Science.gov

Sample records for criminal justice policy

  1. 28 CFR 0.85a - Criminal justice policy coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Criminal justice policy coordination. 0.85a Section 0.85a Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Federal Bureau of Investigation § 0.85a Criminal justice policy coordination. The Federal...

  2. 28 CFR 0.85a - Criminal justice policy coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Criminal justice policy coordination. 0.85a Section 0.85a Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Federal Bureau of Investigation § 0.85a Criminal justice policy coordination. The Federal...

  3. 28 CFR 0.85a - Criminal justice policy coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criminal justice policy coordination. 0.85a Section 0.85a Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Federal Bureau of Investigation § 0.85a Criminal justice policy coordination. The Federal...

  4. 28 CFR 0.85a - Criminal justice policy coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Criminal justice policy coordination. 0.85a Section 0.85a Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Federal Bureau of Investigation § 0.85a Criminal justice policy coordination. The Federal...

  5. 28 CFR 0.85a - Criminal justice policy coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Criminal justice policy coordination. 0.85a Section 0.85a Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Federal Bureau of Investigation § 0.85a Criminal justice policy coordination. The Federal...

  6. 28 CFR 20.35 - Criminal Justice Information Services Advisory Policy Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Criminal Justice Information Services Advisory Policy Board. 20.35 Section 20.35 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE... Justice Information Services Advisory Policy Board. (a) There is established a CJIS Advisory Policy...

  7. 28 CFR 20.35 - Criminal Justice Information Services Advisory Policy Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Criminal Justice Information Services Advisory Policy Board. 20.35 Section 20.35 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE... Justice Information Services Advisory Policy Board. (a) There is established a CJIS Advisory Policy...

  8. 28 CFR 20.35 - Criminal Justice Information Services Advisory Policy Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Criminal Justice Information Services Advisory Policy Board. 20.35 Section 20.35 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE... Justice Information Services Advisory Policy Board. (a) There is established a CJIS Advisory Policy...

  9. 28 CFR 20.35 - Criminal Justice Information Services Advisory Policy Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criminal Justice Information Services Advisory Policy Board. 20.35 Section 20.35 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE... Justice Information Services Advisory Policy Board. (a) There is established a CJIS Advisory Policy...

  10. 28 CFR 20.35 - Criminal Justice Information Services Advisory Policy Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Criminal Justice Information Services Advisory Policy Board. 20.35 Section 20.35 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE... Justice Information Services Advisory Policy Board. (a) There is established a CJIS Advisory Policy...

  11. Legislative responses to wrongful conviction: Do partisan principals and advocacy efforts influence state-level criminal justice policy?

    PubMed

    Kent, Stephanie L; Carmichael, Jason T

    2015-07-01

    The number of discovered wrongful criminal convictions (and resulting exonerations) has increased over the past decade. These cases erode public confidence in the criminal justice system and trust in the rule of law. Many states have adopted laws that aim to reduce system errors but no study has examined why some states appear more willing to provide due process protections against wrongful convictions than others. Findings from regression estimates suggest that states with a Republican controlled legislature or more Republican voters are less likely to pass these laws while the presence of advocacy organizations that are part of the 'innocence movement' make legislative change more likely. We thus identify important differences in the political and social context between U.S. states that influence the adoption of criminal justice policies.

  12. Criminal Justice - Selected Reference Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, John D., III, Comp.

    This bibliography reviews approximately 70 reference materials on criminal justice. Entries are presented in eight categories--dictionaries, indexes and abstracts, professional position papers, working conditions and unions, law and the police, crime, prisons and prisoners, and victimization. Types of publications included under the subject…

  13. Cultural Cleavage and Criminal Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheingold, Stuart A.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews major theories of criminal justice, proposes an alternative analytic framework which focuses on cultural factors, applies this framework to several cases, and discusses implications of a cultural perspective for rule of law values. Journal available from Office of Publication, Department of Political Science, University of Florida,…

  14. Adaptationism and intuitions about modern criminal justice.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Michael Bang

    2013-02-01

    Research indicates that individuals have incoherent intuitions about particular features of the criminal justice system. This could be seen as an argument against the existence of adapted computational systems for counter-exploitation. Here, I outline how the model developed by McCullough et al. readily predicts the production of conflicting intuitions in the context of modern criminal justice issues. PMID:23211275

  15. Teaching Hispanic Culture to Criminal Justice Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes-Cairo, Orlando M.

    A course in comparative Hispanic/American culture was developed for a criminal justice training center to provide exposure to Hispanic cultural norms to local criminal justice workers. The participants included employees in the fields of adult probation, health care, and alcohol and drug programs. Hispanic participants provided a valuable…

  16. Breaking into Careers in Criminal Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Lucia, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    Contends that young people's image of career in criminal justice field has been shaped by entertainment media and does not nearly match real thing. Describes reality of career in criminal justice and discusses how to prepare for such a career. Examines numerous career tracks in law enforcement, corrections, courts, forensic science, and private…

  17. Adaptationism and intuitions about modern criminal justice.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Michael Bang

    2013-02-01

    Research indicates that individuals have incoherent intuitions about particular features of the criminal justice system. This could be seen as an argument against the existence of adapted computational systems for counter-exploitation. Here, I outline how the model developed by McCullough et al. readily predicts the production of conflicting intuitions in the context of modern criminal justice issues.

  18. Delphi in Criminal Justice Policy: A Case Study on Judgmental Forecasting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loyens, Kim; Maesschalck, Jeroen; Bouckaert, Geert

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an in-depth case study analysis of a pilot project organized by the section "Strategic Analysis" of the Belgian Federal Police. Using the Delphi method, which is a judgmental forecasting technique, a panel of experts was questioned about future developments of crime, based on their expertise in criminal or social trends. The…

  19. Criminal Justice in America. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croddy, Marshall; And Others

    This comprehensive textbook on criminal justice is intended to serve as the foundation for a high school course on law-related education or as a supplement for civics, government or contemporary-issues courses. Designed to foster critical thinking and analytical skills, the book provides students with an understanding of the criminal justice…

  20. The National Manpower Survey of the Criminal Justice System. Volume Five: Criminal Justice Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Planning Association, Washington, DC.

    Focusing on education and training needs for law enforcement and criminal justice personnel, this document is one in a series of six volumes reporting the results of the National Manpower Survey (NMS) of the Criminal Justice System. Chapter 1 of ten chapters provides an overview of nine types of educational and/or training programs, including the…

  1. Drug use, street crime, and sex-trading among cocaine-dependent women: implications for public health and criminal justice policy.

    PubMed

    Inciardi, J A; Surratt, H L

    2001-01-01

    The linkages between the sex-for-crack exchanges, prostitution, and rising rates of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases among cocaine-dependent women have been well documented. As crack began to disappear from the headlines during the 1990s, however, it was assumed by many that crack had fallen on hard times in the street drug culture. Within this context, this article examines the extent to which crack has remained primary in the culture of cocaine-dependent women. Data are drawn from a study of 708 cocaine-dependent women in Miami, Florida, during the years 1994 to 1996, and qualitative data gathered during 1998 and 1999 in the same field areas. Analyses focus on drug use, criminality and HIV/AIDS risk behaviors. Implications for policy alternatives in criminal justice and public health approaches for assisting this population are discussed. PMID:11824697

  2. A Research Note on American Indian Criminal Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braunstein, Rich; Anderson, Bill

    2008-01-01

    One confronts many difficulties when conducting policy-relevant criminal justice research that focuses on American Indian interests. Foremost among these difficulties is the great variation in relevant contexts that apply to this area of research. From the urban context of large American cities, where American Indians constitute a slim minority…

  3. The Productivity of Criminology and Criminal Justice Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeZee, Matthew R.

    The scholarly productivity of criminology and criminal justice faculty and programs was investigated. The methodologies that were used to rate journals that publish articles in the criminology/criminal justice field and to select 71 schools with graduate programs in criminology or criminal justice are described. Primary interest focused on…

  4. Drug treatments in criminal justice settings.

    PubMed

    Nordstrom, Benjamin R; Williams, A R

    2012-06-01

    The available evidence suggests that drug treatment can lead to modest, but real, reductions in criminal offending for drug-using criminal offenders. Considering the scope of the problem of drug-related crime and the expense of dealing with these issues, even marginal improvements can lead to important aggregate savings in both economic and humanitarian terms. More randomized, controlled trials of drug treatment in criminal justice programs will lead to a more sophisticated understanding of what kind of treatment works best for this group.

  5. Criminal Justice and Criminology. Library Research Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Phillip M.

    This guide to sources for students at San Diego State University who are doing library research in Criminal Justice, Criminology, and related subject areas begins by noting that topics in these areas can be researched in a variety of subject disciplines, including psychology, sociology, law, social work, political science, public administration,…

  6. Training Program Development for Criminal Justice Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheesebro, Deborah; Skinner, Gilbert H.

    This manual is designed to assist in the development of a criminal justice agency training program. The first chapter is a discussion of various learning principles (motivation, practice, reinforcement, and learning transfer) and how they may help the trainer select instructional strategies later in the process. Administration, trainer, and…

  7. Monitoring for Criminal Justice Planning Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, John D.; And Others

    The handbook is designed to help State Planning Agencies (SPA, grantees of Federal funds) to develop or improve performance monitoring systems in order to monitor the implementation, operation, and results of the criminal justice projects they support. Such monitoring is required by the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA) guidelines.…

  8. Criminal Justice in America. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Bill, Ed.

    This book, a comprehensive and interactive introductory text on criminal justice, consists of six units: (1) Crime: covers victims' rights, gangs, violent crime, white-collar crime, elements of crimes, legal defenses, methods for measuring crime, hate crime, computer crime, and a history of crime in the United States; (2) Police: explores local…

  9. Effective Faith-Based Treatment Programs. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy and Human Resources of the Committee on Government Reform. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session (May 23, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Government Reform.

    This document presents witness testimonies from a hearing discussing two issues critical to the House of Representatives, Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy and Human Resources: insuring government support for effective programs to reduce the demand for illegal drugs, and facilitating the inclusion of faith-based providers in the…

  10. 75 FR 9613 - Draft NIJ Restraints Standard for Criminal Justice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs Draft NIJ Restraints Standard for Criminal Justice AGENCY: National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, DOJ. ACTION: Notice of Draft NIJ Restraints Standard for...

  11. Criminal justice procedures in civil commitment.

    PubMed

    Slovenko, R

    1977-11-01

    The actions of federal district courts and state legislatures in recent years have resulted in the growing application of procedures of the criminal justice system to the civil commitment process. Increasingly patients can be confined only if they are dangerous to others, and increasingly due-process procedures of the criminal law are required, to the detriment of the patient's treatment and his survival in the community. The author says that allegations of patients' being railroaded into hospitals are, with few exceptions, fictitious. Abuses thet do exist should be handled through writs of habeas corpus and malpractice suits, remedies much more available now than in the past. The principal abuse in commitment occurs not when patients are admitted, the author believes, but at discharge, when so many patients are turned out into communities that lack proper services for them.

  12. Criminal justice procedures in civil commitment.

    PubMed

    Slovenko, R

    1977-11-01

    The actions of federal district courts and state legislatures in recent years have resulted in the growing application of procedures of the criminal justice system to the civil commitment process. Increasingly patients can be confined only if they are dangerous to others, and increasingly due-process procedures of the criminal law are required, to the detriment of the patient's treatment and his survival in the community. The author says that allegations of patients' being railroaded into hospitals are, with few exceptions, fictitious. Abuses thet do exist should be handled through writs of habeas corpus and malpractice suits, remedies much more available now than in the past. The principal abuse in commitment occurs not when patients are admitted, the author believes, but at discharge, when so many patients are turned out into communities that lack proper services for them. PMID:914239

  13. 78 FR 2443 - Criminal Justice Interview Room Recording System (IRRS) Standard, Supplier's Declaration of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... Declaration of Conformity Requirements, and Selection and Application Guide AGENCY: National Institute of... Criminal Justice IRRS Supplier's Declaration of Conformity Requirements 3. Draft Criminal Justice...

  14. Syllabus Design and Construction in Criminal Justice Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, Robert G.; Carr, Adam F.

    Undergraduate course syllabi on law enforcement, courts-law, corrections, and general criminal justice-criminology were assessed, based on 759 usable submissions from 193 junior, community, and senior colleges and universities. Based on the analysis, a set of syllabi to represent the core of a criminal justice curriculum was constructed. Course…

  15. Access to Sign Language Interpreters in the Criminal Justice System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Katrina R.

    2001-01-01

    This study surveyed 46 professional sign language interpreters working in criminal justice settings and evaluated 22 cases to evaluate access issues for individuals with hearing impairments. Recommendations to increase the accessibility of interpreting services included providing ongoing awareness training to criminal justice personnel and…

  16. A Guide to Researching the Criminal Justice/Corrections Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Annie M.

    This combination guide and bibliography is designed to assist students enrolled in classes in the criminal justice/corrections field. Step-by-step guidelines for writing a term paper are presented along with a bibliography listing resources dealing with corrections and criminal justice that are available in the Chicago State University library.…

  17. Criminal Justice in America. Teacher's Guide. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croddy, Marshall; Hayes, Bill

    This teacher's guide outlines effective strategies for using "Criminal Justice in America." This comprehensive textbook on criminal justice may serve either as the foundation for a high school law-related education course or as a supplemental text for civics, government or contemporary-issues courses. Designed to foster critical thinking and…

  18. Criminal Justice Education and the Humanities: A New Era?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halsted, James B.

    1985-01-01

    This study demonstrates that criminal justice education is interdisciplinary only to the limited extent it integrates the law, the social sciences, and its vocational and technical aspects. In order to integrate the humanities in criminal justice education, the educators must be educated. (Author/LMO)

  19. State Criminal Justice Telecommunications (STACOM). Final Report. Volume II: Requirements Analysis and Design of Ohio Criminal Justice Telecommunications Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielding, J. E.; And Others

    Requirements analysis and design for the Ohio Criminal Justice Telecommunications Network are provided in this report on the application in the state of Ohio of techniques developed by the STACOM Project. These techniques focus on the identification of user requirements and network designs for criminal justice networks on a state-wide basis.…

  20. State Criminal Justice Telecommunications (STACOM). Final Report. Volume III: Requirements Analysis and Design of Texas Criminal Justice Telecommunications Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielding, J. E.; And Others

    Requirements analysis and design for the Texas Criminal Justice Telecommunications Network are provided in this report on the application in the state of Texas of techniques developed by the STACOM project. These techniques focus on identification of user requirements and network designs for criminal justice information on a state-wide basis.…

  1. Female Sexual Abuse and Criminal Justice Intervention: A Comparison of Child Protective Service and Criminal Justice Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bader, Shannon M.; Scalora, Mario J.; Casady, Thomas K.; Black, Shannon

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The current study compared a sample of female perpetrators reported to Child Protective Services (CPS) to a sample of women from the criminal justice system. Instead of examining a clinical or criminal justice sample in isolation, this comparison allows a more accurate description of female sexual offending. Methods: Cases were drawn…

  2. Prescription drug abuse: what is being done to address this new drug epidemic? Testimony before the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy and Human Resources.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah

    2006-10-01

    This comprehensive health policy review of the prescription drug abuse epidemic is based on the written and oral testimony of witnesses at a July 26, 2006 Congressional Hearing, including that of Laxmaiah Manchikanti, MD, the chief executive officer of the American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians and additions from review of the literature. Honorable Mark E. Souder, chairman of the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources, introduced the issue as follows: "Prescription drug abuse today is second only to marijuana abuse. In the most recent household survey, initiates to drug abuse started with prescription drugs (especially pain medications) more often than with marijuana. The abuse of prescription drugs is facilitated by easy access (via physicians, the Internet, and the medicine cabinet) and a perception of safety (since the drugs are FDA approved). In addition to the personal toll of drug abuse using prescription drugs, indirect costs associated with prescription drug abuse and diversion include product theft, commission of other crimes to support addiction, law enforcement costs, and encouraging the practice of defensive medicine." The Administration witnesses, Bertha Madras, Nora D. Volkow, MD, Sandra Kweder, MD, and Joe Rannazzisi reviewed the problem of drug abuse and discussed what is being done at the present time as well as future strategies to combat drug abuse, including prescription drug monitoring programs, reducing malprescriptions, public education, eliminating Internet drug pharmacies, and the development of future drugs which are not only tamper-resistant but also non-addictive. The second panel, consisting of consumers and advocates, included Misty Fetco, Linda Surks, and Barbara van Rooyan, all of whom lost their children to drugs, presented their stories and strategies to prevent drug abuse, focusing on education at all levels, development of resistant drugs, and non-opioid treatment of chronic pain. Mathea

  3. Prescription drug abuse: what is being done to address this new drug epidemic? Testimony before the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy and Human Resources.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah

    2006-10-01

    This comprehensive health policy review of the prescription drug abuse epidemic is based on the written and oral testimony of witnesses at a July 26, 2006 Congressional Hearing, including that of Laxmaiah Manchikanti, MD, the chief executive officer of the American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians and additions from review of the literature. Honorable Mark E. Souder, chairman of the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources, introduced the issue as follows: "Prescription drug abuse today is second only to marijuana abuse. In the most recent household survey, initiates to drug abuse started with prescription drugs (especially pain medications) more often than with marijuana. The abuse of prescription drugs is facilitated by easy access (via physicians, the Internet, and the medicine cabinet) and a perception of safety (since the drugs are FDA approved). In addition to the personal toll of drug abuse using prescription drugs, indirect costs associated with prescription drug abuse and diversion include product theft, commission of other crimes to support addiction, law enforcement costs, and encouraging the practice of defensive medicine." The Administration witnesses, Bertha Madras, Nora D. Volkow, MD, Sandra Kweder, MD, and Joe Rannazzisi reviewed the problem of drug abuse and discussed what is being done at the present time as well as future strategies to combat drug abuse, including prescription drug monitoring programs, reducing malprescriptions, public education, eliminating Internet drug pharmacies, and the development of future drugs which are not only tamper-resistant but also non-addictive. The second panel, consisting of consumers and advocates, included Misty Fetco, Linda Surks, and Barbara van Rooyan, all of whom lost their children to drugs, presented their stories and strategies to prevent drug abuse, focusing on education at all levels, development of resistant drugs, and non-opioid treatment of chronic pain. Mathea

  4. Criminal justice responses to drug related crime in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Malloch, Margaret; McIvor, Gill

    2013-01-01

    This article examines contemporary developments in criminal justice responses to drug related crime. Drawing on evaluations of initiatives which have been introduced in Scotland along with published statistical data, it considers the expansion of drug treatment through the criminal justice system and the implications this has for increasing access to services. Importantly, it considers the potential consequences of implementing 'treatment' requirements, underpinned by potential sanctions for non-compliance, at different stages of the criminal justice process. It is argued that the introduction of interventions at different points in the criminal justice process may have increased access to treatment services, though the extent of engagement with services is called into question, especially where treatment is voluntary or less obviously 'coerced'. Moreover, there is evidence that extending treatment through the criminal justice system may have had the effect of drawing some individuals further into the criminal justice process than would previously have been the case, despite limited evidence of the effectiveness of many such interventions on drug use, associated offending and wider aspects of individuals' lives.

  5. Accountability in Teenage Dating Violence: A Comparative Examination of Adult Domestic Violence and Juvenile Justice Systems Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zosky, Diane L.

    2010-01-01

    Unlike in the adult criminal justice system, where domestic violence policies hold perpetrators accountable for their violence, the juvenile justice system rarely addresses teenage dating violence. Although the adult criminal justice system has pursued policies toward intimate partner violence grounded on a "zero tolerance" ideology, the juvenile…

  6. Criminalization of HIV transmission: poor public health policy.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Edwin

    2009-12-01

    Criminalization of HIV transmission and exposure is an ineffective tool for combating AIDS and a costly distraction from programs that we know work--programs such as effective prevention, protection against discrimination, reducing stigma, empowering women and providing access to testing and treatment. In this article, which is based on a public lecture he gave at "From Evidence and Principle to Policy and Action," the 1st Annual Symposium on HIV, Law and Human Rights, held on 12-13 June 2009 in Toronto, Canada, Justice Edwin Cameron analyzes the surge in criminal prosecutions, discusses the role that stigma plays in these prosecutions and makes the case against criminalization.

  7. Improving Access To Care And Reducing Involvement In The Criminal Justice System For People With Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Huskamp, Haiden A; Rutkow, Lainie; Barry, Colleen L

    2016-06-01

    People with mental illness make up a disproportionate share of the criminal justice-involved population. The passage of critical new reforms affecting health care for vulnerable populations under the Affordable Care Act and the Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008 presents unique opportunities to transform systems of care and avert criminal justice involvement. In addition, state and local jurisdictions have implemented a number of strategies to divert people with mental illness from the criminal justice system and reduce recidivism. In this article we summarize current knowledge about the involvement of people with mental illness in the criminal justice system and consider the recent opportunities presented by national and local policies that aim to lower the proportion of such people who are incarcerated. PMID:27269025

  8. Improving Access To Care And Reducing Involvement In The Criminal Justice System For People With Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Huskamp, Haiden A; Rutkow, Lainie; Barry, Colleen L

    2016-06-01

    People with mental illness make up a disproportionate share of the criminal justice-involved population. The passage of critical new reforms affecting health care for vulnerable populations under the Affordable Care Act and the Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008 presents unique opportunities to transform systems of care and avert criminal justice involvement. In addition, state and local jurisdictions have implemented a number of strategies to divert people with mental illness from the criminal justice system and reduce recidivism. In this article we summarize current knowledge about the involvement of people with mental illness in the criminal justice system and consider the recent opportunities presented by national and local policies that aim to lower the proportion of such people who are incarcerated.

  9. Overview of criminal justice projects at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, D.D.

    1995-07-01

    The criminal justice projects at SNL include three projects for the National Institute of Justice (smart gun, restraining foam, aqueous foam, corrections perimeter), a Southwest Border study, and one involving corrections agencies. It is concluded that the national technologies developed to protect nuclear and other high value assets have enormous potential for application to crime and personal safety; the difficulty lies in simplifying the technology transfer and making the new systems affordable.

  10. Social Work and Criminal Justice: Are We Meeting in the Field?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheyett, Anna; Pettus-Davis, Carrie; McCarter, Susan; Brigham, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Social workers are needed but infrequently involved with criminal justice systems. One way to increase the number of social workers in the criminal justice system is by exposing students to work in these settings. This study examined the number, types, and utilization of criminal justice field placements in MSW programs by surveying field…

  11. Grievance and Redress: Chicano Access to the Criminal Justice System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geilhufe, Nancy L.

    Focusing on the processes involved in making formal bureaucracies responsive, the study examined: the structure of formal grievance and redress procedures within the criminal justice system in San Jose, California; and the informal strategies used by politically active members of the Chicano community to extend and strengthen these channels. The…

  12. Doing Justice? Criminal Offenders with Developmental Disabilities. Detailed Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersilia, Joan

    People with cognitive, intellectual, or developmental disabilities are a small but increasing portion of offenders in the criminal justice system. People with developmental disabilities are estimated to comprise 2-3% of the general population, but 4-10% of the prison population, and an even higher percentage of those in juvenile facilities and in…

  13. Why Rape Survivors Participate in the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Debra; Campbell, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    After a rape, survivors may seek help from multiple community organizations including the criminal justice system (CJS). Research has found that few survivors report their assaults to the police and of those who do report, many withdraw their participation during the investigation. However, relatively little is known about the factors that lead…

  14. Using ELVIS to Measure Experiential Learning in Criminal Justice Internships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Erin; Dahl, Patricia; Bayens, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to better understand the relationship between criminal justice internships and knowledge domains. Kolb's four experiential learnings stages of experience, reflection, abstract conceptualization, and active experimentation are assessed using the Experiential Learning Variables and Indicators Scale (ELVIS) to provide a…

  15. A Heuristic Model of Criminology and Criminal Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zalman, Marvin

    The differences between criminology and criminal justice are assessed by comparing them to a more abstract typology. This typology is comprised of four basic elements: the focal concerns of the fields; career patterns of professionals; the extent to which the fields are theoretically based and are disciplines, sciences, and professions; and the…

  16. Juvenile Crime and Criminal Justice: Resolving Border Disputes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Rising juvenile crime rates during the 1970s and 1980s spurred state legislatures across the country to exclude or transfer a significant share of offenders under the age of eighteen to the jurisdiction of the criminal court, essentially redrawing the boundary between the juvenile and adult justice systems. Jeffrey Fagan examines the legal…

  17. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders and the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fast, Diane K.; Conry, Julianne

    2009-01-01

    The life-long neurological impairments found in people with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs), including learning disabilities, impulsivity, hyperactivity, social ineptness, and poor judgment, can increase susceptibility to victimization and involvement in the criminal justice system (CJS). Individuals with FASDs become involved in the CJS…

  18. Inventory of Potential Funding Sources for Criminal Justice Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Positive Futures, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Potential funding sources for criminal justice education programs are listed and information on supplemental source materials and a brief outline of grant writing considerations are included. Sections on general foundation grants, state restricted grants, and government grants are provided. Included under state restricted grants are Alabama,…

  19. Criminal Justice: An Upper-Level Social Studies Elective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eau Claire Area Public Schools, WI.

    This teaching guide outlines an 18 week elective course on criminal justice for use in grades 11 or 12. The course consists of five units and is intended to help students learn about law, crime and law enforcement, courts, corrections, and capital punishment. Throughout the course there is extensive participation of law enforcement and other…

  20. Obstacles Faced by Deaf People in the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon, M.; Miller, K.

    2005-01-01

    Deaf People, especially those who are not well educated, are at risk for serious injustices when they enter the criminal justice system. The present study describes these risks at all stages of the legal process, including arrest, trial, probation, prison, and parole. These dangers are greatest for those who are poorly educated, read at a…

  1. The Developmentally Disabled Offender in the Illinois Criminal Justice System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correctional Services for the Developmentally Disabled, Inc., Chicago, IL.

    Reported are findings from five studies which explored the special problems and needs of the developmentally disabled offender in the Illinois criminal justice system. Introductory information includes a discussion of the problem, goals of the present study, and a review of programs for retarded offenders throughout the U.S. Presented are five…

  2. Mentally ill persons in the criminal justice system: some perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lamb, H Richard; Weinberger, Linda E; Gross, Bruce H

    2004-01-01

    There is an increasing number of severely mentally ill persons in the criminal justice system. This article first discusses the criminalization of persons with severe mental illness and its causes, the role of the police and mental health, and the treatment of mentally ill offenders and its difficulties. The authors then offer recommendations to reduce criminalization by increased coordination between police and mental health professionals, to increase mental health training for police officers, to enhance mental health services after arrest, and to develop more and better community treatment of mentally ill offenders. The necessary components of such treatment are having a treatment philosophy of both theory and practice; having clear goals of treatment; establishing a close liaison between treatment staff and the justice system; understanding the need for structure; having a focus on managing violence; and appreciating the crucial role of case management, appropriate living arrangements, and the role of family members. PMID:15168834

  3. Juvenile Justice Reform: State Experiences. Criminal Justice Paper #4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Robert; Yondorf, Barbara

    Community-based programs in the juvenile justice system present a promising alternative to the disappointing results achieved by large institutional facilities. A diverse group of states has found that intensive, individualized services provided in small, family-like residential settings or in the juvenile's own home yield comparable or reduced…

  4. Colorado's energy boom: impact on crime and criminal justice

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    Information is reported on the impact of rapid energy development on western slope criminal justice agencies. The focus is on crime rates, law enforcement, the courts, and juvenile justice problems. The problems that are likely to develop and what might be done to minimize the negative consequences are analyzed. The social characteristics of boom towns and the changes resulting from rapid growth, the changes in crime rates, the impact experienced by law enforcement agencies and the courts, and information on planning and funding in impact areas are described. (MCW)

  5. 75 FR 44284 - Notice of Draft NIJ Criminal Justice Restraints Selection and Application Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... obtain comments from interested parties, the U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs Notice of Draft NIJ Criminal Justice Restraints Selection and Application...

  6. 78 FR 76861 - Body-Worn Cameras for Criminal Justice Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ...The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) is soliciting information on commercially available body-worn cameras (BWCs) marketed for use by criminal justice and law enforcement agencies. These products are also sometimes called officer-worn or wearable cameras. The use of BWCs by criminal justice practitioners (e.g., patrol, corrections, SWAT and other tactical responders) offers potential......

  7. Young Black Men and the Criminal Justice System: A Growing National Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauer, Marc

    The impact of the criminal justice system on Black male adults in the 20-to-29 year age group was examined. End results of the large-scale involvement of young Black men in the criminal justice system are considered, and the implications for crime control are discussed. Using data from Bureau of Justice Statistics and the Bureau of the Census…

  8. Criminal justice referral and incentives in outpatient substance abuse treatment

    PubMed Central

    DeFulio, Anthony; Stitzer, Maxine; Roll, John; Petry, Nancy; Nuzzo, Paul; Schwartz, Robert P.; Stabile, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    A substantial number of substance abusers entering outpatient psychosocial counseling treatment are referred from the criminal justice (CJ) system. This secondary analysis of previously published findings from a large (N=415) multi-site trial of a prize-based abstinence incentive intervention (Petry et al., 2005) examined the influence of CJ referral on usual care outcomes and response to the incentive procedure. CJ referrals (n=138) were more likely than those not CJ referred (n=277) to provide stimulant negative urine samples whether missing samples were counted as positive (50 versus 41%, p=.016) or as missing (96 versus 91%, p<.001). A significant interaction term was found only for percentage of treatment completers (p=.027). However, on that retention variable, and three additional drug use measures, significant incentive effects were confined to participants who entered treatment without referral from the criminal justice system. The study suggests that abstinence incentives should be offered as a first priority to stimulant users entering treatment without criminal justice referral. However, incentives can be considered for use with CJ-referred stimulant users based on the observation that best outcomes were obtained in CJ referrals who also received the abstinence incentive program. PMID:23433822

  9. Trying to restore justice: bureaucracies, risk management, and disciplinary boundaries in New Zealand criminal justice.

    PubMed

    Fox, Kathryn J

    2015-05-01

    New Zealand is well known for its restorative justice conferences in the youth justice system. However, restorative justice has yet to overwhelm the adult criminal justice system. Based on interviews in New Zealand with correctional staff, restorative justice providers, and others, this article explores the reason for the modest inroads that restorative practice has made, and suggests that the general context may explain the limits of restorative justice in other places. The article argues that bureaucratic silos make it challenging to determine if restorative practice might fit within a rehabilitation or reintegration framework. In addition, because of the dominance of psychological modes for assessing and treating criminal behavior, an overarching preoccupation with risk management orients correctional practice toward treatment. Moreover, restorative justice's affiliation with victims' perspectives has made its placement within offender reintegration difficult to imagine. Finally, the penal populism that frames correctional practice in New Zealand, and other Anglophone countries, makes alternative to punishment harder to sell. However, the current liminal state of correctional practice creates an opportunity to conceive of more humanistic ways of repairing the harm caused by crime.

  10. Trying to restore justice: bureaucracies, risk management, and disciplinary boundaries in New Zealand criminal justice.

    PubMed

    Fox, Kathryn J

    2015-05-01

    New Zealand is well known for its restorative justice conferences in the youth justice system. However, restorative justice has yet to overwhelm the adult criminal justice system. Based on interviews in New Zealand with correctional staff, restorative justice providers, and others, this article explores the reason for the modest inroads that restorative practice has made, and suggests that the general context may explain the limits of restorative justice in other places. The article argues that bureaucratic silos make it challenging to determine if restorative practice might fit within a rehabilitation or reintegration framework. In addition, because of the dominance of psychological modes for assessing and treating criminal behavior, an overarching preoccupation with risk management orients correctional practice toward treatment. Moreover, restorative justice's affiliation with victims' perspectives has made its placement within offender reintegration difficult to imagine. Finally, the penal populism that frames correctional practice in New Zealand, and other Anglophone countries, makes alternative to punishment harder to sell. However, the current liminal state of correctional practice creates an opportunity to conceive of more humanistic ways of repairing the harm caused by crime. PMID:24285833

  11. An integrated public health and criminal justice approach to gangs: What can research tell us?

    PubMed

    Gebo, Erika

    2016-12-01

    There has been a call to better link public health and criminal justice approaches to best address crime problems generally, and youth and gang violence in particular. Importantly, there has yet to be a systematic examination of how criminal justice approaches can be integrated within a public health framework. This paper examines the strengths and challenges with mapping gang research and evidence-informed practices onto a public health approach. Conceptual examination reveals benefits to utilizing an integrated framework, but it also exposes core problems with identification and prediction of gang joining and gang membership. The gang label as a master status is called into question. It is argued that a public health framework can inform public policy approaches as to when the focus should be youth violence versus gangs and gang violence. PMID:27547719

  12. [The effect of participation of the victims in trials on their confidence in the criminal justice system: procedural justice].

    PubMed

    Shiraiwa, Yuko; Karasawa, Kaori

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the new victim participation systems, we examined whether the use of these systems had an effect on the confidence of the families of victims about the criminal justice system. The results of a questionnaire survey revealed that victims who participated in their criminal court cases had more confidence in the criminal justice system and were more accepting of the court decisions. Moreover, the present study examined the process of victims' confidence in criminal justice based on the value-expressive theory of procedural justice. In particular, the assumption was confirmed that the victims' feelings of expressing opinions resulted in their increased confidence in criminal justice through their confidence in the judges and their acceptance of court decisions.

  13. Envisioning the next generation of behavioral health and criminal justice interventions.

    PubMed

    Epperson, Matthew W; Wolff, Nancy; Morgan, Robert D; Fisher, William H; Frueh, B Christopher; Huening, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to cast a vision for the next generation of behavioral health and criminal justice interventions for persons with serious mental illnesses in the criminal justice system. The limitations of first generation interventions, including their primary focus on mental health treatment connection, are discussed. A person-place framework for understanding the complex factors that contribute to criminal justice involvement for this population is presented. We discuss practice and research recommendations for building more effective interventions to address both criminal justice and mental health outcomes.

  14. Envisioning the Next Generation of Behavioral Health and Criminal Justice Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Epperson, Matthew W.; Wolff, Nancy; Morgan, Robert D.; Fisher, William H.; Frueh, B. Christopher; Huening, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to cast a vision for the next generation of behavioral health and criminal justice interventions for persons with serious mental illnesses in the criminal justice system. The limitations of first generation interventions, including their primary focus on mental health treatment connection, are discussed. A person-place framework for understanding the complex factors that contribute to criminal justice involvement for this population is presented. We discuss practice and research recommendations for building more effective interventions to address both criminal justice and mental health outcomes. PMID:24666731

  15. 78 FR 74162 - Draft Criminal Justice Offender Tracking System Standard and Companion Documents

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    .... SUMMARY: In an effort to obtain comments from interested parties, the U.S. Department of Justice, Office... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs Draft Criminal Justice Offender Tracking System Standard and Companion...

  16. Psychiatry and the criminal justice system: testing the myths.

    PubMed

    Phillips, M R; Wolf, A S; Coons, D J

    1988-05-01

    Several states are changing legislation and treatment programs for mentally ill offenders without knowing how current laws and programs operate. To address this problem the authors linked data from police records, court reports, and clinical files for 2,735 psychiatric referrals from the criminal justice system of Alaska from 1977 through 1981. They found that only 0.2%-2.0% of all schizophrenic persons in the community were arrested for violent crimes each year, accounting for 1.1%-2.3% of all arrests for violent crimes; that psychiatrists agreed about competency and responsibility in 79% of the cases evaluated by more than one clinician; and that a successful insanity defense occurred in 0.1% or less of all criminal cases.

  17. Justice Department Airline Merger Policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    Justice Department airline merger policy is developed within the context of the Federal Aviation Act, in which there is an unusually explicit reliance on competition as a means of fulfilling statutory goals. The economics of the airline industry appear to indicate that low concentration and vigorous competition are particularly viable and desirable. Several factors, including existing regulatory policy, create incentives for airlines to merge whether or not an individual merger promotes or conflicts with the public interest. Specific benefits to the public should be identified and shown to clearly outweight the detriments, including adverse competitive impact, in order for airline mergers to be approved.

  18. Violent offender research and implications for the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Rice, M E

    1997-04-01

    Some offenders are at very high risk to reoffend. Research conducted at the author's institution and elsewhere shows that psychopathic offenders are especially likely to be violent, that future violence can be predicted with considerable accuracy among men who have committed at least 1 violent offense, and that treatment programs to reduce dangerousness do not always have the intended effects (i.e., they may actually increase the dangerousness of some individuals). Implications for the criminal justice system pertain to release following insanity acquittal, offender sentencing and parole, preventive detention, offender treatment, and program evaluation.

  19. State criminal justice telecommunications (STACOM). Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fielding, J. E.; Frewing, H. K.; Lee, J. J.; Leflang, W. G.; Reilly, N. B.

    1977-01-01

    Techniques for identifying user requirements and network designs for criminal justice networks on a state wide basis are discussed. Topics covered include: methods for determining data required; data collection and survey; data organization procedures, and methods for forecasting network traffic volumes. Developed network design techniques center around a computerized topology program which enables the user to generate least cost network topologies that satisfy network traffic requirements, response time requirements and other specified functional requirements. The developed techniques were applied in Texas and Ohio, and results of these studies are presented.

  20. State Criminal Justice Telecommunications (STACOM). Final Report. Volume I: Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielding, J. E.; And Others

    The State Criminal Justice Telecommunications (STACOM) project has developed techniques for the identification and analysis of user requirements and designs for networks for the dissemination of criminal justice information on a state-wide basis. Techniques developed for user requirements analysis include methods for determining data required,…

  1. Criminal Justice. [FasTrak Specialization Integrated Technical and Academic Competency (ITAC).] 2002 Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.

    This curriculum for a criminal justice program is designed for students interested in pursuing a future in law enforcement or a related public safety profession. The criminal justice program in the career-technical and adult education center is a two-year curriculum that is divided into these 14 units: orientation; legal aspects; communication…

  2. Two Views of Criminology and Criminal Justice: Definitions, Trends, and the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, John P.; Myren, Richard A.

    The question of whether criminology and criminal justice are distinct fields is addressed in two papers. Differences between criminology and criminal justice are delineated by emphasizing formal definitions of the field(s), occupational roles, contemporary educational trends, and future development. According to John P. Conrad, criminology is the…

  3. To What Extent Is Criminal Justice Content Specifically Addressed in MSW Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epperson, Matthew W.; Roberts, Leslie E.; Ivanoff, Andre; Tripodi, Stephen J.; Gilmer, Christy N.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which criminal justice content is addressed in all CSWE-accredited MSW programs in the United States ("N"?=?192). Criminal justice content was measured in three areas: (1) dual or joint degree programs, (2) concentrations or specializations, and (3) coursework. Excluding social work and law classes, 22%…

  4. People with Mental Retardation in the Criminal Justice System. ARC Q&A #101-47.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Leigh Ann

    This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to summarize issues related to people with mental retardation in the criminal justice system. Questions and answers address the following topics: the number of people with mental retardation in the criminal justice system (2 to 10 percent of the prison population is mentally retarded); whether…

  5. Missing Out: Offenders with Learning Disabilities and the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Whilst there has been an increase in research and clinical attention relating to the accused person or offender with a learning disability in the criminal justice system, some major areas require further inter-agency effort. These areas include: better identification of this group, increased education and training for criminal justice personnel,…

  6. Estimating Criminal Justice System Costs and Cost-Savings Benefits of Day Reporting Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craddock, Amy

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on the net cost-savings benefits (loss) to the criminal justice system of one rural and one urban day reporting center, both of which serve high risk/high need probationers. It also discusses issues of conducting criminal justice system cost studies of community corrections programs. The average DRC participant in the rural…

  7. The Effects of Victim-Related Contextual Factors on the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Stacy Hoskins

    2011-01-01

    Despite numerous reforms designed to integrate the needs and concerns of crime victims into the criminal justice system, which include expanding programs for compensation and restitution, providing counseling and other services to victims, and increasing victims' involvement in the criminal justice process, critics have argued that these reforms…

  8. Treatment of Persons with Mental Illness in the Criminal Justice System: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Anna L. S.

    2012-01-01

    The number of mentally ill inmates in the criminal justice system has increased dramatically. This article evaluates the prevalence and causes of mental illness in the criminal justice system and describes the inadequate care that is provided, the effects of imprisonment, and the problem of rehabilitation. (Contains 4 notes.)

  9. Learning Disabilities and Criminal Justice: Custody Sergeants' Perceptions of Alleged Offenders with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellenbach, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Recent research demonstrates that despite increased attention and awareness by politicians and decision-makers, people with learning disabilities are still disadvantaged when engaging with the criminal justice system. It has been argued that shortcomings in providing support are because of criminal justice professionals lacking necessary skills…

  10. What Professionals Think about Offenders with Learning Disabilities in the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cant, Richard; Standen, Penny

    2007-01-01

    There is evidence that people with learning disabilities who offend are treated differently within the criminal justice system compared to non-disabled offenders. As their treatment depends on decisions made by professionals within the criminal justice system, this study set out to explore the attitudes of these professionals. Semi-structured…

  11. Tracking and location technologies for the criminal justice system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, John H.

    1995-05-01

    Electronic monitoring systems are being used by the criminal justice system to effect behavioral modifications of persons in pre-release prgrams, on parole, and on probation. State-of-the-art electronic monitoring systems are merely radio frequency proximity detection systems that operate over limited ranges, on the order of 45 to 70 meters. One major defect with proximity detection systems is that when the clients leave the area being monitored, there is no way to ensure that the clients are behaving properly. As a result, electronic monitoring systems are only applied to a restricted number of cases of low risk criminal offenders. There is a growing need for community-wide tracking and location technologies to increase the safety and security provided by the electronic monitoring systems, and to expand the number of cliets monitored by these systems. In this paper, a review is made of the tracking and location technologies that are currently available or under development. Also presented is a brief overview of Westinghouse's program with the National Institute of Justice. This program aims to demonstrate the practicality of one possible tracking and location technology, spread spectrum based time-of-arrival location systems, for intelligently tracking people on probation and parole.

  12. Medication-assisted treatment in criminal justice agencies affiliated with the criminal justice-drug abuse treatment studies (CJ-DATS): availability, barriers, and intentions.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, Peter D; Hoskinson, Randall; Gordon, Michael; Schwartz, Robert; Kinlock, Timothy; Knight, Kevin; Flynn, Patrick M; Welsh, Wayne N; Stein, Lynda A R; Sacks, Stanley; O'Connell, Daniel J; Knudsen, Hannah K; Shafer, Michael S; Hall, Elizabeth; Frisman, Linda K

    2012-01-01

    Medication-assisted treatment (MAT) is underutilized in the treatment of drug-dependent, criminal justice populations. This study surveyed criminal justice agencies affiliated with the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies (CJ-DATS) to assess use of MAT and factors influencing use of MAT. A convenience sample (N = 50) of criminal justice agency respondents (e.g., jails, prisons, parole/probation, and drug courts) completed a survey on MAT practices and attitudes. Pregnant women and individuals experiencing withdrawal were most likely to receive MAT for opiate dependence in jail or prison, whereas those reentering the community from jail or prison were the least likely to receive MAT. Factors influencing use of MAT included criminal justice preferences for drug-free treatment, limited knowledge of the benefits of MAT, security concerns, regulations prohibiting use of MAT for certain agencies, and lack of qualified medical staff. Differences across agency type in the factors influencing use and perceptions of MAT were also examined. MAT use is largely limited to detoxification and maintenance of pregnant women in criminal justice settings. Use of MAT during the community reentry period is minimal. Addressing inadequate knowledge and negative attitudes about MAT may increase its adoption, but better linkages to community pharmacotherapy during the reentry period might overcome other issues, including security, liability, staffing, and regulatory concerns. The CJ-DATS collaborative MAT implementation study to address inadequate knowledge, attitudes, and linkage will be described.

  13. 38 CFR 1.479 - Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of the criminal justice system which have referred patients. 1.479 Section 1.479 Pensions, Bonuses... Consent § 1.479 Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients. (a... part to those persons within the criminal justice system which have made participation in a...

  14. 42 CFR 2.35 - Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Disclosures With Patient's Consent § 2.35 Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have... criminal justice system which have made participation in the program a condition of the disposition of any...) The disclosure is made only to those individuals within the criminal justice system who have a...

  15. 38 CFR 1.479 - Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of the criminal justice system which have referred patients. 1.479 Section 1.479 Pensions, Bonuses... Consent § 1.479 Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients. (a... part to those persons within the criminal justice system which have made participation in a...

  16. 38 CFR 1.479 - Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of the criminal justice system which have referred patients. 1.479 Section 1.479 Pensions, Bonuses... Consent § 1.479 Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients. (a... part to those persons within the criminal justice system which have made participation in a...

  17. 38 CFR 1.479 - Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of the criminal justice system which have referred patients. 1.479 Section 1.479 Pensions, Bonuses... Consent § 1.479 Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients. (a... part to those persons within the criminal justice system which have made participation in a...

  18. 38 CFR 1.479 - Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of the criminal justice system which have referred patients. 1.479 Section 1.479 Pensions, Bonuses... Consent § 1.479 Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients. (a... part to those persons within the criminal justice system which have made participation in a...

  19. The frontal cortex and the criminal justice system.

    PubMed Central

    Sapolsky, Robert M

    2004-01-01

    In recent decades, the general trend in the criminal justice system in the USA has been to narrow the range of insanity defences available, with an increasing dependence solely on the M'Naghten rule. This states that innocence by reason of insanity requires that the perpetrator could not understand the nature of their criminal act, or did not know that the act was wrong, by reason of a mental illness. In this essay, I question the appropriateness of this, in light of contemporary neuroscience. Specifically, I focus on the role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in cognition, emotional regulation, control of impulsive behaviour and moral reasoning. I review the consequences of PFC damage on these endpoints, the capacity for factors such as alcohol and stress to transiently impair PFC function, and the remarkably late development of the PFC (in which full myelination may not occur until early adulthood). I also consider how individual variation in PFC function and anatomy, within the normative range, covaries with some of these endpoints. This literature is reviewed because of its relevance to issues of criminal insanity; specifically, damage can produce an individual capable of differentiating right from wrong but who, nonetheless, is organically incapable of appropriately regulating their behaviour. PMID:15590619

  20. The frontal cortex and the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Sapolsky, Robert M

    2004-11-29

    In recent decades, the general trend in the criminal justice system in the USA has been to narrow the range of insanity defences available, with an increasing dependence solely on the M'Naghten rule. This states that innocence by reason of insanity requires that the perpetrator could not understand the nature of their criminal act, or did not know that the act was wrong, by reason of a mental illness. In this essay, I question the appropriateness of this, in light of contemporary neuroscience. Specifically, I focus on the role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in cognition, emotional regulation, control of impulsive behaviour and moral reasoning. I review the consequences of PFC damage on these endpoints, the capacity for factors such as alcohol and stress to transiently impair PFC function, and the remarkably late development of the PFC (in which full myelination may not occur until early adulthood). I also consider how individual variation in PFC function and anatomy, within the normative range, covaries with some of these endpoints. This literature is reviewed because of its relevance to issues of criminal insanity; specifically, damage can produce an individual capable of differentiating right from wrong but who, nonetheless, is organically incapable of appropriately regulating their behaviour.

  1. "Coming Out" of Prison: An Exploratory Study of LGBT Elders in the Criminal Justice System.

    PubMed

    Maschi, Tina; Rees, Jo; Klein, Eileen

    2016-09-01

    This two-phase qualitative study explores the experiences of 10 formerly incarcerated LGBT elders' experiences prior to, during, and after release from prison. A core theme of self and the social mirror emerged from the data that represented LGBT elders ongoing coming-out process of unearthing their "true selves" despite managing multiple stigmatized identities or social locations, such as being LGBT, elderly, HIV positive, formerly incarcerated, and a racial/ethnic minority. These findings further our awareness of an overlooked population of LGBT who are older and involved in the criminal justice system. Recommendations that incorporate suggestions from formerly incarcerated LGBT elders for services and policy reform are presented.

  2. "Coming Out" of Prison: An Exploratory Study of LGBT Elders in the Criminal Justice System.

    PubMed

    Maschi, Tina; Rees, Jo; Klein, Eileen

    2016-09-01

    This two-phase qualitative study explores the experiences of 10 formerly incarcerated LGBT elders' experiences prior to, during, and after release from prison. A core theme of self and the social mirror emerged from the data that represented LGBT elders ongoing coming-out process of unearthing their "true selves" despite managing multiple stigmatized identities or social locations, such as being LGBT, elderly, HIV positive, formerly incarcerated, and a racial/ethnic minority. These findings further our awareness of an overlooked population of LGBT who are older and involved in the criminal justice system. Recommendations that incorporate suggestions from formerly incarcerated LGBT elders for services and policy reform are presented. PMID:27232373

  3. Racial and ethnic differences in reported criminal justice referral at treatment admission.

    PubMed

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Said, Manal; Owens, Darlene

    2012-01-01

    In the U.S. and elsewhere, the criminal justice system is a frequent referral source for substance abuse treatment admission. To expand and improve pathways to treatment, outreach efforts need additional information about different demographic groups. Locally, clinicians observed racial and ethnic differences between minority groups in self-identifying criminal justice as the referral sources for admission. To test this clinical observation, reported criminal justice referral was examined by race/ethnicity and gender in multiple years of both national and local treatment admissions. Confirming the clinical observations, racial/ethnic referral source by gender systematically differed across years nationally (p < .001) and in an examination of verbatim recorded presenting problems locally (p < .001). African Americans and Puerto Ricans were less likely to have criminal justice referral sources than the White reference group, whereas American Indians, Arab Americans, Asian Americans, and other Hispanic ethnicities were more likely to have criminal justice referral sources. Racial/ethnic groups systematically differed in reported criminal justice involvement, suggesting hypotheses potentially impacting clinical treatment and outreach. Published primary referral sources may underestimate criminal justice involvement in treatment admissions.

  4. Developing a Culturally Appropriate HIV and Hepatitis C Prevention Intervention for Latino Criminal Justice Clients.

    PubMed

    Ibañez, Gladys E; Whitt, Elaine; Rosa, Mario de la; Martin, Steve; O'Connell, Daniel; Castro, Jose

    2016-07-01

    The population within the criminal justice system suffers from various health disparities including HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV). African American and Latino offenders represent the majority of the offender population. Evidence-based interventions to prevent HIV and HCV among criminal justice clients are scant and usually do not take cultural differences into account. Toward this end, this study describes the process of culturally adapting an HIV/HCV prevention intervention for Latino criminal justice clients in Miami, Florida, by using the ecological validity model. Recommendations for culturally adapting an intervention for Latinos include an emphasis on language and integrating cultural themes such as familism and machismo.

  5. Developing a Culturally Appropriate HIV and Hepatitis C Prevention Intervention for Latino Criminal Justice Clients.

    PubMed

    Ibañez, Gladys E; Whitt, Elaine; Rosa, Mario de la; Martin, Steve; O'Connell, Daniel; Castro, Jose

    2016-07-01

    The population within the criminal justice system suffers from various health disparities including HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV). African American and Latino offenders represent the majority of the offender population. Evidence-based interventions to prevent HIV and HCV among criminal justice clients are scant and usually do not take cultural differences into account. Toward this end, this study describes the process of culturally adapting an HIV/HCV prevention intervention for Latino criminal justice clients in Miami, Florida, by using the ecological validity model. Recommendations for culturally adapting an intervention for Latinos include an emphasis on language and integrating cultural themes such as familism and machismo. PMID:27302706

  6. Applications of Psychology and the Criminal Justice System: A Black Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilliard, Thomas O.

    1977-01-01

    Clinical case data, psychological theory and empirical data were employed to demonstrate both useful action models and techniques, that may assist in addressing problems of blacks involved with the criminal justice system. (Author/AM)

  7. The experiences of homicide victims' families with the criminal justice system: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Englebrecht, Christine; Mason, Derek T; Adams, Margaret J

    2014-01-01

    Although the crime of homicide has received significant attention from scholars, little research exists that examines the impact of homicide on surviving family members. Because opportunities for victims and family members of victims to participate in the criminal justice system are increasing, it is important to understand the impact of these forms of participation on those who choose to participate. This study uses data from focus groups to examine the experiences of homicide survivors within the criminal justice system, including views about how system involvement and specific outcomes (i.e., sentencing) may help or hinder healing. Findings suggest that many families leave the criminal justice system feeling marginalized and revictimized. This study calls into question the current criminal justice system's ability to meet the needs of crime victim and their families.

  8. Criminal Justice Involvement and Service Need among Men on Methadone who Have Perpetrated Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Elwin; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Sarfo, Bright; Seewald, Randy

    2010-01-01

    Perpetrators of male-to-female intimate partner violence (IPV) may be likely to have multiple service needs, the extent of which may vary with respect to criminal justice involvement. The salience of the criminal justice system and the potential impact on service needs due to arrest and incarceration is underscored given the association between substance use and IPV. This study utilized a sample of men in methadone treatment who perpetrated male-to-female IPV in order to examine associations between criminal justice involvement and perceived additional service need(s). Results indicate that the likelihood of having a service need(s) significantly increased as time since most recent arrest or incarceration decreased. These findings highlight the need and potential benefit that can be derived from greater coordination amongst the criminal justice, IPV prevention, and drug treatment systems and service providers. PMID:20657804

  9. Involvement in the US criminal justice system and cost implications for persons treated for schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Individuals with schizophrenia may have a higher risk of encounters with the criminal justice system than the general population, but there are limited data on such encounters and their attendant costs. This study assessed the prevalence of encounters with the criminal justice system, encounter types, and the estimated cost attributable to these encounters in the one-year treatment of persons with schizophrenia. Methods This post-hoc analysis used data from a prospective one-year cost-effectiveness study of persons treated with antipsychotics for schizophrenia and related disorders in the United States. Criminal justice system involvement was assessed using the Schizophrenia Patients Outcome Research Team (PORT) client survey and the victimization subscale of the Lehman Quality of Life Interview (QOLI). Direct cost of criminal justice system involvement was estimated using previously reported costs per type of encounter. Patients with and without involvement were compared on baseline characteristics and direct annual health care and criminal justice system-related costs. Results Overall, 278 (46%) of 609 participants reported at least 1 criminal justice system encounter. They were more likely to be substance users and less adherent to antipsychotics compared to participants without involvement. The 2 most prevalent types of encounters were being a victim of a crime (67%) and being on parole or probation (26%). The mean annual per-patient cost of involvement was $1,429, translating to 6% of total annual direct health care costs for those with involvement (11% when excluding crime victims). Conclusions Criminal justice system involvement appears to be prevalent and costly for persons treated for schizophrenia in the United States. Findings highlight the need to better understand the interface between the mental health and the criminal justice systems and the related costs, in personal, societal, and economic terms. PMID:20109170

  10. Case studies from three states: breaking down silos between health care and criminal justice.

    PubMed

    Bechelli, Matthew J; Caudy, Michael; Gardner, Tracie M; Huber, Alice; Mancuso, David; Samuels, Paul; Shah, Tanya; Venters, Homer D

    2014-03-01

    The jail-involved population-people with a history of arrest in the previous year-has high rates of illness, which leads to high costs for society. A significant percentage of jail-involved people are estimated to become newly eligible for coverage through the Affordable Care Act's expansion of Medicaid, including coverage of substance abuse treatment and mental health care. In this article we explore the need to break down the current policy silos between health care and criminal justice, to benefit both sectors and reduce unnecessary costs resulting from lack of coordination. To draw attention to the hidden costs of the current system, we review three case studies, from Washington State, Los Angeles County in California, and New York City. Each case study addresses different aspects of care needed by or provided to the jail-involved population, including mental health and substance abuse, emergency care, and coordination of care transitions. Ultimately, bending the cost curve for health care and criminal justice will require greater integration of the two systems. PMID:24590948

  11. Childhood antecedents of incarceration and criminal justice involvement among homeless veterans.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2013-10-01

    Although criminal justice involvement and incarceration are common problems for homeless veterans, few studies have examined childhood risk factors for criminal justice involvement among veterans. This study examined the association between three types of childhood problems, family instability, conduct disorder behaviors, and childhood abuse, and criminal justice involvement and incarceration in adulthood. Data from 1,161 homeless veterans across 19 sites participating in the Housing and Urban Development-Veterans Affairs Supportive Housing program were examined. After controlling for sociodemographics and mental health diagnoses, veterans who reported more conduct disorder behaviors during childhood tended to report more criminal charges of all types, more convictions, and longer periods of incarceration during adulthood. However, the variance explained in criminal behavior by childhood was not large, suggesting that there are other factors that affect the trajectory by which homeless veterans become involved in the criminal justice system. Further research is needed to intervene in the pathway to the criminal justice system and guide efforts to prevent incarceration among veterans.

  12. [Effect of criminal justice on civil rights apprehension].

    PubMed

    Deutsch, E

    1998-10-01

    Private law and criminal law are different in more than one way. On occasion, they overlap. Further liability may result from disregard of a criminal act. As far as the evidence is concerned, criminal law requires a higher degree of probability than private law. If the same case is subject to criminal and civil proceedings, both courts are not bound by each other's decisions.

  13. Commercializing Success: The Impact of Popular Media on the Career Decisions and Perceptual Accuracy of Criminal Justice Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barthe, Emmanuel P.; Leone, Matthew C.; Lateano, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Interest in the field of criminal justice continues to grow and attract students to this area of higher education. These students typically represent society in that their beliefs about the justice system are based on media depictions, not education or experience. This study surveyed Introduction to Criminal Justice students from two universities,…

  14. The Age of Criminal Responsibility: "The Frontier between Care and Justice"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillen, John

    2006-01-01

    This is an extract from a speech given by Mr Justice Gillen to a conference in Belfast organised by Children Law UK in January 2006. It addresses the potential conflict between the concept of the welfare of children inherent in the family care system and that of responsibility inherent in the criminal justice system. It questions whether the…

  15. 75 FR 18887 - FBI Criminal Justice Information Services Division User Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... schedule for fingerprint- based and name-based criminal history record checks performed by the FBI's... routinely establish and collect fees for noncriminal justice fingerprint-based and other identification... requesting fingerprint identification records and name checks for noncriminal justice purposes. Elsewhere...

  16. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Fast, Diane K; Conry, Julianne

    2009-01-01

    The life-long neurological impairments found in people with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs), including learning disabilities, impulsivity, hyperactivity, social ineptness, and poor judgment, can increase susceptibility to victimization and involvement in the criminal justice system (CJS). Individuals with FASDs become involved in the CJS as complainants, witnesses, and accused. Their disabilities, resulting from the prenatal alcohol exposure, must be considered at all stages in the legal process. Adverse experiences, such as having a dysfunctional family background, mental health problems, and substance use disorders, are compounding factors. Experiencing physical, sexual, and emotional abuse also increases the risk that these individuals will become involved in the CJS. It is critical that everyone involved in the CJS receives education and training to understand FASD and the implications for the individual offender. A comprehensive medical-legal report, prepared by professionals experienced with FASD, can help judges and lawyers understand the complex interactions among brain damage, genetics and the environment. Corrections workers and probation officers need to comprehend the significance of FASD and how it affects the offender's abilities to understand and follow rules and probation orders. Caregivers and parents need to be involved whenever possible. Early recognition of the disabilities associated with FASDs may help reduce the over-representation of this group in the CJS. PMID:19731365

  17. Criminal justice outcomes after engagement in outpatient substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Garnick, Deborah W; Horgan, Constance M; Acevedo, Andrea; Lee, Margaret T; Panas, Lee; Ritter, Grant A; Dunigan, Robert; Bidorini, Alfred; Campbell, Kevin; Haberlin, Karin; Huber, Alice; Lambert-Wacey, Dawn; Leeper, Tracy; Reynolds, Mark; Wright, David

    2014-03-01

    The relationship between engagement in outpatient treatment facilities in the public sector and subsequent arrest is examined for clients in Connecticut, New York, Oklahoma and Washington. Engagement is defined as receiving another treatment service within 14 days of beginning a new episode of specialty treatment and at least two additional services within the next 30 days. Data are from 2008 and survival analysis modeling is used. Survival analyses express the effects of model covariates in terms of "hazard ratios," which reflect a change in the likelihood of outcome because of the covariate. Engaged clients had a significantly lower hazard of any arrest than non-engaged in all four states. In NY and OK, engaged clients also had a lower hazard of arrest for substance-related crimes. In CT, NY, and OK engaged clients had a lower hazard of arrest for violent crime. Clients in facilities with higher engagement rates had a lower hazard of any arrest in NY and OK. Engaging clients in outpatient treatment is a promising approach to decrease their subsequent criminal justice involvement.

  18. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Fast, Diane K; Conry, Julianne

    2009-01-01

    The life-long neurological impairments found in people with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs), including learning disabilities, impulsivity, hyperactivity, social ineptness, and poor judgment, can increase susceptibility to victimization and involvement in the criminal justice system (CJS). Individuals with FASDs become involved in the CJS as complainants, witnesses, and accused. Their disabilities, resulting from the prenatal alcohol exposure, must be considered at all stages in the legal process. Adverse experiences, such as having a dysfunctional family background, mental health problems, and substance use disorders, are compounding factors. Experiencing physical, sexual, and emotional abuse also increases the risk that these individuals will become involved in the CJS. It is critical that everyone involved in the CJS receives education and training to understand FASD and the implications for the individual offender. A comprehensive medical-legal report, prepared by professionals experienced with FASD, can help judges and lawyers understand the complex interactions among brain damage, genetics and the environment. Corrections workers and probation officers need to comprehend the significance of FASD and how it affects the offender's abilities to understand and follow rules and probation orders. Caregivers and parents need to be involved whenever possible. Early recognition of the disabilities associated with FASDs may help reduce the over-representation of this group in the CJS.

  19. Watching the detectives: crime programming, fear of crime, and attitudes about the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Kort-Butler, Lisa A; Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J

    2011-01-01

    Research demonstrates a complex relationship between television viewing and fear of crime. Social critics assert that media depictions perpetuate the dominant cultural ideology about crime and criminal justice. This article examines whether program type differentially affects fear of crime and perceptions of the crime rate. Next, it tests whether such programming differentially affects viewers' attitudes about the criminal justice system, and if these relationships are mediated by fear. Results indicated that fear mediated the relationship between viewing nonfictional shows and lack of support for the justice system. Viewing crime dramas predicted support for the death penalty, but this relationship was not mediated by fear. News viewership was unrelated to either fear or attitudes. The results support the idea that program type matters when it comes to understanding people's fear of crime and their attitudes about criminal justice.

  20. Watching the detectives: crime programming, fear of crime, and attitudes about the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Kort-Butler, Lisa A; Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J

    2011-01-01

    Research demonstrates a complex relationship between television viewing and fear of crime. Social critics assert that media depictions perpetuate the dominant cultural ideology about crime and criminal justice. This article examines whether program type differentially affects fear of crime and perceptions of the crime rate. Next, it tests whether such programming differentially affects viewers' attitudes about the criminal justice system, and if these relationships are mediated by fear. Results indicated that fear mediated the relationship between viewing nonfictional shows and lack of support for the justice system. Viewing crime dramas predicted support for the death penalty, but this relationship was not mediated by fear. News viewership was unrelated to either fear or attitudes. The results support the idea that program type matters when it comes to understanding people's fear of crime and their attitudes about criminal justice. PMID:21337735

  1. The Scope of Practice of Occupational Therapy in U.S. Criminal Justice Settings.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Jaime P; Moreton, Emily M; Sitterly, Audra M

    2016-09-01

    In the past 40 years, prison populations in the U.S. have nearly quadrupled while funding for rehabilitation, education and other programmes has been cut. Despite accounting for a small fraction of the world's population more than 20% of the worlds incarcerated population is in the U.S. and the rate of recidivism remains alarmingly high. Occupational therapists have the capability to play a significant role in addressing the needs of persons within the criminal justice system. However, the profession has been slow to delineate of the role occupational therapy within criminal justice settings. This study sought to provide a descriptive analysis of current occupational therapy roles and practices within the U.S. criminal justice system. Using survey research methods, the researchers collected data from respondents (N = 45; Response Rate + 51.7%) to establish a baseline of the scope of practices employed by occupational therapists working in the U.S. criminal justice system. U.S. practitioners work within institutional and community based criminal justice settings. Primary practice models, assessments and group interventions were catalogued. Respondents strongly valued the creation of networking to build the professions' presence within criminal justice settings. Occupational therapy in the criminal justice system remains an emerging practice arena. Understanding the current scope of practice in the U.S. and creating a mechanism for collaboration may help increase the depth, breadth and overall growth of the profession's role in these settings. The sampling method does not guarantee a representative sample of the population and is limited to practice within the United States. Survey design may not have allowed for respondents to fully describe their practice experiences. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27094024

  2. The Scope of Practice of Occupational Therapy in U.S. Criminal Justice Settings.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Jaime P; Moreton, Emily M; Sitterly, Audra M

    2016-09-01

    In the past 40 years, prison populations in the U.S. have nearly quadrupled while funding for rehabilitation, education and other programmes has been cut. Despite accounting for a small fraction of the world's population more than 20% of the worlds incarcerated population is in the U.S. and the rate of recidivism remains alarmingly high. Occupational therapists have the capability to play a significant role in addressing the needs of persons within the criminal justice system. However, the profession has been slow to delineate of the role occupational therapy within criminal justice settings. This study sought to provide a descriptive analysis of current occupational therapy roles and practices within the U.S. criminal justice system. Using survey research methods, the researchers collected data from respondents (N = 45; Response Rate + 51.7%) to establish a baseline of the scope of practices employed by occupational therapists working in the U.S. criminal justice system. U.S. practitioners work within institutional and community based criminal justice settings. Primary practice models, assessments and group interventions were catalogued. Respondents strongly valued the creation of networking to build the professions' presence within criminal justice settings. Occupational therapy in the criminal justice system remains an emerging practice arena. Understanding the current scope of practice in the U.S. and creating a mechanism for collaboration may help increase the depth, breadth and overall growth of the profession's role in these settings. The sampling method does not guarantee a representative sample of the population and is limited to practice within the United States. Survey design may not have allowed for respondents to fully describe their practice experiences. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Help-seeking patterns among women experiencing intimate partner violence: do they forgo the criminal justice system if their adjudication wishes are not met?

    PubMed

    Cerulli, Catherine; Kothari, Catherine; Dichter, Melissa; Marcus, Steve; Kim, Tae Kuen; Wiley, Jim; Rhodes, Karin V

    2015-01-01

    Following a criminal case disposition, an intimate partner violence (IPV) victim's willingness to seek future police and prosecutorial assistance may depend on her prior experiences within the system. This longitudinal study examines the relationship between IPV victims' future help-seeking based on past experiences. We hypothesized women would return to the criminal justice system if their adjudication wishes corresponded with prosecutors' actions. Contrary to the hypothesis, results suggest women return to the criminal system and other venues even if prosecutors' actions do not correspond to their earlier stated wishes. This has important policy implications given pro-prosecution protocols that encourage adjudication regardless of a woman's participation.

  4. Information sharing between the National Health Service and criminal justice system in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Lennox, Charlotte; Mason, Julie; McDonnell, Sharon; Shaw, Jenny; Senior, Jane

    2012-09-01

    Offenders with mental health problems often have complex and interrelated needs which separately challenge the criminal justice system (CJS) and National Health Service (NHS) in the United Kingdom (U.K.). Consequently, interagency collaboration and timely information sharing are essential. This study focused on the sharing of information about people with mental health problems in contact with the CJS. Questionnaires were distributed to a range of health and criminal justice personnel. The results showed that there was a mismatch between what service user information criminal justice agencies felt they needed and what was routinely received. Prison Service staff received more information (between 15% and 37%) from health agencies than the police (between 6% and 22%). Health professionals received most of the information they needed from criminal justice agencies (between 55% and 85%). Sharing service user information was impeded by incompatible computer systems and restrictions due to data protection/confidentiality requirements. In the U.K., recent governmental publications have highlighted the importance of information sharing; however there remains a clear mismatch between what health related information about service users criminal justice agencies need, and what is actually received. Better guidance is required to encourage and empower people to share.

  5. Resistance to the mainlandization of criminal justice practices: a barrier to the development of restorative justice in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lo, T Wing

    2012-06-01

    This article examines the political and legal barriers to introducing restorative justice (RJ) in Hong Kong. It argues that the processes involved in RJ may be in conflict with the rule of law, which is regarded by the citizens of Hong Kong as sacrosanct in their resistance to the "mainlandization" of criminal justice practices after China resumed sovereignty of Hong Kong. It is argued that, because it could admit such potentially harmful Chinese criminal justice concepts as "rule by the people," "absence of the presumption of innocence," "leniency for self-confession and severity for resistance," and "toeing the party line," RJ would be devoid of any restorative substance and could breach the principles of due process.

  6. 77 FR 20051 - Meeting of the CJIS Advisory Policy Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... the Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS) Advisory Policy Board (APB). The CJIS APB is a... Trent, CJIS Designated Federal Officer, Criminal Justice Information Services Division, Federal Bureau... Crime Information Center, National Instant Criminal Background Check System, National...

  7. HIV Treatment in the Criminal Justice System: Critical Knowledge and Intervention Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Jaimie P.; Chen, Nadine E.; Springer, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    The criminal justice system bears a disproportionate burden of the HIV epidemic. Continuity of care is critical for HAART-based prevention of HIV-related morbidity and mortality. This paper describes four major challenges to successful management of HIV in the criminal justice system: relapse to substance use, homelessness, mental illness, and loss of medical and social benefits. Each of these areas constitutes a competing priority upon release that demands immediate attention and diverts time, energy, and valuable resources away from engagement in care and adherence to HAART. Numerous gaps exist in scientific knowledge about these issues and potential solutions. In illuminating these knowledge deficits, we present a contemporary research agenda for the management of HIV in correctional systems. Future empirical research should focus on these critical issues in HIV-infected prisoners and releasees while interventional research should incorporate evidence-based solutions into the criminal justice setting. PMID:21776379

  8. A Review of Opportunities to Improve the Health of People Involved in the Criminal Justice System in the United States.

    PubMed

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Heller, Daliah

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, many constituencies have questioned the efficacy, cost, and unintended consequences of mass incarceration in the United States. Although substantial evidence now demonstrates that US incarceration policies have had unintended adverse health consequences, we know less about the strategies and policies that can prevent or reduce these problems for justice-involved individuals and how the criminal justice system (CJS) can contribute to the Healthy People 2020 national goal of eliminating inequities in health. This review examines strategies that have been used to improve the health of people at various stages of CJS involvement, including diversion from jail and prison stays into community settings, improvements to the social and physical environments within correctional facilities, provision of health and other services to inmates, assistance for people leaving correctional facilities to make the transition back to the community, and systems coordination and integration. PMID:26789388

  9. A Review of Opportunities to Improve the Health of People Involved in the Criminal Justice System in the United States.

    PubMed

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Heller, Daliah

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, many constituencies have questioned the efficacy, cost, and unintended consequences of mass incarceration in the United States. Although substantial evidence now demonstrates that US incarceration policies have had unintended adverse health consequences, we know less about the strategies and policies that can prevent or reduce these problems for justice-involved individuals and how the criminal justice system (CJS) can contribute to the Healthy People 2020 national goal of eliminating inequities in health. This review examines strategies that have been used to improve the health of people at various stages of CJS involvement, including diversion from jail and prison stays into community settings, improvements to the social and physical environments within correctional facilities, provision of health and other services to inmates, assistance for people leaving correctional facilities to make the transition back to the community, and systems coordination and integration.

  10. The Lloyd Sealy Library of John Jay College of Criminal Justice: Academic Library, Special Library, or Both?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    The Lloyd Sealy Library of John Jay College of Criminal Justice started as a small collection of books in the corner of the New York City Police Academy. A little over four decades later, it now contains one of the best collections of criminal justice materials in the world. Despite fiscal setbacks and tough times for the University and the…

  11. 5 CFR 733.102 - Exclusion of employees in the Criminal Division of the United States Department of Justice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exclusion of employees in the Criminal Division of the United States Department of Justice. 733.102 Section 733.102 Administrative Personnel... Division of the United States Department of Justice. Employees in the Criminal Division in the...

  12. Substance abuse prevention and treatment within the criminal justice system: an overview of the issues.

    PubMed

    Campbell-Heider, Nancy; Baird, Carolyn

    2012-02-01

    Many nurses, especially those in addictions, work directly in the prison system and or relate to inmates before or after institutionalization for criminal activity. This connection led to the theme of the 2009 Annual Education Conference held in Albuquerque, New Mexico, entitled "Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment: Working with the Criminal Justice Systems." The conference was partially funded through an award from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (grant # SP015963) and focused on identifying the special risk factors for and barriers to the treatment of addictions for those who enter the criminal justice system. The conference, presented in collaboration with the American Association of Nurse Attorneys (AANA) highlighted the tremendous need for more access to addictions and mental health providers in the criminal justice system. Papers presented at that conference confirmed that nurses can make a real difference in the health of inmates, especially those of us engaged in addictions and mental health practices, and inspired this specially focused edition of the Journal of Addictions Nursing. The purpose of this editorial is to provide an overview of the addictions problems affecting individuals under supervision in the criminal justice system, barriers to treatment within this system, and the cost-benefits of evidence based treatment.

  13. The state of research funding from the National Institutes of Health for criminal justice health research

    PubMed Central

    Ahalt, Cyrus; Bolano, Marielle; Wang, Emily A.; Williams, Brie

    2015-01-01

    Background Over 20 million Americans are currently incarcerated or have been in the past. Most are from medically underserved populations; one in three African American men and one in six Latino men born in 2001 are projected to go to prison during their lifetimes. The amount of funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to understand and improve the health of criminal justice-involved persons is unknown. Objective Describe NIH funding for research addressing the health and healthcare needs of criminal justice-involved individuals. Design Review of NIH grants (from 2008 through 2012) in the RePORT (Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools) database. Setting The NIH RePORT database. Patients Criminal justice involved individuals participating in NIH-funded clinical research. Measurements NIH research and training grants awarded by number, type, research area, institute or center, and dollar amount. Results Of more than 250,000 NIH funded grants, 180 (less than 0.1%) focused on criminal justice health research. The three most common foci of criminal justice health research grants were substance use and/or HIV (64%), mental health (11%), and juvenile health (8%). Two institutes, the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the National Institute of Mental Health, funded 78% of all grants. In 2012, the NIH invested $40.9 million in criminal justice health research, or 1.5% of the $2.7 billion health disparities budget for that year. Limitations NIH-supported research that did not explicitly include current or former prisoners but may have relevance to criminal justice health was not included. Conclusions Federal funding for research focused on understanding and improving the health of criminal justice-involved persons is small, even when compared to the NIH’s overall investment in health disparities research. The NIH is well-positioned to transform the care of current and former prisoners by investing in this critical yet overlooked research area. Primary

  14. ERIC First Analysis: 1976-77 National High School Debate Resolutions (How Can the Criminal Justice System in the United States Best Be Improved?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Robert B.

    The goal of this booklet is to assist debaters in developing problem-solving skills as represented in the 1976-77 debate topic: How can the criminal justice system in the United States best be improved? The sections of this document focus on the need for criminal justice reform; procedural steps in the criminal justice system; discussing or…

  15. Memory Interventions in the Criminal Justice System: Some Practical Ethical Considerations.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Laura Y; Elger, Bernice S

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, discussion around memory modification interventions has gained attention. However, discussion around the use of memory interventions in the criminal justice system has been mostly absent. In this paper we start by highlighting the importance memory has for human well-being and personal identity, as well as its role within the criminal forensic setting; in particular, for claiming and accepting legal responsibility, for moral learning, and for retribution. We provide examples of memory interventions that are currently available for medical purposes, but that in the future could be used in the forensic setting to modify criminal offenders' memories. In this section we contrast the cases of (1) dampening and (2) enhancing memories of criminal offenders. We then present from a pragmatic approach some pressing ethical issues associated with these types of memory interventions. The paper ends up highlighting how these pragmatic considerations can help establish ethically justified criteria regarding the possibility of interventions aimed at modifying criminal offenders' memories.

  16. Policy Implications of Social Justice in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Barry

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes the implications of a particular conception of social justice in education for the policies that have led to significant political controversies in contemporary communities in the United States. Many of these controversies have arisen from the collision between the increasingly multicultural reality in those communities and…

  17. The Substance Abuse Counseling Needs of Women in the Criminal Justice System: A Needs Assessment Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, John M.; Dupuy, Paula J.; Moe, Jeffry L.; Cox, Jane A.; Lambert, Eric; Ventura, Lois A.; Williamson, Celia; Benjamin, Barbaranne J.

    2008-01-01

    The authors assessed the substance abuse counseling needs of women in the criminal justice system using interviews (n = 304) and surveys (n = 1,170). On the basis of the results, the authors call for gender-specific treatment as well as family-oriented support for women who are mothers.

  18. AIDS and HIV Training and Education in Criminal Justice Agencies. AIDS Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammett, Theodore M.

    This bulletin summarizes key elements of an effective AIDS training and education program for law enforcement and corrections personnel. First, these key elements of training and education for criminal justice personnel are discussed: staff participation in materials development; timely and frequent training; mandatory training; live training by…

  19. Substance Abuse Treatment For Adults in the Criminal Justice System. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 44

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Catalina; Dinsmore, Janet; Gilbert, J. Max; Kornblum, Annette; Latham, Joyce; Oliff, Helen; Paisner, Susan; Sutton, David

    2005-01-01

    This Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) provides guidelines for counselors and criminal justice personnel who treat offenders with substance use disorders. TIPs are best-practice guidelines that make the latest research in substance abuse treatment available to counselors and educators. The content was generated by a panel of experts in the…

  20. Abused Women's Perspectives on the Criminal Justice System's Response to Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barata, Paula C.

    2007-01-01

    This study used Q methodology to better understand battered women's views about the criminal justice system (CJS). Fifty-eight abused and formerly abused women, representing a broad range of experiences, were involved in the study. Participants sorted 72 statements about domestic violence and the CJS according to how strongly they agreed with each…

  1. D.C. Government. Noneducation Factors Hindered Criminal Justice Initiative. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. General Government Div.

    The Criminal Justice Initiative (CJI) was conducted in Washington, D.C. from fiscal year 1984 through fiscal year 1986 to relieve overcrowded prison conditions by reducing the recidivism rate. Objectives of the project included hiring additional prison staff to provide security and increase prisoner processing, expanding the education program, and…

  2. Impact of information about sentencing decisions on public attitudes toward the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    St Amand, M D; Zamble, E

    2001-10-01

    Research reveals public dissatisfaction with perceived leniency of the criminal justice system. However, when asked to sentence hypothetical offenders, members of the public tend to choose dispositions similar to what current court practices prescribe. In two studies reported here, subjects completed a mock sentencing exercise and a general attitude survey. In an initial pilot study, they expressed general dissatisfaction with the criminal justice system but the relative punitiveness of their sentences (in terms of their perceptions of how severe various sentencing options are) was only slightly elevated above a set of reference sentences. Providing a typical judge's sentencing decisions did not decrease dissatisfaction but was associated with an anchoring effect. This effect was explored in the main study by manipulating the provided reference sentences to be either lenient, moderate, or punitive. Again, participants expressed general dissatisfaction with the criminal justice system but prescribed generally moderate sentences, anchoring their sentences to the information provided. However, only those exposed to moderate "typical" sentences subsequently reported reduced dissatisfaction with the criminal justice system.

  3. Variables Associated with Repeated Suicide Attempt in a Criminal Justice Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakansson, Anders; Bradvik, Louise; Schlyter, Frans; Berglund, Mats

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with repeated suicide attempts among criminal justice clients examined for substance abuse using the Addiction Severity Index. Among suicide attempters (n = 1,404), repeaters (two or more attempts, n = 770) were compared to nonrepeaters. In logistic regression, repetition was associated with…

  4. Pathways into the Criminal Justice System for Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raina, Poonam; Arenovich, Tamara; Jones, Jessica; Lunsky, Yona

    2013-01-01

    Background: Studies focusing on pathways in the criminal justice system for individuals with intellectual disability are limited in that they only study individuals once they are involved in the system and do not consider the pathways into it. The purpose of this study is to examine predisposing factors that lead to various outcomes for…

  5. Academic Disciplines and Debates: An Essay on Criminal Justice and Criminology as Professions in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morn, Frank T.

    Current developments concerning criminology and criminal justice education are viewed historically and placed within a broader perspective of academic professionalization, and a few of the debates going on within and between the two fields are considered. Some early sociologists made considerable claim to studies of crime, and criminology and…

  6. Crime and Control: Syllabi and Instructional Materials for Criminology and Criminal Justice. Resource Materials for Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutschmann, Linda B., Ed.; Wright, Richard A., Ed.

    One of a series of resources for teaching sociology at the postsecondary level, this volume contains syllabi and instructional materials for courses in criminology and criminal justice. Material is divided into four sections. Section 1, innovative approaches to the teaching of criminology, contains four papers which discuss a corrections practicum…

  7. Applying Threshold Concepts Theory to an Unsettled Field: An Exploratory Study in Criminal Justice Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimshurst, Kerry

    2011-01-01

    Criminal justice education is a relatively new program in higher education in many countries, and its curriculum and parameters remain unsettled. An exploratory study investigated whether threshold concepts theory provided a useful lens by which to explore student understandings of this multidisciplinary field. Eight high-performing final-year…

  8. The Literature of Higher Education in Criminology and Criminal Justice: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carolyn

    Included in this bibliography of about 500 items on criminology/criminal justice higher education is information on programs, services, and the issues that must be considered in the quest for quality education. Journal articles, essays, books, chapters, government publications, catalogs and conference proceedings from the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s…

  9. People with an Intellectual Disability and the Criminal Justice System: The Family Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cockram, Judith; Jackson, Robert; Underwood, Rod

    1998-01-01

    An Australian study interviewed 20 family caregivers for individuals with intellectual disabilities who were offenders in the criminal justice system. Caregivers expressed concern for the lack of sentencing options and the inadequate level of services for this population. It is argued that these offenders require legal representation from the…

  10. Academic Politics and the History of Criminal Justice Education. Contributions in Criminology and Penology, No. 46.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morn, Frank

    This book reviews the history of academic criminal justice--the studying and teaching of crime, police, law and legal processes, and corrections--from 1870 to the present. The nine chapters have the following titles: (1) "Introduction: Academic Politics and Professionalism, 1870-1930"; (2) "Progressivism and Police Education, 1910-1935"; (3)…

  11. A Comparative Analysis of Service Learning in Social Work and Criminal Justice Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Elissa E.; Davis, Jaya; Cronley, Courtney

    2014-01-01

    The current study sought input from a national sample of social work (SW) and criminal justice (CJ) educators ("N" = 276) to explore characteristics of those who use service learning in the two disciplines, differences in the conceptions of and beliefs about service learning, and distinctions in how it is used and implemented. This study…

  12. A Systematic Review of People with Autism Spectrum Disorder and the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Claire; Murphy, Glynis H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a systemic review of the available literature on people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the criminal justice system (CJS). The review considers two main types of study: those that examined the prevalence of people with ASD in the CJS and those that examined the prevalence of offending in populations with ASD. In…

  13. Evaluating Health Outcomes of Criminal Justice Populations Using Record Linkage: The Importance of Aliases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larney, Sarah; Burns, Lucy

    2011-01-01

    Individuals in contact with the criminal justice system are a key population of concern to public health. Record linkage studies can be useful for studying health outcomes for this group, but the use of aliases complicates the process of linking records across databases. This study was undertaken to determine the impact of aliases on sensitivity…

  14. The Clinical Mental Health Counseling Needs of Mothers in the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, John M.; Calmes, Stephanie; Moe, Jeffry L.; Dupuy, Paula J.; Cox, Jane A.; Ventura, Lois A.; Williamson, Celia; Benjamin, Barbaranne J.; Lambert, Eric

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the mental health (MH) needs of mothers in the criminal justice system using qualitative methods. Identified needs included counseling to help mothers recover from trauma, to define sense of self, and to link them with external support systems. This study confirms and extends the knowledge base regarding the MH status and…

  15. The Career Counseling Needs of Mothers in the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, John M.; Calmes, Stephanie; Moe, Jeffry L.; Dupuy, Paula J.; Cox, Jane A.; Ventura, Lois A.; Williamson, Celia; Benjamin, Barbaranne J.; Lambert, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The past 2 decades have produced a rapid increase in the numbers of incarcerated mothers. This study investigated both career development and the career counseling needs of mothers in the criminal justice system. A mixed-methods design was employed using both qualitative interviews (n = 1,161) and quantitative survey methods (n = 1,170).…

  16. The Criminal Justice Doctorate: A Study of Doctoral Programs in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felkenes, George T.

    Graduates of six institutions were surveyed in an effort to develop a profile of doctoral graduates from institutions that have traditionally offered doctoral programs oriented specifically toward the field of criminal justice. A second research objective was to develop an understanding of the attitudes, frustrations, and utilization patterns of…

  17. A Rape Empathy Training Program for Criminal Justice Workers: A Conceptual Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machell, David F.

    This paper describes the conceptual framework for a rape empathy training program for criminal justice workers. The framework will serve as the guidelines for a planned program manual. Together, this paper and the future manual will serve to encourage empathy in workers who are willing to foster empathy but who are inhibited from feeling empathy…

  18. What Makes a Good Criminal Justice Professor? A Quantitative Analysis of Student Evaluation Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerkin, Patrick M.; Kierkus, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research is to understand how students define teaching effectiveness. By using multivariate regression analysis of 8,000+ student evaluations of teaching compiled by a School of Criminal Justice at a Midwestern public university, this paper explores the relationships between individual indicators of instructor performance (e.g.…

  19. Tech-Prep: The School-to-Work Connection in Criminal Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Striegel, David; Gray, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Suggests that community colleges should focus more on academics than on technical skills when preparing students to enter the criminal justice system. Asserts that the technical skills needed by workers in law enforcement can be acquired in the police academy, while crucial critical thinking and writing skills are better taught in the college…

  20. An Evaluation of a Service-Learning Model for Criminal Justice Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschinger-Blank, Nancy Beth; Simons, Lori; Kenyon, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    A triangulation mixed-methods design was used to measure differences in service-learning outcomes for 32 students enrolled in criminal justice courses during the academic years 2003 (n = 16) and 2005 (n = 16). Results show that service-learners increase their political awareness and course value but experience a decrease in problem-solving skills…

  1. Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities in the Criminal Justice System and Implications for Transition Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Tammy; Polloway, Edward A.; Patton, James R.; Beyer, Julia F.

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this manuscript is on the challenges faced by individuals with developmental and intellectual disabilities within the criminal justice system. Prevalence data are cited and these data are interpreted in light of possible rationales for the disproportionate number of individuals with disabilities present within the system. Then the…

  2. Specious Rights: Myth vs. Reality in the American Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhardt, William R.

    2010-01-01

    Contrary to the dominant discourse metanarrative, this dissertation explores, re-exposes, and updates the generally hidden realities of what is actually taking place in the current operation of the American criminal justice system. The government/dominant discourse benefits from the amorphous ambiguity of the law in conjunction with its usage of…

  3. Prompted to treatment by the criminal justice system: Relationships with treatment retention and outcome among cocaine users

    PubMed Central

    Kiluk, Brian D.; Serafini, Kelly; Malin-Mayor, Bo; Babuscio, Theresa A.; Nich, Charla; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives A substantial portion of individuals entering treatment for substance use have been referred by the criminal justice system, yet there are conflicting reports regarding treatment engagement and outcome differences compared to those not referred. This study examined baseline characteristic and treatment outcome differences among cocaine-dependent individuals participating in cocaine treatment randomized trials. Methods This secondary analysis pooled samples across five completed randomized controlled trials, resulting in 434 participants. Of these, 67 (15%) were prompted to treatment by the criminal justice system. Results This subsample of criminal justice prompted (CJP) individuals did not differ from those not prompted by the criminal justice system in terms of gender, race/ethnicity, marital status, or age. However, the CJP group reported more years of regular cocaine use, more severe employment and legal problems, as well as less readiness to change prior to treatment. Treatment outcomes did not differ significantly from those without a criminal justice prompt, and on some measures the outcomes for CJP group were better (e.g., percentage of days cocaine abstinent, number of therapy sessions attended). Discussion and Conclusions These findings suggest that being prompted to treatment by the criminal justice system may not lead to poorer treatment engagement or substance use outcomes for individuals participating in randomized controlled treatment trials. Scientific Significance Despite some baseline indicators of poorer treatment prognosis, individuals who have been prompted to treatment by the criminal justice system have similar treatment outcomes as those presenting to treatment voluntarily. PMID:25809378

  4. Renegotiating forensic cultures: between law, science and criminal justice.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Paul

    2013-03-01

    This article challenges stereotypical conceptions of Law and Science as cultural opposites, arguing that English criminal trial practice is fundamentally congruent with modern science's basic epistemological assumptions, values and methods of inquiry. Although practical tensions undeniably exist, they are explicable-and may be neutralised-by paying closer attention to criminal adjudication's normative ideals and their institutional expression in familiar aspects of common law trial procedure, including evidentiary rules of admissibility, trial by jury, adversarial fact-finding, cross-examination and the ethical duties of expert witnesses. Effective partnerships between lawyers and forensic scientists are indispensable for integrating scientific evidence into criminal proceedings, and must be renegotiated between individual practitioners on an on-going basis. Fruitful interdisciplinary collaboration between scholars with a shared interest in forensic science should dispense with reductive cultural stereotypes of Science and Law.

  5. Computer Crime: Criminal Justice Resource Manual (Second Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Donn B.

    This advanced training and reference manual is designed to aid investigators and prosecutors in dealing with white collar computer crime. The first five sections follow the typical order of events for prosecutors handling a criminal case: classifying the crime, computer abuse methods and detection, experts and suspects using information systems,…

  6. Forced withdrawal from methadone maintenance therapy in criminal justice settings: a critical treatment barrier in the United States.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jeannia J; Zaller, Nickolas D; Yokell, Michael A; Bazazi, Alexander R; Rich, Josiah D

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization classifies methadone as an essential medicine, yet methadone maintenance therapy remains widely unavailable in criminal justice settings throughout the United States. Methadone maintenance therapy is often terminated at the time of incarceration, with inmates forced to withdraw from this evidence-based therapy. We assessed whether these forced withdrawal policies deter opioid-dependent individuals in the community from engaging methadone maintenance therapy in two states that routinely force inmates to withdraw from methadone (N = 205). Nearly half of all participants reported that concern regarding forced methadone withdrawal during incarceration deterred them engaging methadone maintenance therapy in the community. Participants in the state where more severe methadone withdrawal procedures are used during incarceration were more likely to report concern regarding forced withdrawal as a treatment deterrent. Methadone withdrawal policies in the criminal justice system may be a broader treatment deterrent for opioid-dependent individuals than previously realized. Redressing this treatment barrier is both a health and human rights imperative. PMID:23433809

  7. Integrating Deliberative Justice Theory into Social Work Policy Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Deliberation that upholds the social work values of justice and inclusion is an essential component of the policy-making process; yet most social welfare policy curricula focus instead on the goals of distributive justice. This article presents a model that demonstrates how deliberative justice can be easily incorporated into beginning level…

  8. DNA evidence in rape cases and the Debbie Smith Act: forensic practice and criminal justice implications.

    PubMed

    Telsavaara, Terhi V T; Arrigo, Bruce A

    2006-10-01

    The Debbie Smith or "Justice for All" Act was passed on November 1, 2004. The act addresses the problem of collecting and analyzing DNA evidence from backlogged rape kits sitting in crime laboratories around the country. Presently, no empirical data exist by which to assess the soundness of the legislation. However, the act clearly affects discrete operations within the forensic and criminal justice systems. This article explores the relative merits of the Debbie Smith law, highlighting changes in Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs, law enforcement, court administration, correctional treatment, and juvenile justice practices. Concerns linked to the likely impact of the "Justice for All" Act raise significant questions about its overall programmatic utility and treatment efficacy.

  9. Considerations in HIV Prevention for Women Affected by the Criminal Justice System

    PubMed Central

    Comfort, Megan

    2011-01-01

    Within the national dialogue of HIV prevention strategies, relatively little consideration is given to the millions of women and girls affected by the criminal justice system either through their own incarceration or that of their partners. Yet statistics indicate that these women and girls are disproportionately infected or at risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections and much of this risk is directly related to the dynamics and circumstances that led to their incarceration or relationships with incarcerated men. As we look for the link between public health and correctional health within our National HIV/AIDS Strategy, it is imperative that the risks, obstacles, and opportunities facing women and girls affected by incarceration are brought into the discussion. Gender responsive HIV prevention policies and practices must be developed to address the unique risks and opportunities for these women and girls. This paper presents data on HIV risk and other health issues specific to this community of women and girls, discusses key factors for consideration when developing gender-responsive HIV strategies for these communities, and makes recommendations for inclusion in the National HIV/AIDS Strategy and other state and local HIV prevention efforts. PMID:21782463

  10. To Blame or to Forgive? Reconciling Punishment and Forgiveness in Criminal Justice

    PubMed Central

    Lacey, Nicola; Pickard, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    What do you do when faced with wrongdoing—do you blame or do you forgive? Especially when confronted with offences that lie on the more severe end of the spectrum and cause terrible psychological or physical trauma or death, nothing can feel more natural than blame. Indeed, in the UK and the USA, increasingly vehement and righteous public expressions of blame and calls for vengeance have become commonplace; correspondingly, contemporary penal philosophy has witnessed a resurgence of the retributive tradition, in the modern form usually known as the ‘justice’ model. On the other hand, people can and routinely do forgive others, even in cases of severe crime. Evolutionary psychologists argue that both vengeance and forgiveness are universal human adaptations that have evolved as alternative responses to exploitation, and, crucially, strategies for reducing risk of re-offending. We are naturally endowed with both capacities: to blame and retaliate, or to forgive and seek to repair relations. Which should we choose? Drawing on evolutionary psychology, we offer an account of forgiveness and argue that the choice to blame, and not to forgive, is inconsistent with the political values of a broadly liberal society and can be instrumentally counter-productive to reducing the risk of future re-offending. We then sketch the shape of penal philosophy and criminal justice policy and practice with forgiveness in place as a guiding ideal. PMID:26937059

  11. Developing employment services for criminal justice clients enrolled in drug user treatment programs.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Kathleen; Savitz, Barry; Thompson, William; Zanis, David A

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 80% of parolees have a history of substance abuse and nearly all are unemployed following release from prison. Common stipulations of parole require offenders to obtain employment and to not use mood-altering substances. This article explores a series of strategies implemented from 1999 to 2001 to help offenders paroled to substance user treatment to gain employment. A total of 245 paroled offenders enrolled in an outpatient substance abuse treatment program voluntarily agreed to participate in one of four different vocational intervention programs (Job Skill Development and Supported Work, Life Skill Development, Job Training, and Welfare to Work). Programmatic data (e.g., attendance, completion, job acquisition, and wage) were collected and reported for each of the vocational programs. Additionally, a 12-month pilot study examined criminal justice, substance use, and employment outcomes of 36 offenders referred to the job skill development and supported work project. Overall, 78% of the offenders enrolled in the vocational services completed the program and 134/245 (55%) were able to obtain employment. The data showed that completion of vocational services was strongly associated with obtaining employment 12 months postenrollment. Offenders identified the employment services as an integral part of their improved overall functioning. A series of practice recommendations and policy suggestions is offered to develop and manage vocational services for substance-using offenders. Employment services for parolees require considerable coordination of activities with parole officers, vocational programs, substance abuse treatment professionals, and funding systems.

  12. Addressing Hate Crimes: Six Initiatives That Are Enhancing the Efforts of Criminal Justice Practitioners. Hate Crimes Series. Bureau of Justice Assistance Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wessler, Stephen

    This publication focuses on initiatives that are designed to address hate crimes by enhancing efforts of the criminal justice system. After discussing the pivotal role of law enforcement in this effort, the paper describes six Bureau of Justice Assistance-funded initiatives, which include: the International Association of Chiefs of Police Summit:…

  13. Biopsychosocial psychiatry and the criminal justice system: a case report.

    PubMed

    Whiteford, H A; Westmore, B

    1991-06-01

    In criminal proceedings a psychiatrist may be called upon to give evidence as to the state of mind of an accused at the time an alleged crime was committed. Seldom is the psychiatrist able to examine the person at or before the time of the offence and therefore arrives at an opinion by examining the person at some later time. Information gained by this examination is combined with all relevant reports and transcripts concerning the accused, collateral history from friends, relatives or other treating health professionals and the results of any clinical investigations. The psychiatrist ultimately forms an opinion as to the probable state of mind of the accused at the material time.

  14. Substance Abuse Treatment and Services by Criminal Justice and other Funding Sources

    PubMed Central

    Arfken, Cynthia L.; Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott

    2009-01-01

    Studies have found funding source, whether public or private, is associated with treatment and services offered in community-based agencies. However, the association of criminal justice funding with community-based treatment and services is unknown. Using a mixed methods case study approach with 34 agencies within one state we assessed administrators’ perspectives of the most important funding source, treatment and services offered. We found that agencies rely on multiple funding sources and the source rated most important was associated with treatment and services offered in the agency. Those agencies citing a criminal justice entity as the most important funder were more likely to offer specific ancillary services and adopt motivational interviewing than those citing private funds. Although client characteristics or training opportunities may determine these services and practices, the agency’s most important funding source may have implications for services offered. PMID:19345512

  15. Substance abuse treatment and services by criminal justice and other funding sources.

    PubMed

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott

    2009-01-01

    Studies have found funding source, whether public or private, is associated with treatment and services offered in community-based agencies. However, the association of criminal justice funding with community-based treatment and services is unknown. Using a mixed method case study approach with 34 agencies within one state we assessed administrators' perspectives of the most important funding source, treatment and services offered. We found that agencies rely on multiple funding sources and the source rated most important was associated with treatment and services offered in the agency. Those agencies citing a criminal justice entity as the most important funder were more likely to offer specific ancillary services and adopt motivational interviewing than those citing private funds. Although client characteristics or training opportunities may determine these services and practices, the agency's most important funding source may have implications for services offered.

  16. Substance abuse treatment and services by criminal justice and other funding sources.

    PubMed

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott

    2009-01-01

    Studies have found funding source, whether public or private, is associated with treatment and services offered in community-based agencies. However, the association of criminal justice funding with community-based treatment and services is unknown. Using a mixed method case study approach with 34 agencies within one state we assessed administrators' perspectives of the most important funding source, treatment and services offered. We found that agencies rely on multiple funding sources and the source rated most important was associated with treatment and services offered in the agency. Those agencies citing a criminal justice entity as the most important funder were more likely to offer specific ancillary services and adopt motivational interviewing than those citing private funds. Although client characteristics or training opportunities may determine these services and practices, the agency's most important funding source may have implications for services offered. PMID:19345512

  17. How can forensic systems improve justice for victims of offenders found not criminally responsible?

    PubMed

    Quinn, Jason; Simpson, Alexander I F

    2013-01-01

    Controversy has arisen surrounding findings of not criminally responsible (NCR) or not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI) in recent years. In some countries, the debate has been driven by the concerns of victims, who are seeking greater information on discharge, accountability on the part of the offender, and involvement in the disposition of NCR or NGRI perpetrators. Their demands raise questions about proportionality between the seriousness of the index offense and the disposition imposed, the place of retribution in the NCR regimen, and the ethics-related challenges that emerge from this tension. We conducted a literature review focused on the relationship of victims to NCR and NGRI processes. The literature is limited. However, theoretical reasoning suggests that interventions based on restorative justice principles reduce persistently negative feelings and increase a sense of justice for victims of criminally responsible defendants. Opportunities and problems with extending such processes into the area of mentally abnormal offenders are discussed.

  18. The involvement of schizophrenic insanity acquittees in the mental health and criminal justice systems.

    PubMed

    Bloom, J D; Williams, M H; Bigelow, D A

    1992-09-01

    This article described the mental health and criminal justice involvement of a large group of schizophrenic insanity acquittees and the program designed to manage and treat these individuals. Most insanity acquittees in our system are chronically mentally ill individuals who fit well into the psychosocial rehabilitation models that have developed over the past 15 years. In addition, the use of conditional release and monitored care in the community appears to be the most realistic approach to this group of individuals who show a high degree of involvement with the mental health and criminal justice service systems. This research has continued implications for the development of outpatient civil commitment and for the attempt to give people as much liberty as they are capable of handling while being realistic about their capacities to survive in the community.

  19. Substance abuse treatment and criminal justice involvement for SSI recipients: results from Washington state.

    PubMed

    Luchansky, Bill; Nordlund, Dan; Estee, Sharon; Lund, Peter; Krupski, Antoinette; Stark, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the association between receiving substance abuse treatment and subsequent criminal justice involvement. The sample consisted of Supplemental Security Income (SSI) recipients in the state of Washington that were determined to be in need of treatment. Fifty-two percent of those clients entered substance abuse treatment during the study period, while 48% did not. Arrests, felony convictions and convictions for less serious crimes were tracked for 8343 adults for one year following the end of an index treatment episode. Results showed that entering treatment was associated with reduced risks for each outcome. In addition, further analyses were conducted just on those entering treatment. Among that subset of the study population, the completion of treatment and having an episode of treatment lasting at least 90 days were both associated with reduced criminal justice risks. These results suggest that efforts to provide substance abuse treatment for SSI recipients have the potential to provide substantial public benefits.

  20. How can forensic systems improve justice for victims of offenders found not criminally responsible?

    PubMed

    Quinn, Jason; Simpson, Alexander I F

    2013-01-01

    Controversy has arisen surrounding findings of not criminally responsible (NCR) or not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI) in recent years. In some countries, the debate has been driven by the concerns of victims, who are seeking greater information on discharge, accountability on the part of the offender, and involvement in the disposition of NCR or NGRI perpetrators. Their demands raise questions about proportionality between the seriousness of the index offense and the disposition imposed, the place of retribution in the NCR regimen, and the ethics-related challenges that emerge from this tension. We conducted a literature review focused on the relationship of victims to NCR and NGRI processes. The literature is limited. However, theoretical reasoning suggests that interventions based on restorative justice principles reduce persistently negative feelings and increase a sense of justice for victims of criminally responsible defendants. Opportunities and problems with extending such processes into the area of mentally abnormal offenders are discussed. PMID:24335331

  1. Integrated multisystem analysis in a mental health and criminal justice ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Falconer, Erin; El-Hay, Tal; Alevras, Dimitris; Docherty, John; Yanover, Chen; Kalton, Alan; Goldschmidt, Yaara; Rosen-Zvi, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Patients with a serious mental illness often receive care that is fragmented due to reduced availability of or access to resources, and inadequate, discontinuous, and uncoordinated care across health, social services, and criminal justice organizations. These gaps in care may lead to increased mental health disease burden and relapse, as well as repeated incarcerations. Further, the complex health, social service, and criminal justice ecosystem within which the patient may be embedded makes it difficult to examine the role of modifiable risk factors and delivered services on patient outcomes, particularly given that agencies often maintain isolated sets of relevant data. Here we describe an approach to creating a multisystem analysis that derives insights from an integrated data set including patient access to case management services, medical services, and interactions with the criminal justice system. We combined data from electronic systems within a US mental health ecosystem that included mental health and substance abuse services, as well as data from the criminal justice system. We applied Cox models to test the associations between delivery of services and re-incarceration. Using this approach, we found an association between arrests and crisis stabilization services in this population. We also found that delivery of case management or medical services provided after release from jail was associated with a reduced risk for re-arrest. Additionally, we used machine learning to train and validate a predictive model linking non-modifiable and modifiable risk factors and outcomes. A predictive model, constructed using elastic net regularized logistic regression, and considering age, past arrests, mental health diagnosis, as well as use of a jail diversion program, outpatient, medical and case management services predicted the probability of re-arrests with fair accuracy (AUC=.67). By modeling the complex interactions between risk factors, service delivery and

  2. State criminal justice telecommunications (STACOM). Volume 4: Network design software user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    A user's guide to the network design program is presented. The program is written in FORTRAN V and implemented on a UNIVAC 1108 computer under the EXEC-8 operating system which enables the user to construct least-cost network topologies for criminal justice digital telecommunications networks. A complete description of program features, inputs, processing logic, and outputs is presented, and a sample run and a program listing are included.

  3. Applying the revenge system to the criminal justice system and jury decision-making.

    PubMed

    Roberts, S Craig; Murray, Jennifer

    2013-02-01

    McCullough et al. propose an evolved cognitive revenge system which imposes retaliatory costs on aggressors. They distinguish between this and other forms of punishment (e.g., those administered by judges) which are not underpinned by a specifically designed evolutionary mechanism. Here we outline mechanisms and circumstances through which the revenge system might nonetheless infiltrate decision-making within the criminal justice system.

  4. Treatment at the front end of the criminal justice continuum: the association between arrest and admission into specialty substance abuse treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott; Arfken, Cynthia L; Swartz, James A; Koch, Alison L

    2006-01-01

    important policy implications in reducing the number of subsequent arrests or preventing individuals moving further along the criminal justice continuum, as well as decreasing the fiscal and resource burdens associated with criminal justice processing and confinement. PMID:16879743

  5. To punish or repair? Evolutionary psychology and lay intuitions about modern criminal justice.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Michael Bang; Sell, Aaron; Tooby, John; Cosmides, Leda

    2012-11-01

    We propose that intuitions about modern mass-level criminal justice emerge from evolved mechanisms designed to operate in ancestral small-scale societies. By hypothesis, individuals confronted with a crime compute two distinct psychological magnitudes: one that reflects the crime's seriousness and another that reflects the criminal's long-term value as an associate. These magnitudes are computed based on different sets of cues and are fed into motivational mechanisms regulating different aspects of sanctioning. The seriousness variable regulates how much to react (e.g., how severely we want to punish); the variable indexing the criminal's association value regulates the more fundamental decision of how to react (i.e., whether we want to punish or repair). Using experimental designs embedded in surveys, we validate this theory across several types of crime and two countries. The evidence augments past research and suggests that the human mind contains dedicated psychological mechanisms for restoring social relationships following acts of exploitation.

  6. Exploring whether genetic differences between siblings explain sibling differences in criminal justice outcomes.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Joseph A; Beaver, Kevin M

    2014-01-01

    Research has revealed that despite many similarities, siblings raised within the same household have also been found to be markedly different from one another. Behavioral differences between siblings have been primarily attributed to differential exposure to a wide variety of environmental influences. The potential role that between-sibling genetic differences play in the development of behavioral differences has been overlooked in the extant literature. The current study examines the association between differences in three dopaminergic polymorphisms (DAT1, DRD2, and DRD4) and differences in arrest, incarceration, and multiple arrests between siblings. Between-sibling difference scores were estimated for each examined polymorphism and each criminal justice outcome measure (along with all controls). Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression models were estimated to examine the potential association between genetic differences between siblings and differences in experiences within the criminal justice system. Models were estimated for the full sample and then for the same-sex male and female subsamples separately. The results provide preliminary evidence that between-sibling differences in some of the examined dopaminergic polymorphisms are associated with differences in contact with the criminal justice system. Findings are discussed in more detail and suggestions for future research are also provided.

  7. Standards for opioid treatment in the criminal justice system: implications for nurses.

    PubMed

    Chavez, R Scott

    2012-02-01

    The delivery of health care is based on the theory that patients have timely access to qualified clinicians who will render a professional clinical judgment that is ordered and received. This article describes traditional barriers to opioid treatment and care to incarcerated populations. With 60 to 80 percent of current and former prisoners convicted on drug-related charges, the need to provide drug abuse treatment in jails and prisons remains a high social and clinical priority. The medical, economic, and social burden of opioid addiction can be alleviated with the expansion of addiction treatment programming in the criminal justice system. This article presents arguments why this programming should be implemented and describes national standards on how services should be organized. The article concludes with a description of the nursing role in a criminal justice substance abuse program highlighting key tasks that correctional nurses perform. The article concludes with a discussion of the future challenges and directions to opioid treatment in the criminal justice system.

  8. Reaching seriously at-risk populations: health interventions in criminal justice settings.

    PubMed

    Hammett, T M; Gaiter, J L; Crawford, C

    1998-02-01

    More than 6 million people are under some form of criminal justice supervision in the United States on any given day. The vast majority are arrested in and return to urban, low-income communities. These are men, women, and adolescents with high rates of infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and tuberculosis (TB), as well as substance abuse and other health problems. A review of recent literature indicates that an increasing problem for these populations is that they have had little prior access to primary health care or health interventions, and many are returning to their communities without critical preventive health information and skills, appropriate medical services, and other necessary support. Periods of incarceration and other criminal justice supervision offer important opportunities to provide a range of health interventions to this underserved population, and general evaluations show the potential for this strategy. Public health and criminal justice agencies have the expertise and should collaborate to provide interventions needed by incarcerated populations. Moreover, many recently released inmates require primary care for HIV/AIDS, other STDs, and TB. Consequently, timely discharge planning is essential, as are linkages with community-based organizations and agencies that can provide medical care, health education, and necessary supportive services.

  9. Intergenerational justice in energy policy. [Monograph

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, B.

    1981-01-01

    The finite nature of fossil fuels is common to all mineral resources, but fossil fuels are special in that they cannot be recycled. Offsetting resource depletion with improved technology and high capital investment means that future policies must compensate for a corresponding loss in productive potential. Intergenerational justice in energy decisions, however, is no different than for any other context. Using utility as the criterion for compensation for resource depletion is wrong because present generations cannot be held responsible for the satisfaction future generations will derive from their opportunities. Just policies for the present should compensate for reducing the range of opportunities in terms of productive policies. This raises the question of what opportunities future generations should have and how to define an appropriate standard for judging those opportunities. The predictions of what will fairly compensate future generations for a loss of productive capacity should consider the value of capital stock that is passed on. The practical problems associated with intergenerational justice cannot avoid the risk of cultural impoverishment, irreversibility, and disproportion. (DCK)

  10. Ending overly broad HIV criminalization: Canadian scientists and clinicians stand for justice.

    PubMed

    Kazatchkine, Cécile; Bernard, Edwin; Eba, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    In Canada, people living with HIV who do not disclose their HIV status prior to sexual acts risk prosecution for aggravated sexual assault even if they have sex with a condom or while having a low (or undetectable) viral load, they had no intent to transmit HIV, and no transmission occurred. In 2013, six distinguished Canadian HIV scientists and clinicians took ground-breaking action to advance justice by co-authoring the "Canadian consensus statement on HIV and its transmission in the context of the criminal law." This effort was born out of the belief that the application of criminal law to HIV non-disclosure was being driven by a poor appreciation of the science of HIV. More than 75 HIV scientists and clinicians Canada-wide have now endorsed the statement, agreeing that "[they] have a professional and ethical responsibility to assist those in the criminal justice system to understand and interpret current medical and scientific evidence regarding HIV." As some 61 countries have adopted laws that specifically allow for HIV criminalization, and prosecutions for HIV non-disclosure, exposure and transmission have been reported in at least 49 countries, the authors hope that others around the world will take similar action. PMID:26194348

  11. Ending overly broad HIV criminalization: Canadian scientists and clinicians stand for justice

    PubMed Central

    Kazatchkine, Cécile; Bernard, Edwin; Eba, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    In Canada, people living with HIV who do not disclose their HIV status prior to sexual acts risk prosecution for aggravated sexual assault even if they have sex with a condom or while having a low (or undetectable) viral load, they had no intent to transmit HIV, and no transmission occurred. In 2013, six distinguished Canadian HIV scientists and clinicians took ground-breaking action to advance justice by co-authoring the “Canadian consensus statement on HIV and its transmission in the context of the criminal law.” This effort was born out of the belief that the application of criminal law to HIV non-disclosure was being driven by a poor appreciation of the science of HIV. More than 75 HIV scientists and clinicians Canada-wide have now endorsed the statement, agreeing that “[they] have a professional and ethical responsibility to assist those in the criminal justice system to understand and interpret current medical and scientific evidence regarding HIV.” As some 61 countries have adopted laws that specifically allow for HIV criminalization, and prosecutions for HIV non-disclosure, exposure and transmission have been reported in at least 49 countries, the authors hope that others around the world will take similar action. PMID:26194348

  12. Ending overly broad HIV criminalization: Canadian scientists and clinicians stand for justice.

    PubMed

    Kazatchkine, Cécile; Bernard, Edwin; Eba, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    In Canada, people living with HIV who do not disclose their HIV status prior to sexual acts risk prosecution for aggravated sexual assault even if they have sex with a condom or while having a low (or undetectable) viral load, they had no intent to transmit HIV, and no transmission occurred. In 2013, six distinguished Canadian HIV scientists and clinicians took ground-breaking action to advance justice by co-authoring the "Canadian consensus statement on HIV and its transmission in the context of the criminal law." This effort was born out of the belief that the application of criminal law to HIV non-disclosure was being driven by a poor appreciation of the science of HIV. More than 75 HIV scientists and clinicians Canada-wide have now endorsed the statement, agreeing that "[they] have a professional and ethical responsibility to assist those in the criminal justice system to understand and interpret current medical and scientific evidence regarding HIV." As some 61 countries have adopted laws that specifically allow for HIV criminalization, and prosecutions for HIV non-disclosure, exposure and transmission have been reported in at least 49 countries, the authors hope that others around the world will take similar action.

  13. Effect of forensic evidence on criminal justice case processing.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Joseph L; Hickman, Matthew J; Strom, Kevin J; Johnson, Donald J

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the role and impact of forensic evidence on case-processing outcomes in a sample of 4205 criminal cases drawn from five U.S. jurisdictions. Regression analyses demonstrated that forensic evidence played a consistent and robust role in case-processing decisions. Still, the influence of forensic evidence is time- and examination-dependent: the collection of crime scene evidence was predictive of arrest, and the examination of evidence was predictive of referral for charges, as well as of charges being filed, conviction at trial, and sentence length. The only decision outcome in which forensic evidence did not have a general effect was with regard to guilty plea arrangements. More studies are needed on the filtering of forensic evidence in different crime categories, from the crime scene to its use by investigators, prosecutors, and fact-finders, and to identify factors that shape decisions to collect evidence, submit it to laboratories, and request examinations.

  14. Memory Interventions in the Criminal Justice System: Some Practical Ethical Considerations.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Laura Y; Elger, Bernice S

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, discussion around memory modification interventions has gained attention. However, discussion around the use of memory interventions in the criminal justice system has been mostly absent. In this paper we start by highlighting the importance memory has for human well-being and personal identity, as well as its role within the criminal forensic setting; in particular, for claiming and accepting legal responsibility, for moral learning, and for retribution. We provide examples of memory interventions that are currently available for medical purposes, but that in the future could be used in the forensic setting to modify criminal offenders' memories. In this section we contrast the cases of (1) dampening and (2) enhancing memories of criminal offenders. We then present from a pragmatic approach some pressing ethical issues associated with these types of memory interventions. The paper ends up highlighting how these pragmatic considerations can help establish ethically justified criteria regarding the possibility of interventions aimed at modifying criminal offenders' memories. PMID:26715046

  15. Parents in Prison: Justice Literacy and Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, Laura; Baille, Daphne

    2011-01-01

    With the highest incarceration rate in the world, the United States has set an inauspicious precedent. More than 1.7 million American children--one in every 43--have a parent in jail or prison. The generational effects of incarceration are deep and lasting and include vastly increased risks of criminal justice involvement among the children of…

  16. The criminal justice outcomes of jail diversion programs for persons with mental illness: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Sirotich, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Diversion programs are initiatives in which persons with serious mental illness who are involved with the criminal justice system are redirected from traditional criminal justice pathways to the mental health and substance abuse treatment systems. This article is a review of the research literature conducted to determine whether the current evidence supports the use of diversion initiatives to reduce recidivism and to reduce incarceration among adults with serious mental illness with justice involvement. A structured literature search identified 21 publications or research papers for review that examined the criminal justice outcomes of various diversion models. The review revealed little evidence of the effectiveness of jail diversion in reducing recidivism among persons with serious mental illness. However, evidence was found that jail diversion initiatives can reduce the amount of jail time that persons with mental illness serve. Implications for practice and research are discussed.

  17. Practitioner Views of Priorities, Policies, and Practices in Juvenile Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mears, Daniel P.; Shollenberger, Tracey L.; Willison, Janeen B.; Owens, Colleen E.; Butts, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Dramatic changes in juvenile justice have occurred in recent decades. One result has been the emergence of new policies and practices, many of which remain largely unexamined. One avenue for gaining insight into whether such policies and practices are needed or effective, as well as into how the juvenile justice system might be improved, is to tap…

  18. 76 FR 56225 - Meeting of the CJIS Advisory Policy Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... meeting of the Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS) Advisory Policy Board (APB). The CJIS APB is a... Designated Federal Officer, Criminal Justice Information Services Division, Federal Bureau of Investigation... System, Interstate Identification Index, Law Enforcement Online, National Crime Information...

  19. 76 FR 8379 - Meeting of the CJIS Advisory Policy Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... meeting of the Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS) Advisory Policy Board (APB). The CJIS APB is a... Designated Federal Officer, Criminal Justice Information Services Division, Federal Bureau of Investigation... System, Interstate Identification Index, Law Enforcement Online, National Crime Information...

  20. Addressing the Needs of the Criminal Defendant with Mental Retardation: The Special Educator as a Resource to the Criminal Justice System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everington, Caroline; Luckasson, Ruth

    1989-01-01

    The expertise of special educators can aid in providing justice for criminal defendants with mental retardation in such areas as identification of mental retardation, evaluations and habilitation concerning competence to stand trial or enter plea agreements, and provision of services to defendants in corrections programs. (Author/DB)

  1. Juvenile penalty or leniency: Sentencing of juveniles in the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Kareem L; McNeal, Brittani A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of being juvenile on sentencing in the criminal justice system. More specifically, youth transferred to criminal court are compared to adults in terms of likelihood of incarceration, jail length, and prison length. In this study, 2 national data sets are merged. The juvenile sample includes 3,381 convicted offenders, and the adult sample is comprised of 6,529 convicted offenders. The final sample is 9,910 offenders across 36 U.S. counties. The key independent variable is juvenile status, and the dependent variables are incarceration, jail length, and prison length. Because of the multilevel nature of the data, hierarchical linear modeling is used across all models. Juveniles are punished less severely in the jail incarceration decision. However, when youth are actually sentenced to incarceration (either jail or prison), they are given longer confinement time than adults. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26974365

  2. Forensic psychiatric expert witnessing within the criminal justice system in Germany.

    PubMed

    Konrad, Norbert; Völlm, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the number of occupied beds in German forensic-psychiatric hospitals has continued to rise. Diversion refers to the removal of offenders from the criminal justice system at any stage of the procedure and court proceedings. There are no specific diversion programs in Germany but diversion does in fact happen via legal regulations that are based on the construct of legal responsibility. The assessments of responsibility as well as risk are the core tasks of forensic-psychiatric expert witnessing in Germany. Recommendations of an interdisciplinary working group serve as a guide to operationalize this forensic-psychiatric task. These recommendations list formal minimum requirements for expert reports on the question of criminal responsibility and risk assessment as well as minimum standards regarding content and in writing the report.

  3. Forensic psychiatric expert witnessing within the criminal justice system in Germany.

    PubMed

    Konrad, Norbert; Völlm, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the number of occupied beds in German forensic-psychiatric hospitals has continued to rise. Diversion refers to the removal of offenders from the criminal justice system at any stage of the procedure and court proceedings. There are no specific diversion programs in Germany but diversion does in fact happen via legal regulations that are based on the construct of legal responsibility. The assessments of responsibility as well as risk are the core tasks of forensic-psychiatric expert witnessing in Germany. Recommendations of an interdisciplinary working group serve as a guide to operationalize this forensic-psychiatric task. These recommendations list formal minimum requirements for expert reports on the question of criminal responsibility and risk assessment as well as minimum standards regarding content and in writing the report. PMID:24268458

  4. Juvenile penalty or leniency: Sentencing of juveniles in the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Kareem L; McNeal, Brittani A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of being juvenile on sentencing in the criminal justice system. More specifically, youth transferred to criminal court are compared to adults in terms of likelihood of incarceration, jail length, and prison length. In this study, 2 national data sets are merged. The juvenile sample includes 3,381 convicted offenders, and the adult sample is comprised of 6,529 convicted offenders. The final sample is 9,910 offenders across 36 U.S. counties. The key independent variable is juvenile status, and the dependent variables are incarceration, jail length, and prison length. Because of the multilevel nature of the data, hierarchical linear modeling is used across all models. Juveniles are punished less severely in the jail incarceration decision. However, when youth are actually sentenced to incarceration (either jail or prison), they are given longer confinement time than adults. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Evaluating Human Rights Advocacy on Criminal Justice and Sex Work.

    PubMed

    Amon, Joseph; Wurth, Margaret; McLemore, Megan

    2015-06-11

    Between October 2011 and September 2013, we conducted research on the use, by police and/or prosecutors, of condom possession as evidence of intent to engage in prostitution-related offenses. We studied the practice in five large, geographically diverse cities in the U.S. To facilitate our advocacy on this issue, conducted concurrent to and following our research, we developed an advocacy framework consisting of six dimensions: (1) raising awareness, (2) building and engaging coalitions, (3) framing debate, (4) securing rhetorical commitments, (5) reforming law and policy, and (6) changing practice. Using a case study approach, we describe how this framework also provided a basis for the evaluation of our work, and discuss additional considerations and values related to the measurement and evaluation of human rights advocacy.

  6. Neuroimaging studies of aggressive and violent behavior: current findings and implications for criminology and criminal justice.

    PubMed

    Bufkin, Jana L; Luttrell, Vickie R

    2005-04-01

    With the availability of new functional and structural neuroimaging techniques, researchers have begun to localize brain areas that may be dysfunctional in offenders who are aggressive and violent. Our review of 17 neuroimaging studies reveals that the areas associated with aggressive and/or violent behavioral histories, particularly impulsive acts, are located in the prefrontal cortex and the medial temporal regions. These findings are explained in the context of negative emotion regulation, and suggestions are provided concerning how such findings may affect future theoretical frameworks in criminology, crime prevention efforts, and the functioning of the criminal justice system.

  7. Military Veterans in the Criminal Justice System: Partner Violence and the Impact of Relationships With Fathers.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Bradley J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the health characteristics of military veterans identified through the Criminal Justice System (CJS) with partner violence and their relationships with their fathers. The 282 veterans involved in the CJS participated to complete a psycho-social assessment which included partner violence and ascertained their relationships with their fathers. The mean age of the men in the study was 44.9 years old. The majority were divorced, Caucasian, had a high school education, and served in the Army. This sample shows the benefit of integrating partner violence and relationships with fathers into the assessment process and highlights the need for more research.

  8. Post-traumatic stress disorder: ethical and legal relevance to the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Soltis, Kathryn; Acierno, Ron; Gros, Daniel F; Yoder, Matthew; Tuerk, Peter W

    2014-01-01

    Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder is a major public health concern in both civilian and military populations, across race, age, gender, and socio-economic status. While PTSD has been around for centuries by some name or another, its definition and description also continue to evolve. Within the last few years, the American Psychological Association has published the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, which includes some major changes in the diagnostic criteria for PTSD. Recent data on epidemiology, etiological theories, and empirically supported methods of treatment, as well as implications for legal processes and criminal justice system personnel, are discussed.

  9. The prevalence of youth with autism spectrum disorders in the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Cheely, Catherine A; Carpenter, Laura A; Letourneau, Elizabeth J; Nicholas, Joyce S; Charles, Jane; King, Lydia B

    2012-09-01

    Past surveys have reported high rates of youth with disabilities in the juvenile justice system, however, little research has examined the frequency with which youth with Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are in contact with law enforcement. Using records linkage with the Department of Juvenile Justice and the South Carolina Law Enforcement Division and the South Carolina Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Program (SC ADDM), this study compares the frequency, type, and outcome of criminal charges for youth with ASD and non-ASD youth. Youth with ASD had higher rates of crimes against persons and lower rates of crimes against property. Youth with ASD were more likely to be diverted into pre-trial interventions and less likely to be prosecuted than comparison youth. When compared to the overall SC ADDM sample, charged youth were less likely to have comorbid intellectual disability.

  10. Practice informs the next generation of behavioral health and criminal justice interventions.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Nancy; Frueh, B Christopher; Huening, Jessica; Shi, Jing; Epperson, Matthew W; Morgan, Robert; Fisher, William

    2013-01-01

    Specialized interventions, such as police and jail diversion, mental health courts, specialized probation, forensic assertive community treatment, designed to engage justice-involved persons with serious mental illnesses, have expanded over the past two decades. Some of these "first generation" interventions have demonstrated efficacy and several have earned recognition as evidence-based practices. Yet, overall, they have not appreciably reduced the prevalence of persons with serious mental illnesses involved in the criminal justice system. To understand how to make the next generation of interventions more effective, a survey of a national sample of community-based programs serving these clients was conducted. Surveys were completed on-line by direct service staff affiliated with 85 programs and collected data on the characteristics and needs of the client base; characteristics and challenges associated with difficult-to-engage clients; service needs and obstacles; and recommendations for improving program effectiveness. A sample of the survey participants (19 programs from 18 states) attended a day-long workshop to discuss the survey findings and ways to improve treatment adherence and client services. Respondents reported that their clients have a constellation of problems with different origins, etiologies, and symptoms, often crossing over the boundaries of mental illness, addictions, and antisocial pathologies. According to the practitioners working with justice-involved clients with mental illnesses, responding effectively requires knowledge of many different problems, expertise to respond to them, and an understanding of how these problems interact when they co-occur. The poly-problems of these clients suggest the need for an integrated and comprehensive approach, which is challenged by the fragmented and diverse ideologies of the behavioral health, criminal justice, and social service systems.

  11. The influence of anogenital injury on women's willingness to engage with the criminal justice process after rape.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Bonnie Sue; Kaplan, Alyssa; Budescu, Mia; Fargo, Jamison; Tiller, Deborah; Everett, Janine; Sommers, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Medical-legal-social science research has documented that nongenital and/or anogenital injuries play a significant role throughout the criminal justice system from victims reporting to judges determining the length of a sentence. What remains an open question is whether the documentation of anogenital injury influences women's willingness to engage in the criminal justice system. A sample of women age 21 years and older residing in an urban area were asked about willingness to report to police, file charges, and work with the courts to prosecute after rape. Questions were framed with a qualifying statement about the forensic examination being able to detect injury related to forced sexual intercourse. Results show that women had a high willingness to act if the examination could detect anogenital injury and women with and without a history of forced sexual intercourse had significant differences in their responses to these questions. Implications for health care, criminal justice system, and future research are discussed. PMID:24547675

  12. The influence of anogenital injury on women's willingness to engage with the criminal justice process after rape.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Bonnie Sue; Kaplan, Alyssa; Budescu, Mia; Fargo, Jamison; Tiller, Deborah; Everett, Janine; Sommers, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Medical-legal-social science research has documented that nongenital and/or anogenital injuries play a significant role throughout the criminal justice system from victims reporting to judges determining the length of a sentence. What remains an open question is whether the documentation of anogenital injury influences women's willingness to engage in the criminal justice system. A sample of women age 21 years and older residing in an urban area were asked about willingness to report to police, file charges, and work with the courts to prosecute after rape. Questions were framed with a qualifying statement about the forensic examination being able to detect injury related to forced sexual intercourse. Results show that women had a high willingness to act if the examination could detect anogenital injury and women with and without a history of forced sexual intercourse had significant differences in their responses to these questions. Implications for health care, criminal justice system, and future research are discussed.

  13. Information and Communication Technology to Link Criminal Justice Reentrants to HIV Care in the Community.

    PubMed

    Kurth, Ann; Kuo, Irene; Peterson, James; Azikiwe, Nkiru; Bazerman, Lauri; Cates, Alice; Beckwith, Curt G

    2013-01-01

    The United States has the world's highest prison population, and an estimated one in seven HIV-positive persons in the USA passes through a correctional facility annually. Given this, it is critical to develop innovative and effective approaches to support HIV treatment and retention in care among HIV-positive individuals involved in the criminal justice (CJ) system. Information and communication technologies (ICTs), including mobile health (mHealth) interventions, may offer one component of a successful strategy for linkage/retention in care. We describe CARE+ Corrections, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) study now underway in Washington, that will evaluate the combined effect of computerized motivational interview counseling and postrelease short message service (SMS) text message reminders to increase antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and linkage and retention in care among HIV-infected persons involved in the criminal justice system. In this report, we describe the development of this ICT/mHealth intervention, outline the study procedures used to evaluate this intervention, and summarize the implications for the mHealth knowledge base. PMID:23984054

  14. Information and Communication Technology to Link Criminal Justice Reentrants to HIV Care in the Community

    PubMed Central

    Kurth, Ann; Kuo, Irene; Bazerman, Lauri; Beckwith, Curt G.

    2013-01-01

    The United States has the world's highest prison population, and an estimated one in seven HIV-positive persons in the USA passes through a correctional facility annually. Given this, it is critical to develop innovative and effective approaches to support HIV treatment and retention in care among HIV-positive individuals involved in the criminal justice (CJ) system. Information and communication technologies (ICTs), including mobile health (mHealth) interventions, may offer one component of a successful strategy for linkage/retention in care. We describe CARE+ Corrections, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) study now underway in Washington, that will evaluate the combined effect of computerized motivational interview counseling and postrelease short message service (SMS) text message reminders to increase antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and linkage and retention in care among HIV-infected persons involved in the criminal justice system. In this report, we describe the development of this ICT/mHealth intervention, outline the study procedures used to evaluate this intervention, and summarize the implications for the mHealth knowledge base. PMID:23984054

  15. Integrating the criminal justice system into mental health service delivery: the worcester diversion experience.

    PubMed

    Grudzinskas, Albert J; Clayfield, Jonathan C; Roy-Bujnowski, Kristen; Fisher, William H; Richardson, Maurice H

    2005-01-01

    The substantial number of persons with mental illness encountered in many sectors of the criminal justice system has spurred actors from various agencies within that system to take actions aimed at reducing the growth of this population. These actions have included the development of specialty police units, jail diversion programs, and other mechanisms for channeling persons with mental illness out of the criminal justice system and into mental health treatment. The courts, too, have become involved in this effort with the recent development of the "mental health court," the latest of the "specialty" or "problem solving courts." These courts have not been without their critics, however, nor are they the only feasible approach to court-based diversion. This paper identifies and explores a range of options for structuring the relationship between criminal courts and local mental health systems. Beginning with a discussion of the rationale motivating the development of mental health courts, two alternatives to this specialty court model are discussed. One involves judges dealing with defendants having mental illness and substance abuse on a case-by-case basis. The other takes advantages of linkages that may already exist between most courts and the mental health providers who conduct their forensic assessments, expanding the role of these providers to serve as boundary spanners between courts and the components of local mental health systems. Regardless of the model adopted, however, appropriate linkages must exist between the courts and relevant providers. A case study is provided that demonstrates how the status of a locale's linkages can be evaluated and how the information derived from such evaluation can be used to improve the linkages between police, courts, and health and human services agencies.

  16. The identification and management of ADHD offenders within the criminal justice system: a consensus statement from the UK Adult ADHD Network and criminal justice agencies.

    PubMed

    Young, Susan J; Adamou, Marios; Bolea, Blanca; Gudjonsson, Gisli; Müller, Ulrich; Pitts, Mark; Thome, Johannes; Asherson, Philip

    2011-01-01

    The UK Adult ADHD Network (UKAAN) was founded by a group of mental health specialists who have experience delivering clinical services for adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) within the National Health Service (NHS). UKAAN aims to support mental health professionals in the development of services for adults with ADHD by the promotion of assessment and treatment protocols. One method of achieving these aims has been to sponsor conferences and workshops on adult ADHD.This consensus statement is the result of a Forensic Meeting held in November 2009, attended by senior representatives of the Department of Health (DoH), Forensic Mental Health, Prison, Probation, Courts and Metropolitan Police services. The objectives of the meeting were to discuss ways of raising awareness about adult ADHD, and its recognition, assessment, treatment and management within these respective services. Whilst the document draws on the UK experience, with some adaptations it can be used as a template for similar local actions in other countries. It was concluded that bringing together experts in adult ADHD and the Criminal Justice System (CJS) will be vital to raising awareness of the needs of ADHD offenders at every stage of the offender pathway. Joint working and commissioning within the CJS is needed to improve awareness and understanding of ADHD offenders to ensure that individuals are directed to appropriate care and rehabilitation. General Practitioners (GPs), whilst ideally placed for early intervention, should not be relied upon to provide this service as vulnerable offenders often have difficulty accessing primary care services. Moreover once this hurdle has been overcome and ADHD in offenders has been identified, a second challenge will be to provide treatment and ensure continuity of care. Future research must focus on proof of principle studies to demonstrate that identification and treatment confers health gain, safeguards individual's rights, improves

  17. 42 CFR 2.35 - Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients. 2.35 Section 2.35 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT...

  18. Limitations and Potential in Current Research on Services for People with Mental Illness in the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draine, Jeffrey; Wilson, Amy Blank; Pogorzelski, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    Intervention at the intersection of the mental health and criminal justice systems has followed a small set of service models with limited success and a narrow impact on the quality of treatment available to people with mental illness who experience arrest, court processing, incarceration, and release. In reviewing research on police, court, and…

  19. Young People with Learning Disabilities Who Sexually Harm Others: The Role of Criminal Justice within a Multi-Agency Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fyson, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines the key findings from a recent study of statutory service responses to young people with learning disabilities who show sexually inappropriate or abusive behaviours, with a particular focus on the involvement of criminal justice agencies. The study found that although inappropriate sexual behaviours were commonplace in special…

  20. Community College Students with Criminal Justice Histories and Human Services Education: Glass Ceiling, Brick Wall, or a Pathway to Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Lisa Hale

    2015-01-01

    In spite of open access to community college education, specifically human service associate degree programs, students with criminal justice histories do not necessarily have an unobstructed pathway to obtaining the degree and admission to the baccalaureate programs in human services and social work that are almost always selective. The first…

  1. Comparison of Race-Gender, Urban-Suburban Criminal Justice College Students Satisfaction of the Police Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verga, Christopher; Murillo, Leo; Toulon, Errol D.; Morote, Elsa-Sofia; Perry, S. Marshall

    2016-01-01

    This quantitative study explored criminal justice college students' satisfaction with the police. 176 college students in Suffolk County, Long Island and New York City participated in a survey. The study examined the extent to which satisfaction with the local police department differs by location (urban and suburban), gender (female and male),…

  2. 42 CFR 2.35 - Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients. 2.35 Section 2.35 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT...

  3. 42 CFR 2.35 - Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients. 2.35 Section 2.35 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT...

  4. 42 CFR 2.35 - Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients. 2.35 Section 2.35 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT...

  5. Still Excluded? An Update on the Status of African American Scholars in the Discipline of Criminology and Criminal Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbidon, Shaun L.; Greene, Helen Taylor; Wilder, Kideste

    2004-01-01

    This article reexamines the exclusion of African Americans in the discipline of criminology and criminal justice. Young and Sulton raised this issue in their important article that focused on the role of African American scholars in various aspects of the field. The article revisits several areas investigated in the original article, including the…

  6. Victim Satisfaction With the Criminal Justice System and Emotional Recovery: A Systematic and Critical Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Kunst, Maarten; Popelier, Lieke; Varekamp, Ellen

    2015-07-01

    The current study systematically and critically reviewed the empirical literature to evaluate the association between satisfaction with the criminal justice system and adult crime victims' emotional recovery. Despite the widely accepted notion that involvement in the criminal justice system may impact recovery from crime victimization--either beneficially or maliciously--a systematic review of empirical studies that addresses this topic has never been conducted. Electronic literature databases (ISI Web of Knowledge [including Web of Science and MEDLINE], EBSCO host [including PsychInfo, CINAHL, Criminal Justice Abstracts, ERIC, PsychARTICLES, and Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection], and ProQuest [including PILOTS, Social Services Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts]) were searched to identify relevant quantitative studies. The Cambridge Quality Checklists were used to evaluate the quality of selected studies. These checklists can be used to assess the quality of risk and protective factors in criminal justice research. In this study they were used to explore the impact of victim satisfaction on crime victims' emotional and cognitive states post-victimization. The review process revealed mixed results, with some studies suggesting a healing impact of victim satisfaction and others not. More consistent were findings regarding the existence of an association between victim satisfaction and (alterations in) positive cognitions. However, since the majority of studies suffered from severe methodological shortcomings, definite conclusions cannot be drawn yet.

  7. Substance-Abusing Parents in the Criminal Justice System: Does Substance Abuse Treatment Improve Their Children's Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Susan D.; Gleeson, James P.; Waites-Garrett, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    The expansion of the criminal justice system over the last several decades helped to focus attention on children of incarcerated parents, many of whom have parents with substance abuse problems. Since the 1990's, a national grassroots campaign has been underway to make substance abuse treatment an alternative to incarceration for parents who…

  8. Unfit for Human Consumption: The Problem of Flawed Writing in Criminal Justice and What to Do about It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Don C.

    1995-01-01

    Provides an account of the processes that are involved in the production of "Crime and Delinquency." Asserts that flawed writing in criminology and criminal justice appears to be a systemic rather than an individual one. Suggests to authors or prospective authors ways in which writing can be improved. (LKS)

  9. An Exploration of How Women Probation and Parole Officers Learn to Negotiate Power and Interest in the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varner, Barbara Eileen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this narrative inquiry was to explore the ways women probation and parole officers learn to negotiate power and interests in the criminal justice system. The women are considered officers of the courts and work within the constraints of the court system. The framework that informed this study was a critical feminist lens on the…

  10. The Effectiveness of Virtual Learning Tools for Millennial Generation Students in a Community College Criminal Justice Degree Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    An analysis of data from the Community College Survey of Student Engagement and multiyear analysis of pretest/posttest scores in introductory criminal justice courses revealed there was a systemic decline in student engagement and achievement. Because of this analysis, a commercial virtual learning tool (CJI) that purported great success in…

  11. Attitudes toward hiring applicants with mental illness and criminal justice involvement: the impact of education and experience.

    PubMed

    Batastini, Ashley B; Bolanos, Angelea D; Morgan, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with mental health diagnoses, as well as those involved in the criminal justice system, experience a number of barriers in the recovery and reintegration progress, including access to stable, prosocial employment opportunities. Employment for these populations is important for establishing financial security, reducing unstructured leisure time, increasing self-worth, and improving interpersonal skills. However, research has demonstrated that individuals with psychiatric and/or criminal backgrounds may experience stigmatizing attitudes from employers that impede their ability to find adequate work. This study aimed to evaluate stigmatizing beliefs toward hypothetical applicants who indicated a mental health history, a criminal history, or both, as well as the effectiveness of psychoeducation in reducing stigma. Participants consisted of 465 individuals recruited from a large university who completed a series of online questions about a given applicant. Results of this study varied somewhat across measures of employability, but were largely consistent with extant research suggesting that mental illness and criminal justice involvement serve as deterrents when making hiring decisions. Overall, psychoeducation appeared to reduce stigma for hiring decisions when the applicant presented with a criminal history. Unfortunately, similar findings were not revealed when applicants presented with a psychiatric or a psychiatric and criminal history. Implications and limitations of these findings are presented, along with suggestions for future research.

  12. Attitudes toward hiring applicants with mental illness and criminal justice involvement: the impact of education and experience.

    PubMed

    Batastini, Ashley B; Bolanos, Angelea D; Morgan, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with mental health diagnoses, as well as those involved in the criminal justice system, experience a number of barriers in the recovery and reintegration progress, including access to stable, prosocial employment opportunities. Employment for these populations is important for establishing financial security, reducing unstructured leisure time, increasing self-worth, and improving interpersonal skills. However, research has demonstrated that individuals with psychiatric and/or criminal backgrounds may experience stigmatizing attitudes from employers that impede their ability to find adequate work. This study aimed to evaluate stigmatizing beliefs toward hypothetical applicants who indicated a mental health history, a criminal history, or both, as well as the effectiveness of psychoeducation in reducing stigma. Participants consisted of 465 individuals recruited from a large university who completed a series of online questions about a given applicant. Results of this study varied somewhat across measures of employability, but were largely consistent with extant research suggesting that mental illness and criminal justice involvement serve as deterrents when making hiring decisions. Overall, psychoeducation appeared to reduce stigma for hiring decisions when the applicant presented with a criminal history. Unfortunately, similar findings were not revealed when applicants presented with a psychiatric or a psychiatric and criminal history. Implications and limitations of these findings are presented, along with suggestions for future research. PMID:24629567

  13. Explaining homeless youths' criminal justice interactions: childhood trauma or surviving life on the streets?

    PubMed

    Yoder, Jamie Rae; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J; Ferguson, Kristin M; Haffejee, Badiah

    2014-02-01

    Homeless youth are at increased risk for involvement in the criminal justice system. This study investigated childhood trauma as a risk factor for arrest or jail among a sample of youth seeking services at drop in, shelter, and transitional housing settings, while controlling for more established risk factors including: substance use, peer deviance, and engagement in survival behaviors. Standardized and researcher developed measures collected quantitative data through face-to-face interviews with youth (N = 202). Two sequential logic regression models identified significant predictors of arrest and jail, with a particular interest in the effects of childhood maltreatment. Youth with a history of physical abuse were nearly twice as likely to be arrested and to be jailed compared to non-abused youth, controlling for the significant influence of drug use and survival behaviors. These findings suggest the need for trauma screening and trauma-informed services for homeless youth at risk of illegal behavior. PMID:24337524

  14. Explaining homeless youths' criminal justice interactions: childhood trauma or surviving life on the streets?

    PubMed

    Yoder, Jamie Rae; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J; Ferguson, Kristin M; Haffejee, Badiah

    2014-02-01

    Homeless youth are at increased risk for involvement in the criminal justice system. This study investigated childhood trauma as a risk factor for arrest or jail among a sample of youth seeking services at drop in, shelter, and transitional housing settings, while controlling for more established risk factors including: substance use, peer deviance, and engagement in survival behaviors. Standardized and researcher developed measures collected quantitative data through face-to-face interviews with youth (N = 202). Two sequential logic regression models identified significant predictors of arrest and jail, with a particular interest in the effects of childhood maltreatment. Youth with a history of physical abuse were nearly twice as likely to be arrested and to be jailed compared to non-abused youth, controlling for the significant influence of drug use and survival behaviors. These findings suggest the need for trauma screening and trauma-informed services for homeless youth at risk of illegal behavior.

  15. Costs of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder in the Canadian Criminal Justice System.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Nguyen Xuan; Jonsson, Egon

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed literature to estimate the costs of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) in the Canadian Criminal Justice System (CJS), and to update the total costs of FASD in Canada. The results suggest FASD is costlier than previous estimates. The costs of FASD associated with the CJS are estimated at $3.9 billion a year, with $1.2 billion for police, $0.4 billion for court, $0.5 billion for correctional services, $1.6 billion for victims, and $0.2 billion for third-party. The updated total costs of FASD in Canada are $9.7 billion a year, of which CJS accounts for 40%, healthcare 21%, education 17%, social services 13%, and others 9%.

  16. Justice Department Policies on Equal Employment and Affirmative Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, William Bradford

    In these remarks, the Assistant Attorney General for the Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, discusses the Department's policy to enforce Federal equal employment opportunity guarantees without supporting quotas and other numerical formulae that provide preferential treatment. The discussion counters the charge that this policy is…

  17. Evaluating European Climate Change Policy: An Ecological Justice Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhovic-Dorsner, Kamala

    2005-01-01

    To date, the concept of ecological justice, when applied to international climate change policy, has largely focused on the North-South dichotomy and has yet to be extended to Central and Eastern European countries. This article argues that current formulations of climate change policy cannot address potential issues of ecological injustice to…

  18. Environmental justice in Scotland: policy, pedagogy and praxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scandrett, Eurig

    2007-10-01

    In the first decade of Scottish devolution, environmental justice became a significant component of environmental policy for the Scottish Executive, especially under First Minister Jack McConnell. This paper analyses how a discourse developed within policy narratives which separated environmental justice from economic growth and the interests of capital. In particular, it explores the role which research has played in justifying this discourse. By contrast, an alternative discourse has developed through reflexive and dialogical research associated with the praxis of the environmental organization Friends of the Earth Scotland. This alternative discourse is embedded in the embryonic environmental justice movement in Scotland, and identifies environmental justice as a social conflict which exposes negative externalities at the heart of economic development.

  19. One Country, Two Cultures: Are Hong Kong Mock Jurors "Mainlandized" by the Predominant Chinese Criminal Justice Concept of Confession?

    PubMed

    Hui, Cora Y T; Lo, T Wing

    2015-09-01

    Over-reliance on confession has had a long history in the Chinese criminal justice system. Recent high-profile wrongful conviction cases have raised public awareness of the coercive and torturous methods used to extract confessions. Despite the return of Hong Kong to Chinese sovereignty, Hong Kong remains a common law jurisdiction and the most serious criminal offences are tried by a jury. The present study empirically examines the relative impact of DNA evidence, confession, eyewitness testimony, and victim testimony in a Hong Kong-Chinese mock juror sample. The results show that the participants placed greater value on DNA evidence than on confession, and placed the lowest value on testimonial evidence. It is argued that the situation of "one country, two cultures" remains strong: Whereas participants are still influenced by the Chinese criminal justice concept of confession, their judgment is still predominately influenced by the scientific evidence as commonly practiced in the West. Thus, no solid evidence has been found to confirm the emergence of mainlandization in Hong Kong's criminal justice system. PMID:24670371

  20. One Country, Two Cultures: Are Hong Kong Mock Jurors "Mainlandized" by the Predominant Chinese Criminal Justice Concept of Confession?

    PubMed

    Hui, Cora Y T; Lo, T Wing

    2015-09-01

    Over-reliance on confession has had a long history in the Chinese criminal justice system. Recent high-profile wrongful conviction cases have raised public awareness of the coercive and torturous methods used to extract confessions. Despite the return of Hong Kong to Chinese sovereignty, Hong Kong remains a common law jurisdiction and the most serious criminal offences are tried by a jury. The present study empirically examines the relative impact of DNA evidence, confession, eyewitness testimony, and victim testimony in a Hong Kong-Chinese mock juror sample. The results show that the participants placed greater value on DNA evidence than on confession, and placed the lowest value on testimonial evidence. It is argued that the situation of "one country, two cultures" remains strong: Whereas participants are still influenced by the Chinese criminal justice concept of confession, their judgment is still predominately influenced by the scientific evidence as commonly practiced in the West. Thus, no solid evidence has been found to confirm the emergence of mainlandization in Hong Kong's criminal justice system.

  1. Influence of Criminal Justice Involvement and Psychiatric Diagnoses on Treatment Costs Among Adults With Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Allison G; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Lin, Hsiuju; Easter, Michele M; Frisman, Linda K; Swartz, Marvin S

    2015-09-01

    The impact of criminal justice involvement and clinical characteristics on the cost of public treatment services for adults with serious mental illnesses is unknown. The authors examined differential effects of justice involvement on behavioral health treatment costs by primary psychiatric diagnosis (schizophrenia or bipolar disorder) and also by substance use diagnosis among 25,133 adult clients of Connecticut's public behavioral health system in fiscal years 2006 and 2007. Justice-involved adults with schizophrenia had the highest costs, strongly driven by forensic hospitalizations. Addressing the cross-system burdens of forensic hospitalizations may be a sensible starting point in the effort to reduce costs in both the public behavioral health and justice systems. PMID:25975893

  2. Influence of Criminal Justice Involvement and Psychiatric Diagnoses on Treatment Costs Among Adults With Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Allison G; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Lin, Hsiuju; Easter, Michele M; Frisman, Linda K; Swartz, Marvin S

    2015-09-01

    The impact of criminal justice involvement and clinical characteristics on the cost of public treatment services for adults with serious mental illnesses is unknown. The authors examined differential effects of justice involvement on behavioral health treatment costs by primary psychiatric diagnosis (schizophrenia or bipolar disorder) and also by substance use diagnosis among 25,133 adult clients of Connecticut's public behavioral health system in fiscal years 2006 and 2007. Justice-involved adults with schizophrenia had the highest costs, strongly driven by forensic hospitalizations. Addressing the cross-system burdens of forensic hospitalizations may be a sensible starting point in the effort to reduce costs in both the public behavioral health and justice systems.

  3. Characteristics of facilities with specialized programming for drinking drivers and for other criminal justice involved clients: analysis of a national database

    PubMed Central

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott

    2007-01-01

    Background Offering specialized programming at substance abuse treatment facilities can help diversify clientele and funding sources, potentially enhancing the facilities' ability to survive and/or expand. Past research has shown that facilities only offering specialized programming for driving under the influence/driving while intoxicated offenders (DUI) are predominately private-for-profit owned. As criminal justice populations, both DUI and other criminal justice offenders, comprise a large proportion of those in community-based substance abuse treatment knowing facilities' characteristics would be important for administrators and policymakers to consider when updating programming, training staff or expanding capacity to ensure efficient use of scarce resources. However, while such characteristics are known for DUI programs, they are not known for facilities offering specialized programming for other criminal justice offenders. Methods Analysis of the 2004 US National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities. Results Almost half the facilities (48.2%) offered either DUI or other criminal justice specialized programming. These facilities were divided between those offering DUI specialized programming (17.7%), other criminal justice specialized programming (16.6%) and both types of programming (13.9%). Certain characteristics were independently associated with offering DUI specialized programming (private ownership, rural location, for profit status) or other criminal justice specialized programming (receiving public funds, urban location, region of country). Conclusion Offering specialized programming for DUI or other criminal justice offenders was common and associated with distinct characteristics. These observed associations may reflect the positioning of the facility to increase visibility, or diversify clientele and possibly funding streams or the decision of policymakers. As the criminal justice populations show no sign of decreasing and resources are

  4. Incarceration and sexual risk: examining the relationship between men's involvement in the criminal justice system and risky sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Knittel, Andrea K; Snow, Rachel C; Griffith, Derek M; Morenoff, Jeffrey

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we used data from Add Health Waves II and III to compare men who had been incarcerated to those who had not, and examined whether incarceration was associated with increased numbers of sexual partners and increased odds of concurrent partnerships. We used multivariate regression and propensity-score matching to compare sexual behavior of Wave III male respondents who had been incarcerated with those who had not, and compared sexual behavior at Wave II to identify differences in sexual behavior prior to incarceration. Incarceration was associated with an increased rate of lifetime sexual partnership, but this was attenuated by substance use. Criminal justice involvement was associated with increased odds of having partners who report concurrent partnerships, but no further increase was seen with incarceration. There were no significant sexual behavior differences prior to incarceration. These results suggest that the criminal justice system and substance use may interact to shape sexual behavior.

  5. Immigration and social justice: towards a progressive European immigration policy?

    PubMed

    Black, R

    1996-01-01

    "Stepping back from current debates over immigration in the new 'Fortress Europe', this paper examines moral and philosophical arguments for an alternative and more 'progressive' immigration policy. Despite recent interest within geography in principles of social justice, the extent to which such principles reach beyond particular societies or nations has rarely been considered explicitly. The notion of social justice may be extended to the question of immigration, without taking the position that migration should itself be seen as a 'human right'. Even within relatively conservative contractarian and communitarian conceptions of social justice, a number of suggestions can be made for 'progressive' policy options, in particular by focusing on the communal rights and duties of societies rather than the human rights of individual migrants."

  6. Reconciling justice and attribution research to advance climate policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huggel, Christian; Wallimann-Helmer, Ivo; Stone, Dáithí; Cramer, Wolfgang

    2016-10-01

    The Paris Climate Agreement is an important step for international climate policy, but the compensation for negative effects of climate change based on clear assignment of responsibilities remains highly debated. From both a policy and a science perspective, it is unclear how responsibilities should be defined and on what evidence base. We explore different normative principles of justice relevant to climate change impacts, and ask how different forms of causal evidence of impacts drawn from detection and attribution research could inform policy approaches in accordance with justice considerations. We reveal a procedural injustice based on the imbalance of observations and knowledge of impacts between developed and developing countries. This type of injustice needs to be considered in policy negotiations and decisions, and efforts strengthened to reduce it.

  7. Evaluating environmental justice under the National Environmental Policy Act

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, R.

    1998-01-01

    Environmental justice refers to the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, national origin, or income with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws. To avoid inequities in future federal activities, President Clinton issued Executive Order (EO) 12898, which requires federal agencies to consider environmental justice in carrying out their missions. Guidance issued by the Executive Office of the President requires every federal agency to consider environmental justice in conducting impact evaluations under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Thus, an environmental justice analysis is a highly focused form of social impact assessment that must be conducted within the framework of NEPA. The specific purpose of such an analysis is to determine whether a proposed federal activity would impact low-income and minority populations to a greater extent than it would impact a community`s general population. This article explains the development and implementation of EO 12898 and explores what federal agencies are doing to incorporate environmental justice into their NEPA procedures. It also includes recommendations for other authorities to consider when incorporating environmental justice into their environmental impact assessments.

  8. EVIDENCE-BASED TREATMENT PRACTICES FOR DRUG-INVOLVED ADULTS IN THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM

    PubMed Central

    Friedmann, Peter D.; Taxman, Faye S.; Henderson, Craig E.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the extent and organizational correlates of evidence-based practices (EBPs) in correctional facilities and community-based substance abuse treatment programs that manage drug-involved adult offenders. METHODS Correctional administrators and treatment program directors affiliated with a national sample of 384 criminal justice and community-based programs providing substance abuse treatment to adult offenders in the United States were surveyed in 2004. Correctional administrators reported the availability of up to 13 specified EBPs and treatment directors up to 15. The sum total of EBPs indicates their extent. Linear models regress the extent of EBPs on variables measuring structure and leadership, culture and climate, administrator attitudes and network connectedness of the organization. RESULTS Most programs offer fewer than 60% of the specified EBPs to drug-involved offenders. In multiple regression models, offender treatment programs that provided more EBPs were community-based, accredited, and network-connected; with a performance-oriented, non-punitive culture, more training resources; and leadership with a background in human services, a high regard for the value of substance abuse treatment and an understanding of EBPs. CONCLUSIONS The use of EBPs among facility- and community-based programs that serve drug-involved adult offenders has room for improvement. Initiatives to disseminate EBPs might target these institutional and environmental domains, but further research is needed to determine whether such organization interventions can promote the uptake of EBPs. PMID:17383551

  9. Civilian PTSD symptoms and risk for involvement in the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Donley, Sachiko; Habib, Leah; Jovanovic, Tanja; Kamkwalala, Asante; Evces, Mark; Egan, Glenn; Bradley, Bekh; Ressler, Kerry J

    2012-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has received considerable attention with regard to the ongoing wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. In studies of veterans, behavioral sequelae of PTSD can include hostile and violent behavior. Rates of PTSD found in impoverished, high-risk urban populations within U.S. inner cities are as high as in returning veterans. The objective of this study was to determine whether civilian PTSD is associated with increased risk of incarceration and charges related to violence in a low-income, urban population. Participants (n = 4,113) recruited from Grady Memorial Hospital in Atlanta, Georgia, completed self-report measures assessing history of trauma, PTSD symptoms, and incarceration. Both trauma exposure and civilian PTSD remained strongly associated with increased risk of involvement in the criminal justice system and charges of a violent offense, even after adjustment for sex, age, race, education, employment, income, and substance abuse in a regression model. Trauma and PTSD have important implications for public safety and recidivism.

  10. A systematic review of people with autism spectrum disorder and the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    King, Claire; Murphy, Glynis H

    2014-11-01

    This paper provides a systemic review of the available literature on people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the criminal justice system (CJS). The review considers two main types of study: those that examined the prevalence of people with ASD in the CJS and those that examined the prevalence of offending in populations with ASD. In addition, types of offences in people with ASD, co-morbid psychiatric diagnoses, and characteristics of people with ASD who commit offences (including predisposing factors) are considered. A combination of search terms was used in a variety of databases in order to find all of the available literature on this topic, and research studies were included based on specified inclusion and exclusion criteria. It was found that whilst there is an emerging literature base on this topic, there are a wide variety of methodologies used, making direct comparison difficult. Nevertheless it can be concluded so far that people with ASD do not seem to be disproportionately over-represented in the CJS, though they commit a range of crimes and seem to have a number of predisposing features. There is poor evidence of the presence of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses (except in mental health settings) amongst offenders with ASD, and little evidence of the oft-asserted over-representation of certain kinds of crimes. It is recommended that further research of good quality is required in this area, rather than studies that examine populations that are not representative of all those with ASD.

  11. Technology use in linking criminal justice reentrants to HIV care in the community: a qualitative formative research study.

    PubMed

    Peterson, James; Cota, Michelle; Gray, Holly; Bazerman, Lauri; Kuo, Irene; Kurth, Ann; Beckwith, Curt

    2015-01-01

    Innovative interventions increasing linkage, adherence, and retention in care among HIV-infected persons in the criminal justice system are needed. The authors conducted a qualitative study to investigate technology-based tools to facilitate linkage to community-based care and viral suppression for HIV-infected jail detainees on antiretroviral medications being released to the community. The authors conducted 24 qualitative interview-12 in Rhode Island and 12 in Washington, DC-among recently incarcerated HIV-infected persons to elicit their perceptions on the use of technology tools to support linkage to HIV care among criminal justice populations. This article discusses participants' perceptions of the acceptability of technological tools such as (a) a computer-based counseling and (b) text messaging interventions. The participants reported positive experiences when previewing the technology-based tools to facilitate linkage to HIV care and adherence to HIV medications. Successful linkage to care has been shown to improve HIV-associated and non-HIV-associated health outcomes, as well as prevent criminal recidivism and facilitate reentrants' successful and meaningful transition. These findings can be used to inform the implementation of interventions aimed at promoting adherence to antiretroviral medications and linkage to care for HIV-infected persons being released from the correctional setting.

  12. Technology Use in Linking Criminal Justice Reentrants to HIV Care in the Community: A Qualitative Formative Research Study

    PubMed Central

    PETERSON, JAMES; COTA, MICHELLE; GRAY, HOLLY; BAZERMAN, LAURI; KUO, IRENE; KURTH, ANN; BECKWITH, CURT

    2014-01-01

    Innovative interventions increasing linkage, adherence and retention in care among HIV-infected persons in the criminal justice system are needed. The authors conducted a qualitative study to investigate technology-based tools to facilitate linkage to community-based care and viral suppression for HIV-infected jail detainees on antiretroviral medications being released to the community. Twenty-four qualitative interviews were conducted in Rhode Island (12) and Washington DC (12) among HIV infected persons recently incarcerated to elicit their perceptions on the use of technology tools to support linkage to HIV care among criminal justice populations. This article discusses participants’ perceptions of the acceptability of technological tools such as (a) a computer-based counseling and (b) text messaging interventions. The participants reported positive experiences when previewing the technology-based tools to facilitate linkage to HIV care and adherence to HIV medications. Successful linkage to care has been shown to improve HIV-associated and non-HIV-associated health outcomes, as well as prevent criminal recidivism and facilitate reentrants’ successful and meaningful transition. These findings can be utilized to inform the implementation of interventions aimed at promoting adherence to antiretroviral medications and linkage to care for HIV-infected persons being released from the correctional setting. PMID:25529057

  13. Exhaled breath for drugs of abuse testing - evaluation in criminal justice settings.

    PubMed

    Beck, Olof

    2014-01-01

    Exhaled breath is being developed as a possible specimen for drug testing based on the collection of aerosol particles originating from the lung fluid. The present study was aimed to evaluate the applicability of exhaled breath for drugs of abuse testing in criminal justice settings. Particles in exhaled breath were collected with a new device in parallel with routine urine testing in two Swedish prisons, comprising both genders. Urine screening was performed according to established routines either by dipstick or by immunochemical methods at the Forensic Chemistry Laboratory and confirmations were with mass spectrometry methods. A total of 247 parallel samples were studied. Analysis of exhaled breath samples was done with a sensitive mass spectrometric method and identifications were made according to forensic standards. In addition tested subjects and personnel were asked to fill in a questionnaire concerning their views about drug testing. In 212 cases both the urine and breath testing were negative, and in 22 cases both urine and breath were positive. Out of 6 cases where breath was negative and urine positive 4 concerned THC. Out of 7 cases where, breath was positive and urine negative 6 concerned amphetamine. Detected substances in breath comprised: amphetamine, methamphetamine, THC, methylphenidate, buprenorphine, 6-acetylmorphine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, diazepam and tramadol. Both the prison inmates and staff members reported breath testing to be preferable due to practical considerations. The results of this study documented that drug testing using exhaled breath provided as many positives as urine testing despite an expected shorter detection window, and that the breath sampling procedure was well accepted and provided practical benefits reported both by the prison inmates and testing personnel.

  14. 8 CFR 287.9 - Criminal search warrant and firearms policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) In using a firearm, an immigration officer shall adhere to the standard of conduct set forth in 8 CFR... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Criminal search warrant and firearms... REGULATIONS FIELD OFFICERS; POWERS AND DUTIES § 287.9 Criminal search warrant and firearms policies. (a)...

  15. 8 CFR 287.9 - Criminal search warrant and firearms policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) In using a firearm, an immigration officer shall adhere to the standard of conduct set forth in 8 CFR... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criminal search warrant and firearms... REGULATIONS FIELD OFFICERS; POWERS AND DUTIES § 287.9 Criminal search warrant and firearms policies. (a)...

  16. 8 CFR 287.9 - Criminal search warrant and firearms policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) In using a firearm, an immigration officer shall adhere to the standard of conduct set forth in 8 CFR... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Criminal search warrant and firearms... REGULATIONS FIELD OFFICERS; POWERS AND DUTIES § 287.9 Criminal search warrant and firearms policies. (a)...

  17. 8 CFR 287.9 - Criminal search warrant and firearms policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) In using a firearm, an immigration officer shall adhere to the standard of conduct set forth in 8 CFR... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criminal search warrant and firearms... REGULATIONS FIELD OFFICERS; POWERS AND DUTIES § 287.9 Criminal search warrant and firearms policies. (a)...

  18. 8 CFR 287.9 - Criminal search warrant and firearms policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) In using a firearm, an immigration officer shall adhere to the standard of conduct set forth in 8 CFR... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Criminal search warrant and firearms... REGULATIONS FIELD OFFICERS; POWERS AND DUTIES § 287.9 Criminal search warrant and firearms policies. (a)...

  19. Incarceration history relative to health, substance use, and violence in a sample of vulnerable South African women: implications for health services in criminal justice settings

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jennifer E; Carney, Tara; Kline, Tracy; Browne, Felicia A; Wechsberg, Wendee M

    2012-01-01

    International research has suggested that women in the criminal justice system carry a higher burden of many illnesses than women in the community, especially mental health disorders, substance use disorders, sexually transmitted infections, and a history of violent victimization. Knowledge of these health disparities is often used to advocate for relevant screening and treatment services for women passing through criminal justice custody within US and European settings. However, almost all criminal justice health research has taken place in high-income countries, with little or no research taking place in other countries, especially in South Africa. This baseline analysis compares the health, substance use, and violent victimization of women who have ever been incarcerated to those who have not, in a cross-sectional sample of 720 young, vulnerable, substance-using women in Cape Town, South Africa. Results of univariate tests indicated that women who had ever been incarcerated had worse health, mental health, and sexually transmitted infection indicators and were more likely to report use of substances and to have been victims of physical and sexual assault than women who had never been incarcerated. Passing through the criminal justice system appears to be a marker for a variety of current and/or future health service needs among vulnerable South African women, suggesting that screening, prevention, and treatment referral efforts at the time of intersection with the criminal justice system may reduce health burden for these women. PMID:24474876

  20. 75 FR 21661 - Meeting of the CJIS Advisory Policy Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... announce the meeting of the Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS) Advisory Policy Board (APB). The..., Criminal Justice Information, Services Division, Federal Bureau of Investigation. BILLING CODE 4410-02-M ... Information Center, National Instant Criminal Background Check System, National Incident-Based...

  1. Romance, recovery & community re-entry for criminal justice involved women: Conceptualizing and measuring intimate relationship factors and power

    PubMed Central

    Walt, Lisa C.; Hunter, Bronwyn; Salina, Doreen; Jason, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that interpersonal relationships, particularly romantic relationships, may influence women’s attempts at substance abuse recovery and community re-entry after criminal justice system involvement. The present paper evaluates relational and power theories to conceptualize the influence of romantic partner and romantic relationship qualities on pathways in and out of substance abuse and crime. The paper then combines these conceptualizations with a complementary empirical analysis to describe an ongoing research project that longitudinally investigates these relational and power driven factors on women’s substance abuse recovery and community re-entry success among former substance abusing, recently criminally involved women. This paper is designed to encourage the integration of theory and empirical analysis by detailing how each of these concepts are operationalized and measured. Future research and clinical implications are also discussed. PMID:25750487

  2. Replicating MISTERS: an epidemiological criminology framework analysis of a program for criminal justice-involved minority males in the community.

    PubMed

    Potter, Roberto Hugh; Akers, Timothy A; Bowman, Daniel Richard

    2013-01-01

    The Men in STD Training and Empowerment Research Study (MISTERS) program and epidemiological criminology began their development in Atlanta at about the same time. MISTERS focuses on men recently released from jail to reduce both HIV/STD and crime-related risk factors through a brief educational intervention. This article examines ways in which MISTERS and epidemiological criminology have been used to inform one another in the replication of the MISTERS program in Orange County, Florida. Data from 110 MISTERS participants during the first 10 months of operation are analyzed to examine the overlapping occurrence of health and criminal risk behaviors in the men's lives. This provides a test of core hypotheses from the epidemiological criminology framework. This article also examines application of the epidemiological criminology framework to develop interventions to address health and crime risk factors simultaneously in Criminal Justice-Involved populations in the community.

  3. Beyond the Criminal Arena: The Justice Studies Program at Winston-Salem State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Lynn K.; Mitchell, Alvin D.

    2006-01-01

    The justice studies program at Winston-Salem State University (WSSU) is designed to produce a new breed of justice practitioners whose understanding of justice and its administration is broadened to include the political, social, economic, and cultural conditions within which issues of crime and punishment are pursued and addressed. While it…

  4. Government Policy and School Effects: Racism and Social Justice in Policy and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillborn, David; Youdell, Deborah; Kirton, Alison

    1999-01-01

    Criticizes social justice policies of the Labour government in the United Kingdom because they promote formal equality in the schools without working for substantive equity in outcomes of education. Naive multiculturalism is an inadequate policy response to the institutionalized racism that pervades the contemporary education system. (SLD)

  5. Mortality, causes of death and risk factors for death among primary amphetamine users in the Swedish criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Ericsson, Emmy; Bradvik, Louise; Hakansson, Anders

    2014-02-01

    This study examined mortality and predictors of death in 1,396 primary amphetamine users (85% males) who were interviewed with the Addiction Severity Index in the Swedish criminal justice system during 2000-2006 and followed through 2008. Forty-nine clients deceased (standardized mortality ratio 4.1 [3.0-5.4]), at least 84% of deaths were violent or drug-related (12% suicides), and Cox regression analysis indicated that death was associated with frequent use of sedatives and less frequent use of amphetamine. No female deaths were observed; death and male gender were associated in binary analysis. Implications for diagnostics and treatment are discussed.

  6. HIV Prevention for Adults With Criminal Justice Involvement: A Systematic Review of HIV Risk-Reduction Interventions in Incarceration and Community Settings

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Dora; Operario, Don

    2014-01-01

    We summarized and appraised evidence regarding HIV prevention interventions for adults with criminal justice involvement. We included randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials that evaluated an HIV prevention intervention, enrolled participants with histories of criminal justice involvement, and reported biological or behavioral outcomes. We used Cochrane methods to screen 32 271 citations from 16 databases and gray literature. We included 37 trials enrolling n = 12 629 participants. Interventions were 27 psychosocial, 7 opioid substitution therapy, and 3 HIV-testing programs. Eleven programs significantly reduced sexual risk taking, 4 reduced injection drug risks, and 4 increased testing. Numerous interventions may reduce HIV-related risks among adults with criminal justice involvement. Future research should consider process evaluations, programs involving partners or families, and interventions integrating biomedical, psychosocial, and structural approaches. PMID:25211725

  7. HIV prevention for adults with criminal justice involvement: a systematic review of HIV risk-reduction interventions in incarceration and community settings.

    PubMed

    Underhill, Kristen; Dumont, Dora; Operario, Don

    2014-11-01

    We summarized and appraised evidence regarding HIV prevention interventions for adults with criminal justice involvement. We included randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials that evaluated an HIV prevention intervention, enrolled participants with histories of criminal justice involvement, and reported biological or behavioral outcomes. We used Cochrane methods to screen 32,271 citations from 16 databases and gray literature. We included 37 trials enrolling n = 12,629 participants. Interventions were 27 psychosocial, 7 opioid substitution therapy, and 3 HIV-testing programs. Eleven programs significantly reduced sexual risk taking, 4 reduced injection drug risks, and 4 increased testing. Numerous interventions may reduce HIV-related risks among adults with criminal justice involvement. Future research should consider process evaluations, programs involving partners or families, and interventions integrating biomedical, psychosocial, and structural approaches. PMID:25211725

  8. Review of Regional Criminal Justice Training Academies. House Document No. 28. Report of the Joint Legislative Audit and Review Commission to the Governor and the General Assembly of Virginia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State General Assembly, Richmond. Joint Legislative Audit and Review Commission.

    Virginia has 36 criminal justice training academies, including 10 regional academies. The academies conduct entry-level, inservice, and specialized training for law enforcement officers, jailers, and other criminal justice personnel. In 1998, the Joint Legislative Audit and Review Commission (JLARC) was directed to review the quality, consistency,…

  9. 75 FR 63862 - Meeting of the CJIS Advisory Policy Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... the Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS) Advisory Policy Board (APB). The CJIS APB is a... Justice Information Services Division, Federal Bureau of Investigation. BILLING CODE 4410-02-M ... System, Interstate Identification Index, Law Enforcement Online, National Crime Information...

  10. Criminal Justice Involvement, Trauma, and Negative Affect in Iraq and Afghanistan War Era Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbogen, Eric B.; Johnson, Sally C.; Newton, Virginia M.; Straits-Troster, Kristy; Vasterling, Jennifer J.; Wagner, H. Ryan; Beckham, Jean C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Although criminal behavior in veterans has been cited as a growing problem, little is known about why some veterans are at increased risk for arrest. Theories of criminal behavior postulate that people who have been exposed to stressful environments or traumatic events and who report negative affect such as anger and irritability are at…

  11. Learning Disabilities and Attention Deficit Disorder: A New Approach for the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Admire, David S.

    2007-01-01

    As a judge, the author was continually confronted with offenders whose behavior was unexpected and surprising. This was observed not only during their criminal activity but during their travel through the criminal process. This behavior did not appear to be intentional, but rather an inappropriate response to the circumstances that existed at the…

  12. The communication of forensic science in the criminal justice system: A review of theory and proposed directions for research.

    PubMed

    Howes, Loene M

    2015-03-01

    Clear communication about forensic science is essential to the effectiveness and perceived trustworthiness of the criminal justice system. Communication can be seen as a meaning-making process that involves different components such as the sender of a message, the message itself, the channel in which a message is sent, and the receiver of the message. Research conducted to date on the communication between forensic scientists and non-scientists in the criminal justice system has focused on different components of the communication process as objects of study. The purpose of this paper is to bring together communication theory and past research on the communication of forensic science to contribute to a deeper understanding of it, and to provide a coherent view of it overall. The paper first outlines the broader context of communication theory and science communication as a backdrop to forensic science communication. Then it presents a conceptual framework as a way to organise past research and, using the framework, reviews recent examples of empirical research and commentary on the communication of forensic science. Finally the paper identifies aspects of the communication of forensic science that may be addressed by future research to enhance the effectiveness of communication between scientists and non-scientists in this multidisciplinary arena. PMID:25754001

  13. "Drugs and AIDS--reaching for help": a videotape on AIDS and drug abuse prevention for criminal justice populations.

    PubMed

    Gross, M; DeJong, W; Lamb, D; Enos, T; Mason, T; Weitzman, E

    1994-01-01

    This article describes the development of a videotape targeted at persons under supervision of the criminal justice system. The videotape seeks to encourage those who use illicit drugs to enter drug treatment and to motivate those at risk for exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to alter behaviors that may transmit infection. The criminal justice system presents an important opportunity to deliver such messages, particularly to a large population of persons briefly detained in a jail or lockup and released without subsequent incarceration. Evidence suggests that, even in this audience, knowledge of how to prevent exposure to HIV is widespread, yet those at risk often fail to take appropriate precautions: motivating behavior change demands more than imparting information. In order to shape this videotape, we analyzed the target audience and developed a drama-based approach that applies the framework of social learning theory, the health belief model, and principles of social marketing. This article describes the integration of that theoretical framework into the production process, content, and strategy of the videotape.

  14. The communication of forensic science in the criminal justice system: A review of theory and proposed directions for research.

    PubMed

    Howes, Loene M

    2015-03-01

    Clear communication about forensic science is essential to the effectiveness and perceived trustworthiness of the criminal justice system. Communication can be seen as a meaning-making process that involves different components such as the sender of a message, the message itself, the channel in which a message is sent, and the receiver of the message. Research conducted to date on the communication between forensic scientists and non-scientists in the criminal justice system has focused on different components of the communication process as objects of study. The purpose of this paper is to bring together communication theory and past research on the communication of forensic science to contribute to a deeper understanding of it, and to provide a coherent view of it overall. The paper first outlines the broader context of communication theory and science communication as a backdrop to forensic science communication. Then it presents a conceptual framework as a way to organise past research and, using the framework, reviews recent examples of empirical research and commentary on the communication of forensic science. Finally the paper identifies aspects of the communication of forensic science that may be addressed by future research to enhance the effectiveness of communication between scientists and non-scientists in this multidisciplinary arena.

  15. Criminal justice involvement, behavioral health service use, and costs of forensic assertive community treatment: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Cusack, Karen J; Morrissey, Joseph P; Cuddeback, Gary S; Prins, Annabel; Williams, David M

    2010-08-01

    Jail diversion and forensic community treatment programs have proliferated over the past decade, far outpacing evidence regarding their efficacy. The current study reports findings from a randomized clinical trial conducted in California for frequent jail users with serious mental illness that compares a forensic assertive community treatment (FACT) intervention with treatment as usual (TAU). Outcomes are reported at 12 and 24 months post-randomization for criminal justice outcomes, behavioral health services and costs. At 12 months, FACT vs. TAU participants had fewer jail bookings, greater outpatient contacts, and fewer hospital days than did TAU participants. Results of zero-inflated negative binomial regression found that FACT participants had a higher probability of avoiding jail, although once jailed, the number of jail days did not differ between groups. Increased outpatient costs resulting from FACT outpatient services were partially offset by decreased inpatient and jail costs. The findings for the 24 month period followed the same pattern. These findings provide additional support for the idea that providing appropriate behavioral health services can reduce criminal justice involvement. PMID:20217230

  16. Education Policy for Social Justice in Cyprus: The Role of Stakeholders' Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hajisoteriou, Christina; Angelides, Panayiotis

    2014-01-01

    This article examines (a) the official policy for social justice as developed by the Ministry of Education and Culture and its policy-makers, (b) the ways in which school leaders (head teachers) and school actors (teachers) understand education policy for social justice, and (c) the impact of this process on school leaders' and actors'…

  17. Medical school forensic psychiatry units in health care delivery facilities rather than criminal justice institutions: an alternative model.

    PubMed

    Sarwer-Foner, G J; Smith, S; Bradford, J

    1985-01-01

    We have presented a model for developing forensic psychiatric treatment and teaching services of a medical school Department of Psychiatry, but where these services are the basic comprehensive health care delivery system for the entire community. These offer consultative and treatment services for adult and family court clinic, psychiatric forensic services, of forensic psychiatry open bed and medium security-type bed, as well as day hospital and outpatient services. All of these are sited in the normal health care delivery system of the university teaching hospitals and its patient treatment, teaching, and research facilities. Consultative services are offered on request to the criminal justice system, but the basic health care delivery system is controlled administratively by the ordinary university teaching hospital authorities and exists as a one of a kind unit at the Royal Ottawa Hospital. The Royal Ottawa Hospital is a private nonprofit hospital, with its own Board of Trustees, and is affiliated with the medical school, as part of a major university network. We believe it important to present this model for an overall forensic psychiatric service, in contradistinction to the more commonly established forensic psychiatric facilities in state mental hospitals, in a special facility for the criminally insane, or in a criminal justice system institution such as a penitentiary. We believe that our model for forensic psychiatric facilities has great advantages for the patient. Here the patient is treated in a specialized facility (as all psychiatric patients with specialized problems should be); but one which is a specialized forensic facility, within the range of specialized psychiatric facilities that are needed by an urban community.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. The Prevalence of Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders in the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheely, Catherine A.; Carpenter, Laura A.; Letourneau, Elizabeth J.; Nicholas, Joyce S.; Charles, Jane; King, Lydia B.

    2012-01-01

    Past surveys have reported high rates of youth with disabilities in the juvenile justice system, however, little research has examined the frequency with which youth with Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are in contact with law enforcement. Using records linkage with the Department of Juvenile Justice and the South Carolina Law Enforcement Division…

  19. Climbing down the steps from the ivory tower: how UK academics and criminal justice practitioners need to work together on alcohol studies.

    PubMed

    Newbury-Birch, Dorothy; McGeechan, Grant J; Holloway, Aisha

    2016-09-12

    Purpose Evidence in the UK tells us that risky drinking is high amongst those in contact with the criminal justice system. The purpose of this paper is to explore the reasons why carrying out research around risky drinking in this setting is so difficult. Design/methodology/approach A commentary on the issues of carrying out research in the criminal justice setting. Findings There are issues of carrying out research in the criminal justice setting. The authors argue, that as academics we can be more proactive in working with practitioners in the design and carrying out of studies. By examining what the primary outcome of interest is to those that work in the field rather than what funding agencies tell us academics must use, academics may engage in a more co-productive way that enables everyone to achieve what they need. Moreover more work is needed to show how this approach can be achieved both in the UK and internationally. Originality/value This editorial explores some of the difficulties of carrying out alcohol research in the criminal justice system and postulates ways that this could be made easier. PMID:27548015

  20. Second Annual Evaluation of DCJS Funded School Resource Officer Programs. Report of the Department of Criminal Justice Services, Fiscal Year 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuiteman, John G.

    This evaluation report is the second publication from the Virginia Department of Criminal Justice Services' (DCJS) ongoing evaluation of the Virginia School Resource Officer (SRO) program. The findings are based on data submitted by 78 local SRO programs, all of which were awarded grants of federal or state monies from DCJS. The findings are…

  1. Criminal Justice Systems. Block I: Law Enforcement. Block II: The Courts. Block III: Corrections. Block IV: Community Relations. Block V: Proficiency Skills. Block VI: Criminalistics. Student Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    This student guide together with an instructor guide comprise a set of curriculum materials on the criminal justice system. The student guide contains self-contained instructional material that students can study at their own pace most of the time. Six major subject areas or blocks, which are further broken down into several units, with some units…

  2. Criminal Justice Systems. Block I: Law Enforcement. Block II: The Courts. Block III: Corrections. Block IV: Community Relations. Block V: Proficiency Skills. Block VI: Criminalistics. Instructor Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    This instructor guide together with a student guide comprise a set of curriculum materials on the criminal justice system. The instructor guide is a resource for planning and managing individualized, competency-based instruction in six major subject areas or blocks, which are further broken down into several units with some units having several…

  3. Climbing down the steps from the ivory tower: how UK academics and criminal justice practitioners need to work together on alcohol studies.

    PubMed

    Newbury-Birch, Dorothy; McGeechan, Grant J; Holloway, Aisha

    2016-09-12

    Purpose Evidence in the UK tells us that risky drinking is high amongst those in contact with the criminal justice system. The purpose of this paper is to explore the reasons why carrying out research around risky drinking in this setting is so difficult. Design/methodology/approach A commentary on the issues of carrying out research in the criminal justice setting. Findings There are issues of carrying out research in the criminal justice setting. The authors argue, that as academics we can be more proactive in working with practitioners in the design and carrying out of studies. By examining what the primary outcome of interest is to those that work in the field rather than what funding agencies tell us academics must use, academics may engage in a more co-productive way that enables everyone to achieve what they need. Moreover more work is needed to show how this approach can be achieved both in the UK and internationally. Originality/value This editorial explores some of the difficulties of carrying out alcohol research in the criminal justice system and postulates ways that this could be made easier.

  4. Gaols or De Facto Mental Institutions? Why Individuals with a Mental Illness Are Over-Represented in the Criminal Justice System in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Corinne

    2007-01-01

    The over-representation of people with mental illness in the criminal justice system highlights the need for legislative reform and the implementation of programs breaking the cycle of mental illness, poverty, unemployment and substance abuse across Australia. Whilst there is no inherent association between mental illness and crime, there is a…

  5. Revisiting the Association Between Television Viewing in Adolescence and Contact With the Criminal Justice System in Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Joseph A; Beaver, Kevin M

    2016-09-01

    A substantial number of previous studies have reported significant associations between television viewing habits and a host of detrimental outcomes including increased contact with the criminal justice system. However, it remains unclear whether the results flowing from this literature are generalizable to other samples and whether previously observed associations are confounded due to uncontrolled genetic influences. The current study addresses these limitations using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). The results of the preliminary models, which do not include controls for genetic influences, produced a pattern of results similar to those previously reported in the extant literature. The results of the genetically informed models revealed that the associations between television viewing and antisocial outcomes are not causal, but rather are driven by uncontrolled genetic influences. Further replication is required, but these findings suggest that results drawn from the extant literature may not be trustworthy.

  6. Sex-Related Disparities in Criminal Justice and HIV Treatment Outcomes: A Retrospective Cohort Study of HIV-Infected Inmates

    PubMed Central

    Cepeda, Javier; Taxman, Faye S.; Altice, Frederick L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated sex-related differences in HIV and criminal justice (CJ) outcomes. Methods. We quantified sex-related differences in criminal offenses, incarcerations, and HIV outcomes among all HIV-infected inmates on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Connecticut (2005–2012). Computed criminogenic risk scores estimated future CJ involvement. Stacked logistic regression models with random effects identified significant correlates of HIV viral suppression on CJ entry, reflecting preceding community-based treatment. Results. Compared with 866 HIV-infected men on ART (1619 incarcerations), 223 women (461 incarcerations) were more likely to be younger, White, and medically insured, with shorter incarceration periods (mean = 196.8 vs 368.1 days), mostly for public disorder offenses. One third of both women and men had viral suppression on CJ entry, correlating positively with older age and having treated comorbidities. Entry viral suppression inversely correlated with incarceration duration for women and with criminogenic risk score for men. Conclusions. In the largest contemporary cohort of HIV-infected inmates on ART, women’s higher prevalence of nonviolent offenses and treatable comorbidities supports alternatives to incarceration strategies. Sex-specific interventions for CJ populations with HIV effectively align public health and safety goals. PMID:26180958

  7. Schools and Suspensions: Self-Reported Crime and the Growing Use of Suspensions. Justice Policy Institute Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiraldi, Vincent; Ziedenberg, Jason

    Though the media depicts U.S. youth as more criminally prone than they actually are and highlights school shootings, schools are still one of the safest places for youth to be. This policy brief adds perspective to punitive school policies (e.g., zero tolerance policies that require suspension or expulsion) in the face of stable or declining rates…

  8. Reducing the harmful effects of alcohol misuse: the ethics of sobriety testing in criminal justice.

    PubMed

    Shaw, David; McCluskey, Karyn; Linden, Will; Goodall, Christine

    2012-11-01

    Alcohol use and abuse play a major role in both crime and negative health outcomes in Scotland. This paper provides a description and ethical and legal analyses of a novel remote alcohol monitoring scheme for offenders which seeks to reduce alcohol-related harm to both the criminal and the public. It emerges that the prospective benefits of this scheme to health and public order vastly outweigh any potential harms.

  9. Reducing the harmful effects of alcohol misuse: the ethics of sobriety testing in criminal justice.

    PubMed

    Shaw, David; McCluskey, Karyn; Linden, Will; Goodall, Christine

    2012-11-01

    Alcohol use and abuse play a major role in both crime and negative health outcomes in Scotland. This paper provides a description and ethical and legal analyses of a novel remote alcohol monitoring scheme for offenders which seeks to reduce alcohol-related harm to both the criminal and the public. It emerges that the prospective benefits of this scheme to health and public order vastly outweigh any potential harms. PMID:22518048

  10. Social Capitalism and Educational Policy: Democracy, Professionalism and Social Justice under New Labour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamarnikow, Eva; Green, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    Here we examine New Labour's education policy concerning social justice and the organisation of educational provision with reference to social capital as policy vocabulary. The central focus is on policy discourses and practices in relation to networking between schools and other partners. We identify three policy phases for reducing inequalities…

  11. Policy statement--Expert witness participation in civil and criminal proceedings.

    PubMed

    2009-07-01

    The interests of the public and both the medical and legal professions are best served when scientifically sound and unbiased expert witness testimony is readily available in civil and criminal proceedings. As members of the medical community, patient advocates, and private citizens, pediatricians have ethical and professional obligations to assist in the administration of justice. The American Academy of Pediatrics believes that the adoption of the recommendations outlined in this statement will improve the quality of medical expert witness testimony in legal proceedings and, thereby, increase the probability of achieving outcomes that are fair, honest, and equitable. Strategies for enforcing guidance and promoting oversight of expert witnesses are proposed. PMID:19564330

  12. Achieving public health goals through Medicaid expansion: opportunities in criminal justice, homelessness, and behavioral health with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    DiPietro, Barbara; Klingenmaier, Lisa

    2013-12-01

    States are currently discussing how (or whether) to implement the Medicaid expansion to nondisabled adults earning less than 133% of the federal poverty level, a key aspect of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Those experiencing homelessness and those involved with the criminal justice system--particularly when they struggle with behavioral health diagnoses--are subpopulations that are currently uninsured at high rates and have significant health care needs but will become Medicaid eligible starting in 2014. We outline the connection between these groups, assert outcomes possible from greater collaboration between multiple systems, provide a summary of Medicaid eligibility and its ramifications for individuals in the criminal justice system, and explore opportunities to improve overall public health through Medicaid outreach, enrollment, and engagement in needed health care.

  13. Achieving Public Health Goals Through Medicaid Expansion: Opportunities in Criminal Justice, Homelessness, and Behavioral Health With the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Klingenmaier, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    States are currently discussing how (or whether) to implement the Medicaid expansion to nondisabled adults earning less than 133% of the federal poverty level, a key aspect of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Those experiencing homelessness and those involved with the criminal justice system—particularly when they struggle with behavioral health diagnoses—are subpopulations that are currently uninsured at high rates and have significant health care needs but will become Medicaid eligible starting in 2014. We outline the connection between these groups, assert outcomes possible from greater collaboration between multiple systems, provide a summary of Medicaid eligibility and its ramifications for individuals in the criminal justice system, and explore opportunities to improve overall public health through Medicaid outreach, enrollment, and engagement in needed health care. PMID:24148039

  14. Achieving public health goals through Medicaid expansion: opportunities in criminal justice, homelessness, and behavioral health with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    DiPietro, Barbara; Klingenmaier, Lisa

    2013-12-01

    States are currently discussing how (or whether) to implement the Medicaid expansion to nondisabled adults earning less than 133% of the federal poverty level, a key aspect of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Those experiencing homelessness and those involved with the criminal justice system--particularly when they struggle with behavioral health diagnoses--are subpopulations that are currently uninsured at high rates and have significant health care needs but will become Medicaid eligible starting in 2014. We outline the connection between these groups, assert outcomes possible from greater collaboration between multiple systems, provide a summary of Medicaid eligibility and its ramifications for individuals in the criminal justice system, and explore opportunities to improve overall public health through Medicaid outreach, enrollment, and engagement in needed health care. PMID:24148039

  15. What does social justice require for the public's health? Public health ethics and policy imperatives.

    PubMed

    Gostin, Lawrence O; Powers, Madison

    2006-01-01

    Justice is so central to the mission of public health that it has been described as the field's core value. This account of justice stresses the fair disbursement of common advantages and the sharing of common burdens. It captures the twin moral impulses that animate public health: to advance human well-being by improving health and to do so particularly by focusing on the needs of the most disadvantaged. This Commentary explores how social justice sheds light on major ongoing controversies in the field, and it provides examples of the kinds of policies that public health agencies, guided by a robust conception of justice, would adopt. PMID:16835186

  16. The Citizenship Project part II: impact of a citizenship intervention on clinical and community outcomes for persons with mental illness and criminal justice involvement.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Ashley; O'Connell, Maria J; Bellamy, Chyrell; Benedict, Patricia; Rowe, Michael

    2013-03-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of an intervention based on a theoretical framework of citizenship on reducing psychiatric symptoms, alcohol use, and drug use, and increasing quality of life for persons with serious mental illness (SMI) and criminal justice involvement. One-hundred fourteen adults with SMI and a history of criminal justice involvement participated in a 2 × 3 longitudinal randomized controlled trial of a four-month citizenship intervention versus usual services. Linear mixed model analyses were used to assess the intervention's impact on quality of life, symptoms, and substance use. After controlling for baseline covariates, participants in the experimental condition reported significantly increased quality of life, greater satisfaction with and amount of activity, higher satisfaction with work, and reduced alcohol and drug use over time. However, individuals in the experimental condition also reported increased anxiety/depression and agitation at 6 months (but not 12 months) and significantly increased negative symptoms at 12 months. Findings suggest that community-oriented, citizenship interventions for persons with SMI and criminal justice histories may facilitate improved clinical and community outcomes in some domains, but some negative clinical findings suggest the need for post-intervention support for intervention participants. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.

  17. Social Justice in Australian Higher Education Policy: An Historical and Conceptual Account of Student Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Trevor; Tranter, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a synoptic account of historically changing conceptions and practices of social justice in Australian higher education policy. It maps the changes in this policy arena, beginning with the period following the Second World War and concluding with an analysis of the most recent policy proposals of the Bradley Review.…

  18. MAPIT: development of a web-based intervention targeting substance abuse treatment in the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Walters, Scott T; Ondersma, Steven J; Ingersoll, Karen S; Rodriguez, Mayra; Lerch, Jennifer; Rossheim, Matthew E; Taxman, Faye S

    2014-01-01

    Although drug and alcohol treatment are common requirements in the U.S. criminal justice system, only a minority of clients actually initiate treatment. This paper describes a two-session, web-based intervention to increase motivation for substance abuse treatment among clients using illicit substances. MAPIT (Motivational Assessment Program to Initiate Treatment) integrates the extended parallel process model, motivational interviewing, and social cognitive theory. The first session (completed near the start of probation) targets motivation to complete probation, to make changes in substance use (including treatment initiation), and to obtain HIV testing and care. The second session (completed approximately 30days after session 1) focuses on goal setting, coping strategies, and social support. Both sessions can generate emails or mobile texts to remind clients of their goals. MAPIT uses theory-based algorithms and a text-to-speech engine to deliver custom feedback and suggestions. In an initial test, participants indicated that the program was respectful, easy to use, and would be helpful in making changes in substance use. MAPIT is being tested in a randomized trial in two large U.S. probation agencies. MAPIT addresses the difficulties of many probation agencies to maximize client involvement in treatment, in a way that is cost effective and compatible with the existing service delivery system.

  19. MAPIT: Development of a Web-Based Intervention Targeting Substance Abuse Treatment in the Criminal Justice System

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Scott T.; Ondersma, Steven J.; Ingersoll, Karen; Rodriguez, Mayra; Lerch, Jennifer; Rossheim, Matthew E.; Taxman, Faye S.

    2013-01-01

    Although drug and alcohol treatment are common requirements in the U.S. criminal justice system, only a minority of clients actually initiate treatment. This paper describes a two-session, web-based intervention to increase motivation for substance abuse treatment among clients using illicit substances. MAPIT (Motivational Assessment Program to Initiate Treatment) integrates the extended parallel process model, motivational interviewing, and social cognitive theory. The first session (completed near the start of probation) targets motivation to complete probation, to make changes in substance use (including treatment initiation), and to obtain HIV testing and care. The second session (completed approximately 30 days after session 1) focuses on goal setting, coping strategies, and social support. Both sessions can generate emails or mobile texts to remind clients of their goals. MAPIT uses theory-based algorithms and a text-to-speech engine to deliver custom feedback and suggestions. In an initial test, participants indicated that the program was respectful, easy to use, and would be helpful in making changes in substance use. MAPIT is being tested in a randomized trial in two large U.S. probation agencies. MAPIT addresses the difficulties of many probation agencies to maximize client involvement in treatment, in a way that is cost effective and compatible with the existing service delivery system. PMID:23954392

  20. MAPIT: development of a web-based intervention targeting substance abuse treatment in the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Walters, Scott T; Ondersma, Steven J; Ingersoll, Karen S; Rodriguez, Mayra; Lerch, Jennifer; Rossheim, Matthew E; Taxman, Faye S

    2014-01-01

    Although drug and alcohol treatment are common requirements in the U.S. criminal justice system, only a minority of clients actually initiate treatment. This paper describes a two-session, web-based intervention to increase motivation for substance abuse treatment among clients using illicit substances. MAPIT (Motivational Assessment Program to Initiate Treatment) integrates the extended parallel process model, motivational interviewing, and social cognitive theory. The first session (completed near the start of probation) targets motivation to complete probation, to make changes in substance use (including treatment initiation), and to obtain HIV testing and care. The second session (completed approximately 30days after session 1) focuses on goal setting, coping strategies, and social support. Both sessions can generate emails or mobile texts to remind clients of their goals. MAPIT uses theory-based algorithms and a text-to-speech engine to deliver custom feedback and suggestions. In an initial test, participants indicated that the program was respectful, easy to use, and would be helpful in making changes in substance use. MAPIT is being tested in a randomized trial in two large U.S. probation agencies. MAPIT addresses the difficulties of many probation agencies to maximize client involvement in treatment, in a way that is cost effective and compatible with the existing service delivery system. PMID:23954392

  1. Children in the criminal justice and secure care systems: how their mental health needs are met.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, Z; Thornes, R; Bailey, S

    1998-10-01

    A study was made of the perceptions among relevant service providers of the mental health needs of young people considered for secure placement. Information was obtained in 1996 from 75% of departments of child and adolescent psychiatry, forensic psychiatry, social services children's services, youth justice, probation, secure units and young offender institutions in England and Wales. The findings confirm that highly disturbed young people, who may be a danger to themselves and others, may present to a wide range of services, and that their mental health needs are neither well recognized, widely understood, nor adequately met. Availability of appropriate levels and types of expertise and resource is patchy and strictly limited, within secure settings and in local community services across all agencies.

  2. Arrested Development: Revising Remediation at John Jay College of Criminal Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBeth, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Basic writing has played a large role in the history and institutional identity of the City University of New York (CUNY). From the Open Admissions era of Mina Shaughnessy to the present day, "remedial courses" at CUNY have been revised in response to different colleges' missions, curricular initiatives, university policies, and public opinion.…

  3. Association between non-fatal opioid overdose and encounters with healthcare and criminal justice systems: Identifying opportunities for intervention

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Karla D.; Liu, Lin; Davidson, Peter J.; Cuevas-Mota, Jazmine; Armenta, Richard F.; Garfein, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Accidental overdose, driven largely by opioids, is a leading cause of death among people who inject drugs (PWIDs). We conducted secondary analysis of data from a cohort of PWIDs to identify venues where high-risk PWID could be targeted by overdose education/naloxone distribution (OEND) programs. Methods 573 PWIDs completed a quantitative survey between June, 2012 and January, 2014, which was analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. The dependent variable was a dichotomous indicator of experiencing a heroin/opioid-related overdose in the past six months. Independent variables included: demographics, drug use behavior, and encounters with two venues – the health care and criminal justice systems – that could serve as potential venues for OEND programs. Results Almost half (41.5%) reported ever experiencing a heroin/opioid overdose, and 45 (7.9%) reported experiencing at least one heroin/opioid overdose in the past six months. In the final multivariable model, receiving care in a hospital in the past six months (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AdjOR] 4.08, 95% Confidence Interval [C.I.] 2.07 -- 8.04, p<0.001) and being arrested for drug possession in the past six months (AdjOR 5.17, 95% C.I. 2.37 – 11.24, p<0.001) were associated with experiencing an opioid overdose in the past six months. Conclusions Identifying venues outside of those that traditionally target services to PWIDs (i.e., syringe exchange programs) will be critical to implementing OEND interventions at a scale sufficient to address the growing epidemic of heroin/opioid related deaths. Clinical settings, such as hospitals, and drug-related encounters with law enforcement officers are promising venues for the expansion of OEND programs. PMID:26091751

  4. Language-in-Education Policy in Low-Income, Postcolonial Contexts: Towards a Social Justice Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikly, Leon

    2016-01-01

    The article considers how language-in-education policy in low-income, postcolonial countries may be better understood from a social justice perspective and some of the implications for policy, practice and research that arise from this. The article starts with a critical overview of the two dominant approaches towards conceptualising…

  5. Change Matters: Critical Essays on Moving Social Justice Research from Theory to Policy. Critical Qualitative Research. Volume 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, S. J., Ed.; Kirkland, David E., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Change Matters," written by leading scholars committed to social justice in English education, provides researchers, university instructors, and preservice and inservice teachers with a framework that pivots social justice toward policy. The chapters in this volume detail rationales about generating social justice theory in what Freire calls "the…

  6. Postcode Criminals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiett, Sandra; Kushner, Joann

    2013-01-01

    Postcode Criminals was the second phase of an international participatory community arts project challenging negative stereotypes of urban youth. Concerned with the impact of zero tolerance community policing strategies in the UK and USA, artists Joann Kushner and Dread Scott developed an art-based project with a social justice agenda. To give…

  7. Accountability for Equity: Can State Policy Leverage Social Justice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skrla, Linda; Scheurich, James Joseph; Johnson, Joseph F., Jr.; Koschoreck, James W.

    2001-01-01

    Presenting evidence of widespread racism in schools and its negative effect on children of color, authors argue for the use of state accountability systems to achieve educational equity and social justice for racial minorities. Results of Texas achievement test showing a narrowing of academic achievement gap between whites and minorities are cited…

  8. Justice Implications of a Proposed Medicare Prescription Drug Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Heather

    2004-01-01

    Social justice is a core value to the mission of social work. Older people are among the most vulnerable populations for whom social workers are called on to advocate. Although Medicare prescription drug coverage has been a top legislative issue over the past few years, such a benefit expansion has yet to be implemented. This article examines the…

  9. Coverage expansion and the criminal justice-involved population: implications for plans and service connectivity.

    PubMed

    Boutwell, Amy E; Freedman, Jonathan

    2014-03-01

    People who have served time in US prisons and jails have high rates of undiagnosed chronic and infectious diseases, behavioral health conditions, and trauma. Because a large portion of this population are young men-a demographic previously underrepresented in Medicaid rolls-who have been uninsured, Medicaid payers and the managed care plans they contract with have little experience serving this population. To meet the Affordable Care Act's policy objectives of cost-efficient and effective care through improved and expanded access, health plans need to understand the epidemiology and care-seeking patterns of this population. Plans also need to develop outreach, communications, and engagement strategies and create service models designed to address these individuals' health care needs. Corrections departments and health plans should exchange information about the medical histories of people entering and leaving prisons and jails, promote models of peer support, and advocate for suspension rather than termination of Medicaid benefits during incarceration, so inmates can quickly regain coverage once they are released. PMID:24590949

  10. Critical Leadership and Social Justice: Research, Policy and Educational Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Robert Earle; Cooper, Karyn

    2012-01-01

    As a result of educational policies emanating from issues relating to globalized societies, schooling is becoming increasingly standardized, not only in terms of assessment and evaluation, but also in terms of processes, policies and procedures. Two issues, "zero tolerance" and "full inclusion" policies are discussed as representative of…

  11. Justice across Generations: What Does It Mean? A Publication of the Public Policy Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Lee M., Ed.

    In the introduction to this book, Lee Cohen notes that difficulties in allocating resources are as old as recorded history, and that just solutions must evolve and adapt with the changing society. The concluding statement that only with a full understanding of the divergent approaches to justice can intergenerational policies be forged leads to…

  12. Contractarian theory, intergenerational justice, and energy policy. [Monograph

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, D.A.J.

    1981-01-01

    The equal opportunity criterion can be used to defend contractarian theory as a basis for intergenerational theory and the extension of constitutional rights to future generations. This is analagous to proposals introducing new forms of legal rights to protect natural objects or resources to compensate for the weak claims of future generations and the non-reciprocity of intergenerational justice. The deep human interest in contributing to the world that will follow reflects our secular society, and brings some convergence of ethical and self-interest. 66 references (DCK)

  13. Crime and punishment: is "justice" good public policy?

    PubMed

    Curtis, George C; Nygaard, Richard L

    2008-01-01

    Dysfunctional features of American penology are mitigated somewhat by the application (though uneven) of modern science. Unfortunately, these advances do not address major flaws in the ideas on which the system is erected. These include retribution, proportional punishment, and all-or-none notions of criminal responsibility. We propose abandoning retribution for its own sake; making punishment proportional to its effectiveness for behavior change rather than to the indignation evoked by the offense; and incorporating punishment into sentences based on the clinical and behavioral characteristics of the offender, including containment as necessary for public safety. Every offender would be held responsible, but the meaning and consequences thereof would change. The proposed changes could only occur incrementally. New systems of oversight and accountability would be required. Legislative bodies could provide guidelines, and courts could oversee, but neither could micromanage. Few are better qualified to work toward these goals than readers of this journal.

  14. SCIENCE AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS OF DEFINING ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE. (R825241)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  15. Beyond Criminalization: Toward a Criminologically Informed Framework for Mental Health Policy and Services Research

    PubMed Central

    Silver, Eric; Wolff, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    The problems posed by persons with mental illness involved with the criminal justice system are vexing ones that have received attention at the local, state and national levels. The conceptual model currently guiding research and social action around these problems is shaped by the “criminalization” perspective and the associated belief that reconnecting individuals with mental health services will by itself reduce risk for arrest. This paper argues that such efforts are necessary but possibly not sufficient to achieve that reduction. Arguing for the need to develop a services research framework that identifies a broader range of risk factors for arrest, we describe three potentially useful criminological frameworks—the “life course,” “local life circumstances” and “routine activities” perspectives. Their utility as platforms for research in a population of persons with mental illness is discussed and suggestions are provided with regard to how services research guided by these perspectives might inform the development of community-based services aimed at reducing risk of arrest. PMID:16791518

  16. Community Health Workers: Social Justice and Policy Advocates for Community Health and Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Leda M.; Martinez, Jacqueline

    2008-01-01

    Community health workers are resources to their communities and to the advocacy and policy world on several levels. Community health workers can connect people to health care and collect information relevant to policy. They are natural researchers who, as a result of direct interaction with the populations they serve, can recount the realities of exclusion and propose remedies for it. As natural researchers, they contribute to best practices while informing public policy with the information they can share. In this light, community health workers may also be advocates for social justice. PMID:18048789

  17. Alcohol, Intercourse, and Condom Use Among Women Recently Involved in the Criminal Justice System: Findings from Integrated Global-Frequency and Event-Level Methods

    PubMed Central

    Latkin, Carl A.

    2014-01-01

    The scientific literature on alcohol and sexual risk behavior is marked by multiple theoretical perspectives and inconsistent findings from global-frequency and event-level studies. Multilevel measures of alcohol use and multiple sexual risk outcomes can be used to evaluate these perspectives and resolve these inconsistencies. Among women recently involved in the criminal justice system in Portland, Oregon, daily alcohol use and sexual behavior were measured during four 30-day intervals over one year. In mixed effects models, person-level, month-level, and day-level alcohol use were significantly associated with the occurrence of intercourse but not with the use of condoms during intercourse. Findings are also reported for main, casual, and exchange partners. The relationships between alcohol use and sexual risk behavior are complex: No single theoretical perspective is sufficient to account for the study findings, and increased risk may be mediated through changes in intercourse rather than through changes in condom use. PMID:25100052

  18. Reducing HIV and partner violence risk among women with criminal justice system involvement: A randomized controlled trial of two Motivational Interviewing-based interventions

    PubMed Central

    Weir, Brian W.; O’Brien, Kerth; Bard, Ronda S.; Casciato, Carol J.; Maher, Julie E.; Dent, Clyde W.; Dougherty, John A.; Stark, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Women with histories of incarceration show high levels of risk for HIV and intimate partner violence (IPV). This randomized controlled trial with women at risk for HIV who had recent criminal justice system involvement (n=530) evaluated two interventions based on Motivational Interviewing to reduce either HIV risk or HIV and IPV risk. Baseline and 3, 6, and 9-month follow-up assessments measured unprotected intercourse, needle sharing, and IPV. Generalized estimating equations revealed that the intervention groups had significant decreases in unprotected intercourse and needle sharing, and significantly greater reductions in the odds and incidence rates of unprotected intercourse compared to the control group. No significant differences were found in changes in IPV over time between the HIV and IPV group and the control group. Motivational Interviewing-based HIV prevention interventions delivered by county health department staff appear helpful in reducing HIV risk behavior for this population. PMID:18636325

  19. When Duty Calls: The Implications of Social Justice Work for Policy, Education, and Practice in the Mental Health Professions. Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiselica, Mark S.

    2004-01-01

    In reaction to the pioneering model of social justice education in counseling psychology described by Goodman, Liang, Helms, Latta, Sparks, and Weintraub, several implications of social justice work for policy, education, and practice in the mental health professions are suggested. Specifically, it is recommended that mental health scientists and…

  20. Passionate Attachments: Higher Education, Policy, Knowledge, Emotion and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hey, Valerie; Leathwood, Carole

    2009-01-01

    We explore the significance of the "affective turn" in respect to higher education policy in the UK. This turn centres on creating new subjects of attention for the "employable" student and the "non-traditional" student, the latter defined as students from backgrounds with no earlier history of higher education (working class or black students for…

  1. Exploring the potential for joint training between legal professionals in the criminal justice system and health and social care professionals in the mental-health services.

    PubMed

    Hean, Sarah; Heaslip, Vanessa; Warr, Jerry; Staddon, Sue

    2011-05-01

    Effective screening of mentally-ill defendants in the criminal court system requires cooperation between legal professionals in the criminal justice system (CJS), and health and social care workers in the mental-health service (MHS). This interagency working, though, can be problematic, as recognized in the Bradley inquiry that recommended joint training for MHS and CJS professionals. The aim of this study was to examine the experiences and attitudes of workers in the CJS and MHS to inform the development of relevant training. The method was a survey of mental-health workers and legal professionals in the court. The results showed that both agencies were uncertain of their ability to work with the other and there is little training that supports them in this. Both recognized the importance of mentally-ill defendants being dealt with appropriately in court proceedings but acknowledged this is not achieved. There is a shared willingness to sympathize with defendants and a common lack of willingness to give a definite, unqualified response on the relationship between culpability, mental-illness and punishment. Views differ around defendants' threat to security.Findings suggest there is scope to develop interprofessional training programs between the CJS and MHS to improve interagency working and eventually impact on the quality of defendants' lives. Recommendations are made on the type of joint training that could be provided.

  2. Overlooking the criminally compassionate: what are the implications of prosecutorial policy on encouraging or assisting suicide?

    PubMed

    Mullock, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    The decision of the House of Lords in the case of Purdy compelled the Director of Public Prosecutions (DPP) to promulgate guidance as to the exercise of prosecutorial discretion with respect to those suspected of an offence under the Suicide Act 1961. Consequently, the Policy for Prosecutors in Respect of Cases of Encouraging or Assisting Suicide now sets out determining factors for potential culpability in encouraging or assisting suicide. This paper discusses the implications of the Policy, particularly with respect to the role of compassion as a key determining factor which effectively decriminalises acts of assisting or encouraging suicide in the majority of cases, despite such acts remaining technically criminal. Following the DPP's assertion that the location of the actual suicide is irrelevant to the prosecutorial decision, this article considers whether some elements of the Policy might belie this assertion. The apparently heightened risk of prosecution now faced by doctors and other healthcare professionals and workers is also considered. Finally, in light of the apparent prosecutorial endorsement of compassionate assisted suicide, this article questions whether we might now expect the imminent legalisation of assisted suicide.

  3. Overlooking the criminally compassionate: what are the implications of prosecutorial policy on encouraging or assisting suicide?

    PubMed

    Mullock, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    The decision of the House of Lords in the case of Purdy compelled the Director of Public Prosecutions (DPP) to promulgate guidance as to the exercise of prosecutorial discretion with respect to those suspected of an offence under the Suicide Act 1961. Consequently, the Policy for Prosecutors in Respect of Cases of Encouraging or Assisting Suicide now sets out determining factors for potential culpability in encouraging or assisting suicide. This paper discusses the implications of the Policy, particularly with respect to the role of compassion as a key determining factor which effectively decriminalises acts of assisting or encouraging suicide in the majority of cases, despite such acts remaining technically criminal. Following the DPP's assertion that the location of the actual suicide is irrelevant to the prosecutorial decision, this article considers whether some elements of the Policy might belie this assertion. The apparently heightened risk of prosecution now faced by doctors and other healthcare professionals and workers is also considered. Finally, in light of the apparent prosecutorial endorsement of compassionate assisted suicide, this article questions whether we might now expect the imminent legalisation of assisted suicide. PMID:21098045

  4. Creating an Environmental Justice Framework for Policy Change in Childhood Asthma: A Grassroots to Treetops Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sargent, Katherine; Arons, Abigail; Standish, Marion; Brindis, Claire D.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. The Community Action to Fight Asthma Initiative, a network of coalitions and technical assistance providers in California, employed an environmental justice approach to reduce risk factors for asthma in school-aged children. Policy advocacy focused on housing, schools, and outdoor air quality. Technical assistance partners from environmental science, policy advocacy, asthma prevention, and media assisted in advocacy. An evaluation team assessed progress and outcomes. Methods. A theory of change and corresponding logic model were used to document coalition development and successes. Site visits, surveys, policymaker interviews, and participation in meetings documented the processes and outcomes. Quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed to assess strategies, successes, and challenges. Results. Coalitions, working with community residents and technical assistance experts, successfully advocated for policies to reduce children's exposures to environmental triggers, particularly in low-income communities and communities of color. Policies were implemented at various levels. Conclusions. Environmental justice approaches to policy advocacy could be an effective strategy to address inequities across communities. Strong technical assistance, close community involvement, and multilevel strategies were all essential to effective policies to reduce environmental inequities. PMID:21836108

  5. Retributive and restorative justice.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Michael; Okimoto, Tyler G; Feather, Norman T; Platow, Michael J

    2008-10-01

    The emergence of restorative justice as an alternative model to Western, court-based criminal justice may have important implications for the psychology of justice. It is proposed that two different notions of justice affect responses to rule-breaking: restorative and retributive justice. Retributive justice essentially refers to the repair of justice through unilateral imposition of punishment, whereas restorative justice means the repair of justice through reaffirming a shared value-consensus in a bilateral process. Among the symbolic implications of transgressions, concerns about status and power are primarily related to retributive justice and concerns about shared values are primarily related to restorative justice. At the core of these processes, however, lies the parties' construal of their identity relation, specifically whether or not respondents perceive to share an identity with the offender. The specific case of intergroup transgressions is discussed, as are implications for future research on restoring a sense of justice after rule-breaking.

  6. A Pilot Study of a Criminal Justice Service-Learning Course: The Value of a Multicultural Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschinger-Blank, Nancy; Simons, Lori; Finley, Laura; Clearly, Joseph; Thoerig, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a description and evaluation of a service-learning juvenile justice course designed to broaden university students' attitudes toward diversity issues. Diversity service learning integrates academic learning with community service by providing students with opportunities to learn about social disparities associated with…

  7. Addressing environmental justice under the National Environment Policy Act at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, T.M.; Bleakly, D.R.

    1997-04-01

    Under Executive Order 12898, Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations, the Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories New Mexico (SNL) are required to identify and address, as appropriate, disproportionately high, adverse human health or environmental effects of their activities on minority and low-income populations. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) also requires that environmental justice issues be identified and addressed. This presents a challenge for SNL because it is located in a culturally diverse area. Successfully addressing potential impacts is contingent upon accurately identifying them through objective analysis of demographic information. However, an effective public participation process, which is necessarily subjective, is also needed to understand the subtle nuances of diverse populations that can contribute to a potential impact, yet are not always accounted for in a strict demographic profile. Typically, there is little or no coordination between these two disparate processes. This report proposes a five-step method for reconciling these processes and uses a hypothetical case study to illustrate the method. A demographic analysis and community profile of the population within 50 miles of SNL were developed to support the environmental justice analysis process and enhance SNL`s NEPA and public involvement programs. This report focuses on developing a methodology for identifying potentially impacted populations. Environmental justice issues related to worker exposures associated with SNL activities will be addressed in a separate report.

  8. The new NIH and FDA medical research policies: targeting gender, promoting justice.

    PubMed

    Baird, K L

    1999-06-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have both recently revised their policies regarding the inclusion of women in clinical trials. Pressured by women's health activists and members of Congress, the NIH has vastly improved its policies; it now requires that women and minorities the included in clinical trials and that an analysis of gender and racial differences be performed. The FDA policy states that women and men should be included in clinical trials if both would receive the drug when marketed and that it expects a gender analysis to be performed. The FDA also lifted its 1977 ban on including women of childbearing potential in the early phases of drug studies. Analyzing these NIH and FDA policies according to a gender justice framework, I find that the NIH has moved significantly toward the institution of gender justice as it applies to medical research policies and that the FDA has taken only small steps toward this goal and lags behind the NIH.

  9. 28 CFR 0.17 - Office of Investigative Agency Policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... 0.17 Section 0.17 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of the Deputy Attorney General § 0.17 Office of Investigative Agency Policies. (a... of the criminal investigative agencies of the Department, i.e., the Federal Bureau of...

  10. Neoliberalism and the Marginalisation of Social Justice: The Making of an Education Policy to Combat Social Exclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimaldi, Emiliano

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyses how the establishment of neoliberalism, as the new global orthodoxy, in the field of education implies a substantial subjugation and marginalisation of policies and practices informed by the values of social justice and equity. The evidence from a case study on an inclusive education policy enacted to combat social exclusion and…

  11. [Penal aspects of psychiatric intervention: management modes and impact of new criminal legislation].

    PubMed

    Laberge, D; Morin, D; Robert, M

    1995-01-01

    Psychiatry and criminal justice have been closely related for a long time. Traces of such ties can already be found during the 19th century through the establishment of the contemporary systems of social control. Various questions that will mark the development of policies in this domain were important objects of discussion and analysis: Is mental illness a cause of criminality? Should the "insane" be held responsible for their crimes? What are the appropriate measures to heal, reform, control? In other words, should we consider the individual as sick or as criminal? If these questions are formulated differently nowadays they haven't lost any of their relevance. In this article, we will briefly present the forms of intervention available to the criminal justice system when dealing with persons suffering from mental health problems. This presentation is based on recent studies conducted in Montreal, elsewhere in Canada, as well as in the United States. The main stages of the criminal justice process will be examined, taking into account the recent modifications to the Canadian Criminal Code and its impact on the relations between the courts and psychiatric facilities. This type of situation is not without impact on community mental health for two main reasons. First, with the diminishing public funding of various health services there seems to be a growing practice of criminalization of persons suffering from mental health problems, especially the most vulnerable segments of this population. Secondly, there is a growing trend, in the criminal justice system, of requiring support from community groups or facilities to deal with these criminalized individuals. In the coming years criminalization will constitute an increasing and complex challenge for community mental health.

  12. The sexual history provisions in the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999--a violation of the right to a fair trial?

    PubMed

    Young, G

    2001-07-01

    In response to the Home Office recommendations contained in Speaking Up for Justice (1998) the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act (YJCEA) 1999 introduced a new regime for the conduct of sexual offence trials. Section 41 of the Act, which came into force on 4 December 2000, brings about dramatic changes to the rules on the admissibility of evidence of complainants' sexual behaviour, severely restricting the discretion of trial judges to introduce such evidence or to allow questioning concerning it. This represents a radical new departure that will fundamentally affect an accused's position at trial. Responses to section 41 have predictably been divided given the extremely sensitive nature of this area of the law of evidence and the complex set of social and political issues which are at stake. Many have greeted it as a long overdue reform of a system premised upon outmoded and sexist beliefs concerning women's sexual behaviour which has routinely functioned to admit prejudicial and irrelevant evidence. Others, predominantly within the legal profession, have expressed serious concerns over whether the new law is workable and the extent to which, by potentially excluding critically relevant evidence, it may infringe upon a defendant's right to a fair trial. The quality of the legislation is soon to be tested. On 26 and 27 March 2001 the House of Lords heard an interlocutory appeal in the case of R v. A and were asked to decide if the new provisions, by excluding previous sexual history evidence between the complainant and the defendant, contravened Article 6 of the European Convention of Human Rights. Their Lordships are, at the time of writing, yet to give judgment and the fate of the defendant in question, and several others whose trials have been postponed pending their decision, hangs in the balance. This article seeks to show that the new Act, despite being well-intentioned, does not adopt a coherent or sustainable approach to the relevance of previous

  13. Practicing Policy, Pursuing Change, and Promoting Social Justice: A Policy Instructional Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidemann, Gretchen; Fertig, Ralph; Jansson, Bruce; Kim, Hansung

    2011-01-01

    Schools of social work are mandated to train students for policy practice. A new instructional approach is needed so that social workers skillfully engage in policy change to address the growing economic, social, and cultural problems that affect our clients. This article presents the Practicing Policy, Pursuing Change, and Promoting Social…

  14. Extended-Release Naltrexone To Prevent Relapse Among Opioid Dependent, Criminal Justice System Involved Adults: Rationale and Design of a Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joshua D.; Friedmann, Peter D.; Boney, Tamara Y.; Hoskinson, Randall A.; McDonald, Ryan; Gordon, Michael; Fishman, Marc; Chen, Donna T.; Bonnie, Richard J.; Kinlock, Timothy W.; Nunes, Edward V.; Cornish, James W.; O’Brien, Charles P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX, Vivitrol® Alkermes Inc.) is an injectable monthly sustained-release mu opioid receptor antagonist. XR-NTX is a potentially effective intervention for opioid use disorders and as relapse prevention among criminal justice system (CJS) populations. Methods This 5-site open-label randomized controlled effectiveness trial examines whether XR-NTX reduces opioid relapse compared with treatment as usual (TAU) among community dwelling, non-incarcerated volunteers with current or recent CJS involvement. The XR-NTX arm receives 6 monthly XR-NTX injections at Medical Management visits; the TAU group receives referrals to available community treatment options. Assessments occur every 2 weeks during a 24-week treatment phase and at 12- and 18-month follow-ups. The primary outcome is a relapse event, defined as either self-report or urine toxicology evidence of ≥10 days of opioid use in a 28-day (4 week) period, with a positive or missing urine test counted as 5 days of opioid use. Results We describe the rationale, specific aims, and design of the study. Alternative design considerations and extensive secondary aims and outcomes are discussed. Conclusions XR-NTX is a potentially important treatment and relapse prevention option among persons with opioid dependence and CJS involvement. PMID:25602580

  15. The interface between forensic science and technology: how technology could cause a paradigm shift in the role of forensic institutes in the criminal justice system

    PubMed Central

    Kloosterman, Ate; Mapes, Anna; Geradts, Zeno; van Eijk, Erwin; Koper, Carola; van den Berg, Jorrit; Verheij, Saskia; van der Steen, Marcel; van Asten, Arian

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the importance of modern technology in forensic investigations is discussed. Recent technological developments are creating new possibilities to perform robust scientific measurements and studies outside the controlled laboratory environment. The benefits of real-time, on-site forensic investigations are manifold and such technology has the potential to strongly increase the speed and efficacy of the criminal justice system. However, such benefits are only realized when quality can be guaranteed at all times and findings can be used as forensic evidence in court. At the Netherlands Forensic Institute, innovation efforts are currently undertaken to develop integrated forensic platform solutions that allow for the forensic investigation of human biological traces, the chemical identification of illicit drugs and the study of large amounts of digital evidence. These platforms enable field investigations, yield robust and validated evidence and allow for forensic intelligence and targeted use of expert capacity at the forensic institutes. This technological revolution in forensic science could ultimately lead to a paradigm shift in which a new role of the forensic expert emerges as developer and custodian of integrated forensic platforms. PMID:26101289

  16. The interface between forensic science and technology: how technology could cause a paradigm shift in the role of forensic institutes in the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Kloosterman, Ate; Mapes, Anna; Geradts, Zeno; van Eijk, Erwin; Koper, Carola; van den Berg, Jorrit; Verheij, Saskia; van der Steen, Marcel; van Asten, Arian

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, the importance of modern technology in forensic investigations is discussed. Recent technological developments are creating new possibilities to perform robust scientific measurements and studies outside the controlled laboratory environment. The benefits of real-time, on-site forensic investigations are manifold and such technology has the potential to strongly increase the speed and efficacy of the criminal justice system. However, such benefits are only realized when quality can be guaranteed at all times and findings can be used as forensic evidence in court. At the Netherlands Forensic Institute, innovation efforts are currently undertaken to develop integrated forensic platform solutions that allow for the forensic investigation of human biological traces, the chemical identification of illicit drugs and the study of large amounts of digital evidence. These platforms enable field investigations, yield robust and validated evidence and allow for forensic intelligence and targeted use of expert capacity at the forensic institutes. This technological revolution in forensic science could ultimately lead to a paradigm shift in which a new role of the forensic expert emerges as developer and custodian of integrated forensic platforms.

  17. The interface between forensic science and technology: how technology could cause a paradigm shift in the role of forensic institutes in the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Kloosterman, Ate; Mapes, Anna; Geradts, Zeno; van Eijk, Erwin; Koper, Carola; van den Berg, Jorrit; Verheij, Saskia; van der Steen, Marcel; van Asten, Arian

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, the importance of modern technology in forensic investigations is discussed. Recent technological developments are creating new possibilities to perform robust scientific measurements and studies outside the controlled laboratory environment. The benefits of real-time, on-site forensic investigations are manifold and such technology has the potential to strongly increase the speed and efficacy of the criminal justice system. However, such benefits are only realized when quality can be guaranteed at all times and findings can be used as forensic evidence in court. At the Netherlands Forensic Institute, innovation efforts are currently undertaken to develop integrated forensic platform solutions that allow for the forensic investigation of human biological traces, the chemical identification of illicit drugs and the study of large amounts of digital evidence. These platforms enable field investigations, yield robust and validated evidence and allow for forensic intelligence and targeted use of expert capacity at the forensic institutes. This technological revolution in forensic science could ultimately lead to a paradigm shift in which a new role of the forensic expert emerges as developer and custodian of integrated forensic platforms. PMID:26101289

  18. Rural Australian women's legal help seeking for intimate partner violence: women intimate partner violence victim survivors' perceptions of criminal justice support services.

    PubMed

    Ragusa, Angela T

    2013-03-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a widespread, ongoing, and complex global social problem, whose victims continue to be largely women. Women often prefer to rely on friends and family for IPV help, yet when informal support is unavailable they remain hesitant to contact formal services, particularly legal support for many reasons. This study applies a sociological lens by framing the IPV and legal help-seeking experiences of rural Australian women gained from 36 in-depth face-to-face interviews as socially contextualized interactions. Findings reveal police and court responses reflect broader social inequalities and rurality exacerbates concerns such as anonymity and lack of service. Cultural differences and power imbalances between survivors and formal support providers are manifested to inform future research seeking to improve survivors' willingness to engage and satisfaction with formal services. Finally, the important role police and the criminal justice system play in de-stigmatizing IPV and legitimating its unacceptability is argued a crucial, yet unrecognized, key to social change.

  19. Environmental justice: a criminological perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Michael J.; Stretesky, Paul B.; Long, Michael A.

    2015-08-01

    This article examines studies related to environmental justice in the criminological literature and from a criminological perspective. Criminologists have long been concerned with injustices in the criminal justice system related to the enforcement of criminal law. In the 1990s, following the emergence of green criminology, a handful of criminologists have drawn attention to environmental justice as an extension of more traditional criminological studies of justice and injustice. Relevant criminological studies of environmental justice are reviewed, and suggestions for future environmental justice research are offered.

  20. Military veterans with mental health problems: a protocol for a systematic review to identify whether they have an additional risk of contact with criminal justice systems compared with other veterans groups

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is concern that some veterans of armed forces, in particular those with mental health, drug or alcohol problems, experience difficulty returning to a civilian way of life and may subsequently come into contact with criminal justice services and imprisonment. The aim of this review is to examine whether military veterans with mental health problems, including substance use, have an additional risk of contact with criminal justice systems when compared with veterans who do not have such problems. The review will also seek to identify veterans’ views and experiences on their contact with criminal justice services, what contributed to or influenced their contact and whether there are any differences, including international and temporal, in incidence, contact type, veteran type, their presenting health needs and reported experiences. Methods/design In this review we will adopt a methodological model similar to that previously used by other researchers when reviewing intervention studies. The model, which we will use as a framework for conducting a review of observational and qualitative studies, consists of two parallel synthesis stages within the review process; one for quantitative research and the other for qualitative research. The third stage involves a cross study synthesis, enabling a deeper understanding of the results of the quantitative synthesis. A range of electronic databases, including MEDLINE, PsychINFO, CINAHL, will be systematically searched, from 1939 to present day, using a broad range of search terms that cover four key concepts: mental health, military veterans, substance misuse, and criminal justice. Studies will be screened against topic specific inclusion/exclusion criteria and then against a smaller subset of design specific inclusion/exclusion criteria. Data will be extracted for those studies that meet the inclusion criteria, and all eligible studies will be critically appraised. Included studies, both quantitative and

  1. Boldness and its relation to psychopathic personality: Prototypicality analyses among forensic mental health, criminal justice, and layperson raters.

    PubMed

    Sörman, Karolina; Edens, John F; Smith, Shannon Toney; Clark, John W; Kristiansson, Marianne; Svensson, Olof

    2016-06-01

    Research on psychopathic personality has been dominated by a focus on criminality and social deviance, but some theoretical models argue that certain putatively adaptive features are important components of this construct. In 3 samples (forensic mental health practitioners, probation officers and a layperson community sample), we investigated adaptive traits as conceptualized in the Triarchic model of psychopathy (Patrick et al., 2009), specifically the relevance of boldness to construals of psychopathic personality. Participants completed prototypicality ratings of psychopathic traits, including 3 items created to tap components of boldness (Socially bold, Adventurous, Emotionally stable), and they also rated a series of attitudinal statements (e.g., perceived correlates of being psychopathic, moral judgments about psychopaths). The composite Boldness scale was rated as moderately to highly prototypical among forensic mental health practitioners and probation officers and positively associated with other theoretically relevant domains of psychopathy. Across samples, higher composite Boldness ratings predicted greater endorsement of adaptive traits (e.g., social skills) as characteristic of psychopathy. For the individual items, Socially bold was rated as highly prototypical and was associated with theoretically relevant correlates. Adventurous also was seen as prototypical, though to a lesser degree. Only forensic mental health practitioners endorsed Emotionally stable as characteristic of psychopathy. Our results provide partial support for the contention that the boldness concept is viewed as an important component of psychopathy, particularly among professionals who work directly with offender populations. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26844911

  2. The effects of race and criminal justice involvement on access to atypical antipsychotic medications among persons with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Van Dorn, Richard A; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Swartz, Marvin S; Elbogen, Eric B

    2005-06-01

    This study examined the impact of race and arrest history on the likelihood of being prescribed, and maintaining an atypical antipsychotic prescription for 90 or more days among patients with schizophrenia in the community. Participants were 224 adults with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders receiving services in public-sector mental health systems in North Carolina. The data used for this report were from a subsample of a larger group of participants being followed in an observational study and consisted of individuals who were prescribed either an atypical or conventional antipsychotic medication for 90 or more days. The purpose of the analyses presented here was to investigate differences in the likelihood of being prescribed an atypical antipsychotic by demographic and other characteristics. Logistic regression analysis indicated that African American patients were significantly less likely to receive atypical antipsychotics than their white counterparts, even when controlling for key clinical and demographic variables. However, white patients with a history of arrest were no more likely than black patients to receive atypical antipsychotics; that is, minority racial status and criminal involvement each functioned to limit patients' access to the novel medications. Implications for equal access to mental health services, in this case, effective psychopharmacologic treatment, are discussed.

  3. National Policy Makers: New Directions in the Social Scientific Study of Policies Effecting Equity and Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Irving Louis

    The document examines social science influence in the policy-making process through interviews with proponents of various major positions in the policy arena. A wide variety of responses is presented in order to more clearly assess needs of a changing society, investigate how social science education might be changed to reflect those needs, record…

  4. The "death" of lethal injection as we know it? The role of chemical execution in the American criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Ruble, James H

    2014-09-01

    Several independent elements have recently combined to thrust United States capital punishment into a chaos. Corrections officials and policy makers have attempted to "humanize" capital punishment by evolving into a chemical execution process, and soften the outward appearance. Foreign policies have interrupted chemical protocols by banning key ingredients. These disruptions are spawning new theories of legal challenges in capital punishment. This is a critical time for stakeholders and all members of a civilized society to pause and reflect on the role of capital punishment.

  5. The "death" of lethal injection as we know it? The role of chemical execution in the American criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Ruble, James H

    2014-09-01

    Several independent elements have recently combined to thrust United States capital punishment into a chaos. Corrections officials and policy makers have attempted to "humanize" capital punishment by evolving into a chemical execution process, and soften the outward appearance. Foreign policies have interrupted chemical protocols by banning key ingredients. These disruptions are spawning new theories of legal challenges in capital punishment. This is a critical time for stakeholders and all members of a civilized society to pause and reflect on the role of capital punishment. PMID:25121632

  6. Health & justice: health care for people involved in the justice system.

    PubMed

    2010-03-01

    The issue of health and justice is especially pressing because people involved in the justice system are one of the most medically vulnerable groups in this country. They are often at-risk youth, children and adults with a history of physical and sexual abuse, low-income men of color, and people with high rates of chronic and communicable disease who may also be struggling with mental illness and substance abuse. Health funders have found that focusing on people entering, in, or emerging from the criminal and juvenile justice systems increases the likelihood of connecting with vulnerable populations that are hard to pull into traditional health interventions. Successful initiatives targeting these groups improve health, reduce recidivism, and transform systems by building cross-sectoral partnerships among health, justice, mental health, and substance abuse systems, which may require policy change at the local, state, and federal levels.

  7. Re-Articulating Social Justice as Equity in Schooling Policy: The Effects of Testing and Data Infrastructures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lingard, Bob; Sellar, Sam; Savage, Glenn C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the re-articulation of social justice as equity in schooling policy through national and global testing and data infrastructures. It focuses on the Australian National Assessment Program--Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) and the OECD's Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). We analyse the discursive…

  8. Special Education and Juvenile Justice: An Overview and Analysis of Prevention and Intervention Policy and Program Developments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Coalition for the Education of Children with Disabilities, 2006

    2006-01-01

    There is a serious overpopulation of special needs youth in Ohio's juvenile justice system. This study raises policy questions relating to gaining a deeper understanding of the reasons why there is an overpopulation of children with disabilities in youth correctional facilities and what can be done to reduce the need for future incarcerations.…

  9. Health care justice and its implications for current policy of a mandatory waiting period for elective tubal sterilization.

    PubMed

    Moaddab, Amirhossein; McCullough, Laurence B; Chervenak, Frank A; Fox, Karin A; Aagaard, Kjersti Marie; Salmanian, Bahram; Raine, Susan P; Shamshirsaz, Alireza A

    2015-06-01

    Tubal sterilization during the immediate postpartum period is 1 of the most common forms of contraception in the United States. This time of the procedure has the advantage of 1-time hospitalization, which results in ease and convenience for the woman. The US Collaborative Review of Sterilization Study indicates the high efficacy and effectiveness of postpartum tubal sterilization. Oral and written informed consent is the ethical and legal standard for the performance of elective tubal sterilization for permanent contraception for all patients, regardless of source of payment. Current health care policy and practice regarding elective tubal sterilization for Medicaid beneficiaries places a unique requirement on these patients and their obstetricians: a mandatory waiting period. This requirement originates in decades-old legislation, which we briefly describe. We then introduce the concept of health care justice in professional obstetric ethics and explain how it originates in the ethical concepts of medicine as a profession and of being a patient and its deontologic and consequentialist dimensions. We next identify the implications of health care justice for the current policy of a mandatory 30-day waiting period. We conclude that Medicaid policy allocates access to elective tubal sterilization differently, based on source of payment and gender, which violates health care justice in both its deontologic and consequentialist dimensions. Obstetricians should invoke health care justice in women's health care as the basis for advocacy for needed change in law and health policy, to eliminate health care injustice in women's access to elective tubal sterilization.

  10. Beyond Self-Interest: Asian Pacific Americans toward a Community of Justice. A Policy Analysis of Affirmative Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Gabriel; And Others

    In this policy analysis of affirmative action, four Asian Pacific American law professors make a case for affirmative action with a special focus on Asian Pacific Americans (APAs). It is asserted that affirmative action produces many benefits, such as reducing the harm of racism, promoting equal opportunity, and advancing racial justice. However,…

  11. Renewing Juvenile Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macallair, Daniel; Males, Mike; Enty, Dinky Manek; Vinakor, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    The Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice (CJCJ) was commissioned by Sierra Health Foundation to critically examine California's juvenile justice system and consider the potential role of foundations in promoting systemic reform. The information gathered by CJCJ researchers for this report suggests that foundations can perform a key leadership…

  12. 28 CFR 0.57 - Criminal prosecutions against juveniles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Criminal prosecutions against juveniles. 0.57 Section 0.57 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Criminal Division § 0.57 Criminal prosecutions against juveniles. The Assistant Attorney...

  13. 78 FR 77168 - Meeting of the Office of Justice Programs' Science Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... activities in criminal and juvenile justice. To this end, the Board has designated six (6) subcommittees: National Institute of Justice (NIJ); Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS); Office of Juvenile Justice...

  14. 77 FR 73497 - Meeting of the Office of Justice Programs' Science Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... activities in criminal and juvenile justice. To this end, the Board has designated six (6) subcommittees: National Institute of Justice (NIJ); Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS); Office of Juvenile Justice...

  15. Neuroscience and legal determination of criminal responsibility.

    PubMed

    Eastman, Nigel; Campbell, Colin

    2006-04-01

    Neuroscience is increasingly identifying associations between biology and violence that appear to offer courts evidence relevant to criminal responsibility. In addition, in a policy era of 'zero tolerance of risk', evidence of biological abnormality in some of those who are violent, or biological markers of violence, may be seized on as a possible basis for preventive detention in the interest of public safety. However, there is a mismatch between questions that the courts and society wish answered and those that neuroscience is capable of answering. This poses a risk to the proper exercise of justice and to civil liberties.

  16. 76 FR 69287 - National Instant Criminal Background Check System Section Agency Information Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... Federal Bureau of Investigation National Instant Criminal Background Check System Section Agency Information Collection Activities: Existing collection, comments requested the Voluntary Appeal File (VAF... Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS) Division's National Instant Criminal Background Check...

  17. 28 CFR 20.34 - Individual's right to access criminal history record information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... history record information. 20.34 Section 20.34 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.34... may obtain a copy of his or her identification record from a state or local criminal justice...

  18. 28 CFR 20.34 - Individual's right to access criminal history record information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... history record information. 20.34 Section 20.34 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.34... may obtain a copy of his or her identification record from a state or local criminal justice...

  19. 28 CFR 20.34 - Individual's right to access criminal history record information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... history record information. 20.34 Section 20.34 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.34... may obtain a copy of his or her identification record from a state or local criminal justice...

  20. 28 CFR 20.34 - Individual's right to access criminal history record information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... history record information. 20.34 Section 20.34 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.34... may obtain a copy of his or her identification record from a state or local criminal justice...

  1. 28 CFR 20.33 - Dissemination of criminal history record information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... information. 20.33 Section 20.33 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.33 Dissemination of criminal history record information. (a) Criminal history record information contained in the III...

  2. 28 CFR 20.33 - Dissemination of criminal history record information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... information. 20.33 Section 20.33 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.33 Dissemination of criminal history record information. (a) Criminal history record information contained in the III...

  3. 28 CFR 20.33 - Dissemination of criminal history record information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... information. 20.33 Section 20.33 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.33 Dissemination of criminal history record information. (a) Criminal history record information contained in the III...

  4. 28 CFR 20.33 - Dissemination of criminal history record information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... information. 20.33 Section 20.33 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.33 Dissemination of criminal history record information. (a) Criminal history record information contained in the III...

  5. At the Scene of the Crime: Law Enforcement Agencies and Lawmakers Rely on Studies from the Institute for Social Research To Inform Policy-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurer, Rachel

    1998-01-01

    The University of New Mexico's Institute for Social Research operates eight centers that conduct policy-related research on criminal justice, criminology, delinquency, and social problems. Projects have focused on inequities in criminal sentencing in New Mexico, juveniles' access to and use of guns, New Mexico's need for a juvenile prison, and the…

  6. Urban America: Policy Choices for Los Angeles and the Nation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, James B., Ed.; And Others

    This volume presents 13 essays on urban problems in the United States, particularly in Los Angeles (California) following the 1992 riots, and policy options for the future. Part 1 addresses policies of the past three decades; Part 2 looks at children, youth, and families; Part 3 discusses crime and criminal justice; and Part 4 examines public…

  7. 28 CFR 0.57 - Criminal prosecutions against juveniles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criminal prosecutions against juveniles... JUSTICE Criminal Division § 0.57 Criminal prosecutions against juveniles. The Assistant Attorney General..., United States Code, relating to criminal proceedings against juveniles. The Assistant Attorney General...

  8. Legislation affecting governmental assistance for children of parents with substance use: a policy analysis of social justice.

    PubMed

    Raynor, Phyllis; Williams, Pamela Holtzclaw

    2012-11-01

    There is legislation that withdraws governmental assistance where parents are using drugs. Social justice is an important consideration in any policy that modifies governmental assistance that benefits vulnerable children. The purpose of this policy analysis is to analyze identified legislation that effect governmental assistance for children in response to parents' substance misuse. A selective review of data-driven studies examined findings describing actual or potential effects on children of legislation targeting parental substance misuse. Challenges in design, processes, and implementation contribute to poor child outcomes. Identifiable constructs of social justice were missing in the reviewed legislation. Social injustice is a potential outcome for children when legislative intent focuses solely on addressing parental drug behaviors. Legislative alternatives to withdrawing support can address substance abuse while maintaining health promotion for these vulnerable children.

  9. Justice policy reform for high-risk juveniles: using science to achieve large-scale crime reduction.

    PubMed

    Skeem, Jennifer L; Scott, Elizabeth; Mulvey, Edward P

    2014-01-01

    After a distinctly punitive era, a period of remarkable reform in juvenile crime regulation has begun. Practical urgency has fueled interest in both crime reduction and research on the prediction and malleability of criminal behavior. In this rapidly changing context, high-risk juveniles--the small proportion of the population where crime becomes concentrated--present a conundrum. Research indicates that these are precisely the individuals to treat intensively to maximize crime reduction, but there are both real and imagined barriers to doing so. Mitigation principles (during early adolescence, ages 10-13) and institutional placement or criminal court processing (during mid-late adolescence, ages 14-18) can prevent these juveniles from receiving interventions that would best protect public safety. In this review, we synthesize relevant research to help resolve this challenge in a manner that is consistent with the law's core principles. In our view, early adolescence offers unique opportunities for risk reduction that could (with modifications) be realized in the juvenile justice system in cooperation with other social institutions.

  10. Explorations of Parole Policy. Report No. 256.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daiger, Denise C.; And Others

    Due to the controversy over the institution of parole and recent changes in the criminal justice and penal system of Maryland, statistical models mirroring current parole practice were developed. These are described in this document in an effort to stimulate discussion leading to an explicit and equitable parole policy. Such variables as offense…

  11. Death by homeopathy: issues for civil, criminal and coronial law and for health service policy.

    PubMed

    Freckelton, Ian

    2012-03-01

    Homoeopathy has a significant clinical history, tracing its roots back to Hippocrates and more latterly to Dr Christian (Samuel) Hahnemann (1755-1843), a Saxon physician. In the last 30 years it has ridden a wave of resurgent interest and practice associated with disillusionment with orthodox medicine and the emergence of complementary therapies. However, recent years have seen a series of meta-analyses that have suggested that the therapeutic claims of homeopathy lack scientific justification. A 2010 report of the Science and Technology Committee of the United Kingdom House of Commons recommended that it cease to be a beneficiary of NHS funding because of its lack of scientific credibility. In Australia the National Health and Medical Research Council is expected to publish a statement on the ethics of health practitioners' use of homoeopathy in 2013. In India, England, New South Wales and Western Australia civil, criminal and coronial decisions have reached deeply troubling conclusions about homoeopaths and the risk that they pose for counter-therapeutic outcomes, including the causing of deaths. The legal decisions, in conjunction with the recent analyses of homoeopathy's claims, are such as to raise confronting health care and legal issues relating to matters as diverse as consumer protection and criminal liability. They suggest that the profession is not suitable for formal registration and regulation lest such a status lend to it a legitimacy that it does not warrant.

  12. Education, Policy and Social Justice: Searching the Borderlands between Subjective Science and Experimental Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitlin, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    There is a tradition of knowledge production connected to schools and social justice, for more than a half century, that has been in place in schooling around the globe--action research. While action research is not a singular methodology, many of the most influential developers of this approach have suggested a link with social justice. Inherent…

  13. Victim-induced criminality.

    PubMed

    Fooner, M

    1966-09-01

    In summary, there are certain issues that need to be dealt with if a coherent system of victim compensation is to be created. 1) Is the victim's entitlement to compensation qualified by his behavior in connection with the crime? If a Texas tycoon visits a clip joint, flashes a fat roll of bills, and gets hit on the head and rolled, is he entitled to compensation? If a man enters into a liaison with another's wife and gets shot by the husband, should his dependents be compensated? If a woman goes walking alone in a disreputable neighborhood and is assaulted, is she entitled to compensation? Unless the answer to such questions is a flat "yes," the adjudication of victim compensation as a "right" would be embarkation upon a vast sea of confusion. On the surface it may seem simpler to bypass the issue of "right" and declare for victim compensation as a matter of social policy-a logical extension of the welfare state approach. But the apparent simplicity may quickly prove illusory, in light of the second issue. 2) Is the victim's entitlement to compensation on the basis of indigency to be qualified by the requirement that an offender be apprehended and his guilt determined by a court? There are two levels to this problem. First, if a severely injured man reports to police that he has been mugged and robbed and if the police cannot apprehend a suspect, how is the administrator of compensation to know that the man is in fact the victim of a crime? The administrator of compensation must determine whether the episode was a criminal act or an argument-and who started it, and who precipitated the violence. What shall be the role of the witnesses, and of investigators? More important is the second level of the problem: How will law-enforcement of ficials and the courts evaluate the testimony of the victim if compensation of the victim may be at stake? In the evaluation of proposals for victim compensation, criminologists may need to think very hard about such questions and

  14. [The mind on the stage of justice: the formation of criminal psychology in the 19th century and its interdisciplinary research].

    PubMed

    Vec, Milos

    2007-09-01

    Criminal psychology emerges at the end of the 18th century as a new academic discipline in lectures and publications. It has recently been investigated by a considerable number of contributions from researchers of different academic backgrounds. In many respects criminal psychology can be seen as a predecessor of criminology. Its subject is the analysis of the origins of crime and its causes and determinants in the human mind. Criminal psychology embraced at that time philosophical, medical, legal and biological aspects. The latter increase in importance in the second half of the 19th century. The conditions of individual responsibility were generally codified in penal law, but had to be individually investigated in crucial cases through expertise in court. There a conflict emerged between medical experts and judges about their ability and competence to decide. At the end of the 19th century criminal psychology is used to fulfil the needs and interests of a criminal law which understands itself as increasingly utilitarian. Force and new instruments of treatment of offenders were legitimized by scientists who were very optimistic about their own epistemological abilities.

  15. Co-occurring substance use and mental disorders in the criminal justice system: a new frontier of clinical practice and research.

    PubMed

    Peters, Roger H; Wexler, Harry K; Lurigio, Arthur J

    2015-03-01

    This editorial introduces this special section of the Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, which focuses on justice-involved persons with co-occurring mental and substance use disorders (CODs). It contains seven original articles examining CODs among justice-involved populations that vary by gender, age, setting (e.g., community/ court, jail, prison), environment (urban, rural), geographic region, and nationality. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Incorporating indigenous rights and environmental justice into fishery management: comparing policy challenges and potentials from Alaska and Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Laurie

    2013-11-01

    Colonial processes including the dispossession of indigenous lands and resources and the development of Western management institutions to govern the use of culturally important fish resources have served in many ways to marginalize indigenous interests within the United States fisheries. In recent years, several US fishery institutions have begun to develop policies that can confront this colonial legacy by better accommodating indigenous perspectives and rights in fishery management practices. This paper analyzes two such policies: the 2005 community quota entity program in Alaska which permits rural communities (predominantly Alaska Native villages) to purchase and lease commercial halibut fishing privileges and the 1994 State of Hawai'i community-based subsistence fishing area (CBSFA) legislation through which Native Hawaiian communities can designate marine space near their community as CBSFAs and collaborate with the state of Hawai'i to manage those areas according to traditional Hawaiian practices. The analysis reveals a striking similarity between the trajectories of these two policies. While they both offered significant potential for incorporating indigenous rights and environmental justice into state or federal fishery management, they have so far largely failed to do so. Environmental managers can gain insights from the challenges and potentials of these two policies. In order to introduce meaningful change, environmental policies that incorporate indigenous rights and environmental justice require a commitment of financial and institutional support from natural resource agencies, a commitment from indigenous groups and communities to organize and develop capacity, and careful consideration of contextual and cultural factors in the design of the policy framework. PMID:23529814

  17. A Study of Georgia's Criminal Justice System as It Relates to the Mentally Retarded, i.e. Law Enforcement, Judicial, and Incarceration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atlanta Association for Retarded Children, Inc., Decatur, GA.

    Described is a proposed 2-year study by the Atlanta Association for Retarded Children of Georgia's criminal system as it relates to the mentally retarded. The primary purpose of the study is said to be the determination of the best system for the delivery of services to mentally retarded individuals incarcerated in Georgia's penal institutions.…

  18. The Use of Criminal History Information in College Admissions Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Matthew W.; Runyan, Carol W.; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I.

    2014-01-01

    To understand the potential public health and social justice implications of criminal background screening on college admissions, we examined postsecondary institutions' reasons for collecting or not collecting applicants' criminal justice information. We invited heads of admissions from 300 randomly sampled postsecondary institutions to…

  19. Restorative Justice: A Changing Community Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Thomas G.; Ruddy, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Our purpose herein is to demonstrate how restorative justice continues to unfold globally and we explain how the use of a restorative justice ideology and intervention leads to a common alternative, not only in criminal justice institutions, but also within social agencies, such as elementary schools, and the related social support systems. We…

  20. Crossing borders: a critical review of the role of the European Court of Justice in EU health policy.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Eleanor

    2012-04-01

    Over the last two decades, the European Union (EU) has steadily increased its involvement in the health policies of its member states, with considerable support from the European Court of Justice (ECJ). However, much of the literature examining the Court's role has focused upon the intersection between internal market law and the health services sector; the majority of studies have failed to examine the potential role for the Court in public health policy. Observers such as Greer have seen the development of healthcare as a clear case of neofunctional spillover, a view supported but qualified by Wasserfallen and others, who present a more detailed account of the mechanics of the process. Alternative analyses have focused upon the new modes of governance, soft law and other factors - this article reviews the current state of research in the field and the extent to which it should concern health policy actors and non-specialists in EU policy alike. It concludes that the Court has played and continues to play a crucial role in the development of EU public health policy, as well as in health services and broader social policy, where its influence has already been well documented.

  1. 28 CFR 16.91 - Exemption of Criminal Division Systems-limited access, as indicated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: (1) Central Criminal Division, Index File and Associated Records System of Records (JUSTICE/CRM-001...)(2), (k)(1) and (k)(2). (r) Because this system contains Department of Justice civil and criminal law... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption of Criminal Division...

  2. 28 CFR 16.91 - Exemption of Criminal Division Systems-limited access, as indicated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: (1) Central Criminal Division, Index File and Associated Records System of Records (JUSTICE/CRM-001...)(2), (k)(1) and (k)(2). (r) Because this system contains Department of Justice civil and criminal law... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption of Criminal Division...

  3. 28 CFR 20.34 - Individual's right to access criminal history record information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... history record information. 20.34 Section 20.34 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.34 Individual's right to access criminal history record information. The procedures by which an individual...

  4. Women as Child Abusers: Indicators, Treatment, and Policy Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Donna R.; And Others

    Child abuse is a major problem in the United States. Policy concerning child abuse involves a criminal justice approach, a treatment approach, and a prevention approach. Prevention programs have focused on identifying and serving high-risk groups and on preventive education. A study was conducted to examine issues related to child abuse. Four…

  5. 77 FR 32998 - Solicitation of Comments on Request for United States Assumption of Concurrent Federal Criminal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... Justice Regulation Implementing 18 U.S.C. 1162(d) On December 6, 2011, 76 FR 76037 the Department...; Elk Valley Rancheria AGENCY: Office of Tribal Justice, Department of Justice. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Criminal Jurisdiction recently submitted to the Office of Tribal Justice, Department of Justice by the...

  6. A Report from the National Hispanic Conference on Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice. (Washington D.C., July 28-30, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    InterAmerica Research Associates, Washington, DC.

    Intended to aid administrators, decision-makers, and the general public in learning about and gaining better understanding of Hispanic concerns, needs, and recommendations regarding justice administration, this document includes the keynote addresses and 15 topic papers presented at the conference which was attended by 91 law enforcement experts.…

  7. End of an era. Justice Department ends nine-year criminal probe of Columbia/HCA executives, but company recovery began earlier.

    PubMed

    Galloro, Vince

    2002-07-29

    The longest, costlest criminal healthcare fraud probe in U.S. history is finally over, but its ripple effects are likely to continue. The Columbia/HCA Healthcare Corp. case raised questions about healthcare accounting practices long before the current wave of corporate scandals. But the consensus is that the most crucial step in retooling HCA's image was restoring Thomas First Jr. (left) as chairman and CEO.

  8. Investigating U.S. Links to Nazi War Criminals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtzman, Elizabeth

    1984-01-01

    The list of United States government connections with Nazi war criminals is a long one. We must ensure that Nazi war criminals living in America are brought to justice. And we must both explore and expunge the history of our government's relations with Nazi war criminals. (CS)

  9. The Inextricable Link between Age and Criminal History in Sentencing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushway, Shawn D.; Piehl, Anne Morrison

    2007-01-01

    In sentencing research, significant negative coefficients on age research have been interpreted as evidence that actors in the criminal justice system discriminate against younger people. This interpretation is incomplete. Criminal sentencing laws generally specify punishment in terms of the number of past events in a defendant's criminal history.…

  10. 28 CFR 83.625 - Criminal drug statute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Criminal drug statute. 83.625 Section 83.625 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENT-WIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 83.625 Criminal drug statute. Criminal drug statute means...

  11. 28 CFR 83.625 - Criminal drug statute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criminal drug statute. 83.625 Section 83.625 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENT-WIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 83.625 Criminal drug statute. Criminal drug statute means...

  12. 28 CFR 83.625 - Criminal drug statute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Criminal drug statute. 83.625 Section 83.625 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENT-WIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 83.625 Criminal drug statute. Criminal drug statute means...

  13. 28 CFR 83.625 - Criminal drug statute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Criminal drug statute. 83.625 Section 83.625 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENT-WIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 83.625 Criminal drug statute. Criminal drug statute means...

  14. 28 CFR 83.625 - Criminal drug statute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Criminal drug statute. 83.625 Section 83.625 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENT-WIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 83.625 Criminal drug statute. Criminal drug statute means...

  15. 78 FR 64535 - Meeting of the CJIS Advisory Policy Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... meeting of the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS) Advisory..., CJIS Designated Federal Officer, Criminal Justice Information Services Division, Federal Bureau of... Identification Index, Law Enforcement Online, National Crime Information Center, National Instant...

  16. Dangerous mentally disordered criminals: unresolvable societal fear?

    PubMed

    Leong, G B; Silva, J A; Weinstock, R

    1991-01-01

    The average person fears dangerous criminals, especially those suffering from mental illness. Existing mental health and criminal justice systems provide social control for some of these dangerous individuals, but may be inadequate to deal with those mentally disordered offenders who were not found not guilty by reason of insanity (NGI). In California, innovative laws have attempted to address this problem. However, putative lack of efficacious treatment of mentally ill criminals, insufficient economic support, and individual liberty concerns loom as limiting factors in solving the criminal and psychiatric recidivism problem posed by non-NGI dangerous mentally disordered offenders.

  17. Intersections of Organizational Justice and Identity under the New Policy Direction: Important Understandings for Educational Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Wendy L.

    2008-01-01

    The application of market-based principles to school management and the onset of heavy-handed accountability represent a new policy direction in education. The new policy direction has led to a reconceptualization of the purpose of education, the redesign of teaching work and attempts to manage teacher identities to align them with the new…

  18. 28 CFR Appendix to Part 20 - Commentary on Selected Sections of the Regulations on Criminal History Record Information Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Regulations on Criminal History Record Information Systems Appendix to Part 20 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Pt. 20, App. Appendix to Part 20—Commentary on Selected Sections of the Regulations on Criminal History Record Information Systems Subpart A-§...

  19. 28 CFR Appendix to Part 20 - Commentary on Selected Sections of the Regulations on Criminal History Record Information Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations on Criminal History Record Information Systems Appendix to Part 20 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Pt. 20, App. Appendix to Part 20—Commentary on Selected Sections of the Regulations on Criminal History Record Information Systems Subpart A-§...

  20. 28 CFR Appendix to Part 20 - Commentary on Selected Sections of the Regulations on Criminal History Record Information Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Regulations on Criminal History Record Information Systems Appendix to Part 20 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Pt. 20, App. Appendix to Part 20—Commentary on Selected Sections of the Regulations on Criminal History Record Information Systems Subpart A-§...

  1. 28 CFR Appendix to Part 20 - Commentary on Selected Sections of the Regulations on Criminal History Record Information Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations on Criminal History Record Information Systems Appendix to Part 20 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Pt. 20, App. Appendix to Part 20—Commentary on Selected Sections of the Regulations on Criminal History Record Information Systems Subpart A-§...

  2. 28 CFR Appendix to Part 20 - Commentary on Selected Sections of the Regulations on Criminal History Record Information Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regulations on Criminal History Record Information Systems Appendix to Part 20 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Pt. 20, App. Appendix to Part 20—Commentary on Selected Sections of the Regulations on Criminal History Record Information Systems Subpart A-§...

  3. Education or Incarceration: Zero Tolerance Policies and the School to Prison Pipeline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzeg, Nancy A.

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade, there has been a growing convergence between schools and legal systems. The school to prison pipeline refers to this growing pattern of tracking students out of educational institutions, primarily via "zero tolerance" policies, and, directly and/or indirectly, into the juvenile and adult criminal justice systems. The school to…

  4. Support for aging policy: Self-interest, social justice, and political symbols.

    PubMed

    Franke, J L

    1987-01-01

    This article explores and evaluates theoretical assumptions implied by the familiar hypothesis that anti-elderly scapegoating rhetoric is producing attitude change with respect to citizen support for aging policy. An explanation-the self-interest model-that is consistent with both this hypothesis and existing attitude theory is presented. It is contrasted with a second hypothesis emphasizing the role played by symbolic political attitudes in the formation of citizen policy positions. Survey data from the state of Kansas indicate no support for either the self-interest explanation of aging policy attitudes or for the hypothesized impact of anti-elderly rhetoric.

  5. Now We Know: Assessing Sexual Assault Criminal Justice Case Processing in an Urban Community Using the Sexual Assault Nurse Practitioner Evaluation Toolkit.

    PubMed

    Valentine, Julie L; Shaw, Jessica; Lark, Alyssa; Campbell, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Campbell and colleagues developed an evaluation Toolkit for use by sexual assault nurse examiners (SANEs) to assess criminal case outcomes in adult sexual assault cases seen by SANE programs (Campbell, Townsend, Shaw, Karim, & Markowitz, 2014; Campbell, Bybee, et al., 2014). The Toolkit provides step-by-step directions and an easy-to-use statistical program. This study describes implementation of the Toolkit in Salt Lake County, the first site outside the pilot sites to utilize the program. The Toolkit revealed that, in Salt Lake County from 2003 to 2011, only 6% of adult sexual assault cases were successfully prosecuted. These findings prompted multiple community discussions, media attention, and a call to action to improve the investigation and prosecution of adult sexual assault cases. The primary purpose of this case report is to encourage other SANE teams and communities to use the Toolkit by sharing the successful experience of Salt Lake County in implementing the Toolkit.Video Abstract available for additional insights from Dr. Valentine (see Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JFN/A19).

  6. Now We Know: Assessing Sexual Assault Criminal Justice Case Processing in an Urban Community Using the Sexual Assault Nurse Practitioner Evaluation Toolkit.

    PubMed

    Valentine, Julie L; Shaw, Jessica; Lark, Alyssa; Campbell, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Campbell and colleagues developed an evaluation Toolkit for use by sexual assault nurse examiners (SANEs) to assess criminal case outcomes in adult sexual assault cases seen by SANE programs (Campbell, Townsend, Shaw, Karim, & Markowitz, 2014; Campbell, Bybee, et al., 2014). The Toolkit provides step-by-step directions and an easy-to-use statistical program. This study describes implementation of the Toolkit in Salt Lake County, the first site outside the pilot sites to utilize the program. The Toolkit revealed that, in Salt Lake County from 2003 to 2011, only 6% of adult sexual assault cases were successfully prosecuted. These findings prompted multiple community discussions, media attention, and a call to action to improve the investigation and prosecution of adult sexual assault cases. The primary purpose of this case report is to encourage other SANE teams and communities to use the Toolkit by sharing the successful experience of Salt Lake County in implementing the Toolkit.Video Abstract available for additional insights from Dr. Valentine (see Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JFN/A19). PMID:27496646

  7. 25 CFR 11.435 - Obstructing justice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Obstructing justice. 11.435 Section 11.435 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.435 Obstructing justice. A person commits a misdemeanor if,...

  8. 25 CFR 11.435 - Obstructing justice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Obstructing justice. 11.435 Section 11.435 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.435 Obstructing justice. A person commits a misdemeanor if,...

  9. 25 CFR 11.435 - Obstructing justice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Obstructing justice. 11.435 Section 11.435 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.435 Obstructing justice. A person commits a misdemeanor if,...

  10. 25 CFR 11.435 - Obstructing justice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Obstructing justice. 11.435 Section 11.435 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.435 Obstructing justice. A person commits a misdemeanor if,...

  11. 25 CFR 11.435 - Obstructing justice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obstructing justice. 11.435 Section 11.435 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.435 Obstructing justice. A person commits a misdemeanor if,...

  12. Enduring Risk? Old Criminal Records and Predictions of Future Criminal Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurlychek, Megan C.; Brame, Robert; Bushway, Shawn D.

    2007-01-01

    It is well accepted that criminal records impose collateral consequences on offenders. Such records affect access to public housing, student financial aid, welfare benefits, and voting rights. An axiom of these policies is that individuals with criminal records--even old criminal records--exhibit significantly higher risk of future criminal…

  13. Community and justice: the challenges of bicultural partnership to policy on assisted reproductive technology.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Barbara

    1996-07-01

    Listening to other cultures offers challenges to our fundamental assumptions and worldviews. In New Zealand public policy on Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) is being worked out in a society committed to the development of bicultural partnership honouring the Treaty of Waitangi, a treaty with the indigenous people. Strong claims to the cultural significance of genetic heritage by Maori have made apparent to non-Maori (Pakeha) their own assumptions. These claims also resist reductive understandings of genetics. In this paper I review, as a Pakeha ethicist, initiatives taken in New Zealand, and the impact of bicultural development on public policy on ART. I also discuss some of the issues this raises for western bioethics as it relates to non-western approaches and include reference to the significance of genetic heritage as it is affecting guidelines for donor insemination and surrogacy.

  14. Rewiring juvenile justice: the intersection of developmental neuroscience and legal policy.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Alexandra O; Casey, B J

    2014-02-01

    The past decade has been marked by historic opinions regarding the culpability of juveniles by the US Supreme Court. In 2005, the death penalty was abolished, 5 years later, life without parole for crimes, other than homicide, was banned, and then just last year, mandatory life sentences for any crime was abolished. The court referenced developmental science in all these cases. In this article, we highlight new scientific findings and their relevance to law and policy.

  15. Rewiring juvenile justice: the intersection of developmental neuroscience and legal policy.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Alexandra O; Casey, B J

    2014-02-01

    The past decade has been marked by historic opinions regarding the culpability of juveniles by the US Supreme Court. In 2005, the death penalty was abolished, 5 years later, life without parole for crimes, other than homicide, was banned, and then just last year, mandatory life sentences for any crime was abolished. The court referenced developmental science in all these cases. In this article, we highlight new scientific findings and their relevance to law and policy. PMID:24480533

  16. Linking Exposure Assessment Science With Policy Objectives for Environmental Justice and Breast Cancer Advocacy: The Northern California Household Exposure Study

    PubMed Central

    Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Zota, Ami; Brown, Phil; Pérez, Carla; Rudel, Ruthann A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We compared an urban fence-line community (neighboring an oil refinery) and a nonindustrial community in an exposure study focusing on pollutants of interest with respect to breast cancer and environmental justice. Methods. We analyzed indoor and outdoor air from 40 homes in industrial Richmond, California, and 10 in rural Bolinas, California, for 153 compounds, including particulates and endocrine disruptors. Results. Eighty compounds were detected outdoors in Richmond and 60 in Bolinas; Richmond concentrations were generally higher. Richmond's vanadium and nickel levels indicated effects of heavy oil combustion from oil refining and shipping; these levels were among the state's highest. In nearly half of Richmond homes, PM2.5 exceeded California's annual ambient air quality standard. Paired outdoor–indoor measurements were significantly correlated for industry- and traffic-related PM2.5, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, elemental carbon, metals, and sulfates (r = 0.54–0.92, P < .001). Conclusions. Indoor air quality is an important indicator of the cumulative impact of outdoor emissions in fence-line communities. Policies based on outdoor monitoring alone add to environmental injustice concerns in communities that host polluters. Community-based participatory exposure research can contribute to science and stimulate and inform action on the part of community residents and policymakers. PMID:19890164

  17. Some perspectives on criminalization.

    PubMed

    Lamb, H Richard; Weinberger, Linda E

    2013-01-01

    In recently published articles, there has been an underemphasis on the role serious mental illness (SMI) plays in causing persons to be in the criminal justice system. Increasing attention has been paid to other factors, including criminogenic needs. While these needs may be present and contribute to criminal behavior, persons with SMI who are at greatest risk of criminalization are those who are not receiving adequate treatment, structure, social control, and, when necessary, 24-hour care in the mental health system. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been used to reduce recidivism for prisoners, including those with SMI, but persons impaired by their untreated psychotic symptoms may not be able to profit from it. The importance of psychiatric treatment must not be underestimated. Moreover, given their current constraints, correctional systems may not be able to continue accepting large numbers of persons with SMI. Many offenders with serious mental illness pose difficult and expensive problems in treatment and management, such as nonadherence to medication, potential for violence, and substance abuse. The mental health system needs to be given more funding and to take more responsibility for these challenging individuals. PMID:23771942

  18. Mentally disordered criminal offenders in the Swedish criminal system.

    PubMed

    Svennerlind, Christer; Nilsson, Thomas; Kerekes, Nóra; Andiné, Peter; Lagerkvist, Margareta; Forsman, Anders; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Malmgren, Helge

    2010-01-01

    Historically, the Swedish criminal justice system conformed to other Western penal law systems, exempting severely mentally disordered offenders considered to be unaccountable. However, in 1965 Sweden enforced a radical penal law abolishing exceptions based on unaccountability. Mentally disordered offenders have since then been subjected to various forms of sanctions motivated by the offender's need for care and aimed at general prevention. Until 2008, a prison sentence was not allowed for offenders found to have committed a crime under the influence of a severe mental disorder, leaving forensic psychiatric care the most common sanction in this group. Such offenders are nevertheless held criminally responsible, liable for damages, and encumbered with a criminal record. In most cases, such offenders must not be discharged without the approval of an administrative court. Two essentially modern principles may be discerned behind the "Swedish model": first, an attempted abolishment of moral responsibility, omitting concepts such as guilt, accountability, atonement, and retribution, and, second, the integration of psychiatric care into the societal reaction and control systems. The model has been much criticized, and several governmental committees have suggested a re-introduction of a system involving the concept of accountability. This review describes the Swedish special criminal justice provisions on mentally disordered offenders including the legislative changes in 1965 along with current proposals to return to a pre-1965 system, presents current Swedish forensic psychiatric practice and research, and discusses some of the ethical, political, and metaphysical presumptions that underlie the current system.

  19. The interaction of criminal procedure and outcome.

    PubMed

    Laxminarayan, Malini; Pemberton, Antony

    2014-01-01

    Procedural quality is an important aspect of crime victims' experiences in criminal proceedings and consists of different dimensions. Two of these dimensions are procedural justice (voice) and interpersonal justice (respectful treatment). Social psychological research has suggested that both voice and respectful treatment are moderated by the impact of outcomes of justice procedures on individuals' reactions. To add to this research, we extend this assertion to the criminal justice context, examining the interaction between the assessment of procedural quality and outcome favorability with victim's trust in the legal system and self-esteem. Hierarchical regression analyses reveal that voice, respectful treatment and outcome favorability are predictive of trust in the legal system and self-esteem. Further investigation reveals that being treated with respect is only related to trust in the legal system when outcome favorability is high. PMID:24656217

  20. The interaction of criminal procedure and outcome.

    PubMed

    Laxminarayan, Malini; Pemberton, Antony

    2014-01-01

    Procedural quality is an important aspect of crime victims' experiences in criminal proceedings and consists of different dimensions. Two of these dimensions are procedural justice (voice) and interpersonal justice (respectful treatment). Social psychological research has suggested that both voice and respectful treatment are moderated by the impact of outcomes of justice procedures on individuals' reactions. To add to this research, we extend this assertion to the criminal justice context, examining the interaction between the assessment of procedural quality and outcome favorability with victim's trust in the legal system and self-esteem. Hierarchical regression analyses reveal that voice, respectful treatment and outcome favorability are predictive of trust in the legal system and self-esteem. Further investigation reveals that being treated with respect is only related to trust in the legal system when outcome favorability is high.

  1. 76 FR 29675 - Assumption of Concurrent Federal Criminal Jurisdiction in Certain Areas of Indian Country

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... Country AGENCY: Office of the Attorney General, Department of Justice. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY... accept concurrent criminal jurisdiction within the tribe's Indian country, and for the Attorney General.... Department of Justice, United States Attorneys' Manual, tit. 9, Criminal Resource Manual Sec. 688...

  2. 28 CFR 0.46 - Certain civil litigation and foreign criminal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... criminal proceedings. 0.46 Section 0.46 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Civil Division § 0.46 Certain civil litigation and foreign criminal proceedings. The... the scope of § 0.45, direct all other civil litigation including claims by or against the...

  3. Seeking a Justice Reform Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dervarics, Charles

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on the legislation proposed by Senator Jim Webb which authorizes a blue-ribbon commission of experts who would undertake an 18-month review of the nation's criminal justice system, including issues such as the disproportionate share of minorities--particularly African-Americans--in the U.S. prisons. Webb said that the U.S. has…

  4. Understanding the Civil Justice System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirshon, Robert E.; Bolduan, Linda M.

    1997-01-01

    Provides a concise and informative overview of the civil justice system. Examines various components and issues including the federal and state court systems, differences between civil and criminal law, background in common law, types of civil law, civil procedure, and the effect and implementation of civil law in everyday life. (MJP)

  5. Asperger's disorder and the criminal law.

    PubMed

    Freckelton, Ian

    2011-06-01

    Asperger's Disorder has the potential to be relevant to many aspects of the functioning of the criminal justice system. However, its mere presence does not excuse or justify all offending. The inquiry into its potential relevance to criminal offending and sentencing must be both contextual and informed by suitably qualified expert evidence. This column reviews court decisions in respect of offences of physical violence, sexual violence, arson, stalking/harassing and computer offences across a range of jurisdictions to evaluate how courts have latterly incorporated Asperger's Disorder into decisions about criminal responsibility and culpability.

  6. 28 CFR 115.371 - Criminal and administrative agency investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Criminal and administrative agency investigations. 115.371 Section 115.371 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Investigations § 115.371 Criminal...

  7. 28 CFR 115.171 - Criminal and administrative agency investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Criminal and administrative agency investigations. 115.171 Section 115.171 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Investigations § 115.171 Criminal and...

  8. 28 CFR 115.71 - Criminal and administrative agency investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Criminal and administrative agency investigations. 115.71 Section 115.71 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Investigations § 115.71 Criminal...

  9. 28 CFR 115.71 - Criminal and administrative agency investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Criminal and administrative agency investigations. 115.71 Section 115.71 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Investigations § 115.71 Criminal...

  10. 28 CFR 115.371 - Criminal and administrative agency investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Criminal and administrative agency investigations. 115.371 Section 115.371 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Investigations § 115.371 Criminal...

  11. 28 CFR 115.371 - Criminal and administrative agency investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Criminal and administrative agency investigations. 115.371 Section 115.371 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Investigations § 115.371 Criminal...

  12. 28 CFR 115.71 - Criminal and administrative agency investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Criminal and administrative agency investigations. 115.71 Section 115.71 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Investigations § 115.71 Criminal...

  13. 28 CFR 115.171 - Criminal and administrative agency investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Criminal and administrative agency investigations. 115.171 Section 115.171 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Investigations § 115.171 Criminal and...

  14. 28 CFR 115.171 - Criminal and administrative agency investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Criminal and administrative agency investigations. 115.171 Section 115.171 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Investigations § 115.171 Criminal and...

  15. 28 CFR 3.2 - Assistant Attorney General, Criminal Division.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (See also 28 CFR 0.55(i).) (28 U.S.C. 509 and 510) ... Division. 3.2 Section 3.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GAMBLING DEVICES § 3.2 Assistant Attorney General, Criminal Division. The Assistant Attorney General, Criminal Division, is authorized...

  16. Moving Upstream: Why Rehabilitative Justice in Military Discharge Proceedings Serves a Public Health Interest

    PubMed Central

    Seamone, Evan R.; McGuire, James; Clark, Sean; Smee, Daniel; Dow, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The cultural divide between US military and civilian institutions amplifies the consequences of military discharge status on public health and criminal justice systems in a manner that is invisible to a larger society. Prompt removal of problematic wounded warriors through retributive justice is more expedient than lengthy mental health treatment. Administrative and punitive discharges usually preclude Department of Veterans Affairs eligibility, posing a heavy public health burden. Moving upstream—through military rehabilitative justice addressing military offenders’ mental health needs before discharge—will reduce the downstream consequences of civilian maladjustment and intergenerational transmission of mental illness. The public health community can play an illuminating role by gathering data about community effect and by advocating for policy change at Department of Veterans Affairs and community levels. PMID:25122020

  17. Moving upstream: why rehabilitative justice in military discharge proceedings serves a public health interest.

    PubMed

    Seamone, Evan R; McGuire, James; Sreenivasan, Shoba; Clark, Sean; Smee, Daniel; Dow, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    The cultural divide between US military and civilian institutions amplifies the consequences of military discharge status on public health and criminal justice systems in a manner that is invisible to a larger society. Prompt removal of problematic wounded warriors through retributive justice is more expedient than lengthy mental health treatment. Administrative and punitive discharges usually preclude Department of Veterans Affairs eligibility, posing a heavy public health burden. Moving upstream--through military rehabilitative justice addressing military offenders' mental health needs before discharge--will reduce the downstream consequences of civilian maladjustment and intergenerational transmission of mental illness. The public health community can play an illuminating role by gathering data about community effect and by advocating for policy change at Department of Veterans Affairs and community levels.

  18. 28 CFR 906.2 - Third party handling of criminal history record information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Third party handling of criminal history... of criminal history record information. (a) Except as prohibited in paragraph (b) of this section, criminal history record information obtained from the III System for noncriminal justice purposes may...

  19. 28 CFR 906.2 - Third party handling of criminal history record information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Third party handling of criminal history... of criminal history record information. (a) Except as prohibited in paragraph (b) of this section, criminal history record information obtained from the III System for noncriminal justice purposes may...

  20. Rethinking Conceptual Definitions of the Criminal Career and Serial Criminality.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, Arnon

    2016-01-01

    Since Cesare Lombroso's days, criminology seeks to define, explain, and categorize the various types of criminals, their behaviors, and motives. This aim has theoretical as well as policy-related implications. One of the important areas in criminological thinking focuses chiefly on recidivist offenders who perform large numbers of crimes and/or commit the most dangerous crimes in society (rape, murder, arson, and armed robbery). These criminals have been defined as "habitual offenders," "professional criminals," "career criminals," and "serial offenders." The interest in these criminals is a rational one, given the perception that they present a severe threat to society. The main challenge in this area of research is a conceptual problem that has significant effects across the field. To this day, scholars have reused and misused titles to define and explain different concepts. The aim of this article is 3-fold. First, to review the concepts of criminal career, professional crime, habitual offenses, and seriality with a critical attitude on confusing terms. Second, to propose the redefinition of concepts mentioned previously, mainly on the criminal career. Third, to propose a theoretical model to enable a better understanding of, and serve as a basis for, further research in this important area of criminology.

  1. Ethical, Legal, Social, and Policy Implications of Behavioral Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Berryessa, Colleen M.; Cho, Mildred K.

    2015-01-01

    The field of behavioral genetics has engendered a host of moral and social concerns virtually since its inception. The policy implications of a genetic basis for behaviors are widespread and extend beyond the clinic to the socially important realms of education, criminal justice, childbearing, and child rearing. The development of new techniques and analytic approaches, including whole-genome sequencing, noninvasive prenatal genetic testing, and optogenetics, has clearly changed the study of behavioral genetics. However, the social context of biomedical research has also changed profoundly over the past few decades, and in ways that are especially relevant to behavioral genetics. The ever-widening scope of behavioral genetics raises ethical, legal, social, and policy issues in the potential new applications to criminal justice, education, the military, and reproduction. These issues are especially critical to address because of their potentially disproportionate effects on vulnerable populations such as children, the unborn, and the incarcerated. PMID:23452225

  2. Racial differences in the criminalization of the mentally ill.

    PubMed

    Grekin, P M; Jemelka, R; Trupin, E W

    1994-01-01

    "Criminalization," the hypothesis that mentally ill persons are diverted to the criminal justice system, has been difficult to confirm. The few relevant studies have examined aspects of the mental health or the criminal justice systems, but not both. This study compares state hospital admissions with the admission of mentally ill persons to state prisons. There was considerable variation between counties. Counties sent more mentally ill members of their largest minority group to prison than expected. These results suggest that jurisdictions differ in their use of these two systems and that race is a factor in this difference.

  3. Justice and Reverse Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strike, Kenneth A.

    1976-01-01

    Although this article does not necessarily recommend policies of reverse discrimination, arguments indicating that such policies are not contradictory to accepted concepts of justice are presented. The necessity of dispersing any consequent injury to society as a whole rather than to individuals is stressed. (RW)

  4. Incorporating Indigenous Rights and Environmental Justice into Fishery Management: Comparing Policy Challenges and Potentials from Alaska and Hawaíi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, Laurie

    2013-11-01

    Colonial processes including the dispossession of indigenous lands and resources and the development of Western management institutions to govern the use of culturally important fish resources have served in many ways to marginalize indigenous interests within the United States fisheries. In recent years, several US fishery institutions have begun to develop policies that can confront this colonial legacy by better accommodating indigenous perspectives and rights in fishery management practices. This paper analyzes two such policies: the 2005 community quota entity program in Alaska which permits rural communities (predominantly Alaska Native villages) to purchase and lease commercial halibut fishing privileges and the 1994 State of Hawaíi community-based subsistence fishing area (CBSFA) legislation through which Native Hawaiian communities can designate marine space near their community as CBSFAs and collaborate with the state of Hawaíi to manage those areas according to traditional Hawaiian practices. The analysis reveals a striking similarity between the trajectories of these two policies. While they both offered significant potential for incorporating indigenous rights and environmental justice into state or federal fishery management, they have so far largely failed to do so. Environmental managers can gain insights from the challenges and potentials of these two policies. In order to introduce meaningful change, environmental policies that incorporate indigenous rights and environmental justice require a commitment of financial and institutional support from natural resource agencies, a commitment from indigenous groups and communities to organize and develop capacity, and careful consideration of contextual and cultural factors in the design of the policy framework.

  5. Criminal Justice. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) contains a competency list verified by expert workers and developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from Ohio. This OCAP identifies the occupational, academic, and employability skills (competencies)…

  6. Criminal Justice and Forensic Science Reform Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Leahy, Patrick J. [D-VT

    2014-03-27

    03/27/2014 Read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (text of measure as introduced: CR S1822-1830) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. Criminal Justice Education Directory, 1978-80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Judi, Ed.

    This directory, a result of questionnaires circulated by the Behavioral Research Division of the International Association of Chiefs of Police, provides information on the types of programs and number of degree granting institutions that exist in the field of police science in the United States. The introduction traces the growth of police…

  8. Intensive Evaluation for Criminal Justice Planning Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weidman, Donald R.; And Others

    The Law Enforcement Assistance Administration's (LEAA) 1974 evaluation guidelines state that each State Planning Agency (SPA) "is expected to intensively evaluate...selected projects or groups of projects according to its planning needs." Evaluations are to "incorporate sound evaluation methodologies including, as appropriate, experimental designs…

  9. National Criminal Justice Commission Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Deutch, Theodore E. [D-FL-21

    2013-02-01

    02/28/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, And Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. Avoiding criminal liabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Blattner, J.W. ); Bramble, G.M. )

    1994-06-01

    Armed with more than 120 investigative agents, the US Environmental Protection Agency, through its attorneys at the Dept. of Justice, charges 5 to 10 engineers and business people with criminal violations of the nation's environmental regulations in any given week. There are some 10,000 pages of federal (let alone state) environmental regulations. The rules apply to large and small companies alike. As a practical matter, the sheer scope and complexity of environmental regulatory programs make 100% compliance virtually unattainable for most industrial enterprises. Where it is no longer a defense to claim lack of knowledge of one's regulatory obligations, and where courts allow the inference of criminal knowledge based on what the defendant should have known, what is a company to do The environmental audit provides a solution to this problem. Progressive audit programs are established with three goals in mind: to ensure that programs and practices at facilities are in compliance with applicable rules and regulations; to affirm that management systems are in place at the facilities to support ongoing compliance; and to identify needs or opportunities where it may be desirable to go beyond compliance to protect human health and the environment. This paper discusses the implementation of an audit program.

  11. 21 CFR 1405.625 - Criminal drug statute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Criminal drug statute. 1405.625 Section 1405.625 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1405.625 Criminal drug statute. Criminal drug statute means...

  12. 21 CFR 1405.625 - Criminal drug statute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Criminal drug statute. 1405.625 Section 1405.625 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1405.625 Criminal drug statute. Criminal drug statute means...

  13. 21 CFR 1405.625 - Criminal drug statute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Criminal drug statute. 1405.625 Section 1405.625 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1405.625 Criminal drug statute. Criminal drug statute means...

  14. 21 CFR 1405.625 - Criminal drug statute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Criminal drug statute. 1405.625 Section 1405.625 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1405.625 Criminal drug statute. Criminal drug statute means...

  15. Evidence-Based Interventions for Juvenile Offenders and Juvenile Justice Policies that Support Them. Social Policy Report. Volume 25, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henggeler, Scott W.; Schoenwald, Sonja K.

    2011-01-01

    In a context where more than 1,000,000 American adolescents are processed by juvenile courts annually and approximately 160,000 are sent to residential placements, this paper examines "what works" and "what doesn't work" in reducing the criminal behavior of juvenile offenders and presents examples of government initiatives that have successfully…

  16. The Politics and Reality of Environmental Justice: A History and Considerations for Public Administrators and Policy Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, William M.; Wells, Michael V.

    2002-01-01

    Provides a history of the environmental justice movement in the United States and discusses problems in its discourse. Discusses weak empirical research, failure to recognize the difference between hazard and risk, and the possibility that it is more about fear, blame, and politics than about public health in minority and low-income communities.…

  17. "Brown" Policy and the Moral Pillars of Democracy: Exploring Justice as the Organizing Principle of Educational Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Sherick; Snauwaert, Dale T.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to revisit "Brown" as a paradigmatic understanding of social justice and its barriers, by reconsidering "Brown" in light of the three moral pillars of democracy identified by Cornel West (2004). West maintains that authentic deep democracy is grounded in three fundamental capacities and dispositions, or pillars: (a)…

  18. After Foster Care and Juvenile Justice: A Preview of the Youth Villages Transitional Living Evaluation. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller-Ravett, Sara; Jacobs, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Young people who are leaving the foster care and juvenile justice systems often experience a difficult transition to adulthood that is characterized by a number of troubling outcomes, including poverty, low levels of education and employment, and housing instability. While some services are available for these populations, there is little evidence…

  19. Doing Justice to Social Justice in South African Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tjabane, Masebala; Pillay, Venitha

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to develop a conceptualisation of social justice in higher education based on a close reading of the current literature in the field. An important assumption we make is that higher education is a valuable mechanism for social justice. We set the literature against policy documents that detail South African aspirations with…

  20. Explaining drug policy: Towards an historical sociology of policy change.

    PubMed

    Seddon, Toby

    2011-11-01

    The goal of seeking to understand the development over time of drug policies is a specific version of the more general intellectual project of finding ways of explaining social change. The latter has been a preoccupation of some of the greatest thinkers within the social sciences of the last 200 years, from Foucault all the way back to the three nineteenth-century pioneers, Marx, Durkheim and Weber. I describe this body of work as 'historical sociology'. In this paper, I outline how a particular approach to historical sociology can be fruitfully drawn upon to understand the development of drug policy, using by way of illustration the example of the analysis of a recent transformation in British drug policy: the rise of the criminal justice agenda. I conclude by arguing that by looking at developments in drug policy in this way, some new insights are opened up. PMID:21733667

  1. Explaining drug policy: Towards an historical sociology of policy change.

    PubMed

    Seddon, Toby

    2011-11-01

    The goal of seeking to understand the development over time of drug policies is a specific version of the more general intellectual project of finding ways of explaining social change. The latter has been a preoccupation of some of the greatest thinkers within the social sciences of the last 200 years, from Foucault all the way back to the three nineteenth-century pioneers, Marx, Durkheim and Weber. I describe this body of work as 'historical sociology'. In this paper, I outline how a particular approach to historical sociology can be fruitfully drawn upon to understand the development of drug policy, using by way of illustration the example of the analysis of a recent transformation in British drug policy: the rise of the criminal justice agenda. I conclude by arguing that by looking at developments in drug policy in this way, some new insights are opened up.

  2. Self-Sufficiency in Northern Justice Issues. Proceedings of the Northern Justice Society Meeting (5th, Sitka, Alaska, April 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Curt Taylor, Ed.

    As indigenous peoples in the Arctic move closer to sovereignty, self-sufficiency in the realm of criminal justice assumes paramount importance. This book outlines initiatives and strategies to improve the delivery of justice services to aboriginal peoples in Canada, Alaska, and Greenland. Topics include: social and spiritual causes of alcoholism…

  3. Restorative Mediation: The Application of Restorative Justice Practice and Philosophy to Clergy Sexual Abuse Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Douglas E.; Harvey, Linda

    2008-01-01

    This article will present the restorative justice model and examine how the restorative justice philosophy and process can be applied to clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse and religious sexual misconduct to resolve legal claims and allow the process of healing to begin. Restorative justice is a holistic approach to criminal, civil, and church law…

  4. Conflict Resolution, Restorative Justice Approaches and Bullying in Young People's Residential Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlechild, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Restorative justice has been an increasing feature in the discourses within adult and youth justice criminal justice systems in recent years. This article examines interpersonal conflicts arising from crime, bullying and antisocial behaviour in residential care, and the advantages and disadvantages of utilising such approaches in relation to these…

  5. Expanding a Community's Justice Response to Sex Crimes Through Advocacy, Prosecutorial, and Public Health Collaboration: Introducing the RESTORE Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Mary P.; Bachar, Karen J.; Hopkins, C. Quince; Carlson, Carolyn

    2004-01-01

    Problems in criminal justice system response to date-acquaintance rape and nonpenetration sexual offenses include (a) they are markers of a sexual offending career, yet are viewed as minor; (b) perpetrators are not held accountable in ways that reduce reoffense; and (c) criminal justice response disappoints and traumatizes victims. To address…

  6. What Is "Policy" and What Is "Policy Response"? An Illustrative Study of the Implementation of the Leadership Standards for Social Justice in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, S. C.; Bagley, C.; Lumby, J.; Hamilton, T.; Woods, P.; Roberts, A.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines "policy" and "policy response" through documentary analysis and an illustrative study of policy implementation. Our approach is informed by Foucault's (2009) theory that power relations in society are conditioned by a culturally generated set of ideas, and that these relations contain the space for both…

  7. Seeking Justice: Crime and Punishment in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiMascio, William M.

    Five million people in the United States are under the supervision of the criminal justice system, 1.5 million in prisons or jails, the rest on probation or parole, and the inmate population continues to grow. Taxpayers spend billions of dollars each year on prisons and jails, yet the solution to crime problems remains elusive. To assist in…

  8. The legislative structuring of insanity acquittee policies.

    PubMed

    Linhorst, D M

    1997-01-01

    Using Missouri's insanity acquittee system as a case study, this analysis explores the extent to which legislation can structure the implementation of mental health policy. It found that Missouri's insanity acquittee legislation substantially structured policy implementation toward its primary goal of public safety. It did so (a) by including actors from both the criminal justice and mental health systems in the insanity acquittee release process, (b) by specifying procedures and criteria for the commitment and release of insanity acquittees, and (c) by requiring monthly monitoring of insanity acquittees released into the community and funding the staff positions to conduct the monitoring. The ability of legislation to structure policy implementation highlights the need for active involvement by mental health policy makers in the legislative process to shape policy goals and to structure implementation to support the interests of the mental health community. Without this involvement, implementation options available to mental health administrators may be severely limited.

  9. Who benefits from environmental policy? An environmental justice analysis of air quality change in Britain, 2001-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Gordon; Norman, Paul; Mullin, Karen

    2015-10-01

    Air quality in Great Britain has improved in recent years, but not enough to prevent the European Commission (EC) taking legal action for non-compliance with limit values. Air quality is a national public health concern, with disease burden associated with current air quality estimated at 29 000 premature deaths per year due to fine particulates, with a further burden due to NO2. National small-area analyses showed that in 2001 poor air quality was much more prevalent in socio-economically deprived areas. We extend this social distribution of air quality analysis to consider how the distribution changed over the following decade (2001-2011), a period when significant efforts to meet EC air quality directive limits have been made, and air quality has improved. We find air quality improvement is greatest in the least deprived areas, whilst the most deprived areas bear a disproportionate and rising share of declining air quality including non-compliance with air quality standards. We discuss the implications for health inequalities, progress towards environmental justice, and compatibility of social justice and environmental sustainability objectives.

  10. Environmental Justice at School: Understanding Research, Policy, and Practice to Improve Our Children's Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    Background: No overarching federal agencies or policies are responsible for ensuring environmental health at schools in the United States, potentially allowing many inequities for low-income and minority communities to persist. This article examines emergent research, policy, and practice-based efforts that may be used to identify and address…

  11. International Youth Justice Systems: Promoting Youth Development and Alternative Approaches: A Position Paper of the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine.

    PubMed

    2016-10-01

    Youth incarceration is an international public health concern among developed and developing countries. Worldwide, youth are held in incarceration, detention, and other secure settings that are inappropriate for their age and developmental stages, jeopardizing their prosocial development, and reintegration into society. Youth incarceration lacks evidence and cost-effectiveness. The well-being of youth is a key indicator of the welfare of families, communities, and society at large; therefore, the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine (SAHM) supports a paradigm shift in the role of the justice system as it relates to treatment of youth. SAHM recommends justice systems focus greater attention and resources on identifying and reducing the antecedents of high-risk and criminal behaviors, recognizing the rights and freedom of young persons, and prioritizing the well-being of youth over punitive measures that may harm and disrupt healthy adolescent development. SAHM supports the following positions: (1) incarceration is a last option for selected offenders who have committed the most serious violent crimes and are unable to remain safely in the community; (2) youth justice policies, programs, and practices affecting youth be evidence based and trauma informed; (3) youth justice policies, programs, and practices must incorporate research and ongoing program evaluation; (4) youth justice policies shall protect the privacy and dignity of children younger than 18 years; and (5) health care professionals and media will promote positive portrayals of youth in healthy relationships within their communities and reduce representations and images of youth that are negative, violent, deviant, and threatening.

  12. International Youth Justice Systems: Promoting Youth Development and Alternative Approaches: A Position Paper of the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine.

    PubMed

    2016-10-01

    Youth incarceration is an international public health concern among developed and developing countries. Worldwide, youth are held in incarceration, detention, and other secure settings that are inappropriate for their age and developmental stages, jeopardizing their prosocial development, and reintegration into society. Youth incarceration lacks evidence and cost-effectiveness. The well-being of youth is a key indicator of the welfare of families, communities, and society at large; therefore, the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine (SAHM) supports a paradigm shift in the role of the justice system as it relates to treatment of youth. SAHM recommends justice systems focus greater attention and resources on identifying and reducing the antecedents of high-risk and criminal behaviors, recognizing the rights and freedom of young persons, and prioritizing the well-being of youth over punitive measures that may harm and disrupt healthy adolescent development. SAHM supports the following positions: (1) incarceration is a last option for selected offenders who have committed the most serious violent crimes and are unable to remain safely in the community; (2) youth justice policies, programs, and practices affecting youth be evidence based and trauma informed; (3) youth justice policies, programs, and practices must incorporate research and ongoing program evaluation; (4) youth justice policies shall protect the privacy and dignity of children younger than 18 years; and (5) health care professionals and media will promote positive portrayals of youth in healthy relationships within their communities and reduce representations and images of youth that are negative, violent, deviant, and threatening. PMID:27664466

  13. Organizational Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Travis

    2013-01-01

    Helping principals understand the importance of organizational justice is the first step in enhancing learning outcomes for all learners, regardless of their social class, race, abilities, sex, or gender. In schools, organizational justice may be defined as teachers' perceptions of fairness, respect, and equity that relate to their…

  14. 75 FR 35087 - Violent Criminal Apprehension Program; Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... Federal Bureau of Investigation Violent Criminal Apprehension Program; Agency Information Collection... review: Revision of a currently approved collection due to expire 10/31/2010, Violent Criminal... investigating violent crimes. Established by the Department of Justice in 1985, ViCAP serves as the...

  15. 75 FR 52027 - Violent Criminal Apprehension Program: Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... Federal Bureau of Investigation Violent Criminal Apprehension Program: Agency Information Collection... review: Revision of a currently approved collection due to expire 10/31/2010 Violent Criminal... investigating violent crimes. Established by the Department of Justice in 1985, ViCAP serves as the...

  16. 75 FR 55791 - National Environmental Justice Advisory Council; Notice of Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... AGENCY National Environmental Justice Advisory Council; Notice of Charter Renewal AGENCY: Environmental... (EPA) National Environmental Justice Advisory Council (NEJAC) will be renewed for an additional two... environmental justice concerns into EPA's programs, policies, and activities. Particular areas of focus...

  17. Empowering Energy Justice

    PubMed Central

    Finley-Brook, Mary; Holloman, Erica L.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. is experiencing unprecedented movement away from coal and, to a lesser degree, oil. Burdened low-income communities and people of color could experience health benefits from reductions in air and water pollution, yet these same groups could suffer harm if transitions lack broad public input or if policies prioritize elite or corporate interests. This paper highlights how U.S. energy transitions build from, and contribute to, environmental injustices. Energy justice requires not only ending disproportionate harm, it also entails involvement in the design of solutions and fair distribution of benefits, such as green jobs and clean air. To what extent does the confluence of state, civic, and market processes assure “just” transitions to clean, low-carbon energy production involving equitable distribution of costs, benefits, and decision-making power? To explore this question we assess trends with (1) fossil fuel divestment; (2) carbon taxes and social cost of carbon measurements; (3) cap-and-trade; (4) renewable energy; and (5) energy efficiency. Current research demonstrates opportunities and pitfalls in each area with mixed or partial energy justice consequences, leading to our call for greater attention to the specifics of distributive justice, procedural justice, and recognition justice in research, policy, and action. Illustrative energy transition case studies suggest the feasibility and benefit of empowering approaches, but also indicate there can be conflict between “green” and “just”, as evident though stark inequities in clean energy initiatives. To identify positive pathways forward, we compile priorities for an energy justice research agenda based on interactive and participatory practices aligning advocacy, activism, and academics. PMID:27657101

  18. The past and future of U.S. prison policy. Twenty-five years after the Stanford prison experiment.

    PubMed

    Haney, C; Zimbardo, P

    1998-07-01

    In this article, the authors reflect on the lessons of their Stanford Prison Experiment, some 25 years after conducting it. They review the quarter century of change in criminal justice and correctional policies that has transpired since the Stanford Prison Experiment and then develop a series of reform-oriented proposals drawn from this and related studies on the power of social situations and institutional settings that can be applied to the current crisis in American corrections.

  19. [War on Drugs or War against Health? The pitfalls for public health of Puerto Rican drug policy].

    PubMed

    Santiago-Negrón, Salvador; Albizu-García, Carmen E

    2003-03-01

    Puerto Rico has followed the United States in adopting drug policy sustained on a criminal justice model that limits the opportunities to address problematic drug use through public health interventions. Demand for illegal drugs is controlled by criminalizing drug use and applying jail sentences for drug offenses. These strategies marginalize drug users and reduce opportunities to minimize health risks applying public health measures. Production and sale of illegal drugs is criminalized with the intent of dissuading drug use, with adverse unintended health effects that impact both drug users and non-drug users in the community. The present work reviews the assumptions of the punitive prohibitionist model and its outcomes that present themselves as public health challenges in Puerto Rico. It also presents those principles that should sustain pragmatic drug policy to address problematic drug use from a health and social perspective.

  20. Racial disparities in incarceration increase acceptance of punitive policies.

    PubMed

    Hetey, Rebecca C; Eberhardt, Jennifer L

    2014-10-01

    During the past few decades, punitive crime policies have led to explosive growth in the United States prison population. Such policies have contributed to unprecedented incarceration rates for Blacks in particular. In this article, we consider an unexamined relationship between racial disparities and policy reform. Rather than treating racial disparities as an outcome to be measured, we exposed people to real and extreme racial disparities and observed how this drove their support for harsh criminal-justice policies. In two experiments, we manipulated the racial composition of prisons: When the penal institution was represented as "more Black," people were more concerned about crime and expressed greater acceptance of punitive policies than when the penal institution was represented as "less Black." Exposure to extreme racial disparities, then, can lead people to support the very policies that produce those disparities, thus perpetuating a vicious cycle.

  1. The Afro-American before the Burger Court, 1976-1978: Justice Granted or Justice Denied?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Robert Lewis

    1978-01-01

    Supreme Court rulings during 1976-78 on capital punishment; criminal justice and prisoner rights; busing and school desegregation; discrimination in housing and employment; rights of illegitimates and family relations; abortion, voting rights, tenant landlord relations; and "reverse discrimination" have had a significant impact on Black Americans.…

  2. Special Education Policy and Response to Intervention: Identifying Promises and Pitfalls to Advance Social Justice for Diverse Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro-Villarreal, Felicia; Villarreal, Victor; Sullivan, Jeremy R.

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview of special education policy within the context of changing student demographics, with a focus on disproportionate identification for special education and inappropriate educational placement for diverse students. Additionally, it provides an overview of the Response to Intervention (RTI) model and how RTI…

  3. 28 CFR 115.271 - Criminal and administrative agency investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Criminal and administrative agency investigations. 115.271 Section 115.271 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Community Confinement Facilities Investigations §...

  4. 28 CFR 115.271 - Criminal and administrative agency investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Criminal and administrative agency investigations. 115.271 Section 115.271 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Community Confinement Facilities Investigations §...

  5. 28 CFR 115.271 - Criminal and administrative agency investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Criminal and administrative agency investigations. 115.271 Section 115.271 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Community Confinement Facilities Investigations §...

  6. 8 CFR 1003.41 - Evidence of criminal conviction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evidence of criminal conviction. 1003.41 Section 1003.41 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... that indicates the existence of a conviction; (4) Minutes of a court proceeding or a transcript of...

  7. 8 CFR 1003.41 - Evidence of criminal conviction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Evidence of criminal conviction. 1003.41 Section 1003.41 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... that indicates the existence of a conviction; (4) Minutes of a court proceeding or a transcript of...

  8. 8 CFR 1003.41 - Evidence of criminal conviction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evidence of criminal conviction. 1003.41 Section 1003.41 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... that indicates the existence of a conviction; (4) Minutes of a court proceeding or a transcript of...

  9. 8 CFR 1003.41 - Evidence of criminal conviction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evidence of criminal conviction. 1003.41 Section 1003.41 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... that indicates the existence of a conviction; (4) Minutes of a court proceeding or a transcript of...

  10. 8 CFR 1003.41 - Evidence of criminal conviction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence of criminal conviction. 1003.41 Section 1003.41 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... that indicates the existence of a conviction; (4) Minutes of a court proceeding or a transcript of...

  11. Enhancing the Career Development of Individuals Who Have Criminal Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mindi N.; Cummings, Devon L.

    2010-01-01

    Large numbers of individuals are involved in the criminal justice system. Upon release, most have difficulty finding employment and stabilizing economic resources, which contribute to recidivism. To date, the role of work in the lives of ex-offenders has virtually been ignored in the vocational literature. The purpose of this article is to…

  12. Health Law as Social Justice.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Lindsay F

    2014-01-01

    Health law is in the midst of a dramatic transformation. From a relatively narrow discipline focused on regulating relationships among individual patients, health care providers, and third-party payers, it is expanding into a far broader field with a burgeoning commitment to access to health care and assurance of healthy living conditions as matters of social justice. Through a series of incremental reform efforts stretching back decades before the Affordable Care Act and encompassing public health law as well as the law of health care financing and delivery, reducing health disparities has become a central focus of American health law and policy. This Article labels, describes, and furthers a nascent "health justice" movement by examining what it means to view health law as an instrument of social justice. Drawing on the experiences of the reproductive justice, environmental justice, and food justice movements, and on the writings of political philosophers and ethicists on health justice, I propose that health justice offers an alternative to the market competition and patient rights paradigms that currently dominate health law scholarship, advocacy, and reform. I then examine the role of law in reducing health disparities through the health justice lens. I argue that the nascent health justice framework suggests three commitments for the use of law to reduce health disparities. First, to a broader inquiry that views access to health care as one among many social determinants of health deserving of public attention and resources. Second, to probing inquiry into the effects of class, racial, and other forms of social and cultural bias on the design and implementation of measures to reduce health disparities. And third, to collective action grounded in community engagement and participatory parity. In exploring these commitments, I highlight tensions within the social justice framework and between the social justice framework and the nascent health justice movement

  13. Health Law as Social Justice.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Lindsay F

    2014-01-01

    Health law is in the midst of a dramatic transformation. From a relatively narrow discipline focused on regulating relationships among individual patients, health care providers, and third-party payers, it is expanding into a far broader field with a burgeoning commitment to access to health care and assurance of healthy living conditions as matters of social justice. Through a series of incremental reform efforts stretching back decades before the Affordable Care Act and encompassing public health law as well as the law of health care financing and delivery, reducing health disparities has become a central focus of American health law and policy. This Article labels, describes, and furthers a nascent "health justice" movement by examining what it means to view health law as an instrument of social justice. Drawing on the experiences of the reproductive justice, environmental justice, and food justice movements, and on the writings of political philosophers and ethicists on health justice, I propose that health justice offers an alternative to the market competition and patient rights paradigms that currently dominate health law scholarship, advocacy, and reform. I then examine the role of law in reducing health disparities through the health justice lens. I argue that the nascent health justice framework suggests three commitments for the use of law to reduce health disparities. First, to a broader inquiry that views access to health care as one among many social determinants of health deserving of public attention and resources. Second, to probing inquiry into the effects of class, racial, and other forms of social and cultural bias on the design and implementation of measures to reduce health disparities. And third, to collective action grounded in community engagement and participatory parity. In exploring these commitments, I highlight tensions within the social justice framework and between the social justice framework and the nascent health justice movement

  14. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: can diminished responsibility diminish criminal behaviour?

    PubMed

    Mela, Mansfield; Luther, Glen

    2013-01-01

    This text examines how current scientific knowledge has the potential of fulfilling one of the major functions of the criminal justice system. Scientific knowledge should be used to ensure that the criminal justice system's functioning results in maximizing societal protection and crime reduction. Abnormal states of the mind contribute to criminal behaviour and are considered in exculpatory defences. The failure of the long standing insanity defence and its utility among cognitively impaired offenders, provided impetus to this work. In estimating the success rates (or lack thereof) of raised defences for the cases of the 'invisible disorder', fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), coming before the Canadian Courts, we sought to expound on the reasons, from knowledge and pragmatic perspectives. We propose that a diminished responsibility defence and verdict that recognizes the 'grey zone' between 'knowing' and 'not knowing' based on neurocognitive disparities in FASD serves the individual, legal system and the society better than the current practice.

  15. Criminal typology of veterans entering substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Nicole R; Blonigen, Daniel; Finlay, Andrea; Timko, Christine

    2015-07-01

    Criminal justice involvement among veterans is a critical and timely concern, yet little is known about criminal histories and clinical characteristics among veterans seeking treatment for substance use disorders (SUDs). The present study examined criminal typology, clinical characteristics, treatment utilization, and 12-step mutual-help group (MHG) participation among veterans (N = 332) at intake to SUD treatment at the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), and 6 months and 1 year post-intake. Cluster analysis yielded three types of criminal histories mild-(78.9%), moderate (13.6%), and severe (7.5%)-distinguished by type of offense, number of convictions, and number of months incarcerated. At intake, participants with mild criminal histories reported more alcohol problems and fewer legal and employment problems than participants with moderate and severe criminal histories. Participants with severe criminal histories were most likely to attend a 12-step MHG meeting in the year post-intake, but all groups had high attendance. When only participants who had attended at least one meeting in the year post-intake were compared, participants with mild criminal histories worked more steps and were more involved in 12-step practices. All groups improved between baseline and follow-up and did not differ at follow-ups on substance use or other clinical outcomes. Multiple regressions identified treatment utilization and MHG attendance, but not baseline criminal history, as significant predictors of improved substance use problem severity at follow-up. Outpatient treatment and 12-step MHG attendance appear to be important components of recovery for veterans with varying criminal histories. Clinicians in SUD treatment programs should screen for criminal histories at treatment intake to ensure appropriate treatment planning.

  16. Criminal history systems: new technology and new directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Threatte, James

    1997-02-01

    Many forces are driving states to improve their current Criminal History and On-Line Criminal Justice Information Systems. The predominate factors compelling this movement are (1) the deterioration and cost of supporting older legacy systems, (2) current generation high performance, low cost hardware and system software, and (3) funding programs, such as the National Criminal History Improvement Program, which are targeted specifically at improving these important systems. In early 1996, SAIC established an Internal Research and Development project devoted to Computerized Criminal History Systems (CCH). This project began with an assessment of current hardware, operating system, and relational database technology. Application software design and development approaches were then reviewed with a focus on object-oriented approaches, three tier client server architectures, and tools that enable the `right sizing' of systems. An operational prototype of a State CCH system was established based on the results of these investigations.

  17. 75 FR 13305 - Notice of Cancellation of the Environmental Impact Statement for the Criminal Alien Requirement 9

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... Alien Requirement 9 AGENCY: U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Prisons. ACTION: Notice of... Statement (EIS) for the Criminal Alien Requirement 9 project (CAR 9). This notice briefly describes the... contractor's to house up to 1,889 federal, low-security, adult male, non-U.S. citizen, criminal aliens...

  18. The criminalization of treating end of life patients with risky pain medication and the role of the extreme emergency situation.

    PubMed

    Castellano, Gina

    2007-10-01

    This Note examines the legality of physicians treating patients near the end of life with risky pain medication, specifically during an extreme emergency situation. The issues discussed include whether such treatment should be criminalized and, if criminalized, what standard should be used to determine culpability. This Note proposes that physicians should not be shielded from the criminal justice system, but that the standard of double effect intent should be expressly adopted in the adjudication of such cases.

  19. Improving policy and practice to promote equity and social justice - a qualitative comparative analysis building on key learnings from a twinning exchange between England and the US.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Claire; Narle, Ginder; Gibbs, Martin; Ruddock, Charmaine; Grady, Michael; Brookes, Chris; Hopkins, Trevor; Norwood, Jayne

    2013-12-01

    Community health promotion interventions, targeted at marginalised populations and focusing on addressing the social determinants of health (SDH) to reduce health inequalities and addressing the processes of exclusion, are an important strategy to prevent and control non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and promote the health of underprivileged and under-resourced groups. This article builds on key lessons learnt from a learning exchange between Communities for Health in England and the Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health across the US (REACH US) communities that are tackling health inequities. It presents a qualitative analysis further capturing information about specific community interventions involved in the exchange and identifying lessons learnt. This exchange was led by a partnership between the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the International Union for Health Promotion and Education, the Department of Health of England, Health Action Partnership International, and Learning for Public Health West Midlands. These efforts provide interesting insights for further research, priority areas of action for policy and practice to address the SDH and to promote and sustain equity and social justice globally. The article highlights some key lessons about the use of data, assets-based community interventions and the importance of good leadership in times of crisis and adversity. Whilst complex and time-consuming to arrange, such programmes have the potential to offer other countries including the global south new insights and perspectives that will in turn contribute to the SDH field and provide concrete strategies and actions that effectively reduce inequities and promote the health of our societies. The key learnings have the potential to contribute to the global community and growing documentation on evidence of effective efforts in the reduction of health inequities. PMID:24722742

  20. Improving policy and practice to promote equity and social justice - a qualitative comparative analysis building on key learnings from a twinning exchange between England and the US.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Claire; Narle, Ginder; Gibbs, Martin; Ruddock, Charmaine; Grady, Michael; Brookes, Chris; Hopkins, Trevor; Norwood, Jayne

    2013-12-01

    Community health promotion interventions, targeted at marginalised populations and focusing on addressing the social determinants of health (SDH) to reduce health inequalities and addressing the processes of exclusion, are an important strategy to prevent and control non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and promote the health of underprivileged and under-resourced groups. This article builds on key lessons learnt from a learning exchange between Communities for Health in England and the Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health across the US (REACH US) communities that are tackling health inequities. It presents a qualitative analysis further capturing information about specific community interventions involved in the exchange and identifying lessons learnt. This exchange was led by a partnership between the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the International Union for Health Promotion and Education, the Department of Health of England, Health Action Partnership International, and Learning for Public Health West Midlands. These efforts provide interesting insights for further research, priority areas of action for policy and practice to address the SDH and to promote and sustain equity and social justice globally. The article highlights some key lessons about the use of data, assets-based community interventions and the importance of good leadership in times of crisis and adversity. Whilst complex and time-consuming to arrange, such programmes have the potential to offer other countries including the global south new insights and perspectives that will in turn contribute to the SDH field and provide concrete strategies and actions that effectively reduce inequities and promote the health of our societies. The key learnings have the potential to contribute to the global community and growing documentation on evidence of effective efforts in the reduction of health inequities.