 9.9 months; SD, 6.3). Nutritional exposures included breastfeeding and age at introduction of complementary foods, baseline plasma long-chain omega-3 fatty acids including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), vitamin D, vitamin E, and, from a baseline food frequency questionnaire, estimated intake of the branched-chain amino acid leucine and total carbohydrate. Multiple linear regression models were conducted to relate each nutritional factor to baseline FCP adjusted for demographics, disease-related factors, and other confounders. Prospective analyses included the subset of participants with preserved β-cell function at baseline (baseline FCP ≥0.23 ng/mL) with additional adjustment for baseline FCP and time (mean follow-up, 24.3 months; SD, 8.2; n = 656). FCP concentration was analyzed as log(FCP). In adjusted prospective analyses, baseline EPA (P = 0.02), EPA plus DHA (P = 0.03), and leucine (P = 0.03) were each associated positively and significantly with FCP at follow-up. Vitamin D was unexpectedly inversely associated with FCP (P = 0.002). Increased intake of branched-chain amino acids and long-chain omega-3 fatty acids may support preservation of β-cell function. This represents a new direction for research to improve prognosis for type 1 diabetes.

  10. Longitudinal associations of nutritional factors with glycated hemoglobin in youth with type 1 diabetes: the SEARCH Nutrition Ancillary Study123

    PubMed Central

    Crandell, Jamie L; Jaacks, Lindsay M; Couch, Sarah C; Lawrence, Jean M; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Improved glycated hemoglobin (Hb A1c) delays the progression of microvascular and macrovascular complications in individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D). We previously showed that higher baseline intakes of n–3 (ω-3) fatty acids and leucine are associated with preserved β cell function 2 y later in youth with T1D. Objective: In the current study, we extend this work to explore the longitudinal associations of nutritional factors with Hb A1c in youth with T1D. Design: We included 908 T1D youth with baseline and follow-up Hb A1c measurements. Nutritional factors assessed at baseline were as follows: breastfeeding status and timing of complimentary food introduction; intakes of leucine, carbohydrates, protein, fat, and fiber estimated from a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ); and plasma biomarkers for vitamins D and E, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid. We fit linear regression models adjusted for baseline Hb A1c, sociodemographic variables, diabetes-related variables, time between baseline and follow-up visits, saturated fat, physical activity, and for FFQ-derived nutrients, total calories. The vitamin D model was further adjusted for season and body mass index z score. Results: The mean ± SD age and diabetes duration at baseline was 10.8 ± 3.9 y and 10.1 ± 5.8 mo, respectively. A total of 9.3% of participants had poor Hb A1c (value ≥9.5%) at baseline, which increased to 18.3% during follow-up (P < 0.0001). Intakes of EPA (β = −0.045, P = 0.046), leucine (β = −0.031, P = 0.0004), and protein (β = −0.003, P = 0.0002) were significantly negatively associated with follow-up Hb A1c after adjustment for confounders. Intake of carbohydrates was significantly positively (β = 0.001, P = 0.003) associated with follow-up Hb A1c after adjustment for confounders. Conclusions: Several nutritional factors may be associated with Hb A1c during early stages of disease progression in youth recently diagnosed with T1D. In addition to

  11. Longitudinal associations of nutritional factors with glycated hemoglobin in youth with type 1 diabetes: the SEARCH Nutrition Ancillary Study.

    PubMed

    Lamichhane, Archana P; Crandell, Jamie L; Jaacks, Lindsay M; Couch, Sarah C; Lawrence, Jean M; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J

    2015-06-01

    Improved glycated hemoglobin (Hb A1c) delays the progression of microvascular and macrovascular complications in individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D). We previously showed that higher baseline intakes of n-3 (ω-3) fatty acids and leucine are associated with preserved β cell function 2 y later in youth with T1D. In the current study, we extend this work to explore the longitudinal associations of nutritional factors with Hb A1c in youth with T1D. We included 908 T1D youth with baseline and follow-up Hb A1c measurements. Nutritional factors assessed at baseline were as follows: breastfeeding status and timing of complimentary food introduction; intakes of leucine, carbohydrates, protein, fat, and fiber estimated from a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ); and plasma biomarkers for vitamins D and E, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid. We fit linear regression models adjusted for baseline Hb A1c, sociodemographic variables, diabetes-related variables, time between baseline and follow-up visits, saturated fat, physical activity, and for FFQ-derived nutrients, total calories. The vitamin D model was further adjusted for season and body mass index z score. The mean ± SD age and diabetes duration at baseline was 10.8 ± 3.9 y and 10.1 ± 5.8 mo, respectively. A total of 9.3% of participants had poor Hb A1c (value ≥9.5%) at baseline, which increased to 18.3% during follow-up (P < 0.0001). Intakes of EPA (β = -0.045, P = 0.046), leucine (β = -0.031, P = 0.0004), and protein (β = -0.003, P = 0.0002) were significantly negatively associated with follow-up Hb A1c after adjustment for confounders. Intake of carbohydrates was significantly positively (β = 0.001, P = 0.003) associated with follow-up Hb A1c after adjustment for confounders. Several nutritional factors may be associated with Hb A1c during early stages of disease progression in youth recently diagnosed with T1D. In addition to the overall role of major macronutrients such as carbohydrates

  12. Childhood Trauma and Adult Risk Factors and Disease in Hispanics/Latinos in the US: Results From the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) Sociocultural Ancillary Study.

    PubMed

    Llabre, Maria M; Schneiderman, Neil; Gallo, Linda C; Arguelles, William; Daviglus, Martha L; Gonzalez, Franklyn; Isasi, Carmen R; Perreira, Krista M; Penedo, Frank J

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are implicated in diseases of adulthood. We report the prevalence of ACEs in Hispanics/Latinos in the US and their association with major risk factors and diseases in adulthood. Data from the Sociocultural Ancillary Study of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) were used. The Sociocultural Ancillary Study of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos is an epidemiological study conducted in four urban communities in the US: Bronx, Chicago, Miami, and San Diego. The analytic sample comprised 5117 participants, ages 18 to 74 at baseline. Linear and logistic models, adjusted for sociodemographic factors, were used to examine associations of ACEs and risk factors (depressive symptoms, obesity, smoking, and alcohol use) and chronic disease (coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cancer); the latter were also adjusted for risk factors. Most participants (77.2%) experienced at least one ACE, and 28.7% experienced four or more. Adverse childhood experiences were common among all ancestry groups, with variability among them. Prevalence of four or more ACEs was higher among women than men (31.2% and 25.8%, respectively). Adverse childhood experiences were associated with depressive symptoms, body mass index, smoking, alcohol use, cancer, coronary heart disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but not asthma, diabetes, or stroke. Associations were not moderated by social support. Adverse childhood experiences are prevalent among US Hispanics/Latinos and are involved in disease in adulthood. The apparent higher prevalence of ACEs in US Hispanics/Latinos did not correspond with stronger associations with disease. Further studies are needed to identify factors that may moderate the associations of ACE with adult disease.

  13. A Study to Determine the Best Staffing Method for Identifying the Ancillary Staffing Requirements for Selected Outpatient Clinics at the Blanchfield Army Community Hospital

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-14

    i Criteria ........ . . . . . . ... 12 m Assumptions . .. .... ...... 13 Z Limitations ........ I ....... .. 14 mz Review of the Literature...important, many of these tasks were menial in nature and less labor-intensive and can be complete; in less time than when the physician is physically in... review of existing models that identify methods a -4 for maximizing the proper utilization of ancillary personnel and for O m delineating staffing

  14. Ancillary Services Provided from DER

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.B.

    2005-12-21

    Distributed energy resources (DER) are quickly making their way to industry primarily as backup generation. They are effective at starting and then producing full-load power within a few seconds. The distribution system is aging and transmission system development has not kept up with the growth in load and generation. The nation's transmission system is stressed with heavy power flows over long distances, and many areas are experiencing problems in providing the power quality needed to satisfy customers. Thus, a new market for DER is beginning to emerge. DER can alleviate the burden on the distribution system by providing ancillary services while providing a cost adjustment for the DER owner. This report describes 10 types of ancillary services that distributed generation (DG) can provide to the distribution system. Of these 10 services the feasibility, control strategy, effectiveness, and cost benefits are all analyzed as in the context of a future utility-power market. In this market, services will be provided at a local level that will benefit the customer, the distribution utility, and the transmission company.

  15. Effect of Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibition on Microvascular Coronary Dysfunction in Women: A Women’s Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) Ancillary Study

    PubMed Central

    Denardo, Scott J.; Wen, Xuerong; Handberg, Eileen M.; Bairey Merz, C. Noel; Sopko, George S.; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M.; Pepine, Carl J.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Microvascular coronary dysfunction (MCD) is associated with symptoms, signs of ischemia, and adverse outcomes in women without macrovascular obstructive coronary artery disease (M-CAD). Although, MCD can be quantified using coronary flow reserve (CFR), treatment is poorly defined. Hypothesis Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibition acutely improves MCD in these women. Methods The subjects were 23 symptomatic women (age 54±11 years) participating in an ancillary study of the Women’s Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) with baseline CFR ≤3.0 (Doppler flow wire and intracoronary adenosine) and without M-CAD. CFR was re-measured 45 minutes after PDE-5 inhibition (100 mg oral sildenafil). The primary measure of interest was change in CFR adjusted for baseline variables. Results The relationship between log2 transformed CFR post–PDE-5 inhibition (adjusted) and baseline was different from the line of identity (slope: 0.55 vs. 1.0, P=0.008; intercept: 0.73 vs. 0.0, P=0.01), indicating that PDE-5 inhibition improves CFR and the lower the baseline CFR, the greater the response. Among women with baseline CFR ≤2.5 (N=11), CFR increased from 2.1±0.2 to 2.7±0.6 (P=0.006). For women with baseline CFR >2.5 (N=12), CFR did not change (3.1±0.3 to 3.0±0.6; P=0.70). Conclusions For women with symptoms and signs of ischemia and no M-CAD, PDE-5 inhibition is associated with acute improvement in CFR and the effect concentrates among those with CFR ≤2.5. If these acute effects are sustained, then PDE-5 inhibition would provide a rational strategy for management of MCD in symptomatic women without M-CAD. The longer-term effects warrant study in a randomized trial using a sustained acting PDE-5 inhibitor. PMID:21780138

  16. A theoretical study on the injection, transport, absorption and phosphorescence properties of heteroleptic iridium(III) complexes with different ancillary ligands.

    PubMed

    Shang, Xiaohong; Wan, Ning; Han, Deming; Zhang, Gang

    2014-03-01

    We have reported a theoretical analysis of a series of heteroleptic iridium(III) complexes (mpmi)2Ir(fppi) [mpmi = 1-(4-tolyl)-3-methyl-imidazole, fppi = 4-fluoro-2-(pyrrol-2-yl)-pyridine] (1a), (mpmi)2Ir(dfpi) [dfpi = 4-fluoro-2-(3-fluoro-pyrrol-2-yl)-pyridine] (1b), (mpmi)2Ir(tfpi) [tfpi = 2-(pyrrol-2-yl)-4-trifluoromethyl-pyridine] (1c), (mpmi)2Ir(priq) [priq = 1-(pyrrol-2-yl)isoquinoline] (2a), (mpmi)2Ir(isql) [isql = 1-(indol-2-yl)-isoquinoline] (2b), and (mpmi)2Ir(biql) [biql = 1-(benzoimidazol-2-yl)-isoquinoline] (2c) by using the density functional theory (DFT) method to investigate their electronic structures, photophysical properties, and the phosphorescent efficiency mechanism. The results reveal that the nature of the ancillary ligands can affect the electron density distributions and energies of frontier molecular orbitals, resulting in changes of charge transfer performances and emission color. It is found that the studied complex 1c with the -CF3 substituent at the pyridine moiety results in the lower HOMO-LUMO energy gap and LUMO energy level, which will lead to a rich electron injection ability compared with that of 1a. For each complex studied (except 2b), the hole-transporting performance is better than the electron-transporting performance. In addition, for complexes 2a and 2b, the differences between reorganization energies for hole transport (λ(ih)) and reorganization energies for electron transport (λ(ie)) are relatively smaller, indicating that the hole and electron transfer balance could be achieved more easily in the emitting layer. It is believed that the largest metal to ligand charge transfer (MLCT) character, the higher μ(S1) and E(T1) values, as well as the smallest ΔE(S1-T1) value could result in higher phosphorescent quantum efficiency for 1b than those of other complexes.

  17. Cardiovascular Disease, its Risk Factors and Treatment, and Age-related Macular Degeneration: Women’s Health Initiative Sight Exam Ancillary Study

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Ronald; Deng, Yingzi; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Hyman, Leslie; Seddon, Johanna; Frank, Robert N.; Wallace, Robert B.; Hendrix, Susan L.; Kuppermann, Baruch D.; Langer, Robert D.; Kuller, Lewis; Brunner, Robert; Johnson, Karen C.; Thomas, Asha M.; Haan, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To examine the association of cardiovascular disease (CVD), CVD risk factors, and CVD treatment with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Design Observational analysis of a randomized clinical trial. Methods Setting The Women’s Health Initiative Sight Examination (WHISE), an ancillary study to the Women’s Health Initiative’s (WHI) clinical trial of hormone replacement therapy. Study Population 4,288 women aged 63 years and older. Observation Procedures Information on CVD and its risk factors were obtained from a standardized questionnaire and examination. Main Outcome Measure AMD as determined by standardized grading of fundus photographs. Results Prevalence of any AMD was 21.4% (n=919). Of those with AMD, 5.8% (n=53) had signs of exudative AMD (n=39) or pure geographic atrophy (n=14), limiting the power to examine associations. Significant associations between late AMD and CVD risk factors were (odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval [CI]) older age (1.19, 1.13, 1.27, p < 0.0001), more pack years smoked (1.02 per pack-year smoked, 1.003, 1.03, p = 0.01), systolic blood pressure (0.84 per 10 mmHg, 0.71, 0.995, p = 0.04), report of taking calcium channel blockers (CCB) (2.49, 1.21, 5.12, p = 0.04), self-reported history of diabetes (2.00, 1.01, 3.96, p = 0.05), and greater body mass index (1.05 per 1 kg/m2, 1.001, 1.10, p = 0.05). History of myocardial infarction, stroke, use of statins, or white blood cell were not associated with AMD. Conclusions Results suggest that smoking, use of CCBs, diabetes, and obesity are risk factors for late AMD in women. However, the association of late AMD with systolic blood pressure and the effects of other CVD risk factors on early AMD need to be further explored. PMID:17317391

  18. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Heffner, Grayson; Goldman, Charles; Kintner-Meyer, Michael

    2007-05-01

    In this study, we examine the arrangements for and experiences of end-use loads providing ancillary services (AS) in five electricity markets: Australia, the United Kingdom (UK), the Nordic market, and the ERCOT and PJM markets in the United States. Our objective in undertaking this review of international experience was to identify specific approaches or market designs that have enabled customer loads to effectively deliver various ancillary services (AS) products. We hope that this report will contribute to the ongoing discussion in the U.S. and elsewhere regarding what institutional and technical developments are needed to ensure that customer loads can meaningfully participate in all wholesale electricity markets.

  19. A Forgotten Sector; The Training of Ancillary Staff in Hospitals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Duncan N.

    A study was made, in England and Wales, of training needs of hospital ancillary staff; it concentrated on a group of hospitals in each of six Hospital Regions. In addition, information was collected at the national level and brief visits were made in other regions. Findings showed large differences in staffing between hospitals of similar types,…

  20. A Forgotten Sector; The Training of Ancillary Staff in Hospitals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Duncan N.

    A study was made, in England and Wales, of training needs of hospital ancillary staff; it concentrated on a group of hospitals in each of six Hospital Regions. In addition, information was collected at the national level and brief visits were made in other regions. Findings showed large differences in staffing between hospitals of similar types,…

  1. Adverse selection and moral hazard in the provision of clinical trial ancillary care.

    PubMed

    Richards, Michael R; Helmchen, Lorens A

    2013-04-01

    As more and more clinical trials are conducted in developing countries, concerns arise about non-trial medical care available to study participants. Recent work argues for ancillary care - medical care not part of the clinical trial per se - to be formally incorporated into these studies. Although the provision of ancillary care is often justified on ethical grounds, a number of crucial implementation issues remain unresolved, including its scope, duration and financing. Drawing on lessons from health insurance benefit design, we highlight two overlooked challenges for ancillary care adoption - adverse selection and moral hazard - and offer recommendations that could attenuate their consequences. Specifically, adverse selection and moral hazard could be reduced by offering a choice between ancillary medical care and monetary compensation or rewarding low ancillary care utilization. Alternatively, researchers' financial risk due to ancillary care could be shifted to a third-party insurer. Recognizing participants' behavioral responses to prospective offers of ancillary medical care would allow funders and research teams to forecast the demand for ancillary care more accurately and to prepare for its provision more adequately.

  2. Comparison of Self-Reported Sleep Duration With Actigraphy: Results From the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sueño Ancillary Study

    PubMed Central

    Cespedes, Elizabeth M.; Hu, Frank B.; Redline, Susan; Rosner, Bernard; Alcantara, Carmela; Cai, Jianwen; Hall, Martica H.; Loredo, Jose S.; Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Ramos, Alberto R.; Reid, Kathryn J.; Shah, Neomi A.; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Zee, Phyllis C.; Wang, Rui; Patel, Sanjay R.

    2016-01-01

    Most studies of sleep and health outcomes rely on self-reported sleep duration, although correlation with objective measures is poor. In this study, we defined sociodemographic and sleep characteristics associated with misreporting and assessed whether accounting for these factors better explains variation in objective sleep duration among 2,086 participants in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos who completed more than 5 nights of wrist actigraphy and reported habitual bed/wake times from 2010 to 2013. Using linear regression, we examined self-report as a predictor of actigraphy-assessed sleep duration. Mean amount of time spent asleep was 7.85 (standard deviation, 1.12) hours by self-report and 6.74 (standard deviation, 1.02) hours by actigraphy; correlation between them was 0.43. For each additional hour of self-reported sleep, actigraphy time spent asleep increased by 20 minutes (95% confidence interval: 19, 22). Correlations between self-reported and actigraphy-assessed time spent asleep were lower with male sex, younger age, sleep efficiency <85%, and night-to-night variability in sleep duration ≥1.5 hours. Adding sociodemographic and sleep factors to self-reports increased the proportion of variance explained in actigraphy-assessed sleep slightly (18%–32%). In this large validation study including Hispanics/Latinos, we demonstrated a moderate correlation between self-reported and actigraphy-assessed time spent asleep. The performance of self-reports varied by demographic and sleep measures but not by Hispanic subgroup. PMID:26940117

  3. Comparison of Self-Reported Sleep Duration With Actigraphy: Results From the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sueño Ancillary Study.

    PubMed

    Cespedes, Elizabeth M; Hu, Frank B; Redline, Susan; Rosner, Bernard; Alcantara, Carmela; Cai, Jianwen; Hall, Martica H; Loredo, Jose S; Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Ramos, Alberto R; Reid, Kathryn J; Shah, Neomi A; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Zee, Phyllis C; Wang, Rui; Patel, Sanjay R

    2016-03-15

    Most studies of sleep and health outcomes rely on self-reported sleep duration, although correlation with objective measures is poor. In this study, we defined sociodemographic and sleep characteristics associated with misreporting and assessed whether accounting for these factors better explains variation in objective sleep duration among 2,086 participants in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos who completed more than 5 nights of wrist actigraphy and reported habitual bed/wake times from 2010 to 2013. Using linear regression, we examined self-report as a predictor of actigraphy-assessed sleep duration. Mean amount of time spent asleep was 7.85 (standard deviation, 1.12) hours by self-report and 6.74 (standard deviation, 1.02) hours by actigraphy; correlation between them was 0.43. For each additional hour of self-reported sleep, actigraphy time spent asleep increased by 20 minutes (95% confidence interval: 19, 22). Correlations between self-reported and actigraphy-assessed time spent asleep were lower with male sex, younger age, sleep efficiency <85%, and night-to-night variability in sleep duration ≥1.5 hours. Adding sociodemographic and sleep factors to self-reports increased the proportion of variance explained in actigraphy-assessed sleep slightly (18%-32%). In this large validation study including Hispanics/Latinos, we demonstrated a moderate correlation between self-reported and actigraphy-assessed time spent asleep. The performance of self-reports varied by demographic and sleep measures but not by Hispanic subgroup.

  4. Actigraphic sleep measures and diet quality in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sueño ancillary study.

    PubMed

    Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Weng, Jia; Wang, Rui; Shaw, Pamela A; Jung, Molly; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Castañeda, Sheila F; Gallo, Linda C; Gellman, Marc D; Qi, Qibin; Ramos, Alberto R; Reid, Kathryn J; Van Horn, Linda; Patel, Sanjay R

    2017-03-28

    Using a cross-sectional probability sample with actigraphy data and two 24-h dietary recalls, we quantified the association between sleep duration, continuity, variability and timing with the Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010 diet quality score and its components in 2140 Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos participants. The Alternative Healthy Eating Index diet quality-2010 score ranges from 0 to 110, with higher scores indicating greater adherence to the dietary guidelines and lower risk from major chronic disease. None of the sleep measures was associated with total caloric intake as assessed using dietary recalls. However, both an increase in sleep duration and sleep efficiency were associated with healthier diet quality. Each standard deviation increase in sleep duration (1.05 h) and sleep efficiency (4.99%) was associated with a 0.30 point increase and 0.28 point increase, respectively, in the total Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010 score. The component of Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010 most strongly associated with longer sleep duration was increased nuts and legumes intake. The components of Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010 most strongly associated with higher sleep efficiency were increased whole fruit intake and decreased sodium intake. Both longer sleep duration and higher sleep efficiency were significantly associated with better diet quality among US Hispanic/Latino adults. The dietary components most strongly associated with sleep duration and sleep efficiency differed, suggesting potentially independent mechanisms by which each aspect of sleep impacts dietary choices. Longitudinal research is needed to understand the directionality of these identified relationships and the generalizability of these data across other ethnic groups.

  5. Model-Based Estimation of Forest Canopy Height in Red and Austrian Pine Stands Using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission and Ancillary Data: a Proof-of-Concept Study

    SciTech Connect

    Brown Jr., C G; Sarabandi, K; Pierce, L E

    2007-04-06

    In this paper, accurate tree stand height retrieval is demonstrated using C-band Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) height and ancillary data. The tree height retrieval algorithm is based on modeling uniform tree stands with a single layer of randomly oriented vegetation particles. For such scattering media, the scattering phase center height, as measured by SRTM, is a function of tree height, incidence angle, and the extinction coefficient of the medium. The extinction coefficient for uniform tree stands is calculated as a function of tree height and density using allometric equations and a fractal tree model. The accuracy of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated using SRTM and TOPSAR data for 15 red pine and Austrian pine stands (TOPSAR is an airborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar). The algorithm yields root-mean-square (rms) errors of 2.5-3.6 m, which is a substantial improvement over the 6.8-8.3-m rms errors from the raw SRTM minus National Elevation Dataset Heights.

  6. The impact of obesity on surgical staging, complications, and survival with uterine cancer: a Gynecologic Oncology Group LAP2 ancillary data study.

    PubMed

    Gunderson, Camille C; Java, James; Moore, Kathleen N; Walker, Joan L

    2014-04-01

    To determine the association of body mass index (BMI) on complications, recurrence, and survival in GOG LAP2, a randomized comparison of laparoscopic versus open staging in clinically early stage uterine cancer (EC). An ancillary data analysis of GOG LAP2 was performed. Categorical variables were compared using Pearson chi-square test and continuous variables using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests by BMI group. Survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate independent prognostic factors on survival. Statistical tests were two-tailed with α=0.05, except where noted. Statistical analyses utilized R programming language. 2596 women were included. BMI (kg/m(2)) groups were <25 (29.5%), 25-30 (28.2%), 30-35 (21%), 35-40 (10.9%), and ≥40 (10.4%). Stage (p=0.021), grade (p<0.001), and histology (p=0.005) differed by BMI. Obese women were less likely to have high risk (HR) disease (+lymph nodes/ovaries/cytology) or tumor features that met GOG99 high intermediate risk (HIR) criteria (p<0.001). Adjuvant therapy (p=0.151) and recurrence (p=0.46) did not vary by BMI. Hospitalization >2days, antibiotic use, wound infection, and venous thrombophlebitis were higher with BMI ≥40. BMI (p=0.016), age (p<0.0001), race (p=0.033), and risk group (p<0.0001) predicted all-cause mortality. BMI was not predictive of disease-specific survival (p=0.79), but age (p=0.032) and risk group (p<0.0001) were significant factors. Obese women have greater surgical risk and lower risk of metastatic disease. BMI is associated with all-cause but not disease-specific mortality, emphasizing the detrimental effect of obesity (independent of EC), which deserves particular attention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 78 FR 41941 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Special, Emphasis Panel; CRIC Ancillary Studies... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney... Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; PAR12-265 Ancillary Studies in Kidney Disease and...

  8. Ancillary hospital personnel faced with organ donation and transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ríos, A; Conesa, C; Ramírez, P; Galindo, P J; Martínez, L; Fernández, O M; Montoya, M J; Rodríguez, M M; Lucas, D; Parrilla, P

    2006-04-01

    To reduce the number of family organ donation refusals, it is necessary not only to act on the general public but also on the health care system. In this respect, there are data suggesting that the percentage of hospital personnel against donation is high, especially among ancillary personnel. The objective herein was to analyze the attitudes of ancillary hospital professionals toward donation of their own organs and determine factors that conditioned such attitudes. A random sample in a third-level hospital with a solid organ transplant program was stratified by ancillary services: administrative, porters, maintenance, cleaning, and cooking. Attitudes toward donation of one's own organs after death were evaluated using a questionnaire on psychosocial aspects validated in our area. It included various psychosocial variables that could affect such attitudes. The Student t test and chi-square test were used to evaluate the data. We analyzed 277 respondents of mean age 43 +/- 8 years and 96% women. The level of acceptance of organ donation was 64% (n = 178), whereas 46% were either against or undecided (n = 98). The variables which determined the attitudes were understanding of brain death (P = .004); attitude toward cadaveric manipulation, especially toward autopsy (P = .013) and cremation (P = .004); concern about mutilation after donation (P = .014); religion (P = .032); partner's attitude toward donation (P < .0001); and possibility of needing an organ in the future (P = .031). Ancillary hospital personnel had similar attitudes toward donation as those of the general public as observed in other studies. The attitudes were determined by many psychosocial factors. A campaign to raise awareness among professionals has become a priority, given that working in a hospital, their unfavorable attitude could have a strong negative impact on the general public.

  9. 18 CFR 35.40 - Ancillary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....40 Section 35.40 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT FILING OF RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Wholesale Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary Services at Market-Based Rates § 35.40...

  10. 18 CFR 35.40 - Ancillary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....40 Section 35.40 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT FILING OF RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Wholesale Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary Services at Market-Based Rates § 35.40...

  11. 18 CFR 35.40 - Ancillary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....40 Section 35.40 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT FILING OF RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Wholesale Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary Services at Market-Based Rates § 35.40...

  12. 18 CFR 35.40 - Ancillary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....40 Section 35.40 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT FILING OF RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Wholesale Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary Services at Market-Based Rates § 35.40...

  13. 1 CFR 8.5 - Ancillaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ancillaries. 8.5 Section 8.5 General Provisions... been affected by documents published during the period January 1, 1949, to December 31, 1963, and January 1, 1964, to December 31, 1972, respectively.) 1 Listings shall refer to Federal Register pages...

  14. 1 CFR 8.5 - Ancillaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ancillaries. 8.5 Section 8.5 General Provisions... been affected by documents published during the period January 1, 1949, to December 31, 1963, and January 1, 1964, to December 31, 1972, respectively.) 1 Listings shall refer to Federal Register pages...

  15. The Teacher as Manager of Ancillary Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sager, Carol

    This paper discusses the use of ancillary personnel, professionals and paraprofessionals providing supportive services to the classroom teacher, and the skills and strategies teachers will need in order to use support services wisely. The contents include: "Working with Adults," which discusses the need for teachers to adopt an interdisciplinary…

  16. 18 CFR 35.40 - Ancillary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ancillary services. 35.40 Section 35.40 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT FILING OF RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS...

  17. Calibrated Ancillary System (CAS) user's guide, volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Calibrated Ancillary System (CAS) provides real-time calibrated parameters from the orbiter downlink (ancillary data) to the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This user's guide contains the introduction to the equipment, operation, general procedures, and specific procedures of the CAS. Volume 4 presents the GSFC user mission planning procedures covering the mission planning main menu, bulletin board system, ancillary products menu, utility menu procedures, and ancillary support files procedures.

  18. 10 CFR 205.288 - Interim and ancillary orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interim and ancillary orders. 205.288 Section 205.288... Distribution of Refunds § 205.288 Interim and ancillary orders. The Director of the Office of Hearings and Appeals or his designee may issue any interim or ancillary orders, or make any rulings or...

  19. Optimal generator bidding strategies for power and ancillary services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morinec, Allen G.

    As the electric power industry transitions to a deregulated market, power transactions are made upon price rather than cost. Generator companies are interested in maximizing their profits rather than overall system efficiency. A method to equitably compensate generation providers for real power, and ancillary services such as reactive power and spinning reserve, will ensure a competitive market with an adequate number of suppliers. Optimizing the generation product mix during bidding is necessary to maximize a generator company's profits. The objective of this research work is to determine and formulate appropriate optimal bidding strategies for a generation company in both the energy and ancillary services markets. These strategies should incorporate the capability curves of their generators as constraints to define the optimal product mix and price offered in the day-ahead and real time spot markets. In order to achieve such a goal, a two-player model was composed to simulate market auctions for power generation. A dynamic game methodology was developed to identify Nash Equilibria and Mixed-Strategy Nash Equilibria solutions as optimal generation bidding strategies for two-player non-cooperative variable-sum matrix games with incomplete information. These games integrated the generation product mix of real power, reactive power, and spinning reserve with the generators's capability curves as constraints. The research includes simulations of market auctions, where strategies were tested for generators with different unit constraints, costs, types of competitors, strategies, and demand levels. Studies on the capability of large hydrogen cooled synchronous generators were utilized to derive useful equations that define the exact shape of the capability curve from the intersections of the arcs defined by the centers and radial vectors of the rotor, stator, and steady-state stability limits. The available reactive reserve and spinning reserve were calculated given a

  20. Ocular screening adherence across Hispanic/Latino heritage groups with diabetes: results from the Ocular SOL ancillary to the Miami site of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL)

    PubMed Central

    Tannenbaum, Stacey L; McClure, Laura A; Zheng, D Diane; Lam, Byron L; Arheart, Kristopher L; Joslin, Charlotte E; Talavera, Gregory A; Lee, David J

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of ocular screening adherence among select Hispanics/Latinos living with diabetes. Research design and methods Data were obtained through an ancillary study of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (Miami site). Participants included Hispanics/Latinos aged 40+ years who underwent a baseline examination/risk factor assessment (2008–2011) and then completed a survey on vision health/knowledge (conducted October 2011–September 2013; sample n=1235; diabetic subsample=264). The dependent variable was having a dilated eye examination within the past 12 months. Covariate candidate selection for entry into sequential multivariable logistic regression models was guided by Anderson's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use and the Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations. Results Participants aged 65+ were more likely to have dilated eye examinations (OR 2.62, 95% CI 1.22 to 5.60) compared with those aged 40–54 years. Participants less likely to have dilated examinations had a high school degree or general educational development (GED) (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.96, compared to no degree) and those currently uninsured or never insured ((OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.83) and (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.51)) compared to those currently insured. Participants who heard or saw something about eye health from two or more sources (eg, media outlets, doctor's office, relatives/friends) compared to those who reported no sources in the past 12 months were more likely to have a dilated eye examination (OR 2.82, 95% CI 1.26 to 6.28). Conclusions Lack of health insurance is strongly associated with low screening uptake in Hispanics/Latinos living with diabetes. Health promotion strategies stressing the importance of annual dilated eye examinations and increasing sources of information on eye health are other potential strategies to increase screening uptake in Hispanics

  1. A femtosecond study of the anomaly in electron injection for dye-sensitized solar cells: the influence of isomerization employing Ru(II) sensitizers with anthracene and phenanthrene ancillary ligands.

    PubMed

    Cheema, Hammad; Younts, Robert; Ogbose, Louis; Gautam, Bhoj; Gundogdu, Kenan; El-Shafei, Ahmed

    2015-01-28

    In this study, an intriguing difference caused by structural isomerization based on anthracene and phenanthrene stilbazole type ancillary ligands in Ru(ii) sensitizers for dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) has been investigated using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. Both anthracene and phenanthrene based sensitizers HD-7 and HD-8, respectively, resulted in a similar extinction coefficient, photophysical and thermodynamic free energy of electron injection and dye regeneration as measured by UV-Vis, excited state lifetime and cyclic voltammetry measurements, respectively. However, TiO2 adsorbed HD-7 resulted in up to 45% less photocurrent density than HD-8 although photovoltage was similar owing to comparable thermodynamic characteristics. It was obvious from the measurement of incident photon to current conversion efficiency (IPCE) that excited electrons in HD-7 are prone to internal energy loss before injection into the TiO2 conduction band. Analysis of photo-induced spectral features measured by femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy showed that excited electrons in HD-7 are prone to ISC (intersystem crossing) much more than HD-8 and those triplet electrons are not injected into TiO2 efficiently. Interestingly, from impedance measurements, HD-7 showed higher recombination resistance than HD-8 and N719, but a shorter lifetime for electrons injected into the TiO2 conduction band.

  2. SKIN WRINKLES AND RIGIDITY IN EARLY POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN VARY BY RACE/ETHNICITY: BASELINE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SKIN ANCILLARY STUDY OF THE KEEPS TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Erin; Pal, Lubna; Altun, Tugba; Madankumar, Rajeevi; Freeman, Ruth; Amin, Hussein; Harman, Mitch; Santoro, Nanette; Taylor, Hugh S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To characterize skin wrinkles and rigidity in recently menopausal women. Design Baseline assessment of participants prior to randomization to study drug. Setting Multicenter trial, university medical centers. Patients Recently menopausal participants enrolled in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS). Interventions Skin wrinkles were assessed at 11 locations on the face and neck using the Lemperle wrinkle scale. Skin rigidity was assessed at the forehead and cheek using a durometer. Outcome Skin wrinkles and rigidity were compared among race/ethnic groups. Skin wrinkles and rigidity were correlated with age, time since menopause, weight, and BMI. Results In early menopausal women, wrinkles, but not skin rigidity, vary significantly among races (p=0.0003), where Black women have the lowest wrinkle scores. In White women, chronological age was significantly correlated with worsening skin wrinkles, but not with rigidity(p<0.001). Skin rigidity correlated with increasing length of time since menopause, however only in the White subgroup (p<0.01). In the combined study group, increasing weight was associated with less skin wrinkling (p<0.05). Conclusions Skin characteristics of recently menopausal women are not well studied. Ethnic differences in skin characteristics are widely accepted, but poorly described. In recently menopausal women not using hormone therapy (HT), significant racial differences in skin wrinkling and rigidity exist. Continued study of the KEEPS population will provide evidence of the effects of HT on the skin aging process in early menopausal women. PMID:20971461

  3. Skin wrinkles and rigidity in early postmenopausal women vary by race/ethnicity: baseline characteristics of the skin ancillary study of the KEEPS trial.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Erin; Pal, Lubna; Altun, Tugba; Madankumar, Rajeevi; Freeman, Ruth; Amin, Hussein; Harman, Mitch; Santoro, Nanette; Taylor, Hugh S

    2011-02-01

    To characterize skin wrinkles and rigidity in recently menopausal women. Baseline assessment of participants before randomization to study drug. Multicenter trial, university medical centers. Recently menopausal participants enrolled in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS). Skin wrinkles were assessed at 11 locations on the face and neck using the Lemperle wrinkle scale. Skin rigidity was assessed at the forehead and cheek using a durometer. Skin wrinkles and rigidity were compared among race/ethnic groups. Skin wrinkles and rigidity were correlated with age, time since menopause, weight, and body mass index (BMI). In early menopausal women, wrinkles, but not skin rigidity, vary significantly among races, where black women have the lowest wrinkle scores. In white women, chronological age was significantly correlated with worsening skin wrinkles, but not with rigidity. Skin rigidity correlated with increasing length of time since menopause, however, only in the white subgroup. In the combined study group, increasing weight was associated with less skin wrinkling. Skin characteristics of recently menopausal women are not well studied. Ethnic differences in skin characteristics are widely accepted, but poorly described. In recently menopausal women not using hormone therapy (HT), significant racial differences in skin wrinkling and rigidity exist. Continued study of the KEEPS population will provide evidence of the effects of HT on the skin aging process in early menopausal women. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  4. Adherence to screening guidelines for breast and cervical cancer in postmenopausal women with coronary heart disease: an ancillary study of volunteers for hers.

    PubMed

    Castellano, P Z; Wenger, N K; Graves, W L

    2001-06-01

    Postmenopausal women with coronary heart disease (CHD) who volunteered for the Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS) randomized clinical trial had high rates of gynecological abnormalities. We examined compliance with gynecological cancer screening and factors affecting this behavior. Women who met inclusion criteria for HERS and were seen for screening by the study gynecologist were considered eligible for this study. Data were abstracted from study records, and additional information was obtained by telephone questionnaire. Adherence to mammography, breast examination, pelvic examination, and Pap smear recommendations was assessed. Provider behavior and its effect on compliance were assessed. Compliance rates were 59.1% for monthly breast self-examination (BSE), 67.2% for yearly mammography, 73% for yearly Pap smear and pelvic examination, and 75.7% for provider breast examination. Over 50% of patients had most of their screening tests done within the last year. Provider behavior was significantly related to patient screening compliance for mammography, breast examination, Pap smear, and pelvic examination. Provider gender was not significantly related to adherence. There were no significant differences in compliance rates based on the type of most recent coronary event. Compliance rates did not differ significantly between patients with and without gynecological abnormalities, except for mammography (78.3% versus 48.3%, p = 0.02). The majority of patients were compliant with gynecological screening. Among patients with gynecological abnormalities, mammography compliance was significantly lower. Provider behavior was an important factor in influencing women to obtain preventive screening. There were no significant differences in compliance based on provider gender or type of coronary event preceding HERS enrollment.

  5. Ancillary human health benefits of improved air quality resulting from climate change mitigation.

    PubMed

    Bell, Michelle L; Davis, Devra L; Cifuentes, Luis A; Krupnick, Alan J; Morgenstern, Richard D; Thurston, George D

    2008-07-31

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policies can provide ancillary benefits in terms of short-term improvements in air quality and associated health benefits. Several studies have analyzed the ancillary impacts of GHG policies for a variety of locations, pollutants, and policies. In this paper we review the existing evidence on ancillary health benefits relating to air pollution from various GHG strategies and provide a framework for such analysis. We evaluate techniques used in different stages of such research for estimation of: (1) changes in air pollutant concentrations; (2) avoided adverse health endpoints; and (3) economic valuation of health consequences. The limitations and merits of various methods are examined. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for ancillary benefits analysis and related research gaps in the relevant disciplines. We found that to date most assessments have focused their analysis more heavily on one aspect of the framework (e.g., economic analysis). While a wide range of methods was applied to various policies and regions, results from multiple studies provide strong evidence that the short-term public health and economic benefits of ancillary benefits related to GHG mitigation strategies are substantial. Further, results of these analyses are likely to be underestimates because there are a number of important unquantified health and economic endpoints. Remaining challenges include integrating the understanding of the relative toxicity of particulate matter by components or sources, developing better estimates of public health and environmental impacts on selected sub-populations, and devising new methods for evaluating heretofore unquantified and non-monetized benefits.

  6. Calibrated Ancillary System (CAS) user's guide, volume 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Calibrated Ancillary System (CAS) provides real-time parameters from the orbiter downlink (ancillary data) to the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This user's guide contains the introduction to the equipment, operation, general procedures, and specific procedures of CAS. Volume 5 describes the testing user mission planning procedures including the bulletin board system and ancillary products procedures. Instructions for viewing the SDT/TDT (shuttle data tape/telemetry descriptor tape) data base and the file management menu are also given.

  7. Calibrated Ancillary System (CAS) user's guide, volume 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Calibrated Ancillary System (CAS) provides real-time calibrated parameters from the orbiter downlink (ancillary data) to the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This user's guide contains the introduction to the equipment, operation, general procedures, and specific procedures of CAS. Volume 6 describes ancillary products procedures, enhancement menu and processing task procedures for SDT/TDT (shuttle data tape/telemetry descriptor tape), database errors and network data driver (NDD) product menu procedures, and utility menu procedures.

  8. Effects of different hormone therapies on breast pain in recently postmenopausal women: findings from the Mayo Clinic KEEPS breast pain ancillary study.

    PubMed

    Files, Julia A; Miller, Virginia M; Cha, Stephen S; Pruthi, Sandhya

    2014-10-01

    Abstract Background: It is estimated that 70% of women in Western societies experience breast pain at least once during their lifetime. In the Women's Health Initiative (WHI), women treated with oral conjugated equine estrogen (0.625 mg) with or without continuous oral medroxyprogesterone acetate (2.5 mg) had a higher incidence of breast pain than those who received placebo. The effect of other hormone therapy regimens on breast pain is unknown. We compared breast pain among healthy, recently menopausal women enrolled in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS) at Mayo Clinic. Women were randomized to: 0.45 mg/day oral conjugated equine estrogen (o-CEE) plus 200 mg/day micronized progesterone (m-P) for the first 12 days of the month, 50 μg/day transdermal 17β estradiol (t-E2) plus m-P for 12 days, or placebo pills and patch. Participants completed the Mayo Clinic breast pain questionnaire at baseline and yearly for the duration of the study. Participants (116) averaged 53.0 years of age and 1.6 years past their last menses at baseline. At baseline, 12 women (10%) reported breast pain with an average worst pain score [from 0 (no pain) to 10 (worst pain)] of 0.39±1.28. With treatment, the number of women reporting pain did not increase, and with either intention-to-treat or per-protocol analyses, breast pain scores did not differ significantly (p=0.39) among groups: t-E2 (0.53±1.21), o-CEE (0.32±0.78), placebo (0.23±0.87). Four years of treatment with o-CEE at a lower dose than that studied in the WHI with cyclic m-P or transdermal E2 with cyclic m-P did not increase breast pain in healthy, recently menopausal women.

  9. Ancillary procedures in facial animation surgery.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Bernardo; Ferri, Andrea; Ferrari, Silvano; Leporati, Massimiliano; Ferri, Teore; Sesenna, Enrico

    2014-12-01

    Facial animation surgery with neuromuscular transplants has become a standard procedure for the treatment of facial palsies. However, the forehead, periocular complex, nasal base area, and inferior lip are secondary sites that also need to be considered in the complete rehabilitation of a flaccid facial palsy. A total of 136 ancillary procedures were performed in 49 patients between 2003 and 2013 and consisted of eyebrow suspensions (11), upper eyelid loading with a platinum chain (39), inferior palpebral suspension with fascia lata (22), nasal base suspension with fascia lata (26), and botulinum toxin injection (38). Cosmetic results were good and excellent in 30.7% and 63.2% of the procedures, respectively. Functionally, periocular complex rehabilitation and nasal base suspension led to excellent improvements in function in 87.2% and 73.1% of the patients, respectively. The use of ancillary procedures can improve the functional and esthetic results of facial animation surgery. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. What is the role of retroperitoneal exploration in optimally debulked stage IIIC epithelial ovarian cancer? An NRG Oncology/Gynecologic Oncology Group ancillary data study.

    PubMed

    Rungruang, Bunja J; Miller, Austin; Krivak, Thomas C; Horowitz, Neil S; Rodriguez, Noah; Hamilton, Chad A; Backes, Floor J; Carson, Linda F; Friedlander, Michael; Mutch, David G; Goodheart, Michael J; Tewari, Krishnansu S; Wenham, Robert M; Bookman, Michael A; Maxwell, G Larry; Richard, Scott D

    2017-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of retroperitoneal (RP) exploration on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients with stage IIIC disease who underwent optimal debulking surgery. Data were collected from records of the Gynecologic Oncology Group 182 (GOG-182) study of stage IIIC EOC patients cytoreduced to no gross residual disease (R0) or minimal gross residual (<1 cm) disease (MGRD) at primary surgery. Patients with stage IIIC disease by intraperitoneal (IP) tumor were included and divided into 3 groups: 1) > 2 cm IP tumor without lymph node involvement (IP/RP-), 2) > 2 cm IP tumor with lymph node involvement (IP/RP+), and 3) > 2 cm IP tumor with no RP exploration (IP/RP?). The effects of disease distribution and RP exploration on PFS and OS were assessed using Kaplan-Meier and proportional hazards methods. There were 1871 stage IIIC patients in GOG-182 who underwent optimal primary debulking surgery. Of these, 689 (36.8%) underwent RP exploration with removal of lymph nodes from at least 1 para-aortic site, and 1182 (63.2%) did not. There were 269 patients in the IP/RP- group, 420 patients in the IP/RP + group, and 1182 patients in the IP/RP? group. Improved PFS (18.5 vs 16.0 months; P < .0001) and OS (53.3 vs 42.8 months; P < .0001) were associated with RP exploration versus no exploration. Patients with MGRD had improved PFS (16.8 vs 15.1 months, P = 0.0108) and OS (44.9 vs 40.5 months, P = 0.0076) versus no exploration. RP exploration at the time of primary surgery in patients with optimally debulked stage IIIC EOC is associated with a survival benefit. Cancer 2017;123:985-93. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  11. Theoretical study on the electronic structures and phosphorescent properties of four Ir(III) complexes with different substituents on the ancillary ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Deming; Shang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Gang; Zhao, Lihui

    2013-12-01

    The geometry structures, electronic structures, absorption and phosphorescent properties of four Ir(III) complexes {[(F2-ppy)2Ir(pta-X)], where F2-ppy = (2,4-difluoro)phenylpyridine; pta = pyridine-1,2,4-triazole; X = -CF3; -H; -CH3; -N(CH3)2}, are investigated using the density functional method. The results reveal that the electron-accepting group -CF3 has no obvious effect on absorption and emission properties, while the substitutive group -N(CH3)2 with strong electron-donating ability has obvious effect on the emission properties. The mobility of hole and electron were studied computationally based on the Marcus-Hush theory. Calculations of ionisation potential and electron affinity were used to evaluate the injection abilities of holes and electrons into these complexes. We hope that this theoretical work can provide a suitable guide to the future design and synthesis of novel phosphorescent materials for use in the organic light-emitting diodes.

  12. Radiation Pneumonitis in Association with Internal Mammary Node Irradiation in Breast Cancer Patients: An Ancillary Result from the KROG 08-06 Study.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jinhyun; Kim, Yong Bae; Shin, Kyung Hwan; Ahn, Sung-Ja; Lee, Hyung-Sik; Park, Won; Kim, Su Ssan; Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Kyu Chan; Kim, Dong Won; Suh, Hyun Suk; Park, Kyung Ran; Shin, Hyun Soo; Suh, Chang-Ok

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to present the incidence of radiation pneumonitis (RP) reported within 6 months after treatment for breast cancer with or without internal mammary node irradiation (IMNI). In the Korean Radiation Oncology Group (KROG) 08-06 phase III randomized trial, patients who were node-positive after surgery were randomly assigned to receive radiotherapy either with or without IMNI. A total of 747 patients were enrolled, and three-dimensional treatment planning with computed tomography simulation was performed for all patients. Of the 747 patients, 722 underwent chest X-rays before and within 6 months after radiotherapy. These 722 patients underwent evaluation, and RP was diagnosed on the basis of chest radiography findings and clinical symptoms. The relationship between the incidence of RP and clinical/dosimetric parameters was analyzed. RP developed in 35 patients (4.8%), including grade 1 RP in 26 patients (3.6%), grade 2 RP in nine patients (1.2%); there was no incidence of grade 3 or higher RP. Grade 2 RP cases were observed in only the IMNI group. The risk of developing RP was influenced by IMNI treatment; pneumonitis occurred in 6.5% of patients (n=23/356) who underwent IMNI and in 3.3% of patients (n=12/366) who did not (p=0.047). The differences in lung dosimetric parameters (mean lung dose, V10-40) were statistically significant between the two groups. IMNI treatment resulted in increased radiation exposure to the lung and a higher rate of RP, but the incidence and severity of RP was minimal and acceptable. This minor impact on morbidity should be balanced with the impact on survival outcome in future analyses.

  13. A questionnaire study to derive information on the working environment, clinical training, use of ancillary staff and optimization of patient radiation dose within UK dental practice.

    PubMed

    Orafi, I; Rushton, V E

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the working environment of GDPs and Endodontists and the methods used to optimize patient radiation dose. A total of 857 GDPs and 170 specialist Endodontists were contacted. The responders, 603 of the former and 132 of the latter, completed a questionnaire covering practitioner demographics, pattern of practice, the use of radiographic techniques and the optimization of dose. Chi-squared tests were used to compare groups at the P=0.05 level of significance. For nonparametric data, the Mann-Whitney U-test was employed. A response rate of 73% was achieved. Overall, 79.5% of endodontic specialists used film holders compared with 65.9% of GDPs (P=0.001). One hundred and thirty (98.5%) endodontists and 581 (96.3%) GDPs reported that they were well prepared or adequately prepared in radiographically assessing the presence of apical pathosis. The study found significant differences (P<0.001) between the use of digital radiography by specialist endodontists 93 (70.5%) compared with general dental practitioners 167 (27.7%). Significant differences (P=0.004) were also observed in the use of rectangular collimation between endodontic specialists 55 (42%) and GDPs 223 (37%). With regard to the use of film holders in diagnostic radiography, 105 (79.5%) of endodontic specialists employed these devices compared with 396 (65.7%) GDPs; this finding was significant (P=0.005). For working length estimation, significant differences (P=0.001) were noted in the use of a film holder between endodontic specialists 105 (79.5%) and GDPs 386 (64%). Both Endodontists and GDPs demonstrated compliance with guidelines relating to radiation protection being more significant amongst those clinicians working within specialist clinical practice. © 2012 International Endodontic Journal.

  14. Urine Fibrosis Markers and Risk of Allograft Failure in Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Case-Cohort Ancillary Study of the FAVORIT Trial.

    PubMed

    Ix, Joachim H; Katz, Ronit; Bansal, Nisha; Foster, Meredith; Weiner, Daniel E; Tracy, Russell; Jotwani, Vasantha; Hughes-Austin, Jan; McKay, Dianne; Gabbai, Francis; Hsu, Chi-Yuan; Bostom, Andrew; Levey, Andrew S; Shlipak, Michael G

    2017-03-01

    Kidney tubulointerstitial fibrosis marks risk for allograft failure in kidney transplant recipients, but is poorly captured by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or urine albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR). Whether urinary markers of tubulointerstitial fibrosis can noninvasively identify risk for allograft failure above and beyond eGFR and ACR is unknown. Case-cohort study. The FAVORIT (Folic Acid for Vascular Outcome Reduction in Transplantation) Trial was a randomized double-blind trial testing vitamin therapy to lower homocysteine levels in stable kidney transplant recipients. We selected a subset of participants at random (n=491) and all individuals with allograft failure during follow-up (cases; n=257). Using spot urine specimens from the baseline visit, we measured 4 urinary proteins known to correlate with tubulointerstitial fibrosis on biopsy (urine α1-microglobulin [A1M], monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 [MCP-1], and procollagen type III and type I amino-terminal amino pro-peptide). Death-censored allograft failure. In models adjusted for demographics, chronic kidney disease risk factors, eGFR, and ACR, higher concentrations of urine A1M (HR per doubling, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.43-2.08) and MCP-1 (HR per doubling, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.32-1.93) were strongly associated with allograft failure. When additionally adjusted for concentrations of other urine fibrosis and several urine injury markers, urine A1M (HR per doubling, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.27-2.44]) and MCP-1 levels (HR per doubling, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.17-1.89) remained associated with allograft failure. Urine procollagen type III and type I levels were not associated with allograft failure. We lack kidney biopsy data, BK titers, and HLA antibody status. Urine measurement of tubulointerstitial fibrosis may provide a noninvasive method to identify kidney transplant recipients at higher risk for future allograft failure, above and beyond eGFR and urine ACR. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Changes in Dietary Intake and Eating Behavior in Adolescents After Bariatric Surgery: an Ancillary Study to the Teen-LABS Consortium.

    PubMed

    Sarwer, David B; Dilks, Rebecca J; Spitzer, Jacqueline C; Berkowitz, Robert I; Wadden, Thomas A; Moore, Renee H; Chittams, Jesse L; Brandt, Mary L; Chen, Mike K; Courcoulas, Anita P; Harmon, Carroll M; Helmrath, Michael A; Michalsky, Marc P; Xanthakos, Stavra A; Zeller, Meg H; Jenkins, Todd M; Inge, Thomas H

    2017-06-17

    A growing number of studies suggest that bariatric surgery is safe and effective for adolescents with severe obesity. However, surprisingly little is known about changes in dietary intake and eating behavior of adolescents who undergo bariatric surgery. Investigate changes in dietary intake and eating behavior of adolescents with obesity who underwent bariatric surgery (n = 119) or lifestyle modification (LM) (n = 169). University-based health systems METHODS: A prospective investigation of 288 participants (219 female and 69 male) prior to bariatric surgery or LM and again 6, 12, and 24 months (surgery patients only) after treatment. Measures included changes in weight, macronutrient intake, eating behavior, and relevant demographic and physiological variables. Adolescents who underwent bariatric surgery experienced significantly greater weight loss than those who received LM. The two groups differed in self-reported intake of a number of macronutrients at 6 and 12 months from baseline, but not total caloric intake. Patients treated with surgery, compared to those treated with LM, also reported significantly greater reductions in a number of disordered eating symptoms. After bariatric surgery, greater weight loss from postoperative month 6 to 12 was associated with self-reported weight consciousness, craving for sweets, and consumption of zinc. Adolescents who underwent bariatric surgery, compared to those who received LM, reported significantly greater reductions in weight after 1 year. They also reported greater reductions in disordered eating symptoms. These findings provide new information on changes in dietary intake and eating behavior among adolescents who undergo bariatric surgery.

  16. Comparing Inpatient Satisfaction Collected via a Web-Based Questionnaire Self-Completion and Through a Telephone Interview: An Ancillary Study of the SENTIPAT Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Sarah F; Lapidus, Nathanael; Cosnes, Jacques; Tiret, Emmanuel; Fonquernie, Laurent; Cabane, Jean; Chazouilleres, Olivier; Surgers, Laure; Beaussier, Marc; Valleron, Alain-Jacques; Carrat, Fabrice; Hejblum, Gilles

    2017-08-23

    Assessing the satisfaction of patients about the health care they have received is relatively common nowadays. In France, the satisfaction questionnaire, I-Satis, is deployed in each institution admitting inpatients. Internet self-completion and telephone interview are the two modes of administration for collecting inpatient satisfaction that have never been compared in a multicenter randomized experiment involving a substantial number of patients. The objective of this study was to compare two modes of survey administration for collecting inpatient satisfaction: Internet self-completion and telephone interview. In the multicenter SENTIPAT (acronym for the concept of sentinel patients, ie, patients who would voluntarily report their health evolution on a dedicated website) randomized controlled trial, patients who were discharged from the hospital to home and had an Internet connection at home were enrolled between February 2013 and September 2014. They were randomized to either self-complete a set of questionnaires using a dedicated website or to provide answers to the same questionnaires administered during a telephone interview. As recommended by French authorities, the analysis of I-Satis satisfaction questionnaire involved all inpatients with a length of stay (LOS), including at least two nights. Participation rates, questionnaire consistency (measured using Cronbach alpha coefficient), and satisfaction scores were compared in the two groups. A total of 1680 eligible patients were randomized to the Internet group (n=840) or the telephone group (n=840). The analysis of I-Satis concerned 392 and 389 patients fulfilling the minimum LOS required in the Internet and telephone group, respectively. There were 39.3% (154/392) and 88.4% (344/389) responders in the Internet and telephone group, respectively (P<.001), with similar baseline variables. Internal consistency of the global satisfaction score was higher (P=.03) in the Internet group (Cronbach alpha estimate

  17. Association of adherence to a Mediterranean diet with glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in youth with type 1 diabetes: The SEARCH Nutrition Ancillary Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Victor W.; Lamichhane, Archana P.; Crandell, Jamie L.; Couch, Sarah C.; Liese, Angela D.; The, Natalie S.; Tzeel, Benjamin A.; Dabelea, Dana; Lawrence, Jean M.; Marcovina, Santica M.; Kim, Grace; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives This study aimed to determine the association between a Mediterranean diet and glycemic control and other cardiovascular risk factors among youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Subjects/Methods Incident T1D cases aged <20 years at diagnosis between 2002 and 2005 were included. Participants were seen at baseline (N=793), 1-year (N=512) and 5-year follow-up visits (N=501). Mediterranean diet score was assessed using a modified KIDMED index (mKIDMED). Multivariate linear regression and longitudinal mixed model were applied to determine the association between mKIDMED score and log-HbA1c, lipids, blood pressure (BP), and obesity. Results In cross-sectional analyses using baseline data, for individuals with an HbA1c of 7.5%, a two-point higher mKIDMED score (one standard deviation) was associated with 0.15% lower HbA1c (P=0.02). A two-point higher mKIDMED score was associated with 4.0 mg/dL lower total cholesterol (TC) (P=0.006), 3.4 mg/dL lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-C (P=0.004), 3.9 mg/dL lower non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL)-C (P=0.004), and 0.07 lower LDL-C/HDL-C ratio (P=0.02). Using longitudinal data, a two-point increase in mKIDMED score was associated with 0.01% lower log-HbA1c (P=0.07), 1.8 mg/dL lower TC (P=0.05), 1.6 mg/dL lower LDL-C (P=0.03), and 1.8 mg/dL lower non-HDL-C (P=0.03) than would otherwise have been expected. HbA1c mediated about 20% of the association for lipids in both cross-sectional and longitudinal models. An unexpected positive association between mKIDMED score and systolic BP was found among non-Hispanic white youth in cross-sectional analyses (P=0.009). Mediterranean diet was not associated with obesity. Conclusions Mediterranean diet may improve glycemic control and cardiovascular health in T1D youth. PMID:26908421

  18. Serum Phosphorus and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease, All-Cause Mortality, or Graft Failure in Kidney Transplant Recipients: An Ancillary Study of the FAVORIT Trial Cohort.

    PubMed

    Merhi, Basma; Shireman, Theresa; Carpenter, Myra A; Kusek, John W; Jacques, Paul; Pfeffer, Marc; Rao, Madhumathi; Foster, Meredith C; Kim, S Joseph; Pesavento, Todd E; Smith, Stephen R; Kew, Clifton E; House, Andrew A; Gohh, Reginald; Weiner, Daniel E; Levey, Andrew S; Ix, Joachim H; Bostom, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    Mild hyperphosphatemia is a putative risk factor for cardiovascular disease [CVD], loss of kidney function, and mortality. Very limited data are available from sizable multicenter kidney transplant recipient (KTR) cohorts assessing the potential relationships between serum phosphorus levels and the development of CVD outcomes, transplant failure, or all-cause mortality. Cohort study. The Folic Acid for Vascular Outcome Reduction in Transplantation (FAVORIT) Trial, a large, multicenter, multiethnic, controlled clinical trial that provided definitive evidence that high-dose vitamin B-based lowering of plasma homocysteine levels did not reduce CVD events, transplant failure, or total mortality in stable KTRs. Serum phosphorus levels were determined in 3,138 FAVORIT trial participants at randomization. During a median follow-up of 4.0 years, the cohort had 436 CVD events, 238 transplant failures, and 348 deaths. Proportional hazards modeling revealed that each 1-mg/dL higher serum phosphorus level was not associated with a significant increase in CVD risk (HR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.92-1.22), but increased transplant failure (HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.15-1.62) and total mortality risk associations (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.04-1.40) when adjusted for treatment allocation, traditional CVD risk factors, kidney measures, type of kidney transplant, transplant vintage, and use of calcineurin inhibitors, steroids, or lipid-lowering drugs. These associations were strengthened in models without kidney measures: CVD (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.00-1.31), transplant failure (HR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.46-2.01), and mortality (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.15-1.54). We lacked data for concentrations of parathyroid hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23, or vitamin D metabolites. Serum phosphorus level is marginally associated with CVD and more strongly associated with transplant failure and total mortality in long-term KTRs. A randomized controlled clinical trial in KTRs that assesses the potential impact of phosphorus

  19. A new approach to map cropland irrigation distribution using time series remote sensing and ancillary data in a heterogeneous semi-arid and arid region: a case study in Heihe watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Lu, D.; Jingfeng, H.; Luo, L.; Pokhrel, Y. N.; Deb, K.

    2016-12-01

    Mapping cropland irrigation in semi-arid and arid climate zone is needed because of the water shortage and sustainability, but remains challenging due to the difficulty for remote sensors to capture this instant event. Previous research mainly focused on the area mapping without consideration of irrigation times and dates. This study proposes a new method to extract irrigation extent, irrigation periods and times using the improved spatial resolution data by integration of moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS), Landsat, and ancillary data. Firstly, a high spatial resolution time series dataset was generated by fusing 500-meter time series MODIS with Landsat 8 imagery. Next, a decision tree was applied to identify cropland based on terrain data and phenology information derived from the above high resolution dataset. Then, two new spectral indices-enhanced land surface water index (ELSWI) and green index (GI) were developed for detecting irrigation information. ELSWI is used to detect irrigation event in non-vegetation growing periods (including winter and spring) while GI is used to detect irrigation event in growing period. The extraction of irrigation extent was based on the crop area. Irrigation periods and times were recorded once irrigation was detected. Lastly, cloud information and precipitation data were used to eliminate wrong irrigation records and pixels. Results of applying the above procedure over Heihe watershed in 2012 show that (1) winter irrigation and growing period irrigation were two main water supplements for crop growth; (2) the crop area was normally irrigated once in winter while there were at least three to four times in the growing period. The accuracy assessment indicates that crop area, winter and growing period irrigation area are highly accurate while spring irrigation area is less accurate. This proposed approach is promising for accurately extracting irrigation information at other similar climate regions.

  20. 8 CFR 1240.49 - Ancillary matters, applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ancillary matters, applications. 1240.49 Section 1240.49 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... to April 1, 1997) § 1240.49 Ancillary matters, applications. (a) Creation of the status of an...

  1. 8 CFR 1240.49 - Ancillary matters, applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ancillary matters, applications. 1240.49 Section 1240.49 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... to April 1, 1997) § 1240.49 Ancillary matters, applications. (a) Creation of the status of an...

  2. 8 CFR 1240.11 - Ancillary matters, applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ancillary matters, applications. 1240.11 Section 1240.11 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... Proceedings § 1240.11 Ancillary matters, applications. (a) Creation of the status of an alien...

  3. 8 CFR 1240.49 - Ancillary matters, applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ancillary matters, applications. 1240.49 Section 1240.49 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... to April 1, 1997) § 1240.49 Ancillary matters, applications. (a) Creation of the status of an...

  4. 8 CFR 1240.11 - Ancillary matters, applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ancillary matters, applications. 1240.11 Section 1240.11 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... Proceedings § 1240.11 Ancillary matters, applications. (a) Creation of the status of an alien...

  5. 8 CFR 1240.11 - Ancillary matters, applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ancillary matters, applications. 1240.11 Section 1240.11 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... Proceedings § 1240.11 Ancillary matters, applications. (a) Creation of the status of an alien...

  6. 8 CFR 1240.11 - Ancillary matters, applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ancillary matters, applications. 1240.11 Section 1240.11 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... Proceedings § 1240.11 Ancillary matters, applications. (a) Creation of the status of an alien...

  7. 1 CFR 10.12 - Format, indexes, and ancillaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Format, indexes, and ancillaries. 10.12 Section... FEDERAL REGISTER PRESIDENTIAL PAPERS Annual Publication § 10.12 Format, indexes, and ancillaries. (a) Each... to the amount of material to be included. The publication is published in the binding and style that...

  8. 1 CFR 10.12 - Format, indexes, and ancillaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Format, indexes, and ancillaries. 10.12 Section... FEDERAL REGISTER PRESIDENTIAL PAPERS Annual Publication § 10.12 Format, indexes, and ancillaries. (a) Each... to the amount of material to be included. The publication is published in the binding and style that...

  9. 1 CFR 10.12 - Format, indexes, and ancillaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Format, indexes, and ancillaries. 10.12 Section... FEDERAL REGISTER PRESIDENTIAL PAPERS Annual Publication § 10.12 Format, indexes, and ancillaries. (a) Each... to the amount of material to be included. The publication is published in the binding and style that...

  10. 1 CFR 10.12 - Format, indexes, and ancillaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Format, indexes, and ancillaries. 10.12 Section... FEDERAL REGISTER PRESIDENTIAL PAPERS Annual Publication § 10.12 Format, indexes, and ancillaries. (a) Each... to the amount of material to be included. The publication is published in the binding and style that...

  11. 1 CFR 10.12 - Format, indexes, and ancillaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Format, indexes, and ancillaries. 10.12 Section... FEDERAL REGISTER PRESIDENTIAL PAPERS Annual Publication § 10.12 Format, indexes, and ancillaries. (a) Each... to the amount of material to be included. The publication is published in the binding and style that...

  12. Calibrated Ancillary System (CAS) user's guide, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Calibrated Ancillary System (CAS) provides real-time calibrated parameters from the orbiter downlink (ancillary data) to the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This user's guide contains the introduction to the equipment, operation, general procedures, and specific procedures of CAS. Volume 2 describes the central status and control (CSAC) procedures, supervisor procedures, and logging procedures.

  13. Calibrated Ancillary System (CAS) user's guide, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Calibrated Ancillary System (CAS) provides real-time calibrated parameters from the orbiter downlink (ancillary data) to the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This user's guide contains the introduction to the equipment, operation, general procedures, and specific procedures of the CAS. Volume 3 describes logging and delogging procedures, real-time procedures, and error messages.

  14. Calibrated Ancillary System (CAS) user's guide, volume 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Calibrated Ancillary System (CAS) provides real-time calibrated parameters from the orbiter downlink (ancillary data) to the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This user's guide contains the introduction to the equipment, operation, general procedures, and specific procedures of CAS. Volume 8 describes procedures for invoking checkout software, file maintenance procedures, system manager procedures.

  15. 42 CFR 414.40 - Coding and ancillary policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coding and ancillary policies. 414.40 Section 414.40 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Other Practitioners § 414.40 Coding and ancillary policies. (a) General rule. CMS establishes uniform...

  16. Ancillary Staff Members' Mainstreaming Recommendations for Students with Mild Exceptionalities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Richard L.; Myles, Brenda Smith

    1991-01-01

    Examined mainstreaming modifications judged to be important by ancillary professionals in recommending mainstreaming of students with mild exceptionalities. Data revealed that no significant differences were noted in number of selected modifications as function of diagnostic category. Ancillary staff members indicated, however, that substantial…

  17. Muscle Contraction and Force: the Importance of an Ancillary Network, Nutrient Supply and Waste Removal

    PubMed Central

    Brüggemann, Dagmar A.; Risbo, Jens; Pierzynowski, Stefan G.; Harrison, Adrian P.

    2008-01-01

    Muscle contraction studies often focus solely on myofibres and the proteins known to be involved in the processes of sarcomere shortening and cross-bridge cycling, but skeletal muscle also comprises a very elaborate ancillary network of capillaries, which not only play a vital role in terms of nutrient delivery and waste product removal, but are also tethered to surrounding fibres by collagen ”wires”. This paper therefore addresses aspects of the ancillary network of skeletal muscle at both a microscopic and functional level in order to better understand its role holistically as a considerable contributor to force transfer within muscular tissue. PMID:19325816

  18. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of InternationalExperience-- Technical Appendix: Market Descriptions

    SciTech Connect

    Grayson Heffner, Charles Goldman, Kintner-Meyer, M; Kirby, Brendan

    2007-05-01

    In this study, we examine the arrangements for andexperiences of end-use loads providing ancillary services (AS) in fiveelectricity markets: Australia, the United Kingdom (UK), the Nordicmarket, and the ERCOT and PJM markets in the United States. Our objectivein undertaking this review of international experience was to identifyspecific approaches or market designs that have enabled customer loads toeffectively deliver various ancillary services (AS) products. We hopethat this report will contribute to the ongoing discussion in the U.S.and elsewhere regarding what institutional and technical developments areneeded to ensure that customer loads can meaningfully participate in allwholesale electricity markets.

  19. An integrated LANDSAT/ancillary data classification of desert rangeland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, K. P.; Ridd, M. K.; Merola, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Range inventorying methods using LANDSAT MSS data, coupled with ancillary data were examined. The study area encompassed nearly 20,000 acres in Rush Valley, Utah. The vegetation is predominately desert shrub and annual grasses, with some annual forbs. Three LANDSAT scenes were evaluated using a Kauth-Thomas brightness/greenness data transformation (May, June, and August dates). The data was classified using a four-band maximum-likelihood classifier. A print map was taken into the field to determine the relationship between print symbols and vegetation. It was determined that classification confusion could be greatly reduced by incorporating geomorphic units and soil texture (coarse vs fine) into the classification. Spectral data, geomorphic units, and soil texture were combined in a GIS format to produce a final vegetation map identifying 12 vegetation types.

  20. 30 CFR 550.207 - What ancillary activities may I conduct?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....207 Section 550.207 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Ancillary... surveys; or (c) Studies that model potential oil and hazardous substance spills, drilling muds...

  1. 30 CFR 550.207 - What ancillary activities may I conduct?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....207 Section 550.207 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Ancillary... surveys; or (c) Studies that model potential oil and hazardous substance spills, drilling muds...

  2. 30 CFR 550.207 - What ancillary activities may I conduct?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....207 Section 550.207 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Ancillary... surveys; or (c) Studies that model potential oil and hazardous substance spills, drilling muds...

  3. Use of LANDSAT-7 ETM+ with ancillary data for soil salinity mapping in northeast Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katawatin, Roengsak; Kotrapat, Wilaiwan

    2005-04-01

    Soil salinity is a major environmental constraint in Northeast Thailand. Sustainable land use and management in this region require careful mapping of the salinity status. This study was conducted to investigate performances of some digital classification techniques for soil salinity mapping in the Northeast. The techniques investigated were based on the use of LANDSAT-7 ETM+ with different combinations of three kinds of ancillary data (i.e., topography, geology, and underground water quality). In this study, the Maximum Likelihood classification method was employed. Statistics including KAPPA analysis and Z-statistic, overall accuracy, producer's accuracy, and user's accuracy, were used as the bases for assessments of mapping accuracies and, in turn, performances of the classification techniques. Results have shown that the use of ETM+ data bands 4,5 and 7, with the combination of all three kinds of the ancillary data yielded the most accurate soil salinity map with 83.6 % overall accuracy. The same subset of ETM+ data when used with any combination of two kinds of the ancillary data could serve as well. Other classification techniques yielded significantly less accurate results. It was, therefore, concluded that techniques based on the use of the selected ETM+ data subset with combinations of two or three kinds of the ancillary data were promising.

  4. Rosuvastatin versus placebo for delirium in intensive care and subsequent cognitive impairment in patients with sepsis-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome: an ancillary study to a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Needham, Dale M; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Dinglas, Victor D; Hough, Catherine L; Wozniak, Amy W; Jackson, James C; Morris, Peter E; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A; Ely, E Wesley; Hopkins, Ramona O

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Delirium is common in mechanically ventilated patients and is associated with cognitive impairment lasting at least 1 year after hospital discharge. Preclinical and observational studies suggest that the use of statins might reduce delirium in intensive care. We assessed whether the pleiotropic effects of statins can reduce delirium in intensive care and decrease subsequent cognitive impairment in a randomised controlled trial. Methods We did this ancillary study within the SAILS trial, a randomised controlled trial assessing mortality and ventilator-free days for rosuvastatin versus placebo for patients with sepsis-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome. This study was done at 35 hospitals in the USA. Patients were randomly assigned in permuted blocks of eight and stratified by hospital to receive either rosuvastatin (40 mg loading dose and then 20 mg daily until the earliest of 3 days after discharge from intensive care, study day 28, or death) or placebo. Patients and investigators were masked to treatment assignment. Delirium was assessed with the validated Confusion Assessment Method for intensive care. Cognitive function was assessed with tests for executive function, language, verbal reasoning and concept formation, and working, immediate, and delayed memory. We defined cognitive impairment as having one of these domains at least two SDs below population norms or at least two domains at least 1·5 SDs below norms. The primary endpoint was daily delirium status in intensive care up to 28 days in the intention-to-treat population and secondary endpoints were cognitive function at 6 months and 12 months. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00979121 and NCT00719446). Findings 272 patients were assessed for delirium daily in intensive care. The mean proportion of days with delirium was 34% (SD 30%) in the rosuvastatin group versus 31% (29%) in the placebo group; hazard ratio 1·14, 95% CI 0·92–1·41, p=0·22. At 6

  5. Rosuvastatin versus placebo for delirium in intensive care and subsequent cognitive impairment in patients with sepsis-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome: an ancillary study to a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Needham, Dale M; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Dinglas, Victor D; Hough, Catherine L; Wozniak, Amy W; Jackson, James C; Morris, Peter E; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A; Ely, E Wesley; Hopkins, Ramona O

    2016-03-01

    Delirium is common in mechanically ventilated patients and is associated with cognitive impairment lasting at least 1 year after hospital discharge. Preclinical and observational studies suggest that the use of statins might reduce delirium in intensive care. We assessed whether the pleiotropic effects of statins can reduce delirium in intensive care and decrease subsequent cognitive impairment in a randomised controlled trial. We did this ancillary study within the SAILS trial, a randomised controlled trial assessing mortality and ventilator-free days for rosuvastatin versus placebo for patients with sepsis-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome. This study was done at 35 hospitals in the USA. Patients were randomly assigned in permuted blocks of eight and stratified by hospital to receive either rosuvastatin (40 mg loading dose and then 20 mg daily until the earliest of 3 days after discharge from intensive care, study day 28, or death) or placebo. Patients and investigators were masked to treatment assignment. Delirium was assessed with the validated Confusion Assessment Method for intensive care. Cognitive function was assessed with tests for executive function, language, verbal reasoning and concept formation, and working, immediate, and delayed memory. We defined cognitive impairment as having one of these domains at least two SDs below population norms or at least two domains at least 1·5 SDs below norms. The primary endpoint was daily delirium status in intensive care up to 28 days in the intention-to-treat population and secondary endpoints were cognitive function at 6 months and 12 months. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00979121 and NCT00719446). 272 patients were assessed for delirium daily in intensive care. The mean proportion of days with delirium was 34% (SD 30%) in the rosuvastatin group versus 31% (29%) in the placebo group; hazard ratio 1·14, 95% CI 0·92-1·41, p=0·22. At 6 months, 19 (36%) of 53 patients in the

  6. Comparing Patients’ Opinions on the Hospital Discharge Process Collected With a Self-Reported Questionnaire Completed Via the Internet or Through a Telephone Survey: An Ancillary Study of the SENTIPAT Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Carrat, Fabrice; Hejblum, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Background Hospital discharge, a critical stage in the hospital-to-home transition of patient care, is a complex process with potential dysfunctions having an impact on patients’ health on their return home. No study has yet reported the feasibility and usefulness of an information system that would directly collect and transmit, via the Internet, volunteer patients’ opinions on their satisfaction concerning the organization of hospital discharge. Objective Our primary objective was to compare patients’ opinions on the discharge process collected with 2 different methods: self-questionnaire completed on a dedicated website versus a telephone interview. The secondary goal was to estimate patient satisfaction. Methods We created a questionnaire to examine hospital discharge according to 3 dimensions: discharge logistics organization, preplanned posthospital continuity-of-care organization, and patients’ impressions at the time of discharge. A satisfaction score (between 0 and 1) for each of those dimensions and an associated total score were calculated. Taking advantage of the randomized SENTIPAT trial that questioned patients recruited at hospital discharge about the evolution of their health after returning home and randomly assigned them to complete a self-questionnaire directly online or during a telephone interview, we conducted an ancillary study comparing satisfaction with the organization of hospital discharge for these 2 patient groups. The questionnaire was proposed to 1141 patients included in the trial who were hospitalized for ≥2 days, among whom 867 eligible patients had access to the Internet at home and were randomized to the Internet or telephone group. Results Of the 1141 patients included, 755 (66.17%) completed the questionnaire. The response rates for the Internet (39.1%, 168/430) and telephone groups (87.2%, 381/437) differed significantly (P<.001), but their total satisfaction scores did not (P=.08) nor did the satisfaction subscores

  7. 1. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTHWEST OF ANCILLARY STRUCTURES ASSOCIATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTHWEST OF ANCILLARY STRUCTURES ASSOCIATED WITH AND SURROUNDING BUILDING 3210. - Nevada Test Site, Test Cell C Facility, Elevated Water Tower, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Road J, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  8. Ancillary Data Services of NASA's Planetary Data System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acton, C.

    1994-01-01

    JPL's Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility (NAIF) has primary responsibility for design and implementation of the SPICE ancillary information system, supporting a wide range of space science mission design, observation planning and data analysis functions/activities. NAIF also serves as the geometry and ancillary data node of the Planetary Data System (PDS). As part of the PDS, NAIF archives SPICE and other ancillary data produced by flight projects. NAIF then distributes these data, and associated data access software and high-level tools, to researchers funded by NASA's Office of Space Science. Support for a broader user community is also offered to the extent resources permit. This paper describes the SPICE system and customer support offered by NAIF.

  9. Load Participation in Ancillary Services System from An Operator Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Kujawski, Don; Petri, Mark C.

    2011-10-25

    Ancillary services as defined by FERC (Order 888) distinguished by response time, duration, frequency. Met when DR has capability to balance supply and demand; and LMP payment to DR is cost effective.

  10. Ancillary-service details: Dynamic scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Hirst, E.; Kirby, B.

    1997-01-01

    Dynamic scheduling (DS) is the electronic transfer from one control area to another of the time-varying electricity consumption associated with a load or the time-varying electricity production associated with a generator. Although electric utilities have been using this technique for at least two decades, its use is growing in popularity and importance. This growth is a consequence of the major changes under way in US bulk-power markets, in particular efforts to unbundle generation from transmission and to increase competition among generation providers. DS can promote competition and increase choices. It allows consumers to purchase certain services from entities outside their physical-host area and it allows generators to sell certain services to entities other than their physical host. These services include regulation (following minute-to-minute variations in load) and operating reserves, among others. Such an increase in the number of possible suppliers and customers should encourage innovation and reduce the costs and prices of providing electricity services. The purpose of the project reported here was to collect and analyze data on utility experiences with DS. Chapter 2 provides additional details and examples of the definitions of DS. Chapter 3 explains why DS might be an attractive service that customers and generators, as well as transmission providers, might wan to use. Chapter 4 presents some of the many current DS examples the authors uncovered in their interviews. Chapter 5 discusses the costs and cost-effectiveness of DS. Chapter 6 explains what they believe can and cannot be electronically moved from one control area to another, primarily in terms of the six ancillary services that FERC defined in Order 888. Chapter 7 discusses the need for additional research on DS.

  11. Calibrated Ancillary System (CAS) user's guide, volume 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Calibrated Ancillary System (CAS) provides real-time calibrated parameters from the orbiter downlink (ancillary data) to the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This user's guide contains the introduction to the equipment, operation, general procedures, and specific procedures of CAS. Volume 7 describes the data flow engineer (DFE) user mission planning procedures which include instructions for processing the SDT/TDT (shuttle data tape/telemetry descriptor tape).

  12. Survey of U.S. Ancillary Services Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Zhi; Levin, Todd; Conzelmann, Guenter

    2016-01-01

    In addition to providing energy to end-consumers, power system operators are also responsible for ensuring system reliability. To this end, power markets maintain an array of ancillary services to ensure it is always possible to balance the supply and demand for energy in real-time. A subset of these ancillary services are commonly procured through market-based mechanisms: namely, Regulation, Spinning, and Non-spinning Reserves.

  13. Ancillary human health benefits of improved air quality resulting from climate change mitigation

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Michelle L; Davis, Devra L; Cifuentes, Luis A; Krupnick, Alan J; Morgenstern, Richard D; Thurston, George D

    2008-01-01

    Background Greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policies can provide ancillary benefits in terms of short-term improvements in air quality and associated health benefits. Several studies have analyzed the ancillary impacts of GHG policies for a variety of locations, pollutants, and policies. In this paper we review the existing evidence on ancillary health benefits relating to air pollution from various GHG strategies and provide a framework for such analysis. Methods We evaluate techniques used in different stages of such research for estimation of: (1) changes in air pollutant concentrations; (2) avoided adverse health endpoints; and (3) economic valuation of health consequences. The limitations and merits of various methods are examined. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for ancillary benefits analysis and related research gaps in the relevant disciplines. Results We found that to date most assessments have focused their analysis more heavily on one aspect of the framework (e.g., economic analysis). While a wide range of methods was applied to various policies and regions, results from multiple studies provide strong evidence that the short-term public health and economic benefits of ancillary benefits related to GHG mitigation strategies are substantial. Further, results of these analyses are likely to be underestimates because there are a number of important unquantified health and economic endpoints. Conclusion Remaining challenges include integrating the understanding of the relative toxicity of particulate matter by components or sources, developing better estimates of public health and environmental impacts on selected sub-populations, and devising new methods for evaluating heretofore unquantified and non-monetized benefits. PMID:18671873

  14. ETINDE. Improving the role of a methodological approach and ancillary ethnoarchaeological data application for place vulnerability and resilience to a multi-hazard environment: Mt. Cameroon volcano case study [MIA-VITA project -FP7-ENV-2007-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilaria Pannaccione Apa, Maria; Kouokam, Emmanuel; Mbe Akoko, Robert; Peppoloni, Silvia; Fabrizia Buongiorno, Maria; Thierry, Pierre

    2013-04-01

    The FP7 MIA-VITA [Mitigate and assess risk from volcanic impact on terrain and human activities] project has been designed to address multidisciplinary aspects of volcanic threat assessment and management from prevention to crisis management recovery. In the socio-economic analysis carried out at Mt. Cameroon Bakweri and Bakossi ethnic groups, ancillary ethnoarchaeological information has been included to point out the cultural interaction between the volcano and its residents. In 2009-2011, ethnoanthropological surveys and interviews for data collection were carried out at Buea, Limbe, West Coast, Tiko and Muyuka sub-divisions adjacent to Mt. Cameroon. One of the outstanding, results from the Bakweri and Bakossi cultural tradition study: natural hazards are managed and produced by supernatural forces, as: Epasa Moto, God of the Mountain (Mt. Cameroon volcano) and Nyango Na Nwana , Goddess of the sea (Gulf of Guinea). In the case of Mount Cameroon, people may seek the spirit or gods of the mountain before farming, hunting and most recently the undertaking of the Mount Cameroon annual race are done. The spirit of this mountain must be seek to avert or stop a volcanic eruption because the eruption is attributed to the anger of the spirit. Among the Northern Bakweri, the association of spirits with the mountain could also be explained in terms of the importance of the mountain to the people. Most of their farming and hunting is done on the Mountain. Some forest products, for instance, wood for building and furniture is obtained from the forest of the mountain; this implies that the people rely on the Mountain for food, game and architecture/furniture etc. In addition, the eruption of the mountain is something which affects the people. It does not only destroy property, it frustrates people and takes away human lives when it occurs. Because of this economic importance of the Mountain and its unexpected and unwanted eruption, the tendency is to believe that it has some

  15. Market and policy barriers for demand response providing ancillary services in U.S. markets

    SciTech Connect

    Cappers, Peter; MacDonald, Jason; Goldman, Charles

    2013-03-01

    This study provides an examination of various market and policy barriers to demand response providing ancillary services in both ISO/RTO and non-ISO/RTO regions, especially at the program provider level. It is useful to classify barriers in order to create a holistic understanding and identify parties that could be responsible for their removal. This study develops a typology of barriers focusing on smaller customers that must rely on a program provider (i.e., electric investor owned utility or IOU, ARC) to create an aggregated DR resource in order to bring ancillary services to the balancing authority. The barriers were identified through examinations of regulatory structures, market environments, and product offerings; and discussions with industry stakeholders and regulators. In order to help illustrate the differences in barriers among various wholesale market designs and their constituent retail environments, four regions were chosen to use as case studies: Colorado, Texas, Wisconsin, and New Jersey.

  16. Commercial Building Loads Providing Ancillary Services in PJM

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, Jason; Kiliccote, Sila; Boch, Jim; Chen, Jonathan; Nawy, Robert

    2014-06-27

    The adoption of low carbon energy technologies such as variable renewable energy and electric vehicles, coupled with the efficacy of energy efficiency to reduce traditional base load has increased the uncertainty inherent in the net load shape. Handling this variability with slower, traditional resources leads to inefficient system dispatch, and in some cases may compromise reliability. Grid operators are looking to future energy technologies, such as automated demand response (DR), to provide capacity-based reliability services as the need for these services increase. While DR resources are expected to have the flexibility characteristics operators are looking for, demonstrations are necessary to build confidence in their capabilities. Additionally, building owners are uncertain of the monetary value and operational burden of providing these services. To address this, the present study demonstrates the ability of demand response resources providing two ancillary services in the PJM territory, synchronous reserve and regulation, using an OpenADR 2.0b signaling architecture. The loads under control include HVAC and lighting at a big box retail store and variable frequency fan loads. The study examines performance characteristics of the resource: the speed of response, communications latencies in the architecture, and accuracy of response. It also examines the frequency and duration of events and the value in the marketplace which can be used to examine if the opportunity is sufficient to entice building owners to participate.

  17. Ascent/descent ancillary data production user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brans, H. R.; Seacord, A. W., II; Ulmer, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    The Ascent/Descent Ancillary Data Product, also called the A/D BET because it contains a Best Estimate of the Trajectory (BET), is a collection of trajectory, attitude, and atmospheric related parameters computed for the ascent and descent phases of each Shuttle Mission. These computations are executed shortly after the event in a post-flight environment. A collection of several routines including some stand-alone routines constitute what is called the Ascent/Descent Ancillary Data Production Program. A User's Guide for that program is given. It is intended to provide the reader with all the information necessary to generate an Ascent or a Descent Ancillary Data Product. It includes descriptions of the input data and output data for each routine, and contains explicit instructions on how to run each routine. A description of the final output product is given.

  18. Diagnostic Implication and Clinical Relevance of Ancillary Techniques in Clinical Pathology Practice

    PubMed Central

    Makki, Jaafar S.

    2016-01-01

    Hematoxylin–eosin-stained slide preparation is one of the most durable techniques in medicine history, which has remained unchanged since implemented. It allows an accurate microscopic diagnosis of the vast majority of tissue samples. In many circumstances, this technique cannot answer all the questions posed at the initial diagnostic level. The pathologist has always been looking for additional ancillary techniques to answer pending questions. In our daily histopathology practice, we referred to those techniques as special stains, but nowadays, they are more than stains and are collectively called ancillary tests. They include a wide range of techniques starting from histochemical stains and ending in one or more advanced techniques, such as immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, molecular studies, cytogenetic studies, electron microscopy, flow cytometry, and polymerase chain reaction. PMID:27042154

  19. Calibrated Ancillary System (CAS) user's guide, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Calibrated Ancillary System (CAS) provides real-time calibrated parameters from the orbiter downlink (ancillary data) to the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This user's guide contains the introduction to the equipment, operation, general procedures, and specific procedures of the CAS. Volume 1 includes a general overview of the CAS relationships with other equipment, physical design, and hardware and software subsystems. In addition, a description of the user levels and tasks, an introduction to CAS operation, and an outline of general operating procedures are included.

  20. OFT ascent/descent ancillary data requirements document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, A. C., Jr.; Abramson, B.

    1978-01-01

    Requirements are presented for the ascent/descent (A/D) navigation and attitude-dependent ancillary data products to be generated for the space shuttle orbiter in support of orbital flight test requirements, MPAD guidance and navigation performance assessment, and the mission evaluation team. It was intended that this document serve as the sole requirements control instrument between MPB/MPAD and the A/D ancillary data users. The requirements are primarily functional in nature, but some detail level requirements are also included.

  1. Shuttle program: OFT ascent/descent ancillary data requirements document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, A. C., Jr.; Knoedler, J.

    1980-01-01

    Requirements are presented for the ascent/descent (A/D) navigation and attitude-dependent ancillary data products to be generated for the space shuttle orbiter in support of the orbital flight test (OFT) flight test requirements, MPAD guidance and navigation performance assessment, and the mission evaluation team. The A/D ancillary data support for OFT mission evaluation activities is confined to providing postflight position, velocity, attitude, and associated navigation and attitude derived parameters for the Orbiter over particular flight phases and time intervals.

  2. VOLTTRON-Based System for Providing Ancillary Services with Residential Building Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Xin

    2016-07-01

    Ancillary services entail controlled modulation of building equipment to maintain a stable balance of generation and load in the power system. Ancillary services include frequency regulation and contingency reserves, whose acting time ranges from several seconds to several minutes. Many pilot studies have been implemented to use industrial loads to provide ancillary services, and some have explored services from commercial building loads or electric vehicle charging loads. Residential loads, such as space conditioning and water heating, represent a largely untapped resource for providing ancillary services. The residential building sector accounts for a significant fraction of the total electricity use in the United States. Many loads in residential buildings are flexible and could potentially be curtailed or shifted at the request of the grid. However, there are many barriers that prevent residential loads being widely used for ancillary services. One of the major technical barriers is the lack of communication capabilities between end-use devices and the grid. End-use devices need to be able to receive the automatic generation control (AGC) signal from the grid operator and supply certain types of telemetry to verify response. With the advance of consumer electronics, communication-enabled, or 'connected,' residential equipment has emerged to overcome the communication barrier. However, these end-use devices have introduced a new interoperability challenge due to the existence of numerous standards and communication protocols among different end devices. In this paper, we present a VOLTTRON-based system that overcomes these technical challenges and provides ancillary services with residential loads. VOLTTRON is an open-source control and sensing platform for building energy management, facilitating interoperability solutions for end devices. We have developed drivers to communicate and control different types of end devices through standard-based interfaces

  3. 39 CFR 122.1 - Ancillary special services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POST OFFICE SERVICES SERVICE STANDARDS FOR MARKET-DOMINANT SPECIAL SERVICES PRODUCTS § 122.1 Ancillary special services. (a) For the market-dominant mail products... designed to provide electronic access to information regarding delivery-related events or forwarding...

  4. Risk Management: Supporting the District's Ancillary Services Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldmann, Steve; Strasburger, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The everyday operations of a school district depend on a network of people, including students, teachers, staff, and administrators. However, the ancillary services staff are really responsible for making the school day run smoothly. They are often the first employees that students see in the morning, either on the school bus or in the cafeteria,…

  5. Risk Management: Supporting the District's Ancillary Services Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldmann, Steve; Strasburger, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The everyday operations of a school district depend on a network of people, including students, teachers, staff, and administrators. However, the ancillary services staff are really responsible for making the school day run smoothly. They are often the first employees that students see in the morning, either on the school bus or in the cafeteria,…

  6. Financial Report of Ontario Universities 1995-96. Ancillary Enterprises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    This supplementary volume has been compiled from submissions prepared by each of the provincially assisted universities and federated and affiliated colleges of Ontario (Canada). The information in this volume provides further details concerning sources of revenue and types of expenses as reported for various ancillary operations. These include…

  7. TES/Aura L2 Ancillary Data (TL2ANCS)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-02-27

    TES/Aura L2 Ancillary Data (TL2ANCS) Project Title:  TES Discipline:  ... and Order:  Earthdata Search   FTP  Access:   Data Pool OPeNDAP Access:  OPeNDAP Parameters:  ... Solar Azimuth Angle Spacecraft Position Order Data:  Earthdata Search:   Order Data SCAR-B Block:  ...

  8. TES/Aura L2 Ancillary Data (TL2ANC)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-02-27

    TES/Aura L2 Ancillary Data (TL2ANC) News:  TES News Join TES News List ... and Order:  Earthdata Search   FTP  Access:   Data Pool OPeNDAP Access:  OPeNDAP Parameters:  Surface Pressure Emissivity Order Data:  Search and Order:   Earthdata Search Readme ...

  9. Financial Report of Ontario Universities, 1996-97. Ancillary Enterprises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    This report provides detailed information on ancillary enterprises at provincially assisted universities and at affiliated and federated colleges in Ontario (Canada) for the fiscal year that ended April 30, 1997. Such enterprises include school stores (including bookstores), food services, residences, conferences, parking, publishing, and other…

  10. Financial Report of Ontario Universities, 1997-98. Ancillary Enterprises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    This report provides detailed information on ancillary enterprises at provincially assisted universities and affiliated and federated colleges in Ontario (Canada) for the fiscal year ending 30 April 1998. Such enterprises include school stores (including bookstores), food services, residences, conferences, parking, publishing, and other…

  11. Financial Report of Ontario Universities 1995-96. Ancillary Enterprises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    This supplementary volume has been compiled from submissions prepared by each of the provincially assisted universities and federated and affiliated colleges of Ontario (Canada). The information in this volume provides further details concerning sources of revenue and types of expenses as reported for various ancillary operations. These include…

  12. VITAL-Bone Health: rationale and design of two ancillary studies evaluating the effects of vitamin D and/or omega-3 fatty acid supplements on incident fractures and bone health outcomes in the VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL (VITAL)

    PubMed Central

    LeBoff, Meryl S.; Yue, Amy Y.; Copeland, Trisha; Cook, Nancy R.; Buring, Julie E.; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Although vitamin D is widely used to promote skeletal health, definitive data on benefits and risks of supplemental vitamin D alone on bone are lacking. Results from large, randomized controlled trials in the general population are sparse. Data on the effects of supplemental omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) on bone are also limited. Design The VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL (VITAL) is a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial assessing the role of vitamin D3 (2000 IU/d) and omega-3 FA (1 g/d) supplements in reducing risks of cancer and cardiovascular disease among U.S. men aged ≥50 and women aged ≥55. To comprehensively test effects of supplemental vitamin D and/or omega-3 FAs on skeletal health, the VITAL: Effects on Fractures ancillary study is determining the effects of these supplements on incident fractures among 25,875 participants enrolled in the parent trial. Study investigators adjudicate fractures through detailed review of medical records and radiological images (hip and femur). In a complementary ancillary, VITAL: Effects on Structure and Architecture is determining the effects of supplemental vitamin D and/or omega-3 FAs on bone with detailed phenotyping during in-person visits. Comprehensive assessments of bone density, turnover, structure/architecture, body composition, and physical performance are being performed at baseline and 2 years post-randomization. Conclusion Results from these studies will clarify the relationship between supplemental vitamin D and/or omega-3 FAs on bone health outcomes, and inform clinical care and public health guidelines on the use of supplemental vitamin D for the primary prevention of fractures in women and men. PMID:25623291

  13. The Production and Archiving of Navigation and Ancillary Data for the Galileo Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J.; Clarke, T.

    1994-01-01

    The Galileo Mission to Jupiter is using the SPICE formats developed by the Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility, a node of the Planetary Data System, to archive its navigation and ancillary data.

  14. 46 CFR 58.25-80 - Automatic pilots and ancillary steering gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Automatic pilots and ancillary steering gear. 58.25-80... AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-80 Automatic pilots and ancillary steering gear. (a) Automatic pilots and ancillary steering gear, and steering-gear control systems, must...

  15. 46 CFR 58.25-80 - Automatic pilots and ancillary steering gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Automatic pilots and ancillary steering gear. 58.25-80... AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-80 Automatic pilots and ancillary steering gear. (a) Automatic pilots and ancillary steering gear, and steering-gear control systems, must be...

  16. 46 CFR 58.25-80 - Automatic pilots and ancillary steering gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Automatic pilots and ancillary steering gear. 58.25-80... AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-80 Automatic pilots and ancillary steering gear. (a) Automatic pilots and ancillary steering gear, and steering-gear control systems, must be...

  17. 46 CFR 58.25-80 - Automatic pilots and ancillary steering gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Automatic pilots and ancillary steering gear. 58.25-80... AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-80 Automatic pilots and ancillary steering gear. (a) Automatic pilots and ancillary steering gear, and steering-gear control systems, must be...

  18. 10 CFR 205.199G - Extension of time; Interim and Ancillary Orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extension of time; Interim and Ancillary Orders. 205.199G... Extension of time; Interim and Ancillary Orders. The Director of the Office of Hearings and Appeals or his... initiative issue any interim or ancillary Orders, reconsider any determinations, or make any rulings...

  19. The impact of ancillary services in optimal DER investment decisions

    DOE PAGES

    Cardoso, Goncalo; Stadler, Michael; Mashayekh, Salman; ...

    2017-04-25

    Microgrid resource sizing problems typically include the analysis of a combination of value streams such as peak shaving, load shifting, or load scheduling, which support the economic feasibility of the microgrid deployment. However, microgrid benefits can go beyond these, and the ability to provide ancillary grid services such as frequency regulation or spinning and non-spinning reserves is well known, despite typically not being considered in resource sizing problems. This paper proposes the expansion of the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM), a state-of-the-art microgrid resource sizing model, to include revenue streams resulting from the participation in ancillary service markets.more » Results suggest that participation in such markets may not only influence the optimum resource sizing, but also the operational dispatch, with results being strongly influenced by the exact market requirements and clearing prices.« less

  20. Integration of competing ancillary assertions in genome assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Burks, C.; Parsons, R.J.; Engle, M.L.

    1994-12-31

    Assembly of genomic sequences and maps relies on a primary set of experimental data (e.g., the sequences of individual DNA fragments, or hybridization fingerprints of individual clone inserts), but almost always also relies on several streams of related but distinct kinds of data for completeness and accuracy of the final construction. These secondary data sets, which we term ancillary information, usually contain errors (as do the primary data sets, therefore creating the possibility of conflict between data sets), often arise from different experimental protocols and correspond to different scales of measurement, and occasionally include non-quantitative statements about the data. We present an approach for integration of ancillary assertions in the optimization of genome assembly, based on simultaneous balancing among the primary and secondary data sets, and include specific examples in the context of assembling DNA sequencing fragments to reconstruct a parent sequence.

  1. Discrete-variable quantum illumination with ancillary degrees of freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kai; Zhang, Qin-Wei; Gu, Yong-Jian; Li, Qing-Liang

    2017-04-01

    Quantum illumination is one of the most basic ways to realize the quantum radar for detection of low-reflectivity targets embedded in a thermal-noise bath. It preserves a strong advantage over the classical counterparts even though its fragile quantum entanglement is completely destroyed by a large amount of noise and losses. In this paper, we describe and analyze a discrete-variable quantum illumination system with ancillary degrees of freedom of entangled photon pairs. Comparing the error probability bound, i.e., the quantum Chernoff bound, we identify that this system indeed offers higher accuracy than the single-photon illumination and quantum illumination with single degree of freedom of entangled photon pairs. Furthermore, the utilization of ancillary degrees of freedom exponentially enhances signal-to-noise ratio over quantum illumination without ancillary degrees of freedom. It means that this system reduces the necessary amount of signal photons to accurately determine whether the object is present or absent in the target region, which is absolutely crucial to the stealthiness of the radar system.

  2. Ancillary-service costs for 12 US electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.; Hirst, E.

    1996-03-01

    Ancillary services are those functions performed by electrical generating, transmission, system-control, and distribution-system equipment and people to support the basic services of generating capacity, energy supply, and power delivery. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission defined ancillary services as ``those services necessary to support the transmission of electric power from seller to purchaser given the obligations of control areas and transmitting utilities within those control areas to maintain reliable operations of the interconnected transmission system.`` FERC divided these services into three categories: ``actions taken to effect the transaction (such as scheduling and dispatching services) , services that are necessary to maintain the integrity of the transmission system [and] services needed to correct for the effects associated with undertaking a transaction.`` In March 1995, FERC published a proposed rule to ensure open and comparable access to transmission networks throughout the country. The rule defined six ancillary services and developed pro forma tariffs for these services: scheduling and dispatch, load following, system protection, energy imbalance, loss compensation, and reactive power/voltage control.

  3. Associations between age-related nuclear cataract and lutein and zeaxanthin in the diet and serum in the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS), an ancillary study of the Women's Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, Suzen M.; Voland, Rick; Tinker, Lesley; Blodi, Barbara A.; Klein, Michael L.; Gehrs, Karen M.; Johnson, Elizabeth J.; Snodderly, D. Max; Wallace, Robert B.; Chappell, Richard J.; Parekh, Niyati; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Mares, Julie A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Design: Women aged 50-79 years in Iowa, Wisconsin, and Oregon with intakes of lutein and zeaxanthin (L+Z) above the 78th (high) and below the 28th (low) percentiles in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (1994-98) were recruited four to seven years later (2001-04) into the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS) to evaluate associations between nuclear cataract (determined from slit-lamp photographs) and L+Z in the diet and serum in 1994-98 and macula in 2001-04 (N=1,802). Results: Women in the high dietary L+Z group had a 23% lower prevalence of nuclear cataract (age-adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 0.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.62-0.96) compared to those in the low group. Multivariable adjustment slightly attenuated the association (OR (95% CI): 0.81 (0.65-1.01)). Women in the highest vs. lowest quintile categories of diet or serum L+Z were 32% less likely to have nuclear cataract (multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI): 0.68 (0.48-0.97), p trend=0.04 and 0.68 (0.47-0.98), p trend=0.01). Cross-sectional associations with macular pigment density were inverse but not statistically significant. Conclusion: Diets rich in lutein and zeaxanthin are moderately associated with decreased prevalence of nuclear cataract in older women. However, other protective aspects of such diets may, in part, explain these relationships. PMID:18332316

  4. Impact of prenatal care provider on the use of ancillary health services during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent declines in the provision of prenatal care by family physicians and the integration of midwives into the Canadian health care system have led to a shift in the pattern of prenatal care provision; however it is unknown if this also impacts use of other health services during pregnancy. This study aimed to assess the impact of the type of prenatal care provider on the self-reported use of ancillary services during pregnancy. Methods Data for this study was obtained from the All Our Babies study, a community-based prospective cohort study of women’s experiences during pregnancy and the post-partum period. Chi-square tests and logistic regression were used to assess the association between type of prenatal care provider and use of ancillary health services in pregnancy. Results During pregnancy, 85.8% of women reported accessing ancillary health services. Compared to women who received prenatal care from a family physician, women who saw a midwife were less likely to call a nurse telephone advice line (OR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.18-0.50) and visit the emergency department (OR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.24-0.89), but were more likely receive chiropractic care (OR = 4.07, 95% CI: 2.49-6.67). Women who received their prenatal care from an obstetrician were more likely to visit a walk-in clinic (OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.11-2.05) than those who were cared for by a family physician. Conclusions Prenatal care is a complex entity and referral pathways between care providers and services are not always clear. This can lead to the provision of fragmented care and create opportunities for errors and loss of information. All types of care providers have a role in addressing the full range of health needs that pregnant women experience. PMID:23497179

  5. Effects of hormones on skin wrinkles and rigidity vary by race/ethnicity: four-year follow-up from the ancillary skin study of the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study.

    PubMed

    Owen, Carter M; Pal, Lubna; Mumford, Sunni L; Freeman, Ruth; Isaac, Barbara; McDonald, Linda; Santoro, Nanette; Taylor, Hugh S; Wolff, Erin F

    2016-10-01

    To measure skin wrinkles and rigidity in menopausal women of varying race/ethnicity with or without hormone therapy (HT) for up to four years. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Academic medical centers. Women (42-58 years of age) within 36 months of last menstrual period and enrolled in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS). Treatment with 0.45 mg oral conjugated equine estrogens (CEE), transdermal E2 (50 μg/d) with micronized P (200 mg daily), or placebo for 4 years. Skin wrinkles were assessed at 11 locations on the face and neck, and skin rigidity was assessed at the forehead and cheek at baseline and yearly for 4 years. Neither total wrinkle score nor total rigidity score was significantly different at baseline or over the 4-year follow-up among patients randomized to CEE, E2, or placebo. Skin wrinkle and rigidity scores were primarily affected by race/ethnicity, with scores being significantly different between races for almost all of the wrinkle parameters and for all of the rigidity measures. There was no association between race and response to HT for total wrinkle or rigidity scores. Black women had the lowest wrinkle scores compared with white women across all 4 years. In general, skin rigidity decreased in all groups over time, but black women had significantly reduced total facial rigidity compared with white women after 4 years. Race is the strongest predictor of the advancement of skin aging in the 4 years following menopause. HT does not appear to affect skin wrinkles or rigidity at most facial locations. NCT00154180. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Mapping soil particle-size fractions using additive-log ratio transformation and proximally sensed ancillary data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zare, Ehsan; Huang, Jingyi; Triantafilis, John

    2017-04-01

    Together the three particle size fractions (PSFs) of clay, silt, and sand are the most fundamental soil properties because of their relative abundance influences the physical, chemical and biological activities in soil. Therefore, there is an increasing need for high-resolution information on spatial distribution of soil texture. Unfortunately, determining PSFs requires a laboratory method which is time-consuming. One way to add value is to use digital soil mapping. Specifically, using mathematical models, such as multiple linear regression (MLR), to couple ancillary data to PSF data. However, this approach does not account for the special requirements of compositional data. Here we demonstrated how ancillary data can be coupled via MLR modelling to an additive log-ratio transformation (ALR) of the PSF to meet these requirements. We compared these two approaches (MLR vs. ALR-MLR). We also compared the use of different ancillary data including proximally sensed gamma-ray spectrometry (i.e. RS700), electromagnetic induction (i.e. DUALEM-421S) and elevation data. In addition, we tested how prediction might be improved by using ancillary data measured on transects (which simulated measurements made on 6.5 m transects) as compared to interpolation from transects spaced 13 m and 26 m apart. Although the ALR-MLR approach did not produce significantly better results, it generated predicted soil PSFs which summed to 100. We found that for predicting PSFs at various depths, all ancillary data was useful with elevation and gamma-ray slightly better for topsoil and elevation and EM data better for subsoil prediction. In addition, a reduced transect spacing (26 m) and sampling size (9-16) can be adopted for mapping soil PSFs and soil texture across the study field.

  7. Real-Time Charging Strategies for an Electric Vehicle Aggregator to Provide Ancillary Services

    DOE PAGES

    Wenzel, George; Negrete-Pincetic, Matias; Olivares, Daniel E.; ...

    2017-03-13

    Real-time charging strategies, in the context of vehicle to grid (V2G) technology, are needed to enable the use of electric vehicle (EV) fleets batteries to provide ancillary services (AS). Here, we develop tools to manage charging and discharging in a fleet to track an Automatic Generation Control (AGC) signal when aggregated. We also propose a real-time controller that considers bidirectional charging efficiency and extend it to study the effect of looking ahead when implementing Model Predictive Control (MPC). Simulations show that the controller improves tracking error as compared with benchmark scheduling algorithms, as well as regulation capacity and battery cycling.

  8. Ancillary personnel faced with living liver donation in a Spanish hospital with a transplant program.

    PubMed

    Ríos, A; Ramírez, P; Galindo, P J; Rodríguez, M M; Martínez, L; Montoya, M J; Lucas, D; Alcaraz, J; Parrilla, P

    2006-12-01

    Ancillary hospital personnel represent an important body of opinion because as they work in a hospital their opinion has more credibility for the general public as a result of their activity in hospitals. However, in most cases they do not have any health care training which means that their attitude could be based on a lack of knowledge or unfounded fears. The objective of this study is to analyze the attitude toward living liver donation among ancillary personnel in a hospital with a cadaveric and living liver organ transplant program and to analyze the variables that might influence such attitude. A random sample was taken which was stratified by service (n=401) among ancillary personnel in the hospital. Attitude was evaluated using a survey that was validated in our geographical area. A representative from each service was contacted. This person was given an explanation of the study and was made responsible for the distribution of the questionnaire in selected work shifts. The survey was completed anonymously and was self-administered. The c2 test, Student s t-test and logistical regression analysis were used in the statistical analysis. The questionnaire completion rate was 94% (n=377). Of all the respondents, 20% (n=74) are in favor of donating a living hemi-liver, but an additional 62% (n=233) are in favor if donation is for a relative. Of the rest, 8% (n=30) do not accept this type of donation and the remaining 11% (n=40) are unsure. The following variables are related to attitude toward living liver donation: attitude toward cadaveric donation (p=0.002); a respondent s belief that he or she might need a transplant in the future (p<0.001) and a willingness to receive a donated living liver if one were needed (p<0.001). In the multivariate analysis the following have been found to be significantly related variables: a) a respondent s belief that he or she might need a transplant in the future (OR=1.5); and b) a willingness to receive a living donated kidney

  9. Identifying children in need of ancillary and enabling services: a population approach.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Ruth E; Farel, Anita M

    2003-12-01

    Children with chronic or disabling conditions use health, education and social services at a higher rate than their healthy peers. Estimates of the number of children in need of these specialized services are widely varied and often depend on categorical definitions that do not account for either the diversity or commonality of their experiences. Developing methods for identifying the population in need of services, particularly children likely to use long-term ancillary (audiology, occupational, physical or speech therapy, or social work) and/or enabling services (special equipment, personal care assistance, respite care, transportation, or environmental modifications), is essential for effective policy and program implementation. This study examines several recent attempts to operationalize definitions of children with chronic conditions using a noncategorical classification approach. Particular emphasis is placed on the subgroup of children identified as having functional limitations. Proposed operational definitions of children with functional limitations are compared using data from the 1994-1995 Disability Supplement to the US National Health Interview Survey. Estimates of the number of children reported to be using ancillary and enabling services are generated and compared across operational definitions of functional limitation as well as by the number, severity, and type (i.e. mobility, self-care, communication/sensory, social cognition/learning ability) of limitation. Depending on the operational definition selected, 9-14% of US community-dwelling children are estimated to have functional limitations. Among children with limitations, 26-30% regularly use ancillary services and 11-14% use enabling services. The strengths, limitations, and potential applications for each operational definition are discussed.

  10. Transactive Control and Coordination of Distributed Assets for Ancillary Services

    SciTech Connect

    Subbarao, Krishnappa; Fuller, Jason C.; Kalsi, Karanjit; Somani, Abhishek; Pratt, Robert G.; Widergren, Steven E.; Chassin, David P.

    2013-09-18

    The need to diversify energy supplies, the need to mitigate energy-related environmental impact, and the entry of electric vehicles in large numbers present challenges and opportunities to power system professionals. Wind and solar power provide many benefits, and to reap the benefits the resulting increased variability—forecasted as well as unforecasted—should be addressed. A majority of states and the District of Columbia, representing over half of the total load, have passed renewable portfolio standards. California’s plans call for 33% renewable energy by 2020. For grid balancing and for meeting reliability standards, ancillary services are needed. The needs for these services are poised to increase significantly. Demand resources are receiving increasing attention as one means of providing the ancillary services. Control and coordination of a large number (~millions) of distributed smart grid assets requires innovative approaches. One such approach is transactive control and coordination (TC2)—a distributed, hierarchical, agent-based incentive and control system. The TC2 paradigm is to create a market-like control system in which participation is voluntary and the participant sets the price for participation. For transactions that are frequent, automation of bids and responses is necessary. Such an approach has been developed and demonstrated at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The devices, typically thermostatically controlled heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) loads, send their bids—the quantity of energy they need and, based on the consumer preferences encoded in a simple user interface, the price they are willing to pay. The typical bid period is 5 minutes. By aggregating all the bids, a demand curve is generated by the aggregating entity, and matched with a supply curve or supply constraint. The aggregator transmits the clearing price to the devices. The winning devices proceed to consume the energy they bid for and won

  11. 19. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARDS THE ANCILLARY BUILDINGS. FROM LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARDS THE ANCILLARY BUILDINGS. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT BACKGROUND, RETORT BUILDING, STORAGE, SMELTER BUILDING, GARAGE. THE NORTHWEST CORNER OF THE VANNER ROOM IS IN THE FOREGROUND AND LEFT. A 2000 DODGE GRAND CARAVAN IS IN THE FOREGROUND CENTER. THEIR USE OF THE SHED TO THE REAR OF THE AUTOMOBILE IS UNCERTAIN, ALTHOUGH IT IS CONNECTED TO THE MILL AT THE BASE OF THE WEST SIDE OF THE AMALGAMATING PANS ROOM. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  12. Simulation of an arbitrary quantum channel with minimal ancillary resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chao; Noh, Kyungjoo; Albert, Victor V.; Devoret, Michel H.; Schoelkopf, Robert J.; Girvin, Steven M.; Jiang, Liang

    We discuss an explicit and efficient construction of quantum circuits that can simulate an arbitrary given quantum channel acting on a d-level quantum system, with the minimal quantum ancillary resource--a qubit and its QND readout. The elementary operations required are unitary evolutions and single qubit projective measurement. We further show that this technique opens up exciting new possibilities in the field of quantum control, quantum simulation, quantum error correction, and quantum state discrimination. Our proposal can be implemented on platforms such as a superconducting transmon qubit inside a microwave cavity.

  13. Simulation of an arbitrary quantum channel with minimal ancillary resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chao; Noh, Kyungjoo; Albert, Victor V.; Devoret, Michel H.; Schoelkopf, Robert J.; Girvin, Steven M.; Jiang, Liang

    2016-05-01

    We discuss an explicit and efficient construction of quantum circuits that can simulate an arbitrary given quantum channel acting on a d-level quantum system, with the minimal quantum ancillary resource--a qubit and its QND readout. The elementary operations required are unitary evolutions and single qubit projective measurement. We further show that this technique opens up exciting new possibilities in the field of quantum control, quantum simulation, quantum error correction, and quantum state discrimination. Our proposal can be implemented on platforms such as a superconducting transmon qubit inside a microwave cavity.

  14. Superconducting generators - Economics, technical considerations and ancillary technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bzura, J. J.; Abtahi, F.; Stratton, L. J.

    1981-01-01

    An economic analysis of superconducting generators was performed and compared with analyses by Westinghouse and General Electric. Superconducting generators were compared with conventional generators over a 30-year operating life using three energy sources (nuclear fuel, coal and oil), and including the effects of inflation on fuel and operating costs. The ADL analysis shows that operating cost savings of a 1200 MVA superconducting unit can be approximately 70% of the capital cost of a conventional generator driven by a coal-fired steam turbine. Principal R&D needs for superconducting generators and the limitations of ancillary technology are also discussed.

  15. Demand Response Resources for Energy and Ancillary Services (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hummon, M.

    2014-04-01

    Demand response (DR) resources present a potentially important source of grid flexibility particularly on future systems with high penetrations of variable wind an solar power generation. However, DR in grid models is limited by data availability and modeling complexity. This presentation focuses on the co-optimization of DR resources to provide energy and ancillary services in a production cost model of the Colorado test system. We assume each DR resource can provide energy services by either shedding load or shifting its use between different times, as well as operating

  16. Market and Policy Barriers for Demand Response Providing Ancillary Services in U.S. Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Cappers, Peter; MacDonald, Jason; Goldman, Charles

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we attempt to provide a comprehensive examination of various market and policy barriers to demand response providing ancillary services in both ISO/RTO and non-ISO/RTO regions, especially at the program provider level. It is useful to classify barriers in order to create a holistic understanding and identify parties that could be responsible for their removal. This study develops a typology of barriers focusing on smaller customers that must rely on a program provider (i.e., electric investor owned utility or IOU, ARC) to create an aggregated DR resource in order to bring ancillary services to the balancing authority.ii The barriers were identified through examinations of regulatory structures, market environments, and product offerings; and discussions with industry stakeholders and regulators. In order to help illustrate the differences in barriers among various wholesale market designs and their constituent retail environments, four regions were chosen to use as case studies: Colorado, Texas, Wisconsin, and New Jersey. We highlight the experience in each area as it relates to the identified barriers.

  17. Brain death dilemmas and the use of ancillary testing.

    PubMed

    Webb, Adam; Samuels, Owen

    2012-06-01

    The Uniform Determination of Death Act indicates that "an individual who has sustained either (1) irreversible cessation of circulatory and respiratory functions, or (2) irreversible cessation of all functions of the entire brain, including the brain stem, is dead," with brain death being determined based on "accepted medical standards." The AAN has published practice guidelines providing medical standards for the determination of brain death. The most recent AAN guideline update notes that "because of the deficiencies in the evidence base, clinicians must exercise considerable judgment when applying the criteria in specific circumstances" and that "ancillary tests can be used when uncertainty exists about the reliability of parts of the neurologic examination or when the apnea test cannot be performed. This article presents two cases commonly encountered in clinical practice in which the findings of the guideline-specified clinical neurologic assessment may be difficult to interpret, hampering the clinical determination of brain death. In these circumstances, ancillary testing specifically assessing for cerebral circulatory arrest may be helpful.

  18. National Ignition Facility sub-system design requirements ancillary systems SSDR 1.5.6

    SciTech Connect

    Spann, J.; Reed, R.; VanArsdall, P.; Bliss, E.

    1996-09-01

    This System Design Requirement document establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the Ancillary Systems, which is part of the NIF Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS).

  19. Nonactive-Power-Related Ancillary Services provided by Distribute Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yan; Tolbert, Leon M; Rizy, D Tom; Kueck, John D

    2006-01-01

    The nonactive-power-related ancillary services provided by distributed energy (DE) resources are categorized by voltage regulation, reactive power compensation, power factor correction, voltage and/or current unbalance compensation, and harmonics compensation. An instantaneous nonactive power theory is adopted to control the DE system to provide these ancillary services. Three control schemes, including nonactive current compensation, power factor correction, and voltage regulation, are developed which can perform one or more of the ancillary services. The control schemes are implemented in a DE system in simulation and experiments. The simulation and the experimental results show that DE is feasible for providing nonactive-power-related ancillary services.

  20. Relation of aortic valve calcium to chronic kidney disease (from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study).

    PubMed

    Guerraty, Marie A; Chai, Boyang; Hsu, Jesse Y; Ojo, Akinlolu O; Gao, Yanlin; Yang, Wei; Keane, Martin G; Budoff, Matthew J; Mohler, Emile R

    2015-05-01

    Although subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at markedly increased risk for cardiovascular mortality, the relation between CKD and aortic valve calcification has not been fully elucidated. Also, few data are available on the relation of aortic valve calcification and earlier stages of CKD. We sought to assess the relation of aortic valve calcium (AVC) with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), traditional and novel cardiovascular risk factors, and markers of bone metabolism in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study. All patients who underwent aortic valve scanning in the CRIC study were included. The relation between AVC and eGFR, traditional and novel cardiovascular risk factors, and markers of calcium metabolism were analyzed using both unadjusted and adjusted regression models. A total of 1,964 CRIC participants underwent computed tomography for AVC quantification. Decreased renal function was independently associated with increased levels of AVC (eGFR 47.11, 44.17, and 39 ml/min/1.73 m2, respectively, p<0.001). This association persisted after adjusting for traditional, but not novel, AVC risk factors. Adjusted regression models identified several traditional and novel risk factors for AVC in patients with CKD. There was a difference in AVC risk factors between black and nonblack patients. In conclusion, our study shows that eGFR is associated in a dose-dependent manner with AVC in patients with CKD, and this association is independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. New alternatives for reference evapotranspiration estimation in West Africa using limited weather data and ancillary data supply strategies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landeras, Gorka; Bekoe, Emmanuel; Ampofo, Joseph; Logah, Frederick; Diop, Mbaye; Cisse, Madiama; Shiri, Jalal

    2017-04-01

    Accurate estimation of reference evapotranspiration (ET 0 ) is essential for the computation of crop water requirements, irrigation scheduling, and water resources management. In this context, having a battery of alternative local calibrated ET 0 estimation methods is of great interest for any irrigation advisory service. The development of irrigation advisory services will be a major breakthrough for West African agriculture. In the case of many West African countries, the high number of meteorological inputs required by the Penman-Monteith equation has been indicated as constraining. The present paper investigates for the first time in Ghana, the estimation ability of artificial intelligence-based models (Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and Gene Expression Programing (GEPs)), and ancillary/external approaches for modeling reference evapotranspiration (ET 0 ) using limited weather data. According to the results of this study, GEPs have emerged as a very interesting alternative for ET 0 estimation at all the locations of Ghana which have been evaluated in this study under different scenarios of meteorological data availability. The adoption of ancillary/external approaches has been also successful, moreover in the southern locations. The interesting results obtained in this study using GEPs and some ancillary approaches could be a reference for future studies about ET 0 estimation in West Africa.

  2. The neurofibrovascular bundle of the inferior oblique muscle as its ancillary origin.

    PubMed Central

    Stager, D R

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: To establish that the neurofibrovascular bundle (NFVB) of the inferior oblique muscle (IO) has ligamentous qualities that enable it to function as an ancillary origin to the muscle. Also, to show that the NFVB does function as the ancillary origin for the IO muscle, particularly when recessing and anteriorly transposing its insertion. METHODS: Fresh (no formaldehyde preservative) cadaver and patient eyes were studied anatomically, histologically, and physiologically. Eighteen orbits were dissected to isolate the IO, the inferior rectus (IR), and the NFVB to demonstrate the linear course of the NFVB and its adjacent fibrous bands. The shape of the muscle was documented. Coronal sections of the two whole, intact orbits were analyzed histologically. Light and electron microscopic sections of an autopsy specimen and a surgical specimen were used to evaluate the capsule of the NFVB and the adjacent fibrous bands near the anterior portion of the NFVB and their attachment to the IR and IO muscle capsules. The elastic modulus was measured in six in situ and six in vitro cadaver NFVB specimens and in six in vivo surgical cases at the time of denervation of the NFVB. For additional comparison, four in vitro cadaver superior oblique tendons were similarly tested. Six eyes that developed recurrent IO overaction following an anterior transposition procedure were surgically explored to determine what structure was serving as its ancillary origin. RESULTS: Gross anatomic and microscopic studies showed a linear orientation of the NFVB with adjacent fibrous bands anteriorly joining the IO and IR muscle capsules. The surgical specimens of the anterior portion of the NFVB show about 50% nerve and 50% fibrocollagenous capsule with the collagen fibers aligned parallel to the NFVB. The elastic modulus was highest (stiffest) in surgical specimens of the NFVB and in situ cadaver NFVB, followed by in vitro cadaver NFVB and, finally, in vitro cadaver superior oblique tendon. In

  3. Theoretical studies of molecular structure, electronic structure, spectroscopic properties and the ancillary ligand effect: a comparison of tris-chelate ML3-type and ML2X-type species for gallium(III) complexes with N,O-donor phenolic ligand, 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzothiazole.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yi-Ping; Lin, Yan-Wen

    2011-02-01

    Two Ga(III) complexes with main ligand, 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzothiazole (HL'), namely mixed-ligand ML2X-type [GaL'2X'] (1) (HX'=acetic acid, as ancillary ligand) and the meridianal tris-chelate [GaL'3] (2) have been investigated by the density functional theory (DFT/TDDFT) level calculations. Both 1 and 2 can be presented as a similar "mixed-ligand ML2X-type" species. The molecular geometries, electronic structures, metal-ligand bonding property of Ga-O (N) (main ligand), Ga-O (N) (ancillary ligand) interactions, and the ancillary ligand effect on their HOMO-LUMO gap, their absorption/emission property, and their absorption/emission wavelengths/colors for them have been discussed in detail based on the orbital interactions, the partial density of states (PDOS), and so on. The current investigation also indicates that it is quite probable that by introduction of different ancillary ligands, a series of new mixed-ligand ML2X-type complexes for group 13 metals can be designed with their absorption/emission property and the absorption/emission wavelengths and colors being tuned.

  4. Theoretical studies of molecular structure, electronic structure, spectroscopic properties and the ancillary ligand effect: A comparison of tris-chelate ML 3-type and ML 2X-type species for gallium(III) complexes with N, O-donor phenolic ligand, 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzothiazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yi-Ping; Lin, Yan-Wen

    2011-02-01

    Two Ga(III) complexes with main ligand, 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzothiazole (HL'), namely mixed-ligand ML 2X-type [GaL' 2X'] ( 1) (HX' = acetic acid, as ancillary ligand) and the meridianal tris-chelate [GaL' 3] ( 2) have been investigated by the density functional theory (DFT/TDDFT) level calculations. Both 1 and 2 can be presented as a similar "mixed-ligand ML 2X-type" species. The molecular geometries, electronic structures, metal-ligand bonding property of Ga-O (N) (main ligand), Ga-O (N) (ancillary ligand) interactions, and the ancillary ligand effect on their HOMO-LUMO gap, their absorption/emission property, and their absorption/emission wavelengths/colors for them have been discussed in detail based on the orbital interactions, the partial density of states (PDOS), and so on. The current investigation also indicates that it is quite probable that by introduction of different ancillary ligands, a series of new mixed-ligand ML 2X-type complexes for group 13 metals can be designed with their absorption/emission property and the absorption/emission wavelengths and colors being tuned.

  5. Rejuvenation of the neck with liposuction and ancillary techniques.

    PubMed

    Stebbins, William G; Hanke, C William

    2011-01-01

    An aesthetically pleasing neck is an important component of physical appearance and a frequently targeted area for a variety of rejuvenative procedures. In appropriately selected patients, liposuction of the neck using tumescent local anesthesia can effectively render a more youthful appearance to the anterior and lateral neck by removing superficial adipose tissue and redraping the skin. This article will review all aspects of neck liposuction, including neck and lower face anatomy, proper patient selection and evaluation, necessary equipment, as well as all peri-procedural management. An in-depth discussion of administration of tumescent local anesthesia and proper liposuction technique is also included. Lastly, a number of ancillary techniques to further enhance the appearance of the neck including laser lipolysis, fractional ablative CO(2) resurfacing, and treatment of platysmal banding will be briefly discussed. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Prevalence, Correlates, and Prognosis of Peripheral Artery Disease in Rural Ecuador—Rationale, Protocol, and Phase I Results of a Population-Based Survey: An Atahualpa Project-Ancillary Study

    PubMed Central

    Del Brutto, Oscar H.; Sedler, Mark J.; Mera, Robertino M.; Castillo, Pablo R.; Cusick, Elizabeth H.; Gruen, Jadry A.; Phelan, Kelsie J.; Del Brutto, Victor J.; Zambrano, Mauricio; Brown, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Little is known on the prevalence of peripheral artery disease (PAD) in developing countries. Study design. Population-based study in Atahualpa. In Phase I, the Edinburgh claudication questionnaire (ECQ) was used for detection of suspected symptomatic PAD; persons with a negative ECQ but a pulse pressure ≥65 mmHg were suspected of asymptomatic PAD. In Phase II, the ankle-brachial index will be used to test reliability of screening instruments and to determine PAD prevalence. In Phase III, participants will be followed up to estimate the relevance of PAD as a predictor of vascular outcomes. Results. During Phase I, 665 Atahualpa residents aged ≥40 years were enrolled (mean age: 59.5 ± 12.6 years, 58% women). A poor cardiovascular health status was noticed in 464 (70%) persons of which 27 (4%) had a stroke and 14 (2%) had ischemic heart disease. Forty-four subjects (7%) had suspected symptomatic PAD and 170 (26%) had suspected asymptomatic PAD. Individuals with suspected PAD were older, more often women, and had a worse cardiovascular profile than those with nonsuspected PAD. Conclusions. Prevalence of suspected PAD in this underserved population is high. Subsequent phases of this study will determine whether prompt detection of PAD is useful to reduce the incidence of catastrophic vascular diseases in the region. PMID:25389500

  7. 17 CFR 240.3b-15 - Definition of ancillary portfolio management securities activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... portfolio management securities activities. 240.3b-15 Section 240.3b-15 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... ancillary portfolio management securities activities. (a) The term ancillary portfolio management securities... of incidental trading activities for portfolio management purposes; and (3) Are limited to risk...

  8. 48 CFR 801.670-3 - Medical, dental, and ancillary service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Medical, dental, and..., Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 801.670-3 Medical, dental, and ancillary service. (a) When medical, dental, and ancillary services under $10,000 per authorization are not available from an existing...

  9. 48 CFR 801.670-3 - Medical, dental, and ancillary service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Medical, dental, and..., Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 801.670-3 Medical, dental, and ancillary service. (a) When medical, dental, and ancillary services under $10,000 per authorization are not available from an existing...

  10. 48 CFR 801.670-3 - Medical, dental, and ancillary service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Medical, dental, and..., Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 801.670-3 Medical, dental, and ancillary service. (a) When medical, dental, and ancillary services under $10,000 per authorization are not available from an existing...

  11. 48 CFR 801.670-3 - Medical, dental, and ancillary service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Medical, dental, and..., Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 801.670-3 Medical, dental, and ancillary service. (a) When medical, dental, and ancillary services under $10,000 per authorization are not available from an existing...

  12. 46 CFR 58.25-80 - Automatic pilots and ancillary steering gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-80 Automatic pilots and ancillary steering gear. (a) Automatic pilots and ancillary steering gear, and steering-gear control systems, must be arranged to allow immediate resumption of manual operation of the steering-gear control system required in...

  13. Effective Ancillary Services Market Designs on High Wind Power Penetration Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, E.; Kirby, B.; Navid, N.; Smith, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    This paper focuses on how the ancillary service market designs are implemented and how they may require changes on systems with greater penetrations of variable renewable energy suppliers, in particular wind power. Ancillary services markets have been developed in many of the restructured power system regions throughout the world. Ancillary services include the services that support the provision of energy to support power system reliability. The ancillary services markets are tied tightly to the design of the energy market and to the physics of the system and therefore careful consideration of power system economics and engineering must be considered in their design. This paper focuses on how the ancillary service market designs are implemented and how they may require changes on systems with greater penetrations of variable renewable energy suppliers, in particular wind power.

  14. Map of risks for the implementation of radio-frequency identification: application of ancillaries in the University Hospital Jean Verdier.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, E; Schlatter, J

    2010-01-01

    Ancillaries are surgical instruments, such as orthopedical instruments set for reconstruction of knee (a mounting arm...) used to implant or extract prosthesis. Their management involves the departments of sterilization and surgery as well as the suppliers. Such a long circuit exposes the instruments to potential risk hazards like a lack of traceability as the suspicion of Creutzfeldt-Jakob. In order to reduce the risk of errors we will propose the implementation of radio-frequency identification (RFID) to trace the ancillaries during each step of the supply chain. The objective of our study is to analyze and to map the risks associated with RFID implementation. A preliminary analysis of risks (APR) is conducted to map out the hazards for the implementation of RFID. The APR identifies 162 scenarios with a maximum risk connected to environment and technology. To reduce the risks identified, 22 courses of action are proposed, such as audits, training, and internal controls. For each action, a procedure has been designed and evaluated. This preliminary analysis of risks allows targeting the potential dangers for the RFID implementation applied to ancillaries and reduces them significantly.

  15. Gas-Phase and Computational Study of Identical Nickel- and Palladium-Mediated Organic Transformations Where Mechanisms Proceeding via M(II) or M(IV) Oxidation States Are Determined by Ancillary Ligands.

    PubMed

    Vikse, Krista L; Khairallah, George N; Ariafard, Alireza; Canty, Allan J; O'Hair, Richard A J

    2015-10-28

    Gas-phase studies utilizing ion-molecule reactions, supported by computational chemistry, demonstrate that the reaction of the enolate complexes [(CH2CO2-C,O)M(CH3)](-) (M = Ni (5a), Pd (5b)) with allyl acetate proceed via oxidative addition to give M(IV) species [(CH2CO2-C,O)M(CH3)(η(1)-CH2-CH═CH2)(O2CCH3-O,O')](-) (6) that reductively eliminate 1-butene, to form [(CH2CO2-C,O)M(O2CCH3-O,O')](-) (4). The mechanism contrasts with the M(II)-mediated pathway for the analogous reaction of [(phen)M(CH3)](+) (1a,b) (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline). The different pathways demonstrate the marked effect of electron-rich metal centers in enabling higher oxidation state pathways. Due to the presence of two alkyl groups, the metal-occupied d orbitals (particularly dz(2)) in 5 are considerably destabilized, resulting in more facile oxidative addition; the electron transfer from dz(2) to the C═C π* orbital is the key interaction leading to oxidative addition of allyl acetate to M(II). Upon collision-induced dissociation, 4 undergoes decarboxylation to form 5. These results provide support for the current exploration of roles for Ni(IV) and Pd(IV) in organic synthesis.

  16. Yoga as an ancillary treatment for neurological and psychiatric disorders: a review.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Hilary B; Katsman, Alina; Sones, Alexander C; Auerbach, Daniel E; Ames, Donna; Rubin, Robert T

    2012-01-01

    Yoga is gaining acceptance as an ancillary medical treatment, but there have been few studies evaluating its therapeutic benefits in neurological and major psychiatric conditions. The authors reviewed the literature in English on the efficacy of yoga for these disorders. Only randomized, controlled trials were included, with the exception of the only study of yoga for bipolar disorder, which was observational. Trials were excluded if yoga was not the central component of the intervention. Of seven randomized, controlled trials of yoga in patients with neurological disorders, six found significant, positive effects. Of 13 randomized, controlled trials of yoga in patients with psychiatric disorders, 10 found significant, positive effects. These results, although encouraging, indicate that additional randomized, controlled studies are needed to critically define the benefits of yoga for both neurological and psychiatric disorders.

  17. Ancillary testing, diagnostic/classification criteria and severity grading in Behçet disease.

    PubMed

    Okada, Annabelle A; Stanford, Miles; Tabbara, Khalid

    2012-12-01

    Since there is no pathognomonic clinical sign or laboratory test to distinguish Behçet disease from other uveitic entities, the diagnosis must be made based on characteristic ocular and systemic findings in the absence of evidence of other disease that can explain the findings. Ancillary tests, including ocular and brain imaging studies, are used to assess the severity of intraocular inflammation and systemic manifestations of Behçet disease, to identify latent infections and other medical conditions that might worsen with systemic treatment, and to monitor for adverse effects of drugs used. There are two diagnostic or classification criteria in general use by the uveitis community, one from Japan and one from an international group; both rely on a minimum number and/or combination of clinical findings to identify Behçet disease. Finally, several grading schemes have been proposed to assess severity of ocular disease and response to treatment.

  18. Estimating Net Primary Productivity Using Satellite and Ancillary Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, Bhaskar J.

    2002-01-01

    The net primary productivity (C) or the annual rate of carbon accumulation per unit ground area by terrestrial plant communities is the difference of gross photosynthesis (A(sub g)) and respiration (R) per unit ground area. Available field observations show that R is a large and variable fraction of A(sub g), although it is generally recognized that there are considerable difficulties in determining these fluxes, and thus pose challenge in assessing the accuracy. Further uncertainties arise in extrapolating field measurements (which are acquired over a hectare or so area) to regional scale. Here, an approach is presented for determining these fluxes using satellite and ancillary data to be representative of regional scale and allow assessment of interannual variation. A, has been expressed as the product of radiation use efficiency for gross photosynthesis by an unstressed canopy and intercepted photosynthetically active radiation, which is then adjusted for stresses due to soil water shortage and temperature away from optimum. R has been calculated as the sum of growth and maintenance components (respectively, R(sub g) and R(sub m)).The R(sub m) has been determined from nitrogen content of plant tissue per unit ground area, while R(sub g) has been obtained as a fraction of the difference of A(sub g) and R(sub m). Results for five consecutive years (1986-1990) are presented for the Amazon-Tocontins, Mississippi, and Ob River basins.

  19. Survey of U.S. Ancillary Services Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Zhi; Levin, Todd; Conzelmann, Guenter

    2016-06-01

    In addition to providing energy to end-consumers, power system operators are also responsible for ensuring system reliability. To this end, power markets maintain an array of ancillary services to ensure that it is always possible to balance the supply and demand for energy in real-time. A subset of these ancillary services are commonly procured through market-based mechanisms: namely, Regulation, Spinning, and Non-spinning Reserves. Regulation Reserves are maintained to respond to supply/demand imbalances over short time frames, typically on the order of several seconds to one minute. Resources that provide Regulation Reserves adjust their generation or load levels in response to automatic generation control (AGC) signals provided by the system operator. Contingency reserves are maintained to provide additional generation capacity in the event that load increases substantially or supply side resources reduce their output or are taken offline. The reserves are typically segmented into two categories, 1) Spinning or Synchronized Reserves that are provided by generation units that are actively generating and have the ability to increase or decrease their output, 2) Non-spinning or Non-synchronized Reserves that are provided by generation resources that are not actively generating, but are able to start up and provide generation within a specified timeframe. Contingency reserves typically have response times on the order of ten to 30 minutes and can also be provided by demand-side resources that are capable of reducing their load. There are seven distinct power markets in the United States, each operated by a Regional Transmission Operator (RTO) or Independent System Operator (ISO) that operates the transmission system in its territory, operates markets for energy and ancillary services, and maintains system reliability. Each power market offers its own set of ancillary services, and precise definitions, requirements, and market mechanisms differ between markets

  20. Insertion characteristics of intrauterine devices in adolescents and young women: success, ancillary measures, and complications.

    PubMed

    Teal, Stephanie B; Romer, Sarah E; Goldthwaite, Lisa M; Peters, Marissa G; Kaplan, David W; Sheeder, Jeanelle

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate success and safety of intrauterine device (IUD) placement in a large cohort of adolescents. We examined the medical records of patients aged 13-24 years at the Children's Hospital Colorado Adolescent Family Planning Clinic with at least 1 attempt at IUD placement. We abstracted demographic, reproductive, and procedural variables. The primary outcome was successful placement at first IUD insertion visit. We compared nulliparous with parous adolescents and patients younger than 18 years with those 18 years of age and older. Between April 2009 and December 2011, 1177 adolescent women aged 13-24 years (mean age 20.8 ± 2.5 years) had an attempted IUD placement, 1012 (86%) of which were with an advanced practice clinician. The first attempt was successful for 1132 women (96.2%). The first-attempt success rate was 95.8% for nulliparous women and 96.7% for parous women (P = .45). The first-attempt success rate was 95.5% (n = 169) for women aged 13-17 years compared with 96.3% (n = 963) for women aged 18-24 years (P = .6). Only 1.8% (n = 21) of all first-attempt successful insertions required ancillary measures. Of the 45 patients with a failed first insertion attempt, 40% (n = 18) had a second attempt with a physician, of which 78% (n = 14) were successful. Within the first 6 months of IUD placement, no perforations were identified and 24 patients (3.0%) expelled the IUD. Insertion failures and IUD expulsions were not related to IUD type, age, or parity. Intrauterine devices can be inserted in nulliparous adolescents of any age with similar success to parous adolescents, by both physicians and advanced practice clinicians. Inability to provide ancillary measures such as paracervical block or cervical dilation should not limit access to this first-line contraceptive method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. New ruthenium sensitizers featuring bulky ancillary ligands combined with a dual functioned coadsorbent for high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yongbo; Liang, Mao; Wang, Lina; Han, Hongyu; You, Lingshan; Sun, Zhe; Xue, Song

    2013-01-01

    Two ruthenium complexes featuring bulky ancillary ligands, XS48 and XS49, were synthesized and studied as dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Both dyes exhibit higher solar-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency when compared to a commonly used N3 sensitizer under the same conditions. To examine the influence of the bulky ancillary ligands and alleviate the electron recombination in cells, we have developed a dual functioned truxene-based coadsorbent (MXD1) as an alternative candidate to chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA). This coadsorbent not only effectively shields the back electron transfer from the TiO(2) to I(3)(-) ions but also enhances the light harvesting ability in the short wavelength regions. The photovoltaic performance of XS48-sensitized DSC was independent of the coadsorbents, while XS49 with large bulky ancillary ligand presented better performance when coadsorbent was employed. Interestingly, the simultaneous adsorption-to-sequential adsorption of XS48/49 and MXD1 has caused a notably improved photovoltage, which can be primarily ascribed to the enhanced dye adsorption and retardation of charge recombination. These results not only provide a new vision on how ancillary ligands affect the performance of ruthenium complexes but also open up a new way to achieve further efficiency enhancement of ruthenium complexes.

  2. Extending NASA's SPICE ancillary information system to meet future mission needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acton, C.; Bachman, N.; Elson, L.; Semenov, B.; Turner, F.; Wright, E.

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarizes the architecture, capabilities, characteristics and uses of the current SPICE ancillary information system, and then outlines plans and ideas for how this system can be extended to meet future space mission requirements.

  3. Generating non-classical states from spin coherent states via interaction with ancillary spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dooley, Shane; Joo, Jaewoo; Proctor, Timothy; Spiller, Timothy P.

    2015-02-01

    The generation of non-classical states of large quantum systems has attracted much interest from a foundational perspective, but also because of the significant potential of such states in emerging quantum technologies. In this paper we consider the possibility of generating non-classical states of a system of spins by interaction with an ancillary system, starting from an easily prepared initial state. We extend previous results for an ancillary system comprising a single spin to bigger ancillary systems and the interaction strength is enhanced by a factor of the number of ancillary spins. Depending on initial conditions, we find - by a combination of approximation and numerics - that the system of spins can evolve to spin cat states, spin squeezed states or to multiple cat states. We also discuss some candidate systems for implementation of the Hamiltonian necessary to generate these non-classical states.

  4. Extending NASA's SPICE ancillary information system to meet future mission needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acton, C.; Bachman, N.; Elson, L.; Semenov, B.; Turner, F.; Wright, E.

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarizes the architecture, capabilities, characteristics and uses of the current SPICE ancillary information system, and then outlines plans and ideas for how this system can be extended to meet future space mission requirements.

  5. TECHNOLOGY NEEDS AND STATUS ON CLOSURE OF DOE RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK ANCILLARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, H; Sharon Marra, S; Christine Langton, C

    2009-01-21

    This paper summarizes the current state of art of sampling, characterizing, retrieving, transferring and treating the incidental waste and stabilizing the void space in tank ancillary systems and the needs involved with closure of these systems. The overall effort for closing tank and ancillary systems is very large and is in the initial stages of being addressed in a systematic manner. It was recognized in doing this effort, that gaps in both technology and material application for characterization and removal of residual waste and closure of ancillary systems would be identified. Great efficiencies are to be gained by defining the technology need areas early in the closure process and providing recommendations for technical programs to improve the closure strategies. Therefore, this paper will not only summarize the state of closure of ancillary systems but also provide recommendations to address the technology gaps identified in this assessment.

  6. Utilization of Ancillary Data Sets for SMAP Algorithm Development and Product Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ONeill, P.; Podest, E.; Njoku, E.

    2011-01-01

    Algorithms being developed for the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission require a variety of both static and ancillary data. The selection of the most appropriate source for each ancillary data parameter is driven by a number of considerations, including accuracy, latency, availability, and consistency across all SMAP products and with SMOS (Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity). It is anticipated that initial selection of all ancillary datasets, which are needed for ongoing algorithm development activities on the SMAP algorithm testbed at JPL, will be completed within the year. These datasets will be updated as new or improved sources become available, and all selections and changes will be documented for the benefit of the user community. Wise choices in ancillary data will help to enable SMAP to provide new global measurements of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state at the targeted accuracy necessary to tackle hydrologically-relevant societal issues.

  7. 40 CFR 267.197 - What are the requirements for ancillary equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE FACILITIES OPERATING UNDER A STANDARDIZED PERMIT Tank Systems § 267.197 What are the requirements for ancillary...

  8. 21 CFR 830.340 - Voluntary submission of ancillary device identification information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Identification Database § 830.340 Voluntary submission of ancillary device identification information. (a) You may not submit any information to the Global Unique Device Identification Database (GUDID) other...

  9. The ancillary-care responsibilities of researchers: reasonable but not great expectations.

    PubMed

    Brownsword, Roger

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that, in a community of rights, the prima facie responsibilities of researchers to attend to the ancillary-care needs of their participants would be determined by a four-stage test (relating to placement, capacity, reasonable imposition, and fair demand). This test, it is suggested, sets a standard (and an example) for common law courts that are invited to recognize the ancillary-care responsibilities of researchers, whether as a matter of contract or tort law.

  10. Estimating Net Primary Productivity Using Satellite and Ancillary Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, B. J.; Houser, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The net primary productivity (C) or annual rate of carbon accumulation per unit ground area by terrestrial plant communities is the difference of the rate of gross photosynthesis (A(sub g)) and autotrophic respiration (R) per unit ground area. Although available observations show that R is a large and variable fraction of A(sub g), viz., 0.3 to 0.7, it is generally recognized that much uncertainties exist in this fraction due to difficulties associated with the needed measurements. Additional uncertainties arise when these measurements are extrapolated to regional or global land surface using empirical equations, for example, using regression equations relating C to mean annual precipitation and air temperature. Here, a process-based approach has been taken to calculate A(sub g) and R using satellite and ancillary data. A(sub g) has been expressed as a product of radiation use efficiency, magnitude of intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and normalized by stresses due to soil water shortage and air temperature away from the optimum range. A biophysical model has been used to determine the radiation use efficiency from the maximum rate of carbon assimilation by a leaf, foliage temperature, and the fraction of diffuse PAR incident on a canopy. All meteorological data (PAR, air temperature, precipitation, etc.) needed for the calculation are derived from satellite observations, while a land use, land cover data (based on satellite and ground measurements) have been used to assess the maximum rate of carbon assimilation by a leaf of varied cover type based on field measurements. R has been calculated as the sum of maintenance and growth components. The maintenance respiration of foliage and live fine roots at a standard temperature of different land cover has been determined from their nitrogen content using field and satellite measurements, while that of living fraction of woody stem (viz., sapwood) from the seasonal maximum leaf area index as

  11. Estimating Net Primary Productivity Using Satellite and Ancillary Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, B. J.; Houser, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The net primary productivity (C) or annual rate of carbon accumulation per unit ground area by terrestrial plant communities is the difference of the rate of gross photosynthesis (A(sub g)) and autotrophic respiration (R) per unit ground area. Although available observations show that R is a large and variable fraction of A(sub g), viz., 0.3 to 0.7, it is generally recognized that much uncertainties exist in this fraction due to difficulties associated with the needed measurements. Additional uncertainties arise when these measurements are extrapolated to regional or global land surface using empirical equations, for example, using regression equations relating C to mean annual precipitation and air temperature. Here, a process-based approach has been taken to calculate A(sub g) and R using satellite and ancillary data. A(sub g) has been expressed as a product of radiation use efficiency, magnitude of intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and normalized by stresses due to soil water shortage and air temperature away from the optimum range. A biophysical model has been used to determine the radiation use efficiency from the maximum rate of carbon assimilation by a leaf, foliage temperature, and the fraction of diffuse PAR incident on a canopy. All meteorological data (PAR, air temperature, precipitation, etc.) needed for the calculation are derived from satellite observations, while a land use, land cover data (based on satellite and ground measurements) have been used to assess the maximum rate of carbon assimilation by a leaf of varied cover type based on field measurements. R has been calculated as the sum of maintenance and growth components. The maintenance respiration of foliage and live fine roots at a standard temperature of different land cover has been determined from their nitrogen content using field and satellite measurements, while that of living fraction of woody stem (viz., sapwood) from the seasonal maximum leaf area index as

  12. Approaches to Enable Demand Response by Industrial Loads for Ancillary Services Provision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao

    Demand response has gained significant attention in recent years as it demonstrates potentials to enhance the power system's operational flexibility in a cost-effective way. Industrial loads such as aluminum smelters, steel manufacturers, and cement plants demonstrate advantages in supporting power system operation through demand response programs, because of their intensive power consumption, already existing advanced monitoring and control infrastructure, and the strong economic incentive due to the high energy costs. In this thesis, we study approaches to efficiently integrate each of these types of manufacturing processes as demand response resources. The aluminum smelting process is able to change its power consumption both accurately and quickly by controlling the pots' DC voltage, without affecting the production quality. Hence, an aluminum smelter has both the motivation and the ability to participate in demand response. First, we focus on determining the optimal regulation capacity that such a manufacturing plant should provide. Next, we focus on determining its optimal bidding strategy in the day-ahead energy and ancillary services markets. Electric arc furnaces (EAFs) in steel manufacturing consume a large amount of electric energy. However, a steel plant can take advantage of time-based electricity prices by optimally arranging energy-consuming activities to avoid peak hours. We first propose scheduling methods that incorporate the EAFs' flexibilities to reduce the electricity cost. We then propose methods to make the computations more tractable. Finally, we extend the scheduling formulations to enable the provision of spinning reserve. Cement plants are able to quickly adjust their power consumption rate by switching on/off the crushers. However, switching on/off the loading units only achieves discrete power changes, which restricts the load from offering valuable ancillary services such as regulation and load following, as continuous power changes

  13. Ancillary care in public health intervention research in low-resource settings: researchers' practices and decision-making.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Holly A; Merritt, Maria W; Mullany, Luke C

    2011-09-01

    Little is known about researchers' practices regarding the provision of ancillary care (AC) in public health intervention studies they have conducted and the factors that influence their decisions about whether to provide ancillary care in low-resource settings. We conducted 52 in-person in-depth interviews with public health researchers. Data analysis was iterative and led to the identification of themes and patterns among themes. We found that researchers who conduct their research in the community setting are more likely to identify and plan for the AC needs of potential research subjects before a study begins, whereas those affiliated with a permanent facility are more likely to deliver AC to research subjects on an ad hoc basis. Our findings suggest that on the whole, at least for public health intervention research in low-resource settings, researchers conducting research in the community setting confront more complex ethical and operational challenges in their decision-making about AC than do researchers conducting facility-based studies.

  14. Evaluation of freely available ancillary data used for detailed soil mapping in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuel-Rosa, Alessandro; Anjos, Lúcia; Vasques, Gustavo; Heuvelink, Gerard

    2014-05-01

    Brazil is one of the world's largest food producers, and is home of both largest rainforest and largest supply of renewable fresh water on Earth. However, it lacks detailed soil information in extensive areas of the country. The best soil map covering the entire country was published at a scale of 1:5,000,000. Termination of governmental support for systematic soil mapping in the 1980's made detailed soil mapping of the whole country a very difficult task to accomplish. Nowadays, due to new user-driven demands (e.g. precision agriculture), most detailed soil maps are produced for small size areas. Many of them rely on as is freely available ancillary data, although their accuracy is usually not reported or unknown. Results from a validation exercise that we performed using ground control points from a small hilly catchment (20 km²) in Southern Brazil (-53.7995ºE, -29.6355ºN) indicate that most freely available ancillary data needs some type of correction before use. Georeferenced and orthorectified RapidEye imagery (recently acquired by the Brazilian government) has a horizontal accuracy (root-mean-square error, RMSE) of 37 m, which is worse than the value published in the metadata (32 m). Like any remote sensing imagery, RapidEye imagery needs to be correctly registered before its use for soil mapping. Topographic maps produced by the Brazilian Army and derived geological maps (scale of 1:25,000) have a horizontal accuracy of 65 m, which is more than four times the maximum value allowed by Brazilian legislation (15 m). Worse results were found for geological maps derived from 1:50,000 topographic maps (RMSE = 147 m), for which the maximum allowed value is 30 m. In most cases positional errors are of systematic origin and can be easily corrected (e.g., affine transformation). ASTER GDEM has many holes and is very noisy, making it of little use in the studied area. TOPODATA, which is SRTM kriged from originally 3 to 1 arc-second by the Brazilian National

  15. Combining satellite data with ancillary data to produce a refined land-use/land-cover map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program in the Western Lake Michigan Drainages Study Unit, a current map of land use and land cover is needed to gain a better understanding of how land use and land cover may influence water quality. Satellite data from the Landsat Thematic Mapper provides a means to map and measure the type and amount of various land-cover types across the Study Unit and can be easily updated as changes occur in the landscape or in water quality. Translating these land cover categories to land use, however, requires the use of other thematic maps or ancillary data layers, such as wetland inventories, population data, or road networks. This report describes a process of (1) using satellite imagery to produce a land-cover map for the Fox/Wolf River basin, a portion of the Western Lake Michigan Drainages NAWQA Study Unit and (2) improving the satellite-derived land-cover map by using other thematic maps. The multiple data layers are processed in a geographic information system (GIS), and the combination provides more information than individual sources alone.

  16. Bayesian Network Structure Learning for Urban Land Use Classification from Landsat ETM+ and Ancillary Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, M.; Stenstrom, M. K.

    2004-12-01

    Recognizing urban information from the satellite imagery is problematic due to the diverse features and dynamic changes of urban landuse. The use of Landsat imagery for urban land use classification involves inherent uncertainty due to its spatial resolution and the low separability among land uses. To resolve the uncertainty problem, we investigated the performance of Bayesian networks to classify urban land use since Bayesian networks provide a quantitative way of handling uncertainty and have been successfully used in many areas. In this study, we developed the optimized networks for urban land use classification from Landsat ETM+ images of Marina del Rey area based on USGS land cover/use classification level III. The networks started from a tree structure based on mutual information between variables and added the links to improve accuracy. This methodology offers several advantages: (1) The network structure shows the dependency relationships between variables. The class node value can be predicted even with particular band information missing due to sensor system error. The missing information can be inferred from other dependent bands. (2) The network structure provides information of variables that are important for the classification, which is not available from conventional classification methods such as neural networks and maximum likelihood classification. In our case, for example, bands 1, 5 and 6 are the most important inputs in determining the land use of each pixel. (3) The networks can be reduced with those input variables important for classification. This minimizes the problem without considering all possible variables. We also examined the effect of incorporating ancillary data: geospatial information such as X and Y coordinate values of each pixel and DEM data, and vegetation indices such as NDVI and Tasseled Cap transformation. The results showed that the locational information improved overall accuracy (81%) and kappa coefficient (76%), and

  17. Photocatalytic Conversion of CO2 to CO using Rhenium Bipyridine Platforms Containing Ancillary Phenyl or BODIPY Moieties

    SciTech Connect

    Andrade, Gabriel; Pistner, Allen; Yapp, Glenn P. A.; Lutterman, Daniel A; Rosenthal, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Harnessing of solar energy to drive the reduction of carbon dioxide to fuels requires the development of efficient catalysts that absorb sunlight. In this work, we detail the synthesis, electrochemistry and photophysical properties of a set of homologous fac-ReI(CO)3 complexes containing either an ancillary phenyl (8) or BODIPY (12) substituent. These studies demonstrate that both the electronic properties of the rhenium center and BODIPY chromophore are maintained for these systems. Photolysis studies demonstrate that both assemblies 8 and 12 are competent catalysts for the photochemical reduction of CO2 to CO in DMF using triethanolamine (TEOA) as a sacrificial reductant. Both these systems display TOFs for photocatalytic CO production upon irradiation with light ( ex 400 nm) of ~5 hr 1 with TON values of approximately 20. Although structural and photophysical measurements demonstrate that electronic coupling between the BODIPY and fac-ReI(CO)3 units is limited for complex 12, this work clearly shows that the photoactive BODIPY moiety is tolerated during catalysis and does not interfere with the observed photochemistry. When taken together, these results provide a clear roadmap for the development of advanced rhenium bipyridine complexes bearing ancillary BODIPY groups for the efficient photocatalytic reduction of CO2 using visible light.

  18. Catalytic water oxidation by mononuclear Ru complexes with an anionic ancillary ligand.

    PubMed

    Tong, Lianpeng; Inge, A Ken; Duan, Lele; Wang, Lei; Zou, Xiaodong; Sun, Licheng

    2013-03-04

    Mononuclear Ru-based water oxidation catalysts containing anionic ancillary ligands have shown promising catalytic efficiency and intriguing properties. However, their insolubility in water restricts a detailed mechanism investigation. In order to overcome this disadvantage, complexes [Ru(II)(bpc)(bpy)OH2](+) (1(+), bpc = 2,2'-bipyridine-6-carboxylate, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) and [Ru(II)(bpc)(pic)3](+) (2(+), pic = 4-picoline) were prepared and fully characterized, which features an anionic tridentate ligand and has enough solubility for spectroscopic study in water. Using Ce(IV) as an electron acceptor, both complexes are able to catalyze O2-evolving reaction with an impressive rate constant. On the basis of the electrochemical and kinetic studies, a water nucleophilic attack pathway was proposed as the dominant catalytic cycle of the catalytic water oxidation by 1(+), within which several intermediates were detected by MS. Meanwhile, an auxiliary pathway that is related to the concentration of Ce(IV) was also revealed. The effect of anionic ligand regarding catalytic water oxidation was discussed explicitly in comparison with previously reported mononuclear Ru catalysts carrying neutral tridentate ligands, for example, 2,2':6',2″-terpyridine (tpy). When 2(+) was oxidized to the trivalent state, one of its picoline ligands dissociated from the Ru center. The rate constant of picoline dissociation was evaluated from time-resolved UV-vis spectra.

  19. Prosomeric map of the lamprey forebrain based on calretinin immunocytochemistry, Nissl stain, and ancillary markers.

    PubMed

    Pombal, M A; Puelles, L

    1999-11-22

    The structural organization of the lamprey extratelencephalic forebrain is re-examined from the perspective of the prosomeric segmental paradigm. The question asked was whether the prosomeric forebrain model used for gnathostomes is of material advantage for interpreting subdivisions in the lamprey forebrain. To this aim, the main longitudinal and transverse landmarks recognized by the prosomeric model in other vertebrates were identified in Nissl-stained lamprey material. Lines of cytoarchitectural discontinuity and contours of migrated neuronal groups were mapped in a two-dimensional sagittal representation and were also classified according to their radial position. Immunocytochemical mapping of calretinin expression in adjacent sections served to define particular structural units better, in particular, the dorsal thalamus. These data were complemented by numerous other chemoarchitectonic observations obtained with ancillary markers, which identified additional specific formations, subdivisions, or boundaries. Emphasis was placed on studying whether such chemically defined neuronal groups showed boundaries aligned with the postulated inter- or intraprosomeric boundaries. The course of diverse axonal tracts was studied also with regard to their prosomeric topography. This analysis showed that the full prosomeric model applies straightforwardly to the lamprey forebrain. This finding implies that a common segmental and longitudinal organization of the neural tube may be primitive for all vertebrates. Interesting novel aspects appear in the interpretation of the lamprey pretectum, the dorsal and ventral thalami, and the hypothalamus. The topologic continuity of the prosomeric forebrain regions with evaginated or non-evaginated portions of the telencephalon was also examined.

  20. Integrated Stormwater Management in Los Angeles, California: Best Management Practices and Evaluation of Ancillary Benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogue, T. S.

    2014-12-01

    Best Management Practices (BMPs) and Low Impact Development (LID) have been the primary tools to address quantitative and qualitative surface runoff impacts. The City of Los Angeles (City) is evaluating plans for individual Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) pollutants in each of its major watersheds. However, it has yet to be studied if implementing individual BMP projects will adequately address water quality objectives for receiving (downstream) water bodies, such as Ballona Creek, Ballona Estuary and the Santa Monica Bay. In addition, there is significant uncertainty surrounding potential ancillary benefits (flood reduction, water supply, green space, etc.) from BMP/LID implementation. This presentation will overview our work with the City evaluating the influence of BMPs and LIDs in improving water quality at the watershed scale as well as quantifying other hydrologic benefits. Multiple BMP scenarios are considered to identify various pathways toward improved receiving water body quality in Ballona Creek and Dominquez watersheds. Specific study objectives are to: 1) identify suites of BMP scenarios which can lead to TMDL compliance, 2) quantify the multiple benefits provided by BMPs beyond their primary water quality improvement purpose, and 3) evaluate the success of using existing software for watershed-scale BMP modeling. Our goal is to provide realistic, implementable pathways that can be used by stakeholders to help plan for future education, outreach and capital improvement programs as well as determine feasible pollutant reduction objectives.

  1. A hybrid-systems approach to spin squeezing using a highly dissipative ancillary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dooley, Shane; Yukawa, Emi; Matsuzaki, Yuichiro; Knee, George C.; Munro, William J.; Nemoto, Kae

    2016-05-01

    Squeezed states of spin systems are an important entangled resource for quantum technologies, particularly quantum metrology and sensing. Here we consider the generation of spin squeezed states by interacting the spins with a dissipative ancillary system. We show that spin squeezing can be generated in this model by two different mechanisms: one-axis twisting (OAT) and driven collective relaxation (DCR). We can interpolate between the two mechanisms by simply adjusting the detuning between the dissipative ancillary system and the spin system. Interestingly, we find that for both mechanisms, ancillary system dissipation need not be considered an imperfection in our model, but plays a positive role in spin squeezing. To assess the feasibility of spin squeezing we consider two different implementations with superconducting circuits. We conclude that it is experimentally feasible to generate a squeezed state of hundreds of spins either by OAT or by DCR.

  2. Disaggregating Census Data for Population Mapping Using Random Forests with Remotely-Sensed and Ancillary Data

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Forrest R.; Gaughan, Andrea E.; Linard, Catherine; Tatem, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    High resolution, contemporary data on human population distributions are vital for measuring impacts of population growth, monitoring human-environment interactions and for planning and policy development. Many methods are used to disaggregate census data and predict population densities for finer scale, gridded population data sets. We present a new semi-automated dasymetric modeling approach that incorporates detailed census and ancillary data in a flexible, “Random Forest” estimation technique. We outline the combination of widely available, remotely-sensed and geospatial data that contribute to the modeled dasymetric weights and then use the Random Forest model to generate a gridded prediction of population density at ~100 m spatial resolution. This prediction layer is then used as the weighting surface to perform dasymetric redistribution of the census counts at a country level. As a case study we compare the new algorithm and its products for three countries (Vietnam, Cambodia, and Kenya) with other common gridded population data production methodologies. We discuss the advantages of the new method and increases over the accuracy and flexibility of those previous approaches. Finally, we outline how this algorithm will be extended to provide freely-available gridded population data sets for Africa, Asia and Latin America. PMID:25689585

  3. Synthesis, characterization and properties of copper(I) complexes with bis(diphenylphosphino)-ferrocene ancillary ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xinfang; Zhang, Songlin; Ding, Yuqiang

    2012-06-01

    Three copper(I) complexes (2-4) containing dppf ancillary ligand (dppf = bis(diphenylphosphino)-ferrocene) were synthesized when chloride-bridged copper(I) complex 1 reacted with acetanilide and characterized by IR, element analysis and NMR spectrum. And the crystal structures of complexes 2 and 4 have been determined by X-ray diffraction method. Complex 2, an acetate-bridged copper(I) complex, was obtained under N2 atmosphere in un-dried solvent; the acetate ion came from the hydrolysis reaction of acetanilide due to residual water in solvent. Acetanilide was deprotonated and coordinated with the copper(I) centre to form a copper(I) amidate complex 3 when reacted in pre-dried solvent. In addition, a known complex 4, the oxidation product of dppf, was isolated from the same reaction system when reacted in air atmosphere. CV and TG experiments were carried out to check the electron transfer properties and thermal stabilities of complexes 2-3. Finally, the arylation reaction of complex 3 with iodobenzene was performed to study the reaction mechanism of copper(I) catalyzed Goldberg reaction.

  4. Disaggregating census data for population mapping using random forests with remotely-sensed and ancillary data.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Forrest R; Gaughan, Andrea E; Linard, Catherine; Tatem, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    High resolution, contemporary data on human population distributions are vital for measuring impacts of population growth, monitoring human-environment interactions and for planning and policy development. Many methods are used to disaggregate census data and predict population densities for finer scale, gridded population data sets. We present a new semi-automated dasymetric modeling approach that incorporates detailed census and ancillary data in a flexible, "Random Forest" estimation technique. We outline the combination of widely available, remotely-sensed and geospatial data that contribute to the modeled dasymetric weights and then use the Random Forest model to generate a gridded prediction of population density at ~100 m spatial resolution. This prediction layer is then used as the weighting surface to perform dasymetric redistribution of the census counts at a country level. As a case study we compare the new algorithm and its products for three countries (Vietnam, Cambodia, and Kenya) with other common gridded population data production methodologies. We discuss the advantages of the new method and increases over the accuracy and flexibility of those previous approaches. Finally, we outline how this algorithm will be extended to provide freely-available gridded population data sets for Africa, Asia and Latin America.

  5. Benthic macrofauna and ancillary data for San Francisco Bay, California, March to November 1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schemel, Laurence E.; Ota, Allan Y.; Harmon, J.G.; Shay, J.M.; Adorado, R.N.

    1988-01-01

    Benthic macrofauna and ancillary data were collected during 1987 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey Regional Effects Monitoring Program in San Francisco Bay, California. Data were collected during five cruises at 2-month intervals from March through November. Benthic macrofauna for identification of species and sediment for size analysis were sampled at eight stations. Ancillary data, which consisted of salinity, temperature, dissolved-oxygen concentrations, and suspended sediment, were collected at 12 stations. Salinity and temperature were measured at three stations that coincided with continuous water quality monitors. Abundances and geographical distributions of a newly introduced species of clam were measured. (USGS)

  6. Total Mercury, Methylmercury, and Ancillary Water-Quality and Streamflow Data for Selected Streams in Oregon, Wisconsin, and Florida, 2002-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brigham, Mark E.; Duris, Joseph W.; Wentz, Dennis A.; Button, Daniel T.; Chasar, Lia C.

    2008-01-01

    Field and analytical methods, mercury and ancillary water-quality data, and associated quality-control data are reported for eight streams in Oregon, Wisconsin, and Florida from 2002 to 2006. The streams were sampled as part of a U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program study of mercury cycling, transport, and bioaccumulation in urban and nonurban stream ecosystems that receive mercury predominantly by way of atmospheric deposition.

  7. 30 CFR 250.210 - If I conduct ancillary activities, what reporting and data/information retention requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reports that summarize and analyze data or information obtained or derived from your ancillary activities... reporting and data/information retention requirements must I satisfy? 250.210 Section 250.210 Mineral... Activities § 250.210 If I conduct ancillary activities, what reporting and data/information...

  8. 78 FR 46177 - Third-Party Provision of Ancillary Services; Accounting and Financial Reporting for New Electric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... Third-Party Provision of Ancillary Services; Accounting and Financial Reporting for New Electric Storage Technologies; Rules #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 146 / Tuesday, July 30, 2013 / Rules and Regulations...-Party Provision of Ancillary Services; Accounting and Financial Reporting for New Electric Storage...

  9. 77 FR 40413 - Third-Party Provision of Ancillary Services; Accounting and Financial Reporting for New Electric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... 101 Third-Party Provision of Ancillary Services; Accounting and Financial Reporting for New Electric Storage Technologies; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No. 131 / Monday, July 9, 2012... 101 Third-Party Provision of Ancillary Services; Accounting and Financial Reporting for New Electric...

  10. 40 CFR 267.197 - What are the requirements for ancillary equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the requirements for... OPERATING UNDER A STANDARDIZED PERMIT Tank Systems § 267.197 What are the requirements for ancillary..., double-walled piping) that meets the requirements of § 267.195 (a) and (b), except for: (a) Above...

  11. 48 CFR 801.670-3 - Medical, dental, and ancillary service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medical, dental, and ancillary service. 801.670-3 Section 801.670-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career...

  12. Regulatory issues associated with closure of the Hanford AX Tank Farm ancillary equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, D.L.

    1998-09-02

    Liquid mixed, high-level radioactive waste has been stored in underground single-shell tanks at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site. After retrieval of the waste from the single-shell tanks, the DOE will proceed with closure of the tank farm. The 241-AX Tank Farm includes four one-million gallon single-shell tanks in addition to sluice lines, transfer lines, ventilation headers, risers, pits, cribs, catch tanks, buildings, well and associated buried piping. This equipment is classified as ancillary equipment. This document addresses the requirements for regulatory close of the ancillary equipment in the Hanford Site 241-AX Tank Farm. The options identified for physical closure of the ancillary equipment include disposal in place, disposal in place after treatment, excavation and disposal on site in an empty single-shell tank, and excavation and disposal outside the AX Tank Farm. The document addresses the background of the Hanford Site and ancillary equipment in the AX Tank Farm, regulations for decontamination and decommissioning of radioactively contaminated equipment, requirements for the cleanup and disposal of radioactive wastes, cleanup and disposal requirements governing hazardous and mixed waste, and regulatory requirements and issues associated with each of the four physical closure options. This investigation was conducted by the Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, during Fiscal Year 1998 for the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project.

  13. 47 CFR 90.317 - Fixed ancillary signaling and data transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fixed ancillary signaling and data transmissions. 90.317 Section 90.317 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Authorization in the Band 470-512 MHz (UHF-TV...

  14. 47 CFR 90.317 - Fixed ancillary signaling and data transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed ancillary signaling and data transmissions. 90.317 Section 90.317 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Authorization in the Band 470-512 MHz (UHF-TV...

  15. 47 CFR 90.317 - Fixed ancillary signaling and data transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fixed ancillary signaling and data transmissions. 90.317 Section 90.317 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Authorization in the Band 470-512 MHz (UHF-TV...

  16. 47 CFR 90.317 - Fixed ancillary signaling and data transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed ancillary signaling and data transmissions. 90.317 Section 90.317 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Authorization in the Band 470-512 MHz (UHF-TV...

  17. 47 CFR 90.317 - Fixed ancillary signaling and data transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fixed ancillary signaling and data transmissions. 90.317 Section 90.317 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Authorization in the Band 470-512 MHz (UHF-TV...

  18. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #15: WORKSHOP ON ANCILLARY BENEFITS AND COSTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE STRATEGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Global Change Research Program is co-sponsoring a three-day workshop to examine possible ancillary benefits of climate change adaptation and mitigation policies. The goals of the workshop are: (1)to establish a common basis of understanding about the conceptual and empiric...

  19. Advanced technology for ancillary coal cleaning operations. Technical progress report, September--December, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The work under contract number DE-AC22-87PC97881 is devoted to experimental research and development to investigate the feasibility of novel ancillary coal-cleaning technologies that offer a potential for reduced capital and operating costs. The ancilliary operations that are specifically addressed in this work include pulse enhanced drying, fines reconstitution by extrusion, and hydraulic wave comminution.

  20. Advanced technology for ancillary coal cleaning operations. Technical progress report, January 1988--March 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The work under contract number DE-AC22-87PC97881 is devoted to experimental research and development to investigate the feasibility of novel ancillary coal-cleaning technologies that offer a potential for reduced capital and operating costs. The ancilliary operations that are specifically addressed in this work include pulse enhanced drying, fines reconstitution by extrusion, and hydraulic wave comminution.

  1. TES/Aura L2 Ancillary Data V6 (TL2ANCS)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-09-20

    TES/Aura L2 Ancillary Data (TL2ANCS) News:  TES News Join TES News List ... Solar Azimuth Angle Legacy:  Retired data product , click here for a newer version. For more information or ... please contact ASDC User Services Order Data:  Earthdata Search: Current Version Guide ...

  2. Camera traps and mark-resight models: The value of ancillary data for evaluating assumptions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, Arielle W.; Simons, Theodore R.; Pollock, Kenneth H.; Stoskopf, Michael K.; Stocking, Jessica J.; O'Connell, Allan F.

    2015-01-01

    Unbiased estimators of abundance and density are fundamental to the study of animal ecology and critical for making sound management decisions. Capture–recapture models are generally considered the most robust approach for estimating these parameters but rely on a number of assumptions that are often violated but rarely validated. Mark-resight models, a form of capture–recapture, are well suited for use with noninvasive sampling methods and allow for a number of assumptions to be relaxed. We used ancillary data from continuous video and radio telemetry to evaluate the assumptions of mark-resight models for abundance estimation on a barrier island raccoon (Procyon lotor) population using camera traps. Our island study site was geographically closed, allowing us to estimate real survival and in situ recruitment in addition to population size. We found several sources of bias due to heterogeneity of capture probabilities in our study, including camera placement, animal movement, island physiography, and animal behavior. Almost all sources of heterogeneity could be accounted for using the sophisticated mark-resight models developed by McClintock et al. (2009b) and this model generated estimates similar to a spatially explicit mark-resight model previously developed for this population during our study. Spatially explicit capture–recapture models have become an important tool in ecology and confer a number of advantages; however, non-spatial models that account for inherent individual heterogeneity may perform nearly as well, especially where immigration and emigration are limited. Non-spatial models are computationally less demanding, do not make implicit assumptions related to the isotropy of home ranges, and can provide insights with respect to the biological traits of the local population.

  3. Profile of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis in Sri Lankans: Is There an Increased Risk of Ancillary Pathologies in Hashimoto's Thyroiditis?

    PubMed

    Siriweera, Eranga Himalee; Ratnatunga, Neelakanthi Vajira Illangakoon

    2010-10-10

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis has been reported to be associated with many neoplastic and nonneoplastic thyroid pathologies. This retrospective study aims to determine the demographic profile of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in Sri Lankans, document ancillary pathologies in Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and determine whether there is an increased risk of occurrence of malignancies, benign neoplasms, and nonneoplastic benign lesions in Hashimoto's thyroiditis by comparing with thyroids showing multinodular goiters, follicular adenomas, and colloid nodules. The mean age of Hashimoto's thyroiditis is 43.3 years with the majority in the 41 to 60 year age group and a female to male ratio of 10.3 : 1. This study revealed a statistically significant increase of thyroid malignancies in association with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The association of Papillary carcinoma, Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and Hurthle cell adenoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was statistically significant.

  4. Reduction of CO2 using a Rhenium Bipyridine Complex Containing Ancillary BODIPY Moieties

    PubMed Central

    Teesdale, Justin J.; Pistner, Allen J.; Yap, Glenn P.A.; Ma, Ying-Zhong; Lutterman, Daniel A.; Rosenthal, Joel

    2014-01-01

    The reduction of carbon dioxide to chemical fuels such as carbon monoxide is an important challenge in the field of renewable energy conversion. Given the thermodynamic stability of carbon dioxide, it is difficult to efficiently activate this substrate in a selective fashion and the development of new electrocatalysts for CO2 reduction is of prime importance. To this end, we have prepared and studied a new fac-ReI(CO)3 complex supported by a bipyridine ligand containing ancillary BODIPY moieties ([Re(BB2)(CO)3Cl]). Voltammetry experiments revealed that this system displays a rich redox chemistry under N2, as [Re(BB2)(CO)3Cl] can be reduced by up to four electrons at modest potentials. These redox events have been characterized as the ReI/0 couple, and three ligand based reductions – two of which are localized on the BODIPY units. The ability of the BB2 ligand to serve as a non-innocent redox reservoir is manifest in an enhanced electrocatalysis with CO2 as compared to an unsubstituted Re-bipyridine complex lacking BODIPY units ([Re(bpy)(CO)3Cl]). The second order rate constant for reduction of CO2 by [Re(BB2)(CO)3Cl] was measured to be k = 3400 M−1s−1 at an applied potential of −2.0 V versus SCE, which is roughly three times greater than the corresponding unsubstituted Re-bipyridine homologue. Photophysical and photochemical studies were also carried out to determine if [Re(BB2)(CO)3Cl] was a competent platform for CO2 reduction using visible light. These experiments showed that this complex supports unusual excited state dynamics that precludes efficient CO2 reduction and are distinct from those that are typically observed for fac-ReI(CO)3 complexes. PMID:25395735

  5. Ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes with hydrophobic ancillary ligand as Aβ aggregation inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Nilima A; Ramteke, Shefali N; Kumbhar, Avinash S; Kulkarni, Prasad P; Jani, Vinod; Sonawane, Uddhavesh B; Joshi, Rajendra R; Joshi, Bimba; Erxleben, Andrea

    2016-10-04

    The synthesis, spectral and electrochemical characterization of the complexes of the type [Ru(NN)2(txbg)](2+) where NN is 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) (1), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) (2), dipyrido [3,2-d:2',3f] quinoxaline (dpq) (3), and dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine (dppz) (4) which incorporate the tetra-xylene bipyridine glycoluril (txbg) as the ancillary ligand are described in detail. Crystal structures of ligand txbg and complex 2 were solved by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) results indicated that at micromolar concentration all complexes exhibit significant potential of Aβ aggregation inhibition, while the ligand txbg displayed weak activity towards Aβ aggregation. Complex 1 showed relatively low inhibition (70%) while complexes 2-4 inhibited nearly 100% Aβ aggregation after 240 h of incubation. The similar potential of complexes 2-4 and absence of any trend in their activity with the planarity of polypyridyl ligands suggests there is no marked effect of planarity of coligands on their inhibitory potential. Further studies on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition indicated very weak activity of these complexes against AChE. Detailed interactions of Aβ with both ligand and complex 2 have been studied by molecular modeling. Complex 2 showed interactions involving all three polypyridyl ligands with hydrophobic region of Aβ. Furthermore, the toxicity of these complexes towards human neuroblastoma cells was evaluated by MTT assay and except complex 4, the complexes displayed very low toxicity.

  6. Reduction of CO2 using a Rhenium Bipyridine Complex Containing Ancillary BODIPY Redox Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Teesdale, Justin; Pistner, Allen; Yapp, Glenn P. A.; Ma, Yingzhong; Lutterman, Daniel A; Rosenthal, Joel

    2014-01-01

    The reduction of carbon dioxide to chemical fuels such as carbon monoxide is an important challenge in the field of renewable energy conversion. Given the thermodynamic stability of carbon dioxide, it is difficult to efficiently activate this substrate in a selective fashion and the development of new electrocatalysts for CO2 reduction is of prime importance. To this end, we have prepared and studied a new fac-ReI(CO)3 complex supported by a bipyridine ligand containing ancillary BODIPY moieties ([Re(BB2)(CO)3Cl]). Voltammetry experiments revealed that this system displays a rich redox chemistry under N2, as [Re(BB2)(CO)3Cl] can be reduced by up to four electrons at modest potentials. These redox events have been characterized as the ReI/0 couple, and three ligand based reductions two of which are localized on the BODIPY units. The ability of the BB2 ligand to serve as a noninnocent redox reservoir is manifest in an enhanced electrocatalysis with CO2 as compared to an unsubstituted Re-bipyridine complex lacking BODIPY units ([Re(bpy)(CO)3Cl]). The second order rate constant for reduction of CO2 by [Re(BB2)(CO)3Cl] was measured to be k = 3400 M 1s 1 at an applied potential of 2.0 V versus SCE, which is roughly three times greater than the corresponding unsubstituted Re-bipyridine homologue. Photophysical and photochemical studies were also carried out to determine if [Re(BB2)(CO)3Cl] was a competent platform for CO2 reduction using visible light. These experiments showed that this complex supports unusual excited state dynamics that are not typically observed for fac- ReI(CO)3 complexes.

  7. Regional land cover characterization using Landsat thematic mapper data and ancillary data sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vogelmann, J.E.; Sohl, T.L.; Campbell, P.V.; Shaw, D.M.; ,

    1998-01-01

    As part of the activities of the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Interagency Consortium, an intermediate-scale land cover data set is being generated for the conterminous United States. This effort is being conducted on a region-by-region basis using U.S. Standard Federal Regions. To date, land cover data sets have been generated for Federal Regions 3 (Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Virginia, Maryland, and Delaware) and 2 (New York and New Jersey). Classification work is currently under way in Federal Region 4 (the southeastern United States), and land cover mapping activities have been started in Federal Regions 5 (the Great Lakes region) and 1 (New England). It is anticipated that a land cover data set for the conterminous United States will be completed by the end of 1999. A standard land cover classification legend is used, which is analogous to and compatible with other classification schemes. The primary MRLC regional classification scheme contains 23 land cover classes.The primary source of data for the project is the Landsat thematic mapper (TM) sensor. For each region, TM scenes representing both leaf-on and leaf-off conditions are acquired, preprocessed, and georeferenced to MRLC specifications. Mosaicked data are clustered using unsupervised classification, and individual clusters are labeled using aerial photographs. Individual clusters that represent more than one land cover unit are split using spatial modeling with multiple ancillary spatial data layers (most notably, digital elevation model, population, land use and land cover, and wetlands information). This approach yields regional land cover information suitable for a wide array of applications, including landscape metric analyses, land management, land cover change studies, and nutrient and pesticide runoff modeling.

  8. 43 CFR 2806.41 - How will BLM calculate rent for communication facilities ancillary to a linear grant or other use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... communication facilities ancillary to a linear grant or other use authorization? 2806.41 Section 2806.41 Public... facilities ancillary to a linear grant or other use authorization? When a communication facility is ancillary to, and authorized by BLM under, a grant for a linear use, or some other type of use authorization...

  9. 43 CFR 2806.41 - How will BLM calculate rent for communication facilities ancillary to a linear grant or other use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... communication facilities ancillary to a linear grant or other use authorization? 2806.41 Section 2806.41 Public... facilities ancillary to a linear grant or other use authorization? When a communication facility is ancillary to, and authorized by BLM under, a grant for a linear use, or some other type of use authorization...

  10. 43 CFR 2806.41 - How will BLM calculate rent for communication facilities ancillary to a linear grant or other use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... communication facilities ancillary to a linear grant or other use authorization? 2806.41 Section 2806.41 Public... facilities ancillary to a linear grant or other use authorization? When a communication facility is ancillary to, and authorized by BLM under, a grant for a linear use, or some other type of use authorization...

  11. 43 CFR 2806.41 - How will BLM calculate rent for communication facilities ancillary to a linear grant or other use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... communication facilities ancillary to a linear grant or other use authorization? 2806.41 Section 2806.41 Public... facilities ancillary to a linear grant or other use authorization? When a communication facility is ancillary to, and authorized by BLM under, a grant for a linear use, or some other type of use authorization...

  12. The microeconomics of residential photovoltaics: Tariffs, network operation and maintenance, and ancillary services in distribution-level electricity markets

    SciTech Connect

    Boero, Riccardo; Backhaus, Scott N.; Edwards, Brian K.

    2016-11-12

    Here, we develop a microeconomic model of a distribution-level electricity market that takes explicit account of residential photovoltaics (PV) adoption. The model allows us to study the consequences of most tariffs on PV adoption and the consequences of increased residential PV adoption under the assumption of economic sustainability for electric utilities. We also validated the model using U.S. data and extend it to consider different pricing schemes for operation and maintenance costs of the distribution network and for ancillary services. Results show that net metering promotes more environmental benefits and social welfare than other tariffs. But, if costs to operate the distribution network increase, net metering will amplify the unequal distribution of surplus among households. In conclusion, maintaining the economic sustainability of electric utilities under net metering may become extremely difficult unless the uneven distribution of surplus is legitimated by environmental benefits.

  13. The microeconomics of residential photovoltaics: Tariffs, network operation and maintenance, and ancillary services in distribution-level electricity markets

    DOE PAGES

    Boero, Riccardo; Backhaus, Scott N.; Edwards, Brian K.

    2016-11-12

    Here, we develop a microeconomic model of a distribution-level electricity market that takes explicit account of residential photovoltaics (PV) adoption. The model allows us to study the consequences of most tariffs on PV adoption and the consequences of increased residential PV adoption under the assumption of economic sustainability for electric utilities. We also validated the model using U.S. data and extend it to consider different pricing schemes for operation and maintenance costs of the distribution network and for ancillary services. Results show that net metering promotes more environmental benefits and social welfare than other tariffs. But, if costs to operatemore » the distribution network increase, net metering will amplify the unequal distribution of surplus among households. In conclusion, maintaining the economic sustainability of electric utilities under net metering may become extremely difficult unless the uneven distribution of surplus is legitimated by environmental benefits.« less

  14. Four homochiral coordination polymers contain N-acetyl-L-tyrosine and different N-donor ligand: Influence of metal cations, ancillary ligands and coordination modes

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Meng-Li; Song, Hui-Hua

    2013-10-15

    Using the chiral ligand N-acetyl-L-tyrosine (Hacty) and maintaining identical reaction conditions, Zn(II), Co(II), and Cd(II) salts provided four novel homochiral coordination polymers ([Zn(acty)(bipy){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·NO{sub 3}·2H{sub 2}O){sub n}1, ([Co(acty)(bipy){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·NO{sub 3}·2H{sub 2}O){sub n}2, ([Cd(acty){sub 2}(bipy)H{sub 2}O]·H{sub 2}O){sub n}3, and ([Cd(acty)(bpe){sub 2}(Ac)]·6H{sub 2}O){sub n}4 (bipy=4,4′-bipyridine; bpe=1,2-di(4-pyridyl)ethane) in the presence of ancillary ligands. Compounds 1 and 2 are isostructural 1D chain structures. The neighboring chains are further linked into a 3D supramolecular structure via π⋯π stacking and hydrogen bond interactions. Compound 3 shows a 2D network and 4 generates 1D infinite chains along the c-axis. Compounds 3 and 4 are further connected into 3D supramolecular network by hydrogen bond interactions. More importantly, coordination in acyl oxygen atoms and ancillary ligands (bpe) as monodentate decorating ligands in 4 are rarely reported. Ancillary ligands and metal cations significantly influence the structure of the complexes. The photoluminescence properties of 1, 3, and 4 were studied at room temperature. Circular dichroism (CD) of the complexes have been investigated. - Graphical abstract: Four new homochiral coordination polymers were prepared and structurally characterized, which investigate the influence of the ancillary ligands and metal ions on the design and synthesis of coordination polymers. Display Omitted - Highlights: • It is rarely reported that the chiral coordination polymers prepared with N-acetyl-L-tyrosine ligands. • The alkalescent acetyl oxygen atom is difficult to participate in coordination but it is happened in the N-acetyl-L-tyrosine ligands. • The ancillary ligands (4,4′-bipy and bpe) are present in an unusual coordination modes, monodentate decorating ligands in 1, 2 and 4. • Structure comparative analyses results indicate that the

  15. Ancillary Materials--What's Out There? Technical Report No. 507.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, Jean; Decker, Karen

    A study examined the new editions of four of the best-selling reading programs along with workbooks of several different publishers of social studies, science, and language arts programs. An analysis was carried out of the types of tasks found in workbooks and the content of the tasks. Results indicated that the workbooks contain numerous and…

  16. Development of an Asset Value Map for Disaster Risk Assessment in China by Spatial Disaggregation Using Ancillary Remote Sensing Data.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jidong; Li, Ying; Li, Ning; Shi, Peijun

    2017-04-05

    The extent of economic losses due to a natural hazard and disaster depends largely on the spatial distribution of asset values in relation to the hazard intensity distribution within the affected area. Given that statistical data on asset value are collected by administrative units in China, generating spatially explicit asset exposure maps remains a key challenge for rapid postdisaster economic loss assessment. The goal of this study is to introduce a top-down (or downscaling) approach to disaggregate administrative-unit level asset value to grid-cell level. To do so, finding the highly correlated "surrogate" indicators is the key. A combination of three data sets-nighttime light grid, LandScan population grid, and road density grid, is used as ancillary asset density distribution information for spatializing the asset value. As a result, a high spatial resolution asset value map of China for 2015 is generated. The spatial data set contains aggregated economic value at risk at 30 arc-second spatial resolution. Accuracy of the spatial disaggregation reflects redistribution errors introduced by the disaggregation process as well as errors from the original ancillary data sets. The overall accuracy of the results proves to be promising. The example of using the developed disaggregated asset value map in exposure assessment of watersheds demonstrates that the data set offers immense analytical flexibility for overlay analysis according to the hazard extent. This product will help current efforts to analyze spatial characteristics of exposure and to uncover the contributions of both physical and social drivers of natural hazard and disaster across space and time.

  17. Ancillary qubit spectroscopy of vacua in cavity and circuit quantum electrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Lolli, Jared; Baksic, Alexandre; Nagy, David; Manucharyan, Vladimir E; Ciuti, Cristiano

    2015-05-08

    We investigate theoretically how the spectroscopy of an ancillary qubit can probe cavity (circuit) QED ground states containing photons. We consider three classes of systems (Dicke, Tavis-Cummings, and Hopfield-like models), where nontrivial vacua are the result of ultrastrong coupling between N two-level systems and a single-mode bosonic field. An ancillary qubit detuned with respect to the boson frequency is shown to reveal distinct spectral signatures depending on the type of vacua. In particular, the Lamb shift of the ancilla is sensitive to both ground state photon population and correlations. Backaction of the ancilla on the cavity ground state is investigated, taking into account the dissipation via a consistent master equation for the ultrastrong coupling regime. The conditions for high-fidelity measurements are determined.

  18. Ancillary care obligations in light of an African bioethic: from entrustment to communion.

    PubMed

    Metz, Thaddeus

    2017-03-16

    Henry Richardson recently published the first book ever devoted to ancillary care obligations, which roughly concern what medical researchers are morally required to provide to participants beyond what safety requires. In it, Richardson notes that he is presenting the 'only fully elaborated view out there' on this topic, which he calls the 'partial-entrustment model'. In this article, I provide a new theory of ancillary care obligations, one that is grounded on ideals of communion salient in the African philosophical tradition and that is intended to rival and surpass Richardson's model, which is a function of Western considerations of autonomy. I argue that the relational approach of the former has several virtues in comparison to the basic individualism of the latter.

  19. Grid-Scale Energy Storage Demonstration of Ancillary Services Using the UltraBattery Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Seasholtz, Jeff

    2015-08-20

    The collaboration described in this document is being done as part of a cooperative research agreement under the Department of Energy’s Smart Grid Demonstration Program. This document represents the Final Technical Performance Report, from July 2012 through April 2015, for the East Penn Manufacturing Smart Grid Program demonstration project. This Smart Grid Demonstration project demonstrates Distributed Energy Storage for Grid Support, in particular the economic and technical viability of a grid-scale, advanced energy storage system using UltraBattery ® technology for frequency regulation ancillary services and demand management services. This project entailed the construction of a dedicated facility on the East Penn campus in Lyon Station, PA that is being used as a working demonstration to provide regulation ancillary services to PJM and demand management services to Metropolitan Edison (Met-Ed).

  20. Organizational boundaries of medical practice: the case of physician ownership of ancillary services.

    PubMed

    Schneider, John E; Ohsfeldt, Robert L; Scheibling, Cara M; Jeffers, Sarah A

    2012-04-05

    Physician ownership of in-office ancillary services (IOASs) has come under increasing scrutiny. Advocates of argue that IOASs allow physicians to supervise the quality and coordination of care. Critics have argued that IOASs create financial incentives for physicians to increase ancillary service volume. In this paper we develop a conceptual framework to evaluate the tradeoffs associated with physician ownership of IOASs. There is some evidence supporting the existence of scope and transaction economies in IOASs. Improvement in flow and continuity of care are likely to generate scope economies and improvements in quality monitoring and reductions in consumer transaction costs are likely to generate transaction economies. Other factors include the capture of upstream and downstream profits, but these incentives are likely to be small compared to scope and transaction economies. Policy debates on the merits of IOASs should include an explicit assessment of these tradeoffs.This research was supported in part by funding from the American Association of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS).

  1. Organizational boundaries of medical practice: the case of physician ownership of ancillary services

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Physician ownership of in-office ancillary services (IOASs) has come under increasing scrutiny. Advocates of argue that IOASs allow physicians to supervise the quality and coordination of care. Critics have argued that IOASs create financial incentives for physicians to increase ancillary service volume. In this paper we develop a conceptual framework to evaluate the tradeoffs associated with physician ownership of IOASs. There is some evidence supporting the existence of scope and transaction economies in IOASs. Improvement in flow and continuity of care are likely to generate scope economies and improvements in quality monitoring and reductions in consumer transaction costs are likely to generate transaction economies. Other factors include the capture of upstream and downstream profits, but these incentives are likely to be small compared to scope and transaction economies. Policy debates on the merits of IOASs should include an explicit assessment of these tradeoffs. This research was supported in part by funding from the American Association of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS). PMID:22828324

  2. Improved Sea Surface Salinity Retrievals using Ancillary data for Aquarius Ocean Roughness Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, L.; Hejazin, Y.; Rabollii, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Aquarius/SAC-D sea surface salinity (SSS) measurement mission was launched into polar orbit during the summer of 2011. The prime sensor is a combined L-band radiometer/scatterometer developed jointly by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, which derives SSS from ocean surface brightness temperature (Tb) measurements. This paper deals with a method of improving AQ SSS by making a making an ocean roughness brightness temperature correction (ΔTbr). The ΔTbr is derived using several ancillary data sources of surface wind measurements, namely; NOAA numerical weather model - Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS), WindSat ocean vector wind, and the CONAE Microwave Radiometer (MWR). The basis of the correction is the excess (warming) brightness temperature that is produced when the ocean is roughened by the surface wind. We model the increase in L-band Tb as a function of wind speed and direction relative to the antenna azimuth look direction. Our radiative transfer model by El-Nimri [2010] has been tuned to actual AQ ocean surface Tb's with corresponding surface wind vector. Using this ocean emissivity model and the ancillary wind vector, we derive the roughness correction, ΔTbr, which is applied to the AQ measured ocean surface Tb before retrieving SSS. Finally the effect of ΔTbr is evaluated by computing the difference between the HYCOM ocean salinity model and the AQ retrievals. These differences are cross correlated with the ancillary surface wind vector to assess the effectiveness of the roughness correction. Finally, we compare our ΔTbr with the AQ scatterometer derived ΔTbr. We compare the similarities and differenced versus the ancillary surface wind speed. S. El-Nimri et al., 2010, "An improved C-band ocean surface emissivity model at hurricane force wind speeds over a wide range of earth incidence angles," IEEE Geosci. Rem. Sens. Letters, vol. 7, NO. 4, October.

  3. Functional neuroimaging of conversion disorder: the role of ancillary activation.

    PubMed

    Burke, Matthew J; Ghaffar, Omar; Staines, W Richard; Downar, Jonathan; Feinstein, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Previous functional neuroimaging studies investigating the neuroanatomy of conversion disorder have yielded inconsistent results that may be attributed to small sample sizes and disparate methodologies. The objective of this study was to better define the functional neuroanatomical correlates of conversion disorder. Ten subjects meeting clinical criteria for unilateral sensory conversion disorder underwent fMRI during which a vibrotactile stimulus was applied to anesthetic and sensate areas. A block design was used with 4 s of stimulation followed by 26 s of rest, the pattern repeated 10 times. Event-related group averages of the BOLD response were compared between conditions. All subjects were right-handed females, with a mean age of 41. Group analyses revealed 10 areas that had significantly greater activation (p < .05) when stimulation was applied to the anesthetic body part compared to the contralateral sensate mirror region. They included right paralimbic cortices (anterior cingulate cortex and insula), right temporoparietal junction (angular gyrus and inferior parietal lobule), bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (middle frontal gyri), right orbital frontal cortex (superior frontal gyrus), right caudate, right ventral-anterior thalamus and left angular gyrus. There was a trend for activation of the somatosensory cortex contralateral to the anesthetic region to be decreased relative to the sensate side. Sensory conversion symptoms are associated with a pattern of abnormal cerebral activation comprising neural networks implicated in emotional processing and sensory integration. Further study of the roles and potential interplay of these networks may provide a basis for an underlying psychobiological mechanism of conversion disorder.

  4. Functional neuroimaging of conversion disorder: The role of ancillary activation

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Matthew J.; Ghaffar, Omar; Staines, W. Richard; Downar, Jonathan; Feinstein, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous functional neuroimaging studies investigating the neuroanatomy of conversion disorder have yielded inconsistent results that may be attributed to small sample sizes and disparate methodologies. The objective of this study was to better define the functional neuroanatomical correlates of conversion disorder. Methods Ten subjects meeting clinical criteria for unilateral sensory conversion disorder underwent fMRI during which a vibrotactile stimulus was applied to anesthetic and sensate areas. A block design was used with 4 s of stimulation followed by 26 s of rest, the pattern repeated 10 times. Event-related group averages of the BOLD response were compared between conditions. Results All subjects were right-handed females, with a mean age of 41. Group analyses revealed 10 areas that had significantly greater activation (p < .05) when stimulation was applied to the anesthetic body part compared to the contralateral sensate mirror region. They included right paralimbic cortices (anterior cingulate cortex and insula), right temporoparietal junction (angular gyrus and inferior parietal lobule), bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (middle frontal gyri), right orbital frontal cortex (superior frontal gyrus), right caudate, right ventral-anterior thalamus and left angular gyrus. There was a trend for activation of the somatosensory cortex contralateral to the anesthetic region to be decreased relative to the sensate side. Conclusions Sensory conversion symptoms are associated with a pattern of abnormal cerebral activation comprising neural networks implicated in emotional processing and sensory integration. Further study of the roles and potential interplay of these networks may provide a basis for an underlying psychobiological mechanism of conversion disorder. PMID:25379447

  5. Recovery Act Weekly Video: 200 Area Asbestos Removal, U-Ancillary Demolition, 200 West Transfer Building Footings

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    A weekly update of the Recovery Act at work. Demolition of U-Ancillary that was contaminated with uranium and asbestos as well as removing asbestos from the Steam Generation Plant in the 200 East Area.

  6. Recovery Act Weekly Video: 200 Area Asbestos Removal, U-Ancillary Demolition, 200 West Transfer Building Footings

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    A weekly update of the Recovery Act at work. Demolition of U-Ancillary that was contaminated with uranium and asbestos as well as removing asbestos from the Steam Generation Plant in the 200 East Area.

  7. Applying the variety reduction principle to management of ancillary services.

    PubMed

    Elkhuizen, Sylvia G; van Sambeek, Jasper R C; Hans, Erwin W; Krabbendam, Koos J J; Bakker, Piet J M

    2007-01-01

    As central diagnostic facilities, computer tomography (CT) scans appear to be bottlenecks in many patient-care processes. This study describes a case study concerning redesign of a CT scan department in the Academic Medical Center in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. The aim was to decrease access time for the CT-scan and simultaneously increase utilization level. An important cause of relatively low-capacity utilization is variability in the time needed for the scanning process. We performed a qualitative and quantitative analysis of current processes; identified bottlenecks and selected interventions with the greatest expected reduction of variability in flow time. The most promising and most feasible opportunity appeared to be to reallocate the insertion of intravenous access lines to a preparation room. The time needed for this activity was very hard to predict and needed a lot of slack in the lead time for appointments. By removing it from the CT room, lead time could be reduced by 5 minutes. The intervention resulted in a decrease of access time from 21 days to less than 5 days, and an increase of the utilization rate from 44% to 51%. This contributed directly to patient service and indirectly to cost reduction. Our strategy is applicable in every appointment-based hospital facility with variation in the length of time of the process. It allows to simultaneously reduce costs and improve service for the patient.

  8. Audit of subsidized ancillary services at the Nevada Test site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-08

    The Department and its contractors have participated in at least six reviews since 1991 encompassing aspects of subsidies at the test site. Several of these reviews resulted in reports recommending reductions to the housing, food, and bus services. A strategic planning report completed in November 1994, for example, recommended closing certain food service facilities, increasing housing rates to fair market value, and studying a bus depot system. Other reports echoed the same themes. The Department should be credited for recognizing that actions should be taken to reduce subsidy costs. Moreover, the Acting Manager, Nevada Operations office, has been proactive in reducing the busing subsidy by decreasing the number of buses and bus routes. The Acting Manager has also been fully supportive of the effort to further reduce subsidies. We appreciate these efforts.

  9. [Hirschsprung's disease: the immunohistochemistry as ancillary method for the diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Menchaca-Cervantes, Celestina; Rodríguez-Velasco, Alicia; Ramón-García, Guillermo; Rendón-Macías, Mario Enrique

    2013-01-01

    Background: the confirmatory diagnosis of Hirschsprung's disease is made by histopathological study. However, this procedure is limited with only hematoxylin and eosin staining, especially in biopsies of premature babies or when non-expert pathologists make the evaluation. The immunohistochemistry from ganglia cell calretinin has been used to reduce the risk of misdiagnosis. Our objective was to show the benefits of this antibody in diagnosis of Hirschsprung's disease in biopsy specimens. Methods: we evaluated patients with histopathological diagnosis of Hirschsprung's disease made by hematoxylin and eosin staining. We determined if there was enough paraffin block for immunohistochemistry with two markers: calretinin and neurofilaments. Three controls of autopsy of children under 3 years of age with other diagnosis were included. Results: of a total of 48 cases with histopathological diagnosis of Hirschsprung's disease only 13 had adequate tissue for immunohistochemistry. The immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis in nine cases. In the other four cases there were initial misdiagnosis due to evidence of calretinin (ganglion cells) and, thus, Hirschsprung's disease was discarded. Conclusions: the use of immunohistochemistry allows confirming the diagnosis of Hirschsprung's disease and reduce the risk of a false-positive result with only hematoxylin and eosin staining.

  10. Impact of Market Behavior, Fleet Composition, and Ancillary Services on Revenue Sufficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Frew, Bethany; Gallo, Giulia; Brinkman, Gregory; Milligan, Michael; Clark, Kara; Bloom, Aaron

    2016-06-01

    Revenue insufficiency, or the missing money problem, occurs when the revenues that generators earn from the market are not sufficient to cover both fixed and variable costs to remain in the market and/or justify investments in new capacity, which may be needed for reliability. The near-zero marginal cost of variable renewable generators further exacerbates these revenue challenges. Estimating the extent of the missing money problem in current electricity markets is an important, nontrivial task that requires representing both how the power system operates and how market participants behave. This paper explores the missing money problem using a production cost model that represented a simplified version of the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) energy-only market for the years 2012-2014. We evaluate how various market structures -- including market behavior, ancillary services, and changing fleet compositions -- affect net revenues in this ERCOT-like system. In most production cost modeling exercises, resources are assumed to offer their marginal capabilities at marginal costs. Although this assumption is reasonable for feasibility studies and long-term planning, it does not adequately consider the market behaviors that impact revenue sufficiency. In this work, we simulate a limited set of market participant strategic bidding behaviors by means of different sets of markups; these markups are applied to the true production costs of all gas generators, which are the most prominent generators in ERCOT. Results show that markups can help generators increase their net revenues overall, although net revenues may increase or decrease depending on the technology and the year under study. Results also confirm that conventional, variable-cost-based production cost simulations do not capture prices accurately, and this particular feature calls for proxies for strategic behaviors (e.g., markups) and more accurate representations of how electricity markets work. The

  11. Dusquetide: Reduction in oral mucositis associated with enduring ancillary benefits in tumor resolution and decreased mortality in head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kudrimoti, Mahesh; Curtis, Amarinthia; Azawi, Samar; Worden, Francis; Katz, Sanford; Adkins, Douglas; Bonomi, Marcelo; Scott, Zack; Elder, Jenna; Sonis, Stephen T; Straube, Richard; Donini, Oreola

    2017-09-01

    Innate immunity is a key component in the pathogenesis of oral mucositis, a universal toxicity of chemoradiation therapy (CRT). Dusquetide, a novel Innate Defense Regulator, has demonstrated both nonclinical and clinical efficacy in ameliorating severe oral mucositis (SOM). Long term follow-up studies from the Phase 2 clinical study evaluating dusquetide as a treatment for SOM in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients receiving CRT have now been completed. Extended analysis indicates that dusquetide therapy was well-tolerated and did not contribute to increased infection, tumor growth or mortality. Potential ancillary benefits of duquetide therapy were also identified.

  12. Distributed Smart Grid Asset Control Strategies for Providing Ancillary Services

    SciTech Connect

    Kalsi, Karanjit; Zhang, Wei; Lian, Jianming; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Moya, Christian; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2013-10-30

    implementing real load control programs. The promise of autonomous, Grid Friendly™ response by smart appliances in the form of under-frequency load shedding was demonstrated in the GridWise Olympic Peninsula Demonstration in 2006. Each controller monitored the power grid voltage signal and requested that electrical load be shed by its appliance whenever electric power-grid frequency fell below 59.95 Hz. The controllers and their appliances responded reliably to each shallow under-frequency event, which was an average of one event per day and shed their loads for the durations of these events. Another objective of this project was to perform extensive simulation studies to investigate the impact of a population of Grid Friendly™ Appliances (GFAs) on the bulk power system frequency stability. The GFAs considered in this report are represented as demonstration units with water heaters individually modeled.

  13. The effect of spatial scale and ancillary datasets on the evaluations of EO soil moisture products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doubkova, Marcela; Hegyova, Alena; Bloeschl, Guenter; van Dijk, Albert; Fernàndez Prieto, Diego

    2013-04-01

    With this presentation we follow up on the results of our previous paper that assessed the quality of the ASAR GM 1 km soil moisture product with the use of AWRA-L landscape hydrological model at 1 km scale. In that paper we concluded that that RMSE and R can be predicted with use of the error assessment of ASAR GM solely. The goal of this presentation is to study a) if and how do the results of the absolute and relative evaluation measures change with spatial scale, b) if the conclusion introduced in the previous paper holds independent of scale, and c) where do the differences between different relative and absolute evaluation measures stem from. The continental average absolute evaluation measures over Australia ranged between 2.65 % (Error Propagation (EP)) and 8.44 % (RMSE) of saturated soil moisture. The relative evaluation measures spanned from 0.39 (Spearman Correlation coefficient (RS) when computed with AWRA-L SSM) to 0.57 (RS when computed with GLDAS dataset). Clearly, the results varied between different absolute and different relative evaluation techniques and were as well influenced by the selection of the ancillary dataset. As expected, RS and R corresponded and demonstrated significantly different spatial patterns to any of the absolute measures. Surprisingly, however, the spatial patterns of the EP significantly differed from RMSE at 5 km scale. This is in contrary result to the similar analyses performed at 1 km scale (Doubková et al., 2012) and suggests that the selection of spatial scale has an important impact on the evaluation results. The findings and suggestions originating from the discussion are transferable to other satellite-derived soil moisture data. Of special interest is its transfer to data from the planned Sentinel-1 SAR sensor that shares similar technical characteristics but has an improved retrieval error comparable to the ASAR GM sensor. The operationally available medium resolution soil moisture from Sentinel-1 with a well

  14. The Use of Ancillary Stains in the Diagnosis of Barrett Esophagus and Barrett Esophagus-associated Dysplasia: Recommendations From the Rodger C. Haggitt Gastrointestinal Pathology Society.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Amitabh; Appelman, Henry; Goldsmith, Jeffrey D; Davison, Jon M; Hart, John; Krasinskas, Alyssa M

    2017-05-01

    Barrett esophagus (BE) is a known risk factor for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Pathologists play a critical role in confirming the diagnosis of BE and BE-associated dysplasia. As these diagnoses are not always straightforward on routine hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides, numerous ancillary stains have been used in an attempt to help pathologists confirm the diagnosis. On the basis of an in-depth review of the literature, the Rodger C. Haggitt Gastrointestinal Pathology Society provides recommendations regarding the use of ancillary stains in the diagnosis of BE and BE-associated dysplasia. Because goblet cells are almost always identifiable on routine hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections, there is insufficient evidence to justify reflexive use of Alcian blue (at pH 2.5) and/or periodic-acid Schiff stains on all esophageal biopsies to diagnose BE. In addition, the use of mucin glycoprotein immunostains and markers of intestinal phenotype (CDX2, Das-1, villin, Hep Par 1, and SOX9) are not indicated to aid in the diagnosis of BE at this time. A diagnosis of dysplasia in BE remains a morphologic diagnosis, and hence, ancillary stains are not recommended for diagnosing dysplasia. Although p53 is a promising marker for identifying high-risk BE patients, it is not recommended for routine use at present; additional studies are needed to address questions regarding case selection, interpretation, integration with morphologic diagnosis, and impact on clinical outcome. We hope that this review and our recommendations will provide helpful information to pathologists, gastroenterologists, and others involved in the evaluation of patients with BE and BE-associated dysplasia.

  15. Environmental risk assessment for ancillary substances in biotechnological production of pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Straub, Jürg Oliver; Gysel, Daniel; Kastl, Ursula; Klemmer, Jürgen; Sonderegger, Marco; Studer, Martin

    2012-03-01

    An increasing number of pharmaceutical active substances are produced through biotechnological processes. For sustained and safe growth of the host organisms as well as optimal expression, purification, and formulation of the product, biotechnological manufacturing processes need optimal and robust environmental conditions, which are attained through the use of buffers, chelators, and antibiotics, beside nutrients. These ancillary substances are drained with the wastewater to a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and are released after treatment with the effluent to receiving waters. The potential risks of such substances to WWTPs and surface waters were investigated. Three common buffers (morpholinoethane sulfonic acid [MES], morpholinopropanesulfonic acid [MOPS], 1,4-piperazine (diethanesulfonic acid) [PIPES]), one chelator (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid [EDTA]), and one antibiotic (gentamycin) were searched in the literature for environmental data or tested for biodegradability and inhibition of activated sludge as well as acute toxicity to algae, daphnids, and fish. Amounts of the ancillary substances used in the European biotechnological production plants of F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd in Basle (Switzerland) and Penzberg (Germany), and actual wastewater fluxes through the respective WWTP, as well as realistic dilution factors for the local receiving water, were documented. Based on this information, site-specific predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) for the WWTPs and surface waters in Basle and Penzberg were extrapolated. These PECs were compared with predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs) for the WWTP and surface waters, derived from sludge inhibition and ecotoxicity results, respectively. For all five ancillary substances investigated, all PEC/PNEC risk characterization ratios are <1, indicating no significant risk to the WWTPs or the receiving waters at both sites. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  16. Molecular Structure Laboratory. Fourier Transform Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (FTNMR) Spectrometer and Ancillary Instrumentation at SUNY Geneseo

    SciTech Connect

    Geiger, David K

    2015-12-31

    An Agilent 400-MR nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer and ancillary equipment were purchased, which are being used for molecular structure elucidation.  The instrumentation is housed in a pre-existing facility designed specifically for its use. This instrument package is being used to expand the research and educational efforts of the faculty and students at SUNY-Geneseo and is made available to neighboring educational institutions and business concerns.  Funds were also used for training of College personnel, maintenance of the instrumentation, and installation of the equipment.

  17. Ancillary personnel in Spanish and Latin-American hospitals faced with living related kidney donation.

    PubMed

    Ríos, A; López-Navas, A; Ayala-García, M A; Sebastián, M J; Abdo-Cuza, A; Martínez-Alarcón, L; Ramírez, E J; Muñoz, G; Suárez-López, J; Castellanos, R; Ramírez, R; González, B; Martínez, M A; Díaz, E; Ramírez, P; Parrilla, P

    2014-01-01

    Ancillary hospital personnel represent an important body of opinion because as they work in a hospital their opinion has more credibility for the general public as a result of their activity in hospitals. However, in most cases they do not have any health care training which means that their attitude could be based on a lack of knowledge or unfounded fears. To analyze the attitude toward living kidney donation (LKD) among ancillary personnel in Spanish and Latin-American hospitals and to analyze the variables that might influence such attitude. from «International Collaborative Donor Project» a random sample was taken among ancillary personnel in Spain, Mexico and Cuba hospitals. Attitude towards LKD was evaluated using a validated, anonymously filled and self-administered survey. 951 professionals were surveyed (Spain: 277, Mexico: 632, Cuba: 42). 89% (n=850) are in favor of related kidney donation, lowering to 31% (n=289) in non-related donation. Of the rest, 8% (n=78) are not in favor and the 3% (n=23) are unsure. By country, Cubans (98%) and Mexicans (91%) are more in favour than Spanish (84%) (P=.001). The following variables are related to favourable attitude towards LKD: female sex (P=.017), university degree (P=.010), work in health services (P=.035), labour stability (P=.016), personal experience in donation and transplantation (P=.001), positive attitude toward cadaveric donation (P<.001), belief that he or she might need a transplant in the future (P<.001), positive attitude towards living liver donation (P<.001), a willingness to receive a donated living liver if needed (P<.001), having discussed the subject of organ donation and transplantation within the family (P<.001), partner's positive attitude towards the subject (P<.001), participation in voluntary type pro-social activities (P=.002) and not being concerned about possible mutilation after donation (P<.001) CONCLUSIONS: The attitude toward living related kidney donation is favourable among

  18. Evaluation of Contribution for Voltage Control Ancillary Services Based on Social Surplus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueki, Yuji; Hara, Ryoichi; Kita, Hiroyuki; Hasegawa, Jun

    Reactive power supply plays an important role in active power supply with adequate system voltages. Various pricing mechanism for reactive power supply have been developed and some of them are adopted in some power systems, however they are in a trial stage. The authors also focus on development of a pricing method for reactive power ancillary services. This problem involves two technical issues: rational estimation of the cost associated with reactive power supply and fair and transparent allocation of the estimated cost among the market participants. This paper proposes methods for evaluating the contribution of generators and demands.

  19. Intravital imaging reveals new ancillary mechanisms co-opted by cancer cells to drive tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Morghan C.; Timpson, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Intravital imaging is providing new insights into the dynamics of tumor progression in native tissues and has started to reveal the layers of complexity found in cancer. Recent advances in intravital imaging have allowed us to look deeper into cancer behavior and to dissect the interactions between tumor cells and the ancillary host niche that promote cancer development. In this review, we provide an insight into the latest advances in cancer biology achieved by intravital imaging, focusing on recently discovered mechanisms by which tumor cells manipulate normal tissue to facilitate disease progression. PMID:27239290

  20. Crisis in our hospital kitchens: ancillary staffing levels during an outbreak of food poisoning in a long stay hospital.

    PubMed

    Pollock, A M; Whitty, P M

    1990-02-10

    An investigation into an outbreak of food poisoning caused by Clostridium perfringens showed evidence of poor food handling by catering staff. The reasons behind this were explored by interviewing catering staff, analysing shifts and rotas, and looking at staff vacancies. Morale was low because of staff shortages resulting from a long term recruitment problem. In consequence staff were working double shifts and often for weeks on end without a day off. The reasons for the recruitment problem included the difficulty of recruiting semiskilled labour from a middle class area, low wages, lack of management support, and the poor image of the hospital as a place of work. Similar factors affect the recruitment and retention of ancillary staff nationally. The NHS has a poor record as an employer of ancillary staff, paying lower wages than other organisations for equivalent posts. Competitive tendering has further worsened the position of ancillary staff, with the result that good quality of care and service has often not been achieved. The NHS Review, with its emphasis on quality of care, makes no mention of ancillary staff. Yet high standards of ancillary provision are essential if further outbreaks of food poisoning in hospitals are to be prevented.

  1. Crisis in our hospital kitchens: ancillary staffing levels during an outbreak of food poisoning in a long stay hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, A M; Whitty, P M

    1990-01-01

    An investigation into an outbreak of food poisoning caused by Clostridium perfringens showed evidence of poor food handling by catering staff. The reasons behind this were explored by interviewing catering staff, analysing shifts and rotas, and looking at staff vacancies. Morale was low because of staff shortages resulting from a long term recruitment problem. In consequence staff were working double shifts and often for weeks on end without a day off. The reasons for the recruitment problem included the difficulty of recruiting semiskilled labour from a middle class area, low wages, lack of management support, and the poor image of the hospital as a place of work. Similar factors affect the recruitment and retention of ancillary staff nationally. The NHS has a poor record as an employer of ancillary staff, paying lower wages than other organisations for equivalent posts. Competitive tendering has further worsened the position of ancillary staff, with the result that good quality of care and service has often not been achieved. The NHS Review, with its emphasis on quality of care, makes no mention of ancillary staff. Yet high standards of ancillary provision are essential if further outbreaks of food poisoning in hospitals are to be prevented. PMID:2106996

  2. New Developments in Salivary Gland Pathology: Clinically Useful Ancillary Testing and New Potentially Targetable Molecular Alterations.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Christopher C; Schmitt, Alessandra C; Little, James L; Magliocca, Kelly R

    2017-03-01

    Accurate diagnosis of salivary gland tumors can be challenging because of the many diagnostic entities, the sometimes extensive morphologic overlap, and the rarity of most tumor types. Ancillary testing is beginning to ameliorate some of these challenges through access to newer immunohistochemical stains and fluorescence in situ hybridization probes, which can limit differential diagnostic considerations in some cases. These ancillary testing strategies are especially useful in small biopsy samples, including aspiration cytology. Molecular techniques are also expanding our understanding of salivary gland tumor pathology and are helping to identify potential targets that may improve treatment for some of these tumors. Here, we summarize the clinical use of new immunohistochemical markers in our practice and review the current understanding of chromosomal rearrangements in salivary gland tumor pathology, emphasizing the prospects for exploiting molecular alterations in salivary gland tumors for diagnosis and targeted therapy. We find that immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization are powerful tools toward the diagnosis of salivary gland tumors, especially when used in a systematic manner based on morphologic differential-diagnostic considerations. As new targeted therapies emerge, it will become increasingly vital to incorporate appropriate molecular testing into the pathologic evaluation of salivary gland cancers.

  3. Access to Emissions Distributions and Related Ancillary Data through the ECCAD database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darras, Sabine; Enriquez, Edgar; Granier, Claire; Liousse, Catherine; Boulanger, Damien; Fontaine, Alain

    2016-04-01

    The ECCAD database (Emissions of atmospheric Compounds and Compilation of Ancillary Data) provides a user-friendly access to global and regional surface emissions for a large set of chemical compounds and ancillary data (land use, active fires, burned areas, population,etc). The emissions inventories are time series gridded data at spatial resolution from 1x1 to 0.1x0.1 degrees. ECCAD is the emissions database of the GEIA (Global Emissions InitiAtive) project and a sub-project of the French Atmospheric Data Center AERIS (http://www.aeris-data.fr). ECCAD has currently more than 2200 users originating from more than 80 countries. The project benefits from this large international community of users to expand the number of emission datasets made available. ECCAD provides detailed metadata for each of the datasets and various tools for data visualization, for computing global and regional totals and for interactive spatial and temporal analysis. The data can be downloaded as interoperable NetCDF CF-compliant files, i.e. the data are compatible with many other client interfaces. The presentation will provide information on the datasets available within ECCAD, as well as examples of the analysis work that can be done online through the website: http://eccad.aeris-data.fr.

  4. Urology Group Compensation and Ancillary Service Models in an Era of Value-based Care

    PubMed Central

    Shore, Neal D.; Jacoby, Dana

    2016-01-01

    Changes involving the health care economic landscape have affected physicians' workflow, productivity, compensation structures, and culture. Ongoing Federal legislation regarding regulatory documentation and imminent payment-changing methodologies have encouraged physician consolidation into larger practices, creating affiliations with hospitals, multidisciplinary medical specialties, and integrated delivery networks. As subspecialization and evolution of care models have accelerated, independent medical groups have broadened ancillary service lines by investing in enterprises that compete with hospital-based (academic and nonacademic) entities, as well as non-physician- owned multispecialty enterprises, for both outpatient and inpatient services. The looming and dramatic shift from volume- to value-based health care compensation will assuredly affect urology group compensation arrangements and productivity formulae. For groups that can implement change rapidly, efficiently, and harmoniously, there will be opportunities to achieve the Triple Aim goals of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, while maintaining a successful medical-financial practice. In summary, implementing new payment algorithms alongside comprehensive care coordination will assist urology groups in addressing the health economic cost and quality challenges that have been historically encountered with fee-for-service systems. Urology group leadership and stakeholders will need to adjust internal processes, methods of care coordination, cultural dependency, and organizational structures in order to create better systems of care and management. In response, ancillary services and patient throughput will need to evolve in order to adequately align quality measurement and reporting systems across provider footprints and patient populations. PMID:27833464

  5. Complementation for an essential ancillary nonstructural protein function across parvovirus genera

    PubMed Central

    Mihaylov, Ivailo S.; Cotmore, Susan F.; Tattersall, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Parvoviruses encode a small number of ancillary proteins that differ substantially between genera. Within the genus Protoparvovirus, minute virus of mice (MVM) encodes three isoforms of its ancillary protein NS2, while human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1), in the genus Bocaparvovirus, encodes an NP1 protein that is unrelated in primary sequence to MVM NS2. To search for functional overlap between NS2 and NP1, we generated murine A9 cell populations that inducibly express HBoV1 NP1. These were used to test whether NP1 expression could complement specific defects resulting from depletion of MVM NS2 isoforms. NP1 induction had little impact on cell viability or cell cycle progression in uninfected cells, and was unable to complement late defects in MVM virion production associated with low NS2 levels. However, NP1 did relocate to MVM replication centers, and supports both the normal expansion of these foci and overcomes the early paralysis of DNA replication in NS2-null infections. PMID:25194919

  6. Open Automated Demand Response Communications in Demand Response for Wholesale Ancillary Services

    SciTech Connect

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Ghatikar, Girish; Koch, Ed; Hennage, Dan; Hernandez, John; Chiu, Albert; Sezgen, Osman; Goodin, John

    2009-11-06

    The Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) is conducting a pilot program to investigate the technical feasibility of bidding certain demand response (DR) resources into the California Independent System Operator's (CAISO) day-ahead market for ancillary services nonspinning reserve. Three facilities, a retail store, a local government office building, and a bakery, are recruited into the pilot program. For each facility, hourly demand, and load curtailment potential are forecasted two days ahead and submitted to the CAISO the day before the operation as an available resource. These DR resources are optimized against all other generation resources in the CAISO ancillary service. Each facility is equipped with four-second real time telemetry equipment to ensure resource accountability and visibility to CAISO operators. When CAISO requests DR resources, PG&E's OpenADR (Open Automated DR) communications infrastructure is utilized to deliver DR signals to the facilities energy management and control systems (EMCS). The pre-programmed DR strategies are triggered without a human in the loop. This paper describes the automated system architecture and the flow of information to trigger and monitor the performance of the DR events. We outline the DR strategies at each of the participating facilities. At one site a real time electric measurement feedback loop is implemented to assure the delivery of CAISO dispatched demand reductions. Finally, we present results from each of the facilities and discuss findings.

  7. Access to Emissions Distributions and Related Ancillary Data through the ECCAD database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darras, Sabine; Granier, Claire; Liousse, Catherine; De Graaf, Erica; Enriquez, Edgar; Boulanger, Damien; Brissebrat, Guillaume

    2017-04-01

    The ECCAD database (Emissions of atmospheric Compounds and Compilation of Ancillary Data) provides a user-friendly access to global and regional surface emissions for a large set of chemical compounds and ancillary data (land use, active fires, burned areas, population,etc). The emissions inventories are time series gridded data at spatial resolution from 1x1 to 0.1x0.1 degrees. ECCAD is the emissions database of the GEIA (Global Emissions InitiAtive) project and a sub-project of the French Atmospheric Data Center AERIS (http://www.aeris-data.fr). ECCAD has currently more than 2200 users originating from more than 80 countries. The project benefits from this large international community of users to expand the number of emission datasets made available. ECCAD provides detailed metadata for each of the datasets and various tools for data visualization, for computing global and regional totals and for interactive spatial and temporal analysis. The data can be downloaded as interoperable NetCDF CF-compliant files, i.e. the data are compatible with many other client interfaces. The presentation will provide information on the datasets available within ECCAD, as well as examples of the analysis work that can be done online through the website: http://eccad.aeris-data.fr.

  8. Trends in OSHA Compliance Monitoring Data 1979-2011: Statistical Modeling of Ancillary Information across 77 Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Sarazin, Philippe; Burstyn, Igor; Kincl, Laurel; Lavoué, Jérôme

    2016-05-01

    The Integrated Management Information System (IMIS) is the largest multi-industry source of exposure measurements available in North America. However, many have suspected that the criteria through which worksites are selected for inspection are related to exposure levels. We investigated associations between exposure levels and ancillary variables in IMIS in order to understand the predictors of high exposure within an enforcement context. We analyzed the association between nine variables (reason for inspection, establishment size, total amount of penalty, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) plan, OSHA region, union status, inspection scope, year, and industry) and exposure levels in IMIS using multimodel inference for 77 agents. For each agent, we used two different types of models: (i) logistic models were used for the odds ratio (OR) of exposure being above the threshold limit value (TLV) and (ii) linear models were used for exposure concentrations restricted to detected results to estimate percent increase in exposure level, i.e. relative index of exposure (RIE). Meta-analytic methods were used to combine results for each variable across agents. A total of 511,047 exposure measurements were modeled for logistic models and 299,791 for linear models. Higher exposures were measured during follow-up inspections than planned inspections [meta-OR = 1.61, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.44-1.81; meta-RIE = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.03-1.09]. Lower exposures were observed for measurements collected under state OSHA plans compared to measurements collected under federal OSHA (meta-OR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.73-0.92; meta-RIE = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.81-0.91). A 'high' total historical amount of penalty relative to none was associated with higher exposures (meta-OR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.40-1.71; meta-RIE = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.13-1.23). The relationships observed between exposure levels and ancillary variables across a vast majority of agents suggest that certain elements of OSHA

  9. Influence of Ancillary Ligands and Isomerism on the Luminescence of Bis-cyclometalated Platinum(IV) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Juliá, Fabio; García-Legaz, María-Dulce; Bautista, Delia; González-Herrero, Pablo

    2016-08-01

    The synthesis, characterization, and photophysical properties of a wide variety of bis-cyclometalated Pt(IV) complexes featuring a C2-symmetrical or unsymmetrical {Pt(ppy)2} unit (sym or unsym complexes, respectively; ppy = C-deprotonated 2-phenylpyridine) and different ancillary ligands are reported. Complexes sym-[Pt(ppy)2X2] (X = OTf(-), OAc(-)) were obtained by chloride abstraction from sym-[Pt(ppy)2Cl2] using the corresponding AgX salts, and the triflate derivative was employed to obtain homologous complexes with X = F(-), Br(-), I(-), trifluoroacetate (TFA(-)). Complexes unsym-[Pt(ppy)2(Me)X] (X = OTf(-), F(-)) were prepared by reacting unsym-[Pt(ppy)2(Me)Cl] with AgOTf or AgF, respectively, and the triflate derivative was employed as precursor for the synthesis of the homologues with X = Br(-), I(-), or TFA(-) through its reaction with the appropriate anionic ligands. The previously reported complexes unsym-[Pt(ppy)2X2] (X = Cl(-), Br(-), OAc(-), TFA(-)) are included in the photophysical study to assess the influence of the arrangement of the cyclometalated ligands. Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT calculations on selected derivatives were performed for a better interpretation of the observed excited-state properties. Complexes sym-[Pt(ppy)2X2] (except X = I(-)) exhibit phosphorescent emissions in fluid solutions at 298 K arising from essentially (3)LC(ppy) excited states, which are very similar in shape and energy. However, their efficiencies are heavily dependent on the nature of the ancillary ligands, which affect the energy of deactivating ligand-to-ligand charge transfer (LLCT) or ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) states. The fluoride derivative sym-[Pt(ppy)2F2] shows the highest quantum yield of this series (Φ = 0.398), mainly because the relatively high metal-to-ligand charge transfer admixture in its emitting state leads to a high radiative rate constant. Complexes unsym-[Pt(ppy)2X2] emit from (3)LC(ppy) states in frozen

  10. Estimating the distribution of snow depth via artificial neural networks combined with MODIS snow cover area and ancillary topographic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Jinliang; Huang, Chunlin

    2016-04-01

    Accurately estimate the distribution of snow depth (SD) is particularly difficult in mountainous environments given the complex topography, strong seasonal transition, and scarce observations. Passive microwave snow depth retrievals are too coarse to resolve small-scale terrain-induced variability; Optical sensors have the ability to determine the snow coverage extent at higher spatial resolution but not SD. By taking advantage of long time moderate-resolution optical sensors (MODIS) fractional snow cover (FSC) data series, the cubic spline interpolation algorithm is used to fill in data gaps caused by clouds in MODIS FSC Products. An innovative method based on multilayer feedforward artificial neural network (ANN) is presented to generate SD at a 500 m spatial resolution. This is trained with back propagation to learn the relationship between SD and FSC, Latitude and longitude, and ancillary topographic (e.g. elevation, slope, aspect) data. In this study, daily snow depth observations at 42 meteorological stationsare chosen to examine the proposed method during 2004 to 2005 snow seasons (from 1 November 2004 to 31 March 2005, 151 days) in northern Xinjiang Province, China. Among them, FSC, Latitude and longitude, and ancillary topographic data extracted from 35 sites are used as input information, and corresponding ground-based SD observations are used as desired output of ANN, thus a total of 151*35 samples are included in the ANN training set; Corresponding data from other 7 sites are used as independent test sample set (151*7 samples) to test the generalization ability of the ANN. Preliminary experimental results are very encouraging compared with the traditional multiple regression method. The performance evaluation results shows that the ANN derived SD have much higher coefficient of determination (R2) and lower root-mean-square error (RMSE), with R2 of 0.89 and 0.88, RMSE of 0.07 and 0.08, the mean absolute error of 2.3 and 2.3 cm for training and test

  11. Ancillary therapy of intranasal T-LysYal® for patients with allergic, non-allergic, and mixed rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Gelardi, M; Taliente, S; Fiorella, M L; Quaranta, N; Ciancio, G; Russo, C; Mola, P; Ciofalo, A; Zambetti, G; Caruso Armone, A; Cantone, E; Ciprandi, G

    2016-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is caused by an IgE-mediated inflammatory reaction. Non-allergic rhinitis (NAR) is characterized by a non-IgE-mediated pathogenesis. Frequently, patients have the two disorders associated: such as mixed rhinitis (MR). Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a fundamental component of the human connective tissue. HA may exert anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating activities. Recently, an intranasal HA formulation was proposed: a supramolecular system containing lysine hyaluronate, thymine and sodium chloride (T-LysYal®). This randomized study investigated whether intranasal T-LysYal® (rinoLysYal®, Farmigea, Italy) was able to reduce symptom severity, endoscopic features, and nasal cytology in 89 patients (48 males and 41 females, mean age 36.3±7.1 years) with AR, NAR, and MR. Patients were treated with intranasal T-LysYal® or isotonic saline solution as adjunctive therapy to nasal corticosteroid and oral antihistamine for 4 weeks. Patients were visited at baseline, after treatment and after 4-week follow-up. Intranasal T-LysYal® treatment significantly reduced the quote of patients with symptoms, endoscopic features, and inflammatory cells. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that intranasal T-LysYal® is able, as ancillary therapy, to significantly improve patients with AR, NAR, and MR, and its effect is long lasting.

  12. Synthesis, characterization, dynamics and reactivity toward amination of η3-allyl palladium complexes bearing mixed ancillary ligands. Evaluation of the electronic characteristics of the ligands from kinetic data.

    PubMed

    Canovese, Luciano; Visentin, Fabiano; Levi, Carlo; Dolmella, Alessandro

    2011-01-28

    On the basis of an original protocol, we have synthesized several complexes of the type [Pd(η(3)-C(3)H(3)R(2))(LL')]ClO(4) (R = H, Me; L, L' = PPh(3), P(OEt)(3), 2,6-dimethylphenylisocyanide, t-butylisocyanide, 1,3-dimesitylimidazolidine, 1,3-dimesitylimidazol-2-ylidene). The complexes, some of which are completely new species, were fully characterized and their behaviour in solution was studied by means of (1)H NMR. The reactions of the complexes bearing the symmetric allyl moiety [Pd(η(3)-C(3)H(5))(LL')]ClO(4) with piperidine in the presence of the olefin dimethylfumarate were followed under kinetically controlled conditions. Formation of allyl-amine and of the palladium(0) derivatives [Pd(η(2)-dmfu)(LL'] was observed. The reaction rates k(2) proved to be strongly dependent on the ancillary ligand nature and allowed a direct comparison among the electronic characteristics of the ligands. The reactivity trend determined appears to be mainly influenced by the capability of the ancillary ligands in transferring electron density to the metal centre and consequently on the allyl fragment.

  13. Light-emitting properties of cationic iridium complexes containing phenanthroline based ancillary ligand with blue-green and green emission colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Yiseul; Sunesh, Chozhidakath Damodharan; Choe, Youngson

    2015-01-01

    We report here two new cationic iridium(III) complexes with phenanthroline-based ancillary ligands, [Ir(dfppy)2(dibutyl-phen)]PF6 (Complex 1) and [Ir(ppz)2(dibutyl-phen)]PF6 (Complex 2) and their uses in light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs). The design is based on 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)pyridine (dfppy) and 1-phenylpyrazole (ppz) as the cyclometalating ligands and 2,9-dibutyl-1,10-phenanthroline (dibutyl-phen) as the ancillary ligand. The photophysical and electrochemical properties of the complexes were studied and the results obtained were corroborated with theoretical density functional theory (DFT) calculations. LECs were fabricated incorporating each complexes which resulted in blue-green light emission (502 nm) with Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.26, 0.49) for Complex 1 and green (530 nm) electroluminescence with CIE coordinates of (0.33, 0.54) for Complex 2. The luminance and the current efficiency of the LECs based on Complex 1 are 947 cd m-2 and 0.25 cd A-1, respectively, which are relatively higher than that of Complex 2 with a maximum luminance of 773 cd m-2 and an efficiency of 0.16 cd A-1.

  14. The nightmare of indeterminate follicular proliferations: when liquid-based cytology and ancillary techniques are not a moon landing but a realistic plan.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Esther Diana; Fadda, Guido; Schmitt, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid nodules are a common finding in the general population, including both nonneoplastic and neoplastic entities. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is the first tool for evaluating thyroid nodules. In spite of its high diagnostic accuracy, 25% of nodules result in the category of follicular neoplasms (FN), with varying risk of malignancy and different management strategies. The use of ancillary techniques is reshaping the practice of FNAC. These tools can significantly empower the morphological diagnosis and prognosis of thyroid nodules, allowing a more accurate prediction of the nature of the lesion. Several studies have underlined the role of single or multiple testing for the category of FN as strong indicators of cancer. Every cytological preparation can be used for the application of ancillary techniques but the introduction of liquid-based cytology (LBC) might facilitate the application. Our experience involving an immunocytochemical panel made up of HBME-1 and galectin-3 pointed to an 81% overall diagnostic accuracy in discriminating between low and high risk of malignancy in FN. The application of these techniques on LBC represents an adjunct to the morphological evaluation of FN. They represent a critical and challenging, but also a feasible, tool in the preoperative diagnoses, allowing specific prognostic and predictive details regardless of the cytological preparation. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Synthesis, Characterization, Properties and DFT Calculations of 2-(Benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)pyridine-based Iridium(III) Complexes with Different Ancillary Ligands.

    PubMed

    Li, Gao-Nan; Zeng, Yong-Pi; Li, Kai-Xiu; Chen, Hao-Hua; Xie, Hui; Zhang, Fu-Lin; Chen, Guang-Ying; Niu, Zhi-Gang

    2016-01-01

    A series of new cyclometalated btp-based iridium(III) complexes with three different ancillary ligands, Ir(btp)2(bozp) (3a), Ir(btp)2(btzp) (3b) and Ir(btp)2(izp) (3c) (btp = 2-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)pyridine, bozp =2-(benzo[d]oxazol-2-yl)phenol, btzp =2-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)phenol, izp = 2-(2 H-indazol-2-yl)phenol), have been synthesized and fully characterized. The crystal structure of 3b has been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. A comparative study has been carried out for complexes 3a - 3c by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and DFT calculations. This observation illustrates that the substitution of N or S in ancillary ligand can lead to a marked bathochromic shift of absorption and emission wavelengths. The spectroscopic characterisation of these complexes has been complemented by DFT and TD-DFT calculations, supporting the assignment of (3)MLCT/(3)LC to the lowest energy excited state.

  16. Secure provision of reactive power ancillary services in competitive electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Samahy, Ismael

    decoupled and assumed to be fixed during the reactive power dispatch procedures; however, the effect of reactive power on real power is considered in the model by calculating the required reduction in real power output of a generator due to an increase in its reactive power supply. In this case, real power generation is allowed to be rescheduled, within given limits, from the already dispatched levels obtained from the energy market clearing process. The proposed dispatch model achieves the main objective of an ISO in a competitive electricity market, which is to provide the required reactive power support from generators at least cost while ensuring a secure operation of the power system. The proposed reactive power procurement and dispatch models capture both the technical and economic aspects of power system operation in competitive electricity markets; however, from an optimization point of view, these models represent non-convex mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP) problems due to the presence of binary variables associated with the different regions of reactive power operation in a synchronous generator. Such MINLP optimization problems are difficult to solve, especially for an actual power system. A novel Generator Reactive Power Classification (GRPC) algorithm is proposed in this thesis to address this issue, with the advantage of iteratively solving the optimization models as a series of non-linear programming (NLP) sub-problems. The proposed reactive power procurement and dispatch models are implemented and tested on the CIGRE 32-bus system, with several case studies that represent different practical operating scenarios. The developed models are also compared with other approaches for reactive power provision, and the results demonstrate the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed model. The results clearly reveal the main features of the proposed models for optimal provision of reactive power ancillary service, in order to suit the requirements of

  17. Planck intermediate results. XXIII. Galactic plane emission components derived from Planck with ancillary data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Burigana, C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Crill, B. P.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D. L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Pearson, T. J.; Peel, M.; Perdereau, O.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reich, W.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Strong, A. W.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Tibbs, C. T.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Watson, R.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2015-08-01

    Planck data when combined with ancillary data provide a unique opportunity to separate the diffuse emission components of the inner Galaxy. The purpose of the paper is to elucidate the morphology of the various emission components in the strong star-formation region lying inside the solar radius and to clarify the relationship between the various components. The region of the Galactic plane covered is l = 300° → 0° → 60° wherestar-formation is highest and the emission is strong enough to make meaningful component separation. The latitude widths in this longitude range lie between 1° and 2°, which correspond to FWHM z-widths of 100-200 pc at a typical distance of 6 kpc. The four emission components studied here are synchrotron, free-free, anomalous microwave emission (AME), and thermal (vibrational) dust emission. These components are identified by constructing spectral energy distributions (SEDs) at positions along the Galactic plane using the wide frequency coverage of Planck (28.4-857 GHz) in combination with low-frequency radio data at 0.408-2.3 GHz plus WMAP data at 23-94 GHz, along with far-infrared (FIR) data from COBE-DIRBE and IRAS. The free-free component is determined from radio recombination line (RRL) data. AME is found to be comparable in brightness to the free-free emission on the Galactic plane in the frequency range 20-40 GHz with a width in latitude similar to that of the thermal dust; it comprises 45 ± 1% of the total 28.4 GHz emission in the longitude range l = 300° → 0° → 60°. The free-free component is the narrowest, reflecting the fact that it is produced by current star-formation as traced by the narrow distribution of OB stars. It is the dominant emission on the plane between 60 and 100 GHz. RRLs from this ionized gas are used to assess its distance, leading to a free-free z-width of FWHM ≈ 100 pc. The narrow synchrotron component has a low-frequency brightness spectral index βsynch ≈ -2.7 that is similar to the broad

  18. Blue light emitting Ir(III) compounds for OLEDs - new insights into ancillary ligand effects on the emitting triplet state.

    PubMed

    Rausch, Andreas F; Thompson, Mark E; Yersin, Hartmut

    2009-05-21

    The sky-blue emitting phosphorescent compound Ir(4,6-dFppy)(2)(acac) (FIracac) doped into different matrices is studied under ambient conditions and at cryogenic temperatures on the basis of broadband and high-resolution emission spectra. The emitting triplet state is found to be largely of metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) character. It is observed that different polycrystalline and amorphous hosts distinctly affect the properties of the triplet. Moreover, a comparison of FIracac with the related Ir(4,6-dFppy)(2)(pic) (FIrpic), differing only by the ancillary ligand, reveals obvious changes of properties of the emitting state. These observations are explained by different effects of acac and pic on the Ir(III) d-orbitals. In particular, the occupied frontier orbitals, strongly involving the t(2g)-manifold, and their splitting patterns are modified differently. This influences spin-orbit coupling (SOC) of the emitting triplet state to higher-lying (1,3)MLCT states. As a consequence, zero-field splittings, radiative decay rates, and phosphorescence quantum yields are changed. The important effects of SOC are discussed qualitatively and are related to the emission properties of the individual triplet substates, as determined from highly resolved spectra. The results allow us to gain a better understanding of the impact of SOC on the emission properties with the aim to develop more efficient triplet emitters for OLEDs.

  19. Enhanced lung scan diagnosis of pulmonary embolism with the use of ancillary scintigraphic findings and clinical correlation.

    PubMed

    Freeman, L M; Krynyckyi, B; Zuckier, L S

    2001-04-01

    Analysis of the Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis (PIOPED) and modified PIOPED studies has suggested that an experienced observer is capable of more accurate lung scan interpretation than the less experienced individual. This has been attributed to the use of unique Gestalt factors not contained in published diagnostic algorithms, which are acquired through extensive experience in reviewing and interpreting lung scans. How fully these factors can be codified and transmitted to less experienced observers is uncertain; however, there is a large body of published data that attempts to convey fine points of lung scan interpretation, including a large body of ancillary scintigraphic findings and a number of refinements in the application of diagnostic algorithms. Review of these factors will accelerate the training of less experienced readers. Finally, an understanding of lung scan language and an appreciation of clinically relevant factors, particularly pretest probability, will maximize the reader's ability to use the lung scan in managing patients who are suspected of having pulmonary embolic disease.

  20. Utilization of Ancillary Data Sets for Conceptual SMAP Mission Algorithm Development and Product Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, P.; Podest, E.

    2011-01-01

    The planned Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is one of the first Earth observation satellites being developed by NASA in response to the National Research Council's Decadal Survey, Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond [1]. Scheduled to launch late in 2014, the proposed SMAP mission would provide high resolution and frequent revisit global mapping of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state, utilizing enhanced Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) mitigation approaches to collect new measurements of the hydrological condition of the Earth's surface. The SMAP instrument design incorporates an L-band radar (3 km) and an L band radiometer (40 km) sharing a single 6-meter rotating mesh antenna to provide measurements of soil moisture and landscape freeze/thaw state [2]. These observations would (1) improve our understanding of linkages between the Earth's water, energy, and carbon cycles, (2) benefit many application areas including numerical weather and climate prediction, flood and drought monitoring, agricultural productivity, human health, and national security, (3) help to address priority questions on climate change, and (4) potentially provide continuity with brightness temperature and soil moisture measurements from ESA's SMOS (Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity) and NASA's Aquarius missions. In the planned SMAP mission prelaunch time frame, baseline algorithms are being developed for generating (1) soil moisture products both from radiometer measurements on a 36 km grid and from combined radar/radiometer measurements on a 9 km grid, and (2) freeze/thaw products from radar measurements on a 3 km grid. These retrieval algorithms need a variety of global ancillary data, both static and dynamic, to run the retrieval models, constrain the retrievals, and provide flags for indicating retrieval quality. The choice of which ancillary dataset to use for a particular SMAP product would be based on a number of factors

  1. Utilization of Ancillary Data Sets for Conceptual SMAP Mission Algorithm Development and Product Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, P.; Podest, E.

    2011-01-01

    The planned Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is one of the first Earth observation satellites being developed by NASA in response to the National Research Council's Decadal Survey, Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond [1]. Scheduled to launch late in 2014, the proposed SMAP mission would provide high resolution and frequent revisit global mapping of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state, utilizing enhanced Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) mitigation approaches to collect new measurements of the hydrological condition of the Earth's surface. The SMAP instrument design incorporates an L-band radar (3 km) and an L band radiometer (40 km) sharing a single 6-meter rotating mesh antenna to provide measurements of soil moisture and landscape freeze/thaw state [2]. These observations would (1) improve our understanding of linkages between the Earth's water, energy, and carbon cycles, (2) benefit many application areas including numerical weather and climate prediction, flood and drought monitoring, agricultural productivity, human health, and national security, (3) help to address priority questions on climate change, and (4) potentially provide continuity with brightness temperature and soil moisture measurements from ESA's SMOS (Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity) and NASA's Aquarius missions. In the planned SMAP mission prelaunch time frame, baseline algorithms are being developed for generating (1) soil moisture products both from radiometer measurements on a 36 km grid and from combined radar/radiometer measurements on a 9 km grid, and (2) freeze/thaw products from radar measurements on a 3 km grid. These retrieval algorithms need a variety of global ancillary data, both static and dynamic, to run the retrieval models, constrain the retrievals, and provide flags for indicating retrieval quality. The choice of which ancillary dataset to use for a particular SMAP product would be based on a number of factors

  2. An overview of drugs and ancillary equipment for the dentist's emergency kit.

    PubMed

    Chapman, P J

    2003-06-01

    The concept of a basic (i.e., essential) medical emergency kit suitable for a general dental practitioner varies somewhat between different authorities. A practitioner's choice is also dependant on the proximity of medical aid and the nature of the dental practice. Over recent years the trend has been to restrict the items to a minimum, in the interest of both common sense and safety, for example, just oxygen, adrenaline 1:1000, an oral carbohydrate source, glyceryl trinitrate and aspirin as first options. Ancillary equipment should include an oxygen therapy facemask, a pocket mask and a set of oral (Guedel) airways. Two further medication options for consideration are an aerosol bronchodilator and, in certain circumstances, an injectable antihypoglycaemic agent. This paper provides a selective overview of the subject. An absolute necessity is for dentists to be competent in Basic Life Support skills, and to maintain a complete and current medical history for all patients.

  3. AN OPTIMIZED DESIGN FOR THE NSLS 53 MHZ RF CAVITIES AND THE ANCILLARY COMPONENTS.

    SciTech Connect

    MORTAZAVI,P.

    2002-09-05

    RF cavities are among the most complex components of a particle accelerator. They perform optimally when all electrical, mechanical and vacuum requirements are fully integrated. This paper focuses on the mechanical design features of the new 53MHz room-temperature RF cavities (including their ancillary components) for the X-ray Ring at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). Differences between the new and previous designs of the RF cavities, input couplers, Higher-Order-Mode (HOM) dampers, and cooling and vacuum systems are reviewed. Thus far, two out of four units have already been constructed, tested, and installed into the X-Ray ring, and two additional RF cavities are planned. The features incorporated into the new all-copper RF cavities have already demonstrated superior performance over the original copper-plated steel design. The operating performance results along with some of manufacturing challenges are presented.

  4. Ancillary operation in coal preparation instrumentation: On-line low cost sulfur and ash analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Progress in reported on ancillary operations in coal preparation instrumentation, and on-line low cost sulfur and ash analysis of coal. This quarter's activities consisted of the following; the assembly of the sample preparation and delivery (SPAD) system was completed and laboratory pretesting performed; the entire system was assembled and debugged at C.Q. Inc.; field tests were executed according to the Field Test Plan with certain modifications necessitated by actual field conditions and C.Q. test schedule; coal slurry samples collected at C.Q. Inc. were either sent to the Homer City Coal Lab or brought back to B W for ICP analysis; and Homer City Coal Lab analysis of field collected slurry samples was completed and results reported to B W.

  5. Summary of U.S. Geological Survey on-line instantaneous fluvial sediment and ancillary data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turcios, Lisa M.; Gray, John R.; Ledford, Annette L.

    2000-01-01

    Instantaneous fluvial sediment data, in addition to other instantaneous water-quality and ancillary data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), are available on-line through the National Water Information System World Wide Web (NWISWeb) water-quality data base at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis/qwdata. The NWISWeb water-quality data base was populated and is periodically refreshed from electronic files maintained by individual USGS District offices across the United States and Puerto Rico. It represents the single largest repository of USGS electronic instantaneous-value suspended-sediment, bedload, and bed-material data. These Web pages provide a summary of fluvial-sediment data by State, and by USGS station number retrieved from the then-under-construction NWISWeb data base on January 13, 2000. The meta data can be accessed by following the links at the bottom of this Web page.

  6. Critical Joints in Large Composite Primary Aircraft Structures. Volume 3: Ancillary Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunin, Bruce L.; Sagui, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    A program was conducted to develop the technology for critical structural joints for composite wing structure that meets all the design requirements of a 1990 commercial transport aircraft. The results of a comprehensive ancillary test program are summarized, consisting of single-bolt composite joint specimens tested in a variety of configurations. These tests were conducted to characterize the strength and load deflection properties that are required for multirow joint analysis. The composite material was Toray 300 fiber and Ciba-Geigy 914 resin, in the form of 0.005 and 0.01 inch thick unidirectional tape. Tests were conducted in single and double shear for loaded and unloaded hole configurations under both tensile and compressive loading. Two different layup patterns were examined. All tests were conducted at room temperature. In addition, the results of NASA Standard Toughness Test (NASA RP 1092) are reported, which were conducted for several material systems.

  7. DR Resources for Energy and Ancillary Services in the West (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hummon, M.; Kiliccote, S.

    2014-04-01

    Demand response (DR) resources present a potentially important source of grid flexibility however, DR in grid models is limited by data availability and modeling complexity. This presentation focuses on the co-optimization of DR resources to provide energy and ancillary services in a production cost model of the Colorado "test system". We assume each DR resource can provide energy services by either shedding load or shifting its use between different times, as well as operating reserves: frequency regulation, contingency reserve, and flexibility (or ramping) reserve. There are significant variations in the availabilities of different types of DR resources, which affect both the operational savings as well as the revenue for each DR resource. The results presented include the system-wide avoided fuel and generator start-up costs as well as the composite revenue for each DR resource by energy and operating reserves.

  8. Territorial user rights for fisheries as ancillary instruments for marine coastal conservation in Chile.

    PubMed

    Gelcich, Stefan; Fernández, Miriam; Godoy, Natalio; Canepa, Antonio; Prado, Luis; Castilla, Juan Carlos

    2012-12-01

    Territorial user rights for fisheries have been advocated as a way to achieve sustainable resource management. However, few researchers have empirically assessed their potential as ancillary marine conservation instruments by comparing them to no-take marine protected areas. In kelp (Lessonia trabeculata) forests of central Chile, we compared species richness, density, and biomass of macroinvertebrates and reef fishes among territorial-user-right areas with low-level and high-level enforcement, no-take marine protected areas, and open-access areas in 42 100-m subtidal transects. We also assessed structural complexity of the kelp forest and substratum composition. Multivariate randomized permutation tests indicated macroinvertebrate and reef fish communities associated with the different access regimes differed significantly. Substratum composition and structural complexity of kelp forest did not differ among access regimes. Univariate analyses showed species richness, biomass, and density of macroinvertebrates and reef fishes were greater in highly enforced territorial-user-right areas and no-take marine protected areas than in open-access areas. Densities of macroinvertebrates and reef fishes of economic importance were not significantly different between highly enforced territorial-user-right and no-take marine protected areas. Densities of economically important macroinvertebrates in areas with low-level enforcement were significantly lower than those in areas with high-level enforcement and no-take marine protected areas but were significantly higher than in areas with open access. Territorial-user-right areas could be important ancillary conservation instruments if they are well enforced. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. Weeds, as ancillary hosts, pose disproportionate risk for virulent pathogen transfer to crops.

    PubMed

    Linde, Celeste C; Smith, Leon M; Peakall, Rod

    2016-05-12

    The outcome of the arms race between hosts and pathogens depends heavily on the interactions between their genetic diversity, population size and transmission ability. Theory predicts that genetically diverse hosts will select for higher virulence and more diverse pathogens than hosts with low genetic diversity. Cultivated hosts typically have lower genetic diversity and thus small effective population sizes, but can potentially harbour large pathogen population sizes. On the other hand, hosts, such as weeds, which are genetically more diverse and thus have larger effective population sizes, usually harbour smaller pathogen population sizes. Large pathogen population sizes may lead to more opportunities for mutation and hence more diverse pathogens. Here we test the predictions that pathogen neutral genetic diversity will increase with large pathogen population sizes and host diversity, whereas diversity under selection will increase with host diversity. We assessed and compared the diversity of a fungal pathogen, Rhynchosporium commune, on weedy barley grass (which have a large effective population size) and cultivated barley (low genetic diversity) using microsatellites, effector locus nip1 diversity and pathogen aggressiveness in order to assess the importance of weeds in the evolution of the neutral and selected diversity of pathogens. The findings indicated that the large barley acreage and low host diversity maintains higher pathogen neutral genetic diversity and lower linkage disequilibrium, while the weed maintains more pathotypes and higher virulence diversity at nip1. Strong evidence for more pathogen migration from barley grass to barley suggests transmission of virulence from barley grass to barley is common. Pathogen census population size is a better predictor for neutral genetic diversity than host diversity. Despite maintaining a smaller pathogen census population size, barley grass acts as an important ancillary host to R. commune, harbouring

  10. Semirigid aromatic sulfone-carboxylate molecule for dynamic coordination networks: multiple substitutions of the ancillary ligands.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-Ping; Xu, Zhengtao; Zeller, Matthias; Hunter, Allen D; Chui, Stephen Sin-Yin; Che, Chi-Ming

    2011-08-01

    We report dynamic, multiple single-crystal to single-crystal transformations of a coordination network system based on a semirigid molecule, TCPSB = 1,3,5-tri(4'-carboxyphenylsulphonyl)benzene, which nicely balances shape persistence and flexibility to bring about the framework dynamics in the solid state. The networks here generally consist of (1) the persistent core component (denoted as CoTCPSB) of linear Co(II) aqua clusters (Co-O-Co-O-Co) integrated into 2D grids by 4,4'-bipyridine and TCPSB and (2) ancillary ligands (AL) on the two terminal Co(II) ions-these include DMF (N,N'-dimethylformamide), DMA (N,N'-dimethylacetamide), CH(3)CN, and water. Most notably, the ancillary ligand sites are highly variable and undergo multiple substitution sequences while maintaining the solid reactants/products as single-crystals amenable to X-ray structure determinations. For example, when immersed in CH(3)CN, the AL of an as-made single crystal of CoTCPSB-DMF (i.e., DMF being the AL) is replaced to form CoTCPSB-CH(3)CN, which, in air, readily loses CH(3)CN to form CoTCPSB-H(2)O; the CoTCPSB-H(2)O single crystals, when placed in DMF, give back CoTCPSB-DMF in single-crystal form. Other selective, dynamic exchanges include the following: CoTCPSB-DMF reacts with CH(3)CN (to form CoTCPSB-CH(3)CN) but NOT with water, methanol, ethanol, DMA, or pyridine; CoTCPSB-H(2)O specifically pick outs DMF from a mixture of DMF, DMA, and DEF; an amorphous, dehydrated solid from CoTCPSB-H(2)O regains crystalline order simply by immersion in DMF (to form CoTCPSB-DMF). Further exploration with functional, semirigid ligands like TCPSB shall continue to uncover a wider array of advanced dynamic behaviors in solid state materials.

  11. 43 CFR 2885.23 - How will BLM calculate rent for communication uses ancillary to a linear grant, TUP, or other use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... communication uses ancillary to a linear grant, TUP, or other use authorization? 2885.23 Section 2885.23 Public... linear grant, TUP, or other use authorization? When a communication use is ancillary to, and authorized by BLM under, a grant or TUP for a linear use, or some other type of authorization (e.g., a...

  12. 43 CFR 2885.23 - How will BLM calculate rent for communication uses ancillary to a linear grant, TUP, or other use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... communication uses ancillary to a linear grant, TUP, or other use authorization? 2885.23 Section 2885.23 Public... linear grant, TUP, or other use authorization? When a communication use is ancillary to, and authorized by BLM under, a grant or TUP for a linear use, or some other type of authorization (e.g., a...

  13. 43 CFR 2885.23 - How will BLM calculate rent for communication uses ancillary to a linear grant, TUP, or other use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... communication uses ancillary to a linear grant, TUP, or other use authorization? 2885.23 Section 2885.23 Public... linear grant, TUP, or other use authorization? When a communication use is ancillary to, and authorized by BLM under, a grant or TUP for a linear use, or some other type of authorization (e.g., a...

  14. 43 CFR 2885.23 - How will BLM calculate rent for communication uses ancillary to a linear grant, TUP, or other use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... communication uses ancillary to a linear grant, TUP, or other use authorization? 2885.23 Section 2885.23 Public... linear grant, TUP, or other use authorization? When a communication use is ancillary to, and authorized by BLM under, a grant or TUP for a linear use, or some other type of authorization (e.g., a...

  15. 75 FR 14342 - Market-Based Rates for Wholesale Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary Services by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 35 Market-Based Rates for Wholesale Sales of Electric Energy... authority for sales of energy, capacity and ancillary services to ensure that such sales are just and... of the tariff provision governing mitigated sales at the metered boundary and reaffirms its...

  16. 30 CFR 550.210 - If I conduct ancillary activities, what reporting and data/information retention requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reporting and data/information retention requirements must I satisfy? 550.210 Section 550.210 Mineral... ancillary activities, what reporting and data/information retention requirements must I satisfy? (a) Reporting. The Regional Supervisor may require you to prepare and submit reports that summarize and...

  17. 30 CFR 550.210 - If I conduct ancillary activities, what reporting and data/information retention requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reporting and data/information retention requirements must I satisfy? 550.210 Section 550.210 Mineral... ancillary activities, what reporting and data/information retention requirements must I satisfy? (a) Reporting. The Regional Supervisor may require you to prepare and submit reports that summarize and...

  18. 30 CFR 250.210 - If I conduct ancillary activities, what reporting and data/information retention requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reporting and data/information retention requirements must I satisfy? 250.210 Section 250.210 Mineral... ancillary activities, what reporting and data/information retention requirements must I satisfy? (a) Reporting. The Regional Supervisor may require you to prepare and submit reports that summarize and...

  19. 30 CFR 550.210 - If I conduct ancillary activities, what reporting and data/information retention requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reporting and data/information retention requirements must I satisfy? 550.210 Section 550.210 Mineral... ancillary activities, what reporting and data/information retention requirements must I satisfy? (a) Reporting. The Regional Supervisor may require you to prepare and submit reports that summarize and...

  20. 75 FR 22125 - Market-Based Rates for Wholesale Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary Services by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Market-Based Rates for Wholesale Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and... Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary Services by Public Utilities, Order No. 697- C, FERC Stats. &...

  1. 41 CFR 102-72.67 - What work is covered under an ancillary repair and alteration delegation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... that same vendor as a Special Item Number (SIN); (2) Where the ancillary repair and alteration work to...-complex in nature, such as routine painting or carpeting, simple hanging of drywall, basic electrical or plumbing work, landscaping, and similar non-complex services; and (4) That are necessary to be performed...

  2. When No Bilingual Examiner Is Available: Exploring the Use of Ancillary Examiners as a Viable Testing Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noland, Ramona M.

    2009-01-01

    Reliable and valid assessment of individuals who are English language learners (ELL) has presented a dilemma to psychologists, and school psychologists in particular, as it is complicated by the small number of professionals qualified to serve as bilingual examiners. Some psychologists use ancillary examiners during testing when no bilingual…

  3. Development of a solid polymer electrolyte electrolysis cell module and ancillary components for a breadboard water electrolysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, F. J., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Solid polymer electrolyte technology in a water electrolysis system along with ancillary components to generate oxygen and hydrogen for a manned space station application are considered. Standard commercial components are utilized wherever possible. Presented are the results of investigations, surveys, tests, conclusions and recommendations for future development efforts.

  4. 47 CFR 25.149 - Application requirements for ancillary terrestrial components in the mobile-satellite service...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... base station operations would exclude otherwise available signals from MSS space-stations. (b... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space Stations § 25.149 Application requirements for ancillary terrestrial components in the mobile-satellite...

  5. Monitoring basin-scale land cover changes in Kagera Basin of Lake Victoria using ancillary data and remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasige, John E.; Groen, Thomas A.; Smaling, Eric; Jetten, Victor

    2013-04-01

    The Kagera Basin is a high value ecosystem in the Lake Victoria watershed because of the hydrological and food services it provides. The basin has faced large scale human induced land use and land cover changes (LUCC), but quantitative data is to date lacking. A combination of ancillary data and satellite imagery were interpreted to construct LUCC dynamics for the last century. This study is an initial step towards assessing the impact of LUCC on sustainable agriculture and water quality in the watershed. The results show that large trends of LUCC have rapidly occurred over the last 100 years. The most dominant LUCC processes were gains in farmland areas (not detectable in 1901 to 60% in 2010) and a net reduction in dense forest (7% to 2.6%), woodlands (51% to 6.9%) and savannas (35% to 19.6%) between 1901 and 2010. Forest degradation rapidly occurred during 1974 and 1995 but the forest re-grew between 1995 and 2010 due to forest conservation efforts. Afforestation efforts have resulted in plantation forest increases between 1995 and 2010. The rates of LUCC observed are higher than those reported in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) and other parts of the world. This is one of the few studies in SSA at a basin scale that combines multi-source spatio-temporal data on land cover to enable long-term quantification of land cover changes. In the discussion we address future research needs for the area based on the results of this study. These research needs include quantifying the impacts of land cover change on nutrient and sediment dynamics, soil organic carbon stocks, and changes in biodiversity.

  6. Prevalence of Bovine Tuberculosis in Egyptian Cattle and the Standardization of the Interferon-gamma Assay as an Ancillary Test.

    PubMed

    Abdellrazeq, G S; Elnaggar, M M; Osman, H S; Davis, W C; Singh, M

    2016-10-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) caused primarily by Mycobacterium bovis continues to cause significant losses in the cattle industry and is a major public health problem. Despite its worldwide application, the IFN-γ assay has not been applied in Egypt. The aim of this study was to determine the appropriate cut-off value of IFN-γ assay to complement the skin test screening in Egypt. The relative sensitivity (Ser ) of PPD and antigen cocktail-based IFN-γ assays (IFN-γ-BA and IFN-γ-EC) was analysed retrospectively, relative to bTB confirmatory tests (culture and PCR), using single cervical tuberculin (SCT) test reactors during 2011-2013. The absolute specificity (Sp) was studied using blood samples collected from cattle from one bTB-free herd. Analysis of the bTB database-generated sheets indicates the infection rate had decreased from 2009 to 2012 and then increased in 2013. The disease is concentrated in the Egyptian Nile Delta and Valley relative to elsewhere in the country. The cut-offs for IFN-γ-EC assay could be optimized to provide higher sensitivity, comparable to cut-offs for IFN-γ-BA assay. Data analysis suggests (PPDbOD  > 0.1, PPDbOD  - NILOD  > 0.05 and PPDbOD  > PPDaOD ) and (ECOD  - NILOD  ≥ 0.1) cut-off strategies to get optimal IFN-γ-BA and IFN-γ-EC assays results respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the prevalence of bTB in cattle in Egypt and pointing out the appropriate cut-off criteria to optimize IFN-γ assay as a routine ancillary test for diagnosis of bTB in Egypt. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Synthetic control of excited-state properties in cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes using ancillary ligands.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Djurovich, Peter I; Alleyne, Bert D; Yousufuddin, Muhammed; Ho, Nam N; Thomas, J Christopher; Peters, Jonas C; Bau, Robert; Thompson, Mark E

    2005-03-21

    The synthesis and photophysical characterization of a series of (N,C(2')-(2-para-tolylpyridyl))2 Ir(LL') [(tpy)2 Ir(LL')] (LL' = 2,4-pentanedionato (acac), bis(pyrazolyl)borate ligands and their analogues, diphosphine chelates and tert-butylisocyanide (CN-t-Bu)) are reported. A smaller series of [(dfppy)2 Ir(LL')] (dfppy = N,C(2')-2-(4',6'-difluorophenyl)pyridyl) complexes were also examined along with two previously reported compounds, (ppy)2 Ir(CN)2- and (ppy)2 Ir(NCS)2- (ppy = N,C(2')-2-phenylpyridyl). The (tpy)2 Ir(PPh2CH2)2 BPh2 and [(tpy)2 Ir(CN-t-Bu)2](CF3SO3) complexes have been structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. The Ir-C(aryl) bond lengths in (tpy)2 Ir(CN-t-Bu)2+ (2.047(5) and 2.072(5) A) and (tpy)2 Ir(PPh2CH2)2 BPh2 (2.047(9) and 2.057(9) A) are longer than their counterparts in (tpy)2 Ir(acac) (1.982(6) and 1.985(7) A). Density functional theory calculations carried out on (ppy)2 Ir(CN-Me)2+ show that the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) consists of a mixture of phenyl-pi and Ir-d orbitals, while the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital is localized primarily on the pyridyl-pi orbitals. Electrochemical analysis of the (tpy)2 Ir(LL') complexes shows that the reduction potentials are largely unaffected by variation in the ancillary ligand, whereas the oxidation potentials vary over a much wider range (as much as 400 mV between two different LL' ligands). Spectroscopic analysis of the cyclometalated Ir complexes reveals that the lowest energy excited state (T1) is a triplet ligand-centered state (3LC) on the cyclometalating ligand admixed with 1MLCT (MLCT = metal-to-ligand charge-transfer) character. The different ancillary ligands alter the 1MLCT state energy mainly by changing the HOMO energy. Destabilization of the 1MLCT state results in less 1MLCT character mixed into the T1 state, which in turn leads to an increase in the emission energy. The increase in emission energy leads to a linear decrease in ln(k(nr)) (k

  8. Preliminary Results of Ancillary Safety Analyses Supporting TREAT LEU Conversion Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Brunett, A. J.; Fei, T.; Strons, P. S.; Papadias, D. D.; Hoffman, E. A.; Kontogeorgakos, D. C.; Connaway, H. M.; Wright, A. E.

    2015-10-01

    The Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT), located at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is a test facility designed to evaluate the performance of reactor fuels and materials under transient accident conditions. The facility, an air-cooled, graphite-moderated reactor designed to utilize fuel containing high-enriched uranium (HEU), has been in non-operational standby status since 1994. Currently, in support of the missions of the Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Material Management and Minimization (M3) Reactor Conversion Program, a new core design is being developed for TREAT that will utilize low-enriched uranium (LEU). The primary objective of this conversion effort is to design an LEU core that is capable of meeting the performance characteristics of the existing HEU core. Minimal, if any, changes are anticipated for the supporting systems (e.g. reactor trip system, filtration/cooling system, etc.); therefore, the LEU core must also be able to function with the existing supporting systems, and must also satisfy acceptable safety limits. In support of the LEU conversion effort, a range of ancillary safety analyses are required to evaluate the LEU core operation relative to that of the existing facility. These analyses cover neutronics, shielding, and thermal hydraulic topics that have been identified as having the potential to have reduced safety margins due to conversion to LEU fuel, or are required to support the required safety analyses documentation. The majority of these ancillary tasks have been identified in [1] and [2]. The purpose of this report is to document the ancillary safety analyses that have been performed at Argonne National Laboratory during the early stages of the LEU design effort, and to describe ongoing and anticipated analyses. For all analyses presented in this report, methodologies are utilized that are consistent with, or improved from, those used in analyses for the HEU Final Safety Analysis

  9. Utilizing ancillary ligands to optimize the photophysical properties of 4H-imidazole ruthenium dyes.

    PubMed

    Wächtler, Maria; Maiuri, Margherita; Brida, Daniele; Popp, Jürgen; Rau, Sven; Cerullo, Giulio; Dietzek, Benjamin

    2013-09-16

    Correlations between structural features and photophysical properties offer the possibility to design dyes with tailor-made properties. In this respect, the photophysical properties of a series of 4H-imidazole (4H-im) ruthenium dyes with varying chemical and electronic structures of the complex fragments [(tpy)Ru(4H-im)X] {tpy=4,4',4''-tri-tert-butyl-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine; X=Cl(-), NCS(-)} and [(bpy)2Ru(4H-im)](+) {bpy=4,4'-di-tert-butyl-2,2'-bipyridine} were investigated. Variation of the π-donor/acceptor properties of the ancillary ligands offers the possibility to tune the relative energies of the d donor and π* acceptor orbitals of 4H-im, which results in a shift in the Ru→4H-im (1)MLCT (MLCT=metal-to-ligand charge transfer) absorption band in the visible range. Further, the energies of the excited states and also the interactions and mixing of the metal d orbital with the π* 4H-im orbital are sensitive to the chemical and electronic structures of the complex fragment. This causes subtle changes in the photoinduced processes; for example, the rate of the interim population of a planarized state increases with increasing/decreasing π-acceptor/donor character of the ancillary ligand. Although ground-state repopulation in the tpy species follows the energy-gap law, local symmetry-related effects have to be considered to account for the very short lifetime of the excitation in the bpy complex. Additionally, the ultrafast intramolecular relaxation processes leading from the initially excited states to the relaxed triplet states localized on the 4H-im ligand (internal conversion, internal vibrational energy redistribution, intersystem crossing) depend on the nature of the complex fragment. The high excitation-wavelength-dependent rate for the population of the relaxed triplet states in the bpy complex points to additional interligand electron-transfer contributions upon excitation into the higher lying Ru→bpy (1)MLCT states. Copyright © 2013 WILEY

  10. Using ancillary information to improve hypocenter estimation: Bayesian single event location (BSEL)

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Dale N

    2008-01-01

    We have developed and tested an algorithm, Bayesian Single Event Location (BSEL), for estimating the location of a seismic event. The main driver for our research is the inadequate representation of ancillary information in the hypocenter estimation procedure. The added benefit is that we have also addressed instability issues often encountered with historical NLR solvers (e.g., non-convergence or seismically infeasible results). BSEL differs from established nonlinear regression techniques by using a Bayesian prior probability density function (prior PDF) to incorporate ancillary physical basis constraints about event location. P-wave arrival times from seismic events are used in the development. Depth, a focus of this paper, may be modeled with a prior PDF (potentially skewed) that captures physical basis bounds from surface wave observations. This PDF is constructed from a Rayleigh wave depth excitation eigenfunction that is based on the observed minimum period from a spectrogram analysis and estimated near-source elastic parameters. For example, if the surface wave is an Rg phase, it potentially provides a strong constraint for depth, which has important implications for remote monitoring of nuclear explosions. The proposed Bayesian algorithm is illustrated with events that demonstrate its congruity with established hypocenter estimation methods and its application potential. The BSEL method is applied to three events: (1) A shallow Mw 4 earthquake that occurred near Bardwell, KY on June 6, 2003, (2) the Mw 5.6 earthquake of July 26, 2005 that occurred near Dillon, MT, and (3) a deep Mw 5.7 earthquake that occurred off the coast of Japan on April 22, 1980. A strong Rg was observed from the Bardwell, KY earthquake that places very strong constraints on depth and origin time. No Rg was observed for the Dillon, MT earthquake, but we used the minimum observed period of a Rayleigh wave (7 seconds) to reduce the depth and origin time uncertainty. Because the Japan

  11. Automated ancillary cancer history classification for mesothelioma patients from free-text clinical reports

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Richard A.; Chapman, Wendy W.; DeFries, Shawn J.; Becich, Michael J.; Chapman, Brian E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Clinical records are often unstructured, free-text documents that create information extraction challenges and costs. Healthcare delivery and research organizations, such as the National Mesothelioma Virtual Bank, require the aggregation of both structured and unstructured data types. Natural language processing offers techniques for automatically extracting information from unstructured, free-text documents. Methods: Five hundred and eight history and physical reports from mesothelioma patients were split into development (208) and test sets (300). A reference standard was developed and each report was annotated by experts with regard to the patient’s personal history of ancillary cancer and family history of any cancer. The Hx application was developed to process reports, extract relevant features, perform reference resolution and classify them with regard to cancer history. Two methods, Dynamic-Window and ConText, for extracting information were evaluated. Hx’s classification responses using each of the two methods were measured against the reference standard. The average Cohen’s weighted kappa served as the human benchmark in evaluating the system. Results: Hx had a high overall accuracy, with each method, scoring 96.2%. F-measures using the Dynamic-Window and ConText methods were 91.8% and 91.6%, which were comparable to the human benchmark of 92.8%. For the personal history classification, Dynamic-Window scored highest with 89.2% and for the family history classification, ConText scored highest with 97.6%, in which both methods were comparable to the human benchmark of 88.3% and 97.2%, respectively. Conclusion: We evaluated an automated application’s performance in classifying a mesothelioma patient’s personal and family history of cancer from clinical reports. To do so, the Hx application must process reports, identify cancer concepts, distinguish the known mesothelioma from ancillary cancers, recognize negation, perform reference

  12. Automated ancillary cancer history classification for mesothelioma patients from free-text clinical reports.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Richard A; Chapman, Wendy W; Defries, Shawn J; Becich, Michael J; Chapman, Brian E

    2010-10-11

    Clinical records are often unstructured, free-text documents that create information extraction challenges and costs. Healthcare delivery and research organizations, such as the National Mesothelioma Virtual Bank, require the aggregation of both structured and unstructured data types. Natural language processing offers techniques for automatically extracting information from unstructured, free-text documents. Five hundred and eight history and physical reports from mesothelioma patients were split into development (208) and test sets (300). A reference standard was developed and each report was annotated by experts with regard to the patient's personal history of ancillary cancer and family history of any cancer. The Hx application was developed to process reports, extract relevant features, perform reference resolution and classify them with regard to cancer history. Two methods, Dynamic-Window and ConText, for extracting information were evaluated. Hx's classification responses using each of the two methods were measured against the reference standard. The average Cohen's weighted kappa served as the human benchmark in evaluating the system. Hx had a high overall accuracy, with each method, scoring 96.2%. F-measures using the Dynamic-Window and ConText methods were 91.8% and 91.6%, which were comparable to the human benchmark of 92.8%. For the personal history classification, Dynamic-Window scored highest with 89.2% and for the family history classification, ConText scored highest with 97.6%, in which both methods were comparable to the human benchmark of 88.3% and 97.2%, respectively. We evaluated an automated application's performance in classifying a mesothelioma patient's personal and family history of cancer from clinical reports. To do so, the Hx application must process reports, identify cancer concepts, distinguish the known mesothelioma from ancillary cancers, recognize negation, perform reference resolution and determine the experiencer. Results

  13. Ancillary tools in pacemaker and defibrillator lead extraction using a novel lead removal system.

    PubMed

    Manolis, A S; Maounis, T N; Vassilikos, V; Chiladakis, J; Melita-Manolis, H; Cokkinos, D V

    2001-03-01

    A previous report described our preliminary experience with a highly successful pacing lead removal system (VasoExtor). Extending this experience, we found it necessary to use additional tools to enhance the success of percutaneous lead extraction with this system. In the present series, we used the standard locking stylets (S and K), and recently, one newer type of stylet (Magic) over the last 3 years in 34 patients to extract 48 pacemaker leads in 31 patients and 3 defibrillator (ICD) leads in 3 patients. Lead extraction was carried out in 23 men and 11 women (aged 64 +/- 17 years) because of pacemaker infection (n = 21), pacemaker (n = 8) or ICD (n = 3) lead malfunction, or prior to ICD implant (n = 2). Leads were in place for 3.5 +/- 3.7 years. Infections, involving pocket and lead(s), were due to S. epidermidis (n = 13), S. aureus (n = 6), S. aureus plus E. coli (n = 1), for fungi (n = 1). Of the 48 pacing leads, 31 were ventricular, 15 atrial, and 2 were VDD leads. The ICD leads were two double-coil leads (CPI) and one single-coil lead (Telectronics). Using the S (n = 12), K (n = 8), or Magic (n = 3) stylets, all pacing leads in 23 patients and the ICD leads in 2 patients were successfully removed from a subclavian approach using the locking stylets. However, in nine (26.5%) patients ancillary tools were required. In four patients, lead fragments were captured with use of a noose catheter, a pigtail catheter, and a bioptome from a right femoral approach. In two patients, locking could not be effected and a noose catheter from the right femoral vein was used, aided by a pigtail and an Amplatz catheter and a bioptome to remove three leads. In a patient with an ICD lead, a combined subclavian (stylet S) and right femoral approach (noose catheter) was required. In a patient with a dysfunctional ventricular lead 12 years old, a motor drive unit was used to facilitate the exchange of locking stylets, but extraction failed. In another patient, a fragment of a

  14. High-value care in the surgical intensive care unit: effect on ancillary resources.

    PubMed

    Ko, Ara; Murry, Jason S; Hoang, David M; Harada, Megan Y; Aquino, Lia; Coffey, Charles; Sax, Harry C; Alban, Rodrigo F

    2016-05-15

    Changes in health care policies have influenced transformations in hospital systems to be cost-efficient while maintaining robust outcomes. This is particularly important in intensive care units where significant resources are used to care for critically ill patients. We sought to determine whether high-value care processes (HVCp) implemented in a surgical intensive care unit (SICU) have an impact on commonly used ancillary tests. An implementation phase using a Lean Six Sigma approach was performed in October 2014 at a 24-bed large academic center SICU with aims to decrease orders of excessive daily laboratory tests and X-rays. The HVCp implemented included use of daily checklists, staff education, and visual reminders emphasizing the importance of appropriate laboratory tests and chest X-rays. Preintervention (July 2014-October 2014) and post-intervention (November 2014-June 2015) phases were compared. Average SICU census, case mix index (4.3 versus 4.4, P = 0.57), all patient refined severity of illness (3.2 versus 3.2, P = 0.91), and SICU mortality (7.1% versus 5.1%, P = 0.18) were similar in both phases. A significant reduction of excessive laboratory tests was evident after the implementation period. Eight hundred sixty-five arterial blood gases/mo were obtained in the preintervention phase compared with 420 arterial blood gases/mo after intervention (P = 0.004), representing a 51.4% reduction. Similar results were obtained with complete blood counts, basic metabolic profiles, coagulation profiles, and chest X-rays (12%, 17.8%, 30.2%, and 20.3% reductions, respectively), a total estimated cost savings of $59,137/mo and prevention of excess phlebotomy of approximately 4 L of blood/mo. By implementing an HVCp including a checklist, visual reminders, and provider education, we significantly reduced the use of commonly ordered ancillary tests in the SICU without affecting outcomes, resulting in an annual cost savings of $710,000. Copyright © 2016

  15. Cognitive dysfunction and depression in adult kidney transplant recipients: baseline findings from the FAVORIT Ancillary Cognitive Trial (FACT).

    PubMed

    Troen, Aron M; Scott, Tammy M; D'Anci, Kristen E; Moorthy, Denish; Dobson, Beverly; Rogers, Gail; Weiner, Daniel E; Levey, Andrew S; Dallal, Gerard E; Jacques, Paul F; Selhub, Jacob; Rosenberg, Irwin H

    2012-03-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia and B-vitamin deficiency may be treatable risk factors for cognitive impairment and decline. Hyperhomocysteinemia, cognitive impairment, and depression are all common in individuals with kidney disease, including kidney transplant recipients. Accordingly, we assessed the prevalence of cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms in transplant recipients and their association with kidney function, plasma total homocysteine, and B-vitamin concentrations. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the Folic Acid for Vascular Outcome Reduction In Transplantation (FAVORIT) Ancillary Cognitive Trial (FACT), which included 183 participants in FAVORIT who underwent detailed neuropsychological assessment before the study intervention. The mean age was 54.0 ± 9.5 years (range: 7 to 386 months). Men comprised 55.2% of the cohort, and the mean time between the current transplant and cognitive testing was 7.0 ± 5.8 years. Twenty-four percent of participants reported neurological or psychiatric complaints, and 30% exhibited symptoms of mild to severe depression. Testing revealed evidence of significant and selective deficits in this population: 33% performed more than 1 standard deviation (SD) below normed means on a memory test, 58% fell lower than 1 SD below the norms on a test of attention and mental processing speed, and 33% to 42% fell lower than 1 SD below the norms on several tests of executive function. Lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and lower folate were associated with poorer performance on tests of memory and executive function. These observations confirm previous reports of mood and cognitive impairments in adult kidney transplant recipients. Further research is needed to determine the benefit of B-vitamin supplementation and other interventions in this patient population. Copyright © 2012 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Black-white disparities in motor function outcomes taking into account patient characteristics, nontherapy ancillaries, therapy activities, and therapy interventions.

    PubMed

    Deutscher, Daniel; Horn, Susan D; Smout, Randall J; DeJong, Gerben; Putman, Koen

    2010-11-01

    To assess black-white differences in functional outcomes, controlling for patient characteristics, use of nontherapy ancillaries (NTAs), and use of physical (PT) and occupational therapy (OT) activities and interventions. Multicenter prospective observational cohort study of poststroke rehabilitation. Six U.S. inpatient rehabilitation facilities. Patients (N=732) subdivided into case-mix subgroups (CMGs; CMGs 104-107 for moderate strokes [n=397], CMGs 108-114 for severe strokes [n=335]). Not applicable. Discharge Motor FIM. Taking into account patient characteristics, NTAs, and therapy activities, multivariate regressions explained (R(2)) 54% and 69% of variation in outcomes between patients with moderate and severe stroke, respectively. Black race was associated with lower outcomes than white race in the severe group. However, race was no longer associated with outcomes after including interventions used within PT and OT activities. Including interventions within therapy activities increased R(2) to 64% and 74% for moderate and severe strokes, respectively. Some PT and OT activities were provided more to blacks than whites and vice versa. Greater intensity sometimes was associated with better and sometimes with poorer functional outcomes. After controlling for interventions within activities, no racial differences were found in functional outcomes at discharge despite racial differences in rehabilitation care, possibly because each racial group received a mixture of interventions that were negatively and positively associated with outcome. Clinicians should provide therapies associated with better outcomes with high and similar intensities for black and white patients poststroke. Copyright © 2010 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Prospective identification of Helicobacter pylori in routine gastric biopsies without reflex ancillary stains is cost-efficient for our health care system.

    PubMed

    Pittman, Meredith E; Khararjian, Armen; Wood, Laura D; Montgomery, Elizabeth A; Voltaggio, Lysandra

    2016-12-01

    Despite the recommendation of expert gastrointestinal pathologists, private and academic centers (including our own) have continued to use ancillary stains for identification of Helicobacter pylori. For a 1-month period, gastric biopsies were prospectively evaluated for H pylori using routine hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and a reflex Diff-Quik stain. During this time, 379 gastric biopsies were collected on 326 patients. H pylori organisms were prospectively identified in 23 (7%) patients, all of whom had superficial dense lymphoplasmacytic inflammation expanding the lamina propria. An additional 2 patients with neutrophilic inflammation were found to have H pylori by immunohistochemical staining. One patient diagnosed as having normal gastric mucosa was retrospectively found to have inflammation with rare H pylori organisms originally overlooked on both H&E and Diff-Quik but later identified on immunostain (0.5%). No patients with chemical gastritis (16%) or chronic inflammation (27%) were found to have H pylori. During the study month, 9 immunostains for H pylori were performed in addition to the 379 Diff-Quik. After discontinuation of reflex Diff-Quik, approximately 20 immunostains are performed for H pylori each month, which decreases technical time spent for processing gastric biopsies and reduces cost to the health care system. In our population with a low prevalence of H pylori, reflex staining for organisms is not cost-effective. The organisms can be seen on routine H&E; when suspicious superficial or active inflammation is present without visible organisms, immunohistochemical stains will confirm presence or absence within a day. Discontinuation of up-front ancillary studies is cost-effective without compromising patient care.

  18. Workshop on environmental assessment. [Regulation of applications of nuclear energy and related ancillary systems

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, E.C.

    1982-07-01

    Objectives of the workshop were: to review and evaluate the state-of-the-art of environmental impact assessments as applied to the regulation of applications of nuclear energy and related ancillary systems; to identify areas where existing technology allows establishing acceptable methods or standard practices that will meet the requirements of the NRC regulations, standards and guides for both normal operations and off-standard conditions including accident considerations; to illuminate topics where existing models or analytical methods are deficient because of unverified assumptions, a paucity of empirical data, conflicting results reported in the literature or a need for observation of operation systems; to compile, analyze and synthesize a prioritized set of research needs to advance the state-of-the-art to the level which will meet all of the requirements of the Commission's regulations, standards and guides; and to develop bases for maintaining the core of regulatory guidance at the optimum level balancing technical capabilities with practical considerations of cost and value to the regulatory process. The discussion held in small group sessions on aquatic, atmospheric, and terrestrial pathways are presented. The following research needs were identified as common to all three groups: validation of models; characterization of source terms; development of screening techniques; basis for de minimis levels of contamination; and updating of objectives for environmental monitoring programs.

  19. Producing Alaska interim land cover maps from Landsat digital and ancillary data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick-Lins, Katherine; Doughty, Eileen Flanagan; Shasby, Mark; Loveland, Thomas R.; Benjamin, Susan

    1987-01-01

    In 1985, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a research program to produce 1:250,000-scale land cover maps of Alaska using digital Landsat multispectral scanner data and ancillary data and to evaluate the potential of establishing a statewide land cover mapping program using this approach. The geometrically corrected and resampled Landsat pixel data are registered to a Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection, along with arc-second digital elevation model data used as an aid in the final computer classification. Areas summaries of the land cover classes are extracted by merging the Landsat digital classification files with the U.S. Bureau of Land Management's Public Land Survey digital file. Registration of the digital land cover data is verified and control points are identified so that a laser plotter can products screened film separate for printing the classification data at map scale directly from the digital file. The final land cover classification is retained both as a color map at 1:250,000 scale registered to the U.S. Geological Survey base map, with area summaries by township and range on the reverse, and as a digital file where it may be used as a category in a geographic information system.

  20. Incorporating residential AC load control into ancillary service markets: Measurement and settlement

    SciTech Connect

    Bode, Josh L.; Sullivan, Michael J.; Berghman, Dries; Eto, Joseph H.

    2013-05-01

    Many pre-existing air conditioner load control programs can provide valuable operational flexibility but have not been incorporated into electricity ancillary service markets or grid operations. Multiple demonstrations have shown that residential air conditioner (AC) response can deliver resources quickly and can provide contingency reserves. A key policy hurdle to be overcome before AC load control can be fully incorporated into markets is how to balance the accuracy, cost, and complexity of methods available for the settlement of load curtailment. Overcoming this hurdle requires a means for assessing the accuracy of shorter-term AC load control demand reduction estimation approaches in an unbiased manner. This paper applies such a method to compare the accuracy of approaches varying in cost and complexity ? including regression analysis, load matching and control group approaches ? using feeder data, household data and AC end-use data. We recommend a practical approach for settlement, relying on an annually updated set of tables, with pre-calculated reduction estimates. These tables allow users to look up the demand reduction per device based on daily maximum temperature, geographic region and hour of day, simplifying settlement and providing a solution to the policy problem presented in this paper.

  1. star Miner: A suit of classifiers for spatial, temporal, ancillary, and remote sensing data mining

    SciTech Connect

    Vatsavai, Raju; Shekhar, Shashi; Burk, Thomas E; Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2008-01-01

    Thematic classification of multi-spectral remotely sensed imagery for large geographic regions requires complex algorithms and feature selection techniques. Traditional statistical classifiers rely exclusively on spectral characteristics, but thematic classes are often spectrally overlapping. The spectral response distributions of thematic classes are dependent on many factors including terrain, slope, aspect, soil type, and atmospheric conditions present during the image acquisition. With the availability of geo-spatial databases, it is possible to exploit the knowledge derived from these ancillary geo-spatial databases to improve the classification accuracies. However, it is not easy to incorporate this additional knowledge into traditional statistical classification methods. On the other hand, knowledge-based and neural network classifiers can readily incorporate these spatial databases, but these systems are often complex to train and their accuracy is only slightly better than statistical classifiers. In this paper we present a new suit of classifiers developed through NASA funding, which addresses many of these problems and provide a framework for mining multi-spectral and temporal remote sensing images guided by geo-spatial databases.

  2. Regional yield predictions of malting barley by remote sensing and ancillary data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weissteiner, Christof J.; Braun, Matthias; Kuehbauch, Walter

    2004-02-01

    Yield forecasts are of high interest to the malting and brewing industry in order to allow the most convenient purchasing policy of raw materials. Within this investigation, malting barley yield forecasts (Hordeum vulgare L.) were performed for typical growing regions in South-Western Germany. Multisensoral and multitemporal Remote Sensing data on one hand and ancillary meteorological, agrostatistical, topographical and pedological data on the other hand were used as input data for prediction models, which were based on an empirical-statistical modeling approach. Since spring barley production is depending on acreage and on the yield per area, classification is needed, which was performed by a supervised multitemporal classification algorithm, utilizing optical Remote Sensing data (LANDSAT TM/ETM+). Comparison between a pixel-based and an object-oriented classification algorithm was carried out. The basic version of the yield estimation model was conducted by means of linear correlation of Remote Sensing data (NOAA-AVHRR NDVI), CORINE land cover data and agrostatistical data. In an extended version meteorological data (temperature, precipitation, etc.) and soil data was incorporated. Both, basic and extended prediction systems, led to feasible results, depending on the selection of the time span for NDVI accumulation.

  3. star Miner: A suit of classifiers for spatial, temporal, ancillary, and remote sensing data mining

    SciTech Connect

    Burk, Thomas E; Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2008-01-01

    Thematic classification of multi-spectral remotely sensed imagery for large geographic regions requires complex algorithms and feature selection techniques. Traditional statistical classifiers rely exclusively on spectral characteristics, but thematic classes are often spectrally overlapping. The spectral response distributions of thematic classes are dependent on many factors including terrain, slope, aspect, soil type, and atmospheric conditions present during the image acquisition. With the availability of geo-spatial databases, it is possible to exploit the knowledge derived from these ancillary geo-spatial databases to improve the classification accuracies. However, it is not easy to incorporate this additional knowledge into traditional statistical classification methods. On the other hand, knowledge-based and neural network classifiers can readily incorporate these spatial databases, but these systems are often complex to train and their accuracy is only slightly better than statistical classifiers. In this paper we present a new suit of classifiers developed through NASA funding, which addresses many of these problems and provide a framework for mining multi-spectral and temporal remote sensing images guided by geo-spatial databases.

  4. Fly DPP10 acts as a channel ancillary subunit and possesses peptidase activity

    PubMed Central

    Shiina, Yohei; Muto, Tomohiro; Zhang, Zhili; Baihaqie, Ahmad; Yoshizawa, Takamasa; Lee, Hye-in J.; Park, Eulsoon; Tsukiji, Shinya; Takimoto, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian DPP6 (DPPX) and DPP10 (DPPY) belong to a family of dipeptidyl peptidases, but lack enzyme activity. Instead, these proteins form complexes with voltage-gated K+ channels in Kv4 family to control their gating and other properties. Here, we find that the fly DPP10 ortholog acts as an ancillary subunit of Kv4 channels and digests peptides. Similarly to mammalian DPP10, the fly ortholog tightly binds to rat Kv4.3 protein. The association causes negative shifts in voltage dependence of channel activation and steady state inactivation. It also results in faster inactivation and recovery from inactivation. In addition to its channel regulatory role, fly DPP10 exhibits significant dipeptidyl peptidase activity with Gly-Pro-MCA (glycyl-L-proline 4-methylcoumaryl-7-amide) as a substrate. Heterologously expressed Flag-tagged fly DPP10 and human DPP4 show similar Km values towards this substrate. However, fly DPP10 exhibits approximately a 6-times-lower relative kcat value normalized with anti-Flag immunoreactivity than human DPP4. These results demonstrate that fly DPP10 is a dual functional protein, controlling Kv4 channel gating and removing bioactive peptides. PMID:27198182

  5. Electric industry restructuring, ancillary services, and the potential impact on wind

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.; Hirst, E.; Parsons, B.; Porter, K.

    1997-12-31

    The new competitive electric power environment raises increased challenges for wind power. The DOE and EPRI wind programs have dealt extensively with the traditional vertically integrated utility planning and operating environment in which the host utility owns the generation (or purchases the power) and provides dispatch and transmission services. Under this traditional environment, 1794 MW of wind power, principally in California, have been successfully integrated into the U.S. electric power system. Another 4200 MW are installed elsewhere in the world. As issues have arisen, such as intermittency and voltage regulation, they have been successfully addressed with accepted power system procedures and practices. For an intermittent, non-dispatchable resource such as wind, new regulatory rules affecting power transmission services, raise questions about which ancillary services wind plants will be able to sell, which they will be required to purchase, and what the economic impacts will be on individual wind projects. This paper begins to look at issues of concern to wind in a restructured electric industry. The paper first briefly looks at the range of unbundled services and comments on their unique significance to wind. To illustrate the concerns that arise with restructuring, the paper then takes a more detailed look at a single service: regulation. Finally, the paper takes a brief look at technologies and strategies that could improve the competitive position of wind.

  6. Cost-Causation-Based Tariffs for Wind Ancillary Service Impacts: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.; Wan, Y.

    2006-06-01

    Conference paper discussing the integration cost of wind. Although specific tariffs for wind generation for ancillary services are uncommon, we anticipate that balancing authorities (control areas) and other entities will move toward such tariffs. Tariffs for regulation and imbalance services should be cost-based, recognize the relevant time scales that correspond with utility operational cycles, and properly allocate those costs to those entities that cause the balancing authority to incur the costs. In this paper, we present methods for separating wind's impact into regulation and load following (imbalance) time scales. We show that approximating these impacts with simpler methods can significantly distort cost causation and even cause confusion between the relevant time scales. We present results from NREL's wind data collection program to illustrate the dangers of linearly scaling wind resource data from small wind plants to approximate the wind resource data from large wind plants. Finally, we provide a framework for developing regulation and imbalance tariffs, we outline methods to begin examining contingency reserve requirements for wind plants, we provide guidance on the important characteristics to consider, and we provide hypothetical cases that the tariff can be tested against to determine whether the results are desired.

  7. Analysis of the Effects of a Flexible Ramping Ancillary Service Product on Power System Operations: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Krad, Ibrahim; Ibanez, Eduardo; Ela, Erik

    2015-10-19

    The recent increased interest in utilizing variable generation (VG) resources such as wind and solar in power systems has motivated investigations into new operating procedures. Although these resources provide desirable value to a system (e.g., no fuel costs or emissions), interconnecting them provides unique challenges. Their variable, non-controllable nature in particular requires significant attention, because it directly results in increased power system variability and uncertainty. One way to handle this is via new operating reserve schemes. Operating reserves provide upward and downward generation and ramping capacity to counteract uncertainty and variability prior to their realization. For instance, uncertainty and variability in real-time dispatch can be accounted for in the hour-ahead unit commitment. New operating reserve methodologies that specifically account for the increased variability and uncertainty caused by VG are currently being investigated and developed by academia and industry. This paper examines one method inspired by the new operating reserve product being proposed by the California Independent System Operator. The method is based on examining the potential ramping requirements at any given time and enforcing those requirements via a reserve demand curve in the market-clearing optimization as an additional ancillary service product.

  8. The SPICE concept - An approach to providing geometric and other ancillary information needed for interpretation of data returned from space science instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acton, Charles H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The Navigation Ancillary Information Facility (NAIF), acting under the direction of NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications, and with substantial participation of the planetary science community, is designing and implementing an ancillary data system - called SPICE - to assist scientists in planning and interpreting scientific observations taken from spaceborne instruments. The principal objective of the implemented SPICE system is that it will hold the essential geometric and related ancillary information needed to recover the full value of science instrument data, and that it will facilitate correlations of individual instrument datasets with data obtained from other instruments on the same or other spacecraft.

  9. Ancillary therapy and supportive care of chronic graft-versus-host disease: national institutes of health consensus development project on criteria for clinical trials in chronic Graft-versus-host disease: V. Ancillary Therapy and Supportive Care Working Group Report.

    PubMed

    Couriel, Daniel; Carpenter, Paul A; Cutler, Corey; Bolaños-Meade, Javier; Treister, Nathaniel S; Gea-Banacloche, Juan; Shaughnessy, Paul; Hymes, Sharon; Kim, Stella; Wayne, Alan S; Chien, Jason W; Neumann, Joyce; Mitchell, Sandra; Syrjala, Karen; Moravec, Carina K; Abramovitz, Linda; Liebermann, Jerry; Berger, Ann; Gerber, Lynn; Schubert, Mary; Filipovich, Alexandra H; Weisdorf, Daniel; Schubert, Mark M; Shulman, Howard; Schultz, Kirk; Mittelman, Barbara; Pavletic, Steven; Vogelsang, Georgia B; Martin, Paul J; Lee, Stephanie J; Flowers, Mary E D

    2006-04-01

    The Ancillary Therapy and Supportive Care Working Group had 3 goals: (1) to establish guidelines for ancillary therapy and supportive care in chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), including treatment for symptoms and recommendations for patient education, preventive measures, and appropriate follow-up; (2) to provide guidelines for the prevention and management of infections and other common complications of treatment for chronic GVHD; and (3) to highlight the areas with the greatest need for clinical research. The definition of "ancillary therapy and supportive care" embraces the most frequent immunosuppressive or anti-inflammatory interventions used with topical intent and any other interventions directed at organ-specific control of symptoms or complications resulting from GVHD and its therapy. Also included in the definition are educational, preventive, and psychosocial interventions with this same objective. Recommendations are organized according to the strength and quality of evidence supporting them and cover the most commonly involved organs, including the skin, mouth, female genital tract, eyes, gastrointestinal tract, and lungs. Recommendations are provided for prevention of infections, osteoporosis, and steroid myopathy and management of neurocognitive and psychosocial adverse effects related to chronic GVHD. Optimal care of patients with chronic GVHD often requires a multidisciplinary approach.

  10. Electronic Structures and Spectroscopic Properties of a Novel Iridium (III) Complex with an Ancillary Ligand 2-(4-Trifluoromethyl -2-Hydroxylphenyl) Benzothiazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Li-Ping; Hao, Yu-Ying; Fan, Wen-Hao; Xu, Bing-She

    2011-06-01

    Iridium (III) complexes with 2-phenylpyridine (ppy) have been demonstrated as a type of promising phosphorescence dopant in emitting layers of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). In most iridium (III) complexes, there exist the strong spin-orbit coupling between π-orbitals of cyclometalated ligands and 5d orbitals of the centric iridium. We study a novel iridium (III) complex (ppy)2Ir(4-TfmBTZ) with ppy as cyclometalated ligands and 2-(4-trifluoromethyl-2-hydroxylphenyl)benzothiazole (4-TfmBTZ) as an ancillary ligand using the Gaussian 03 program. The geometries, electronic structures and spectroscopic properties of this iridium (III) complex are investigated by density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). The results show that the spin-orbit coupling occurs not only between ppy and iridium atom but also between 4-TfmBTZ and iridium atom in this complex. The highest occupied molecular orbital is dominantly localized on the Ir atom and 4-TfmBTZ ligand, while the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital on 4-TfmBTZ ligand. The triplet lowest-lying transition is attributed to the Ir-to-4-TfmBTZ charge-transfer (3MLCT) transition while the sub-low-lying transitions are assigned to the 3MLCT transitions of Ir(ppy)2. The nature of the lowest unoccupied orbital changes from ppy-localized to 4-TfmBTZ-localized and reveals that phosphorescent color of Ir(III) complex can be controlled by the ancillary ligand and substituent.

  11. Lung VITAL: Rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of an ancillary study evaluating the effects of vitamin D and/or marine omega-3 fatty acid supplements on acute exacerbations of chronic respiratory disease, asthma control, pneumonia and lung function in adults.

    PubMed

    Gold, Diane R; Litonjua, Augusto A; Carey, Vincent J; Manson, JoAnn E; Buring, Julie E; Lee, I-Min; Gordon, David; Walter, Joseph; Friedenberg, Georgina; Hankinson, John L; Copeland, Trisha; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike

    2016-03-01

    Laboratory and observational research studies suggest that vitamin D and marine omega-3 fatty acids may reduce risk for pneumonia, acute exacerbations of respiratory diseases including chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) or asthma, and decline of lung function, but prevention trials with adequate dosing, adequate power, and adequate time to follow-up are lacking. The ongoing Lung VITAL study is taking advantage of a large clinical trial-the VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL (VITAL)--to conduct the first major evaluation of the influences of vitamin D and marine omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on pneumonia risk, respiratory exacerbation episodes, asthma control and lung function in adults. VITAL is a 5-year U.S.-wide randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 factorial trial of supplementation with vitamin D3 ([cholecalciferol], 2000 IU/day) and marine omega-3 FA (Omacor® fish oil, eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA]+docosahexaenoic acid [DHA], 1g/day) for primary prevention of CVD and cancer among men and women, at baseline aged ≥50 and ≥55, respectively, with 5107 African Americans. In a subset of 1973 participants from 11 urban U.S. centers, lung function is measured before and two years after randomization. Yearly follow-up questionnaires assess incident pneumonia in the entire randomized population, and exacerbations of respiratory disease, asthma control and dyspnea in a subpopulation of 4314 randomized participants enriched, as shown in presentation of baseline characteristics, for respiratory disease, respiratory symptoms, and history of cigarette smoking. Self-reported pneumonia hospitalization will be confirmed by medical record review, and exacerbations will be confirmed by Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services data review. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Lung VITAL: Rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of an ancillary study evaluating the effects of vitamin D and/or marine omega-3 fatty acid supplements on acute exacerbations of chronic respiratory disease, asthma control, pneumonia and lung function in adults

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Diane R; Litonjua, Augusto A.; Carey, Vincent J.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Buring, Julie E; Lee, I-Min; Gordon, David; Walter, Joseph; Friedenberg, Georgina; Hankinson, John L; Copeland, Trisha; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory and observational research studies suggest that vitamin D and marine omega-3 fatty acids may reduce risk for pneumonia, acute exacerbations of respiratory diseases including chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) or asthma, and decline of lung function, but prevention trials with adequate dosing, adequate power, and adequate time to follow-up are lacking. The ongoing Lung VITAL study is taking advantage of a large clinical trial—the VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL (VITAL)—to conduct the first major evaluation of the influences of vitamin D and marine omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on pneumonia risk, respiratory exacerbation episodes, asthma control and lung function in adults. VITAL is a 5-year U.S.-wide randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2×2 factorial trial of supplementation with vitamin D3 ([cholecalciferol], 2000 IU/day) and marine omega-3 FA (Omacor® fish oil, eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] +docosahexaenoic acid [DHA], 1 g/day) for primary prevention of CVD and cancer among men and women, at baseline aged ≥50 and ≥55, respectively, with 5107 African Americans. In a subset of 1973 participants from 11 urban U.S. centers, lung function is measured before and two years after randomization. Yearly follow-up questionnaires assess incident pneumonia in the entire randomized population, and exacerbations of respiratory disease, asthma control and dyspnea in a subpopulation of 4314 randomized participants enriched, as shown in presentation of baseline characteristics, for respiratory disease, respiratory symptoms, and history of cigarette smoking. Self-reported pneumonia hospitalization will be confirmed by medical record review, and exacerbations will be confirmed by Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services data review. PMID:26784651

  13. Rationale, design and population baseline characteristics of the PERFORM Vascular Project: an ancillary study of the Prevention of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular Events of ischemic origin with teRutroban in patients with a history oF ischemic strOke or tRansient ischeMic attack (PERFORM) trial

    PubMed Central

    Bots, Michiel L.; Ford, Ian; Laurent, Stéphane; Touboul, Pierre Jean

    2010-01-01

    Purpose PERFORM is exploring the efficacy of terutroban versus aspirin for secondary prevention in patients with a history of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attacks (TIAs). The PERFORM Vascular Project will evaluate the effect of terutroban on progression of atherosclerosis, as assessed by change in carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in a subgroup of patients. Methods and results The Vascular Project includes structural (CIMT, carotid plaques) and functional (carotid stiffness) vascular studies in all patients showing at least one carotid plaque at entry. Expected mean follow-up is 36 months. Primary endpoint is rate of change of CIMT. Secondary endpoints include emergent plaques and assessment of carotid stiffness. 1,100 patients are required for 90% statistical power to detect treatment-related CIMT difference of 0.025 mm. The first patient was randomized in April 2006. Conclusions The PERFORM Vascular Project will investigate terutroban’s effect on vascular structure and function in patients with a history of ischemic stroke or TIAs. PMID:20490906

  14. Engineering Task Plan for the Integrity Assessment Examination of Double Contained Receiver Tanks (DCRT) Catch Tanks and Ancillary facilities

    SciTech Connect

    BECKER, D.L.

    2000-05-23

    This Engineering Task Plan (ETP) presents the integrity assessment examination of three DCRTs, seven catch tanks, and two ancillary facilities located in the 200 East and West Areas of the Hanford Site. The integrity assessment examinations, as described in this ETP, will provide the necessary information to enable the independently qualified registered professional engineer (IQRPE) to assess the condition and integrity of these facilities. The plan is consistent with the Double-Shell Tank Waste Transfer Facilities Integrity Assessment Plan.

  15. CT and MR Imaging Diagnosis and Staging of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Part II. Extracellular Agents, Hepatobiliary Agents, and Ancillary Imaging Features

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jin-Young; Lee, Jeong-Min

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging play critical roles in the diagnosis and staging of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The second article of this two-part review discusses basic concepts of diagnosis and staging, reviews the diagnostic performance of CT and MR imaging with extracellular contrast agents and of MR imaging with hepatobiliary contrast agents, and examines in depth the major and ancillary imaging features used in the diagnosis and characterization of HCC. © RSNA, 2014 PMID:25247563

  16. Unmet Needs for Ancillary Services Among Hispanics/Latinos Receiving HIV Medical Care - United States, 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, Lauren C; DeGroote, Nicholas P; Shouse, R Luke; Valleroy, Linda A; Prejean, Joseph; Bradley, Heather

    2016-10-14

    The prevalence of diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Hispanics/Latinos in the United States is more than twice as high as the prevalence among non-Hispanic whites (1). Services that support retention in HIV medical care and assist with day-to-day living, referred to here as ancillary services, help persons living with HIV access HIV medical care, adhere to HIV treatment, and attain HIV viral suppression. The needs for these ancillary services among Hispanics/Latinos are not well described (2). To obtain nationally representative estimates of and reasons for unmet needs for such services among Hispanic/Latino adults receiving outpatient HIV medical care during 2013-2014, CDC analyzed data from the Medical Monitoring Project (MMP). The analysis found that Hispanics/Latinos in all age and sexual orientation/behavior subgroups reported substantial unmet needs, including 24% needing dental care, 21% needing eye or vision care, 15% needing food and nutrition services, and 9% needing transportation assistance. Addressing unmet needs for ancillary services among Hispanics/Latinos living with HIV might help increase access to HIV care, improve health outcomes, and reduce health disparities.

  17. Luminescent biscyclometalated arylpyridine iridium(III) complexes with 4,4'-bi-1,2,3-triazolyl ancillary ligands.

    PubMed

    Welby, Christine E; Gilmartin, Luke; Marriott, Ryan R; Zahid, Adam; Rice, Craig R; Gibson, Elizabeth A; Elliott, Paul I P

    2013-10-07

    The synthesis, characterization and photophysical investigation of complexes of the form [Ir(R-ppy)2(btz)]PF6 (1 to 3) are reported (btz = 1,1'-dibenzyl-4,4'-bi-1,2,3-triazolyl, R-ppy = 4-(pyrid-2-yl)benzaldehyde (1), 2-phenylpyridine (2) and 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)pyridine (3)). Complexes 1, 2 and 3 are luminescent and exhibit structured emission bands with vibronic progressions at 532 & 568 nm (ϕ 0.28%), 476 & 508 nm (ϕ 0.82%) and 454 & 483 nm (ϕ 4.3%) respectively. The structuring of these emission bands is indicative of cyclometalated ligand centred emissive states and is further corroborated by the nearly identical emission spectra for 2 and 3 to previously reported analogous complexes with 4-(pyrid-2-yl)-1,2,3-triazole based ancillary ligands. Computational density functional theory calculations on these complexes show that the LUMOs of 2 and 3 are largely btz-centred but with some cyclometalated pyridine π* character. The LUMO of 1 on the other hand is localized primarily on the cyclometalated ligands. Spin population analysis of the lowest lying triplet excited states for these complexes indicate significant spin population over the iridium centres and the aryl and pyridyl moieties in these complexes with virtually no localization of unpaired electrons over the btz ancillary ligands. This is therefore in agreement with the assignment of the emissive state having largely cyclometalated (3)LC character and being independent of the ancillary ligand.

  18. Biodiesel fuel from animal fat. Ancillary studies on transesterification of beef tallow

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, F.; Clements, L.D.; Hanna, M.A.

    1998-09-01

    Transesterification of beef tallow was investigated. The solubility of ethanol in beef tallow was much higher than that of methanol. At 100 C the solubility of methanol was 19% (w/w). The solubility of ethanol in beef tallow reached 100% (w/w) at about 68 C. For the distribution of methanol between beef tallow methyl esters (BTME) and glycerol, the percentage of total methanol in the glycerol phase was higher than that in the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) phase in a simulated system at room temperature. At 65--80 C, however, the percentage of total methanol in FAME (60% (w/w)) was higher than that in glycerol (40% (w/w)) in a 90:10 (w/w) blend of FAME and glycerol. This coincided with the methanol distribution in the transesterified product. The process for making beef tallow methyl esters should recover methanol using vacuum distillation, separate the ester and glycerol phases, and then wash the beef tallow methyl esters with warm water. At neutral pH, the separation of ester and glycerol and water washing was easier because it reduced emulsion formation.

  19. Improving recombinant Rubisco biogenesis, plant photosynthesis and growth by coexpressing its ancillary RAF1 chaperone.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Spencer M; Birch, Rosemary; Kelso, Celine; Beck, Jennifer L; Kapralov, Maxim V

    2015-03-17

    Enabling improvements to crop yield and resource use by enhancing the catalysis of the photosynthetic CO2-fixing enzyme Rubisco has been a longstanding challenge. Efforts toward realization of this goal have been greatly assisted by advances in understanding the complexities of Rubisco's biogenesis in plastids and the development of tailored chloroplast transformation tools. Here we generate transplastomic tobacco genotypes expressing Arabidopsis Rubisco large subunits (AtL), both on their own (producing tob(AtL) plants) and with a cognate Rubisco accumulation factor 1 (AtRAF1) chaperone (producing tob(AtL-R1) plants) that has undergone parallel functional coevolution with AtL. We show AtRAF1 assembles as a dimer and is produced in tob(AtL-R1) and Arabidopsis leaves at 10-15 nmol AtRAF1 monomers per square meter. Consistent with a postchaperonin large (L)-subunit assembly role, the AtRAF1 facilitated two to threefold improvements in the amount and biogenesis rate of hybrid L8(A)S8(t) Rubisco [comprising AtL and tobacco small (S) subunits] in tob(AtL-R1) leaves compared with tob(AtL), despite >threefold lower steady-state Rubisco mRNA levels in tob(AtL-R1). Accompanying twofold increases in photosynthetic CO2-assimilation rate and plant growth were measured for tob(AtL-R1) lines. These findings highlight the importance of ancillary protein complementarity during Rubisco biogenesis in plastids, the possible constraints this has imposed on Rubisco adaptive evolution, and the likely need for such interaction specificity to be considered when optimizing recombinant Rubisco bioengineering in plants.

  20. Using Ancillary Information to Reduce Sample Size in Discovery Sampling and the Effects of Measurement Error

    SciTech Connect

    Axelrod, M

    2005-08-18

    big sample size might bust the budget, or the number seems intuitively excessive. To reduce the sample size, you can increase the tolerable number of defectives, the ''10'' in the preceding example, or back off on the confidence level, say from 95% to 90%. Auditors also frequently bump up the sample size as a safety factor. They know that something can go wrong. For example, they might find out that the measurements or inspections were subject to errors. Unless the auditors know exactly how measurement error affects sample size, they might be forced to give up the safety factor. Clients often choose to ''live dangerously'' (without a compelling argument to the contrary) to save money. Thus, sometimes the auditor finds that ''you just can't get there from here'', because the goals of the audit and the resources available are inherently in conflict. For discovery audits, there is a way out of this apparent conundrum. It turns out that the classical method of confidence intervals uses an implicit and very conservative assumption. We will see that this assumption is too pessimistic and too conservative in the context of a discovery audit. If we abandon this assumption and use ancillary information about the inventory, then we can significantly reduce the sample size required to achieve the desired confidence level. We will see exactly how the classical method ignores this ancillary information and misses the opportunity for an efficient audit. In the following sections, we first review the standard approach using confidence intervals. Then we present a method that incorporates the ancillary information about the inventory to design a very efficient discovery audit. We also provide results on how measurement errors affect the audit, and how exactly how much the sample size must be modified to compensate for these errors. Finally, we state asymptotic formulas that provide useful approximations for large inventories. It is suggested that the reader review the glossary of

  1. Improved wetland remote sensing in Yellowstone National Park using classification trees to combine TM imagery and ancillary environmental data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, C.; Gallant, A.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service uses the term palustrine wetland to describe vegetated wetlands traditionally identified as marsh, bog, fen, swamp, or wet meadow. Landsat TM imagery was combined with image texture and ancillary environmental data to model probabilities of palustrine wetland occurrence in Yellowstone National Park using classification trees. Model training and test locations were identified from National Wetlands Inventory maps, and classification trees were built for seven years spanning a range of annual precipitation. At a coarse level, palustrine wetland was separated from upland. At a finer level, five palustrine wetland types were discriminated: aquatic bed (PAB), emergent (PEM), forested (PFO), scrub–shrub (PSS), and unconsolidated shore (PUS). TM-derived variables alone were relatively accurate at separating wetland from upland, but model error rates dropped incrementally as image texture, DEM-derived terrain variables, and other ancillary GIS layers were added. For classification trees making use of all available predictors, average overall test error rates were 7.8% for palustrine wetland/upland models and 17.0% for palustrine wetland type models, with consistent accuracies across years. However, models were prone to wetland over-prediction. While the predominant PEM class was classified with omission and commission error rates less than 14%, we had difficulty identifying the PAB and PSS classes. Ancillary vegetation information greatly improved PSS classification and moderately improved PFO discrimination. Association with geothermal areas distinguished PUS wetlands. Wetland over-prediction was exacerbated by class imbalance in likely combination with spatial and spectral limitations of the TM sensor. Wetland probability surfaces may be more informative than hard classification, and appear to respond to climate-driven wetland variability. The developed method is portable, relatively easy to implement, and should be applicable in

  2. Chemiluminescence detection with water-soluble iridium(III) complexes containing a sulfonate-functionalised ancillary ligand.

    PubMed

    Truong, Josephine; Spilstead, Kara B; Barbante, Gregory J; Doeven, Egan H; Wilson, David J D; Barnett, Neil W; Henderson, Luke C; Altimari, Jarrad M; Hockey, Samantha C; Zhou, Ming; Francis, Paul S

    2014-11-21

    The chemiluminescence from four cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes containing an ancillary bathophenanthroline-disulfonate ligand exhibited a wide range of emission colours (green to red), and in some cases intensities that are far greater than the commonly employed benchmark reagent, [Ru(bpy)3](2+). A similar complex incorporating a sulfonated triazolylpyridine-based ligand enabled the emission to be shifted into the blue region of the spectrum, but the responses with this complex were relatively poor. DFT calculations of electronic structure and emission spectra support the experimental findings.

  3. Use of GIS and ancillary variables to predict volatile organic compound and nitrogen dioxide levels at unmonitored locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Luther; Mukerjee, Shaibal; Gonzales, Melissa; Stallings, Casson; Neas, Lucas; Norris, Gary; Özkaynak, Halûk

    In late 1999, passive air sampling of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and volatile organic compounds was conducted at 22 school locations and two intensive sites in El Paso, Texas. Our goal was to predict concentrations of NO 2 and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, and m, p-xylene at a total of 55 schools. The predictive equations were developed by regressing the passive monitor measurements at the 22 monitored schools on land-use variables derived from a geographic information system (GIS). These GIS-based ancillary variables included distance to the nearest border crossing, elevation, population density, distance to roads with specified traffic volumes, traffic intensity around the schools, and distance to the nearest petroleum facility. The reliability of the predictive equations was assessed at the two intensive monitoring sites. For all pollutants, the most useful predictive ancillary variables were elevation, population density, distance to a border crossing, and distance to a petroleum facility. For estimating NO 2, traffic intensity was also important.

  4. On combining multi-normalization and ancillary measures for the optimal score level fusion of fingerprint and voice biometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed Anzar, Sharafudeen Thaha; Sathidevi, Puthumangalathu Savithri

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we have considered the utility of multi-normalization and ancillary measures, for the optimal score level fusion of fingerprint and voice biometrics. An efficient matching score preprocessing technique based on multi-normalization is employed for improving the performance of the multimodal system, under various noise conditions. Ancillary measures derived from the feature space and the score space are used in addition to the matching score vectors, for weighing the modalities, based on their relative degradation. Reliability (dispersion) and the separability (inter-/intra-class distance and d-prime statistics) measures under various noise conditions are estimated from the individual modalities, during the training/validation stage. The `best integration weights' are then computed by algebraically combining these measures using the weighted sum rule. The computed integration weights are then optimized against the recognition accuracy using techniques such as grid search, genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization. The experimental results show that, the proposed biometric solution leads to considerable improvement in the recognition performance even under low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions and reduces the false acceptance rate (FAR) and false rejection rate (FRR), making the system useful for security as well as forensic applications.

  5. Active Power Control of Wind Turbines for Ancillary Services: A Comparison of Pitch and Torque Control Methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    Aho, Jacob; Fleming, Paul; Pao, Lucy Y.

    2016-08-01

    As wind energy generation becomes more prevalent in some regions, there is increased demand for wind power plants to provide ancillary services, which are essential for grid reliability. This paper compares two different wind turbine control methodologies to provide active power control (APC) ancillary services, which include derating or curtailing power generation, providing automatic generation control (AGC), and providing primary frequency control (PFC). The torque APC controller provides all power control through the power electronics whereas the pitch APC controller uses the blade pitch actuators as the primary means of power control. These controllers are simulated under various wind conditions with different derating set points and AGC participation levels. The metrics used to compare their performance are the damage equivalent loads (DELs) induced on the structural components and AGC performance metrics, which are used to determine the payments for AGC services by system operators in the United States. The simulation results show that derating the turbine reduces structural loads for both control methods, with the APC pitch control providing larger reductions in DELs, lower AGC performance scores, and higher root-mean-square pitch rates. Providing AGC increases the structural loads when compared to only derating the turbine, but even the AGC DELs are generally lower than those of the baseline control system. The torque APC control methodology also allows for more sustained PFC responses under certain derating conditions.

  6. Tuning the structure, dimensionality and luminescent properties of lanthanide metal-organic frameworks under ancillary ligand influence.

    PubMed

    D'Vries, Richard F; Gomez, German E; Hodak, José H; Soler-Illia, Galo J A A; Ellena, Javier

    2016-01-14

    This manuscript addresses the synthesis, structural characterization and optical properties of a 1D coordination polymer (CPs) and 2D and 3D Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) obtained from lanthanide metals, 3-hydroxinaftalene-2,7-disulfonic acid (3-OHNDS) and two different phenanthroline derivates as ancillary ligands. The first is a family of 2D compounds with formula [Ln(3-OHNDS)(H2O)2], where Ln = La(), Pr(), Nd() and Sm(). The addition of 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) in the reaction produces 1D compounds with general formula [Ln(3-OHNDS)(phen)(H2O)]·3H2O, where Ln = La(), Pr(), Nd() and Sm(). Finally, the synthesis with 3,4,7,8-tetramethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (3,4,7,8-TMPhen) as an ancillary ligand results in the formation of the 3D [La(3-OHNDS)(3,4,7,8-TMphen)(H2O)] () compound. The photoluminescence (PL) properties of 1D and 2D compounds were fully investigated in comparison with the 3-OHNDS ligand. One of the most important results was the obtaining of a white-light single-emitter without adding dopant atoms in the structure. With all these results in mind it was possible to establish structure-property relationships.

  7. Effects of beta-adrenergic blockers with different ancillary properties on lipid peroxidation in hyperthyroid rat cardiac muscle.

    PubMed

    Asayama, K; Dobashi, K; Hayashibe, H; Kato, K

    1989-10-01

    To determine whether beta-blockade protects rat heart against thyroxine (T4)-induced accelelation of lipid peroxidation, in vivo effects of 3 beta-blockers with different ancillary properties on the mitochondrial oxidative enzyme, antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxide were investigated. The rats were rendered hyperthyroid by adding T4 to their drinking water for 3 weeks and were treated simultaneously with either carteolol (a blocker with partial agonist activity; 30 mg/kg/day), atenolol (50 mg/kg/day) or arotinolol (a blocker with weak alpha-blocking action; 50 mg/kg/day). The T4-induced tachycardia was alleviated completely by either atenolol or arotinolol, but only partially by carteolol. Cytochrome c oxidase activity in the heart muscle was increased by T4 with a parallel increase in manganese (mitochondrial) superoxide dismutase. Atenolol, but neither carteolol nor arotinolol, suppressed this increase. Similarly, the T4-induced acceleration of lipid peroxidation was suppressed by atenolol alone. Glutathione peroxidase was markedly decreased, and both copper zinc (cytosolic) superoxide dismutase and catalase were also decreased or tended to be decreased by T4. The levels of these 3 enzymes were only minimally affected by the beta-blocker treatments. These results suggest that beta-blockade suppresses mitochondrial hypermetabolism and protects heart muscle against oxidative stress in hyperthyroidism, and that the ancillary properties of beta-blockers such as partial agonist activity and alpha-blocking action negate the protection.

  8. Fine needle biopsy with cytology in paediatrics: the importance of a multidisciplinary approach and the role of ancillary techniques.

    PubMed

    Barroca, H; Bom-Sucesso, M

    2014-02-01

    Fine needle biopsy (FNB) with cytology has long been regarded as an excellent technique as the first choice for diagnosing adult tumours. Being an inexpensive minimally invasive technique with high accuracy and diagnostic immediacy through rapid on-site evaluation, it is also ideal for implementation in the paediatric setting, particularly in developing countries. Furthermore, it allows complementary and advanced procedures such as flow cytometry, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), among others, which enhances the diagnostic capacity of this technique and gives it a key role in risk stratification and therapeutic decision-making for several tumours. The advantages of FNB are optimized in the setting of a multidisciplinary team where cytologist, clinician and radiologist play leading roles. Paediatric tumours are rare and most ancillary techniques are cost-effective but complex to be implemented in small centres with limited experience in paediatric pathology. Therefore reference centres are essential, in order to establish teams with extensive experience and expertise. Hence, any child with a suspected malignancy should be directly referred to a paediatric oncology unit. Focusing on a practical approach to the assessment of paediatric lymphadenopathies and non-central nervous system solid tumours we review the effectiveness of FNB as applied concurrently with ancillary techniques in a multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic decisions of paediatric tumours and tumour-like lesions.

  9. Integrated snow and avalanche monitoring system for Indian Himalaya using multi-temporal satellite imagery and ancillary data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, S. S.; Mani, Sneh; Mathur, P.

    . Different methods have been used for the analysis of the temporal changes in satellite images. Multi-sensor data fusion techniques have been applied to increase the accuracy of classification, and also for extraction of necessary information about characteristics of snow and avalanches and the ground conditions. The results of the analysis of time series of last two winters are reported. The study confirms that significant changes in snow characteristics and wetness are mainly due to large variations in temperature at these altitudes, which contribute towards avalanche activities in early winter. A definite relationship has been observed between snow wetness, altitude and period of the year with respect to the probability of an avalanche occurrence. Snow wetness is found to be inversely proportional to the altitude, whereas probability of an avalanche is directly proportional to the wetness of snow, lying either over thin grass or boulder-covered ground. The results were verified through extensive field measurements. The emphasis has been laid on establishment of a dense network of Automatic Weather Stations (AWS), Upper Air Stations (UAS) and observatories in entire Himalaya; development of GIS based data bases using satellite imageries and other ancillary data for weather, snow and land cover monitoring. Records of past years will provide base information for realistic estimation of the impact of climatic changes and confidence to predict the weather and avalanches in various regions of Himalaya. Key Words: Integrated Monitoring System, Time series multi-sensor/multi-temporal Satellite Imageries, Multi-sensor Data Fusion, Change Detection, Snow characteristics

  10. Integrated snow and avalanche monitoring syatem for Indian Himalaya using multi-temporal satellite imagery and ancillary data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, S. S.; Mani, Sneh; Mathur, P.

    . Different methods have been used for the analysis of the temporal changes in satellite images. Multi-sensor data fusion techniques have been applied to increase the accuracy of classification, and also for extraction of necessary information about characteristics of snow and avalanches and the ground conditions. The results of the analysis of time series of last two winters are reported. The study confirms that significant changes in snow characteristics and wetness are mainly due to large variations in temperature at these altitudes, which contribute towards avalanche activities in early winter. A definite relationship has been observed between snow wetness, altitude and period of the year with respect to the probability of an avalanche occurrence. Snow wetness is found to be inversely proportional to the altitude, whereas probability of an avalanche is directly proportional to the wetness of snow, lying either over thin grass or boulder-covered ground. The results were verified through extensive field measurements. The emphasis has been laid on establishment of a dense network of Automatic Weather Stations (AWS), Upper Air Stations (UAS) and observatories in entire Himalaya; development of GIS based data bases using satellite imageries and other ancillary data for weather, snow and land cover monitoring. Records of past years will provide base information for realistic estimation of the impact of climatic changes and confidence to predict the weather and avalanches in various regions of Himalaya. Key Words: Integrated Monitoring System, Time series multi-sensor/multi-temporal Satellite Imageries, Multi-sensor Data Fusion, Change Detection, Snow characteristics

  11. A kinetic, mechanistic, and molecular mechanics investigation of olefin insertion into organoactinide-hydride bonds. Metal, olefin, ancillary ligand, and diastereoselection effects

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zerong; Marks, T.J. )

    1990-07-04

    This contribution reports a kinetic/mechanistic/stereochemical/molecular mechanics study of olefin insertion into the actinide-hydrogen bonds of Cp{prime}{sub 2}An(H)(OR) complexes (Cp{prime} = {eta}{sup 5}-(CH{sub 3}){sub 5}C{sub 5}; An = Th, U; R = achiral or chiral alkyl group). For the reaction Cp{prime}{sub 2}An(H)(O-t-Bu) + cyclohexene (An = Th), the rate law is first order in organoactinide and first order in olefin. For Cp{prime}{sub 2}Th(H)(OCH(t-Bu){sub 2}) + 1-hexene, k{sub Th{minus}H}/k{sub Th{minus}D} = 1.3 (2). A molecular mechanics/ molecular graphics analysis suggests that the sterically most favorable direction of olefin approach toward the actinide center is between the U-H and U-O bonds rather than from the side. These results provide additional insight into ancillary ligand effects on the kinetics of organo-f-element-catalyzed olefin hydrogenation.

  12. The business of medicine: how to overcome financial obstacles and secure financing for your private practice and ancillary services business.

    PubMed

    Nayor, David

    2012-01-01

    Doctors across the country who operate private medical practices are facing increasing financial obstacles, namely shrinking income as a result of rising costs and lower reimbursements. In addition, as hospitals have become overburdened many physicians have opened up private surgical centers; magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography and positron emission tomography scanning facilities; pathology labs; colonoscopy/endoscopy suites; lithotripsy centers; and other medical businesses typically performed within the hospital. Moreover, many doctors seek loans to purchase existing practices or for their capital contribution in medical partnerships. The past decade has thus seen a significant increase in the number of doctors taking out small business loans. Indeed, banks view the healthcare industry as a large growth market. This article includes practical information, advice, and resources to help doctors to secure bank financing for their practices, ancillary services business, real estate, and equipment on the best possible market terms.

  13. The role of liquid-based cytology and ancillary techniques in pleural and pericardic effusions: an institutional experience.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Esther Diana; Bizzarro, Tommaso; Schmitt, Fernando; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar

    2015-04-01

    Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of serous membrane effusions may fulfil a challenging role in the diagnostic analysis of both primary and metastatic disease. From this perspective, liquid-based cytology (LBC) represents a feasible and reliable method for empowering the performance of ancillary techniques (ie, immunocytochemistry and molecular testing) with high diagnostic accuracy. In total, 3171 LBC pleural and pericardic effusions were appraised between January 2000 and December 2013. They were classified as negative for malignancy (NM), suspicious for malignancy (SM), or positive for malignancy (PM). The cytologic diagnoses included 2721 NM effusions (2505 pleural and 216 pericardic), 104 SM effusions (93 pleural and 11 pericardic), and 346 PM effusions (321 pleural and 25 pericardic). The malignant pleural series included 76 unknown malignancies (36 SM and 40 PM effusions), 174 metastatic lesions (85 SM and 89 PM effusions), 14 lymphomas (3 SM and 11 PM effusions), 16 mesotheliomas (5 SM and 11 SM effusions), and 3 myelomas (all SM effusions). The malignant pericardic category included 20 unknown malignancies (5 SM and 15 PM effusions), 15 metastatic lesions (1 SM and 14 PM effusions), and 1 lymphoma (1 PM effusion). There were 411 conclusive immunocytochemical analyses and 47 molecular analyses, and the authors documented 88% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 98% diagnostic accuracy, 98% negative predictive value, and 100% positive predictive value for FNAC. FNAC represents a primary diagnostic tool for effusions and a reliable approach with which to determine the correct follow-up. Furthermore, LBC is useful for ancillary techniques, such as immunocytochemistry and molecular analysis, with feasible diagnostic and predictive utility. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  14. The Role of Liquid Based Cytology and Ancillary Techniques in the Peritoneal Washing Analysis: Our Institutional Experience

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Esther; Bizzarro, Tommaso; Martini, Maurizio; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Schmitt, Fernando; Fagotti, Anna; Scambia, Giovanni; Zannoni, Gian Franco

    2017-01-01

    Background The cytological analysis of peritoneal effusions serves as a diagnostic and prognostic aid for either primary or metastatic diseases. Among the different cytological preparations, liquid based cytology (LBC) represents a feasible and reliable method ensuring also the application of ancillary techniques (i.e immunocytochemistry-ICC and molecular testing). Methods We recorded 10348 LBC peritoneal effusions between January 2000 and December 2014. They were classified as non-diagnostic (ND), negative for malignancy-NM, atypical-suspicious for malignancy-SM and positive for malignancy-PM. Results The cytological diagnosis included 218 ND, 9.035 NM, 213 SM and 882 PM. A total of 8048 (7228 NM, 115SM, 705 PM) cases with histological follow-up were included. Our NM included 21 malignant and 7207 benign histological diagnoses. Our 820 SMs+PMs were diagnosed as 107 unknown malignancies (30SM and 77PM), 691 metastatic lesions (81SM and 610PM), 9 lymphomas (2SM and 7PM), 9 mesotheliomas (1SM and 8SM), 4 sarcomas (1SM and 3PM). Primary gynecological cancers contributed with 64% of the cases. We documented 97.4% sensitivity, 99.9% specificity, 98% diagnostic accuracy, 99.7% negative predictive value (NPV) and 99.7% positive predictive value (PPV). Furthermore, the morphological diagnoses were supported by either 173 conclusive ICC results or 50 molecular analyses. Specifically the molecular testing was performed for the EGFR and KRAS mutational analysis based on the previous or contemporary diagnoses of Non Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) and colon carcinomas. We identified 10 EGFR in NSCCL and 7 KRAS mutations on LBC stored material. Conclusions Peritoneal cytology is an adjunctive tool in the surgical management of tumors mostly gynecological cancers. LBC maximizes the application of ancillary techniques such as ICC and molecular analysis with feasible diagnostic and predictive yields also in controversial cases. PMID:28099523

  15. Prediction of spatial soil property information from ancillary sensor data using ordinary linear regression: Model derivations, residual assumptions and model validation tests

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Geospatial measurements of ancillary sensor data, such as bulk soil electrical conductivity or remotely sensed imagery data, are commonly used to characterize spatial variation in soil or crop properties. Geostatistical techniques like kriging with external drift or regression kriging are often use...

  16. Using satellite imagery as ancillary data for increasing the precision of estimates for the Forest Inventory and Analysis program of the USDA Forest Service

    Treesearch

    Ronald E. McRoberts; Geoffrey R. Holden; Mark D. Nelson; Greg C. Liknes; Dale D. Gormanson

    2006-01-01

    Forest inventory programs report estimates of forest variables for areas of interest ranging in size from municipalities, to counties, to states or provinces. Because of numerous factors, sample sizes are often insufficient to estimate attributes as precisely as is desired, unless the estimation process is enhanced using ancillary data. Classified satellite imagery has...

  17. Ancillary ligand assisted self-assembly of coordination architectures of Mn(II): the effect of the N-alkyl group on a tridentate ligand.

    PubMed

    Khullar, Sadhika; Mandal, Sanjay K

    2015-01-21

    For a subtle change in the N-alkyl group of the tridentate ancillary ligand, bis(2-pyridylmethyl)alkylamine (where the alkyl group = methyl (bpma) or ethyl (bpea)), completely different products are formed under similar reaction (in methanol) as well as crystallization conditions (in water). One containing coordinated water molecules is the 3D supramolecular assembly of a tetrameric synthon comprised of the dimeric subunits, [Mn2(adc)2(bpma)2(H2O)2] (), organized by strong hydrogen bonding while the other without a coordinated water molecule forms the 1D coordination polymer, [Mn2(adc)2(bpea)2]n () (where adc = acetylene dicarboxylate), featuring a uninodal 4-connected SP 1-periodic net (3,6)(1,2) for 1D→2D with the point group {3^3.4^2.5}. Unlike , two chains of 1D CP in have a moderate π-π interaction between two corresponding pyridine rings (the centroid-centroid distance: 3.659 Å) resulting in the formation of a ladder like supramolecular assembly. On the other hand, there is no effect in changing the dicarboxylate linker from adc to fumarate as the product [Mn2(fumarate)2(bpea)2]n () is found to be similar to . All these are also characterized by elemental analysis, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. Their thermal stability was studied by thermogravimetric analysis. Based on variable temperature PXRD studies, compounds and retain their crystallinity and overall structure up to 100 °C and 175 °C, respectively. The water vapor adsorption study of and corroborates well with their solid state structures determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction, specifically their affinity towards water; furthermore, the study of with or without pre-treatment conditions shows its structural integrity intact due to dehydration.

  18. A fully automatic tool to perform accurate flood mapping by merging remote sensing imagery and ancillary data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Addabbo, Annarita; Refice, Alberto; Lovergine, Francesco; Pasquariello, Guido

    2016-04-01

    Flooding is one of the most frequent and expansive natural hazard. High-resolution flood mapping is an essential step in the monitoring and prevention of inundation hazard, both to gain insight into the processes involved in the generation of flooding events, and from the practical point of view of the precise assessment of inundated areas. Remote sensing data are recognized to be useful in this respect, thanks to the high resolution and regular revisit schedules of state-of-the-art satellites, moreover offering a synoptic overview of the extent of flooding. In particular, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data present several favorable characteristics for flood mapping, such as their relative insensitivity to the meteorological conditions during acquisitions, as well as the possibility of acquiring independently of solar illumination, thanks to the active nature of the radar sensors [1]. However, flood scenarios are typical examples of complex situations in which different factors have to be considered to provide accurate and robust interpretation of the situation on the ground: the presence of many land cover types, each one with a particular signature in presence of flood, requires modelling the behavior of different objects in the scene in order to associate them to flood or no flood conditions [2]. Generally, the fusion of multi-temporal, multi-sensor, multi-resolution and/or multi-platform Earth observation image data, together with other ancillary information, seems to have a key role in the pursuit of a consistent interpretation of complex scenes. In the case of flooding, distance from the river, terrain elevation, hydrologic information or some combination thereof can add useful information to remote sensing data. Suitable methods, able to manage and merge different kind of data, are so particularly needed. In this work, a fully automatic tool, based on Bayesian Networks (BNs) [3] and able to perform data fusion, is presented. It supplies flood maps

  19. Nitrate isotopic composition and ancillary variables (land use, redox, excess N2, age, water isotopics) in California groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veale, Nathan; Moran, Jean; Visser, Ate; Singleton, Michael; Esser, Bradley

    2017-04-01

    Nitrate is a critical water quality issue in California, the United States and the world. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has compiled a large, unique database of California groundwater nitrate isotopic compositions (δ15N-NO3 and δ18O-NO3), acquired largely through more than a decade of coordination with the State of California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program. The water samples are predominantly from shallow aquifers accessed by domestic and monitoring wells. The database of >1,300 nitrate isotopic compositions includes a number of important ancillary parameters: DO, ORP and DOC (measured for 18% of samples); excess air and dissolved N2 (24%); water isotopic composition (δ18O-H2O and δD-H2O) (43%); and tritium/3He groundwater age (27%). Methods used at LLNL include sample preparation by the denitrifier method (for δ15N-NO3 and δ18O-NO3) and Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry with (δ15N-NO3 and δ18O-NO3 and δ18O-H2O and δD-H2O), Noble Gas Mass Spectrometry (NGMS; for excess air and groundwater age), and Membrane Inlet Mass Spectrometry (MIMS; for major dissolved gases and excess N2). Redox indicators (DO, ORP and DOC) in conjunction with excess N2, groundwater age, and nitrate isotopic composition are used to assess the presence or absence, and potentially the rate of, saturated-zone denitrification. Comparison of δ18O-NO3 to δ18O-H2O isotopic composition is used to distinguish synthetic nitrate from nitrification of reduced forms of nitrogen as a source of groundwater nitrate. Groundwater age is used to discern timing and temporal trends in groundwater nitrate isotopic composition. The relationship of nitrate isotopic composition to ancillary parameters (redox, excess N2, water isotopic composition and groundwater age) is explored, along with its relationship to well location, screened interval, and land use, with a focus on the extent of saturated-zone denitrification and the significance of synthetic nitrate as

  20. Optimal policies for simultaneous energy consumption and ancillary service provision for flexible loads under stochastic prices and no capacity reservation constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kefayati, Mahdi; Baldick, Ross

    2015-07-01

    Flexible loads, i.e. the loads whose power trajectory is not bound to a specific one, constitute a sizable portion of current and future electric demand. This flexibility can be used to improve the performance of the grid, should the right incentives be in place. In this paper, we consider the optimal decision making problem faced by a flexible load, demanding a certain amount of energy over its availability period, subject to rate constraints. The load is also capable of providing ancillary services (AS) by decreasing or increasing its consumption in response to signals from the independent system operator (ISO). Under arbitrarily distributed and correlated Markovian energy and AS prices, we obtain the optimal policy for minimising expected total cost, which includes cost of energy and benefits from AS provision, assuming no capacity reservation requirement for AS provision. We also prove that the optimal policy has a multi-threshold form and can be computed, stored and operated efficiently. We further study the effectiveness of our proposed optimal policy and its impact on the grid. We show that, while optimal simultaneous consumption and AS provision under real-time stochastic prices are achievable with acceptable computational burden, the impact of adopting such real-time pricing schemes on the network might not be as good as suggested by the majority of the existing literature. In fact, we show that such price responsive loads are likely to induce peak-to-average ratios much more than what is observed in the current distribution networks and adversely affect the grid.

  1. Reaction of BH4- with [Mo2Cp2(mu-SMe)n] species to give tetrahydroborato, hydrido or dimetallaborane compounds: control of product by ancillary ligands.

    PubMed

    Cabon, Nolwenn; Petillon, Francois Y; Schollhammer, Philippe; Talarmin, Jean; Muir, Kenneth W

    2004-09-07

    The reaction of mono- or dichloro-dimolybdenum(III) complexes [Mo2Cp2(mu-SMe)2(mu-Cl)(mu-Y)] (Cp=eta5-C5H5; 1, Y=SMe; 2, Y=PPh2; 3, Y=Cl) with NaBH4 at room temperature gave in high yields tetrahydroborato (8), hydrido (9) or metallaborane (12) complexes depending on the ancillary ligands. The correct formulation of derivatives and has been unambigously determined by X-ray diffraction methods. That of the hydrido compound 9 has been established in solution by NMR analysis and confirmed by an X-ray study of the mu-azavinylidene derivative [Mo2Cp2(mu-SMe)2(mu-PPh2)(mu-N=CHMe)] (10) obtained from the insertion of acetonitrile into the Mo-H bond of 9. Reaction of NaBH4 with nitrile derivatives, [Mo2Cp2(mu-SMe)4-n(CH3CN)2n]n+(5, n=1; 6 n=2), afforded the tetrahydroborato compound 8, together with a mu-azavinylidene species [Mo2Cp2(mu-SMe)3(mu-N=CHMe)](14), when n=1, and the metallaborane complex 12, together with a mixed borohydrato-azavinylidene derivative [Mo2Cp2(mu-SMe)2(mu-BH4)(mu-N=CHMe)] (13), when n=2. The molecular structures of these complexes have been confirmed by X-ray analysis. Preparations of some of the starting complexes (3 and 4) are also described, as are the molecular structures of the precursors [Mo2Cp2(mu-SMe)2(mu-X)(mu-Y)] (1, X/Y=Cl/SMe; 2, X/Y=Cl/PPh2; 4, X/Y=SMe/PPh2).

  2. Pendant Ancillary Ligand Switches Off Auto-Oxidation of Group 13 Metal Alkyl Compounds Bearing Non-Bulky Alkyl Groups

    PubMed Central

    Kobrsi, Issam

    2014-01-01

    The reaction of 3,5-di-2-pyridyl-1,2,4-triazole with excess Al(CH3)3 and Ga(CH3)3 afforded (3,5-di-2-pyridyl-1,2,4-triazolate)Al(CH3)2•3Al(CH3)3 (1) and (3,5-di-2-pyridyl-1,2,4-triazolate) Ga(CH3)2•3Ga(CH3)3 (2) respectively. 1 and 2 reacted with oxygen gas to produce (CH3)2M(µ-3,5-di-2-pyridyl-1,2,4-triazolate)(µ-OCH3)M(CH3)2 (M = Al, 3; M = Ga, 4). 3 and 4 contain the non-bulky dimethylalumino moiety, yet they are indefinitely stable in the presence of oxygen gas. This increased stability towards oxygen is due to ancillary 2-pyridyl groups bonding to the metal centers producing a pseudo-trigonal pyramidal Al and Ga environments. This environment blocks oxygen from further inserting into the M–C bond. The Al–N(pyridine) and Ga–N(pyridine) bonds reported herein are extremely elongated yet inactive towards dissociation due to the chelate effect. PMID:24945752

  3. Pendant ancillary ligand switches off auto-oxidation of group 13 metal alkyl compounds bearing non-bulky alkyl groups.

    PubMed

    Kobrsi, Issam

    2014-01-01

    The reaction of 3,5-di-2-pyridyl-1,2,4-triazole with excess Al(CH3)3 and Ga(CH3)3 afforded (3,5-di-2-pyridyl-1,2,4-triazolate)Al(CH3)2•3Al(CH3)3 (1) and (3,5-di-2-pyridyl-1,2,4-triazolate) Ga(CH3)2•3Ga(CH3)3 (2) respectively. 1 and 2 reacted with oxygen gas to produce (CH3)2M(µ-3,5-di-2-pyridyl-1,2,4-triazolate)(µ-OCH3)M(CH3)2 (M = Al, 3; M = Ga, 4). 3 and 4 contain the non-bulky dimethylalumino moiety, yet they are indefinitely stable in the presence of oxygen gas. This increased stability towards oxygen is due to ancillary 2-pyridyl groups bonding to the metal centers producing a pseudo-trigonal pyramidal Al and Ga environments. This environment blocks oxygen from further inserting into the M-C bond. The Al-N(pyridine) and Ga-N(pyridine) bonds reported herein are extremely elongated yet inactive towards dissociation due to the chelate effect.

  4. Reducing costs of managing and accessing navigation and ancillary data by relying on the extensive capabilities of NASA's spice system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semenov, Boris V.; Acton, Charles H., Jr.; Bachman, Nathaniel J.; Elson, Lee S.; Wright, Edward D.

    2005-01-01

    The SPICE system of navigation and ancillary data possesses a number of traits that make its use in modern space missions of all types highly cost efficient. The core of the system is a software library providing API interfaces for storing and retrieving such data as trajectories, orientations, time conversions, and instrument geometry parameters. Applications used at any stage of a mission life cycle can call SPICE APIs to access this data and compute geometric quantities required for observation planning, engineering assessment and science data analysis. SPICE is implemented in three different languages, supported on 20+ computer environments, and distributed with complete source code and documentation. It includes capabilities that are extensively tested by everyday use in many active projects and are applicable to all types of space missions - flyby, orbiters, observatories, landers and rovers. While a customer's initial SPICE adaptation for the first mission or experiment requires a modest effort, this initial effort pays off because adaptation for subsequent missions/experiments is just a small fraction of the initial investment, with the majority of tools based on SPICE requiring no or very minor changes.

  5. Reducing costs of managing and accessing navigation and ancillary data by relying on the extensive capabilities of NASA's spice system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semenov, Boris V.; Acton, Charles H., Jr.; Bachman, Nathaniel J.; Elson, Lee S.; Wright, Edward D.

    2005-01-01

    The SPICE system of navigation and ancillary data possesses a number of traits that make its use in modern space missions of all types highly cost efficient. The core of the system is a software library providing API interfaces for storing and retrieving such data as trajectories, orientations, time conversions, and instrument geometry parameters. Applications used at any stage of a mission life cycle can call SPICE APIs to access this data and compute geometric quantities required for observation planning, engineering assessment and science data analysis. SPICE is implemented in three different languages, supported on 20+ computer environments, and distributed with complete source code and documentation. It includes capabilities that are extensively tested by everyday use in many active projects and are applicable to all types of space missions - flyby, orbiters, observatories, landers and rovers. While a customer's initial SPICE adaptation for the first mission or experiment requires a modest effort, this initial effort pays off because adaptation for subsequent missions/experiments is just a small fraction of the initial investment, with the majority of tools based on SPICE requiring no or very minor changes.

  6. Benzimidazole-functionalized ancillary ligands for heteroleptic Ru(II) complexes: synthesis, characterization and dye-sensitized solar cell applications.

    PubMed

    Jella, Tejaswi; Srikanth, Malladi; Bolligarla, Rambabu; Soujanya, Yarasi; Singh, Surya Prakash; Giribabu, Lingamallu

    2015-09-07

    We have designed and synthesized heteroleptic Ru(ii) complexes with a pyridine-benzimidazole ligand (PYBI) for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications. The PYBI ligand has major advantages by having the flexibility to introduce appropriate substituents at the four readily available positions through molecular engineering () compared to other ancillary bipyridyl-based ligands. We have substituted position A of the PYBI ligand with either electron-releasing triphenylamine () or pyrene (). We have also introduced 2-hexylthiophene at position A and 3,5-di tert-butyl phenyl group at position B of the PYBI ligand (). All three heteroleptic Ru(ii) complexes have been characterized by mass spectrometry, (1)H NMR, and absorption and emission spectroscopies as well as electrochemical methods. The absorption spectrum of complex is red-shifted and the emission spectrum is blue-shifted, when compared to the standard sensitizer. Testing of these newly designed heteroleptic Ru(ii) sensitizers has revealed that complex exhibits an efficiency of 7.88% using an I(-)/I3(-) redox electrolyte. Experimental observations corroborated by computational calculations have elucidated the high efficiency of complex , primarily due to the fact that the substituents at position A are more influential than those at position of B of the PYBI ligand.

  7. Versatility of global transcriptional regulators in alpha-Proteobacteria: from essential cell cycle control to ancillary functions.

    PubMed

    Panis, Gaël; Murray, Sean R; Viollier, Patrick H

    2015-01-01

    Recent data indicate that cell cycle transcription in many alpha-Proteobacteria is executed by at least three conserved functional modules in which pairs of antagonistic regulators act jointly, rather than in isolation, to control transcription in S-, G2- or G1-phase. Inactivation of module components often results in pleiotropic defects, ranging from cell death and impaired cell division to fairly benign deficiencies in motility. Expression of module components can follow systemic (cell cycle) or external (nutritional/cell density) cues and may be implemented by auto-regulation, ancillary regulators or other (unknown) mechanisms. Here, we highlight the recent progress in understanding the molecular events and the genetic relationships of the module components in environmental, pathogenic and/or symbiotic alpha-proteobacterial genera. Additionally, we take advantage of the recent genome-wide transcriptional analyses performed in the model alpha-Proteobacterium Caulobacter crescentus to illustrate the complexity of the interactions of the global regulators at selected cell cycle-regulated promoters and we detail the consequences of (mis-)expression when the regulators are absent. This review thus provides the first detailed mechanistic framework for understanding orthologous operational principles acting on cell cycle-regulated promoters in other alpha-Proteobacteria. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Modelling Aṣṭādhyāyī: An Approach Based on the Methodology of Ancillary Disciplines (Vedāṅga)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Anand

    This article proposes a general model based on the common methodological approach of the ancillary disciplines (Vedāṅga) associated with the Vedas taking examples from Śikṣā, Chandas, Vyākaraṇa and Prātiśā khya texts. It develops and elaborates this model further to represent the contents and processes of Aṣṭādhyāyī. Certain key features are added to my earlier modelling of Pāṇinian system of Sanskrit grammar. This includes broader coverage of the Pāṇinian meta-language, mechanism for automatic application of rules and positioning the grammatical system within the procedural complexes of ancillary disciplines.

  9. 30 CFR 250.207 - What ancillary activities may I conduct?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... surveys; or (c) Studies that model potential oil and hazardous substance spills, drilling muds and....207 Section 250.207 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information...

  10. Molecular Basis for the Interaction of the Mammalian Amino Acid Transporters B0AT1 and B0AT3 with Their Ancillary Protein Collectrin*

    PubMed Central

    Fairweather, Stephen J.; Bröer, Angelika; Subramanian, Nandhitha; Tumer, Emrah; Cheng, Qi; Schmoll, Dieter; O'Mara, Megan L.; Bröer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Many solute carrier 6 (SLC6) family transporters require ancillary subunits to modify their expression and activity. The main apical membrane neutral amino acid transporters in mouse intestine and kidney, B0AT1 and B0AT3, require the ancillary protein collectrin or ACE2 for plasma membrane expression. Expression and activity of SLC6 neurotransmitter transporters are modulated by interaction with syntaxin 1A. Utilizing monocarboxylate-B0AT1/3 fusion constructs, we discovered that collectrin is also necessary for B0AT1 and B0AT3 catalytic function. Syntaxin 1A and syntaxin 3 inhibit the membrane expression of B0AT1 by competing with collectrin for access. A mutagenesis screening approach identified residues on trans-membrane domains 1α, 5, and 7 on one face of B0AT3 as a key region involved in interaction with collectrin. Mutant analysis established residues that were involved in collectrin-dependent functions as follows: plasma membrane expression of B0AT3, catalytic activation, or both. These results identify a potential binding site for collectrin and other SLC6 ancillary proteins. PMID:26240152

  11. MicroRNA-200 Family Profile: A Promising Ancillary Tool for Accurate Cancer Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Jianhua; Xie, Botao; Li, Hao; Shen, Jihong; Chen, Jianheng

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is one of the most threatening diseases in the world and great interests have been paid to discover accurate and noninvasive methods for cancer diagnosis. The value of microRNA-200 (miRNA-200, miR-200) family has been revealed in many studies. However, the results from various studies were inconsistent, and thus a meta-analysis was designed and performed to assess the overall value of miRNA200 in cancer diagnosis. Relevant studies were searched electronically from the following databases: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure. Keyword combined with "miR-200," "cancer," and "diagnosis" in any fields was used for searching relevant studies. Then, the pooled sensitivity, specificity, area under the curve (AUC), and partial AUC were calculated using the random-effects model. Heterogeneity among individual studies was also explored by subgroup analyses. A total of 28 studies from 18 articles with an overall sample size of 3676 subjects (2097 patients and 1579 controls) were included in this meta-analysis. The overall sensitivity and specificity with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) are 0.709 (95% CI: 0.657-0.755) and 0.667 (95% CI: 0.617-0.713), respectively. Additionally, AUC and partial AUC for the pooled data is 0.735 and 0.627, respectively. Subgroup analyses revealed that using miRNA-200 family for cancer diagnosis is more effective in white than in Asian ethnic groups. In addition, cancer diagnosis by miRNA using circulating specimen is more effective than that using noncirculating specimen. Finally, miRNA is more accurate in diagnosing endometrial cancer than other types of cancer, and some miRNA family members (miR-200b and miR-429) have superior diagnostic accuracy than other miR-200 family members. In conclusion, the profiling of miRNA-200 family is likely to be a valuable tool in cancer detection and diagnosis.

  12. Evidence of ancillary trigeminal innervation of levator palpebrae in the general population.

    PubMed

    Lehman, A M; Dong, C C; Harries, A M; Patel, A; Honey, C R; Patel, M S

    2014-02-01

    The cranial synkineses are a group of disorders encompassing a variety of involuntary co-contractions of the facial, masticatory, or extraocular muscles that occur during a particular volitional movement. The neuroanatomical pathways for synkineses largely remain undefined. Our studies explored a normal synkinesis long observed in the general population - that of jaw opening during efforts to open the eyelids widely. To document this phenomenon, we observed 186 consecutive participants inserting or removing contact lenses to identify jaw opening. Seeking electrophysiological evidence, in a second study we enrolled individuals undergoing vascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia or hemifacial spasm, without a history of jaw-winking, ptosis, or strabismus, to record any motor responses in levator palpebrae superioris (LPS) upon stimulation of the trigeminal motor root. Stimulus was applied to the trigeminal motor root while an electrode in levator recorded the response. We found that 37 participants (20%) opened their mouth partially or fully during contact lens manipulation. In the second study, contraction of LPS with trigeminal motor stimulation was documented in two of six patients, both undergoing surgery for trigeminal neuralgia. We speculate these results might provide evidence of an endogenous synkinesis, indicating that trigeminal-derived innervation of levator could exist in a significant minority of the general population. Our observations demonstrate plasticity in the human cranial nerve innervation pattern and may have implications for treating Marcus Gunn jaw-winking.

  13. Detector Imperfections of Schrödinger Cat Generation with Ancillary Coherent States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yuta; Inoue, Shuichiro; Komatsu, Shinichi

    2016-12-01

    Measurement-induced nonlinear operation in linear optics is a promising technique to realize quantum computation and communications. Such an operation has been demonstrated via the generation of photon-subtracted squeezed states, namely, Schrödinger-cat states. Nielsen and Mølmer have proposed an efficient scheme to generate the cat states with larger amplitudes relative to previous experimental results. We present a simple experimental implementation of their scheme and analyze it while considering experimental imperfections. Our study indicates that the current photon detection technology meets the conditions necessary for their operation.

  14. Cost of elective surgery and utilization of ancillary services in teaching hospitals.

    PubMed Central

    Eastaugh, S R

    1979-01-01

    Measures of surgical utilization studied are the number of elective tests performed preoperatively and the total cost per case. The unit of analysis is a matched pair of patients who underwent the same elective procedure, one a Veterans Administration patient, and the other a municipal or voluntary hospital patient. Federal ownership of the hospital ahd the strongest impact on tests and cost per case. On average, costs for the VA patients were 52 percent more per case. The foreign medical graduate variable had a large positive (inflationary) effect on the number of tests, but a slight downward influence in the cost regressions. The fraction of surgeons with faculty appointments had a strong negative (curtailing) impact on elective testing, but an upward influence on cost per case. Additional variables such as age, average laboratory turnaround time, and fraction of the medical school's students doing their surgical clerkship at the hospital ahd a slight upward influence on utilization. The three policy issues raised in the study involve changing the hospital reimbursement incentives, targeting continuing education programs to categories of staff that need it most, and redistributing faculty and students. PMID:528222

  15. Estimating primary productivity of tropical oil palm in Malaysia using remote sensing technique and ancillary data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanniah, K. D.; Tan, K. P.; Cracknell, A. P.

    2014-10-01

    The amount of carbon sequestration by vegetation can be estimated using vegetation productivity. At present, there is a knowledge gap in oil palm net primary productivity (NPP) at a regional scale. Therefore, in this study NPP of oil palm trees in Peninsular Malaysia was estimated using remote sensing based light use efficiency (LUE) model with inputs from local meteorological data, upscaled leaf area index/fractional photosynthetically active radiation (LAI/fPAR) derived using UK-DMC 2 satellite data and a constant maximum LUE value from the literature. NPP values estimated from the model was then compared and validated with NPP estimated using allometric equations developed by Corley and Tinker (2003), Henson (2003) and Syahrinudin (2005) with diameter at breast height, age and the height of the oil palm trees collected from three estates in Peninsular Malaysia. Results of this study show that oil palm NPP derived using a light use efficiency model increases with respect to the age of oil palm trees, and it stabilises after ten years old. The mean value of oil palm NPP at 118 plots as derived using the LUE model is 968.72 g C m-2 year-1 and this is 188% - 273% higher than the NPP derived from the allometric equations. The estimated oil palm NPP of young oil palm trees is lower compared to mature oil palm trees (<10 years old), as young oil palm trees contribute to lower oil palm LAI and therefore fPAR, which is an important variable in the LUE model. In contrast, it is noted that oil palm NPP decreases with respect to the age of oil palm trees as estimated using the allomeric equations. It was found in this study that LUE models could not capture NPP variation of oil palm trees if LAI/fPAR is used. On the other hand, tree height and DBH are found to be important variables that can capture changes in oil palm NPP as a function of age.

  16. Synthetic and Thermodynamic Investigations of Ancillary Ligand Influence on Catalytic Organometallic Systems. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, Steven

    2003-03-20

    During the grant period we have been involved in synthesizing and experimentally determining solution enthalpy values associated with partially fluorinated ligands. This has lead to the publication of manuscripts dealing with synthetic, calorimetric and catalytic behavior of partially fluorinated ligands. The collaboration with Los Alamos researchers has lead to the publication of catalytic results in sc CO{sub 2} which have proven very interesting. Furthermore, we have also examined ligands that behave as phosphine mimics. The N-heterocyclic carbenes have been explored as alternatives for tertiary phosphines and have resulted in the design and construction of efficient palladium and nickel system capable of performing C-C and C-N cross coupling reactions. The initial studies in this areas were made possible by exploratory work conducted under the DOE/EPSCoR grant.

  17. Sky Blue-Emitting Iridium(III) Complexes Bearing Nonplanar Tetradentate Chromophore and Bidentate Ancillary.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Sian; Liao, Jia-Ling; Lin, Ke-Ting; Hung, Wen-Yi; Liu, Shih-Hung; Lee, Gene-Hsiang; Chou, Pi-Tai; Chi, Yun

    2017-08-21

    Tetradentate chelates bearing tripodal arranged terpyridine and a functional pyrazole unit (i.e., L1-H and L2-H) were employed in preparation of Ir(III) complexes [Ir(L1)Cl2] (1) and [Ir(L2)Cl2] (2); subsequent chloride-to-bipyrazolate substitution gave [Ir(L1)(bipz)] (3) and [Ir(L2)(bipz)] (4). Single-crystal X-ray structural studies on 1 and 3 showed the possession of a tetradentate chelate, whereas the remaining cis-sites are occupied by either dual chlorides or the bipz chelate, respectively. Sky blue organic light-emitting diode with peak efficiencies (10.1%, 19.8 cd·A(-1), and 20.4 lm·W(-1)) was successfully fabricated using 3 (or 4) as dopant emitter, highlighting the potential application of this class of Ir(III) phosphor.

  18. Water-quality and ancillary data collected from the Arroyo Colorado near Rio Hondo, Texas, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roussel, Meghan C.; Canova, Michael G.; Asquith, William H.; Kiesling, Richard L.

    2007-01-01

    The Arroyo Colorado is in the lower Rio Grande Valley of southern Texas and extends from near Mission, Texas, eastward to the Laguna Madre estuarine and coastal marine system, which separates Padre Island from the Texas mainland. Streamflow in the Arroyo Colorado primarily is sustained by effluent from municipal wastewater-treatment plants along the stream banks. Since 1986, the tidal segment of the Arroyo Colorado from the port of Harlingen to the Laguna Madre has been designated by the State of Texas as an impaired water body because of low dissolved oxygen concentrations. Efforts to develop predictive water-quality models for the tidal segment of the Arroyo Colorado have been hampered by a lack of physical, biological, and biochemical data. Specifically, data on primary algal productivity, nutrient cycling, sediment deposition rates, and the relations between these processes and dissolved oxygen dynamics in the stream have been inadequate to support water-quality modeling efforts. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, did a study in 2006 to collect data associated with primary algal productivity, nutrient cycling, and dissolved oxygen dynamics in the tidal segment (2201) of the Arroyo Colorado near Rio Hondo. Specific objectives of the study were to (1) characterize water quality by measuring basic properties; (2) characterize the concentrations of carbon and nutrients, biochemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, total suspended solids, and volatile suspended solids; (3) measure the seasonal differences of nutrient-dependent algal growth and algal production in the water column; (4) measure oxygen respiration or production rates; and (5) measure rates of sediment deposition.

  19. Change in body surface temperature as an ancillary measurement to motor evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Yang, J H; Suh, S W; Park, Y-S; Lee, J-H; Park, B K; Ham, C H; Choi, J W

    2015-11-01

    Experimental study. To study the role of surface temperature as an adjunct to motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in rabbit spinal cord injury (SCI) model. Department of Orthopedics, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul, Korea. Rabbits (n =18) were divided into Complete (n = 9) and Incomplete (n = 9) SCI groups. Complete SCI was defined as being non-responsive to a wake-up test with loss of MEPs after transection of spinal cord. Incomplete SCI was defined as being responsive to a wake-up test with significant attenuation (⩾ 80%) of MEPs after impaction on spinal cord. Surface temperature of upper and lower extremities, core temperature and MEPs signals were checked before, during and after SCI for 20 min. A wake-up test was conducted and spinal cord was histologicaly evaluated. Experimental conditions between the two groups were statistically similar (P > 0.005 for all values). After SCI, upper extremity temperatures did not change in either group (P > 0.005); however, the surface temperature of the lower extremities in the Complete SCI Group elevated to 1.7 ± 0.5°C in comparison to 0.5 ± 0.1°C in the Incomplete SCI Group (P < 0.001). The scores of wake-up test in the Incomplete SCI Group were significantly different from that of the Complete SCI Group (P < 0.001), while white and gray matter damage was variable on histology. Monitoring of changes of body surface temperature of the lower extremities can be potentially used to identify the completeness of SCI in a rabbit model.

  20. Transcriptome modulation by hydrocortisone in severe burn shock: ancillary analysis of a prospective randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Plassais, Jonathan; Venet, Fabienne; Cazalis, Marie-Angélique; Le Quang, Diane; Pachot, Alexandre; Monneret, Guillaume; Tissot, Sylvie; Textoris, Julien

    2017-06-16

    Despite shortening vasopressor use in shock, hydrocortisone administration remains controversial, with potential harm to the immune system. Few studies have assessed the impact of hydrocortisone on the transcriptional response in shock, and we are lacking data on burn shock. Our objective was to assess the hydrocortisone-induced transcriptional modulation in severe burn shock, particularly modulation of the immune response. We collected whole blood samples during a randomized controlled trial assessing the efficacy of hydrocortisone administration in burn shock. Using whole genome microarrays, we first compared burn patients (n = 32) from the placebo group to healthy volunteers to describe the transcriptional modulation induced by burn shock over the first week. Then we compared burn patients randomized for either hydrocortisone administration or placebo, to assess hydrocortisone-induced modulation. Study groups were similar in terms of severity and major outcomes, but shock duration was significantly reduced in the hydrocortisone group. Many genes (n = 1687) were differentially expressed between burn patients and healthy volunteers, with 85% of them exhibiting a profound and persistent modulation over seven days. Interestingly, we showed that hydrocortisone enhanced the shock-associated repression of adaptive, but also innate immunity. We found that the initial host response to burn shock encompasses wide and persistent modulation of gene expression, with profound modulation of pathways associated with metabolism and immunity. Importantly, hydrocortisone administration may worsen the immunosuppression associated with severe injury. These data should be taken into account in the risk ratio of hydrocortisone administration in patients with inflammatory shock. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00149123 . Registered on 6 September 2005.

  1. Highly Stable and Efficient Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells Based on Cationic Iridium Complexes Bearing Arylazole Ancillary Ligands.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Alonso, Marta; Cerdá, Jesús; Momblona, Cristina; Pertegás, Antonio; Junquera-Hernández, José M; Heras, Aránzazu; Rodríguez, Ana M; Espino, Gustavo; Bolink, Henk; Ortí, Enrique

    2017-09-05

    A series of bis-cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes of general formula [Ir(ppy)2(N(∧)N)][PF6] (ppy(-) = 2-phenylpyridinate; N(∧)N = 2-(1H-imidazol-2-yl)pyridine (1), 2-(2-pyridyl)benzimidazole (2), 1-methyl-2-pyridin-2-yl-1H-benzimidazole (3), 2-(4'-thiazolyl)benzimidazole (4), 1-methyl-2-(4'-thiazolyl)benzimidazole (5)) is reported, and their use as electroluminescent materials in light-emitting electrochemical cell (LEC) devices is investigated. [2][PF6] and [3][PF6] are orange emitters with intense unstructured emission around 590 nm in acetonitrile solution. [1][PF6], [4][PF6], and [5][PF6] are green weak emitters with structured emission bands peaking around 500 nm. The different photophysical properties are due to the effect that the chemical structure of the ancillary ligand has on the nature of the emitting triplet state. Whereas the benzimidazole unit stabilizes the LUMO and gives rise to a (3)MLCT/(3)LLCT emitting triplet in [2][PF6] and [3][PF6], the presence of the thiazolyl ring produces the opposite effect in [4][PF6] and [5][PF6] and the emitting state has a predominant (3)LC character. Complexes with (3)MLCT/(3)LLCT emitting triplets give rise to LEC devices with luminance values 1 order higher than those of complexes with (3)LC emitting states. Protecting the imidazole N-H bond with a methyl group, as in complexes [3][PF6] and [5][PF6], shows that the emissive properties become more stable. [3][PF6] leads to outstanding LECs with simultaneously high luminance (904 cd m(-2)), efficiency (9.15 cd A(-1)), and stability (lifetime over 2500 h).

  2. Evolution of Catalytic Stereoselective Olefin Metathesis: From Ancillary Transformation to Purveyor of Stereochemical Identity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    There have been numerous significant advances in catalytic olefin metathesis (OM) during the past two decades. Such progress has transformed this important set of reactions to strategically pivotal processes that generate stereochemical identity while delivering molecules that cannot be easily prepared by alternative routes. In this Perspective, an analysis of the origin of the inception of bidentate benzylidene ligands for Ru-based OM catalysts is first presented. This is followed by an overview of the intellectual basis that culminated in the development of Mo-based diolates and stereogenic-at-Ru complexes for enantioselective OM. The principles accrued from the study of the latter Ru carbenes and Mo alkylidenes and utilized in the design of stereogenic-at-Mo, -W, and -Ru species applicable to enantioselective and Z-selective OM are then discussed. The influence of the recently introduced catalytic OM protocols on the design of synthesis routes leading to complex organic molecules is probed. The impact of a better understanding of the mechanistic nuances of OM toward the discovery of stereoselective catalysts is reviewed as well. PMID:24720633

  3. Ground Reference and Ancillary Data Validation of Freeze-Thaw State Products of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oseguera, B.; Pinales, J. C.; McDonald, K. C.

    2013-12-01

    The freeze-thaw state of the landscape is a good indicator of growing season length, metabolic activity, root and soil respiration, and biogeochemical cycling in high latitude regions like Alaska. The increase in biological productivity and hydrological activity that comes with the arrival of the summer snow- and ice-free period can be estimated by microwave remote sensing systems because of the rise in the dielectric constant during the thawed period, which registers as marked shifts in the time series progression acquired by these data. Our study involves the comparison of high-frequency microwave remote sensing data, such as NASA's QuikSCAT sensor, with daily records of meteorological variables from the National Climatic Data Center's Global Historical Climatology Network (NCDC GHCN-Daily) and Natural Resources Conservation Service's Snowpack Telemetry (SNOTEL) network. These variables include soil temperature profiles, snowfall, and snow depth. A change detection algorithm was used to classify the microwave time series data as frozen or thawed. The station data were then utilized to validate the accuracy of the algorithm's product.

  4. Language: On the Phenomenology of Linguistic Experience in Schizophrenia (Ancillary Article to EAWE Domain 4).

    PubMed

    Pienkos, Elizabeth; Sass, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Anomalies of language use and comprehension are common in schizophrenia. However, they are typically studied only from a diagnostic or behavioral perspective and viewed simply as deficits or disruptions of normal functioning. Such approaches ignore what it is like to experience language, and thus are at risk of missing aspects of these linguistic anomalies that may be crucial for understanding them. The Examination of Anomalous World Experience (EAWE) provides one way to inquire into the experiential changes related to and underlying these disturbances. This paper offers a summary of a number of theoretical and clinical works that informed the development of EAWE Domain 4, Language, to better contextualize and elaborate on the items that make up this domain. The forms of anomalous linguistic experience included in the EAWE can be generally classified into four groups: (1) Diminished interpersonal orientation, (2) Dissociation between language and experience, (3) Shifts of attention and context-relevance, and (4) Unusual attitudes toward language. We suggest that these kinds of experiential changes indicate a far richer and more complex relationship to language than that suggested by standard deficit models and theories. We hope that by considering and inquiring about the subjective experience of language, researchers and clinicians may develop a greater awareness of and appreciation for the variety of language-related experiences in schizophrenia. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. The anti-Candida activity by Ancillary Proteins of an Enterococcus faecium strain

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Utpal; Chalasani, Ajay G.; Shekh, M. Raeesh

    2015-01-01

    An antimycotic activity toward seven strains of Candida albicans was demonstrated erstwhile by a wild-type Enterococcus faecium isolated from a penguin rookery of the Antarctic region. In the present study the antimicrobial principle was purified by ion exchange and gel permeation chromatography and further was analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS. In the purification steps, the dialyzed concentrate and ion exchange fractions inhibited C. albicans MTCC 3958, 183, and SC 5314. However, the gel filtration purified fractions inhibited MTCC 3958 and 183. The data obtained from the LC-ESI-MS/MS indicate that the antimicrobial activity of the anti-Candida protein produced by E. faecium is facilitated by Sag A/Bb for the binding of the indicator organism's cell membrane. Partial N-terminal sequence revealed 12 N-terminal amino acid residues and its analysis shown that it belongs to the LysM motif. The nucleotide sequence of PCR-amplified product could detect 574 nucleotides of the LysM gene responsible for binding to chitin of the cell wall of Candida sp. PMID:26005434

  6. Blinded Validation of Breath Biomarkers of Lung Cancer, a Potential Ancillary to Chest CT Screening

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Michael; Bauer, Thomas L.; Cataneo, Renee N.; Lebauer, Cassie; Mundada, Mayur; Pass, Harvey I.; Ramakrishna, Naren; Rom, William N.; Vallières, Eric

    2015-01-01

    separate independent cohort, in a blinded replicated study. Combining breath biomarkers with chest CT could potentially improve the sensitivity and specificity of lung cancer screening. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00639067 PMID:26698306

  7. Preventing Emergence Agitation Using Ancillary Drugs with Sevoflurane for Pediatric Anesthesia: A Network Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Deng, Qi; Liu, Bin; Yu, Xiangdi

    2016-11-04

    Using sevoflurane for pediatric anesthesia plays a pivotal role in surgeries. Emergence agitation (EA) is a major adverse event accompanied with pediatric anesthesia. Other anesthetic adjuvants can be combined with sevoflurane in clinical practices for different purposes. However, it is uncertain that such a practice may have substantial influence on the risk of EA. We conducted a literature search in online databases, including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Clinical Trials. Key data were extracted from eligible randomized control trials (RCTs). Both pairwise and network meta-analysis (NMA) were conducted for synthesizing data from eligible studies. The relative risk of EA was assessed using the odds ratios (ORs) and their corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CI) or credible intervals (CrI). Ranking scheme based on the surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) values was produced. Several key assumptions of NMA such as heterogeneity, degree of consistence, and publication bias were validated by different statistical or graphical approaches. Evidence from 67 randomized control trials was synthesized. The relative risk of EA associated with eight anesthetic adjuvants was analyzed, including ketamine, propofol, dexmedetomidine, clonidine, midazolam, fentanyl, remifentanil, and sufentanil. Patients with the following anesthetic adjuvants appeared to have significantly reduced risk of EA in relation to those with placebo: dexmedetomidine (OR = 0.18, 95 % CrI 0.12-0.25), fentanyl (OR = 0.19, 95 % CrI 0.12-0.30), sufentanil (OR = 0.20, 95 % CrI 0.08-0.50), ketamine (OR = 0.21, 95 % CrI 0.13-0.34), clonidine (OR = 0.25, 95 % CrI 0.14-0.46), propofol (OR = 0.32, 95 % CrI 0.18-0.56), midazolam (OR = 0.46, 95 % CrI 0.27-0.77), and remifentanil (OR = 0.29, 95 % CrI 0.13-0.68). The SUCRA values for each anesthetic adjuvant were: dexmedetomidine (73.65 %), fentanyl (68.04 %), sufentanil (60.81 %), ketamine (59.99 %), clonidine

  8. Prehospital digital photography and automated image transmission in an emergency medical service – an ancillary retrospective analysis of a prospective controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Still picture transmission was performed using a telemedicine system in an Emergency Medical Service (EMS) during a prospective, controlled trial. In this ancillary, retrospective study the quality and content of the transmitted pictures and the possible influences of this application on prehospital time requirements were investigated. Methods A digital camera was used with a telemedicine system enabling encrypted audio and data transmission between an ambulance and a remotely located physician. By default, images were compressed (jpeg, 640 x 480 pixels). On occasion, this compression was deactivated (3648 x 2736 pixels). Two independent investigators assessed all transmitted pictures according to predefined criteria. In cases of different ratings, a third investigator had final decision competence. Patient characteristics and time intervals were extracted from the EMS protocol sheets and dispatch centre reports. Results Overall 314 pictures (mean 2.77 ± 2.42 pictures/mission) were transmitted during 113 missions (group 1). Pictures were not taken for 151 missions (group 2). Regarding picture quality, the content of 240 (76.4%) pictures was clearly identifiable; 45 (14.3%) pictures were considered “limited quality” and 29 (9.2%) pictures were deemed “not useful” due to not/hardly identifiable content. For pictures with file compression (n = 84 missions) and without (n = 17 missions), the content was clearly identifiable in 74% and 97% of the pictures, respectively (p = 0.003). Medical reports (n = 98, 32.8%), medication lists (n = 49, 16.4%) and 12-lead ECGs (n = 28, 9.4%) were most frequently photographed. The patient characteristics of group 1 vs. 2 were as follows: median age – 72.5 vs. 56.5 years, p = 0.001; frequency of acute coronary syndrome – 24/113 vs. 15/151, p = 0.014. The NACA scores and gender distribution were comparable. Median on-scene times were longer with picture transmission (26 vs. 22

  9. B Vitamin and/or n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation and Health-Related Quality of Life: Ancillary Findings from the SU.FOL.OM3 Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Andreeva, Valentina A.; Latarche, Clotilde; Hercberg, Serge; Briançon, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite growing attention to nutrition and quality of life in cardiovascular disease survivors, the impact of dietary factors according to disease type or to quality of life domain is poorly understood. We investigated the effects of B vitamin and/or n-3 fatty acid supplementation on health-related quality of life among survivors of stroke, myocardial infarction, or unstable angina. Methods We performed ancillary analyses of the SU.FOL.OM3 trial (2003–2009; France). In total, 2,501 men (mean age = 61 y) and women (mean age = 63 y) were randomized in a 2×2 factorial design to: 1) 0.56 mg 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate, 3 mg vitamin B6, 0.02 mg vitamin B12; 2) 600 mg eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in a 2∶1 ratio; 3) B vitamins and n-3 fatty acids combined; or 4) placebo. Health-related quality of life was evaluated at follow-up with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey. Data from 2,029 individuals were used in this analysis. Results After 3.1±0.4 y, no effects of supplementation with either B vitamins or n-3 fatty acids on quality of life (physical or mental health domains) were found. However, participants receiving B vitamins had slightly more activity limitations due to emotional problems compared with those not receiving B vitamins (mean difference = 3.8; 95% CI: 0.4, 7.1). A significant interaction of treatment by prior disease revealed an inverse association between n-3 fatty acids and vitality among myocardial infarction survivors (mean difference = 2.9; 95% CI: 0.5, 5.2). Conclusions There were no beneficial effects of supplementation with relatively low doses of B vitamins or n-3 fatty acids on health-related quality of life in cardiovascular disease survivors. The adverse effects of B vitamins on activity limitations and of n-3 fatty acids on vitality among individuals with prior myocardial infarction merit confirmation. PMID:24465438

  10. B vitamin and/or n-3 fatty acid supplementation and health-related quality of life: ancillary findings from the SU.FOL.OM3 randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Andreeva, Valentina A; Latarche, Clotilde; Hercberg, Serge; Briançon, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    Despite growing attention to nutrition and quality of life in cardiovascular disease survivors, the impact of dietary factors according to disease type or to quality of life domain is poorly understood. We investigated the effects of B vitamin and/or n-3 fatty acid supplementation on health-related quality of life among survivors of stroke, myocardial infarction, or unstable angina. We performed ancillary analyses of the SU.FOL.OM3 trial (2003-2009; France). In total, 2,501 men (mean age = 61 y) and women (mean age = 63 y) were randomized in a 2×2 factorial design to: 1) 0.56 mg 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate, 3 mg vitamin B6, 0.02 mg vitamin B12; 2) 600 mg eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in a 2∶1 ratio; 3) B vitamins and n-3 fatty acids combined; or 4) placebo. Health-related quality of life was evaluated at follow-up with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey. Data from 2,029 individuals were used in this analysis. After 3.1±0.4 y, no effects of supplementation with either B vitamins or n-3 fatty acids on quality of life (physical or mental health domains) were found. However, participants receiving B vitamins had slightly more activity limitations due to emotional problems compared with those not receiving B vitamins (mean difference = 3.8; 95% CI: 0.4, 7.1). A significant interaction of treatment by prior disease revealed an inverse association between n-3 fatty acids and vitality among myocardial infarction survivors (mean difference = 2.9; 95% CI: 0.5, 5.2). There were no beneficial effects of supplementation with relatively low doses of B vitamins or n-3 fatty acids on health-related quality of life in cardiovascular disease survivors. The adverse effects of B vitamins on activity limitations and of n-3 fatty acids on vitality among individuals with prior myocardial infarction merit confirmation.

  11. Prehospital digital photography and automated image transmission in an emergency medical service - an ancillary retrospective analysis of a prospective controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bergrath, Sebastian; Rossaint, Rolf; Lenssen, Niklas; Fitzner, Christina; Skorning, Max

    2013-01-16

    Still picture transmission was performed using a telemedicine system in an Emergency Medical Service (EMS) during a prospective, controlled trial. In this ancillary, retrospective study the quality and content of the transmitted pictures and the possible influences of this application on prehospital time requirements were investigated. A digital camera was used with a telemedicine system enabling encrypted audio and data transmission between an ambulance and a remotely located physician. By default, images were compressed (jpeg, 640 x 480 pixels). On occasion, this compression was deactivated (3648 x 2736 pixels). Two independent investigators assessed all transmitted pictures according to predefined criteria. In cases of different ratings, a third investigator had final decision competence. Patient characteristics and time intervals were extracted from the EMS protocol sheets and dispatch centre reports. Overall 314 pictures (mean 2.77 ± 2.42 pictures/mission) were transmitted during 113 missions (group 1). Pictures were not taken for 151 missions (group 2). Regarding picture quality, the content of 240 (76.4%) pictures was clearly identifiable; 45 (14.3%) pictures were considered "limited quality" and 29 (9.2%) pictures were deemed "not useful" due to not/hardly identifiable content. For pictures with file compression (n = 84 missions) and without (n = 17 missions), the content was clearly identifiable in 74% and 97% of the pictures, respectively (p = 0.003). Medical reports (n = 98, 32.8%), medication lists (n = 49, 16.4%) and 12-lead ECGs (n = 28, 9.4%) were most frequently photographed. The patient characteristics of group 1 vs. 2 were as follows: median age - 72.5 vs. 56.5 years, p = 0.001; frequency of acute coronary syndrome - 24/113 vs. 15/151, p = 0.014. The NACA scores and gender distribution were comparable. Median on-scene times were longer with picture transmission (26 vs. 22 min, p = 0.011), but ambulance

  12. Trends in Utilization of Ancillary Glaucoma Tests for Patients with Open-Angle Glaucoma from 2001 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Joshua D.; Talwar, Nidhi; Laverne, Alejandra; Nan, Bin; Lichter, Paul R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To assess trends in the use of ancillary diagnostic tests in the evaluation of patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) and glaucoma suspects over the past decade. Design Retrospective longitudinal cohort analysis. Participants 169,917 individuals with OAG and 395,721 with suspected glaucoma age ≥40 enrolled in a national United States managed care network between 2001–2009. Methods Claims data were analyzed to assess trends in visual field (VF) testing, fundus photography (FP), and other ocular imaging (OOI) testing for patients with OAG or suspected glaucoma in 2001–2009. Repeated measures logistic regression was performed to identify differences in the odds of undergoing these procedures in 2001, 2005, and 2009 and whether differences exist for patients under the exclusive care of optometrists versus ophthalmologists. Main Outcome Measures Odds and annual probabilities of undergoing VF testing, FP, and OOI for OAG from 2001–2009. Results For patients with OAG, the odds of undergoing VF testing decreased by 36% from 2001 to 2005, 12% from 2005 to 2009, and 44% from 2001 to 2009. By comparison, the odds of having OOI increased by 100% from 2001 to 2005, 24% from 2005 to 2009, and 147% from 2001 to 2009. Probabilities of undergoing FP were relatively low (13–25%) for both provider types and remained fairly steady over the decade. For patients cared for exclusively by optometrists, the probability of VF testing decreased from 66% in 2001 to 44% in 2009. Among those seen exclusively by ophthalmologists, the probability of VF testing decreased from 65% in 2001 to 51% in 2009. The probability of undergoing OOI increased from 26% in 2001 to 47% in 2009 for patients of optometrists and from 30% in 2001 to 46% in 2009 for patients of ophthalmologists. By 2008, patients with OAG receiving care exclusively by optometrists had a higher probability of undergoing OOI than VF testing. Conclusion During 2001–2009 OOI rose dramatically whereas VF testing

  13. Assembly of tetra, di and mononuclear molecular cadmium phosphonates using 2,4,6-triisopropylphenylphosponic acid and ancillary ligands.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, Vadapalli; Sasikumar, Palani; Boomishankar, Ramamoorthy

    2008-10-14

    The reaction of ArPO(3)H(2) (Ar = 2,4,6-iPr(3)-C(6)H(2)) with Cd(CH(3)COO)(2).2H(2)O using various co-ligands such as methanol, dimethylformamide (DMF) and 3,5-dimethylpyrazole (DMPZH) resulted in the formation of tetranuclear assemblies [Cd(4)(ArPO(3))(2)(ArPO(3)H)(4)(CH(3)OH)(4)].3(CH(3)OH) (1), [Cd(4)(ArPO(3))(2)(ArPO(3)H)(4)(DMF)(4)].3(DMF) (2) and [Cd(4)(ArPO(3))(2)(ArPO(3)H)(4)(DMF)(2)(DMPZH)(2)].2(DMF).2(H(2)O) (3). In all of these compounds the tetranuclear cadmium array, containing two five-coordinate and two six-coordinate cadmium atoms, is held together by two mu(4) capping [ArPO(3)](2-) and four anisobidentate mu(2) [ArPO(2)(OH)](-) ligands. Each cadmium atom is bound to an additional ancillary ligand. The reaction of ArPO(3)H(2) with Cd(CH(3)COO)(2).2H(2)O in the presence of the chelating ligand 2,2'-bipyridine (bipy) leads to the exclusive formation of the dinuclear assembly [Cd(2)(ArPO(3)H)(4)(bipy)(2)].(CH(3)OH)(H(2)O) (4). The latter contains an eight-membered Cd(2)P(2)O(4) inorganic ring formed as a result of the bridging coordination action of two anisobidentate mu(2) [ArPO(2)(OH)](-) ligands. Each cadmium atom is bound by one chelating bipy and one monodentate [ArPO(2)(OH)](-) ligands. Use of four equivalents of 3,5-dimethylpyrazole leads to the formation of the mononuclear derivative [Cd(ArPO(3)H)(2)(DMPZH)(4)] (5). The molecular structure of the latter comprises of a central cadmium atom surrounded by six monodentate ligands. Four of these are neutral pyrazole ligands that occupy the equatorial plane; the remaining two are anionic phosphinate ligands which are present trans to each other. The thermal analysis of 1 and 4 reveals that the char residue obtained at 600 degrees C consists predominantly of Cd(2)P(2)O(7).

  14. Compilation, quality control, analysis, and summary of discrete suspended-sediment and ancillary data in the United States, 1901-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Casey J.; Glysson, G. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Human-induced and natural changes to the transport of sediment and sediment-associated constituents can degrade aquatic ecosystems and limit human uses of streams and rivers. The lack of a dedicated, easily accessible, quality-controlled database of sediment and ancillary data has made it difficult to identify sediment-related water-quality impairments and has limited understanding of how human actions affect suspended-sediment concentrations and transport. The purpose of this report is to describe the creation of a quality-controlled U.S. Geological Survey suspended-sediment database, provide guidance for its use, and summarize characteristics of suspended-sediment data through 2010. The database is provided as an online application at http://cida.usgs.gov/sediment to allow users to view, filter, and retrieve available suspended-sediment and ancillary data. A data recovery, filtration, and quality-control process was performed to expand the availability, representativeness, and utility of existing suspended-sediment data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in the United States before January 1, 2011. Information on streamflow condition, sediment grain size, and upstream landscape condition were matched to sediment data and sediment-sampling sites to place data in context with factors that may influence sediment transport. Suspended-sediment and selected ancillary data are presented from across the United States with respect to time, streamflow, and landscape condition. Examples of potential uses of this database for identifying sediment-related impairments, assessing trends, and designing new data collection activities are provided. This report and database can support local and national-level decision making, project planning, and data mining activities related to the transport of suspended-sediment and sediment-associated constituents.

  15. Intron retention in mRNA encoding ancillary subunit of insect voltage-gated sodium channel modulates channel expression, gating regulation and drug sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Bourdin, Céline M; Moignot, Bénédicte; Wang, Lingxin; Murillo, Laurence; Juchaux, Marjorie; Quinchard, Sophie; Lapied, Bruno; Guérineau, Nathalie C; Dong, Ke; Legros, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Insect voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels are formed by a well-known pore-forming α-subunit encoded by para-like gene and ancillary subunits related to TipE from the mutation "temperature-induced-paralysis locus E." The role of these ancillary subunits in the modulation of biophysical and pharmacological properties of Na(+) currents are not enough documented. The unique neuronal ancillary subunit TipE-homologous protein 1 of Drosophila melanogaster (DmTEH1) strongly enhances the expression of insect Nav channels when heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Here we report the cloning and functional expression of two neuronal DmTEH1-homologs of the cockroach, Periplaneta americana, PaTEH1A and PaTEH1B, encoded by a single bicistronic gene. In PaTEH1B, the second exon encoding the last 11-amino-acid residues of PaTEH1A is shifted to 3'UTR by the retention of a 96-bp intron-containing coding-message, thus generating a new C-terminal end. We investigated the gating and pharmacological properties of the Drosophila Nav channel variant (DmNav1-1) co-expressed with DmTEH1, PaTEH1A, PaTEH1B or a truncated mutant PaTEH1Δ(270-280) in Xenopus oocytes. PaTEH1B caused a 2.2-fold current density decrease, concomitant with an equivalent α-subunit incorporation decrease in the plasma membrane, compared to PaTEH1A and PaTEH1Δ(270-280). PaTEH1B positively shifted the voltage-dependences of activation and slow inactivation of DmNav1-1 channels to more positive potentials compared to PaTEH1A, suggesting that the C-terminal end of both proteins may influence the function of the voltage-sensor and the pore of Nav channel. Interestingly, our findings showed that the sensitivity of DmNav1-1 channels to lidocaine and to the pyrazoline-type insecticide metabolite DCJW depends on associated TEH1-like subunits. In conclusion, our work demonstrates for the first time that density, gating and pharmacological properties of Nav channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes can be modulated by an

  16. Peer-to-Peer Consultations: Ancillary Services Peer Exchange with India: Experience from South Africa, Europe & the United States (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-05-01

    In support of national and subnational decision makers, the 21st Century Power Partnership regularly works with country partners to organize peer-to-peer consultations on critical issues. In March 2014, 21CPP collaborated with the Regulatory Assistance Project - India to host two peer-to-peer exchanges among experts from India, South Africa, Europe, and the United States to discuss the provision of ancillary services, particularly in the context of added variability and uncertainty from renewable energy. This factsheet provides a high level summary of the peer-to-peer consultation.

  17. Intron Retention in mRNA Encoding Ancillary Subunit of Insect Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Modulates Channel Expression, Gating Regulation and Drug Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Bourdin, Céline M.; Moignot, Bénédicte; Wang, Lingxin; Murillo, Laurence; Juchaux, Marjorie; Quinchard, Sophie; Lapied, Bruno; Guérineau, Nathalie C.; Dong, Ke; Legros, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Insect voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels are formed by a well-known pore-forming α-subunit encoded by para-like gene and ancillary subunits related to TipE from the mutation “temperature-induced-paralysis locus E.” The role of these ancillary subunits in the modulation of biophysical and pharmacological properties of Na+ currents are not enough documented. The unique neuronal ancillary subunit TipE-homologous protein 1 of Drosophila melanogaster (DmTEH1) strongly enhances the expression of insect Nav channels when heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Here we report the cloning and functional expression of two neuronal DmTEH1-homologs of the cockroach, Periplaneta americana, PaTEH1A and PaTEH1B, encoded by a single bicistronic gene. In PaTEH1B, the second exon encoding the last 11-amino-acid residues of PaTEH1A is shifted to 3′UTR by the retention of a 96-bp intron-containing coding-message, thus generating a new C-terminal end. We investigated the gating and pharmacological properties of the Drosophila Nav channel variant (DmNav1-1) co-expressed with DmTEH1, PaTEH1A, PaTEH1B or a truncated mutant PaTEH1Δ(270-280) in Xenopus oocytes. PaTEH1B caused a 2.2-fold current density decrease, concomitant with an equivalent α-subunit incorporation decrease in the plasma membrane, compared to PaTEH1A and PaTEH1Δ(270-280). PaTEH1B positively shifted the voltage-dependences of activation and slow inactivation of DmNav1-1 channels to more positive potentials compared to PaTEH1A, suggesting that the C-terminal end of both proteins may influence the function of the voltage-sensor and the pore of Nav channel. Interestingly, our findings showed that the sensitivity of DmNav1-1 channels to lidocaine and to the pyrazoline-type insecticide metabolite DCJW depends on associated TEH1-like subunits. In conclusion, our work demonstrates for the first time that density, gating and pharmacological properties of Nav channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes can be modulated by

  18. Highly luminescent yellow and yellowish-green light-emitting electrochemical cells based on cationic iridium complexes with phenanthroline based ancillary ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunesh, Chozhidakath Damodharan; Chandran, Midhun; Mathai, George; Choe, Youngson

    2013-01-01

    Highly luminescent light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) based on cationic iridium complexes [Ir(ppz)2(dpphen)]PF6 (1) and [Ir(ppz)2(tmphen)]PF6 (2) (ppz is 1-phenylpyrazole, dpphen is 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline and tmphen is 3,4,7,8-tetramethyl-1,10-phenanthroline) with phenanthroline based ancillary ligands were fabricated using air stable electrodes and their electroluminescent properties were investigated. LECs based on complex 1 emitted yellow electroluminescence (λmax 574 nm) with Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.49, 0.50) while the complex 2 gave yellowish-green electroluminescence (λmax 537 nm) with CIE coordinates of (0.35, 0.58). The work done here reveals that the alkyl substituted phenanthroline ancillary ligand, tmphen shifts the light emission to the shorter wavelength region than the phenyl substituted dpphen ligand, resulting in the color tuning of the light-emitting devices. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to gain insight into the molecular surfaces of cationic iridium complexes and their electrochemical behaviors. Single layer LECs based on these complexes exhibited a high luminescence of 5199 and 4751 cd/m2 for complexes 1 and 2 respectively. The ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (EMIMPF6) was added to the light emitting layer and hence higher luminances were obtained than the pristine device.

  19. Vehicle Ancillary Load Reduction Project Close-Out Report: An Overview of the Task and a Compilation of the Research Results

    SciTech Connect

    Rugh, J.; Farrington, R.

    2008-01-01

    The amount of fuel used for climate control in U.S. vehicles reduces the fuel economy of more than 200 million light-duty conventional vehicles and thus affects U.S. energy security. Researchers at the DOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory estimated that the United States consumes about 7 billion gallons of fuel per year for air-conditioning (A/C) light-duty vehicles. Using a variety of tools, NREL researchers developed innovative techniques and technologies to reduce the amount of fuel needed for these vehicles' ancillary loads. For example, they found that the A/C cooling capacity of 5.7 kW in a Cadillac STS could be reduced by 30% while maintaining a cooldown performance of 30 minutes. A simulation showed that reducing the A/C load by 30% decreased A/C fuel consumption by 26%. Other simulations supported the great potential for improving fuel economy by using new technologies and techniques developed to reduce ancillary loads.

  20. Coordinated Control Strategy of a Battery Energy Storage System to Support a Wind Power Plant Providing Multi-Timescale Frequency Ancillary Services

    DOE PAGES

    Tan, Jin; Zhang, Yingchen

    2017-02-02

    With increasing penetrations of wind generation on electric grids, wind power plants (WPPs) are encouraged to provide frequency ancillary services (FAS); however, it is a challenge to ensure that variable wind generation can reliably provide these ancillary services. This paper proposes using a battery energy storage system (BESS) to ensure the WPPs' commitment to FAS. This method also focuses on reducing the BESS's size and extending its lifetime. In this paper, a state-machine-based coordinated control strategy is developed to utilize a BESS to support the obliged FAS of a WPP (including both primary and secondary frequency control). This method takesmore » into account the operational constraints of the WPP (e.g., real-time reserve) and the BESS (e.g., state of charge [SOC], charge and discharge rate) to provide reliable FAS. Meanwhile, an adaptive SOC-feedback control is designed to maintain SOC at the optimal value as much as possible and thus reduce the size and extend the lifetime of the BESS. In conclusion, the effectiveness of the control strategy is validated with an innovative, multi-area, interconnected power system simulation platform that can mimic realistic power systems operation and control by simulating real-time economic dispatch, regulating reserve scheduling, multi-area automatic generation control, and generators' dynamic response.« less

  1. Investigation of techniques for inventorying forested regions. Volume 2: Forestry information system requirements and joint use of remotely sensed and ancillary data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalepka, R. F. (Principal Investigator); Cicone, R. C.; Malila, W. A.; Crist, E. P.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Effects of terrain topography in mountainous forested regions on LANDSAT signals and classifier training were found to be significant. The aspect of sloping terrain relative to the sun's azimuth was the major cause of variability. A relative insolation factor could be defined which, in a single variable, represents the joint effects of slope and aspect and solar geometry on irradiance. Forest canopy reflectances were bound, both through simulation, and empirically, to have nondiffuse reflectance characteristics. Training procedures could be improved by stratifying in the space of ancillary variables and training in each stratum. Application of the Tasselled-Cap transformation for LANDSAT data acquired over forested terrain could provide a viable technique for data compression and convenient physical interpretations.

  2. Blue-green emissive cationic iridium(III) complexes using partially saturated strongly-donating guanidyl-pyridine/-pyrazine ancillary ligands.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Kamrul; Pal, Amlan K; Auvray, Thomas; Zysman-Colman, Eli; Hanan, Garry S

    2015-09-25

    A new class of cationic iridium(III) complexes of the form [(C(∧)N)2Ir(N(∧)N)][PF6] is reported, where C(∧)N = cyclometallating 2-phenylpyridinato, ppy, or 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-5'-methylpyridinato, dFMeppy, and N(∧)N = guanidyl-pyridine, gpy, or -pyrazine, gpz, as the ancillary ligand. A large blue-shift in the emission coupled with a 7-to-9 fold enhancement in photoluminescence quantum yield and microsecond emission lifetimes were observed for the complexes containing the partially saturated gpy ligand as compared to the benchmark complex [(ppy)2Ir(bpy)][PF6], C1, where bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine.

  3. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of HPV-related squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: Current ancillary testing methods for determining HPV status.

    PubMed

    Bernadt, Cory T; Collins, Brian T

    2017-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a unique form of carcinoma that largely arises from the tonsillar tissue in the oropharynx. These tumors often present with cervical lymphadenopathy resulting in a fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy. Use of the cytology specimen to determine the HPV-status has significant prognostic and treatment implications as HPV-related tumors have a more favorable prognosis and response to nonsurgical therapies. While several different ancillary testing methods are available that have proven effective for determining HPV status in FNA specimens from HNSCCs, there is currently no consensus regarding HPV testing in this setting. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017;45:221-229. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. When core competence is not enough: functional interplay of the DEAD-box helicase core with ancillary domains and auxiliary factors in RNA binding and unwinding.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Markus G; Klostermeier, Dagmar

    2015-08-01

    DEAD-box helicases catalyze RNA duplex unwinding in an ATP-dependent reaction. Members of the DEAD-box helicase family consist of a common helicase core formed by two RecA-like domains. According to the current mechanistic model for DEAD-box mediated RNA unwinding, binding of RNA and ATP triggers a conformational change of the helicase core, and leads to formation of a compact, closed state. In the closed conformation, the two parts of the active site for ATP hydrolysis and of the RNA binding site, residing on the two RecA domains, become aligned. Closing of the helicase core is coupled to a deformation of the RNA backbone and destabilization of the RNA duplex, allowing for dissociation of one of the strands. The second strand remains bound to the helicase core until ATP hydrolysis and product release lead to re-opening of the core. The concomitant disruption of the RNA binding site causes dissociation of the second strand. The activity of the helicase core can be modulated by interaction partners, and by flanking N- and C-terminal domains. A number of C-terminal flanking regions have been implicated in RNA binding: RNA recognition motifs (RRM) typically mediate sequence-specific RNA binding, whereas positively charged, unstructured regions provide binding sites for structured RNA, without sequence-specificity. Interaction partners modulate RNA binding to the core, or bind to RNA regions emanating from the core. The functional interplay of the helicase core and ancillary domains or interaction partners in RNA binding and unwinding is not entirely understood. This review summarizes our current knowledge on RNA binding to the DEAD-box helicase core and the roles of ancillary domains and interaction partners in RNA binding and unwinding by DEAD-box proteins.

  5. Configuration Control in the Synthesis of Homo- and Heteroleptic Bis(oxazolinylphenolato/thiazolinylphenolato) Chelate Ligand Complexes of Oxorhenium(V): Isomer Effect on Ancillary Ligand Exchange Dynamics and Implications for Perchlorate Reduction Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinyong; Wu, Dimao; Su, Xiaoge; Han, Mengwei; Kimura, Susana Y; Gray, Danielle L; Shapley, John R; Abu-Omar, Mahdi M; Werth, Charles J; Strathmann, Timothy J

    2016-03-07

    This study develops synthetic strategies for N,N-trans and N,N-cis Re(O)(LO-N)2Cl complexes and investigates the effects of the coordination spheres and ligand structures on ancillary ligand exchange dynamics and catalytic perchlorate reduction activities of the corresponding [Re(O)(LO-N)2](+) cations. The 2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl)-2-oxazoline (Hhoz) and 2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl)-2-thiazoline (Hhtz) ligands are used to prepare homoleptic N,N-trans and N,N-cis isomers of both Re(O)(hoz)2Cl and Re(O)(htz)2Cl and one heteroleptic N,N-trans Re(O)(hoz)(htz)Cl. Selection of hoz/htz ligands determines the preferred isomeric coordination sphere, and the use of substituted pyridine bases with varying degrees of steric hindrance during complex synthesis controls the rate of isomer interconversion. The five corresponding [Re(O)(LO-N)2](+) cations exhibit a wide range of solvent exchange rates (1.4 to 24,000 s(-1) at 25 °C) and different LO-N movement patterns, as influenced by the coordination sphere of Re (trans/cis), the noncoordinating heteroatom on LO-N ligands (O/S), and the combination of the two LO-N ligands (homoleptic/heteroleptic). Ligand exchange dynamics also correlate with the activity of catalytic reduction of aqueous ClO4(-) by H2 when the Re(O)(LO-N)2Cl complexes are immobilized onto Pd/C. Findings from this study provide novel synthetic strategies and mechanistic insights for innovations in catalytic, environmental, and biomedical research.

  6. Estimating crop yields by integrating the FAO Crop Specific Water Balance model with real-time satellite data and ground-based ancillary data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Curt Andrew

    The broad objective of this research was to develop a spatial model which provides both timely and quantitative regional maize yield estimates for real-time Early Warning Systems (EWS) by integrating satellite data with ground-based ancillary data. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Crop Specific Water Balance (CSWB) model was modified by using the real-time spatial data that include: dekad (ten-day) estimated rainfall (RFE) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) composites derived from the METEOSAT and NOAA-AVHRR satellites, respectively; ground-based dekad potential evapo-transpiration (PET) data and seasonal estimated area-planted data provided by the Government of Kenya (GoK). A Geographical Information System (GIS) software was utilized to: drive the crop yield model; manage the spatial and temporal variability of the satellite images; interpolate between ground-based potential evapo-transpiration and rainfall measurements; and import ancillary data such as soil maps, administrative boundaries, etc. In addition, agro-ecological zones, length of growing season, and crop production functions, as defined by the FAO, were utilized to estimate quantitative maize yields. The GIS-based CSWB model was developed for three different resolutions: agro-ecological zone (AEZ) polygons; 7.6-kilometer pixels; and 1.1-kilometer pixels. The model was validated by comparing model production estimates from archived satellite and agro-meteorological data to historical district maize production reports from two Kenya government agencies, the Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) and the Department of Resource Surveys and Remote Sensing (DRSRS). For the AEZ analysis, comparison of model district maize production results and district maize production estimates from the MoA (1989-1997) and the DRSRS (1989-1993) revealed correlation coefficients of 0.94 and 0.93, respectively. The comparison for the 7.6-kilometer analysis showed correlation coefficients of 0.95 and 0

  7. B vitamin and/or ω-3 fatty acid supplementation and cancer: ancillary findings from the supplementation with folate, vitamins B6 and B12, and/or omega-3 fatty acids (SU.FOL.OM3) randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Andreeva, Valentina A; Touvier, Mathilde; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Julia, Chantal; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge

    2012-04-09

    To advance knowledge about the cancer-chemopreventive potential of individual nutrients, we investigated the effects of B vitamin and/or ω-3 fatty acid supplements on cancer outcomes among survivors of cardiovascular disease. This was an ancillary study of the Supplementation With Folate, Vitamins B(6) and B(12) and/or Omega-3 Fatty Acids (SU.FOL.OM3) secondary prevention trial (2003-2009). In all, 2501 individuals aged 45 to 80 years were randomized in a 2 × 2 factorial design to one of the following 4 daily supplementation groups: (1) 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (0.56 mg), pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B(6); 3 mg) and cyanocobalamin (vitamin B(12); 0.02 mg); (2) eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid (600 mg) in a 2:1 ratio; (3) B vitamins and ω-3 fatty acids; or (4) placebo. Overall and sex-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs regarding the cancer outcomes were estimated with Cox proportional hazards models. After 5 years of supplementation, incident cancer was validated in 7.0% of the sample (145 events in men and 29 in women), and death from cancer occurred in 2.3% of the sample. There was no association between cancer outcomes and supplementation with B vitamins (HR, 1.15 [95% CI, 0.85-1.55]) and/or ω-3 fatty acids (HR, 1.17 [95% CI, 0.87-1.58]). There was a statistically significant interaction of treatment by sex, with no effect of treatment on cancer risk among men and increased cancer risk among women for ω-3 fatty acid supplementation (HR, 3.02 [95% CI, 1.33-6.89]). We found no beneficial effects of supplementation with relatively low doses of B vitamins and/or ω-3 fatty acids on cancer outcomes in individuals with prior cardiovascular disease. Trial Registration  isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN41926726.

  8. Cationic iridium(III) complexes bearing ancillary 2,5-dipyridyl(pyrazine) (2,5-dpp) and 2,2':5',2''-terpyridine (2,5-tpy) ligands: synthesis, optoelectronic characterization and light-emitting electrochemical cells.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Kamrul; Donato, Loïc; Shen, Yulong; Slinker, Jason D; Zysman-Colman, Eli

    2014-09-28

    Four cationic iridium(III) complexes of the form [Ir(C^N)2(N^N)](+) bearing either a 2,5-dipyridylpyrazine (2,5-dpp) or a 2,2':5',2''-terpyridine (2,5-tpy) ancillary ligand and either 2-phenylpyridine (ppy) or a 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-5-methylpyridine (dFMeppy) cyclometalating ligands were synthesized. The optoelectronic properties of all complexes have been fully characterized by UV-visible absorption, cyclic voltammetry and emission spectroscopy. The conclusions drawn from these studies have been corroborated by DFT and TDDFT calculations. The four complexes were assessed as emitters in light-emitting electrochemical cells. Complex 1a, [Ir(ppy)2(2,5-dpp)]PF6, was found to be a deep red emitter (666 nm) both in acetonitrile solution and in the electroluminescent device. Complex 2a, [Ir(ppy)2(2,5-tpy)]PF6 was found to be an orange emitter (604 nm) both in solution and in the LEEC. LEECs incorporating both of these complexes were stable over the course of around 4-6 hours. Complex 1b, [Ir(dFMeppy)2(2,5-dpp)]PF6, was also determined to emit in the orange (605 nm) but with a photoluminescent quantum yield (ΦPL) double that of 2a. Complex 2b, [Ir(dFMeppy)2(2,5-tpy)]PF6 is an extremely bright green emitter (544 nm, 93%). All four complexes exhibited quasireversible electrochemistry and all four complexes phosphoresce from a mixed charge-transfer excited state.

  9. AX Tank Farm tank removal study

    SciTech Connect

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1999-02-24

    This report examines the feasibility of remediating ancillary equipment associated with the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. Ancillary equipment includes surface structures and equipment, process waste piping, ventilation components, wells, and pits, boxes, sumps, and tanks used to make waste transfers to/from the AX tanks and adjoining tank farms. Two remedial alternatives are considered: (1) excavation and removal of all ancillary equipment items, and (2) in-situ stabilization by grout filling, the 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a strawman in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tanks. This is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms.

  10. Control of light-promoted [2+2] cycloaddition reactions by a remote ancillary regulatory group that is covalently attached to rhenium rectangles.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zong-Zhan; Lee, Chung-Chou; Velayudham, Murugesan; Lee, Li-Wei; Wu, Jing-Yun; Kuo, Ting-Shen; Lu, Kuang-Lieh

    2012-12-03

    The high-yielding self-assembly of three neutral rhenium(I) rectangles, [Re(2)(CO)(6)(L)(bpe)](2) (1 a, L=2,2'-biimidazolate (biim); 1 b, L=2,2'-bisbenzimidazolate (bbim); 1 c, L=2,2'-bis(4,5-dimethylimidazolate) (bdmim); bpe=trans-1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene), under hydrothermal conditions is described. The rectangles were structurally characterized by spectroscopic techniques and further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Upon irradiation with a Hg lamp at 365 nm, the bpe ligands of rectangles 1 a and 1 b underwent [2+2] photocycloaddition reactions to produce [{(Re(CO)(3))(2)L}(2)(4,4'-tpcb)(2)] (2 a, L=biim; 2 b, L=bbim; 4,4'-tpcb=1,2,3,4-tetrakis(4-pyridyl)cyclobutane) through a single-crystal-to-single-crystal (SCSC) transformation. However, rectangle 1 c, which contained methyl groups on the 2,2'-biimidazolate ligand, failed to undergo cycloaddition, even after prolonged irradiation. This result indicates that the light-induced cycloaddition reaction can be preferentially controlled by the remote regulatory substituents, which are attached onto the same backbone of the rectangle complex. This transformation is the first reported utilization of a remote ancillary regulatory ligand that is covalently attached onto a coordination compound to control the [2+2] cycloaddition reaction. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. The potential of liquid-based cytology in lymph node cytological evaluation: the role of morphology and the aid of ancillary techniques.

    PubMed

    Rossi, E D; Martini, M; Straccia, P; Bizzarro, T; Fadda, G; Larocca, L M

    2016-02-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of liquid-based cytology (LBC) on lymph node fine needle aspiration (FNA). FNA may fulfil a challenging role in the evaluation of the majority of primary (benign and malignant) diagnoses as well as metastatic lymph node lesions. Although the morphological features may be quite easily recognized, cytological samples with a scant cellular component may raise some issues. We appraised 263 cytological lymph nodes from different body regions analysed between January and December 2013, including 137 male and 126 female patients, and processed with LBC. The cytological diagnoses included 160 benign and 103 malignant lesions. We reported 35 benign and 73 malignant lesions from 108 with surgical follow-up. The latter malignant series included 68 metastatic lesions, four suspicious for malignancy and one inadequate sample. The cytological diagnoses were supported by 62 conclusive immunocytochemical and 28 molecular analyses. Of the 108 cases, we documented 35 true negatives, 72 true positives, one false negative and no false positives, resulting in 98.6% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 99% diagnostic accuracy, 97.2% negative predictive value and 100% positive predictive value. FNA represents the first diagnostic tool in lymph node management and a reliable approach in order to avoid an excision biopsy. Furthermore, LBC is a feasible method for ancillary tests for which methanol-fixed samples are suitable, such as immunocytochemistry and molecular analysis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Marysvale detail survey, Richfield National Topographic Map sheet, Utah. Volume III. Magnetic and ancillary stacked profile data. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The results of the analyses of a systematic airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic survey for the area identified as Marysvale, located in southwestern Utah, is presented in Volumes I-IV of this report. The airborne data gathered is reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the equivalent uranium, thorium and potassium gamma radiation intensities, the ratios of these intensities, the total gamma radiation counting rate and the earth's residual magnetic field intensity. Profile plots of the aircraft's altitude above the earth's surface, the ambient temperature and pressure, and the magnetic field data measured by a base station magnetometer is presented also. An evaluation of the distribution of the radiometric data in terms of its established geochemical map units, which were derived via geochemical analysis methods, for the entire survey area has been prepared and is included. The determination of the geochemical units presented has been established principally from the analysis of the radiometric and magnetic contour maps and, more importantly, the multi-variate analysis map. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic and geochemical units, is included within the text. This volume contains the 5-variable residual magnetic and ancillary stacked profile data for the entire survey area.

  13. Water-quality, streamflow, and ancillary data for nutrients in streams and rivers across the nation, 1992-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, David K.; Spahr, Norman E.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: This report is the companion data report for: Nutrients in Streams and Rivers Across the Nation - 1992-2001 (D.K. Mueller and N.E. Spahr, U.S. Geological Survey written commun., 2005). The data contained in this report were collected as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Investigations were conducted in 51 large river basins and aquifer systems, which are referred to as 'study units.' Implementation of study-unit investigations were phased so that high-intensity sampling occurred in about one-third of the study units at a time. Investigations in the first 20 study units began in 1991, and stream sampling began in 1992; however, most samples were collected during water years 1993-95. (Water year is defined as the period from October through September and is identified by the year in which it ends.) A second group of 16 study-unit investigations began in 1994, with most of the sampling completed during water years 1996-98. A third group, consisting of 15 study units, began in 1997 with most of the data collected during water years 1999-2001. At some sites, additional sampling continued after the high-intensity time period. Gilliom and others (1995) provide additional information about study-unit sampling design. Additional information about the NAWQA program is available at http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa/index.html.

  14. The Virgin of Guadalupe as an ancillary modality for treating Hispanic substance abusers: Juramentos in the United States.

    PubMed

    Cuadrado, Mary; Lieberman, Louis

    2011-12-01

    During a 6-month research study of substance abuse outreach and retention methods in Mexico, the authors learned