Science.gov

Sample records for criminal justice projects

  1. Overview of criminal justice projects at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, D.D.

    1995-07-01

    The criminal justice projects at SNL include three projects for the National Institute of Justice (smart gun, restraining foam, aqueous foam, corrections perimeter), a Southwest Border study, and one involving corrections agencies. It is concluded that the national technologies developed to protect nuclear and other high value assets have enormous potential for application to crime and personal safety; the difficulty lies in simplifying the technology transfer and making the new systems affordable.

  2. Monitoring for Criminal Justice Planning Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, John D.; And Others

    The handbook is designed to help State Planning Agencies (SPA, grantees of Federal funds) to develop or improve performance monitoring systems in order to monitor the implementation, operation, and results of the criminal justice projects they support. Such monitoring is required by the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA) guidelines.…

  3. Criminal Justice - Selected Reference Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, John D., III, Comp.

    This bibliography reviews approximately 70 reference materials on criminal justice. Entries are presented in eight categories--dictionaries, indexes and abstracts, professional position papers, working conditions and unions, law and the police, crime, prisons and prisoners, and victimization. Types of publications included under the subject…

  4. Cultural Cleavage and Criminal Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheingold, Stuart A.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews major theories of criminal justice, proposes an alternative analytic framework which focuses on cultural factors, applies this framework to several cases, and discusses implications of a cultural perspective for rule of law values. Journal available from Office of Publication, Department of Political Science, University of Florida,…

  5. State Criminal Justice Telecommunications (STACOM). Final Report. Volume II: Requirements Analysis and Design of Ohio Criminal Justice Telecommunications Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielding, J. E.; And Others

    Requirements analysis and design for the Ohio Criminal Justice Telecommunications Network are provided in this report on the application in the state of Ohio of techniques developed by the STACOM Project. These techniques focus on the identification of user requirements and network designs for criminal justice networks on a state-wide basis.…

  6. State Criminal Justice Telecommunications (STACOM). Final Report. Volume III: Requirements Analysis and Design of Texas Criminal Justice Telecommunications Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielding, J. E.; And Others

    Requirements analysis and design for the Texas Criminal Justice Telecommunications Network are provided in this report on the application in the state of Texas of techniques developed by the STACOM project. These techniques focus on identification of user requirements and network designs for criminal justice information on a state-wide basis.…

  7. Adaptationism and intuitions about modern criminal justice.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Michael Bang

    2013-02-01

    Research indicates that individuals have incoherent intuitions about particular features of the criminal justice system. This could be seen as an argument against the existence of adapted computational systems for counter-exploitation. Here, I outline how the model developed by McCullough et al. readily predicts the production of conflicting intuitions in the context of modern criminal justice issues. PMID:23211275

  8. Teaching Hispanic Culture to Criminal Justice Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes-Cairo, Orlando M.

    A course in comparative Hispanic/American culture was developed for a criminal justice training center to provide exposure to Hispanic cultural norms to local criminal justice workers. The participants included employees in the fields of adult probation, health care, and alcohol and drug programs. Hispanic participants provided a valuable…

  9. Breaking into Careers in Criminal Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Lucia, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    Contends that young people's image of career in criminal justice field has been shaped by entertainment media and does not nearly match real thing. Describes reality of career in criminal justice and discusses how to prepare for such a career. Examines numerous career tracks in law enforcement, corrections, courts, forensic science, and private…

  10. Adaptationism and intuitions about modern criminal justice.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Michael Bang

    2013-02-01

    Research indicates that individuals have incoherent intuitions about particular features of the criminal justice system. This could be seen as an argument against the existence of adapted computational systems for counter-exploitation. Here, I outline how the model developed by McCullough et al. readily predicts the production of conflicting intuitions in the context of modern criminal justice issues.

  11. Criminal Justice in America. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croddy, Marshall; And Others

    This comprehensive textbook on criminal justice is intended to serve as the foundation for a high school course on law-related education or as a supplement for civics, government or contemporary-issues courses. Designed to foster critical thinking and analytical skills, the book provides students with an understanding of the criminal justice…

  12. The National Manpower Survey of the Criminal Justice System. Volume Five: Criminal Justice Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Planning Association, Washington, DC.

    Focusing on education and training needs for law enforcement and criminal justice personnel, this document is one in a series of six volumes reporting the results of the National Manpower Survey (NMS) of the Criminal Justice System. Chapter 1 of ten chapters provides an overview of nine types of educational and/or training programs, including the…

  13. The Productivity of Criminology and Criminal Justice Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeZee, Matthew R.

    The scholarly productivity of criminology and criminal justice faculty and programs was investigated. The methodologies that were used to rate journals that publish articles in the criminology/criminal justice field and to select 71 schools with graduate programs in criminology or criminal justice are described. Primary interest focused on…

  14. Drug treatments in criminal justice settings.

    PubMed

    Nordstrom, Benjamin R; Williams, A R

    2012-06-01

    The available evidence suggests that drug treatment can lead to modest, but real, reductions in criminal offending for drug-using criminal offenders. Considering the scope of the problem of drug-related crime and the expense of dealing with these issues, even marginal improvements can lead to important aggregate savings in both economic and humanitarian terms. More randomized, controlled trials of drug treatment in criminal justice programs will lead to a more sophisticated understanding of what kind of treatment works best for this group.

  15. 28 CFR 0.85a - Criminal justice policy coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Criminal justice policy coordination. 0.85a Section 0.85a Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Federal Bureau of Investigation § 0.85a Criminal justice policy coordination. The Federal...

  16. 28 CFR 0.85a - Criminal justice policy coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Criminal justice policy coordination. 0.85a Section 0.85a Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Federal Bureau of Investigation § 0.85a Criminal justice policy coordination. The Federal...

  17. 28 CFR 0.85a - Criminal justice policy coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criminal justice policy coordination. 0.85a Section 0.85a Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Federal Bureau of Investigation § 0.85a Criminal justice policy coordination. The Federal...

  18. 28 CFR 0.85a - Criminal justice policy coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Criminal justice policy coordination. 0.85a Section 0.85a Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Federal Bureau of Investigation § 0.85a Criminal justice policy coordination. The Federal...

  19. 28 CFR 0.85a - Criminal justice policy coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Criminal justice policy coordination. 0.85a Section 0.85a Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Federal Bureau of Investigation § 0.85a Criminal justice policy coordination. The Federal...

  20. Criminal Justice and Criminology. Library Research Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Phillip M.

    This guide to sources for students at San Diego State University who are doing library research in Criminal Justice, Criminology, and related subject areas begins by noting that topics in these areas can be researched in a variety of subject disciplines, including psychology, sociology, law, social work, political science, public administration,…

  1. Training Program Development for Criminal Justice Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheesebro, Deborah; Skinner, Gilbert H.

    This manual is designed to assist in the development of a criminal justice agency training program. The first chapter is a discussion of various learning principles (motivation, practice, reinforcement, and learning transfer) and how they may help the trainer select instructional strategies later in the process. Administration, trainer, and…

  2. Criminal Justice in America. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Bill, Ed.

    This book, a comprehensive and interactive introductory text on criminal justice, consists of six units: (1) Crime: covers victims' rights, gangs, violent crime, white-collar crime, elements of crimes, legal defenses, methods for measuring crime, hate crime, computer crime, and a history of crime in the United States; (2) Police: explores local…

  3. The Parole Officer Aide Program in Ohio. An Exemplary Project. Criminal Justice System Series Number 42.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Harry E.; Priestino, Ramon R.

    The report represents an external evaluation of a three-year project designed to use ex-offenders as paraprofessional parole officer aides in Ohio. The report includes the results of a 1974 national survey of States' use of ex-offenders in parole work as background of the study. The program is described in terms of selection and assignment, duties…

  4. State Criminal Justice Telecommunications (STACOM). Final Report. Volume I: Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielding, J. E.; And Others

    The State Criminal Justice Telecommunications (STACOM) project has developed techniques for the identification and analysis of user requirements and designs for networks for the dissemination of criminal justice information on a state-wide basis. Techniques developed for user requirements analysis include methods for determining data required,…

  5. 75 FR 9613 - Draft NIJ Restraints Standard for Criminal Justice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs Draft NIJ Restraints Standard for Criminal Justice AGENCY: National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, DOJ. ACTION: Notice of Draft NIJ Restraints Standard for...

  6. Criminal justice procedures in civil commitment.

    PubMed

    Slovenko, R

    1977-11-01

    The actions of federal district courts and state legislatures in recent years have resulted in the growing application of procedures of the criminal justice system to the civil commitment process. Increasingly patients can be confined only if they are dangerous to others, and increasingly due-process procedures of the criminal law are required, to the detriment of the patient's treatment and his survival in the community. The author says that allegations of patients' being railroaded into hospitals are, with few exceptions, fictitious. Abuses thet do exist should be handled through writs of habeas corpus and malpractice suits, remedies much more available now than in the past. The principal abuse in commitment occurs not when patients are admitted, the author believes, but at discharge, when so many patients are turned out into communities that lack proper services for them.

  7. Criminal justice procedures in civil commitment.

    PubMed

    Slovenko, R

    1977-11-01

    The actions of federal district courts and state legislatures in recent years have resulted in the growing application of procedures of the criminal justice system to the civil commitment process. Increasingly patients can be confined only if they are dangerous to others, and increasingly due-process procedures of the criminal law are required, to the detriment of the patient's treatment and his survival in the community. The author says that allegations of patients' being railroaded into hospitals are, with few exceptions, fictitious. Abuses thet do exist should be handled through writs of habeas corpus and malpractice suits, remedies much more available now than in the past. The principal abuse in commitment occurs not when patients are admitted, the author believes, but at discharge, when so many patients are turned out into communities that lack proper services for them. PMID:914239

  8. 78 FR 2443 - Criminal Justice Interview Room Recording System (IRRS) Standard, Supplier's Declaration of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... Declaration of Conformity Requirements, and Selection and Application Guide AGENCY: National Institute of... Criminal Justice IRRS Supplier's Declaration of Conformity Requirements 3. Draft Criminal Justice...

  9. Syllabus Design and Construction in Criminal Justice Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, Robert G.; Carr, Adam F.

    Undergraduate course syllabi on law enforcement, courts-law, corrections, and general criminal justice-criminology were assessed, based on 759 usable submissions from 193 junior, community, and senior colleges and universities. Based on the analysis, a set of syllabi to represent the core of a criminal justice curriculum was constructed. Course…

  10. Access to Sign Language Interpreters in the Criminal Justice System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Katrina R.

    2001-01-01

    This study surveyed 46 professional sign language interpreters working in criminal justice settings and evaluated 22 cases to evaluate access issues for individuals with hearing impairments. Recommendations to increase the accessibility of interpreting services included providing ongoing awareness training to criminal justice personnel and…

  11. A Guide to Researching the Criminal Justice/Corrections Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Annie M.

    This combination guide and bibliography is designed to assist students enrolled in classes in the criminal justice/corrections field. Step-by-step guidelines for writing a term paper are presented along with a bibliography listing resources dealing with corrections and criminal justice that are available in the Chicago State University library.…

  12. Criminal Justice in America. Teacher's Guide. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croddy, Marshall; Hayes, Bill

    This teacher's guide outlines effective strategies for using "Criminal Justice in America." This comprehensive textbook on criminal justice may serve either as the foundation for a high school law-related education course or as a supplemental text for civics, government or contemporary-issues courses. Designed to foster critical thinking and…

  13. Criminal Justice Education and the Humanities: A New Era?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halsted, James B.

    1985-01-01

    This study demonstrates that criminal justice education is interdisciplinary only to the limited extent it integrates the law, the social sciences, and its vocational and technical aspects. In order to integrate the humanities in criminal justice education, the educators must be educated. (Author/LMO)

  14. Female Sexual Abuse and Criminal Justice Intervention: A Comparison of Child Protective Service and Criminal Justice Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bader, Shannon M.; Scalora, Mario J.; Casady, Thomas K.; Black, Shannon

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The current study compared a sample of female perpetrators reported to Child Protective Services (CPS) to a sample of women from the criminal justice system. Instead of examining a clinical or criminal justice sample in isolation, this comparison allows a more accurate description of female sexual offending. Methods: Cases were drawn…

  15. Criminal justice responses to drug related crime in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Malloch, Margaret; McIvor, Gill

    2013-01-01

    This article examines contemporary developments in criminal justice responses to drug related crime. Drawing on evaluations of initiatives which have been introduced in Scotland along with published statistical data, it considers the expansion of drug treatment through the criminal justice system and the implications this has for increasing access to services. Importantly, it considers the potential consequences of implementing 'treatment' requirements, underpinned by potential sanctions for non-compliance, at different stages of the criminal justice process. It is argued that the introduction of interventions at different points in the criminal justice process may have increased access to treatment services, though the extent of engagement with services is called into question, especially where treatment is voluntary or less obviously 'coerced'. Moreover, there is evidence that extending treatment through the criminal justice system may have had the effect of drawing some individuals further into the criminal justice process than would previously have been the case, despite limited evidence of the effectiveness of many such interventions on drug use, associated offending and wider aspects of individuals' lives.

  16. The Citizenship Project part II: impact of a citizenship intervention on clinical and community outcomes for persons with mental illness and criminal justice involvement.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Ashley; O'Connell, Maria J; Bellamy, Chyrell; Benedict, Patricia; Rowe, Michael

    2013-03-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of an intervention based on a theoretical framework of citizenship on reducing psychiatric symptoms, alcohol use, and drug use, and increasing quality of life for persons with serious mental illness (SMI) and criminal justice involvement. One-hundred fourteen adults with SMI and a history of criminal justice involvement participated in a 2 × 3 longitudinal randomized controlled trial of a four-month citizenship intervention versus usual services. Linear mixed model analyses were used to assess the intervention's impact on quality of life, symptoms, and substance use. After controlling for baseline covariates, participants in the experimental condition reported significantly increased quality of life, greater satisfaction with and amount of activity, higher satisfaction with work, and reduced alcohol and drug use over time. However, individuals in the experimental condition also reported increased anxiety/depression and agitation at 6 months (but not 12 months) and significantly increased negative symptoms at 12 months. Findings suggest that community-oriented, citizenship interventions for persons with SMI and criminal justice histories may facilitate improved clinical and community outcomes in some domains, but some negative clinical findings suggest the need for post-intervention support for intervention participants. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.

  17. D.C. Government. Noneducation Factors Hindered Criminal Justice Initiative. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. General Government Div.

    The Criminal Justice Initiative (CJI) was conducted in Washington, D.C. from fiscal year 1984 through fiscal year 1986 to relieve overcrowded prison conditions by reducing the recidivism rate. Objectives of the project included hiring additional prison staff to provide security and increase prisoner processing, expanding the education program, and…

  18. Social Work and Criminal Justice: Are We Meeting in the Field?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheyett, Anna; Pettus-Davis, Carrie; McCarter, Susan; Brigham, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Social workers are needed but infrequently involved with criminal justice systems. One way to increase the number of social workers in the criminal justice system is by exposing students to work in these settings. This study examined the number, types, and utilization of criminal justice field placements in MSW programs by surveying field…

  19. 28 CFR 20.35 - Criminal Justice Information Services Advisory Policy Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Criminal Justice Information Services Advisory Policy Board. 20.35 Section 20.35 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE... Justice Information Services Advisory Policy Board. (a) There is established a CJIS Advisory Policy...

  20. 28 CFR 20.35 - Criminal Justice Information Services Advisory Policy Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Criminal Justice Information Services Advisory Policy Board. 20.35 Section 20.35 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE... Justice Information Services Advisory Policy Board. (a) There is established a CJIS Advisory Policy...

  1. 28 CFR 20.35 - Criminal Justice Information Services Advisory Policy Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Criminal Justice Information Services Advisory Policy Board. 20.35 Section 20.35 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE... Justice Information Services Advisory Policy Board. (a) There is established a CJIS Advisory Policy...

  2. 28 CFR 20.35 - Criminal Justice Information Services Advisory Policy Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criminal Justice Information Services Advisory Policy Board. 20.35 Section 20.35 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE... Justice Information Services Advisory Policy Board. (a) There is established a CJIS Advisory Policy...

  3. 28 CFR 20.35 - Criminal Justice Information Services Advisory Policy Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Criminal Justice Information Services Advisory Policy Board. 20.35 Section 20.35 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE... Justice Information Services Advisory Policy Board. (a) There is established a CJIS Advisory Policy...

  4. Grievance and Redress: Chicano Access to the Criminal Justice System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geilhufe, Nancy L.

    Focusing on the processes involved in making formal bureaucracies responsive, the study examined: the structure of formal grievance and redress procedures within the criminal justice system in San Jose, California; and the informal strategies used by politically active members of the Chicano community to extend and strengthen these channels. The…

  5. Doing Justice? Criminal Offenders with Developmental Disabilities. Detailed Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersilia, Joan

    People with cognitive, intellectual, or developmental disabilities are a small but increasing portion of offenders in the criminal justice system. People with developmental disabilities are estimated to comprise 2-3% of the general population, but 4-10% of the prison population, and an even higher percentage of those in juvenile facilities and in…

  6. Why Rape Survivors Participate in the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Debra; Campbell, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    After a rape, survivors may seek help from multiple community organizations including the criminal justice system (CJS). Research has found that few survivors report their assaults to the police and of those who do report, many withdraw their participation during the investigation. However, relatively little is known about the factors that lead…

  7. Using ELVIS to Measure Experiential Learning in Criminal Justice Internships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Erin; Dahl, Patricia; Bayens, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to better understand the relationship between criminal justice internships and knowledge domains. Kolb's four experiential learnings stages of experience, reflection, abstract conceptualization, and active experimentation are assessed using the Experiential Learning Variables and Indicators Scale (ELVIS) to provide a…

  8. A Heuristic Model of Criminology and Criminal Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zalman, Marvin

    The differences between criminology and criminal justice are assessed by comparing them to a more abstract typology. This typology is comprised of four basic elements: the focal concerns of the fields; career patterns of professionals; the extent to which the fields are theoretically based and are disciplines, sciences, and professions; and the…

  9. Juvenile Crime and Criminal Justice: Resolving Border Disputes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Rising juvenile crime rates during the 1970s and 1980s spurred state legislatures across the country to exclude or transfer a significant share of offenders under the age of eighteen to the jurisdiction of the criminal court, essentially redrawing the boundary between the juvenile and adult justice systems. Jeffrey Fagan examines the legal…

  10. A Research Note on American Indian Criminal Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braunstein, Rich; Anderson, Bill

    2008-01-01

    One confronts many difficulties when conducting policy-relevant criminal justice research that focuses on American Indian interests. Foremost among these difficulties is the great variation in relevant contexts that apply to this area of research. From the urban context of large American cities, where American Indians constitute a slim minority…

  11. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders and the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fast, Diane K.; Conry, Julianne

    2009-01-01

    The life-long neurological impairments found in people with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs), including learning disabilities, impulsivity, hyperactivity, social ineptness, and poor judgment, can increase susceptibility to victimization and involvement in the criminal justice system (CJS). Individuals with FASDs become involved in the CJS…

  12. Inventory of Potential Funding Sources for Criminal Justice Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Positive Futures, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Potential funding sources for criminal justice education programs are listed and information on supplemental source materials and a brief outline of grant writing considerations are included. Sections on general foundation grants, state restricted grants, and government grants are provided. Included under state restricted grants are Alabama,…

  13. Criminal Justice: An Upper-Level Social Studies Elective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eau Claire Area Public Schools, WI.

    This teaching guide outlines an 18 week elective course on criminal justice for use in grades 11 or 12. The course consists of five units and is intended to help students learn about law, crime and law enforcement, courts, corrections, and capital punishment. Throughout the course there is extensive participation of law enforcement and other…

  14. Obstacles Faced by Deaf People in the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon, M.; Miller, K.

    2005-01-01

    Deaf People, especially those who are not well educated, are at risk for serious injustices when they enter the criminal justice system. The present study describes these risks at all stages of the legal process, including arrest, trial, probation, prison, and parole. These dangers are greatest for those who are poorly educated, read at a…

  15. The Developmentally Disabled Offender in the Illinois Criminal Justice System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correctional Services for the Developmentally Disabled, Inc., Chicago, IL.

    Reported are findings from five studies which explored the special problems and needs of the developmentally disabled offender in the Illinois criminal justice system. Introductory information includes a discussion of the problem, goals of the present study, and a review of programs for retarded offenders throughout the U.S. Presented are five…

  16. The state of research funding from the National Institutes of Health for criminal justice health research

    PubMed Central

    Ahalt, Cyrus; Bolano, Marielle; Wang, Emily A.; Williams, Brie

    2015-01-01

    Background Over 20 million Americans are currently incarcerated or have been in the past. Most are from medically underserved populations; one in three African American men and one in six Latino men born in 2001 are projected to go to prison during their lifetimes. The amount of funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to understand and improve the health of criminal justice-involved persons is unknown. Objective Describe NIH funding for research addressing the health and healthcare needs of criminal justice-involved individuals. Design Review of NIH grants (from 2008 through 2012) in the RePORT (Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools) database. Setting The NIH RePORT database. Patients Criminal justice involved individuals participating in NIH-funded clinical research. Measurements NIH research and training grants awarded by number, type, research area, institute or center, and dollar amount. Results Of more than 250,000 NIH funded grants, 180 (less than 0.1%) focused on criminal justice health research. The three most common foci of criminal justice health research grants were substance use and/or HIV (64%), mental health (11%), and juvenile health (8%). Two institutes, the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the National Institute of Mental Health, funded 78% of all grants. In 2012, the NIH invested $40.9 million in criminal justice health research, or 1.5% of the $2.7 billion health disparities budget for that year. Limitations NIH-supported research that did not explicitly include current or former prisoners but may have relevance to criminal justice health was not included. Conclusions Federal funding for research focused on understanding and improving the health of criminal justice-involved persons is small, even when compared to the NIH’s overall investment in health disparities research. The NIH is well-positioned to transform the care of current and former prisoners by investing in this critical yet overlooked research area. Primary

  17. Mentally ill persons in the criminal justice system: some perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lamb, H Richard; Weinberger, Linda E; Gross, Bruce H

    2004-01-01

    There is an increasing number of severely mentally ill persons in the criminal justice system. This article first discusses the criminalization of persons with severe mental illness and its causes, the role of the police and mental health, and the treatment of mentally ill offenders and its difficulties. The authors then offer recommendations to reduce criminalization by increased coordination between police and mental health professionals, to increase mental health training for police officers, to enhance mental health services after arrest, and to develop more and better community treatment of mentally ill offenders. The necessary components of such treatment are having a treatment philosophy of both theory and practice; having clear goals of treatment; establishing a close liaison between treatment staff and the justice system; understanding the need for structure; having a focus on managing violence; and appreciating the crucial role of case management, appropriate living arrangements, and the role of family members. PMID:15168834

  18. Juvenile Justice Reform: State Experiences. Criminal Justice Paper #4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Robert; Yondorf, Barbara

    Community-based programs in the juvenile justice system present a promising alternative to the disappointing results achieved by large institutional facilities. A diverse group of states has found that intensive, individualized services provided in small, family-like residential settings or in the juvenile's own home yield comparable or reduced…

  19. Colorado's energy boom: impact on crime and criminal justice

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    Information is reported on the impact of rapid energy development on western slope criminal justice agencies. The focus is on crime rates, law enforcement, the courts, and juvenile justice problems. The problems that are likely to develop and what might be done to minimize the negative consequences are analyzed. The social characteristics of boom towns and the changes resulting from rapid growth, the changes in crime rates, the impact experienced by law enforcement agencies and the courts, and information on planning and funding in impact areas are described. (MCW)

  20. 75 FR 44284 - Notice of Draft NIJ Criminal Justice Restraints Selection and Application Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... obtain comments from interested parties, the U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs Notice of Draft NIJ Criminal Justice Restraints Selection and Application...

  1. 78 FR 76861 - Body-Worn Cameras for Criminal Justice Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ...The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) is soliciting information on commercially available body-worn cameras (BWCs) marketed for use by criminal justice and law enforcement agencies. These products are also sometimes called officer-worn or wearable cameras. The use of BWCs by criminal justice practitioners (e.g., patrol, corrections, SWAT and other tactical responders) offers potential......

  2. Young Black Men and the Criminal Justice System: A Growing National Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauer, Marc

    The impact of the criminal justice system on Black male adults in the 20-to-29 year age group was examined. End results of the large-scale involvement of young Black men in the criminal justice system are considered, and the implications for crime control are discussed. Using data from Bureau of Justice Statistics and the Bureau of the Census…

  3. Criminal justice referral and incentives in outpatient substance abuse treatment

    PubMed Central

    DeFulio, Anthony; Stitzer, Maxine; Roll, John; Petry, Nancy; Nuzzo, Paul; Schwartz, Robert P.; Stabile, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    A substantial number of substance abusers entering outpatient psychosocial counseling treatment are referred from the criminal justice (CJ) system. This secondary analysis of previously published findings from a large (N=415) multi-site trial of a prize-based abstinence incentive intervention (Petry et al., 2005) examined the influence of CJ referral on usual care outcomes and response to the incentive procedure. CJ referrals (n=138) were more likely than those not CJ referred (n=277) to provide stimulant negative urine samples whether missing samples were counted as positive (50 versus 41%, p=.016) or as missing (96 versus 91%, p<.001). A significant interaction term was found only for percentage of treatment completers (p=.027). However, on that retention variable, and three additional drug use measures, significant incentive effects were confined to participants who entered treatment without referral from the criminal justice system. The study suggests that abstinence incentives should be offered as a first priority to stimulant users entering treatment without criminal justice referral. However, incentives can be considered for use with CJ-referred stimulant users based on the observation that best outcomes were obtained in CJ referrals who also received the abstinence incentive program. PMID:23433822

  4. Trying to restore justice: bureaucracies, risk management, and disciplinary boundaries in New Zealand criminal justice.

    PubMed

    Fox, Kathryn J

    2015-05-01

    New Zealand is well known for its restorative justice conferences in the youth justice system. However, restorative justice has yet to overwhelm the adult criminal justice system. Based on interviews in New Zealand with correctional staff, restorative justice providers, and others, this article explores the reason for the modest inroads that restorative practice has made, and suggests that the general context may explain the limits of restorative justice in other places. The article argues that bureaucratic silos make it challenging to determine if restorative practice might fit within a rehabilitation or reintegration framework. In addition, because of the dominance of psychological modes for assessing and treating criminal behavior, an overarching preoccupation with risk management orients correctional practice toward treatment. Moreover, restorative justice's affiliation with victims' perspectives has made its placement within offender reintegration difficult to imagine. Finally, the penal populism that frames correctional practice in New Zealand, and other Anglophone countries, makes alternative to punishment harder to sell. However, the current liminal state of correctional practice creates an opportunity to conceive of more humanistic ways of repairing the harm caused by crime.

  5. Trying to restore justice: bureaucracies, risk management, and disciplinary boundaries in New Zealand criminal justice.

    PubMed

    Fox, Kathryn J

    2015-05-01

    New Zealand is well known for its restorative justice conferences in the youth justice system. However, restorative justice has yet to overwhelm the adult criminal justice system. Based on interviews in New Zealand with correctional staff, restorative justice providers, and others, this article explores the reason for the modest inroads that restorative practice has made, and suggests that the general context may explain the limits of restorative justice in other places. The article argues that bureaucratic silos make it challenging to determine if restorative practice might fit within a rehabilitation or reintegration framework. In addition, because of the dominance of psychological modes for assessing and treating criminal behavior, an overarching preoccupation with risk management orients correctional practice toward treatment. Moreover, restorative justice's affiliation with victims' perspectives has made its placement within offender reintegration difficult to imagine. Finally, the penal populism that frames correctional practice in New Zealand, and other Anglophone countries, makes alternative to punishment harder to sell. However, the current liminal state of correctional practice creates an opportunity to conceive of more humanistic ways of repairing the harm caused by crime. PMID:24285833

  6. [The effect of participation of the victims in trials on their confidence in the criminal justice system: procedural justice].

    PubMed

    Shiraiwa, Yuko; Karasawa, Kaori

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the new victim participation systems, we examined whether the use of these systems had an effect on the confidence of the families of victims about the criminal justice system. The results of a questionnaire survey revealed that victims who participated in their criminal court cases had more confidence in the criminal justice system and were more accepting of the court decisions. Moreover, the present study examined the process of victims' confidence in criminal justice based on the value-expressive theory of procedural justice. In particular, the assumption was confirmed that the victims' feelings of expressing opinions resulted in their increased confidence in criminal justice through their confidence in the judges and their acceptance of court decisions.

  7. Envisioning the next generation of behavioral health and criminal justice interventions.

    PubMed

    Epperson, Matthew W; Wolff, Nancy; Morgan, Robert D; Fisher, William H; Frueh, B Christopher; Huening, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to cast a vision for the next generation of behavioral health and criminal justice interventions for persons with serious mental illnesses in the criminal justice system. The limitations of first generation interventions, including their primary focus on mental health treatment connection, are discussed. A person-place framework for understanding the complex factors that contribute to criminal justice involvement for this population is presented. We discuss practice and research recommendations for building more effective interventions to address both criminal justice and mental health outcomes.

  8. Envisioning the Next Generation of Behavioral Health and Criminal Justice Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Epperson, Matthew W.; Wolff, Nancy; Morgan, Robert D.; Fisher, William H.; Frueh, B. Christopher; Huening, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to cast a vision for the next generation of behavioral health and criminal justice interventions for persons with serious mental illnesses in the criminal justice system. The limitations of first generation interventions, including their primary focus on mental health treatment connection, are discussed. A person-place framework for understanding the complex factors that contribute to criminal justice involvement for this population is presented. We discuss practice and research recommendations for building more effective interventions to address both criminal justice and mental health outcomes. PMID:24666731

  9. Intensive Evaluation for Criminal Justice Planning Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weidman, Donald R.; And Others

    The Law Enforcement Assistance Administration's (LEAA) 1974 evaluation guidelines state that each State Planning Agency (SPA) "is expected to intensively evaluate...selected projects or groups of projects according to its planning needs." Evaluations are to "incorporate sound evaluation methodologies including, as appropriate, experimental designs…

  10. 78 FR 74162 - Draft Criminal Justice Offender Tracking System Standard and Companion Documents

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    .... SUMMARY: In an effort to obtain comments from interested parties, the U.S. Department of Justice, Office... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs Draft Criminal Justice Offender Tracking System Standard and Companion...

  11. Psychiatry and the criminal justice system: testing the myths.

    PubMed

    Phillips, M R; Wolf, A S; Coons, D J

    1988-05-01

    Several states are changing legislation and treatment programs for mentally ill offenders without knowing how current laws and programs operate. To address this problem the authors linked data from police records, court reports, and clinical files for 2,735 psychiatric referrals from the criminal justice system of Alaska from 1977 through 1981. They found that only 0.2%-2.0% of all schizophrenic persons in the community were arrested for violent crimes each year, accounting for 1.1%-2.3% of all arrests for violent crimes; that psychiatrists agreed about competency and responsibility in 79% of the cases evaluated by more than one clinician; and that a successful insanity defense occurred in 0.1% or less of all criminal cases.

  12. Violent offender research and implications for the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Rice, M E

    1997-04-01

    Some offenders are at very high risk to reoffend. Research conducted at the author's institution and elsewhere shows that psychopathic offenders are especially likely to be violent, that future violence can be predicted with considerable accuracy among men who have committed at least 1 violent offense, and that treatment programs to reduce dangerousness do not always have the intended effects (i.e., they may actually increase the dangerousness of some individuals). Implications for the criminal justice system pertain to release following insanity acquittal, offender sentencing and parole, preventive detention, offender treatment, and program evaluation.

  13. State criminal justice telecommunications (STACOM). Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fielding, J. E.; Frewing, H. K.; Lee, J. J.; Leflang, W. G.; Reilly, N. B.

    1977-01-01

    Techniques for identifying user requirements and network designs for criminal justice networks on a state wide basis are discussed. Topics covered include: methods for determining data required; data collection and survey; data organization procedures, and methods for forecasting network traffic volumes. Developed network design techniques center around a computerized topology program which enables the user to generate least cost network topologies that satisfy network traffic requirements, response time requirements and other specified functional requirements. The developed techniques were applied in Texas and Ohio, and results of these studies are presented.

  14. Criminal Justice. [FasTrak Specialization Integrated Technical and Academic Competency (ITAC).] 2002 Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.

    This curriculum for a criminal justice program is designed for students interested in pursuing a future in law enforcement or a related public safety profession. The criminal justice program in the career-technical and adult education center is a two-year curriculum that is divided into these 14 units: orientation; legal aspects; communication…

  15. Two Views of Criminology and Criminal Justice: Definitions, Trends, and the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, John P.; Myren, Richard A.

    The question of whether criminology and criminal justice are distinct fields is addressed in two papers. Differences between criminology and criminal justice are delineated by emphasizing formal definitions of the field(s), occupational roles, contemporary educational trends, and future development. According to John P. Conrad, criminology is the…

  16. To What Extent Is Criminal Justice Content Specifically Addressed in MSW Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epperson, Matthew W.; Roberts, Leslie E.; Ivanoff, Andre; Tripodi, Stephen J.; Gilmer, Christy N.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which criminal justice content is addressed in all CSWE-accredited MSW programs in the United States ("N"?=?192). Criminal justice content was measured in three areas: (1) dual or joint degree programs, (2) concentrations or specializations, and (3) coursework. Excluding social work and law classes, 22%…

  17. People with Mental Retardation in the Criminal Justice System. ARC Q&A #101-47.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Leigh Ann

    This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to summarize issues related to people with mental retardation in the criminal justice system. Questions and answers address the following topics: the number of people with mental retardation in the criminal justice system (2 to 10 percent of the prison population is mentally retarded); whether…

  18. Missing Out: Offenders with Learning Disabilities and the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Whilst there has been an increase in research and clinical attention relating to the accused person or offender with a learning disability in the criminal justice system, some major areas require further inter-agency effort. These areas include: better identification of this group, increased education and training for criminal justice personnel,…

  19. Estimating Criminal Justice System Costs and Cost-Savings Benefits of Day Reporting Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craddock, Amy

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on the net cost-savings benefits (loss) to the criminal justice system of one rural and one urban day reporting center, both of which serve high risk/high need probationers. It also discusses issues of conducting criminal justice system cost studies of community corrections programs. The average DRC participant in the rural…

  20. The Effects of Victim-Related Contextual Factors on the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Stacy Hoskins

    2011-01-01

    Despite numerous reforms designed to integrate the needs and concerns of crime victims into the criminal justice system, which include expanding programs for compensation and restitution, providing counseling and other services to victims, and increasing victims' involvement in the criminal justice process, critics have argued that these reforms…

  1. Treatment of Persons with Mental Illness in the Criminal Justice System: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Anna L. S.

    2012-01-01

    The number of mentally ill inmates in the criminal justice system has increased dramatically. This article evaluates the prevalence and causes of mental illness in the criminal justice system and describes the inadequate care that is provided, the effects of imprisonment, and the problem of rehabilitation. (Contains 4 notes.)

  2. Learning Disabilities and Criminal Justice: Custody Sergeants' Perceptions of Alleged Offenders with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellenbach, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Recent research demonstrates that despite increased attention and awareness by politicians and decision-makers, people with learning disabilities are still disadvantaged when engaging with the criminal justice system. It has been argued that shortcomings in providing support are because of criminal justice professionals lacking necessary skills…

  3. What Professionals Think about Offenders with Learning Disabilities in the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cant, Richard; Standen, Penny

    2007-01-01

    There is evidence that people with learning disabilities who offend are treated differently within the criminal justice system compared to non-disabled offenders. As their treatment depends on decisions made by professionals within the criminal justice system, this study set out to explore the attitudes of these professionals. Semi-structured…

  4. Tracking and location technologies for the criminal justice system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, John H.

    1995-05-01

    Electronic monitoring systems are being used by the criminal justice system to effect behavioral modifications of persons in pre-release prgrams, on parole, and on probation. State-of-the-art electronic monitoring systems are merely radio frequency proximity detection systems that operate over limited ranges, on the order of 45 to 70 meters. One major defect with proximity detection systems is that when the clients leave the area being monitored, there is no way to ensure that the clients are behaving properly. As a result, electronic monitoring systems are only applied to a restricted number of cases of low risk criminal offenders. There is a growing need for community-wide tracking and location technologies to increase the safety and security provided by the electronic monitoring systems, and to expand the number of cliets monitored by these systems. In this paper, a review is made of the tracking and location technologies that are currently available or under development. Also presented is a brief overview of Westinghouse's program with the National Institute of Justice. This program aims to demonstrate the practicality of one possible tracking and location technology, spread spectrum based time-of-arrival location systems, for intelligently tracking people on probation and parole.

  5. Medication-assisted treatment in criminal justice agencies affiliated with the criminal justice-drug abuse treatment studies (CJ-DATS): availability, barriers, and intentions.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, Peter D; Hoskinson, Randall; Gordon, Michael; Schwartz, Robert; Kinlock, Timothy; Knight, Kevin; Flynn, Patrick M; Welsh, Wayne N; Stein, Lynda A R; Sacks, Stanley; O'Connell, Daniel J; Knudsen, Hannah K; Shafer, Michael S; Hall, Elizabeth; Frisman, Linda K

    2012-01-01

    Medication-assisted treatment (MAT) is underutilized in the treatment of drug-dependent, criminal justice populations. This study surveyed criminal justice agencies affiliated with the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies (CJ-DATS) to assess use of MAT and factors influencing use of MAT. A convenience sample (N = 50) of criminal justice agency respondents (e.g., jails, prisons, parole/probation, and drug courts) completed a survey on MAT practices and attitudes. Pregnant women and individuals experiencing withdrawal were most likely to receive MAT for opiate dependence in jail or prison, whereas those reentering the community from jail or prison were the least likely to receive MAT. Factors influencing use of MAT included criminal justice preferences for drug-free treatment, limited knowledge of the benefits of MAT, security concerns, regulations prohibiting use of MAT for certain agencies, and lack of qualified medical staff. Differences across agency type in the factors influencing use and perceptions of MAT were also examined. MAT use is largely limited to detoxification and maintenance of pregnant women in criminal justice settings. Use of MAT during the community reentry period is minimal. Addressing inadequate knowledge and negative attitudes about MAT may increase its adoption, but better linkages to community pharmacotherapy during the reentry period might overcome other issues, including security, liability, staffing, and regulatory concerns. The CJ-DATS collaborative MAT implementation study to address inadequate knowledge, attitudes, and linkage will be described.

  6. 38 CFR 1.479 - Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of the criminal justice system which have referred patients. 1.479 Section 1.479 Pensions, Bonuses... Consent § 1.479 Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients. (a... part to those persons within the criminal justice system which have made participation in a...

  7. 42 CFR 2.35 - Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Disclosures With Patient's Consent § 2.35 Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have... criminal justice system which have made participation in the program a condition of the disposition of any...) The disclosure is made only to those individuals within the criminal justice system who have a...

  8. 38 CFR 1.479 - Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of the criminal justice system which have referred patients. 1.479 Section 1.479 Pensions, Bonuses... Consent § 1.479 Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients. (a... part to those persons within the criminal justice system which have made participation in a...

  9. 38 CFR 1.479 - Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of the criminal justice system which have referred patients. 1.479 Section 1.479 Pensions, Bonuses... Consent § 1.479 Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients. (a... part to those persons within the criminal justice system which have made participation in a...

  10. 38 CFR 1.479 - Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of the criminal justice system which have referred patients. 1.479 Section 1.479 Pensions, Bonuses... Consent § 1.479 Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients. (a... part to those persons within the criminal justice system which have made participation in a...

  11. 38 CFR 1.479 - Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of the criminal justice system which have referred patients. 1.479 Section 1.479 Pensions, Bonuses... Consent § 1.479 Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients. (a... part to those persons within the criminal justice system which have made participation in a...

  12. The frontal cortex and the criminal justice system.

    PubMed Central

    Sapolsky, Robert M

    2004-01-01

    In recent decades, the general trend in the criminal justice system in the USA has been to narrow the range of insanity defences available, with an increasing dependence solely on the M'Naghten rule. This states that innocence by reason of insanity requires that the perpetrator could not understand the nature of their criminal act, or did not know that the act was wrong, by reason of a mental illness. In this essay, I question the appropriateness of this, in light of contemporary neuroscience. Specifically, I focus on the role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in cognition, emotional regulation, control of impulsive behaviour and moral reasoning. I review the consequences of PFC damage on these endpoints, the capacity for factors such as alcohol and stress to transiently impair PFC function, and the remarkably late development of the PFC (in which full myelination may not occur until early adulthood). I also consider how individual variation in PFC function and anatomy, within the normative range, covaries with some of these endpoints. This literature is reviewed because of its relevance to issues of criminal insanity; specifically, damage can produce an individual capable of differentiating right from wrong but who, nonetheless, is organically incapable of appropriately regulating their behaviour. PMID:15590619

  13. The frontal cortex and the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Sapolsky, Robert M

    2004-11-29

    In recent decades, the general trend in the criminal justice system in the USA has been to narrow the range of insanity defences available, with an increasing dependence solely on the M'Naghten rule. This states that innocence by reason of insanity requires that the perpetrator could not understand the nature of their criminal act, or did not know that the act was wrong, by reason of a mental illness. In this essay, I question the appropriateness of this, in light of contemporary neuroscience. Specifically, I focus on the role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in cognition, emotional regulation, control of impulsive behaviour and moral reasoning. I review the consequences of PFC damage on these endpoints, the capacity for factors such as alcohol and stress to transiently impair PFC function, and the remarkably late development of the PFC (in which full myelination may not occur until early adulthood). I also consider how individual variation in PFC function and anatomy, within the normative range, covaries with some of these endpoints. This literature is reviewed because of its relevance to issues of criminal insanity; specifically, damage can produce an individual capable of differentiating right from wrong but who, nonetheless, is organically incapable of appropriately regulating their behaviour.

  14. Racial and ethnic differences in reported criminal justice referral at treatment admission.

    PubMed

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Said, Manal; Owens, Darlene

    2012-01-01

    In the U.S. and elsewhere, the criminal justice system is a frequent referral source for substance abuse treatment admission. To expand and improve pathways to treatment, outreach efforts need additional information about different demographic groups. Locally, clinicians observed racial and ethnic differences between minority groups in self-identifying criminal justice as the referral sources for admission. To test this clinical observation, reported criminal justice referral was examined by race/ethnicity and gender in multiple years of both national and local treatment admissions. Confirming the clinical observations, racial/ethnic referral source by gender systematically differed across years nationally (p < .001) and in an examination of verbatim recorded presenting problems locally (p < .001). African Americans and Puerto Ricans were less likely to have criminal justice referral sources than the White reference group, whereas American Indians, Arab Americans, Asian Americans, and other Hispanic ethnicities were more likely to have criminal justice referral sources. Racial/ethnic groups systematically differed in reported criminal justice involvement, suggesting hypotheses potentially impacting clinical treatment and outreach. Published primary referral sources may underestimate criminal justice involvement in treatment admissions.

  15. Developing a Culturally Appropriate HIV and Hepatitis C Prevention Intervention for Latino Criminal Justice Clients.

    PubMed

    Ibañez, Gladys E; Whitt, Elaine; Rosa, Mario de la; Martin, Steve; O'Connell, Daniel; Castro, Jose

    2016-07-01

    The population within the criminal justice system suffers from various health disparities including HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV). African American and Latino offenders represent the majority of the offender population. Evidence-based interventions to prevent HIV and HCV among criminal justice clients are scant and usually do not take cultural differences into account. Toward this end, this study describes the process of culturally adapting an HIV/HCV prevention intervention for Latino criminal justice clients in Miami, Florida, by using the ecological validity model. Recommendations for culturally adapting an intervention for Latinos include an emphasis on language and integrating cultural themes such as familism and machismo.

  16. Developing a Culturally Appropriate HIV and Hepatitis C Prevention Intervention for Latino Criminal Justice Clients.

    PubMed

    Ibañez, Gladys E; Whitt, Elaine; Rosa, Mario de la; Martin, Steve; O'Connell, Daniel; Castro, Jose

    2016-07-01

    The population within the criminal justice system suffers from various health disparities including HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV). African American and Latino offenders represent the majority of the offender population. Evidence-based interventions to prevent HIV and HCV among criminal justice clients are scant and usually do not take cultural differences into account. Toward this end, this study describes the process of culturally adapting an HIV/HCV prevention intervention for Latino criminal justice clients in Miami, Florida, by using the ecological validity model. Recommendations for culturally adapting an intervention for Latinos include an emphasis on language and integrating cultural themes such as familism and machismo. PMID:27302706

  17. Applications of Psychology and the Criminal Justice System: A Black Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilliard, Thomas O.

    1977-01-01

    Clinical case data, psychological theory and empirical data were employed to demonstrate both useful action models and techniques, that may assist in addressing problems of blacks involved with the criminal justice system. (Author/AM)

  18. The experiences of homicide victims' families with the criminal justice system: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Englebrecht, Christine; Mason, Derek T; Adams, Margaret J

    2014-01-01

    Although the crime of homicide has received significant attention from scholars, little research exists that examines the impact of homicide on surviving family members. Because opportunities for victims and family members of victims to participate in the criminal justice system are increasing, it is important to understand the impact of these forms of participation on those who choose to participate. This study uses data from focus groups to examine the experiences of homicide survivors within the criminal justice system, including views about how system involvement and specific outcomes (i.e., sentencing) may help or hinder healing. Findings suggest that many families leave the criminal justice system feeling marginalized and revictimized. This study calls into question the current criminal justice system's ability to meet the needs of crime victim and their families.

  19. Criminal Justice Involvement and Service Need among Men on Methadone who Have Perpetrated Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Elwin; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Sarfo, Bright; Seewald, Randy

    2010-01-01

    Perpetrators of male-to-female intimate partner violence (IPV) may be likely to have multiple service needs, the extent of which may vary with respect to criminal justice involvement. The salience of the criminal justice system and the potential impact on service needs due to arrest and incarceration is underscored given the association between substance use and IPV. This study utilized a sample of men in methadone treatment who perpetrated male-to-female IPV in order to examine associations between criminal justice involvement and perceived additional service need(s). Results indicate that the likelihood of having a service need(s) significantly increased as time since most recent arrest or incarceration decreased. These findings highlight the need and potential benefit that can be derived from greater coordination amongst the criminal justice, IPV prevention, and drug treatment systems and service providers. PMID:20657804

  20. Involvement in the US criminal justice system and cost implications for persons treated for schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Individuals with schizophrenia may have a higher risk of encounters with the criminal justice system than the general population, but there are limited data on such encounters and their attendant costs. This study assessed the prevalence of encounters with the criminal justice system, encounter types, and the estimated cost attributable to these encounters in the one-year treatment of persons with schizophrenia. Methods This post-hoc analysis used data from a prospective one-year cost-effectiveness study of persons treated with antipsychotics for schizophrenia and related disorders in the United States. Criminal justice system involvement was assessed using the Schizophrenia Patients Outcome Research Team (PORT) client survey and the victimization subscale of the Lehman Quality of Life Interview (QOLI). Direct cost of criminal justice system involvement was estimated using previously reported costs per type of encounter. Patients with and without involvement were compared on baseline characteristics and direct annual health care and criminal justice system-related costs. Results Overall, 278 (46%) of 609 participants reported at least 1 criminal justice system encounter. They were more likely to be substance users and less adherent to antipsychotics compared to participants without involvement. The 2 most prevalent types of encounters were being a victim of a crime (67%) and being on parole or probation (26%). The mean annual per-patient cost of involvement was $1,429, translating to 6% of total annual direct health care costs for those with involvement (11% when excluding crime victims). Conclusions Criminal justice system involvement appears to be prevalent and costly for persons treated for schizophrenia in the United States. Findings highlight the need to better understand the interface between the mental health and the criminal justice systems and the related costs, in personal, societal, and economic terms. PMID:20109170

  1. Childhood antecedents of incarceration and criminal justice involvement among homeless veterans.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2013-10-01

    Although criminal justice involvement and incarceration are common problems for homeless veterans, few studies have examined childhood risk factors for criminal justice involvement among veterans. This study examined the association between three types of childhood problems, family instability, conduct disorder behaviors, and childhood abuse, and criminal justice involvement and incarceration in adulthood. Data from 1,161 homeless veterans across 19 sites participating in the Housing and Urban Development-Veterans Affairs Supportive Housing program were examined. After controlling for sociodemographics and mental health diagnoses, veterans who reported more conduct disorder behaviors during childhood tended to report more criminal charges of all types, more convictions, and longer periods of incarceration during adulthood. However, the variance explained in criminal behavior by childhood was not large, suggesting that there are other factors that affect the trajectory by which homeless veterans become involved in the criminal justice system. Further research is needed to intervene in the pathway to the criminal justice system and guide efforts to prevent incarceration among veterans.

  2. [Effect of criminal justice on civil rights apprehension].

    PubMed

    Deutsch, E

    1998-10-01

    Private law and criminal law are different in more than one way. On occasion, they overlap. Further liability may result from disregard of a criminal act. As far as the evidence is concerned, criminal law requires a higher degree of probability than private law. If the same case is subject to criminal and civil proceedings, both courts are not bound by each other's decisions.

  3. Commercializing Success: The Impact of Popular Media on the Career Decisions and Perceptual Accuracy of Criminal Justice Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barthe, Emmanuel P.; Leone, Matthew C.; Lateano, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Interest in the field of criminal justice continues to grow and attract students to this area of higher education. These students typically represent society in that their beliefs about the justice system are based on media depictions, not education or experience. This study surveyed Introduction to Criminal Justice students from two universities,…

  4. The Age of Criminal Responsibility: "The Frontier between Care and Justice"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillen, John

    2006-01-01

    This is an extract from a speech given by Mr Justice Gillen to a conference in Belfast organised by Children Law UK in January 2006. It addresses the potential conflict between the concept of the welfare of children inherent in the family care system and that of responsibility inherent in the criminal justice system. It questions whether the…

  5. 75 FR 18887 - FBI Criminal Justice Information Services Division User Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... schedule for fingerprint- based and name-based criminal history record checks performed by the FBI's... routinely establish and collect fees for noncriminal justice fingerprint-based and other identification... requesting fingerprint identification records and name checks for noncriminal justice purposes. Elsewhere...

  6. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Fast, Diane K; Conry, Julianne

    2009-01-01

    The life-long neurological impairments found in people with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs), including learning disabilities, impulsivity, hyperactivity, social ineptness, and poor judgment, can increase susceptibility to victimization and involvement in the criminal justice system (CJS). Individuals with FASDs become involved in the CJS as complainants, witnesses, and accused. Their disabilities, resulting from the prenatal alcohol exposure, must be considered at all stages in the legal process. Adverse experiences, such as having a dysfunctional family background, mental health problems, and substance use disorders, are compounding factors. Experiencing physical, sexual, and emotional abuse also increases the risk that these individuals will become involved in the CJS. It is critical that everyone involved in the CJS receives education and training to understand FASD and the implications for the individual offender. A comprehensive medical-legal report, prepared by professionals experienced with FASD, can help judges and lawyers understand the complex interactions among brain damage, genetics and the environment. Corrections workers and probation officers need to comprehend the significance of FASD and how it affects the offender's abilities to understand and follow rules and probation orders. Caregivers and parents need to be involved whenever possible. Early recognition of the disabilities associated with FASDs may help reduce the over-representation of this group in the CJS. PMID:19731365

  7. Criminal justice outcomes after engagement in outpatient substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Garnick, Deborah W; Horgan, Constance M; Acevedo, Andrea; Lee, Margaret T; Panas, Lee; Ritter, Grant A; Dunigan, Robert; Bidorini, Alfred; Campbell, Kevin; Haberlin, Karin; Huber, Alice; Lambert-Wacey, Dawn; Leeper, Tracy; Reynolds, Mark; Wright, David

    2014-03-01

    The relationship between engagement in outpatient treatment facilities in the public sector and subsequent arrest is examined for clients in Connecticut, New York, Oklahoma and Washington. Engagement is defined as receiving another treatment service within 14 days of beginning a new episode of specialty treatment and at least two additional services within the next 30 days. Data are from 2008 and survival analysis modeling is used. Survival analyses express the effects of model covariates in terms of "hazard ratios," which reflect a change in the likelihood of outcome because of the covariate. Engaged clients had a significantly lower hazard of any arrest than non-engaged in all four states. In NY and OK, engaged clients also had a lower hazard of arrest for substance-related crimes. In CT, NY, and OK engaged clients had a lower hazard of arrest for violent crime. Clients in facilities with higher engagement rates had a lower hazard of any arrest in NY and OK. Engaging clients in outpatient treatment is a promising approach to decrease their subsequent criminal justice involvement.

  8. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Fast, Diane K; Conry, Julianne

    2009-01-01

    The life-long neurological impairments found in people with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs), including learning disabilities, impulsivity, hyperactivity, social ineptness, and poor judgment, can increase susceptibility to victimization and involvement in the criminal justice system (CJS). Individuals with FASDs become involved in the CJS as complainants, witnesses, and accused. Their disabilities, resulting from the prenatal alcohol exposure, must be considered at all stages in the legal process. Adverse experiences, such as having a dysfunctional family background, mental health problems, and substance use disorders, are compounding factors. Experiencing physical, sexual, and emotional abuse also increases the risk that these individuals will become involved in the CJS. It is critical that everyone involved in the CJS receives education and training to understand FASD and the implications for the individual offender. A comprehensive medical-legal report, prepared by professionals experienced with FASD, can help judges and lawyers understand the complex interactions among brain damage, genetics and the environment. Corrections workers and probation officers need to comprehend the significance of FASD and how it affects the offender's abilities to understand and follow rules and probation orders. Caregivers and parents need to be involved whenever possible. Early recognition of the disabilities associated with FASDs may help reduce the over-representation of this group in the CJS.

  9. Watching the detectives: crime programming, fear of crime, and attitudes about the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Kort-Butler, Lisa A; Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J

    2011-01-01

    Research demonstrates a complex relationship between television viewing and fear of crime. Social critics assert that media depictions perpetuate the dominant cultural ideology about crime and criminal justice. This article examines whether program type differentially affects fear of crime and perceptions of the crime rate. Next, it tests whether such programming differentially affects viewers' attitudes about the criminal justice system, and if these relationships are mediated by fear. Results indicated that fear mediated the relationship between viewing nonfictional shows and lack of support for the justice system. Viewing crime dramas predicted support for the death penalty, but this relationship was not mediated by fear. News viewership was unrelated to either fear or attitudes. The results support the idea that program type matters when it comes to understanding people's fear of crime and their attitudes about criminal justice.

  10. Watching the detectives: crime programming, fear of crime, and attitudes about the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Kort-Butler, Lisa A; Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J

    2011-01-01

    Research demonstrates a complex relationship between television viewing and fear of crime. Social critics assert that media depictions perpetuate the dominant cultural ideology about crime and criminal justice. This article examines whether program type differentially affects fear of crime and perceptions of the crime rate. Next, it tests whether such programming differentially affects viewers' attitudes about the criminal justice system, and if these relationships are mediated by fear. Results indicated that fear mediated the relationship between viewing nonfictional shows and lack of support for the justice system. Viewing crime dramas predicted support for the death penalty, but this relationship was not mediated by fear. News viewership was unrelated to either fear or attitudes. The results support the idea that program type matters when it comes to understanding people's fear of crime and their attitudes about criminal justice. PMID:21337735

  11. The Scope of Practice of Occupational Therapy in U.S. Criminal Justice Settings.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Jaime P; Moreton, Emily M; Sitterly, Audra M

    2016-09-01

    In the past 40 years, prison populations in the U.S. have nearly quadrupled while funding for rehabilitation, education and other programmes has been cut. Despite accounting for a small fraction of the world's population more than 20% of the worlds incarcerated population is in the U.S. and the rate of recidivism remains alarmingly high. Occupational therapists have the capability to play a significant role in addressing the needs of persons within the criminal justice system. However, the profession has been slow to delineate of the role occupational therapy within criminal justice settings. This study sought to provide a descriptive analysis of current occupational therapy roles and practices within the U.S. criminal justice system. Using survey research methods, the researchers collected data from respondents (N = 45; Response Rate + 51.7%) to establish a baseline of the scope of practices employed by occupational therapists working in the U.S. criminal justice system. U.S. practitioners work within institutional and community based criminal justice settings. Primary practice models, assessments and group interventions were catalogued. Respondents strongly valued the creation of networking to build the professions' presence within criminal justice settings. Occupational therapy in the criminal justice system remains an emerging practice arena. Understanding the current scope of practice in the U.S. and creating a mechanism for collaboration may help increase the depth, breadth and overall growth of the profession's role in these settings. The sampling method does not guarantee a representative sample of the population and is limited to practice within the United States. Survey design may not have allowed for respondents to fully describe their practice experiences. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27094024

  12. The Scope of Practice of Occupational Therapy in U.S. Criminal Justice Settings.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Jaime P; Moreton, Emily M; Sitterly, Audra M

    2016-09-01

    In the past 40 years, prison populations in the U.S. have nearly quadrupled while funding for rehabilitation, education and other programmes has been cut. Despite accounting for a small fraction of the world's population more than 20% of the worlds incarcerated population is in the U.S. and the rate of recidivism remains alarmingly high. Occupational therapists have the capability to play a significant role in addressing the needs of persons within the criminal justice system. However, the profession has been slow to delineate of the role occupational therapy within criminal justice settings. This study sought to provide a descriptive analysis of current occupational therapy roles and practices within the U.S. criminal justice system. Using survey research methods, the researchers collected data from respondents (N = 45; Response Rate + 51.7%) to establish a baseline of the scope of practices employed by occupational therapists working in the U.S. criminal justice system. U.S. practitioners work within institutional and community based criminal justice settings. Primary practice models, assessments and group interventions were catalogued. Respondents strongly valued the creation of networking to build the professions' presence within criminal justice settings. Occupational therapy in the criminal justice system remains an emerging practice arena. Understanding the current scope of practice in the U.S. and creating a mechanism for collaboration may help increase the depth, breadth and overall growth of the profession's role in these settings. The sampling method does not guarantee a representative sample of the population and is limited to practice within the United States. Survey design may not have allowed for respondents to fully describe their practice experiences. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Information sharing between the National Health Service and criminal justice system in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Lennox, Charlotte; Mason, Julie; McDonnell, Sharon; Shaw, Jenny; Senior, Jane

    2012-09-01

    Offenders with mental health problems often have complex and interrelated needs which separately challenge the criminal justice system (CJS) and National Health Service (NHS) in the United Kingdom (U.K.). Consequently, interagency collaboration and timely information sharing are essential. This study focused on the sharing of information about people with mental health problems in contact with the CJS. Questionnaires were distributed to a range of health and criminal justice personnel. The results showed that there was a mismatch between what service user information criminal justice agencies felt they needed and what was routinely received. Prison Service staff received more information (between 15% and 37%) from health agencies than the police (between 6% and 22%). Health professionals received most of the information they needed from criminal justice agencies (between 55% and 85%). Sharing service user information was impeded by incompatible computer systems and restrictions due to data protection/confidentiality requirements. In the U.K., recent governmental publications have highlighted the importance of information sharing; however there remains a clear mismatch between what health related information about service users criminal justice agencies need, and what is actually received. Better guidance is required to encourage and empower people to share.

  14. Resistance to the mainlandization of criminal justice practices: a barrier to the development of restorative justice in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lo, T Wing

    2012-06-01

    This article examines the political and legal barriers to introducing restorative justice (RJ) in Hong Kong. It argues that the processes involved in RJ may be in conflict with the rule of law, which is regarded by the citizens of Hong Kong as sacrosanct in their resistance to the "mainlandization" of criminal justice practices after China resumed sovereignty of Hong Kong. It is argued that, because it could admit such potentially harmful Chinese criminal justice concepts as "rule by the people," "absence of the presumption of innocence," "leniency for self-confession and severity for resistance," and "toeing the party line," RJ would be devoid of any restorative substance and could breach the principles of due process.

  15. HIV Treatment in the Criminal Justice System: Critical Knowledge and Intervention Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Jaimie P.; Chen, Nadine E.; Springer, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    The criminal justice system bears a disproportionate burden of the HIV epidemic. Continuity of care is critical for HAART-based prevention of HIV-related morbidity and mortality. This paper describes four major challenges to successful management of HIV in the criminal justice system: relapse to substance use, homelessness, mental illness, and loss of medical and social benefits. Each of these areas constitutes a competing priority upon release that demands immediate attention and diverts time, energy, and valuable resources away from engagement in care and adherence to HAART. Numerous gaps exist in scientific knowledge about these issues and potential solutions. In illuminating these knowledge deficits, we present a contemporary research agenda for the management of HIV in correctional systems. Future empirical research should focus on these critical issues in HIV-infected prisoners and releasees while interventional research should incorporate evidence-based solutions into the criminal justice setting. PMID:21776379

  16. The Lloyd Sealy Library of John Jay College of Criminal Justice: Academic Library, Special Library, or Both?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    The Lloyd Sealy Library of John Jay College of Criminal Justice started as a small collection of books in the corner of the New York City Police Academy. A little over four decades later, it now contains one of the best collections of criminal justice materials in the world. Despite fiscal setbacks and tough times for the University and the…

  17. 5 CFR 733.102 - Exclusion of employees in the Criminal Division of the United States Department of Justice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exclusion of employees in the Criminal Division of the United States Department of Justice. 733.102 Section 733.102 Administrative Personnel... Division of the United States Department of Justice. Employees in the Criminal Division in the...

  18. Substance abuse prevention and treatment within the criminal justice system: an overview of the issues.

    PubMed

    Campbell-Heider, Nancy; Baird, Carolyn

    2012-02-01

    Many nurses, especially those in addictions, work directly in the prison system and or relate to inmates before or after institutionalization for criminal activity. This connection led to the theme of the 2009 Annual Education Conference held in Albuquerque, New Mexico, entitled "Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment: Working with the Criminal Justice Systems." The conference was partially funded through an award from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (grant # SP015963) and focused on identifying the special risk factors for and barriers to the treatment of addictions for those who enter the criminal justice system. The conference, presented in collaboration with the American Association of Nurse Attorneys (AANA) highlighted the tremendous need for more access to addictions and mental health providers in the criminal justice system. Papers presented at that conference confirmed that nurses can make a real difference in the health of inmates, especially those of us engaged in addictions and mental health practices, and inspired this specially focused edition of the Journal of Addictions Nursing. The purpose of this editorial is to provide an overview of the addictions problems affecting individuals under supervision in the criminal justice system, barriers to treatment within this system, and the cost-benefits of evidence based treatment.

  19. ERIC First Analysis: 1976-77 National High School Debate Resolutions (How Can the Criminal Justice System in the United States Best Be Improved?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Robert B.

    The goal of this booklet is to assist debaters in developing problem-solving skills as represented in the 1976-77 debate topic: How can the criminal justice system in the United States best be improved? The sections of this document focus on the need for criminal justice reform; procedural steps in the criminal justice system; discussing or…

  20. Memory Interventions in the Criminal Justice System: Some Practical Ethical Considerations.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Laura Y; Elger, Bernice S

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, discussion around memory modification interventions has gained attention. However, discussion around the use of memory interventions in the criminal justice system has been mostly absent. In this paper we start by highlighting the importance memory has for human well-being and personal identity, as well as its role within the criminal forensic setting; in particular, for claiming and accepting legal responsibility, for moral learning, and for retribution. We provide examples of memory interventions that are currently available for medical purposes, but that in the future could be used in the forensic setting to modify criminal offenders' memories. In this section we contrast the cases of (1) dampening and (2) enhancing memories of criminal offenders. We then present from a pragmatic approach some pressing ethical issues associated with these types of memory interventions. The paper ends up highlighting how these pragmatic considerations can help establish ethically justified criteria regarding the possibility of interventions aimed at modifying criminal offenders' memories.

  1. The Substance Abuse Counseling Needs of Women in the Criminal Justice System: A Needs Assessment Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, John M.; Dupuy, Paula J.; Moe, Jeffry L.; Cox, Jane A.; Lambert, Eric; Ventura, Lois A.; Williamson, Celia; Benjamin, Barbaranne J.

    2008-01-01

    The authors assessed the substance abuse counseling needs of women in the criminal justice system using interviews (n = 304) and surveys (n = 1,170). On the basis of the results, the authors call for gender-specific treatment as well as family-oriented support for women who are mothers.

  2. AIDS and HIV Training and Education in Criminal Justice Agencies. AIDS Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammett, Theodore M.

    This bulletin summarizes key elements of an effective AIDS training and education program for law enforcement and corrections personnel. First, these key elements of training and education for criminal justice personnel are discussed: staff participation in materials development; timely and frequent training; mandatory training; live training by…

  3. Substance Abuse Treatment For Adults in the Criminal Justice System. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 44

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Catalina; Dinsmore, Janet; Gilbert, J. Max; Kornblum, Annette; Latham, Joyce; Oliff, Helen; Paisner, Susan; Sutton, David

    2005-01-01

    This Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) provides guidelines for counselors and criminal justice personnel who treat offenders with substance use disorders. TIPs are best-practice guidelines that make the latest research in substance abuse treatment available to counselors and educators. The content was generated by a panel of experts in the…

  4. Abused Women's Perspectives on the Criminal Justice System's Response to Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barata, Paula C.

    2007-01-01

    This study used Q methodology to better understand battered women's views about the criminal justice system (CJS). Fifty-eight abused and formerly abused women, representing a broad range of experiences, were involved in the study. Participants sorted 72 statements about domestic violence and the CJS according to how strongly they agreed with each…

  5. Impact of information about sentencing decisions on public attitudes toward the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    St Amand, M D; Zamble, E

    2001-10-01

    Research reveals public dissatisfaction with perceived leniency of the criminal justice system. However, when asked to sentence hypothetical offenders, members of the public tend to choose dispositions similar to what current court practices prescribe. In two studies reported here, subjects completed a mock sentencing exercise and a general attitude survey. In an initial pilot study, they expressed general dissatisfaction with the criminal justice system but the relative punitiveness of their sentences (in terms of their perceptions of how severe various sentencing options are) was only slightly elevated above a set of reference sentences. Providing a typical judge's sentencing decisions did not decrease dissatisfaction but was associated with an anchoring effect. This effect was explored in the main study by manipulating the provided reference sentences to be either lenient, moderate, or punitive. Again, participants expressed general dissatisfaction with the criminal justice system but prescribed generally moderate sentences, anchoring their sentences to the information provided. However, only those exposed to moderate "typical" sentences subsequently reported reduced dissatisfaction with the criminal justice system.

  6. Variables Associated with Repeated Suicide Attempt in a Criminal Justice Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakansson, Anders; Bradvik, Louise; Schlyter, Frans; Berglund, Mats

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with repeated suicide attempts among criminal justice clients examined for substance abuse using the Addiction Severity Index. Among suicide attempters (n = 1,404), repeaters (two or more attempts, n = 770) were compared to nonrepeaters. In logistic regression, repetition was associated with…

  7. Pathways into the Criminal Justice System for Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raina, Poonam; Arenovich, Tamara; Jones, Jessica; Lunsky, Yona

    2013-01-01

    Background: Studies focusing on pathways in the criminal justice system for individuals with intellectual disability are limited in that they only study individuals once they are involved in the system and do not consider the pathways into it. The purpose of this study is to examine predisposing factors that lead to various outcomes for…

  8. Academic Disciplines and Debates: An Essay on Criminal Justice and Criminology as Professions in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morn, Frank T.

    Current developments concerning criminology and criminal justice education are viewed historically and placed within a broader perspective of academic professionalization, and a few of the debates going on within and between the two fields are considered. Some early sociologists made considerable claim to studies of crime, and criminology and…

  9. Crime and Control: Syllabi and Instructional Materials for Criminology and Criminal Justice. Resource Materials for Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutschmann, Linda B., Ed.; Wright, Richard A., Ed.

    One of a series of resources for teaching sociology at the postsecondary level, this volume contains syllabi and instructional materials for courses in criminology and criminal justice. Material is divided into four sections. Section 1, innovative approaches to the teaching of criminology, contains four papers which discuss a corrections practicum…

  10. Applying Threshold Concepts Theory to an Unsettled Field: An Exploratory Study in Criminal Justice Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimshurst, Kerry

    2011-01-01

    Criminal justice education is a relatively new program in higher education in many countries, and its curriculum and parameters remain unsettled. An exploratory study investigated whether threshold concepts theory provided a useful lens by which to explore student understandings of this multidisciplinary field. Eight high-performing final-year…

  11. The Literature of Higher Education in Criminology and Criminal Justice: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carolyn

    Included in this bibliography of about 500 items on criminology/criminal justice higher education is information on programs, services, and the issues that must be considered in the quest for quality education. Journal articles, essays, books, chapters, government publications, catalogs and conference proceedings from the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s…

  12. People with an Intellectual Disability and the Criminal Justice System: The Family Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cockram, Judith; Jackson, Robert; Underwood, Rod

    1998-01-01

    An Australian study interviewed 20 family caregivers for individuals with intellectual disabilities who were offenders in the criminal justice system. Caregivers expressed concern for the lack of sentencing options and the inadequate level of services for this population. It is argued that these offenders require legal representation from the…

  13. Academic Politics and the History of Criminal Justice Education. Contributions in Criminology and Penology, No. 46.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morn, Frank

    This book reviews the history of academic criminal justice--the studying and teaching of crime, police, law and legal processes, and corrections--from 1870 to the present. The nine chapters have the following titles: (1) "Introduction: Academic Politics and Professionalism, 1870-1930"; (2) "Progressivism and Police Education, 1910-1935"; (3)…

  14. A Comparative Analysis of Service Learning in Social Work and Criminal Justice Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Elissa E.; Davis, Jaya; Cronley, Courtney

    2014-01-01

    The current study sought input from a national sample of social work (SW) and criminal justice (CJ) educators ("N" = 276) to explore characteristics of those who use service learning in the two disciplines, differences in the conceptions of and beliefs about service learning, and distinctions in how it is used and implemented. This study…

  15. A Systematic Review of People with Autism Spectrum Disorder and the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Claire; Murphy, Glynis H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a systemic review of the available literature on people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the criminal justice system (CJS). The review considers two main types of study: those that examined the prevalence of people with ASD in the CJS and those that examined the prevalence of offending in populations with ASD. In…

  16. Evaluating Health Outcomes of Criminal Justice Populations Using Record Linkage: The Importance of Aliases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larney, Sarah; Burns, Lucy

    2011-01-01

    Individuals in contact with the criminal justice system are a key population of concern to public health. Record linkage studies can be useful for studying health outcomes for this group, but the use of aliases complicates the process of linking records across databases. This study was undertaken to determine the impact of aliases on sensitivity…

  17. The Clinical Mental Health Counseling Needs of Mothers in the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, John M.; Calmes, Stephanie; Moe, Jeffry L.; Dupuy, Paula J.; Cox, Jane A.; Ventura, Lois A.; Williamson, Celia; Benjamin, Barbaranne J.; Lambert, Eric

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the mental health (MH) needs of mothers in the criminal justice system using qualitative methods. Identified needs included counseling to help mothers recover from trauma, to define sense of self, and to link them with external support systems. This study confirms and extends the knowledge base regarding the MH status and…

  18. The Career Counseling Needs of Mothers in the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, John M.; Calmes, Stephanie; Moe, Jeffry L.; Dupuy, Paula J.; Cox, Jane A.; Ventura, Lois A.; Williamson, Celia; Benjamin, Barbaranne J.; Lambert, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The past 2 decades have produced a rapid increase in the numbers of incarcerated mothers. This study investigated both career development and the career counseling needs of mothers in the criminal justice system. A mixed-methods design was employed using both qualitative interviews (n = 1,161) and quantitative survey methods (n = 1,170).…

  19. The Criminal Justice Doctorate: A Study of Doctoral Programs in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felkenes, George T.

    Graduates of six institutions were surveyed in an effort to develop a profile of doctoral graduates from institutions that have traditionally offered doctoral programs oriented specifically toward the field of criminal justice. A second research objective was to develop an understanding of the attitudes, frustrations, and utilization patterns of…

  20. A Rape Empathy Training Program for Criminal Justice Workers: A Conceptual Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machell, David F.

    This paper describes the conceptual framework for a rape empathy training program for criminal justice workers. The framework will serve as the guidelines for a planned program manual. Together, this paper and the future manual will serve to encourage empathy in workers who are willing to foster empathy but who are inhibited from feeling empathy…

  1. What Makes a Good Criminal Justice Professor? A Quantitative Analysis of Student Evaluation Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerkin, Patrick M.; Kierkus, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research is to understand how students define teaching effectiveness. By using multivariate regression analysis of 8,000+ student evaluations of teaching compiled by a School of Criminal Justice at a Midwestern public university, this paper explores the relationships between individual indicators of instructor performance (e.g.…

  2. Tech-Prep: The School-to-Work Connection in Criminal Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Striegel, David; Gray, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Suggests that community colleges should focus more on academics than on technical skills when preparing students to enter the criminal justice system. Asserts that the technical skills needed by workers in law enforcement can be acquired in the police academy, while crucial critical thinking and writing skills are better taught in the college…

  3. An Evaluation of a Service-Learning Model for Criminal Justice Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschinger-Blank, Nancy Beth; Simons, Lori; Kenyon, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    A triangulation mixed-methods design was used to measure differences in service-learning outcomes for 32 students enrolled in criminal justice courses during the academic years 2003 (n = 16) and 2005 (n = 16). Results show that service-learners increase their political awareness and course value but experience a decrease in problem-solving skills…

  4. Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities in the Criminal Justice System and Implications for Transition Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Tammy; Polloway, Edward A.; Patton, James R.; Beyer, Julia F.

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this manuscript is on the challenges faced by individuals with developmental and intellectual disabilities within the criminal justice system. Prevalence data are cited and these data are interpreted in light of possible rationales for the disproportionate number of individuals with disabilities present within the system. Then the…

  5. Specious Rights: Myth vs. Reality in the American Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhardt, William R.

    2010-01-01

    Contrary to the dominant discourse metanarrative, this dissertation explores, re-exposes, and updates the generally hidden realities of what is actually taking place in the current operation of the American criminal justice system. The government/dominant discourse benefits from the amorphous ambiguity of the law in conjunction with its usage of…

  6. Prompted to treatment by the criminal justice system: Relationships with treatment retention and outcome among cocaine users

    PubMed Central

    Kiluk, Brian D.; Serafini, Kelly; Malin-Mayor, Bo; Babuscio, Theresa A.; Nich, Charla; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives A substantial portion of individuals entering treatment for substance use have been referred by the criminal justice system, yet there are conflicting reports regarding treatment engagement and outcome differences compared to those not referred. This study examined baseline characteristic and treatment outcome differences among cocaine-dependent individuals participating in cocaine treatment randomized trials. Methods This secondary analysis pooled samples across five completed randomized controlled trials, resulting in 434 participants. Of these, 67 (15%) were prompted to treatment by the criminal justice system. Results This subsample of criminal justice prompted (CJP) individuals did not differ from those not prompted by the criminal justice system in terms of gender, race/ethnicity, marital status, or age. However, the CJP group reported more years of regular cocaine use, more severe employment and legal problems, as well as less readiness to change prior to treatment. Treatment outcomes did not differ significantly from those without a criminal justice prompt, and on some measures the outcomes for CJP group were better (e.g., percentage of days cocaine abstinent, number of therapy sessions attended). Discussion and Conclusions These findings suggest that being prompted to treatment by the criminal justice system may not lead to poorer treatment engagement or substance use outcomes for individuals participating in randomized controlled treatment trials. Scientific Significance Despite some baseline indicators of poorer treatment prognosis, individuals who have been prompted to treatment by the criminal justice system have similar treatment outcomes as those presenting to treatment voluntarily. PMID:25809378

  7. Renegotiating forensic cultures: between law, science and criminal justice.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Paul

    2013-03-01

    This article challenges stereotypical conceptions of Law and Science as cultural opposites, arguing that English criminal trial practice is fundamentally congruent with modern science's basic epistemological assumptions, values and methods of inquiry. Although practical tensions undeniably exist, they are explicable-and may be neutralised-by paying closer attention to criminal adjudication's normative ideals and their institutional expression in familiar aspects of common law trial procedure, including evidentiary rules of admissibility, trial by jury, adversarial fact-finding, cross-examination and the ethical duties of expert witnesses. Effective partnerships between lawyers and forensic scientists are indispensable for integrating scientific evidence into criminal proceedings, and must be renegotiated between individual practitioners on an on-going basis. Fruitful interdisciplinary collaboration between scholars with a shared interest in forensic science should dispense with reductive cultural stereotypes of Science and Law.

  8. Computer Crime: Criminal Justice Resource Manual (Second Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Donn B.

    This advanced training and reference manual is designed to aid investigators and prosecutors in dealing with white collar computer crime. The first five sections follow the typical order of events for prosecutors handling a criminal case: classifying the crime, computer abuse methods and detection, experts and suspects using information systems,…

  9. Romance, recovery & community re-entry for criminal justice involved women: Conceptualizing and measuring intimate relationship factors and power

    PubMed Central

    Walt, Lisa C.; Hunter, Bronwyn; Salina, Doreen; Jason, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that interpersonal relationships, particularly romantic relationships, may influence women’s attempts at substance abuse recovery and community re-entry after criminal justice system involvement. The present paper evaluates relational and power theories to conceptualize the influence of romantic partner and romantic relationship qualities on pathways in and out of substance abuse and crime. The paper then combines these conceptualizations with a complementary empirical analysis to describe an ongoing research project that longitudinally investigates these relational and power driven factors on women’s substance abuse recovery and community re-entry success among former substance abusing, recently criminally involved women. This paper is designed to encourage the integration of theory and empirical analysis by detailing how each of these concepts are operationalized and measured. Future research and clinical implications are also discussed. PMID:25750487

  10. DNA evidence in rape cases and the Debbie Smith Act: forensic practice and criminal justice implications.

    PubMed

    Telsavaara, Terhi V T; Arrigo, Bruce A

    2006-10-01

    The Debbie Smith or "Justice for All" Act was passed on November 1, 2004. The act addresses the problem of collecting and analyzing DNA evidence from backlogged rape kits sitting in crime laboratories around the country. Presently, no empirical data exist by which to assess the soundness of the legislation. However, the act clearly affects discrete operations within the forensic and criminal justice systems. This article explores the relative merits of the Debbie Smith law, highlighting changes in Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs, law enforcement, court administration, correctional treatment, and juvenile justice practices. Concerns linked to the likely impact of the "Justice for All" Act raise significant questions about its overall programmatic utility and treatment efficacy.

  11. Addressing Hate Crimes: Six Initiatives That Are Enhancing the Efforts of Criminal Justice Practitioners. Hate Crimes Series. Bureau of Justice Assistance Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wessler, Stephen

    This publication focuses on initiatives that are designed to address hate crimes by enhancing efforts of the criminal justice system. After discussing the pivotal role of law enforcement in this effort, the paper describes six Bureau of Justice Assistance-funded initiatives, which include: the International Association of Chiefs of Police Summit:…

  12. Improving Access To Care And Reducing Involvement In The Criminal Justice System For People With Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Huskamp, Haiden A; Rutkow, Lainie; Barry, Colleen L

    2016-06-01

    People with mental illness make up a disproportionate share of the criminal justice-involved population. The passage of critical new reforms affecting health care for vulnerable populations under the Affordable Care Act and the Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008 presents unique opportunities to transform systems of care and avert criminal justice involvement. In addition, state and local jurisdictions have implemented a number of strategies to divert people with mental illness from the criminal justice system and reduce recidivism. In this article we summarize current knowledge about the involvement of people with mental illness in the criminal justice system and consider the recent opportunities presented by national and local policies that aim to lower the proportion of such people who are incarcerated. PMID:27269025

  13. Improving Access To Care And Reducing Involvement In The Criminal Justice System For People With Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Huskamp, Haiden A; Rutkow, Lainie; Barry, Colleen L

    2016-06-01

    People with mental illness make up a disproportionate share of the criminal justice-involved population. The passage of critical new reforms affecting health care for vulnerable populations under the Affordable Care Act and the Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008 presents unique opportunities to transform systems of care and avert criminal justice involvement. In addition, state and local jurisdictions have implemented a number of strategies to divert people with mental illness from the criminal justice system and reduce recidivism. In this article we summarize current knowledge about the involvement of people with mental illness in the criminal justice system and consider the recent opportunities presented by national and local policies that aim to lower the proportion of such people who are incarcerated.

  14. Postcode Criminals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiett, Sandra; Kushner, Joann

    2013-01-01

    Postcode Criminals was the second phase of an international participatory community arts project challenging negative stereotypes of urban youth. Concerned with the impact of zero tolerance community policing strategies in the UK and USA, artists Joann Kushner and Dread Scott developed an art-based project with a social justice agenda. To give…

  15. Biopsychosocial psychiatry and the criminal justice system: a case report.

    PubMed

    Whiteford, H A; Westmore, B

    1991-06-01

    In criminal proceedings a psychiatrist may be called upon to give evidence as to the state of mind of an accused at the time an alleged crime was committed. Seldom is the psychiatrist able to examine the person at or before the time of the offence and therefore arrives at an opinion by examining the person at some later time. Information gained by this examination is combined with all relevant reports and transcripts concerning the accused, collateral history from friends, relatives or other treating health professionals and the results of any clinical investigations. The psychiatrist ultimately forms an opinion as to the probable state of mind of the accused at the material time.

  16. Substance Abuse Treatment and Services by Criminal Justice and other Funding Sources

    PubMed Central

    Arfken, Cynthia L.; Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott

    2009-01-01

    Studies have found funding source, whether public or private, is associated with treatment and services offered in community-based agencies. However, the association of criminal justice funding with community-based treatment and services is unknown. Using a mixed methods case study approach with 34 agencies within one state we assessed administrators’ perspectives of the most important funding source, treatment and services offered. We found that agencies rely on multiple funding sources and the source rated most important was associated with treatment and services offered in the agency. Those agencies citing a criminal justice entity as the most important funder were more likely to offer specific ancillary services and adopt motivational interviewing than those citing private funds. Although client characteristics or training opportunities may determine these services and practices, the agency’s most important funding source may have implications for services offered. PMID:19345512

  17. Substance abuse treatment and services by criminal justice and other funding sources.

    PubMed

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott

    2009-01-01

    Studies have found funding source, whether public or private, is associated with treatment and services offered in community-based agencies. However, the association of criminal justice funding with community-based treatment and services is unknown. Using a mixed method case study approach with 34 agencies within one state we assessed administrators' perspectives of the most important funding source, treatment and services offered. We found that agencies rely on multiple funding sources and the source rated most important was associated with treatment and services offered in the agency. Those agencies citing a criminal justice entity as the most important funder were more likely to offer specific ancillary services and adopt motivational interviewing than those citing private funds. Although client characteristics or training opportunities may determine these services and practices, the agency's most important funding source may have implications for services offered.

  18. An integrated public health and criminal justice approach to gangs: What can research tell us?

    PubMed

    Gebo, Erika

    2016-12-01

    There has been a call to better link public health and criminal justice approaches to best address crime problems generally, and youth and gang violence in particular. Importantly, there has yet to be a systematic examination of how criminal justice approaches can be integrated within a public health framework. This paper examines the strengths and challenges with mapping gang research and evidence-informed practices onto a public health approach. Conceptual examination reveals benefits to utilizing an integrated framework, but it also exposes core problems with identification and prediction of gang joining and gang membership. The gang label as a master status is called into question. It is argued that a public health framework can inform public policy approaches as to when the focus should be youth violence versus gangs and gang violence. PMID:27547719

  19. Substance abuse treatment and services by criminal justice and other funding sources.

    PubMed

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott

    2009-01-01

    Studies have found funding source, whether public or private, is associated with treatment and services offered in community-based agencies. However, the association of criminal justice funding with community-based treatment and services is unknown. Using a mixed method case study approach with 34 agencies within one state we assessed administrators' perspectives of the most important funding source, treatment and services offered. We found that agencies rely on multiple funding sources and the source rated most important was associated with treatment and services offered in the agency. Those agencies citing a criminal justice entity as the most important funder were more likely to offer specific ancillary services and adopt motivational interviewing than those citing private funds. Although client characteristics or training opportunities may determine these services and practices, the agency's most important funding source may have implications for services offered. PMID:19345512

  20. How can forensic systems improve justice for victims of offenders found not criminally responsible?

    PubMed

    Quinn, Jason; Simpson, Alexander I F

    2013-01-01

    Controversy has arisen surrounding findings of not criminally responsible (NCR) or not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI) in recent years. In some countries, the debate has been driven by the concerns of victims, who are seeking greater information on discharge, accountability on the part of the offender, and involvement in the disposition of NCR or NGRI perpetrators. Their demands raise questions about proportionality between the seriousness of the index offense and the disposition imposed, the place of retribution in the NCR regimen, and the ethics-related challenges that emerge from this tension. We conducted a literature review focused on the relationship of victims to NCR and NGRI processes. The literature is limited. However, theoretical reasoning suggests that interventions based on restorative justice principles reduce persistently negative feelings and increase a sense of justice for victims of criminally responsible defendants. Opportunities and problems with extending such processes into the area of mentally abnormal offenders are discussed.

  1. The involvement of schizophrenic insanity acquittees in the mental health and criminal justice systems.

    PubMed

    Bloom, J D; Williams, M H; Bigelow, D A

    1992-09-01

    This article described the mental health and criminal justice involvement of a large group of schizophrenic insanity acquittees and the program designed to manage and treat these individuals. Most insanity acquittees in our system are chronically mentally ill individuals who fit well into the psychosocial rehabilitation models that have developed over the past 15 years. In addition, the use of conditional release and monitored care in the community appears to be the most realistic approach to this group of individuals who show a high degree of involvement with the mental health and criminal justice service systems. This research has continued implications for the development of outpatient civil commitment and for the attempt to give people as much liberty as they are capable of handling while being realistic about their capacities to survive in the community.

  2. Substance abuse treatment and criminal justice involvement for SSI recipients: results from Washington state.

    PubMed

    Luchansky, Bill; Nordlund, Dan; Estee, Sharon; Lund, Peter; Krupski, Antoinette; Stark, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the association between receiving substance abuse treatment and subsequent criminal justice involvement. The sample consisted of Supplemental Security Income (SSI) recipients in the state of Washington that were determined to be in need of treatment. Fifty-two percent of those clients entered substance abuse treatment during the study period, while 48% did not. Arrests, felony convictions and convictions for less serious crimes were tracked for 8343 adults for one year following the end of an index treatment episode. Results showed that entering treatment was associated with reduced risks for each outcome. In addition, further analyses were conducted just on those entering treatment. Among that subset of the study population, the completion of treatment and having an episode of treatment lasting at least 90 days were both associated with reduced criminal justice risks. These results suggest that efforts to provide substance abuse treatment for SSI recipients have the potential to provide substantial public benefits.

  3. How can forensic systems improve justice for victims of offenders found not criminally responsible?

    PubMed

    Quinn, Jason; Simpson, Alexander I F

    2013-01-01

    Controversy has arisen surrounding findings of not criminally responsible (NCR) or not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI) in recent years. In some countries, the debate has been driven by the concerns of victims, who are seeking greater information on discharge, accountability on the part of the offender, and involvement in the disposition of NCR or NGRI perpetrators. Their demands raise questions about proportionality between the seriousness of the index offense and the disposition imposed, the place of retribution in the NCR regimen, and the ethics-related challenges that emerge from this tension. We conducted a literature review focused on the relationship of victims to NCR and NGRI processes. The literature is limited. However, theoretical reasoning suggests that interventions based on restorative justice principles reduce persistently negative feelings and increase a sense of justice for victims of criminally responsible defendants. Opportunities and problems with extending such processes into the area of mentally abnormal offenders are discussed. PMID:24335331

  4. Integrated multisystem analysis in a mental health and criminal justice ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Falconer, Erin; El-Hay, Tal; Alevras, Dimitris; Docherty, John; Yanover, Chen; Kalton, Alan; Goldschmidt, Yaara; Rosen-Zvi, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Patients with a serious mental illness often receive care that is fragmented due to reduced availability of or access to resources, and inadequate, discontinuous, and uncoordinated care across health, social services, and criminal justice organizations. These gaps in care may lead to increased mental health disease burden and relapse, as well as repeated incarcerations. Further, the complex health, social service, and criminal justice ecosystem within which the patient may be embedded makes it difficult to examine the role of modifiable risk factors and delivered services on patient outcomes, particularly given that agencies often maintain isolated sets of relevant data. Here we describe an approach to creating a multisystem analysis that derives insights from an integrated data set including patient access to case management services, medical services, and interactions with the criminal justice system. We combined data from electronic systems within a US mental health ecosystem that included mental health and substance abuse services, as well as data from the criminal justice system. We applied Cox models to test the associations between delivery of services and re-incarceration. Using this approach, we found an association between arrests and crisis stabilization services in this population. We also found that delivery of case management or medical services provided after release from jail was associated with a reduced risk for re-arrest. Additionally, we used machine learning to train and validate a predictive model linking non-modifiable and modifiable risk factors and outcomes. A predictive model, constructed using elastic net regularized logistic regression, and considering age, past arrests, mental health diagnosis, as well as use of a jail diversion program, outpatient, medical and case management services predicted the probability of re-arrests with fair accuracy (AUC=.67). By modeling the complex interactions between risk factors, service delivery and

  5. State criminal justice telecommunications (STACOM). Volume 4: Network design software user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    A user's guide to the network design program is presented. The program is written in FORTRAN V and implemented on a UNIVAC 1108 computer under the EXEC-8 operating system which enables the user to construct least-cost network topologies for criminal justice digital telecommunications networks. A complete description of program features, inputs, processing logic, and outputs is presented, and a sample run and a program listing are included.

  6. Applying the revenge system to the criminal justice system and jury decision-making.

    PubMed

    Roberts, S Craig; Murray, Jennifer

    2013-02-01

    McCullough et al. propose an evolved cognitive revenge system which imposes retaliatory costs on aggressors. They distinguish between this and other forms of punishment (e.g., those administered by judges) which are not underpinned by a specifically designed evolutionary mechanism. Here we outline mechanisms and circumstances through which the revenge system might nonetheless infiltrate decision-making within the criminal justice system.

  7. Developing employment services for criminal justice clients enrolled in drug user treatment programs.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Kathleen; Savitz, Barry; Thompson, William; Zanis, David A

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 80% of parolees have a history of substance abuse and nearly all are unemployed following release from prison. Common stipulations of parole require offenders to obtain employment and to not use mood-altering substances. This article explores a series of strategies implemented from 1999 to 2001 to help offenders paroled to substance user treatment to gain employment. A total of 245 paroled offenders enrolled in an outpatient substance abuse treatment program voluntarily agreed to participate in one of four different vocational intervention programs (Job Skill Development and Supported Work, Life Skill Development, Job Training, and Welfare to Work). Programmatic data (e.g., attendance, completion, job acquisition, and wage) were collected and reported for each of the vocational programs. Additionally, a 12-month pilot study examined criminal justice, substance use, and employment outcomes of 36 offenders referred to the job skill development and supported work project. Overall, 78% of the offenders enrolled in the vocational services completed the program and 134/245 (55%) were able to obtain employment. The data showed that completion of vocational services was strongly associated with obtaining employment 12 months postenrollment. Offenders identified the employment services as an integral part of their improved overall functioning. A series of practice recommendations and policy suggestions is offered to develop and manage vocational services for substance-using offenders. Employment services for parolees require considerable coordination of activities with parole officers, vocational programs, substance abuse treatment professionals, and funding systems.

  8. To punish or repair? Evolutionary psychology and lay intuitions about modern criminal justice.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Michael Bang; Sell, Aaron; Tooby, John; Cosmides, Leda

    2012-11-01

    We propose that intuitions about modern mass-level criminal justice emerge from evolved mechanisms designed to operate in ancestral small-scale societies. By hypothesis, individuals confronted with a crime compute two distinct psychological magnitudes: one that reflects the crime's seriousness and another that reflects the criminal's long-term value as an associate. These magnitudes are computed based on different sets of cues and are fed into motivational mechanisms regulating different aspects of sanctioning. The seriousness variable regulates how much to react (e.g., how severely we want to punish); the variable indexing the criminal's association value regulates the more fundamental decision of how to react (i.e., whether we want to punish or repair). Using experimental designs embedded in surveys, we validate this theory across several types of crime and two countries. The evidence augments past research and suggests that the human mind contains dedicated psychological mechanisms for restoring social relationships following acts of exploitation.

  9. Exploring whether genetic differences between siblings explain sibling differences in criminal justice outcomes.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Joseph A; Beaver, Kevin M

    2014-01-01

    Research has revealed that despite many similarities, siblings raised within the same household have also been found to be markedly different from one another. Behavioral differences between siblings have been primarily attributed to differential exposure to a wide variety of environmental influences. The potential role that between-sibling genetic differences play in the development of behavioral differences has been overlooked in the extant literature. The current study examines the association between differences in three dopaminergic polymorphisms (DAT1, DRD2, and DRD4) and differences in arrest, incarceration, and multiple arrests between siblings. Between-sibling difference scores were estimated for each examined polymorphism and each criminal justice outcome measure (along with all controls). Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression models were estimated to examine the potential association between genetic differences between siblings and differences in experiences within the criminal justice system. Models were estimated for the full sample and then for the same-sex male and female subsamples separately. The results provide preliminary evidence that between-sibling differences in some of the examined dopaminergic polymorphisms are associated with differences in contact with the criminal justice system. Findings are discussed in more detail and suggestions for future research are also provided.

  10. Standards for opioid treatment in the criminal justice system: implications for nurses.

    PubMed

    Chavez, R Scott

    2012-02-01

    The delivery of health care is based on the theory that patients have timely access to qualified clinicians who will render a professional clinical judgment that is ordered and received. This article describes traditional barriers to opioid treatment and care to incarcerated populations. With 60 to 80 percent of current and former prisoners convicted on drug-related charges, the need to provide drug abuse treatment in jails and prisons remains a high social and clinical priority. The medical, economic, and social burden of opioid addiction can be alleviated with the expansion of addiction treatment programming in the criminal justice system. This article presents arguments why this programming should be implemented and describes national standards on how services should be organized. The article concludes with a description of the nursing role in a criminal justice substance abuse program highlighting key tasks that correctional nurses perform. The article concludes with a discussion of the future challenges and directions to opioid treatment in the criminal justice system.

  11. Reaching seriously at-risk populations: health interventions in criminal justice settings.

    PubMed

    Hammett, T M; Gaiter, J L; Crawford, C

    1998-02-01

    More than 6 million people are under some form of criminal justice supervision in the United States on any given day. The vast majority are arrested in and return to urban, low-income communities. These are men, women, and adolescents with high rates of infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and tuberculosis (TB), as well as substance abuse and other health problems. A review of recent literature indicates that an increasing problem for these populations is that they have had little prior access to primary health care or health interventions, and many are returning to their communities without critical preventive health information and skills, appropriate medical services, and other necessary support. Periods of incarceration and other criminal justice supervision offer important opportunities to provide a range of health interventions to this underserved population, and general evaluations show the potential for this strategy. Public health and criminal justice agencies have the expertise and should collaborate to provide interventions needed by incarcerated populations. Moreover, many recently released inmates require primary care for HIV/AIDS, other STDs, and TB. Consequently, timely discharge planning is essential, as are linkages with community-based organizations and agencies that can provide medical care, health education, and necessary supportive services.

  12. Ending overly broad HIV criminalization: Canadian scientists and clinicians stand for justice.

    PubMed

    Kazatchkine, Cécile; Bernard, Edwin; Eba, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    In Canada, people living with HIV who do not disclose their HIV status prior to sexual acts risk prosecution for aggravated sexual assault even if they have sex with a condom or while having a low (or undetectable) viral load, they had no intent to transmit HIV, and no transmission occurred. In 2013, six distinguished Canadian HIV scientists and clinicians took ground-breaking action to advance justice by co-authoring the "Canadian consensus statement on HIV and its transmission in the context of the criminal law." This effort was born out of the belief that the application of criminal law to HIV non-disclosure was being driven by a poor appreciation of the science of HIV. More than 75 HIV scientists and clinicians Canada-wide have now endorsed the statement, agreeing that "[they] have a professional and ethical responsibility to assist those in the criminal justice system to understand and interpret current medical and scientific evidence regarding HIV." As some 61 countries have adopted laws that specifically allow for HIV criminalization, and prosecutions for HIV non-disclosure, exposure and transmission have been reported in at least 49 countries, the authors hope that others around the world will take similar action. PMID:26194348

  13. Ending overly broad HIV criminalization: Canadian scientists and clinicians stand for justice

    PubMed Central

    Kazatchkine, Cécile; Bernard, Edwin; Eba, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    In Canada, people living with HIV who do not disclose their HIV status prior to sexual acts risk prosecution for aggravated sexual assault even if they have sex with a condom or while having a low (or undetectable) viral load, they had no intent to transmit HIV, and no transmission occurred. In 2013, six distinguished Canadian HIV scientists and clinicians took ground-breaking action to advance justice by co-authoring the “Canadian consensus statement on HIV and its transmission in the context of the criminal law.” This effort was born out of the belief that the application of criminal law to HIV non-disclosure was being driven by a poor appreciation of the science of HIV. More than 75 HIV scientists and clinicians Canada-wide have now endorsed the statement, agreeing that “[they] have a professional and ethical responsibility to assist those in the criminal justice system to understand and interpret current medical and scientific evidence regarding HIV.” As some 61 countries have adopted laws that specifically allow for HIV criminalization, and prosecutions for HIV non-disclosure, exposure and transmission have been reported in at least 49 countries, the authors hope that others around the world will take similar action. PMID:26194348

  14. Ending overly broad HIV criminalization: Canadian scientists and clinicians stand for justice.

    PubMed

    Kazatchkine, Cécile; Bernard, Edwin; Eba, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    In Canada, people living with HIV who do not disclose their HIV status prior to sexual acts risk prosecution for aggravated sexual assault even if they have sex with a condom or while having a low (or undetectable) viral load, they had no intent to transmit HIV, and no transmission occurred. In 2013, six distinguished Canadian HIV scientists and clinicians took ground-breaking action to advance justice by co-authoring the "Canadian consensus statement on HIV and its transmission in the context of the criminal law." This effort was born out of the belief that the application of criminal law to HIV non-disclosure was being driven by a poor appreciation of the science of HIV. More than 75 HIV scientists and clinicians Canada-wide have now endorsed the statement, agreeing that "[they] have a professional and ethical responsibility to assist those in the criminal justice system to understand and interpret current medical and scientific evidence regarding HIV." As some 61 countries have adopted laws that specifically allow for HIV criminalization, and prosecutions for HIV non-disclosure, exposure and transmission have been reported in at least 49 countries, the authors hope that others around the world will take similar action.

  15. Effect of forensic evidence on criminal justice case processing.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Joseph L; Hickman, Matthew J; Strom, Kevin J; Johnson, Donald J

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the role and impact of forensic evidence on case-processing outcomes in a sample of 4205 criminal cases drawn from five U.S. jurisdictions. Regression analyses demonstrated that forensic evidence played a consistent and robust role in case-processing decisions. Still, the influence of forensic evidence is time- and examination-dependent: the collection of crime scene evidence was predictive of arrest, and the examination of evidence was predictive of referral for charges, as well as of charges being filed, conviction at trial, and sentence length. The only decision outcome in which forensic evidence did not have a general effect was with regard to guilty plea arrangements. More studies are needed on the filtering of forensic evidence in different crime categories, from the crime scene to its use by investigators, prosecutors, and fact-finders, and to identify factors that shape decisions to collect evidence, submit it to laboratories, and request examinations.

  16. Memory Interventions in the Criminal Justice System: Some Practical Ethical Considerations.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Laura Y; Elger, Bernice S

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, discussion around memory modification interventions has gained attention. However, discussion around the use of memory interventions in the criminal justice system has been mostly absent. In this paper we start by highlighting the importance memory has for human well-being and personal identity, as well as its role within the criminal forensic setting; in particular, for claiming and accepting legal responsibility, for moral learning, and for retribution. We provide examples of memory interventions that are currently available for medical purposes, but that in the future could be used in the forensic setting to modify criminal offenders' memories. In this section we contrast the cases of (1) dampening and (2) enhancing memories of criminal offenders. We then present from a pragmatic approach some pressing ethical issues associated with these types of memory interventions. The paper ends up highlighting how these pragmatic considerations can help establish ethically justified criteria regarding the possibility of interventions aimed at modifying criminal offenders' memories. PMID:26715046

  17. The criminal justice outcomes of jail diversion programs for persons with mental illness: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Sirotich, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Diversion programs are initiatives in which persons with serious mental illness who are involved with the criminal justice system are redirected from traditional criminal justice pathways to the mental health and substance abuse treatment systems. This article is a review of the research literature conducted to determine whether the current evidence supports the use of diversion initiatives to reduce recidivism and to reduce incarceration among adults with serious mental illness with justice involvement. A structured literature search identified 21 publications or research papers for review that examined the criminal justice outcomes of various diversion models. The review revealed little evidence of the effectiveness of jail diversion in reducing recidivism among persons with serious mental illness. However, evidence was found that jail diversion initiatives can reduce the amount of jail time that persons with mental illness serve. Implications for practice and research are discussed.

  18. Civil Rights Questions: Where Race, Economics, and Criminal Justice Intersect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Marghi

    This curriculum unit on civil rights questions in the United States was developed as a history-social science project at San Jose State University. The unit is intended for high school students and needs one or two class periods to complete. It provides the teacher with a rationale, a framework, history-social science standards, student outcomes,…

  19. Addressing the Needs of the Criminal Defendant with Mental Retardation: The Special Educator as a Resource to the Criminal Justice System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everington, Caroline; Luckasson, Ruth

    1989-01-01

    The expertise of special educators can aid in providing justice for criminal defendants with mental retardation in such areas as identification of mental retardation, evaluations and habilitation concerning competence to stand trial or enter plea agreements, and provision of services to defendants in corrections programs. (Author/DB)

  20. Juvenile penalty or leniency: Sentencing of juveniles in the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Kareem L; McNeal, Brittani A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of being juvenile on sentencing in the criminal justice system. More specifically, youth transferred to criminal court are compared to adults in terms of likelihood of incarceration, jail length, and prison length. In this study, 2 national data sets are merged. The juvenile sample includes 3,381 convicted offenders, and the adult sample is comprised of 6,529 convicted offenders. The final sample is 9,910 offenders across 36 U.S. counties. The key independent variable is juvenile status, and the dependent variables are incarceration, jail length, and prison length. Because of the multilevel nature of the data, hierarchical linear modeling is used across all models. Juveniles are punished less severely in the jail incarceration decision. However, when youth are actually sentenced to incarceration (either jail or prison), they are given longer confinement time than adults. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26974365

  1. Forensic psychiatric expert witnessing within the criminal justice system in Germany.

    PubMed

    Konrad, Norbert; Völlm, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the number of occupied beds in German forensic-psychiatric hospitals has continued to rise. Diversion refers to the removal of offenders from the criminal justice system at any stage of the procedure and court proceedings. There are no specific diversion programs in Germany but diversion does in fact happen via legal regulations that are based on the construct of legal responsibility. The assessments of responsibility as well as risk are the core tasks of forensic-psychiatric expert witnessing in Germany. Recommendations of an interdisciplinary working group serve as a guide to operationalize this forensic-psychiatric task. These recommendations list formal minimum requirements for expert reports on the question of criminal responsibility and risk assessment as well as minimum standards regarding content and in writing the report.

  2. Forensic psychiatric expert witnessing within the criminal justice system in Germany.

    PubMed

    Konrad, Norbert; Völlm, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the number of occupied beds in German forensic-psychiatric hospitals has continued to rise. Diversion refers to the removal of offenders from the criminal justice system at any stage of the procedure and court proceedings. There are no specific diversion programs in Germany but diversion does in fact happen via legal regulations that are based on the construct of legal responsibility. The assessments of responsibility as well as risk are the core tasks of forensic-psychiatric expert witnessing in Germany. Recommendations of an interdisciplinary working group serve as a guide to operationalize this forensic-psychiatric task. These recommendations list formal minimum requirements for expert reports on the question of criminal responsibility and risk assessment as well as minimum standards regarding content and in writing the report. PMID:24268458

  3. Juvenile penalty or leniency: Sentencing of juveniles in the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Kareem L; McNeal, Brittani A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of being juvenile on sentencing in the criminal justice system. More specifically, youth transferred to criminal court are compared to adults in terms of likelihood of incarceration, jail length, and prison length. In this study, 2 national data sets are merged. The juvenile sample includes 3,381 convicted offenders, and the adult sample is comprised of 6,529 convicted offenders. The final sample is 9,910 offenders across 36 U.S. counties. The key independent variable is juvenile status, and the dependent variables are incarceration, jail length, and prison length. Because of the multilevel nature of the data, hierarchical linear modeling is used across all models. Juveniles are punished less severely in the jail incarceration decision. However, when youth are actually sentenced to incarceration (either jail or prison), they are given longer confinement time than adults. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. "Coming Out" of Prison: An Exploratory Study of LGBT Elders in the Criminal Justice System.

    PubMed

    Maschi, Tina; Rees, Jo; Klein, Eileen

    2016-09-01

    This two-phase qualitative study explores the experiences of 10 formerly incarcerated LGBT elders' experiences prior to, during, and after release from prison. A core theme of self and the social mirror emerged from the data that represented LGBT elders ongoing coming-out process of unearthing their "true selves" despite managing multiple stigmatized identities or social locations, such as being LGBT, elderly, HIV positive, formerly incarcerated, and a racial/ethnic minority. These findings further our awareness of an overlooked population of LGBT who are older and involved in the criminal justice system. Recommendations that incorporate suggestions from formerly incarcerated LGBT elders for services and policy reform are presented.

  5. Neuroimaging studies of aggressive and violent behavior: current findings and implications for criminology and criminal justice.

    PubMed

    Bufkin, Jana L; Luttrell, Vickie R

    2005-04-01

    With the availability of new functional and structural neuroimaging techniques, researchers have begun to localize brain areas that may be dysfunctional in offenders who are aggressive and violent. Our review of 17 neuroimaging studies reveals that the areas associated with aggressive and/or violent behavioral histories, particularly impulsive acts, are located in the prefrontal cortex and the medial temporal regions. These findings are explained in the context of negative emotion regulation, and suggestions are provided concerning how such findings may affect future theoretical frameworks in criminology, crime prevention efforts, and the functioning of the criminal justice system.

  6. Military Veterans in the Criminal Justice System: Partner Violence and the Impact of Relationships With Fathers.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Bradley J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the health characteristics of military veterans identified through the Criminal Justice System (CJS) with partner violence and their relationships with their fathers. The 282 veterans involved in the CJS participated to complete a psycho-social assessment which included partner violence and ascertained their relationships with their fathers. The mean age of the men in the study was 44.9 years old. The majority were divorced, Caucasian, had a high school education, and served in the Army. This sample shows the benefit of integrating partner violence and relationships with fathers into the assessment process and highlights the need for more research.

  7. Post-traumatic stress disorder: ethical and legal relevance to the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Soltis, Kathryn; Acierno, Ron; Gros, Daniel F; Yoder, Matthew; Tuerk, Peter W

    2014-01-01

    Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder is a major public health concern in both civilian and military populations, across race, age, gender, and socio-economic status. While PTSD has been around for centuries by some name or another, its definition and description also continue to evolve. Within the last few years, the American Psychological Association has published the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, which includes some major changes in the diagnostic criteria for PTSD. Recent data on epidemiology, etiological theories, and empirically supported methods of treatment, as well as implications for legal processes and criminal justice system personnel, are discussed.

  8. "Coming Out" of Prison: An Exploratory Study of LGBT Elders in the Criminal Justice System.

    PubMed

    Maschi, Tina; Rees, Jo; Klein, Eileen

    2016-09-01

    This two-phase qualitative study explores the experiences of 10 formerly incarcerated LGBT elders' experiences prior to, during, and after release from prison. A core theme of self and the social mirror emerged from the data that represented LGBT elders ongoing coming-out process of unearthing their "true selves" despite managing multiple stigmatized identities or social locations, such as being LGBT, elderly, HIV positive, formerly incarcerated, and a racial/ethnic minority. These findings further our awareness of an overlooked population of LGBT who are older and involved in the criminal justice system. Recommendations that incorporate suggestions from formerly incarcerated LGBT elders for services and policy reform are presented. PMID:27232373

  9. The prevalence of youth with autism spectrum disorders in the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Cheely, Catherine A; Carpenter, Laura A; Letourneau, Elizabeth J; Nicholas, Joyce S; Charles, Jane; King, Lydia B

    2012-09-01

    Past surveys have reported high rates of youth with disabilities in the juvenile justice system, however, little research has examined the frequency with which youth with Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are in contact with law enforcement. Using records linkage with the Department of Juvenile Justice and the South Carolina Law Enforcement Division and the South Carolina Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Program (SC ADDM), this study compares the frequency, type, and outcome of criminal charges for youth with ASD and non-ASD youth. Youth with ASD had higher rates of crimes against persons and lower rates of crimes against property. Youth with ASD were more likely to be diverted into pre-trial interventions and less likely to be prosecuted than comparison youth. When compared to the overall SC ADDM sample, charged youth were less likely to have comorbid intellectual disability.

  10. Practice informs the next generation of behavioral health and criminal justice interventions.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Nancy; Frueh, B Christopher; Huening, Jessica; Shi, Jing; Epperson, Matthew W; Morgan, Robert; Fisher, William

    2013-01-01

    Specialized interventions, such as police and jail diversion, mental health courts, specialized probation, forensic assertive community treatment, designed to engage justice-involved persons with serious mental illnesses, have expanded over the past two decades. Some of these "first generation" interventions have demonstrated efficacy and several have earned recognition as evidence-based practices. Yet, overall, they have not appreciably reduced the prevalence of persons with serious mental illnesses involved in the criminal justice system. To understand how to make the next generation of interventions more effective, a survey of a national sample of community-based programs serving these clients was conducted. Surveys were completed on-line by direct service staff affiliated with 85 programs and collected data on the characteristics and needs of the client base; characteristics and challenges associated with difficult-to-engage clients; service needs and obstacles; and recommendations for improving program effectiveness. A sample of the survey participants (19 programs from 18 states) attended a day-long workshop to discuss the survey findings and ways to improve treatment adherence and client services. Respondents reported that their clients have a constellation of problems with different origins, etiologies, and symptoms, often crossing over the boundaries of mental illness, addictions, and antisocial pathologies. According to the practitioners working with justice-involved clients with mental illnesses, responding effectively requires knowledge of many different problems, expertise to respond to them, and an understanding of how these problems interact when they co-occur. The poly-problems of these clients suggest the need for an integrated and comprehensive approach, which is challenged by the fragmented and diverse ideologies of the behavioral health, criminal justice, and social service systems.

  11. The influence of anogenital injury on women's willingness to engage with the criminal justice process after rape.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Bonnie Sue; Kaplan, Alyssa; Budescu, Mia; Fargo, Jamison; Tiller, Deborah; Everett, Janine; Sommers, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Medical-legal-social science research has documented that nongenital and/or anogenital injuries play a significant role throughout the criminal justice system from victims reporting to judges determining the length of a sentence. What remains an open question is whether the documentation of anogenital injury influences women's willingness to engage in the criminal justice system. A sample of women age 21 years and older residing in an urban area were asked about willingness to report to police, file charges, and work with the courts to prosecute after rape. Questions were framed with a qualifying statement about the forensic examination being able to detect injury related to forced sexual intercourse. Results show that women had a high willingness to act if the examination could detect anogenital injury and women with and without a history of forced sexual intercourse had significant differences in their responses to these questions. Implications for health care, criminal justice system, and future research are discussed. PMID:24547675

  12. The influence of anogenital injury on women's willingness to engage with the criminal justice process after rape.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Bonnie Sue; Kaplan, Alyssa; Budescu, Mia; Fargo, Jamison; Tiller, Deborah; Everett, Janine; Sommers, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Medical-legal-social science research has documented that nongenital and/or anogenital injuries play a significant role throughout the criminal justice system from victims reporting to judges determining the length of a sentence. What remains an open question is whether the documentation of anogenital injury influences women's willingness to engage in the criminal justice system. A sample of women age 21 years and older residing in an urban area were asked about willingness to report to police, file charges, and work with the courts to prosecute after rape. Questions were framed with a qualifying statement about the forensic examination being able to detect injury related to forced sexual intercourse. Results show that women had a high willingness to act if the examination could detect anogenital injury and women with and without a history of forced sexual intercourse had significant differences in their responses to these questions. Implications for health care, criminal justice system, and future research are discussed.

  13. Theories on Criminality and Mental Retardation Project CAMIO, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskins, Jimmy R.; Friel, Charles M.

    This historical review of theories on criminality and mental retardation is part of Project CAMIO (Correctional Administration and the Mentally Incompetent Offender), a Texas study to determine the incidence of criminal incarceration of the mentally retarded (MR) and to identify laws, procedures, and practices which affect the prosecution and…

  14. Justice and the human genome project

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, T.F.; Lappe, M.A.

    1995-04-01

    This book is a collection of nine essays originally presented at a conference entitled {open_quotes}Justice and the Human Genome{close_quotes} held in Chicago in late 1991. The goal of the articles in this collection is to explore questions of justice raised by developments in genomic research and by applications of genetic knowledge and technology. The Human Genome Project (HGP) is used as a starting point for exploring these questions, but, as Marc Lappe recognizes, the database generated by HGP research will have implications far beyond the medical applications frequently used to justify this research effort. Thus, the book`s contributors consider questions of justice in relation to screening and testing for various predispositions, conditions, and diseases and gene therapy but also examine testing for other characteristics, forensic uses of genetic information, issues associated with DNA banks, and (hypothetical) genetic enhancement possibilities.

  15. Justice and the Human Genome Project

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, T.F.; Lappe, M.

    1992-01-01

    Most of the essays gathered in this volume were first presented at a conference, Justice and the Human Genome, in Chicago in early November, 1991. The goal of the, conference was to consider questions of justice as they are and will be raised by the Human Genome Project. To achieve its goal of identifying and elucidating the challenges of justice inherent in genomic research and its social applications the conference drew together in one forum members from academia, medicine, and industry with interests divergent as rate-setting for insurance, the care of newborns, and the history of ethics. The essays in this volume address a number of theoretical and practical concerns relative to the meaning of genomic research.

  16. Justice and the Human Genome Project

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, T.F.; Lappe, M.

    1992-12-31

    Most of the essays gathered in this volume were first presented at a conference, Justice and the Human Genome, in Chicago in early November, 1991. The goal of the, conference was to consider questions of justice as they are and will be raised by the Human Genome Project. To achieve its goal of identifying and elucidating the challenges of justice inherent in genomic research and its social applications the conference drew together in one forum members from academia, medicine, and industry with interests divergent as rate-setting for insurance, the care of newborns, and the history of ethics. The essays in this volume address a number of theoretical and practical concerns relative to the meaning of genomic research.

  17. Information and Communication Technology to Link Criminal Justice Reentrants to HIV Care in the Community.

    PubMed

    Kurth, Ann; Kuo, Irene; Peterson, James; Azikiwe, Nkiru; Bazerman, Lauri; Cates, Alice; Beckwith, Curt G

    2013-01-01

    The United States has the world's highest prison population, and an estimated one in seven HIV-positive persons in the USA passes through a correctional facility annually. Given this, it is critical to develop innovative and effective approaches to support HIV treatment and retention in care among HIV-positive individuals involved in the criminal justice (CJ) system. Information and communication technologies (ICTs), including mobile health (mHealth) interventions, may offer one component of a successful strategy for linkage/retention in care. We describe CARE+ Corrections, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) study now underway in Washington, that will evaluate the combined effect of computerized motivational interview counseling and postrelease short message service (SMS) text message reminders to increase antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and linkage and retention in care among HIV-infected persons involved in the criminal justice system. In this report, we describe the development of this ICT/mHealth intervention, outline the study procedures used to evaluate this intervention, and summarize the implications for the mHealth knowledge base. PMID:23984054

  18. Case studies from three states: breaking down silos between health care and criminal justice.

    PubMed

    Bechelli, Matthew J; Caudy, Michael; Gardner, Tracie M; Huber, Alice; Mancuso, David; Samuels, Paul; Shah, Tanya; Venters, Homer D

    2014-03-01

    The jail-involved population-people with a history of arrest in the previous year-has high rates of illness, which leads to high costs for society. A significant percentage of jail-involved people are estimated to become newly eligible for coverage through the Affordable Care Act's expansion of Medicaid, including coverage of substance abuse treatment and mental health care. In this article we explore the need to break down the current policy silos between health care and criminal justice, to benefit both sectors and reduce unnecessary costs resulting from lack of coordination. To draw attention to the hidden costs of the current system, we review three case studies, from Washington State, Los Angeles County in California, and New York City. Each case study addresses different aspects of care needed by or provided to the jail-involved population, including mental health and substance abuse, emergency care, and coordination of care transitions. Ultimately, bending the cost curve for health care and criminal justice will require greater integration of the two systems. PMID:24590948

  19. Information and Communication Technology to Link Criminal Justice Reentrants to HIV Care in the Community

    PubMed Central

    Kurth, Ann; Kuo, Irene; Bazerman, Lauri; Beckwith, Curt G.

    2013-01-01

    The United States has the world's highest prison population, and an estimated one in seven HIV-positive persons in the USA passes through a correctional facility annually. Given this, it is critical to develop innovative and effective approaches to support HIV treatment and retention in care among HIV-positive individuals involved in the criminal justice (CJ) system. Information and communication technologies (ICTs), including mobile health (mHealth) interventions, may offer one component of a successful strategy for linkage/retention in care. We describe CARE+ Corrections, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) study now underway in Washington, that will evaluate the combined effect of computerized motivational interview counseling and postrelease short message service (SMS) text message reminders to increase antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and linkage and retention in care among HIV-infected persons involved in the criminal justice system. In this report, we describe the development of this ICT/mHealth intervention, outline the study procedures used to evaluate this intervention, and summarize the implications for the mHealth knowledge base. PMID:23984054

  20. Integrating the criminal justice system into mental health service delivery: the worcester diversion experience.

    PubMed

    Grudzinskas, Albert J; Clayfield, Jonathan C; Roy-Bujnowski, Kristen; Fisher, William H; Richardson, Maurice H

    2005-01-01

    The substantial number of persons with mental illness encountered in many sectors of the criminal justice system has spurred actors from various agencies within that system to take actions aimed at reducing the growth of this population. These actions have included the development of specialty police units, jail diversion programs, and other mechanisms for channeling persons with mental illness out of the criminal justice system and into mental health treatment. The courts, too, have become involved in this effort with the recent development of the "mental health court," the latest of the "specialty" or "problem solving courts." These courts have not been without their critics, however, nor are they the only feasible approach to court-based diversion. This paper identifies and explores a range of options for structuring the relationship between criminal courts and local mental health systems. Beginning with a discussion of the rationale motivating the development of mental health courts, two alternatives to this specialty court model are discussed. One involves judges dealing with defendants having mental illness and substance abuse on a case-by-case basis. The other takes advantages of linkages that may already exist between most courts and the mental health providers who conduct their forensic assessments, expanding the role of these providers to serve as boundary spanners between courts and the components of local mental health systems. Regardless of the model adopted, however, appropriate linkages must exist between the courts and relevant providers. A case study is provided that demonstrates how the status of a locale's linkages can be evaluated and how the information derived from such evaluation can be used to improve the linkages between police, courts, and health and human services agencies.

  1. Delphi in Criminal Justice Policy: A Case Study on Judgmental Forecasting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loyens, Kim; Maesschalck, Jeroen; Bouckaert, Geert

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an in-depth case study analysis of a pilot project organized by the section "Strategic Analysis" of the Belgian Federal Police. Using the Delphi method, which is a judgmental forecasting technique, a panel of experts was questioned about future developments of crime, based on their expertise in criminal or social trends. The…

  2. The identification and management of ADHD offenders within the criminal justice system: a consensus statement from the UK Adult ADHD Network and criminal justice agencies.

    PubMed

    Young, Susan J; Adamou, Marios; Bolea, Blanca; Gudjonsson, Gisli; Müller, Ulrich; Pitts, Mark; Thome, Johannes; Asherson, Philip

    2011-01-01

    The UK Adult ADHD Network (UKAAN) was founded by a group of mental health specialists who have experience delivering clinical services for adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) within the National Health Service (NHS). UKAAN aims to support mental health professionals in the development of services for adults with ADHD by the promotion of assessment and treatment protocols. One method of achieving these aims has been to sponsor conferences and workshops on adult ADHD.This consensus statement is the result of a Forensic Meeting held in November 2009, attended by senior representatives of the Department of Health (DoH), Forensic Mental Health, Prison, Probation, Courts and Metropolitan Police services. The objectives of the meeting were to discuss ways of raising awareness about adult ADHD, and its recognition, assessment, treatment and management within these respective services. Whilst the document draws on the UK experience, with some adaptations it can be used as a template for similar local actions in other countries. It was concluded that bringing together experts in adult ADHD and the Criminal Justice System (CJS) will be vital to raising awareness of the needs of ADHD offenders at every stage of the offender pathway. Joint working and commissioning within the CJS is needed to improve awareness and understanding of ADHD offenders to ensure that individuals are directed to appropriate care and rehabilitation. General Practitioners (GPs), whilst ideally placed for early intervention, should not be relied upon to provide this service as vulnerable offenders often have difficulty accessing primary care services. Moreover once this hurdle has been overcome and ADHD in offenders has been identified, a second challenge will be to provide treatment and ensure continuity of care. Future research must focus on proof of principle studies to demonstrate that identification and treatment confers health gain, safeguards individual's rights, improves

  3. 42 CFR 2.35 - Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients. 2.35 Section 2.35 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT...

  4. Limitations and Potential in Current Research on Services for People with Mental Illness in the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draine, Jeffrey; Wilson, Amy Blank; Pogorzelski, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    Intervention at the intersection of the mental health and criminal justice systems has followed a small set of service models with limited success and a narrow impact on the quality of treatment available to people with mental illness who experience arrest, court processing, incarceration, and release. In reviewing research on police, court, and…

  5. Young People with Learning Disabilities Who Sexually Harm Others: The Role of Criminal Justice within a Multi-Agency Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fyson, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines the key findings from a recent study of statutory service responses to young people with learning disabilities who show sexually inappropriate or abusive behaviours, with a particular focus on the involvement of criminal justice agencies. The study found that although inappropriate sexual behaviours were commonplace in special…

  6. Community College Students with Criminal Justice Histories and Human Services Education: Glass Ceiling, Brick Wall, or a Pathway to Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Lisa Hale

    2015-01-01

    In spite of open access to community college education, specifically human service associate degree programs, students with criminal justice histories do not necessarily have an unobstructed pathway to obtaining the degree and admission to the baccalaureate programs in human services and social work that are almost always selective. The first…

  7. Comparison of Race-Gender, Urban-Suburban Criminal Justice College Students Satisfaction of the Police Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verga, Christopher; Murillo, Leo; Toulon, Errol D.; Morote, Elsa-Sofia; Perry, S. Marshall

    2016-01-01

    This quantitative study explored criminal justice college students' satisfaction with the police. 176 college students in Suffolk County, Long Island and New York City participated in a survey. The study examined the extent to which satisfaction with the local police department differs by location (urban and suburban), gender (female and male),…

  8. 42 CFR 2.35 - Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients. 2.35 Section 2.35 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT...

  9. 42 CFR 2.35 - Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients. 2.35 Section 2.35 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT...

  10. 42 CFR 2.35 - Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients. 2.35 Section 2.35 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT...

  11. Still Excluded? An Update on the Status of African American Scholars in the Discipline of Criminology and Criminal Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbidon, Shaun L.; Greene, Helen Taylor; Wilder, Kideste

    2004-01-01

    This article reexamines the exclusion of African Americans in the discipline of criminology and criminal justice. Young and Sulton raised this issue in their important article that focused on the role of African American scholars in various aspects of the field. The article revisits several areas investigated in the original article, including the…

  12. Victim Satisfaction With the Criminal Justice System and Emotional Recovery: A Systematic and Critical Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Kunst, Maarten; Popelier, Lieke; Varekamp, Ellen

    2015-07-01

    The current study systematically and critically reviewed the empirical literature to evaluate the association between satisfaction with the criminal justice system and adult crime victims' emotional recovery. Despite the widely accepted notion that involvement in the criminal justice system may impact recovery from crime victimization--either beneficially or maliciously--a systematic review of empirical studies that addresses this topic has never been conducted. Electronic literature databases (ISI Web of Knowledge [including Web of Science and MEDLINE], EBSCO host [including PsychInfo, CINAHL, Criminal Justice Abstracts, ERIC, PsychARTICLES, and Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection], and ProQuest [including PILOTS, Social Services Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts]) were searched to identify relevant quantitative studies. The Cambridge Quality Checklists were used to evaluate the quality of selected studies. These checklists can be used to assess the quality of risk and protective factors in criminal justice research. In this study they were used to explore the impact of victim satisfaction on crime victims' emotional and cognitive states post-victimization. The review process revealed mixed results, with some studies suggesting a healing impact of victim satisfaction and others not. More consistent were findings regarding the existence of an association between victim satisfaction and (alterations in) positive cognitions. However, since the majority of studies suffered from severe methodological shortcomings, definite conclusions cannot be drawn yet.

  13. Substance-Abusing Parents in the Criminal Justice System: Does Substance Abuse Treatment Improve Their Children's Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Susan D.; Gleeson, James P.; Waites-Garrett, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    The expansion of the criminal justice system over the last several decades helped to focus attention on children of incarcerated parents, many of whom have parents with substance abuse problems. Since the 1990's, a national grassroots campaign has been underway to make substance abuse treatment an alternative to incarceration for parents who…

  14. Unfit for Human Consumption: The Problem of Flawed Writing in Criminal Justice and What to Do about It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Don C.

    1995-01-01

    Provides an account of the processes that are involved in the production of "Crime and Delinquency." Asserts that flawed writing in criminology and criminal justice appears to be a systemic rather than an individual one. Suggests to authors or prospective authors ways in which writing can be improved. (LKS)

  15. An Exploration of How Women Probation and Parole Officers Learn to Negotiate Power and Interest in the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varner, Barbara Eileen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this narrative inquiry was to explore the ways women probation and parole officers learn to negotiate power and interests in the criminal justice system. The women are considered officers of the courts and work within the constraints of the court system. The framework that informed this study was a critical feminist lens on the…

  16. The Effectiveness of Virtual Learning Tools for Millennial Generation Students in a Community College Criminal Justice Degree Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    An analysis of data from the Community College Survey of Student Engagement and multiyear analysis of pretest/posttest scores in introductory criminal justice courses revealed there was a systemic decline in student engagement and achievement. Because of this analysis, a commercial virtual learning tool (CJI) that purported great success in…

  17. Legislative responses to wrongful conviction: Do partisan principals and advocacy efforts influence state-level criminal justice policy?

    PubMed

    Kent, Stephanie L; Carmichael, Jason T

    2015-07-01

    The number of discovered wrongful criminal convictions (and resulting exonerations) has increased over the past decade. These cases erode public confidence in the criminal justice system and trust in the rule of law. Many states have adopted laws that aim to reduce system errors but no study has examined why some states appear more willing to provide due process protections against wrongful convictions than others. Findings from regression estimates suggest that states with a Republican controlled legislature or more Republican voters are less likely to pass these laws while the presence of advocacy organizations that are part of the 'innocence movement' make legislative change more likely. We thus identify important differences in the political and social context between U.S. states that influence the adoption of criminal justice policies.

  18. Attitudes toward hiring applicants with mental illness and criminal justice involvement: the impact of education and experience.

    PubMed

    Batastini, Ashley B; Bolanos, Angelea D; Morgan, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with mental health diagnoses, as well as those involved in the criminal justice system, experience a number of barriers in the recovery and reintegration progress, including access to stable, prosocial employment opportunities. Employment for these populations is important for establishing financial security, reducing unstructured leisure time, increasing self-worth, and improving interpersonal skills. However, research has demonstrated that individuals with psychiatric and/or criminal backgrounds may experience stigmatizing attitudes from employers that impede their ability to find adequate work. This study aimed to evaluate stigmatizing beliefs toward hypothetical applicants who indicated a mental health history, a criminal history, or both, as well as the effectiveness of psychoeducation in reducing stigma. Participants consisted of 465 individuals recruited from a large university who completed a series of online questions about a given applicant. Results of this study varied somewhat across measures of employability, but were largely consistent with extant research suggesting that mental illness and criminal justice involvement serve as deterrents when making hiring decisions. Overall, psychoeducation appeared to reduce stigma for hiring decisions when the applicant presented with a criminal history. Unfortunately, similar findings were not revealed when applicants presented with a psychiatric or a psychiatric and criminal history. Implications and limitations of these findings are presented, along with suggestions for future research.

  19. Attitudes toward hiring applicants with mental illness and criminal justice involvement: the impact of education and experience.

    PubMed

    Batastini, Ashley B; Bolanos, Angelea D; Morgan, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with mental health diagnoses, as well as those involved in the criminal justice system, experience a number of barriers in the recovery and reintegration progress, including access to stable, prosocial employment opportunities. Employment for these populations is important for establishing financial security, reducing unstructured leisure time, increasing self-worth, and improving interpersonal skills. However, research has demonstrated that individuals with psychiatric and/or criminal backgrounds may experience stigmatizing attitudes from employers that impede their ability to find adequate work. This study aimed to evaluate stigmatizing beliefs toward hypothetical applicants who indicated a mental health history, a criminal history, or both, as well as the effectiveness of psychoeducation in reducing stigma. Participants consisted of 465 individuals recruited from a large university who completed a series of online questions about a given applicant. Results of this study varied somewhat across measures of employability, but were largely consistent with extant research suggesting that mental illness and criminal justice involvement serve as deterrents when making hiring decisions. Overall, psychoeducation appeared to reduce stigma for hiring decisions when the applicant presented with a criminal history. Unfortunately, similar findings were not revealed when applicants presented with a psychiatric or a psychiatric and criminal history. Implications and limitations of these findings are presented, along with suggestions for future research. PMID:24629567

  20. Explaining homeless youths' criminal justice interactions: childhood trauma or surviving life on the streets?

    PubMed

    Yoder, Jamie Rae; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J; Ferguson, Kristin M; Haffejee, Badiah

    2014-02-01

    Homeless youth are at increased risk for involvement in the criminal justice system. This study investigated childhood trauma as a risk factor for arrest or jail among a sample of youth seeking services at drop in, shelter, and transitional housing settings, while controlling for more established risk factors including: substance use, peer deviance, and engagement in survival behaviors. Standardized and researcher developed measures collected quantitative data through face-to-face interviews with youth (N = 202). Two sequential logic regression models identified significant predictors of arrest and jail, with a particular interest in the effects of childhood maltreatment. Youth with a history of physical abuse were nearly twice as likely to be arrested and to be jailed compared to non-abused youth, controlling for the significant influence of drug use and survival behaviors. These findings suggest the need for trauma screening and trauma-informed services for homeless youth at risk of illegal behavior. PMID:24337524

  1. Explaining homeless youths' criminal justice interactions: childhood trauma or surviving life on the streets?

    PubMed

    Yoder, Jamie Rae; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J; Ferguson, Kristin M; Haffejee, Badiah

    2014-02-01

    Homeless youth are at increased risk for involvement in the criminal justice system. This study investigated childhood trauma as a risk factor for arrest or jail among a sample of youth seeking services at drop in, shelter, and transitional housing settings, while controlling for more established risk factors including: substance use, peer deviance, and engagement in survival behaviors. Standardized and researcher developed measures collected quantitative data through face-to-face interviews with youth (N = 202). Two sequential logic regression models identified significant predictors of arrest and jail, with a particular interest in the effects of childhood maltreatment. Youth with a history of physical abuse were nearly twice as likely to be arrested and to be jailed compared to non-abused youth, controlling for the significant influence of drug use and survival behaviors. These findings suggest the need for trauma screening and trauma-informed services for homeless youth at risk of illegal behavior.

  2. Costs of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder in the Canadian Criminal Justice System.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Nguyen Xuan; Jonsson, Egon

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed literature to estimate the costs of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) in the Canadian Criminal Justice System (CJS), and to update the total costs of FASD in Canada. The results suggest FASD is costlier than previous estimates. The costs of FASD associated with the CJS are estimated at $3.9 billion a year, with $1.2 billion for police, $0.4 billion for court, $0.5 billion for correctional services, $1.6 billion for victims, and $0.2 billion for third-party. The updated total costs of FASD in Canada are $9.7 billion a year, of which CJS accounts for 40%, healthcare 21%, education 17%, social services 13%, and others 9%.

  3. One Country, Two Cultures: Are Hong Kong Mock Jurors "Mainlandized" by the Predominant Chinese Criminal Justice Concept of Confession?

    PubMed

    Hui, Cora Y T; Lo, T Wing

    2015-09-01

    Over-reliance on confession has had a long history in the Chinese criminal justice system. Recent high-profile wrongful conviction cases have raised public awareness of the coercive and torturous methods used to extract confessions. Despite the return of Hong Kong to Chinese sovereignty, Hong Kong remains a common law jurisdiction and the most serious criminal offences are tried by a jury. The present study empirically examines the relative impact of DNA evidence, confession, eyewitness testimony, and victim testimony in a Hong Kong-Chinese mock juror sample. The results show that the participants placed greater value on DNA evidence than on confession, and placed the lowest value on testimonial evidence. It is argued that the situation of "one country, two cultures" remains strong: Whereas participants are still influenced by the Chinese criminal justice concept of confession, their judgment is still predominately influenced by the scientific evidence as commonly practiced in the West. Thus, no solid evidence has been found to confirm the emergence of mainlandization in Hong Kong's criminal justice system. PMID:24670371

  4. One Country, Two Cultures: Are Hong Kong Mock Jurors "Mainlandized" by the Predominant Chinese Criminal Justice Concept of Confession?

    PubMed

    Hui, Cora Y T; Lo, T Wing

    2015-09-01

    Over-reliance on confession has had a long history in the Chinese criminal justice system. Recent high-profile wrongful conviction cases have raised public awareness of the coercive and torturous methods used to extract confessions. Despite the return of Hong Kong to Chinese sovereignty, Hong Kong remains a common law jurisdiction and the most serious criminal offences are tried by a jury. The present study empirically examines the relative impact of DNA evidence, confession, eyewitness testimony, and victim testimony in a Hong Kong-Chinese mock juror sample. The results show that the participants placed greater value on DNA evidence than on confession, and placed the lowest value on testimonial evidence. It is argued that the situation of "one country, two cultures" remains strong: Whereas participants are still influenced by the Chinese criminal justice concept of confession, their judgment is still predominately influenced by the scientific evidence as commonly practiced in the West. Thus, no solid evidence has been found to confirm the emergence of mainlandization in Hong Kong's criminal justice system.

  5. Influence of Criminal Justice Involvement and Psychiatric Diagnoses on Treatment Costs Among Adults With Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Allison G; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Lin, Hsiuju; Easter, Michele M; Frisman, Linda K; Swartz, Marvin S

    2015-09-01

    The impact of criminal justice involvement and clinical characteristics on the cost of public treatment services for adults with serious mental illnesses is unknown. The authors examined differential effects of justice involvement on behavioral health treatment costs by primary psychiatric diagnosis (schizophrenia or bipolar disorder) and also by substance use diagnosis among 25,133 adult clients of Connecticut's public behavioral health system in fiscal years 2006 and 2007. Justice-involved adults with schizophrenia had the highest costs, strongly driven by forensic hospitalizations. Addressing the cross-system burdens of forensic hospitalizations may be a sensible starting point in the effort to reduce costs in both the public behavioral health and justice systems. PMID:25975893

  6. Influence of Criminal Justice Involvement and Psychiatric Diagnoses on Treatment Costs Among Adults With Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Allison G; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Lin, Hsiuju; Easter, Michele M; Frisman, Linda K; Swartz, Marvin S

    2015-09-01

    The impact of criminal justice involvement and clinical characteristics on the cost of public treatment services for adults with serious mental illnesses is unknown. The authors examined differential effects of justice involvement on behavioral health treatment costs by primary psychiatric diagnosis (schizophrenia or bipolar disorder) and also by substance use diagnosis among 25,133 adult clients of Connecticut's public behavioral health system in fiscal years 2006 and 2007. Justice-involved adults with schizophrenia had the highest costs, strongly driven by forensic hospitalizations. Addressing the cross-system burdens of forensic hospitalizations may be a sensible starting point in the effort to reduce costs in both the public behavioral health and justice systems.

  7. Characteristics of facilities with specialized programming for drinking drivers and for other criminal justice involved clients: analysis of a national database

    PubMed Central

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott

    2007-01-01

    Background Offering specialized programming at substance abuse treatment facilities can help diversify clientele and funding sources, potentially enhancing the facilities' ability to survive and/or expand. Past research has shown that facilities only offering specialized programming for driving under the influence/driving while intoxicated offenders (DUI) are predominately private-for-profit owned. As criminal justice populations, both DUI and other criminal justice offenders, comprise a large proportion of those in community-based substance abuse treatment knowing facilities' characteristics would be important for administrators and policymakers to consider when updating programming, training staff or expanding capacity to ensure efficient use of scarce resources. However, while such characteristics are known for DUI programs, they are not known for facilities offering specialized programming for other criminal justice offenders. Methods Analysis of the 2004 US National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities. Results Almost half the facilities (48.2%) offered either DUI or other criminal justice specialized programming. These facilities were divided between those offering DUI specialized programming (17.7%), other criminal justice specialized programming (16.6%) and both types of programming (13.9%). Certain characteristics were independently associated with offering DUI specialized programming (private ownership, rural location, for profit status) or other criminal justice specialized programming (receiving public funds, urban location, region of country). Conclusion Offering specialized programming for DUI or other criminal justice offenders was common and associated with distinct characteristics. These observed associations may reflect the positioning of the facility to increase visibility, or diversify clientele and possibly funding streams or the decision of policymakers. As the criminal justice populations show no sign of decreasing and resources are

  8. Incarceration and sexual risk: examining the relationship between men's involvement in the criminal justice system and risky sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Knittel, Andrea K; Snow, Rachel C; Griffith, Derek M; Morenoff, Jeffrey

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we used data from Add Health Waves II and III to compare men who had been incarcerated to those who had not, and examined whether incarceration was associated with increased numbers of sexual partners and increased odds of concurrent partnerships. We used multivariate regression and propensity-score matching to compare sexual behavior of Wave III male respondents who had been incarcerated with those who had not, and compared sexual behavior at Wave II to identify differences in sexual behavior prior to incarceration. Incarceration was associated with an increased rate of lifetime sexual partnership, but this was attenuated by substance use. Criminal justice involvement was associated with increased odds of having partners who report concurrent partnerships, but no further increase was seen with incarceration. There were no significant sexual behavior differences prior to incarceration. These results suggest that the criminal justice system and substance use may interact to shape sexual behavior.

  9. Considerations in HIV Prevention for Women Affected by the Criminal Justice System

    PubMed Central

    Comfort, Megan

    2011-01-01

    Within the national dialogue of HIV prevention strategies, relatively little consideration is given to the millions of women and girls affected by the criminal justice system either through their own incarceration or that of their partners. Yet statistics indicate that these women and girls are disproportionately infected or at risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections and much of this risk is directly related to the dynamics and circumstances that led to their incarceration or relationships with incarcerated men. As we look for the link between public health and correctional health within our National HIV/AIDS Strategy, it is imperative that the risks, obstacles, and opportunities facing women and girls affected by incarceration are brought into the discussion. Gender responsive HIV prevention policies and practices must be developed to address the unique risks and opportunities for these women and girls. This paper presents data on HIV risk and other health issues specific to this community of women and girls, discusses key factors for consideration when developing gender-responsive HIV strategies for these communities, and makes recommendations for inclusion in the National HIV/AIDS Strategy and other state and local HIV prevention efforts. PMID:21782463

  10. To Blame or to Forgive? Reconciling Punishment and Forgiveness in Criminal Justice

    PubMed Central

    Lacey, Nicola; Pickard, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    What do you do when faced with wrongdoing—do you blame or do you forgive? Especially when confronted with offences that lie on the more severe end of the spectrum and cause terrible psychological or physical trauma or death, nothing can feel more natural than blame. Indeed, in the UK and the USA, increasingly vehement and righteous public expressions of blame and calls for vengeance have become commonplace; correspondingly, contemporary penal philosophy has witnessed a resurgence of the retributive tradition, in the modern form usually known as the ‘justice’ model. On the other hand, people can and routinely do forgive others, even in cases of severe crime. Evolutionary psychologists argue that both vengeance and forgiveness are universal human adaptations that have evolved as alternative responses to exploitation, and, crucially, strategies for reducing risk of re-offending. We are naturally endowed with both capacities: to blame and retaliate, or to forgive and seek to repair relations. Which should we choose? Drawing on evolutionary psychology, we offer an account of forgiveness and argue that the choice to blame, and not to forgive, is inconsistent with the political values of a broadly liberal society and can be instrumentally counter-productive to reducing the risk of future re-offending. We then sketch the shape of penal philosophy and criminal justice policy and practice with forgiveness in place as a guiding ideal. PMID:26937059

  11. EVIDENCE-BASED TREATMENT PRACTICES FOR DRUG-INVOLVED ADULTS IN THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM

    PubMed Central

    Friedmann, Peter D.; Taxman, Faye S.; Henderson, Craig E.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the extent and organizational correlates of evidence-based practices (EBPs) in correctional facilities and community-based substance abuse treatment programs that manage drug-involved adult offenders. METHODS Correctional administrators and treatment program directors affiliated with a national sample of 384 criminal justice and community-based programs providing substance abuse treatment to adult offenders in the United States were surveyed in 2004. Correctional administrators reported the availability of up to 13 specified EBPs and treatment directors up to 15. The sum total of EBPs indicates their extent. Linear models regress the extent of EBPs on variables measuring structure and leadership, culture and climate, administrator attitudes and network connectedness of the organization. RESULTS Most programs offer fewer than 60% of the specified EBPs to drug-involved offenders. In multiple regression models, offender treatment programs that provided more EBPs were community-based, accredited, and network-connected; with a performance-oriented, non-punitive culture, more training resources; and leadership with a background in human services, a high regard for the value of substance abuse treatment and an understanding of EBPs. CONCLUSIONS The use of EBPs among facility- and community-based programs that serve drug-involved adult offenders has room for improvement. Initiatives to disseminate EBPs might target these institutional and environmental domains, but further research is needed to determine whether such organization interventions can promote the uptake of EBPs. PMID:17383551

  12. Civilian PTSD symptoms and risk for involvement in the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Donley, Sachiko; Habib, Leah; Jovanovic, Tanja; Kamkwalala, Asante; Evces, Mark; Egan, Glenn; Bradley, Bekh; Ressler, Kerry J

    2012-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has received considerable attention with regard to the ongoing wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. In studies of veterans, behavioral sequelae of PTSD can include hostile and violent behavior. Rates of PTSD found in impoverished, high-risk urban populations within U.S. inner cities are as high as in returning veterans. The objective of this study was to determine whether civilian PTSD is associated with increased risk of incarceration and charges related to violence in a low-income, urban population. Participants (n = 4,113) recruited from Grady Memorial Hospital in Atlanta, Georgia, completed self-report measures assessing history of trauma, PTSD symptoms, and incarceration. Both trauma exposure and civilian PTSD remained strongly associated with increased risk of involvement in the criminal justice system and charges of a violent offense, even after adjustment for sex, age, race, education, employment, income, and substance abuse in a regression model. Trauma and PTSD have important implications for public safety and recidivism.

  13. A systematic review of people with autism spectrum disorder and the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    King, Claire; Murphy, Glynis H

    2014-11-01

    This paper provides a systemic review of the available literature on people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the criminal justice system (CJS). The review considers two main types of study: those that examined the prevalence of people with ASD in the CJS and those that examined the prevalence of offending in populations with ASD. In addition, types of offences in people with ASD, co-morbid psychiatric diagnoses, and characteristics of people with ASD who commit offences (including predisposing factors) are considered. A combination of search terms was used in a variety of databases in order to find all of the available literature on this topic, and research studies were included based on specified inclusion and exclusion criteria. It was found that whilst there is an emerging literature base on this topic, there are a wide variety of methodologies used, making direct comparison difficult. Nevertheless it can be concluded so far that people with ASD do not seem to be disproportionately over-represented in the CJS, though they commit a range of crimes and seem to have a number of predisposing features. There is poor evidence of the presence of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses (except in mental health settings) amongst offenders with ASD, and little evidence of the oft-asserted over-representation of certain kinds of crimes. It is recommended that further research of good quality is required in this area, rather than studies that examine populations that are not representative of all those with ASD.

  14. Technology use in linking criminal justice reentrants to HIV care in the community: a qualitative formative research study.

    PubMed

    Peterson, James; Cota, Michelle; Gray, Holly; Bazerman, Lauri; Kuo, Irene; Kurth, Ann; Beckwith, Curt

    2015-01-01

    Innovative interventions increasing linkage, adherence, and retention in care among HIV-infected persons in the criminal justice system are needed. The authors conducted a qualitative study to investigate technology-based tools to facilitate linkage to community-based care and viral suppression for HIV-infected jail detainees on antiretroviral medications being released to the community. The authors conducted 24 qualitative interview-12 in Rhode Island and 12 in Washington, DC-among recently incarcerated HIV-infected persons to elicit their perceptions on the use of technology tools to support linkage to HIV care among criminal justice populations. This article discusses participants' perceptions of the acceptability of technological tools such as (a) a computer-based counseling and (b) text messaging interventions. The participants reported positive experiences when previewing the technology-based tools to facilitate linkage to HIV care and adherence to HIV medications. Successful linkage to care has been shown to improve HIV-associated and non-HIV-associated health outcomes, as well as prevent criminal recidivism and facilitate reentrants' successful and meaningful transition. These findings can be used to inform the implementation of interventions aimed at promoting adherence to antiretroviral medications and linkage to care for HIV-infected persons being released from the correctional setting.

  15. Technology Use in Linking Criminal Justice Reentrants to HIV Care in the Community: A Qualitative Formative Research Study

    PubMed Central

    PETERSON, JAMES; COTA, MICHELLE; GRAY, HOLLY; BAZERMAN, LAURI; KUO, IRENE; KURTH, ANN; BECKWITH, CURT

    2014-01-01

    Innovative interventions increasing linkage, adherence and retention in care among HIV-infected persons in the criminal justice system are needed. The authors conducted a qualitative study to investigate technology-based tools to facilitate linkage to community-based care and viral suppression for HIV-infected jail detainees on antiretroviral medications being released to the community. Twenty-four qualitative interviews were conducted in Rhode Island (12) and Washington DC (12) among HIV infected persons recently incarcerated to elicit their perceptions on the use of technology tools to support linkage to HIV care among criminal justice populations. This article discusses participants’ perceptions of the acceptability of technological tools such as (a) a computer-based counseling and (b) text messaging interventions. The participants reported positive experiences when previewing the technology-based tools to facilitate linkage to HIV care and adherence to HIV medications. Successful linkage to care has been shown to improve HIV-associated and non-HIV-associated health outcomes, as well as prevent criminal recidivism and facilitate reentrants’ successful and meaningful transition. These findings can be utilized to inform the implementation of interventions aimed at promoting adherence to antiretroviral medications and linkage to care for HIV-infected persons being released from the correctional setting. PMID:25529057

  16. Exhaled breath for drugs of abuse testing - evaluation in criminal justice settings.

    PubMed

    Beck, Olof

    2014-01-01

    Exhaled breath is being developed as a possible specimen for drug testing based on the collection of aerosol particles originating from the lung fluid. The present study was aimed to evaluate the applicability of exhaled breath for drugs of abuse testing in criminal justice settings. Particles in exhaled breath were collected with a new device in parallel with routine urine testing in two Swedish prisons, comprising both genders. Urine screening was performed according to established routines either by dipstick or by immunochemical methods at the Forensic Chemistry Laboratory and confirmations were with mass spectrometry methods. A total of 247 parallel samples were studied. Analysis of exhaled breath samples was done with a sensitive mass spectrometric method and identifications were made according to forensic standards. In addition tested subjects and personnel were asked to fill in a questionnaire concerning their views about drug testing. In 212 cases both the urine and breath testing were negative, and in 22 cases both urine and breath were positive. Out of 6 cases where breath was negative and urine positive 4 concerned THC. Out of 7 cases where, breath was positive and urine negative 6 concerned amphetamine. Detected substances in breath comprised: amphetamine, methamphetamine, THC, methylphenidate, buprenorphine, 6-acetylmorphine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, diazepam and tramadol. Both the prison inmates and staff members reported breath testing to be preferable due to practical considerations. The results of this study documented that drug testing using exhaled breath provided as many positives as urine testing despite an expected shorter detection window, and that the breath sampling procedure was well accepted and provided practical benefits reported both by the prison inmates and testing personnel.

  17. Incarceration history relative to health, substance use, and violence in a sample of vulnerable South African women: implications for health services in criminal justice settings

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jennifer E; Carney, Tara; Kline, Tracy; Browne, Felicia A; Wechsberg, Wendee M

    2012-01-01

    International research has suggested that women in the criminal justice system carry a higher burden of many illnesses than women in the community, especially mental health disorders, substance use disorders, sexually transmitted infections, and a history of violent victimization. Knowledge of these health disparities is often used to advocate for relevant screening and treatment services for women passing through criminal justice custody within US and European settings. However, almost all criminal justice health research has taken place in high-income countries, with little or no research taking place in other countries, especially in South Africa. This baseline analysis compares the health, substance use, and violent victimization of women who have ever been incarcerated to those who have not, in a cross-sectional sample of 720 young, vulnerable, substance-using women in Cape Town, South Africa. Results of univariate tests indicated that women who had ever been incarcerated had worse health, mental health, and sexually transmitted infection indicators and were more likely to report use of substances and to have been victims of physical and sexual assault than women who had never been incarcerated. Passing through the criminal justice system appears to be a marker for a variety of current and/or future health service needs among vulnerable South African women, suggesting that screening, prevention, and treatment referral efforts at the time of intersection with the criminal justice system may reduce health burden for these women. PMID:24474876

  18. Replicating MISTERS: an epidemiological criminology framework analysis of a program for criminal justice-involved minority males in the community.

    PubMed

    Potter, Roberto Hugh; Akers, Timothy A; Bowman, Daniel Richard

    2013-01-01

    The Men in STD Training and Empowerment Research Study (MISTERS) program and epidemiological criminology began their development in Atlanta at about the same time. MISTERS focuses on men recently released from jail to reduce both HIV/STD and crime-related risk factors through a brief educational intervention. This article examines ways in which MISTERS and epidemiological criminology have been used to inform one another in the replication of the MISTERS program in Orange County, Florida. Data from 110 MISTERS participants during the first 10 months of operation are analyzed to examine the overlapping occurrence of health and criminal risk behaviors in the men's lives. This provides a test of core hypotheses from the epidemiological criminology framework. This article also examines application of the epidemiological criminology framework to develop interventions to address health and crime risk factors simultaneously in Criminal Justice-Involved populations in the community.

  19. Beyond the Criminal Arena: The Justice Studies Program at Winston-Salem State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Lynn K.; Mitchell, Alvin D.

    2006-01-01

    The justice studies program at Winston-Salem State University (WSSU) is designed to produce a new breed of justice practitioners whose understanding of justice and its administration is broadened to include the political, social, economic, and cultural conditions within which issues of crime and punishment are pursued and addressed. While it…

  20. Mortality, causes of death and risk factors for death among primary amphetamine users in the Swedish criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Ericsson, Emmy; Bradvik, Louise; Hakansson, Anders

    2014-02-01

    This study examined mortality and predictors of death in 1,396 primary amphetamine users (85% males) who were interviewed with the Addiction Severity Index in the Swedish criminal justice system during 2000-2006 and followed through 2008. Forty-nine clients deceased (standardized mortality ratio 4.1 [3.0-5.4]), at least 84% of deaths were violent or drug-related (12% suicides), and Cox regression analysis indicated that death was associated with frequent use of sedatives and less frequent use of amphetamine. No female deaths were observed; death and male gender were associated in binary analysis. Implications for diagnostics and treatment are discussed.

  1. A Review of Opportunities to Improve the Health of People Involved in the Criminal Justice System in the United States.

    PubMed

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Heller, Daliah

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, many constituencies have questioned the efficacy, cost, and unintended consequences of mass incarceration in the United States. Although substantial evidence now demonstrates that US incarceration policies have had unintended adverse health consequences, we know less about the strategies and policies that can prevent or reduce these problems for justice-involved individuals and how the criminal justice system (CJS) can contribute to the Healthy People 2020 national goal of eliminating inequities in health. This review examines strategies that have been used to improve the health of people at various stages of CJS involvement, including diversion from jail and prison stays into community settings, improvements to the social and physical environments within correctional facilities, provision of health and other services to inmates, assistance for people leaving correctional facilities to make the transition back to the community, and systems coordination and integration. PMID:26789388

  2. A Review of Opportunities to Improve the Health of People Involved in the Criminal Justice System in the United States.

    PubMed

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Heller, Daliah

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, many constituencies have questioned the efficacy, cost, and unintended consequences of mass incarceration in the United States. Although substantial evidence now demonstrates that US incarceration policies have had unintended adverse health consequences, we know less about the strategies and policies that can prevent or reduce these problems for justice-involved individuals and how the criminal justice system (CJS) can contribute to the Healthy People 2020 national goal of eliminating inequities in health. This review examines strategies that have been used to improve the health of people at various stages of CJS involvement, including diversion from jail and prison stays into community settings, improvements to the social and physical environments within correctional facilities, provision of health and other services to inmates, assistance for people leaving correctional facilities to make the transition back to the community, and systems coordination and integration.

  3. HIV Prevention for Adults With Criminal Justice Involvement: A Systematic Review of HIV Risk-Reduction Interventions in Incarceration and Community Settings

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Dora; Operario, Don

    2014-01-01

    We summarized and appraised evidence regarding HIV prevention interventions for adults with criminal justice involvement. We included randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials that evaluated an HIV prevention intervention, enrolled participants with histories of criminal justice involvement, and reported biological or behavioral outcomes. We used Cochrane methods to screen 32 271 citations from 16 databases and gray literature. We included 37 trials enrolling n = 12 629 participants. Interventions were 27 psychosocial, 7 opioid substitution therapy, and 3 HIV-testing programs. Eleven programs significantly reduced sexual risk taking, 4 reduced injection drug risks, and 4 increased testing. Numerous interventions may reduce HIV-related risks among adults with criminal justice involvement. Future research should consider process evaluations, programs involving partners or families, and interventions integrating biomedical, psychosocial, and structural approaches. PMID:25211725

  4. HIV prevention for adults with criminal justice involvement: a systematic review of HIV risk-reduction interventions in incarceration and community settings.

    PubMed

    Underhill, Kristen; Dumont, Dora; Operario, Don

    2014-11-01

    We summarized and appraised evidence regarding HIV prevention interventions for adults with criminal justice involvement. We included randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials that evaluated an HIV prevention intervention, enrolled participants with histories of criminal justice involvement, and reported biological or behavioral outcomes. We used Cochrane methods to screen 32,271 citations from 16 databases and gray literature. We included 37 trials enrolling n = 12,629 participants. Interventions were 27 psychosocial, 7 opioid substitution therapy, and 3 HIV-testing programs. Eleven programs significantly reduced sexual risk taking, 4 reduced injection drug risks, and 4 increased testing. Numerous interventions may reduce HIV-related risks among adults with criminal justice involvement. Future research should consider process evaluations, programs involving partners or families, and interventions integrating biomedical, psychosocial, and structural approaches. PMID:25211725

  5. Review of Regional Criminal Justice Training Academies. House Document No. 28. Report of the Joint Legislative Audit and Review Commission to the Governor and the General Assembly of Virginia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State General Assembly, Richmond. Joint Legislative Audit and Review Commission.

    Virginia has 36 criminal justice training academies, including 10 regional academies. The academies conduct entry-level, inservice, and specialized training for law enforcement officers, jailers, and other criminal justice personnel. In 1998, the Joint Legislative Audit and Review Commission (JLARC) was directed to review the quality, consistency,…

  6. Criminal Justice Involvement, Trauma, and Negative Affect in Iraq and Afghanistan War Era Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbogen, Eric B.; Johnson, Sally C.; Newton, Virginia M.; Straits-Troster, Kristy; Vasterling, Jennifer J.; Wagner, H. Ryan; Beckham, Jean C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Although criminal behavior in veterans has been cited as a growing problem, little is known about why some veterans are at increased risk for arrest. Theories of criminal behavior postulate that people who have been exposed to stressful environments or traumatic events and who report negative affect such as anger and irritability are at…

  7. Learning Disabilities and Attention Deficit Disorder: A New Approach for the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Admire, David S.

    2007-01-01

    As a judge, the author was continually confronted with offenders whose behavior was unexpected and surprising. This was observed not only during their criminal activity but during their travel through the criminal process. This behavior did not appear to be intentional, but rather an inappropriate response to the circumstances that existed at the…

  8. Forced withdrawal from methadone maintenance therapy in criminal justice settings: a critical treatment barrier in the United States.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jeannia J; Zaller, Nickolas D; Yokell, Michael A; Bazazi, Alexander R; Rich, Josiah D

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization classifies methadone as an essential medicine, yet methadone maintenance therapy remains widely unavailable in criminal justice settings throughout the United States. Methadone maintenance therapy is often terminated at the time of incarceration, with inmates forced to withdraw from this evidence-based therapy. We assessed whether these forced withdrawal policies deter opioid-dependent individuals in the community from engaging methadone maintenance therapy in two states that routinely force inmates to withdraw from methadone (N = 205). Nearly half of all participants reported that concern regarding forced methadone withdrawal during incarceration deterred them engaging methadone maintenance therapy in the community. Participants in the state where more severe methadone withdrawal procedures are used during incarceration were more likely to report concern regarding forced withdrawal as a treatment deterrent. Methadone withdrawal policies in the criminal justice system may be a broader treatment deterrent for opioid-dependent individuals than previously realized. Redressing this treatment barrier is both a health and human rights imperative. PMID:23433809

  9. The communication of forensic science in the criminal justice system: A review of theory and proposed directions for research.

    PubMed

    Howes, Loene M

    2015-03-01

    Clear communication about forensic science is essential to the effectiveness and perceived trustworthiness of the criminal justice system. Communication can be seen as a meaning-making process that involves different components such as the sender of a message, the message itself, the channel in which a message is sent, and the receiver of the message. Research conducted to date on the communication between forensic scientists and non-scientists in the criminal justice system has focused on different components of the communication process as objects of study. The purpose of this paper is to bring together communication theory and past research on the communication of forensic science to contribute to a deeper understanding of it, and to provide a coherent view of it overall. The paper first outlines the broader context of communication theory and science communication as a backdrop to forensic science communication. Then it presents a conceptual framework as a way to organise past research and, using the framework, reviews recent examples of empirical research and commentary on the communication of forensic science. Finally the paper identifies aspects of the communication of forensic science that may be addressed by future research to enhance the effectiveness of communication between scientists and non-scientists in this multidisciplinary arena. PMID:25754001

  10. "Drugs and AIDS--reaching for help": a videotape on AIDS and drug abuse prevention for criminal justice populations.

    PubMed

    Gross, M; DeJong, W; Lamb, D; Enos, T; Mason, T; Weitzman, E

    1994-01-01

    This article describes the development of a videotape targeted at persons under supervision of the criminal justice system. The videotape seeks to encourage those who use illicit drugs to enter drug treatment and to motivate those at risk for exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to alter behaviors that may transmit infection. The criminal justice system presents an important opportunity to deliver such messages, particularly to a large population of persons briefly detained in a jail or lockup and released without subsequent incarceration. Evidence suggests that, even in this audience, knowledge of how to prevent exposure to HIV is widespread, yet those at risk often fail to take appropriate precautions: motivating behavior change demands more than imparting information. In order to shape this videotape, we analyzed the target audience and developed a drama-based approach that applies the framework of social learning theory, the health belief model, and principles of social marketing. This article describes the integration of that theoretical framework into the production process, content, and strategy of the videotape.

  11. The communication of forensic science in the criminal justice system: A review of theory and proposed directions for research.

    PubMed

    Howes, Loene M

    2015-03-01

    Clear communication about forensic science is essential to the effectiveness and perceived trustworthiness of the criminal justice system. Communication can be seen as a meaning-making process that involves different components such as the sender of a message, the message itself, the channel in which a message is sent, and the receiver of the message. Research conducted to date on the communication between forensic scientists and non-scientists in the criminal justice system has focused on different components of the communication process as objects of study. The purpose of this paper is to bring together communication theory and past research on the communication of forensic science to contribute to a deeper understanding of it, and to provide a coherent view of it overall. The paper first outlines the broader context of communication theory and science communication as a backdrop to forensic science communication. Then it presents a conceptual framework as a way to organise past research and, using the framework, reviews recent examples of empirical research and commentary on the communication of forensic science. Finally the paper identifies aspects of the communication of forensic science that may be addressed by future research to enhance the effectiveness of communication between scientists and non-scientists in this multidisciplinary arena.

  12. Criminal justice involvement, behavioral health service use, and costs of forensic assertive community treatment: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Cusack, Karen J; Morrissey, Joseph P; Cuddeback, Gary S; Prins, Annabel; Williams, David M

    2010-08-01

    Jail diversion and forensic community treatment programs have proliferated over the past decade, far outpacing evidence regarding their efficacy. The current study reports findings from a randomized clinical trial conducted in California for frequent jail users with serious mental illness that compares a forensic assertive community treatment (FACT) intervention with treatment as usual (TAU). Outcomes are reported at 12 and 24 months post-randomization for criminal justice outcomes, behavioral health services and costs. At 12 months, FACT vs. TAU participants had fewer jail bookings, greater outpatient contacts, and fewer hospital days than did TAU participants. Results of zero-inflated negative binomial regression found that FACT participants had a higher probability of avoiding jail, although once jailed, the number of jail days did not differ between groups. Increased outpatient costs resulting from FACT outpatient services were partially offset by decreased inpatient and jail costs. The findings for the 24 month period followed the same pattern. These findings provide additional support for the idea that providing appropriate behavioral health services can reduce criminal justice involvement. PMID:20217230

  13. Help-seeking patterns among women experiencing intimate partner violence: do they forgo the criminal justice system if their adjudication wishes are not met?

    PubMed

    Cerulli, Catherine; Kothari, Catherine; Dichter, Melissa; Marcus, Steve; Kim, Tae Kuen; Wiley, Jim; Rhodes, Karin V

    2015-01-01

    Following a criminal case disposition, an intimate partner violence (IPV) victim's willingness to seek future police and prosecutorial assistance may depend on her prior experiences within the system. This longitudinal study examines the relationship between IPV victims' future help-seeking based on past experiences. We hypothesized women would return to the criminal justice system if their adjudication wishes corresponded with prosecutors' actions. Contrary to the hypothesis, results suggest women return to the criminal system and other venues even if prosecutors' actions do not correspond to their earlier stated wishes. This has important policy implications given pro-prosecution protocols that encourage adjudication regardless of a woman's participation.

  14. Medical school forensic psychiatry units in health care delivery facilities rather than criminal justice institutions: an alternative model.

    PubMed

    Sarwer-Foner, G J; Smith, S; Bradford, J

    1985-01-01

    We have presented a model for developing forensic psychiatric treatment and teaching services of a medical school Department of Psychiatry, but where these services are the basic comprehensive health care delivery system for the entire community. These offer consultative and treatment services for adult and family court clinic, psychiatric forensic services, of forensic psychiatry open bed and medium security-type bed, as well as day hospital and outpatient services. All of these are sited in the normal health care delivery system of the university teaching hospitals and its patient treatment, teaching, and research facilities. Consultative services are offered on request to the criminal justice system, but the basic health care delivery system is controlled administratively by the ordinary university teaching hospital authorities and exists as a one of a kind unit at the Royal Ottawa Hospital. The Royal Ottawa Hospital is a private nonprofit hospital, with its own Board of Trustees, and is affiliated with the medical school, as part of a major university network. We believe it important to present this model for an overall forensic psychiatric service, in contradistinction to the more commonly established forensic psychiatric facilities in state mental hospitals, in a special facility for the criminally insane, or in a criminal justice system institution such as a penitentiary. We believe that our model for forensic psychiatric facilities has great advantages for the patient. Here the patient is treated in a specialized facility (as all psychiatric patients with specialized problems should be); but one which is a specialized forensic facility, within the range of specialized psychiatric facilities that are needed by an urban community.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. The Prevalence of Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders in the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheely, Catherine A.; Carpenter, Laura A.; Letourneau, Elizabeth J.; Nicholas, Joyce S.; Charles, Jane; King, Lydia B.

    2012-01-01

    Past surveys have reported high rates of youth with disabilities in the juvenile justice system, however, little research has examined the frequency with which youth with Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are in contact with law enforcement. Using records linkage with the Department of Juvenile Justice and the South Carolina Law Enforcement Division…

  16. Climbing down the steps from the ivory tower: how UK academics and criminal justice practitioners need to work together on alcohol studies.

    PubMed

    Newbury-Birch, Dorothy; McGeechan, Grant J; Holloway, Aisha

    2016-09-12

    Purpose Evidence in the UK tells us that risky drinking is high amongst those in contact with the criminal justice system. The purpose of this paper is to explore the reasons why carrying out research around risky drinking in this setting is so difficult. Design/methodology/approach A commentary on the issues of carrying out research in the criminal justice setting. Findings There are issues of carrying out research in the criminal justice setting. The authors argue, that as academics we can be more proactive in working with practitioners in the design and carrying out of studies. By examining what the primary outcome of interest is to those that work in the field rather than what funding agencies tell us academics must use, academics may engage in a more co-productive way that enables everyone to achieve what they need. Moreover more work is needed to show how this approach can be achieved both in the UK and internationally. Originality/value This editorial explores some of the difficulties of carrying out alcohol research in the criminal justice system and postulates ways that this could be made easier. PMID:27548015

  17. Second Annual Evaluation of DCJS Funded School Resource Officer Programs. Report of the Department of Criminal Justice Services, Fiscal Year 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuiteman, John G.

    This evaluation report is the second publication from the Virginia Department of Criminal Justice Services' (DCJS) ongoing evaluation of the Virginia School Resource Officer (SRO) program. The findings are based on data submitted by 78 local SRO programs, all of which were awarded grants of federal or state monies from DCJS. The findings are…

  18. Criminal Justice Systems. Block I: Law Enforcement. Block II: The Courts. Block III: Corrections. Block IV: Community Relations. Block V: Proficiency Skills. Block VI: Criminalistics. Student Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    This student guide together with an instructor guide comprise a set of curriculum materials on the criminal justice system. The student guide contains self-contained instructional material that students can study at their own pace most of the time. Six major subject areas or blocks, which are further broken down into several units, with some units…

  19. Criminal Justice Systems. Block I: Law Enforcement. Block II: The Courts. Block III: Corrections. Block IV: Community Relations. Block V: Proficiency Skills. Block VI: Criminalistics. Instructor Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    This instructor guide together with a student guide comprise a set of curriculum materials on the criminal justice system. The instructor guide is a resource for planning and managing individualized, competency-based instruction in six major subject areas or blocks, which are further broken down into several units with some units having several…

  20. Climbing down the steps from the ivory tower: how UK academics and criminal justice practitioners need to work together on alcohol studies.

    PubMed

    Newbury-Birch, Dorothy; McGeechan, Grant J; Holloway, Aisha

    2016-09-12

    Purpose Evidence in the UK tells us that risky drinking is high amongst those in contact with the criminal justice system. The purpose of this paper is to explore the reasons why carrying out research around risky drinking in this setting is so difficult. Design/methodology/approach A commentary on the issues of carrying out research in the criminal justice setting. Findings There are issues of carrying out research in the criminal justice setting. The authors argue, that as academics we can be more proactive in working with practitioners in the design and carrying out of studies. By examining what the primary outcome of interest is to those that work in the field rather than what funding agencies tell us academics must use, academics may engage in a more co-productive way that enables everyone to achieve what they need. Moreover more work is needed to show how this approach can be achieved both in the UK and internationally. Originality/value This editorial explores some of the difficulties of carrying out alcohol research in the criminal justice system and postulates ways that this could be made easier.

  1. Gaols or De Facto Mental Institutions? Why Individuals with a Mental Illness Are Over-Represented in the Criminal Justice System in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Corinne

    2007-01-01

    The over-representation of people with mental illness in the criminal justice system highlights the need for legislative reform and the implementation of programs breaking the cycle of mental illness, poverty, unemployment and substance abuse across Australia. Whilst there is no inherent association between mental illness and crime, there is a…

  2. Revisiting the Association Between Television Viewing in Adolescence and Contact With the Criminal Justice System in Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Joseph A; Beaver, Kevin M

    2016-09-01

    A substantial number of previous studies have reported significant associations between television viewing habits and a host of detrimental outcomes including increased contact with the criminal justice system. However, it remains unclear whether the results flowing from this literature are generalizable to other samples and whether previously observed associations are confounded due to uncontrolled genetic influences. The current study addresses these limitations using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). The results of the preliminary models, which do not include controls for genetic influences, produced a pattern of results similar to those previously reported in the extant literature. The results of the genetically informed models revealed that the associations between television viewing and antisocial outcomes are not causal, but rather are driven by uncontrolled genetic influences. Further replication is required, but these findings suggest that results drawn from the extant literature may not be trustworthy.

  3. Treatment at the front end of the criminal justice continuum: the association between arrest and admission into specialty substance abuse treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott; Arfken, Cynthia L; Swartz, James A; Koch, Alison L

    2006-01-01

    Background To reduce criminal recidivism and drug use, it has been proposed that the substance abuse treatment delivery system cut across different components of the criminal justice continuum. Arrest, at the front end of this continuum, may represent a critical moment to motivate people with substance use disorders (SUD) to seek treatment but is often over looked as an intervention point. We used data from the 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) to compare treatment need and recent treatment admission for participants with no criminal justice (CJ) involvement in the past year, past-year arrest, and CJ supervision (i.e., probation or parole status). Results Of those arrested, 44.8% met criteria for an SUD. However, only 14% of those arrested with an SUD received treatment in the year of their arrest. In multivariate modelling, arrest was an independent predictor of treatment admission (odds ratio (OR) = 8.74) similar in magnitude to meeting criteria for an SUD (OR = 8.22). Those further along the continuum – under supervision – were most likely to receive treatment (OR = 22.62). Conclusion Arrest involves the largest number of individuals entering the criminal justice system. The NSDUH suggests that nearly 6 million individuals in the US experience an arrest annually and that nearly half meet criteria for an SUD. Although arrest involves the largest number of individuals entering the criminal justice system, it is also the most fleeting point as individuals can move in and out rather quickly. Minimally, arrest imposes contact between the individual and a law enforcement person and can be an opportunity for early intervention strategies such as pre-arraignment diversion into treatment or brief intervention strategies. Using brief intervention at this early point in the continuum may motivate a greater number of individuals to seek treatment or decrease drug and alcohol use. Training and procedural shifts at this point of contact could have

  4. Sex-Related Disparities in Criminal Justice and HIV Treatment Outcomes: A Retrospective Cohort Study of HIV-Infected Inmates

    PubMed Central

    Cepeda, Javier; Taxman, Faye S.; Altice, Frederick L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated sex-related differences in HIV and criminal justice (CJ) outcomes. Methods. We quantified sex-related differences in criminal offenses, incarcerations, and HIV outcomes among all HIV-infected inmates on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Connecticut (2005–2012). Computed criminogenic risk scores estimated future CJ involvement. Stacked logistic regression models with random effects identified significant correlates of HIV viral suppression on CJ entry, reflecting preceding community-based treatment. Results. Compared with 866 HIV-infected men on ART (1619 incarcerations), 223 women (461 incarcerations) were more likely to be younger, White, and medically insured, with shorter incarceration periods (mean = 196.8 vs 368.1 days), mostly for public disorder offenses. One third of both women and men had viral suppression on CJ entry, correlating positively with older age and having treated comorbidities. Entry viral suppression inversely correlated with incarceration duration for women and with criminogenic risk score for men. Conclusions. In the largest contemporary cohort of HIV-infected inmates on ART, women’s higher prevalence of nonviolent offenses and treatable comorbidities supports alternatives to incarceration strategies. Sex-specific interventions for CJ populations with HIV effectively align public health and safety goals. PMID:26180958

  5. The YouthARTS Development Project. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clawson, Heather J.; Coolbaugh, Kathleen

    The arts enrich the culture and individual lives immeasurably, but what impact do arts-based programs have in preventing juvenile delinquency? To address this question, the YouthARTS Development Project, with the technical assistance of the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), brought together Federal agencies, national…

  6. Reducing the harmful effects of alcohol misuse: the ethics of sobriety testing in criminal justice.

    PubMed

    Shaw, David; McCluskey, Karyn; Linden, Will; Goodall, Christine

    2012-11-01

    Alcohol use and abuse play a major role in both crime and negative health outcomes in Scotland. This paper provides a description and ethical and legal analyses of a novel remote alcohol monitoring scheme for offenders which seeks to reduce alcohol-related harm to both the criminal and the public. It emerges that the prospective benefits of this scheme to health and public order vastly outweigh any potential harms.

  7. Reducing the harmful effects of alcohol misuse: the ethics of sobriety testing in criminal justice.

    PubMed

    Shaw, David; McCluskey, Karyn; Linden, Will; Goodall, Christine

    2012-11-01

    Alcohol use and abuse play a major role in both crime and negative health outcomes in Scotland. This paper provides a description and ethical and legal analyses of a novel remote alcohol monitoring scheme for offenders which seeks to reduce alcohol-related harm to both the criminal and the public. It emerges that the prospective benefits of this scheme to health and public order vastly outweigh any potential harms. PMID:22518048

  8. Achieving public health goals through Medicaid expansion: opportunities in criminal justice, homelessness, and behavioral health with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    DiPietro, Barbara; Klingenmaier, Lisa

    2013-12-01

    States are currently discussing how (or whether) to implement the Medicaid expansion to nondisabled adults earning less than 133% of the federal poverty level, a key aspect of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Those experiencing homelessness and those involved with the criminal justice system--particularly when they struggle with behavioral health diagnoses--are subpopulations that are currently uninsured at high rates and have significant health care needs but will become Medicaid eligible starting in 2014. We outline the connection between these groups, assert outcomes possible from greater collaboration between multiple systems, provide a summary of Medicaid eligibility and its ramifications for individuals in the criminal justice system, and explore opportunities to improve overall public health through Medicaid outreach, enrollment, and engagement in needed health care.

  9. Achieving Public Health Goals Through Medicaid Expansion: Opportunities in Criminal Justice, Homelessness, and Behavioral Health With the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Klingenmaier, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    States are currently discussing how (or whether) to implement the Medicaid expansion to nondisabled adults earning less than 133% of the federal poverty level, a key aspect of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Those experiencing homelessness and those involved with the criminal justice system—particularly when they struggle with behavioral health diagnoses—are subpopulations that are currently uninsured at high rates and have significant health care needs but will become Medicaid eligible starting in 2014. We outline the connection between these groups, assert outcomes possible from greater collaboration between multiple systems, provide a summary of Medicaid eligibility and its ramifications for individuals in the criminal justice system, and explore opportunities to improve overall public health through Medicaid outreach, enrollment, and engagement in needed health care. PMID:24148039

  10. Achieving public health goals through Medicaid expansion: opportunities in criminal justice, homelessness, and behavioral health with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    DiPietro, Barbara; Klingenmaier, Lisa

    2013-12-01

    States are currently discussing how (or whether) to implement the Medicaid expansion to nondisabled adults earning less than 133% of the federal poverty level, a key aspect of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Those experiencing homelessness and those involved with the criminal justice system--particularly when they struggle with behavioral health diagnoses--are subpopulations that are currently uninsured at high rates and have significant health care needs but will become Medicaid eligible starting in 2014. We outline the connection between these groups, assert outcomes possible from greater collaboration between multiple systems, provide a summary of Medicaid eligibility and its ramifications for individuals in the criminal justice system, and explore opportunities to improve overall public health through Medicaid outreach, enrollment, and engagement in needed health care. PMID:24148039

  11. 28 CFR 33.71 - Initial project report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Initial project report. 33.71 Section 33.71 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE BUREAU OF JUSTICE ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAMS Criminal Justice Block Grants Reports § 33.71 Initial project report. States are required to provide to the Bureau of Justice Assistance within 30 days...

  12. MAPIT: development of a web-based intervention targeting substance abuse treatment in the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Walters, Scott T; Ondersma, Steven J; Ingersoll, Karen S; Rodriguez, Mayra; Lerch, Jennifer; Rossheim, Matthew E; Taxman, Faye S

    2014-01-01

    Although drug and alcohol treatment are common requirements in the U.S. criminal justice system, only a minority of clients actually initiate treatment. This paper describes a two-session, web-based intervention to increase motivation for substance abuse treatment among clients using illicit substances. MAPIT (Motivational Assessment Program to Initiate Treatment) integrates the extended parallel process model, motivational interviewing, and social cognitive theory. The first session (completed near the start of probation) targets motivation to complete probation, to make changes in substance use (including treatment initiation), and to obtain HIV testing and care. The second session (completed approximately 30days after session 1) focuses on goal setting, coping strategies, and social support. Both sessions can generate emails or mobile texts to remind clients of their goals. MAPIT uses theory-based algorithms and a text-to-speech engine to deliver custom feedback and suggestions. In an initial test, participants indicated that the program was respectful, easy to use, and would be helpful in making changes in substance use. MAPIT is being tested in a randomized trial in two large U.S. probation agencies. MAPIT addresses the difficulties of many probation agencies to maximize client involvement in treatment, in a way that is cost effective and compatible with the existing service delivery system.

  13. MAPIT: Development of a Web-Based Intervention Targeting Substance Abuse Treatment in the Criminal Justice System

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Scott T.; Ondersma, Steven J.; Ingersoll, Karen; Rodriguez, Mayra; Lerch, Jennifer; Rossheim, Matthew E.; Taxman, Faye S.

    2013-01-01

    Although drug and alcohol treatment are common requirements in the U.S. criminal justice system, only a minority of clients actually initiate treatment. This paper describes a two-session, web-based intervention to increase motivation for substance abuse treatment among clients using illicit substances. MAPIT (Motivational Assessment Program to Initiate Treatment) integrates the extended parallel process model, motivational interviewing, and social cognitive theory. The first session (completed near the start of probation) targets motivation to complete probation, to make changes in substance use (including treatment initiation), and to obtain HIV testing and care. The second session (completed approximately 30 days after session 1) focuses on goal setting, coping strategies, and social support. Both sessions can generate emails or mobile texts to remind clients of their goals. MAPIT uses theory-based algorithms and a text-to-speech engine to deliver custom feedback and suggestions. In an initial test, participants indicated that the program was respectful, easy to use, and would be helpful in making changes in substance use. MAPIT is being tested in a randomized trial in two large U.S. probation agencies. MAPIT addresses the difficulties of many probation agencies to maximize client involvement in treatment, in a way that is cost effective and compatible with the existing service delivery system. PMID:23954392

  14. MAPIT: development of a web-based intervention targeting substance abuse treatment in the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Walters, Scott T; Ondersma, Steven J; Ingersoll, Karen S; Rodriguez, Mayra; Lerch, Jennifer; Rossheim, Matthew E; Taxman, Faye S

    2014-01-01

    Although drug and alcohol treatment are common requirements in the U.S. criminal justice system, only a minority of clients actually initiate treatment. This paper describes a two-session, web-based intervention to increase motivation for substance abuse treatment among clients using illicit substances. MAPIT (Motivational Assessment Program to Initiate Treatment) integrates the extended parallel process model, motivational interviewing, and social cognitive theory. The first session (completed near the start of probation) targets motivation to complete probation, to make changes in substance use (including treatment initiation), and to obtain HIV testing and care. The second session (completed approximately 30days after session 1) focuses on goal setting, coping strategies, and social support. Both sessions can generate emails or mobile texts to remind clients of their goals. MAPIT uses theory-based algorithms and a text-to-speech engine to deliver custom feedback and suggestions. In an initial test, participants indicated that the program was respectful, easy to use, and would be helpful in making changes in substance use. MAPIT is being tested in a randomized trial in two large U.S. probation agencies. MAPIT addresses the difficulties of many probation agencies to maximize client involvement in treatment, in a way that is cost effective and compatible with the existing service delivery system. PMID:23954392

  15. Children in the criminal justice and secure care systems: how their mental health needs are met.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, Z; Thornes, R; Bailey, S

    1998-10-01

    A study was made of the perceptions among relevant service providers of the mental health needs of young people considered for secure placement. Information was obtained in 1996 from 75% of departments of child and adolescent psychiatry, forensic psychiatry, social services children's services, youth justice, probation, secure units and young offender institutions in England and Wales. The findings confirm that highly disturbed young people, who may be a danger to themselves and others, may present to a wide range of services, and that their mental health needs are neither well recognized, widely understood, nor adequately met. Availability of appropriate levels and types of expertise and resource is patchy and strictly limited, within secure settings and in local community services across all agencies.

  16. The National Trajectory Project of Individuals Found Not Criminally Responsible on Account of Mental Disorder in Canada. Part 1: Context and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Crocker, Anne G; Nicholls, Tonia L; Seto, Michael C; Côté, Gilles; Charette, Yanick; Caulet, Malijai

    2015-01-01

    The National Trajectory Project examined longitudinal data from a large sample of people found not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder (NCRMD) to assess the presence of provincial differences in the application of the law, to examine the characteristics of people with serious mental illness who come into conflict with the law and receive this verdict, and to investigate the trajectories of NCRMD–accused people as they traverse the mental health and criminal justice systems. Our paper describes the rationale for the National Trajectory Project and the methods used to collect data in Quebec, Ontario, and British Columbia, the 3 most populous provinces in Canada and the 3 provinces with the most people found NCRMD. PMID:25886685

  17. The national trajectory project of individuals found not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder in Canada. Part 1: context and methods.

    PubMed

    Crocker, Anne G; Nicholls, Tonia L; Seto, Michael C; Côté, Gilles; Charette, Yanick; Caulet, Malijai

    2015-03-01

    The National Trajectory Project examined longitudinal data from a large sample of people found not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder (NCRMD) to assess the presence of provincial differences in the application of the law, to examine the characteristics of people with serious mental illness who come into conflict with the law and receive this verdict, and to investigate the trajectories of NCRMD-accused people as they traverse the mental health and criminal justice systems. Our paper describes the rationale for the National Trajectory Project and the methods used to collect data in Quebec, Ontario, and British Columbia, the 3 most populous provinces in Canada and the 3 provinces with the most people found NCRMD. PMID:25886685

  18. Association between non-fatal opioid overdose and encounters with healthcare and criminal justice systems: Identifying opportunities for intervention

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Karla D.; Liu, Lin; Davidson, Peter J.; Cuevas-Mota, Jazmine; Armenta, Richard F.; Garfein, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Accidental overdose, driven largely by opioids, is a leading cause of death among people who inject drugs (PWIDs). We conducted secondary analysis of data from a cohort of PWIDs to identify venues where high-risk PWID could be targeted by overdose education/naloxone distribution (OEND) programs. Methods 573 PWIDs completed a quantitative survey between June, 2012 and January, 2014, which was analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. The dependent variable was a dichotomous indicator of experiencing a heroin/opioid-related overdose in the past six months. Independent variables included: demographics, drug use behavior, and encounters with two venues – the health care and criminal justice systems – that could serve as potential venues for OEND programs. Results Almost half (41.5%) reported ever experiencing a heroin/opioid overdose, and 45 (7.9%) reported experiencing at least one heroin/opioid overdose in the past six months. In the final multivariable model, receiving care in a hospital in the past six months (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AdjOR] 4.08, 95% Confidence Interval [C.I.] 2.07 -- 8.04, p<0.001) and being arrested for drug possession in the past six months (AdjOR 5.17, 95% C.I. 2.37 – 11.24, p<0.001) were associated with experiencing an opioid overdose in the past six months. Conclusions Identifying venues outside of those that traditionally target services to PWIDs (i.e., syringe exchange programs) will be critical to implementing OEND interventions at a scale sufficient to address the growing epidemic of heroin/opioid related deaths. Clinical settings, such as hospitals, and drug-related encounters with law enforcement officers are promising venues for the expansion of OEND programs. PMID:26091751

  19. Drug use, street crime, and sex-trading among cocaine-dependent women: implications for public health and criminal justice policy.

    PubMed

    Inciardi, J A; Surratt, H L

    2001-01-01

    The linkages between the sex-for-crack exchanges, prostitution, and rising rates of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases among cocaine-dependent women have been well documented. As crack began to disappear from the headlines during the 1990s, however, it was assumed by many that crack had fallen on hard times in the street drug culture. Within this context, this article examines the extent to which crack has remained primary in the culture of cocaine-dependent women. Data are drawn from a study of 708 cocaine-dependent women in Miami, Florida, during the years 1994 to 1996, and qualitative data gathered during 1998 and 1999 in the same field areas. Analyses focus on drug use, criminality and HIV/AIDS risk behaviors. Implications for policy alternatives in criminal justice and public health approaches for assisting this population are discussed. PMID:11824697

  20. Effective Faith-Based Treatment Programs. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy and Human Resources of the Committee on Government Reform. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session (May 23, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Government Reform.

    This document presents witness testimonies from a hearing discussing two issues critical to the House of Representatives, Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy and Human Resources: insuring government support for effective programs to reduce the demand for illegal drugs, and facilitating the inclusion of faith-based providers in the…

  1. The National Trajectory Project of Individuals Found Not Criminally Responsible on Account of Mental Disorder in Canada. Part 3: Trajectories and Outcomes Through the Forensic System

    PubMed Central

    Crocker, Anne G; Charette, Yanick; Seto, Michael C; Nicholls, Tonia L; Côté, Gilles; Caulet, Malijai

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the processing and Review Board (RB) disposition outcomes of people found not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder (NCRMD) across the 3 most populous provinces in Canada. Although the Criminal Code is federally legislated, criminal justice is administered by provinces and territories. It follows that a person with mental illness who comes into conflict with the law and subsequently comes under the management of a legally mandated RB may experience different trajectories across jurisdictions. Method: The National Trajectory Project examined 1800 men and women found NCRMD in British Columbia (n = 222), Quebec (n = 1094), and Ontario (n = 484) between May 2000 and April 2005, followed until December 2008. Results: We found significant interprovincial differences in the trajectories of people found NCRMD, including time detained in hospital and time under the supervision of an RB. The odds of being conditionally or absolutely discharged by the RB varied across provinces, even after number of past offences, diagnosis at verdict, and most severe index offence (all covariates decreased likelihood of discharge) were considered. Conclusions: Considerable discrepancies in the application of NCRMD legislation and the processing of NCRMD cases through the forensic system across the provinces suggests that fair and equitable treatment under the law could be enhanced by increased national integration and collaboration. PMID:25886687

  2. 75 FR 13305 - Notice of Cancellation of the Environmental Impact Statement for the Criminal Alien Requirement 9

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... Alien Requirement 9 AGENCY: U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Prisons. ACTION: Notice of... Statement (EIS) for the Criminal Alien Requirement 9 project (CAR 9). This notice briefly describes the... contractor's to house up to 1,889 federal, low-security, adult male, non-U.S. citizen, criminal aliens...

  3. Alcohol, Intercourse, and Condom Use Among Women Recently Involved in the Criminal Justice System: Findings from Integrated Global-Frequency and Event-Level Methods

    PubMed Central

    Latkin, Carl A.

    2014-01-01

    The scientific literature on alcohol and sexual risk behavior is marked by multiple theoretical perspectives and inconsistent findings from global-frequency and event-level studies. Multilevel measures of alcohol use and multiple sexual risk outcomes can be used to evaluate these perspectives and resolve these inconsistencies. Among women recently involved in the criminal justice system in Portland, Oregon, daily alcohol use and sexual behavior were measured during four 30-day intervals over one year. In mixed effects models, person-level, month-level, and day-level alcohol use were significantly associated with the occurrence of intercourse but not with the use of condoms during intercourse. Findings are also reported for main, casual, and exchange partners. The relationships between alcohol use and sexual risk behavior are complex: No single theoretical perspective is sufficient to account for the study findings, and increased risk may be mediated through changes in intercourse rather than through changes in condom use. PMID:25100052

  4. Reducing HIV and partner violence risk among women with criminal justice system involvement: A randomized controlled trial of two Motivational Interviewing-based interventions

    PubMed Central

    Weir, Brian W.; O’Brien, Kerth; Bard, Ronda S.; Casciato, Carol J.; Maher, Julie E.; Dent, Clyde W.; Dougherty, John A.; Stark, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Women with histories of incarceration show high levels of risk for HIV and intimate partner violence (IPV). This randomized controlled trial with women at risk for HIV who had recent criminal justice system involvement (n=530) evaluated two interventions based on Motivational Interviewing to reduce either HIV risk or HIV and IPV risk. Baseline and 3, 6, and 9-month follow-up assessments measured unprotected intercourse, needle sharing, and IPV. Generalized estimating equations revealed that the intervention groups had significant decreases in unprotected intercourse and needle sharing, and significantly greater reductions in the odds and incidence rates of unprotected intercourse compared to the control group. No significant differences were found in changes in IPV over time between the HIV and IPV group and the control group. Motivational Interviewing-based HIV prevention interventions delivered by county health department staff appear helpful in reducing HIV risk behavior for this population. PMID:18636325

  5. Exploring the potential for joint training between legal professionals in the criminal justice system and health and social care professionals in the mental-health services.

    PubMed

    Hean, Sarah; Heaslip, Vanessa; Warr, Jerry; Staddon, Sue

    2011-05-01

    Effective screening of mentally-ill defendants in the criminal court system requires cooperation between legal professionals in the criminal justice system (CJS), and health and social care workers in the mental-health service (MHS). This interagency working, though, can be problematic, as recognized in the Bradley inquiry that recommended joint training for MHS and CJS professionals. The aim of this study was to examine the experiences and attitudes of workers in the CJS and MHS to inform the development of relevant training. The method was a survey of mental-health workers and legal professionals in the court. The results showed that both agencies were uncertain of their ability to work with the other and there is little training that supports them in this. Both recognized the importance of mentally-ill defendants being dealt with appropriately in court proceedings but acknowledged this is not achieved. There is a shared willingness to sympathize with defendants and a common lack of willingness to give a definite, unqualified response on the relationship between culpability, mental-illness and punishment. Views differ around defendants' threat to security.Findings suggest there is scope to develop interprofessional training programs between the CJS and MHS to improve interagency working and eventually impact on the quality of defendants' lives. Recommendations are made on the type of joint training that could be provided.

  6. Retributive and restorative justice.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Michael; Okimoto, Tyler G; Feather, Norman T; Platow, Michael J

    2008-10-01

    The emergence of restorative justice as an alternative model to Western, court-based criminal justice may have important implications for the psychology of justice. It is proposed that two different notions of justice affect responses to rule-breaking: restorative and retributive justice. Retributive justice essentially refers to the repair of justice through unilateral imposition of punishment, whereas restorative justice means the repair of justice through reaffirming a shared value-consensus in a bilateral process. Among the symbolic implications of transgressions, concerns about status and power are primarily related to retributive justice and concerns about shared values are primarily related to restorative justice. At the core of these processes, however, lies the parties' construal of their identity relation, specifically whether or not respondents perceive to share an identity with the offender. The specific case of intergroup transgressions is discussed, as are implications for future research on restoring a sense of justice after rule-breaking.

  7. A Pilot Study of a Criminal Justice Service-Learning Course: The Value of a Multicultural Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschinger-Blank, Nancy; Simons, Lori; Finley, Laura; Clearly, Joseph; Thoerig, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a description and evaluation of a service-learning juvenile justice course designed to broaden university students' attitudes toward diversity issues. Diversity service learning integrates academic learning with community service by providing students with opportunities to learn about social disparities associated with…

  8. The Social Justice, Peace, and Environmental Education Standards Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrzejewski, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Inspired by the Alaska Native Knowledge Network's "Standards for Culturally Responsive Schools," members of fourteen social justice, peace, and environmental education (SJPEE) special interest groups (SIGs) from the American Educational Research Association (AERA) and several other prominent organizations have been involved in drafting SJPEE…

  9. The sexual history provisions in the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999--a violation of the right to a fair trial?

    PubMed

    Young, G

    2001-07-01

    In response to the Home Office recommendations contained in Speaking Up for Justice (1998) the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act (YJCEA) 1999 introduced a new regime for the conduct of sexual offence trials. Section 41 of the Act, which came into force on 4 December 2000, brings about dramatic changes to the rules on the admissibility of evidence of complainants' sexual behaviour, severely restricting the discretion of trial judges to introduce such evidence or to allow questioning concerning it. This represents a radical new departure that will fundamentally affect an accused's position at trial. Responses to section 41 have predictably been divided given the extremely sensitive nature of this area of the law of evidence and the complex set of social and political issues which are at stake. Many have greeted it as a long overdue reform of a system premised upon outmoded and sexist beliefs concerning women's sexual behaviour which has routinely functioned to admit prejudicial and irrelevant evidence. Others, predominantly within the legal profession, have expressed serious concerns over whether the new law is workable and the extent to which, by potentially excluding critically relevant evidence, it may infringe upon a defendant's right to a fair trial. The quality of the legislation is soon to be tested. On 26 and 27 March 2001 the House of Lords heard an interlocutory appeal in the case of R v. A and were asked to decide if the new provisions, by excluding previous sexual history evidence between the complainant and the defendant, contravened Article 6 of the European Convention of Human Rights. Their Lordships are, at the time of writing, yet to give judgment and the fate of the defendant in question, and several others whose trials have been postponed pending their decision, hangs in the balance. This article seeks to show that the new Act, despite being well-intentioned, does not adopt a coherent or sustainable approach to the relevance of previous

  10. Extended-Release Naltrexone To Prevent Relapse Among Opioid Dependent, Criminal Justice System Involved Adults: Rationale and Design of a Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joshua D.; Friedmann, Peter D.; Boney, Tamara Y.; Hoskinson, Randall A.; McDonald, Ryan; Gordon, Michael; Fishman, Marc; Chen, Donna T.; Bonnie, Richard J.; Kinlock, Timothy W.; Nunes, Edward V.; Cornish, James W.; O’Brien, Charles P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX, Vivitrol® Alkermes Inc.) is an injectable monthly sustained-release mu opioid receptor antagonist. XR-NTX is a potentially effective intervention for opioid use disorders and as relapse prevention among criminal justice system (CJS) populations. Methods This 5-site open-label randomized controlled effectiveness trial examines whether XR-NTX reduces opioid relapse compared with treatment as usual (TAU) among community dwelling, non-incarcerated volunteers with current or recent CJS involvement. The XR-NTX arm receives 6 monthly XR-NTX injections at Medical Management visits; the TAU group receives referrals to available community treatment options. Assessments occur every 2 weeks during a 24-week treatment phase and at 12- and 18-month follow-ups. The primary outcome is a relapse event, defined as either self-report or urine toxicology evidence of ≥10 days of opioid use in a 28-day (4 week) period, with a positive or missing urine test counted as 5 days of opioid use. Results We describe the rationale, specific aims, and design of the study. Alternative design considerations and extensive secondary aims and outcomes are discussed. Conclusions XR-NTX is a potentially important treatment and relapse prevention option among persons with opioid dependence and CJS involvement. PMID:25602580

  11. The interface between forensic science and technology: how technology could cause a paradigm shift in the role of forensic institutes in the criminal justice system

    PubMed Central

    Kloosterman, Ate; Mapes, Anna; Geradts, Zeno; van Eijk, Erwin; Koper, Carola; van den Berg, Jorrit; Verheij, Saskia; van der Steen, Marcel; van Asten, Arian

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the importance of modern technology in forensic investigations is discussed. Recent technological developments are creating new possibilities to perform robust scientific measurements and studies outside the controlled laboratory environment. The benefits of real-time, on-site forensic investigations are manifold and such technology has the potential to strongly increase the speed and efficacy of the criminal justice system. However, such benefits are only realized when quality can be guaranteed at all times and findings can be used as forensic evidence in court. At the Netherlands Forensic Institute, innovation efforts are currently undertaken to develop integrated forensic platform solutions that allow for the forensic investigation of human biological traces, the chemical identification of illicit drugs and the study of large amounts of digital evidence. These platforms enable field investigations, yield robust and validated evidence and allow for forensic intelligence and targeted use of expert capacity at the forensic institutes. This technological revolution in forensic science could ultimately lead to a paradigm shift in which a new role of the forensic expert emerges as developer and custodian of integrated forensic platforms. PMID:26101289

  12. The interface between forensic science and technology: how technology could cause a paradigm shift in the role of forensic institutes in the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Kloosterman, Ate; Mapes, Anna; Geradts, Zeno; van Eijk, Erwin; Koper, Carola; van den Berg, Jorrit; Verheij, Saskia; van der Steen, Marcel; van Asten, Arian

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, the importance of modern technology in forensic investigations is discussed. Recent technological developments are creating new possibilities to perform robust scientific measurements and studies outside the controlled laboratory environment. The benefits of real-time, on-site forensic investigations are manifold and such technology has the potential to strongly increase the speed and efficacy of the criminal justice system. However, such benefits are only realized when quality can be guaranteed at all times and findings can be used as forensic evidence in court. At the Netherlands Forensic Institute, innovation efforts are currently undertaken to develop integrated forensic platform solutions that allow for the forensic investigation of human biological traces, the chemical identification of illicit drugs and the study of large amounts of digital evidence. These platforms enable field investigations, yield robust and validated evidence and allow for forensic intelligence and targeted use of expert capacity at the forensic institutes. This technological revolution in forensic science could ultimately lead to a paradigm shift in which a new role of the forensic expert emerges as developer and custodian of integrated forensic platforms.

  13. The interface between forensic science and technology: how technology could cause a paradigm shift in the role of forensic institutes in the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Kloosterman, Ate; Mapes, Anna; Geradts, Zeno; van Eijk, Erwin; Koper, Carola; van den Berg, Jorrit; Verheij, Saskia; van der Steen, Marcel; van Asten, Arian

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, the importance of modern technology in forensic investigations is discussed. Recent technological developments are creating new possibilities to perform robust scientific measurements and studies outside the controlled laboratory environment. The benefits of real-time, on-site forensic investigations are manifold and such technology has the potential to strongly increase the speed and efficacy of the criminal justice system. However, such benefits are only realized when quality can be guaranteed at all times and findings can be used as forensic evidence in court. At the Netherlands Forensic Institute, innovation efforts are currently undertaken to develop integrated forensic platform solutions that allow for the forensic investigation of human biological traces, the chemical identification of illicit drugs and the study of large amounts of digital evidence. These platforms enable field investigations, yield robust and validated evidence and allow for forensic intelligence and targeted use of expert capacity at the forensic institutes. This technological revolution in forensic science could ultimately lead to a paradigm shift in which a new role of the forensic expert emerges as developer and custodian of integrated forensic platforms. PMID:26101289

  14. Rural Australian women's legal help seeking for intimate partner violence: women intimate partner violence victim survivors' perceptions of criminal justice support services.

    PubMed

    Ragusa, Angela T

    2013-03-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a widespread, ongoing, and complex global social problem, whose victims continue to be largely women. Women often prefer to rely on friends and family for IPV help, yet when informal support is unavailable they remain hesitant to contact formal services, particularly legal support for many reasons. This study applies a sociological lens by framing the IPV and legal help-seeking experiences of rural Australian women gained from 36 in-depth face-to-face interviews as socially contextualized interactions. Findings reveal police and court responses reflect broader social inequalities and rurality exacerbates concerns such as anonymity and lack of service. Cultural differences and power imbalances between survivors and formal support providers are manifested to inform future research seeking to improve survivors' willingness to engage and satisfaction with formal services. Finally, the important role police and the criminal justice system play in de-stigmatizing IPV and legitimating its unacceptability is argued a crucial, yet unrecognized, key to social change.

  15. Environmental justice: a criminological perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Michael J.; Stretesky, Paul B.; Long, Michael A.

    2015-08-01

    This article examines studies related to environmental justice in the criminological literature and from a criminological perspective. Criminologists have long been concerned with injustices in the criminal justice system related to the enforcement of criminal law. In the 1990s, following the emergence of green criminology, a handful of criminologists have drawn attention to environmental justice as an extension of more traditional criminological studies of justice and injustice. Relevant criminological studies of environmental justice are reviewed, and suggestions for future environmental justice research are offered.

  16. Military veterans with mental health problems: a protocol for a systematic review to identify whether they have an additional risk of contact with criminal justice systems compared with other veterans groups

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is concern that some veterans of armed forces, in particular those with mental health, drug or alcohol problems, experience difficulty returning to a civilian way of life and may subsequently come into contact with criminal justice services and imprisonment. The aim of this review is to examine whether military veterans with mental health problems, including substance use, have an additional risk of contact with criminal justice systems when compared with veterans who do not have such problems. The review will also seek to identify veterans’ views and experiences on their contact with criminal justice services, what contributed to or influenced their contact and whether there are any differences, including international and temporal, in incidence, contact type, veteran type, their presenting health needs and reported experiences. Methods/design In this review we will adopt a methodological model similar to that previously used by other researchers when reviewing intervention studies. The model, which we will use as a framework for conducting a review of observational and qualitative studies, consists of two parallel synthesis stages within the review process; one for quantitative research and the other for qualitative research. The third stage involves a cross study synthesis, enabling a deeper understanding of the results of the quantitative synthesis. A range of electronic databases, including MEDLINE, PsychINFO, CINAHL, will be systematically searched, from 1939 to present day, using a broad range of search terms that cover four key concepts: mental health, military veterans, substance misuse, and criminal justice. Studies will be screened against topic specific inclusion/exclusion criteria and then against a smaller subset of design specific inclusion/exclusion criteria. Data will be extracted for those studies that meet the inclusion criteria, and all eligible studies will be critically appraised. Included studies, both quantitative and

  17. Criminal history systems: new technology and new directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Threatte, James

    1997-02-01

    Many forces are driving states to improve their current Criminal History and On-Line Criminal Justice Information Systems. The predominate factors compelling this movement are (1) the deterioration and cost of supporting older legacy systems, (2) current generation high performance, low cost hardware and system software, and (3) funding programs, such as the National Criminal History Improvement Program, which are targeted specifically at improving these important systems. In early 1996, SAIC established an Internal Research and Development project devoted to Computerized Criminal History Systems (CCH). This project began with an assessment of current hardware, operating system, and relational database technology. Application software design and development approaches were then reviewed with a focus on object-oriented approaches, three tier client server architectures, and tools that enable the `right sizing' of systems. An operational prototype of a State CCH system was established based on the results of these investigations.

  18. Boldness and its relation to psychopathic personality: Prototypicality analyses among forensic mental health, criminal justice, and layperson raters.

    PubMed

    Sörman, Karolina; Edens, John F; Smith, Shannon Toney; Clark, John W; Kristiansson, Marianne; Svensson, Olof

    2016-06-01

    Research on psychopathic personality has been dominated by a focus on criminality and social deviance, but some theoretical models argue that certain putatively adaptive features are important components of this construct. In 3 samples (forensic mental health practitioners, probation officers and a layperson community sample), we investigated adaptive traits as conceptualized in the Triarchic model of psychopathy (Patrick et al., 2009), specifically the relevance of boldness to construals of psychopathic personality. Participants completed prototypicality ratings of psychopathic traits, including 3 items created to tap components of boldness (Socially bold, Adventurous, Emotionally stable), and they also rated a series of attitudinal statements (e.g., perceived correlates of being psychopathic, moral judgments about psychopaths). The composite Boldness scale was rated as moderately to highly prototypical among forensic mental health practitioners and probation officers and positively associated with other theoretically relevant domains of psychopathy. Across samples, higher composite Boldness ratings predicted greater endorsement of adaptive traits (e.g., social skills) as characteristic of psychopathy. For the individual items, Socially bold was rated as highly prototypical and was associated with theoretically relevant correlates. Adventurous also was seen as prototypical, though to a lesser degree. Only forensic mental health practitioners endorsed Emotionally stable as characteristic of psychopathy. Our results provide partial support for the contention that the boldness concept is viewed as an important component of psychopathy, particularly among professionals who work directly with offender populations. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26844911

  19. The effects of race and criminal justice involvement on access to atypical antipsychotic medications among persons with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Van Dorn, Richard A; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Swartz, Marvin S; Elbogen, Eric B

    2005-06-01

    This study examined the impact of race and arrest history on the likelihood of being prescribed, and maintaining an atypical antipsychotic prescription for 90 or more days among patients with schizophrenia in the community. Participants were 224 adults with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders receiving services in public-sector mental health systems in North Carolina. The data used for this report were from a subsample of a larger group of participants being followed in an observational study and consisted of individuals who were prescribed either an atypical or conventional antipsychotic medication for 90 or more days. The purpose of the analyses presented here was to investigate differences in the likelihood of being prescribed an atypical antipsychotic by demographic and other characteristics. Logistic regression analysis indicated that African American patients were significantly less likely to receive atypical antipsychotics than their white counterparts, even when controlling for key clinical and demographic variables. However, white patients with a history of arrest were no more likely than black patients to receive atypical antipsychotics; that is, minority racial status and criminal involvement each functioned to limit patients' access to the novel medications. Implications for equal access to mental health services, in this case, effective psychopharmacologic treatment, are discussed.

  20. Oral History as a Social Justice Project: Issues for the Qualitative Researcher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janesick, Valerie J.

    2007-01-01

    I am writing this to assist researchers in training and experienced researchers in understanding ways to view oral history as a social justice project. This paper will illuminate the importance of oral history in terms of enriching the knowledge base of qualitative research methods as well. Oral history provides us with an avenue of thick…

  1. The National Trajectory Project of Individuals Found Not Criminally Responsible on Account of Mental Disorder in Canada. Part 4: Criminal Recidivism

    PubMed Central

    Charette, Yanick; Crocker, Anne G; Seto, Michael C; Salem, Leila; Nicholls, Tonia L; Caulet, Malijai

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine criminal recidivism rates of a large sample of people found not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder (NCRMD) in Canada’s 3 most populous provinces, British Columbia, Ontario, and Quebec. Public concern about the dangerousness of people found NCRMD has been fed by media attention on high-profile cases. However, little research is available on the rate of reoffending among people found NCRMD across Canadian provinces. Method: Using data from the National Trajectory Project, this study examined 1800 men and women in British Columbia (n = 222), Ontario (n = 484), and Quebec (n = 1094) who were found NCRMD between May 2000 and April 2005 and followed until December 2008. Results: Recidivism was relatively low after 3 years (17%). There were interprovincial differences after controlling for number of prior criminal offences, diagnosis, seriousness of the index offence, and supervision by the review boards. British Columbia (10%) and Ontario (9%) were similar, whereas Quebec had almost twice the recidivism (22%). People who had committed severe violent index offences were less likely to reoffend than those who had committed less severe offences. People from the sample were less likely to reoffend when under the purview of review boards, across all 3 provinces. Conclusion: The results of this study, along with other research on processing differences, suggest systemic differences in the trajectories and outcomes of persons found NCRMD need to be better understood to guide national policies and practices. PMID:25886688

  2. Renewing Juvenile Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macallair, Daniel; Males, Mike; Enty, Dinky Manek; Vinakor, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    The Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice (CJCJ) was commissioned by Sierra Health Foundation to critically examine California's juvenile justice system and consider the potential role of foundations in promoting systemic reform. The information gathered by CJCJ researchers for this report suggests that foundations can perform a key leadership…

  3. 28 CFR 0.57 - Criminal prosecutions against juveniles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Criminal prosecutions against juveniles. 0.57 Section 0.57 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Criminal Division § 0.57 Criminal prosecutions against juveniles. The Assistant Attorney...

  4. 78 FR 77168 - Meeting of the Office of Justice Programs' Science Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... activities in criminal and juvenile justice. To this end, the Board has designated six (6) subcommittees: National Institute of Justice (NIJ); Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS); Office of Juvenile Justice...

  5. 77 FR 73497 - Meeting of the Office of Justice Programs' Science Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... activities in criminal and juvenile justice. To this end, the Board has designated six (6) subcommittees: National Institute of Justice (NIJ); Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS); Office of Juvenile Justice...

  6. 76 FR 69287 - National Instant Criminal Background Check System Section Agency Information Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... Federal Bureau of Investigation National Instant Criminal Background Check System Section Agency Information Collection Activities: Existing collection, comments requested the Voluntary Appeal File (VAF... Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS) Division's National Instant Criminal Background Check...

  7. 28 CFR 20.34 - Individual's right to access criminal history record information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... history record information. 20.34 Section 20.34 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.34... may obtain a copy of his or her identification record from a state or local criminal justice...

  8. 28 CFR 20.34 - Individual's right to access criminal history record information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... history record information. 20.34 Section 20.34 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.34... may obtain a copy of his or her identification record from a state or local criminal justice...

  9. 28 CFR 20.34 - Individual's right to access criminal history record information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... history record information. 20.34 Section 20.34 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.34... may obtain a copy of his or her identification record from a state or local criminal justice...

  10. 28 CFR 20.34 - Individual's right to access criminal history record information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... history record information. 20.34 Section 20.34 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.34... may obtain a copy of his or her identification record from a state or local criminal justice...

  11. 28 CFR 20.33 - Dissemination of criminal history record information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... information. 20.33 Section 20.33 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.33 Dissemination of criminal history record information. (a) Criminal history record information contained in the III...

  12. 28 CFR 20.33 - Dissemination of criminal history record information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... information. 20.33 Section 20.33 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.33 Dissemination of criminal history record information. (a) Criminal history record information contained in the III...

  13. 28 CFR 20.33 - Dissemination of criminal history record information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... information. 20.33 Section 20.33 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.33 Dissemination of criminal history record information. (a) Criminal history record information contained in the III...

  14. 28 CFR 20.33 - Dissemination of criminal history record information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... information. 20.33 Section 20.33 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.33 Dissemination of criminal history record information. (a) Criminal history record information contained in the III...

  15. Teaching social justice.

    PubMed

    Fahrenwald, Nancy L

    2003-01-01

    Social justice is a core nursing value and the foundation of public health nursing. Social justice ideology requires nursing students to uphold moral, legal, and humanistic principles related to health. As such, teaching social justice requires a basis in moral developmental theory. In addition, teaching social justice demands action beyond classroom pedagogy. The author describes how social justice is taught within a baccalaureate program. A social justice project is described and examples are provided.

  16. Prescription drug abuse: what is being done to address this new drug epidemic? Testimony before the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy and Human Resources.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah

    2006-10-01

    This comprehensive health policy review of the prescription drug abuse epidemic is based on the written and oral testimony of witnesses at a July 26, 2006 Congressional Hearing, including that of Laxmaiah Manchikanti, MD, the chief executive officer of the American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians and additions from review of the literature. Honorable Mark E. Souder, chairman of the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources, introduced the issue as follows: "Prescription drug abuse today is second only to marijuana abuse. In the most recent household survey, initiates to drug abuse started with prescription drugs (especially pain medications) more often than with marijuana. The abuse of prescription drugs is facilitated by easy access (via physicians, the Internet, and the medicine cabinet) and a perception of safety (since the drugs are FDA approved). In addition to the personal toll of drug abuse using prescription drugs, indirect costs associated with prescription drug abuse and diversion include product theft, commission of other crimes to support addiction, law enforcement costs, and encouraging the practice of defensive medicine." The Administration witnesses, Bertha Madras, Nora D. Volkow, MD, Sandra Kweder, MD, and Joe Rannazzisi reviewed the problem of drug abuse and discussed what is being done at the present time as well as future strategies to combat drug abuse, including prescription drug monitoring programs, reducing malprescriptions, public education, eliminating Internet drug pharmacies, and the development of future drugs which are not only tamper-resistant but also non-addictive. The second panel, consisting of consumers and advocates, included Misty Fetco, Linda Surks, and Barbara van Rooyan, all of whom lost their children to drugs, presented their stories and strategies to prevent drug abuse, focusing on education at all levels, development of resistant drugs, and non-opioid treatment of chronic pain. Mathea

  17. Prescription drug abuse: what is being done to address this new drug epidemic? Testimony before the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy and Human Resources.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah

    2006-10-01

    This comprehensive health policy review of the prescription drug abuse epidemic is based on the written and oral testimony of witnesses at a July 26, 2006 Congressional Hearing, including that of Laxmaiah Manchikanti, MD, the chief executive officer of the American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians and additions from review of the literature. Honorable Mark E. Souder, chairman of the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources, introduced the issue as follows: "Prescription drug abuse today is second only to marijuana abuse. In the most recent household survey, initiates to drug abuse started with prescription drugs (especially pain medications) more often than with marijuana. The abuse of prescription drugs is facilitated by easy access (via physicians, the Internet, and the medicine cabinet) and a perception of safety (since the drugs are FDA approved). In addition to the personal toll of drug abuse using prescription drugs, indirect costs associated with prescription drug abuse and diversion include product theft, commission of other crimes to support addiction, law enforcement costs, and encouraging the practice of defensive medicine." The Administration witnesses, Bertha Madras, Nora D. Volkow, MD, Sandra Kweder, MD, and Joe Rannazzisi reviewed the problem of drug abuse and discussed what is being done at the present time as well as future strategies to combat drug abuse, including prescription drug monitoring programs, reducing malprescriptions, public education, eliminating Internet drug pharmacies, and the development of future drugs which are not only tamper-resistant but also non-addictive. The second panel, consisting of consumers and advocates, included Misty Fetco, Linda Surks, and Barbara van Rooyan, all of whom lost their children to drugs, presented their stories and strategies to prevent drug abuse, focusing on education at all levels, development of resistant drugs, and non-opioid treatment of chronic pain. Mathea

  18. 28 CFR 0.57 - Criminal prosecutions against juveniles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criminal prosecutions against juveniles... JUSTICE Criminal Division § 0.57 Criminal prosecutions against juveniles. The Assistant Attorney General..., United States Code, relating to criminal proceedings against juveniles. The Assistant Attorney General...

  19. Addressing elder abuse: the Waterloo restorative justice approach to elder abuse project.

    PubMed

    Groh, Arlene; Linden, Rick

    2011-04-01

    The Community Care Access Centre (CCAC) of Waterloo Region, in partnership with a number of other social service agencies, designed and implemented a restorative justice model applicable to older adults who have been abused by an individual in a position of trust. The project was very successful in building partnerships, as many community agencies came together to deal with the problem of elder abuse. The program also raised the profile of elder abuse in the community. However, despite intensive efforts, referrals to the restorative justice program were quite low. Because of this, the program moved to a new organizational model, the Elder Abuse Response Team (EART), which has retained the guiding philosophy of restorative justice but has broadened the mandate. The team has evolved into a conflict management system that has multiple points of entry for cases and multiple options for dealing with elder abuse. The team has developed a broad range of community partners who can facilitate referrals to the EART and also can help to provide an individualized response to each case. The transition to the EART has been successful, and the number of referrals has increased significantly.

  20. [The mind on the stage of justice: the formation of criminal psychology in the 19th century and its interdisciplinary research].

    PubMed

    Vec, Milos

    2007-09-01

    Criminal psychology emerges at the end of the 18th century as a new academic discipline in lectures and publications. It has recently been investigated by a considerable number of contributions from researchers of different academic backgrounds. In many respects criminal psychology can be seen as a predecessor of criminology. Its subject is the analysis of the origins of crime and its causes and determinants in the human mind. Criminal psychology embraced at that time philosophical, medical, legal and biological aspects. The latter increase in importance in the second half of the 19th century. The conditions of individual responsibility were generally codified in penal law, but had to be individually investigated in crucial cases through expertise in court. There a conflict emerged between medical experts and judges about their ability and competence to decide. At the end of the 19th century criminal psychology is used to fulfil the needs and interests of a criminal law which understands itself as increasingly utilitarian. Force and new instruments of treatment of offenders were legitimized by scientists who were very optimistic about their own epistemological abilities.

  1. Adding positive reinforcement in justice settings: acceptability and feasibility.

    PubMed

    Rudes, Danielle S; Taxman, Faye S; Portillo, Shannon; Murphy, Amy; Rhodes, Anne; Stitzer, Maxine; Luongo, Peter F; Friedmann, Peter D

    2012-04-01

    Although contingency management (CM) approaches are among the most promising methods for initiating drug abstinence (S. T. Higgins, S. M. Alessi, & R. L. Dantona, 2002; S. T. Higgins, S. H. Heil, & J. P. Lussier, 2004), adoption and implementation of CM protocols into treatment programs are both challenging and infrequent. In criminal justice agencies, where roughly 70% of clients report substance abuse issues (F. S. Taxman, K. L. Cropsey, D. W. Young, & H. Wexler, 2007), CM interventions are virtually nonexistent. The Justice Steps (JSTEPS) study uses a longitudinal, mixed-method design to examine the implementation of a CM-based protocol in five justice settings. This article presents qualitative data collected during Phase 1 of the JSTEPS project regarding the acceptability and feasibility of CM in these justice settings. The study finds a level of acceptability (find CM tolerable) and feasibility (find CM suitable) within justice agencies, but with some challenges. These challenges are reflected in the following: (a) incorporating too many desired target behaviors into CM models; (b) facing intraorganizational challenges when designing CM systems; and (c) emphasizing sanctions over rewards despite the evidence-base for positive reinforcers. These findings have implications for advancing the dissemination, adoption, and implementation of evidence-based treatments (and CM in particular) in criminal justice settings.

  2. Adding positive reinforcement in justice settings: Acceptability and feasibility

    PubMed Central

    Rudes, Danielle S.; Taxman, Faye S.; Portillo, Shannon; Murphy, Amy; Rhodes, Anne; Stitzer, Maxine; Luongo, Peter F.; Friedmann, Peter D.

    2013-01-01

    Although contingency management (CM) approaches are among the most promising methods for initiating drug abstinence (S. T. Higgins, S. M. Alessi, & R. L. Dantona, 2002; S. T. Higgins, S. H. Heil, & J. P. Lussier, 2004), adoption and implementation of CM protocols into treatment programs are both challenging and infrequent. In criminal justice agencies, where roughly 70% of clients report substance abuse issues (F. S. Taxman, K. L. Cropsey, D. W. Young, & H. Wexler, 2007), CM interventions are virtually nonexistent. The Justice Steps (JSTEPS) study uses a longitudinal, mixed-method design to examine the implementation of a CM-based protocol in five justice settings. This article presents qualitative data collected during Phase 1 of the JSTEPS project regarding the acceptability and feasibility of CM in these justice settings. The study finds a level of acceptability (find CM tolerable) and feasibility (find CM suitable) within justice agencies, but with some challenges. These challenges are reflected in the following: (a) incorporating too many desired target behaviors into CM models; (b) facing intraorganizational challenges when designing CM systems; and (c) emphasizing sanctions over rewards despite the evidence-base for positive reinforcers. These findings have implications for advancing the dissemination, adoption, and implementation of evidence-based treatments (and CM in particular) in criminal justice settings. PMID:21940135

  3. Co-occurring substance use and mental disorders in the criminal justice system: a new frontier of clinical practice and research.

    PubMed

    Peters, Roger H; Wexler, Harry K; Lurigio, Arthur J

    2015-03-01

    This editorial introduces this special section of the Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, which focuses on justice-involved persons with co-occurring mental and substance use disorders (CODs). It contains seven original articles examining CODs among justice-involved populations that vary by gender, age, setting (e.g., community/ court, jail, prison), environment (urban, rural), geographic region, and nationality. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. A Study of Georgia's Criminal Justice System as It Relates to the Mentally Retarded, i.e. Law Enforcement, Judicial, and Incarceration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atlanta Association for Retarded Children, Inc., Decatur, GA.

    Described is a proposed 2-year study by the Atlanta Association for Retarded Children of Georgia's criminal system as it relates to the mentally retarded. The primary purpose of the study is said to be the determination of the best system for the delivery of services to mentally retarded individuals incarcerated in Georgia's penal institutions.…

  5. The Use of Criminal History Information in College Admissions Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Matthew W.; Runyan, Carol W.; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I.

    2014-01-01

    To understand the potential public health and social justice implications of criminal background screening on college admissions, we examined postsecondary institutions' reasons for collecting or not collecting applicants' criminal justice information. We invited heads of admissions from 300 randomly sampled postsecondary institutions to…

  6. Restorative Justice: A Changing Community Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Thomas G.; Ruddy, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Our purpose herein is to demonstrate how restorative justice continues to unfold globally and we explain how the use of a restorative justice ideology and intervention leads to a common alternative, not only in criminal justice institutions, but also within social agencies, such as elementary schools, and the related social support systems. We…

  7. 28 CFR 16.91 - Exemption of Criminal Division Systems-limited access, as indicated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: (1) Central Criminal Division, Index File and Associated Records System of Records (JUSTICE/CRM-001...)(2), (k)(1) and (k)(2). (r) Because this system contains Department of Justice civil and criminal law... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption of Criminal Division...

  8. 28 CFR 16.91 - Exemption of Criminal Division Systems-limited access, as indicated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: (1) Central Criminal Division, Index File and Associated Records System of Records (JUSTICE/CRM-001...)(2), (k)(1) and (k)(2). (r) Because this system contains Department of Justice civil and criminal law... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption of Criminal Division...

  9. 28 CFR 20.34 - Individual's right to access criminal history record information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... history record information. 20.34 Section 20.34 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.34 Individual's right to access criminal history record information. The procedures by which an individual...

  10. 77 FR 32998 - Solicitation of Comments on Request for United States Assumption of Concurrent Federal Criminal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... Justice Regulation Implementing 18 U.S.C. 1162(d) On December 6, 2011, 76 FR 76037 the Department...; Elk Valley Rancheria AGENCY: Office of Tribal Justice, Department of Justice. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Criminal Jurisdiction recently submitted to the Office of Tribal Justice, Department of Justice by the...

  11. A Report from the National Hispanic Conference on Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice. (Washington D.C., July 28-30, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    InterAmerica Research Associates, Washington, DC.

    Intended to aid administrators, decision-makers, and the general public in learning about and gaining better understanding of Hispanic concerns, needs, and recommendations regarding justice administration, this document includes the keynote addresses and 15 topic papers presented at the conference which was attended by 91 law enforcement experts.…

  12. End of an era. Justice Department ends nine-year criminal probe of Columbia/HCA executives, but company recovery began earlier.

    PubMed

    Galloro, Vince

    2002-07-29

    The longest, costlest criminal healthcare fraud probe in U.S. history is finally over, but its ripple effects are likely to continue. The Columbia/HCA Healthcare Corp. case raised questions about healthcare accounting practices long before the current wave of corporate scandals. But the consensus is that the most crucial step in retooling HCA's image was restoring Thomas First Jr. (left) as chairman and CEO.

  13. Investigating U.S. Links to Nazi War Criminals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtzman, Elizabeth

    1984-01-01

    The list of United States government connections with Nazi war criminals is a long one. We must ensure that Nazi war criminals living in America are brought to justice. And we must both explore and expunge the history of our government's relations with Nazi war criminals. (CS)

  14. The Inextricable Link between Age and Criminal History in Sentencing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushway, Shawn D.; Piehl, Anne Morrison

    2007-01-01

    In sentencing research, significant negative coefficients on age research have been interpreted as evidence that actors in the criminal justice system discriminate against younger people. This interpretation is incomplete. Criminal sentencing laws generally specify punishment in terms of the number of past events in a defendant's criminal history.…

  15. 28 CFR 83.625 - Criminal drug statute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Criminal drug statute. 83.625 Section 83.625 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENT-WIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 83.625 Criminal drug statute. Criminal drug statute means...

  16. 28 CFR 83.625 - Criminal drug statute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criminal drug statute. 83.625 Section 83.625 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENT-WIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 83.625 Criminal drug statute. Criminal drug statute means...

  17. 28 CFR 83.625 - Criminal drug statute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Criminal drug statute. 83.625 Section 83.625 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENT-WIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 83.625 Criminal drug statute. Criminal drug statute means...

  18. 28 CFR 83.625 - Criminal drug statute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Criminal drug statute. 83.625 Section 83.625 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENT-WIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 83.625 Criminal drug statute. Criminal drug statute means...

  19. 28 CFR 83.625 - Criminal drug statute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Criminal drug statute. 83.625 Section 83.625 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENT-WIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 83.625 Criminal drug statute. Criminal drug statute means...

  20. Dynamic and static factors associated with discharge dispositions: the national trajectory project of individuals found not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder (NCRMD) in Canada.

    PubMed

    Crocker, Anne G; Nicholls, Tonia L; Charette, Yanick; Seto, Michael C

    2014-09-01

    The majority of individuals found not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder (NCRMD) in Canada spend some time in hospital before they are conditionally or absolutely (no conditions) discharged to the community by a legally mandated review board. By law, the decision to conditionally discharge an individual found NCRMD should be guided by the need to protect the public, the mental condition of the accused, and the other needs of the accused, especially regarding his/her community reintegration. At the time of this study, Canadian legislation and case law required that the review board disposition should be the "least onerous and least restrictive" possible for the accused. This means that, if there is no evidence that the person poses a significant risk to public safety, he/she must be released. However, the Canadian Criminal Code does not specify the criteria that must be considered when making this risk assessment. This leads to two questions. (1) What predicts review board dispositions? (2) To what extent do disposition determinations reflect evidence-based practices? The present study examined dynamic and static predictors of detention in custody, conditional discharge (CD), and absolute discharge (AD) dispositions among persons found NCRMD across the three largest provinces in Canada. The National Trajectory Project (NTP) examined men and women found NCRMD in British Columbia (BC), Québec (QC), and Ontario (ON) between May 2000 and April 2005, followed until December 2008. For the purposes of this study, individuals who had at least one hearing with a review board were extracted from the NTP dataset (N = 1794: QC = 1089, ON = 483, BC = 222). Over the course of the study, 6743 review board hearings were examined (QC = 3505, ON = 2185, BC = 1053). Despite advances in the risk assessment field, presentation of a comprehensive structured risk assessment to the review board was not the norm. Yet our findings suggest that

  1. Dynamic and static factors associated with discharge dispositions: the national trajectory project of individuals found not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder (NCRMD) in Canada.

    PubMed

    Crocker, Anne G; Nicholls, Tonia L; Charette, Yanick; Seto, Michael C

    2014-09-01

    The majority of individuals found not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder (NCRMD) in Canada spend some time in hospital before they are conditionally or absolutely (no conditions) discharged to the community by a legally mandated review board. By law, the decision to conditionally discharge an individual found NCRMD should be guided by the need to protect the public, the mental condition of the accused, and the other needs of the accused, especially regarding his/her community reintegration. At the time of this study, Canadian legislation and case law required that the review board disposition should be the "least onerous and least restrictive" possible for the accused. This means that, if there is no evidence that the person poses a significant risk to public safety, he/she must be released. However, the Canadian Criminal Code does not specify the criteria that must be considered when making this risk assessment. This leads to two questions. (1) What predicts review board dispositions? (2) To what extent do disposition determinations reflect evidence-based practices? The present study examined dynamic and static predictors of detention in custody, conditional discharge (CD), and absolute discharge (AD) dispositions among persons found NCRMD across the three largest provinces in Canada. The National Trajectory Project (NTP) examined men and women found NCRMD in British Columbia (BC), Québec (QC), and Ontario (ON) between May 2000 and April 2005, followed until December 2008. For the purposes of this study, individuals who had at least one hearing with a review board were extracted from the NTP dataset (N = 1794: QC = 1089, ON = 483, BC = 222). Over the course of the study, 6743 review board hearings were examined (QC = 3505, ON = 2185, BC = 1053). Despite advances in the risk assessment field, presentation of a comprehensive structured risk assessment to the review board was not the norm. Yet our findings suggest that

  2. The National Trajectory Project of Individuals Found Not Criminally Responsible on Account of Mental Disorder. Part 5: How Essential Are Gender-Specific Forensic Psychiatric Services?

    PubMed Central

    Nicholls, Tonia L; Crocker, Anne G; Seto, Michael C; Wilson, Catherine M; Charette, Yanick; Côté, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To state the sociodemographic characteristics, mental health histories, index offence characteristics, and criminal histories of male and female forensic psychiatric patients. Clinicians and researchers advocate that mental health and criminal justice organizations implement gender-specific services; however, few studies have sampled forensic patients to evaluate the extent to which men’s and women’s treatment and management needs are different. Method: Data were collected from Review Board files from May 2000 to April 2005 in the 3 largest Canadian provinces. Using official criminal records, participants were followed for 3 to 8 years, until December 2008. The final sample comprised 1800 individuals: 15.6% were women and 84.4% were men. Results: There were few demographic differences, but women had higher psychosocial functioning than men. Both men and women had extensive mental health histories; women were more likely diagnosed with mood disorders and PDs and men were more likely diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and SUDs. The nature of the index offence did not differ by gender, except women were more likely to have perpetrated murders and attempted murders. For offences against a person, women were more likely to offend against offspring and partners and less likely to offend against strangers, compared with men. Women had significantly less extensive criminal histories than men. Conclusions: Not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder–accused women have a distinct psychosocial, clinical, and criminological profile from their male counterparts, which may suggest gender-specific assessment, risk management, and treatment in forensic services could benefit patients. The findings are also consistent with traditional models (Risk-Need-Responsivity) and ultimately demonstrate the importance of individual assessment and client-centred services. PMID:25886689

  3. The Hunters Point cogeneration project: Environmental justice in power plant siting

    SciTech Connect

    Kosloff, L.H.; Varanini, E.E. III

    1997-12-31

    The recent Hunters Point, San Francisco power plant siting process in California represents the first time that environmental justice has arisen as a major power plant siting issue. Intervenors argued that the siting process was racially and economically biased and were supported by leading environmental justice activists at the Golden Gate Law School`s Environmental Justice Clinic, a leading thinker in this field. The applicant argued that environmental justice charges cannot realistically be made against a modern natural-gas energy facility with state-of-the-art environmental controls. The applicant also argued that environmental justice concerns were fully addressed through the extensive environmental and socioeconomic review carried out by California Energy Commission staff. After extensive testimony and cross-examination, the Commission agreed with the applicant. This case has important lessons for companies that could be charged with environmental justice violations and environmental justice activists who must decide where to most effectively target their efforts. This paper reviews the proceeding and its lessons and makes recommendations regarding future applicability of environmental justice issues to the power generation sector. The authors represented the applicant in the facility siting proceeding.

  4. Dangerous mentally disordered criminals: unresolvable societal fear?

    PubMed

    Leong, G B; Silva, J A; Weinstock, R

    1991-01-01

    The average person fears dangerous criminals, especially those suffering from mental illness. Existing mental health and criminal justice systems provide social control for some of these dangerous individuals, but may be inadequate to deal with those mentally disordered offenders who were not found not guilty by reason of insanity (NGI). In California, innovative laws have attempted to address this problem. However, putative lack of efficacious treatment of mentally ill criminals, insufficient economic support, and individual liberty concerns loom as limiting factors in solving the criminal and psychiatric recidivism problem posed by non-NGI dangerous mentally disordered offenders.

  5. 28 CFR Appendix to Part 20 - Commentary on Selected Sections of the Regulations on Criminal History Record Information Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Regulations on Criminal History Record Information Systems Appendix to Part 20 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Pt. 20, App. Appendix to Part 20—Commentary on Selected Sections of the Regulations on Criminal History Record Information Systems Subpart A-§...

  6. 28 CFR Appendix to Part 20 - Commentary on Selected Sections of the Regulations on Criminal History Record Information Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations on Criminal History Record Information Systems Appendix to Part 20 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Pt. 20, App. Appendix to Part 20—Commentary on Selected Sections of the Regulations on Criminal History Record Information Systems Subpart A-§...

  7. 28 CFR Appendix to Part 20 - Commentary on Selected Sections of the Regulations on Criminal History Record Information Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Regulations on Criminal History Record Information Systems Appendix to Part 20 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Pt. 20, App. Appendix to Part 20—Commentary on Selected Sections of the Regulations on Criminal History Record Information Systems Subpart A-§...

  8. 28 CFR Appendix to Part 20 - Commentary on Selected Sections of the Regulations on Criminal History Record Information Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations on Criminal History Record Information Systems Appendix to Part 20 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Pt. 20, App. Appendix to Part 20—Commentary on Selected Sections of the Regulations on Criminal History Record Information Systems Subpart A-§...

  9. 28 CFR Appendix to Part 20 - Commentary on Selected Sections of the Regulations on Criminal History Record Information Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regulations on Criminal History Record Information Systems Appendix to Part 20 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Pt. 20, App. Appendix to Part 20—Commentary on Selected Sections of the Regulations on Criminal History Record Information Systems Subpart A-§...

  10. Now We Know: Assessing Sexual Assault Criminal Justice Case Processing in an Urban Community Using the Sexual Assault Nurse Practitioner Evaluation Toolkit.

    PubMed

    Valentine, Julie L; Shaw, Jessica; Lark, Alyssa; Campbell, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Campbell and colleagues developed an evaluation Toolkit for use by sexual assault nurse examiners (SANEs) to assess criminal case outcomes in adult sexual assault cases seen by SANE programs (Campbell, Townsend, Shaw, Karim, & Markowitz, 2014; Campbell, Bybee, et al., 2014). The Toolkit provides step-by-step directions and an easy-to-use statistical program. This study describes implementation of the Toolkit in Salt Lake County, the first site outside the pilot sites to utilize the program. The Toolkit revealed that, in Salt Lake County from 2003 to 2011, only 6% of adult sexual assault cases were successfully prosecuted. These findings prompted multiple community discussions, media attention, and a call to action to improve the investigation and prosecution of adult sexual assault cases. The primary purpose of this case report is to encourage other SANE teams and communities to use the Toolkit by sharing the successful experience of Salt Lake County in implementing the Toolkit.Video Abstract available for additional insights from Dr. Valentine (see Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JFN/A19).

  11. Now We Know: Assessing Sexual Assault Criminal Justice Case Processing in an Urban Community Using the Sexual Assault Nurse Practitioner Evaluation Toolkit.

    PubMed

    Valentine, Julie L; Shaw, Jessica; Lark, Alyssa; Campbell, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Campbell and colleagues developed an evaluation Toolkit for use by sexual assault nurse examiners (SANEs) to assess criminal case outcomes in adult sexual assault cases seen by SANE programs (Campbell, Townsend, Shaw, Karim, & Markowitz, 2014; Campbell, Bybee, et al., 2014). The Toolkit provides step-by-step directions and an easy-to-use statistical program. This study describes implementation of the Toolkit in Salt Lake County, the first site outside the pilot sites to utilize the program. The Toolkit revealed that, in Salt Lake County from 2003 to 2011, only 6% of adult sexual assault cases were successfully prosecuted. These findings prompted multiple community discussions, media attention, and a call to action to improve the investigation and prosecution of adult sexual assault cases. The primary purpose of this case report is to encourage other SANE teams and communities to use the Toolkit by sharing the successful experience of Salt Lake County in implementing the Toolkit.Video Abstract available for additional insights from Dr. Valentine (see Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JFN/A19). PMID:27496646

  12. 25 CFR 11.435 - Obstructing justice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Obstructing justice. 11.435 Section 11.435 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.435 Obstructing justice. A person commits a misdemeanor if,...

  13. 25 CFR 11.435 - Obstructing justice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Obstructing justice. 11.435 Section 11.435 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.435 Obstructing justice. A person commits a misdemeanor if,...

  14. 25 CFR 11.435 - Obstructing justice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Obstructing justice. 11.435 Section 11.435 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.435 Obstructing justice. A person commits a misdemeanor if,...

  15. 25 CFR 11.435 - Obstructing justice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Obstructing justice. 11.435 Section 11.435 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.435 Obstructing justice. A person commits a misdemeanor if,...

  16. 25 CFR 11.435 - Obstructing justice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obstructing justice. 11.435 Section 11.435 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.435 Obstructing justice. A person commits a misdemeanor if,...

  17. Some perspectives on criminalization.

    PubMed

    Lamb, H Richard; Weinberger, Linda E

    2013-01-01

    In recently published articles, there has been an underemphasis on the role serious mental illness (SMI) plays in causing persons to be in the criminal justice system. Increasing attention has been paid to other factors, including criminogenic needs. While these needs may be present and contribute to criminal behavior, persons with SMI who are at greatest risk of criminalization are those who are not receiving adequate treatment, structure, social control, and, when necessary, 24-hour care in the mental health system. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been used to reduce recidivism for prisoners, including those with SMI, but persons impaired by their untreated psychotic symptoms may not be able to profit from it. The importance of psychiatric treatment must not be underestimated. Moreover, given their current constraints, correctional systems may not be able to continue accepting large numbers of persons with SMI. Many offenders with serious mental illness pose difficult and expensive problems in treatment and management, such as nonadherence to medication, potential for violence, and substance abuse. The mental health system needs to be given more funding and to take more responsibility for these challenging individuals. PMID:23771942

  18. Mentally disordered criminal offenders in the Swedish criminal system.

    PubMed

    Svennerlind, Christer; Nilsson, Thomas; Kerekes, Nóra; Andiné, Peter; Lagerkvist, Margareta; Forsman, Anders; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Malmgren, Helge

    2010-01-01

    Historically, the Swedish criminal justice system conformed to other Western penal law systems, exempting severely mentally disordered offenders considered to be unaccountable. However, in 1965 Sweden enforced a radical penal law abolishing exceptions based on unaccountability. Mentally disordered offenders have since then been subjected to various forms of sanctions motivated by the offender's need for care and aimed at general prevention. Until 2008, a prison sentence was not allowed for offenders found to have committed a crime under the influence of a severe mental disorder, leaving forensic psychiatric care the most common sanction in this group. Such offenders are nevertheless held criminally responsible, liable for damages, and encumbered with a criminal record. In most cases, such offenders must not be discharged without the approval of an administrative court. Two essentially modern principles may be discerned behind the "Swedish model": first, an attempted abolishment of moral responsibility, omitting concepts such as guilt, accountability, atonement, and retribution, and, second, the integration of psychiatric care into the societal reaction and control systems. The model has been much criticized, and several governmental committees have suggested a re-introduction of a system involving the concept of accountability. This review describes the Swedish special criminal justice provisions on mentally disordered offenders including the legislative changes in 1965 along with current proposals to return to a pre-1965 system, presents current Swedish forensic psychiatric practice and research, and discusses some of the ethical, political, and metaphysical presumptions that underlie the current system.

  19. The interaction of criminal procedure and outcome.

    PubMed

    Laxminarayan, Malini; Pemberton, Antony

    2014-01-01

    Procedural quality is an important aspect of crime victims' experiences in criminal proceedings and consists of different dimensions. Two of these dimensions are procedural justice (voice) and interpersonal justice (respectful treatment). Social psychological research has suggested that both voice and respectful treatment are moderated by the impact of outcomes of justice procedures on individuals' reactions. To add to this research, we extend this assertion to the criminal justice context, examining the interaction between the assessment of procedural quality and outcome favorability with victim's trust in the legal system and self-esteem. Hierarchical regression analyses reveal that voice, respectful treatment and outcome favorability are predictive of trust in the legal system and self-esteem. Further investigation reveals that being treated with respect is only related to trust in the legal system when outcome favorability is high. PMID:24656217

  20. The interaction of criminal procedure and outcome.

    PubMed

    Laxminarayan, Malini; Pemberton, Antony

    2014-01-01

    Procedural quality is an important aspect of crime victims' experiences in criminal proceedings and consists of different dimensions. Two of these dimensions are procedural justice (voice) and interpersonal justice (respectful treatment). Social psychological research has suggested that both voice and respectful treatment are moderated by the impact of outcomes of justice procedures on individuals' reactions. To add to this research, we extend this assertion to the criminal justice context, examining the interaction between the assessment of procedural quality and outcome favorability with victim's trust in the legal system and self-esteem. Hierarchical regression analyses reveal that voice, respectful treatment and outcome favorability are predictive of trust in the legal system and self-esteem. Further investigation reveals that being treated with respect is only related to trust in the legal system when outcome favorability is high.

  1. 76 FR 29675 - Assumption of Concurrent Federal Criminal Jurisdiction in Certain Areas of Indian Country

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... Country AGENCY: Office of the Attorney General, Department of Justice. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY... accept concurrent criminal jurisdiction within the tribe's Indian country, and for the Attorney General.... Department of Justice, United States Attorneys' Manual, tit. 9, Criminal Resource Manual Sec. 688...

  2. 28 CFR 0.46 - Certain civil litigation and foreign criminal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... criminal proceedings. 0.46 Section 0.46 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Civil Division § 0.46 Certain civil litigation and foreign criminal proceedings. The... the scope of § 0.45, direct all other civil litigation including claims by or against the...

  3. Seeking a Justice Reform Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dervarics, Charles

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on the legislation proposed by Senator Jim Webb which authorizes a blue-ribbon commission of experts who would undertake an 18-month review of the nation's criminal justice system, including issues such as the disproportionate share of minorities--particularly African-Americans--in the U.S. prisons. Webb said that the U.S. has…

  4. Understanding the Civil Justice System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirshon, Robert E.; Bolduan, Linda M.

    1997-01-01

    Provides a concise and informative overview of the civil justice system. Examines various components and issues including the federal and state court systems, differences between civil and criminal law, background in common law, types of civil law, civil procedure, and the effect and implementation of civil law in everyday life. (MJP)

  5. Accountability in Teenage Dating Violence: A Comparative Examination of Adult Domestic Violence and Juvenile Justice Systems Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zosky, Diane L.

    2010-01-01

    Unlike in the adult criminal justice system, where domestic violence policies hold perpetrators accountable for their violence, the juvenile justice system rarely addresses teenage dating violence. Although the adult criminal justice system has pursued policies toward intimate partner violence grounded on a "zero tolerance" ideology, the juvenile…

  6. Asperger's disorder and the criminal law.

    PubMed

    Freckelton, Ian

    2011-06-01

    Asperger's Disorder has the potential to be relevant to many aspects of the functioning of the criminal justice system. However, its mere presence does not excuse or justify all offending. The inquiry into its potential relevance to criminal offending and sentencing must be both contextual and informed by suitably qualified expert evidence. This column reviews court decisions in respect of offences of physical violence, sexual violence, arson, stalking/harassing and computer offences across a range of jurisdictions to evaluate how courts have latterly incorporated Asperger's Disorder into decisions about criminal responsibility and culpability.

  7. 28 CFR 115.371 - Criminal and administrative agency investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Criminal and administrative agency investigations. 115.371 Section 115.371 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Investigations § 115.371 Criminal...

  8. 28 CFR 115.171 - Criminal and administrative agency investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Criminal and administrative agency investigations. 115.171 Section 115.171 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Investigations § 115.171 Criminal and...

  9. 28 CFR 115.71 - Criminal and administrative agency investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Criminal and administrative agency investigations. 115.71 Section 115.71 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Investigations § 115.71 Criminal...

  10. 28 CFR 115.71 - Criminal and administrative agency investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Criminal and administrative agency investigations. 115.71 Section 115.71 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Investigations § 115.71 Criminal...

  11. 28 CFR 115.371 - Criminal and administrative agency investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Criminal and administrative agency investigations. 115.371 Section 115.371 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Investigations § 115.371 Criminal...

  12. 28 CFR 115.371 - Criminal and administrative agency investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Criminal and administrative agency investigations. 115.371 Section 115.371 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Investigations § 115.371 Criminal...

  13. 28 CFR 115.71 - Criminal and administrative agency investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Criminal and administrative agency investigations. 115.71 Section 115.71 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Investigations § 115.71 Criminal...

  14. 28 CFR 115.171 - Criminal and administrative agency investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Criminal and administrative agency investigations. 115.171 Section 115.171 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Investigations § 115.171 Criminal and...

  15. 28 CFR 115.171 - Criminal and administrative agency investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Criminal and administrative agency investigations. 115.171 Section 115.171 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Investigations § 115.171 Criminal and...

  16. 28 CFR 3.2 - Assistant Attorney General, Criminal Division.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (See also 28 CFR 0.55(i).) (28 U.S.C. 509 and 510) ... Division. 3.2 Section 3.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GAMBLING DEVICES § 3.2 Assistant Attorney General, Criminal Division. The Assistant Attorney General, Criminal Division, is authorized...

  17. Counseling between Recognition, Justice and Difference: The Significance of Power Asymmetries, Communicative Projects and Unintended Consequences in Career Counseling of Immigrants in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzberg, Fredrik; Sundelin, Åsa

    2014-01-01

    This article consists of two parts. First we present an ongoing Swedish research project, "Counseling between recognition, justice and difference". The aims of the project are presented, along with an outline of the political and professional questions that motivate it and the theories which inform it. In the second part, an account of…

  18. 28 CFR 906.2 - Third party handling of criminal history record information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Third party handling of criminal history... of criminal history record information. (a) Except as prohibited in paragraph (b) of this section, criminal history record information obtained from the III System for noncriminal justice purposes may...

  19. 28 CFR 906.2 - Third party handling of criminal history record information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Third party handling of criminal history... of criminal history record information. (a) Except as prohibited in paragraph (b) of this section, criminal history record information obtained from the III System for noncriminal justice purposes may...

  20. Racial differences in the criminalization of the mentally ill.

    PubMed

    Grekin, P M; Jemelka, R; Trupin, E W

    1994-01-01

    "Criminalization," the hypothesis that mentally ill persons are diverted to the criminal justice system, has been difficult to confirm. The few relevant studies have examined aspects of the mental health or the criminal justice systems, but not both. This study compares state hospital admissions with the admission of mentally ill persons to state prisons. There was considerable variation between counties. Counties sent more mentally ill members of their largest minority group to prison than expected. These results suggest that jurisdictions differ in their use of these two systems and that race is a factor in this difference.

  1. Criminal Justice. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) contains a competency list verified by expert workers and developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from Ohio. This OCAP identifies the occupational, academic, and employability skills (competencies)…

  2. Criminal Justice and Forensic Science Reform Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Leahy, Patrick J. [D-VT

    2014-03-27

    03/27/2014 Read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (text of measure as introduced: CR S1822-1830) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. Criminal Justice Education Directory, 1978-80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Judi, Ed.

    This directory, a result of questionnaires circulated by the Behavioral Research Division of the International Association of Chiefs of Police, provides information on the types of programs and number of degree granting institutions that exist in the field of police science in the United States. The introduction traces the growth of police…

  4. National Criminal Justice Commission Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Deutch, Theodore E. [D-FL-21

    2013-02-01

    02/28/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, And Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. Avoiding criminal liabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Blattner, J.W. ); Bramble, G.M. )

    1994-06-01

    Armed with more than 120 investigative agents, the US Environmental Protection Agency, through its attorneys at the Dept. of Justice, charges 5 to 10 engineers and business people with criminal violations of the nation's environmental regulations in any given week. There are some 10,000 pages of federal (let alone state) environmental regulations. The rules apply to large and small companies alike. As a practical matter, the sheer scope and complexity of environmental regulatory programs make 100% compliance virtually unattainable for most industrial enterprises. Where it is no longer a defense to claim lack of knowledge of one's regulatory obligations, and where courts allow the inference of criminal knowledge based on what the defendant should have known, what is a company to do The environmental audit provides a solution to this problem. Progressive audit programs are established with three goals in mind: to ensure that programs and practices at facilities are in compliance with applicable rules and regulations; to affirm that management systems are in place at the facilities to support ongoing compliance; and to identify needs or opportunities where it may be desirable to go beyond compliance to protect human health and the environment. This paper discusses the implementation of an audit program.

  6. Does Social Justice Ground Democracy in Education or Does Democracy Ground Social Justice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser-Burgess, Sheron

    2013-01-01

    The author examines one particular systematic and normative theorization of social justice in Barry Bull's "Social Justice in Education." Bull embarks on a timely and ambitious theory-to-practice project of grounding an educational theory of social justice in Rawls's seminal, liberal, distributive justice tome. The author…

  7. The National Trajectory Project of Individuals Found Not Criminally Responsible on Account of Mental Disorder in Canada. Part 2: The People Behind the Label

    PubMed Central

    Crocker, Anne G; Nicholls, Tonia L; Seto, Michael C; Charette, Yanick; Côté, Gilles; Caulet, Malijai

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the psychosocio-criminological characteristics of not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder (NCRMD)–accused people and compare them across the 3 most populous provinces. In Canada, the number of people found NCRMD has risen during the past 20 years. The Criminal Code is federally legislated but provincially administered, and mental health services are provincially governed. Our study offers a rare opportunity to observe the characteristics and trajectories of NCRMD–accused people. Method: The National Trajectory Project examined 1800 men and women found NCRMD in British Columbia (n = 222), Quebec (n = 1094), and Ontario (n = 484) between May 2000 to April 2005, followed until December 2008. Results: The most common primary diagnosis was a psychotic spectrum disorder. One-third of NCRMD–accused people had a severe mental illness and a concomitant substance use disorder, with British Columbia having the highest rate of dually diagnosed NCRMD–accused people. Most accused people (72.4%) had at least 1 prior psychiatric hospitalization. Two-thirds of index NCRMD offences were against the person, with a wide range of severity. Family members, followed by professionals, such as police and mental health care workers, were the most frequent victims. Quebec had the highest proportion of people with a mood disorder and the lowest median offence severity. There were both interprovincial differences and similarities in the characteristics of NCRMD–accused people. Conclusions: Contrary to public perception, severe violent offenses such as murder, attempted murder or sexual offences represent a small proportion of all NCRMD verdict offences. The results reveal a heterogeneous population regarding mental health and criminological characteristics in need of hierarchically organized forensic mental health services and levels of security. NCRMD–accused people were well known to civil psychiatric services prior to being found NCRMD

  8. Victim-induced criminality.

    PubMed

    Fooner, M

    1966-09-01

    about the probable effects on the administration of criminal justice. These are pragmatic problems; there is a third problem which may at this time seem speculative, but is, nevertheless, quite important. 3) To what extent will a particular proposal for victim compensation contribute to a temptation-opportunity pattern in victim behavior? In previous studies it has been pointed out that large numbers of our fellow Americans have tended to acquire casual money-handling habits-generically designated "carelessness"-which contribute to the national growth of criminality. How the victim helps the criminal was sketched in reports of those studies (10). It was made abundantly clear that human beings in our affluent society cannot be assumed to be prudent or self-protective against the hazards of crime. Even when the "victim" is not overtly acting to commit a crime-as in the case of the property owner who hires an arsonist-he often tempts the offender. Among the victims of burglary-statistically the most prevalent crime in the United States-are a substantial number of Americans who keep cash, jewelry, and other valuables carelessly at home or in hotel rooms to which the burglar has easy access through door or window. Victims of automobile theft-one of the fastest growing classes of crime-include drivers who leave the vehicle or its contents invitingly accessible to thieves. And so on with other classes of crime. As pointed out in previous studies, when victim behavior follows a temptation-opportunity pattern, it (i) contributes to a "climate of criminal inducements," (ii) adds to the economic resources available to criminal societies, and (iii) detracts from the ability of lawenforcement agencies to suppress the growth of crime.

  9. Self-Sufficiency in Northern Justice Issues. Proceedings of the Northern Justice Society Meeting (5th, Sitka, Alaska, April 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Curt Taylor, Ed.

    As indigenous peoples in the Arctic move closer to sovereignty, self-sufficiency in the realm of criminal justice assumes paramount importance. This book outlines initiatives and strategies to improve the delivery of justice services to aboriginal peoples in Canada, Alaska, and Greenland. Topics include: social and spiritual causes of alcoholism…

  10. Restorative Mediation: The Application of Restorative Justice Practice and Philosophy to Clergy Sexual Abuse Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Douglas E.; Harvey, Linda

    2008-01-01

    This article will present the restorative justice model and examine how the restorative justice philosophy and process can be applied to clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse and religious sexual misconduct to resolve legal claims and allow the process of healing to begin. Restorative justice is a holistic approach to criminal, civil, and church law…

  11. Conflict Resolution, Restorative Justice Approaches and Bullying in Young People's Residential Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlechild, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Restorative justice has been an increasing feature in the discourses within adult and youth justice criminal justice systems in recent years. This article examines interpersonal conflicts arising from crime, bullying and antisocial behaviour in residential care, and the advantages and disadvantages of utilising such approaches in relation to these…

  12. Expanding a Community's Justice Response to Sex Crimes Through Advocacy, Prosecutorial, and Public Health Collaboration: Introducing the RESTORE Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Mary P.; Bachar, Karen J.; Hopkins, C. Quince; Carlson, Carolyn

    2004-01-01

    Problems in criminal justice system response to date-acquaintance rape and nonpenetration sexual offenses include (a) they are markers of a sexual offending career, yet are viewed as minor; (b) perpetrators are not held accountable in ways that reduce reoffense; and (c) criminal justice response disappoints and traumatizes victims. To address…

  13. Seeking Justice: Crime and Punishment in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiMascio, William M.

    Five million people in the United States are under the supervision of the criminal justice system, 1.5 million in prisons or jails, the rest on probation or parole, and the inmate population continues to grow. Taxpayers spend billions of dollars each year on prisons and jails, yet the solution to crime problems remains elusive. To assist in…

  14. Forensic aerial photography: projected 3-D exhibits facilitating rapid environmental justice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Robert A.

    2009-02-01

    Forensic stereoscopic analysis of historical aerial photography is successfully identifying the causes of environmental degradation, including erosion and unlawful releases of hazardous wastes into the environment. The photogrammetric evidence can successfully pinpoint the specific locations of undocumented hazardous waste landfills and other types of unlawful releases of chemicals and wastes into the environment, providing location data for targeted investigation, characterization, and subsequent remediation. The findings of these studies are being effectively communicated in a simple, memorable, and compelling way by projecting the three-dimensional (3-D) sequences of historical aerial photography utilizing polarized 3-D presentation methods.

  15. Social justice in pandemic preparedness.

    PubMed

    DeBruin, Debra; Liaschenko, Joan; Marshall, Mary Faith

    2012-04-01

    Pandemic influenza planning in the United States violates the demands of social justice in 2 fundamental respects: it embraces the neutrality of procedural justice at the expense of more substantive concern with health disparities, thus perpetuating a predictable and preventable social injustice, and it fails to move beyond lament to practical planning for alleviating barriers to accessing care. A pragmatic social justice approach, addressing both health disparities and access barriers, should inform pandemic preparedness. Achieving social justice goals in pandemic response is challenging, but strategies are available to overcome the obstacles. The public engagement process of one state's pandemic ethics project influenced the development of these strategies.

  16. Organizational Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Travis

    2013-01-01

    Helping principals understand the importance of organizational justice is the first step in enhancing learning outcomes for all learners, regardless of their social class, race, abilities, sex, or gender. In schools, organizational justice may be defined as teachers' perceptions of fairness, respect, and equity that relate to their…

  17. Criminalization of HIV transmission: poor public health policy.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Edwin

    2009-12-01

    Criminalization of HIV transmission and exposure is an ineffective tool for combating AIDS and a costly distraction from programs that we know work--programs such as effective prevention, protection against discrimination, reducing stigma, empowering women and providing access to testing and treatment. In this article, which is based on a public lecture he gave at "From Evidence and Principle to Policy and Action," the 1st Annual Symposium on HIV, Law and Human Rights, held on 12-13 June 2009 in Toronto, Canada, Justice Edwin Cameron analyzes the surge in criminal prosecutions, discusses the role that stigma plays in these prosecutions and makes the case against criminalization.

  18. 75 FR 35087 - Violent Criminal Apprehension Program; Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... Federal Bureau of Investigation Violent Criminal Apprehension Program; Agency Information Collection... review: Revision of a currently approved collection due to expire 10/31/2010, Violent Criminal... investigating violent crimes. Established by the Department of Justice in 1985, ViCAP serves as the...

  19. 75 FR 52027 - Violent Criminal Apprehension Program: Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... Federal Bureau of Investigation Violent Criminal Apprehension Program: Agency Information Collection... review: Revision of a currently approved collection due to expire 10/31/2010 Violent Criminal... investigating violent crimes. Established by the Department of Justice in 1985, ViCAP serves as the...

  20. Peace and Justice Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Current Issues in Catholic Higher Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Articles in this issue of "Current Issues in Catholic Higher Education" concern the results of pilot projects in peace and justice education at several colleges and universities, along with initiatives made at other institutions. In "Report on ACCU's Pilot Programs," David Johnson provides an overview of the experiences of the seven institutions…

  1. The Afro-American before the Burger Court, 1976-1978: Justice Granted or Justice Denied?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Robert Lewis

    1978-01-01

    Supreme Court rulings during 1976-78 on capital punishment; criminal justice and prisoner rights; busing and school desegregation; discrimination in housing and employment; rights of illegitimates and family relations; abortion, voting rights, tenant landlord relations; and "reverse discrimination" have had a significant impact on Black Americans.…

  2. 28 CFR 115.271 - Criminal and administrative agency investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Criminal and administrative agency investigations. 115.271 Section 115.271 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Community Confinement Facilities Investigations §...

  3. 28 CFR 115.271 - Criminal and administrative agency investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Criminal and administrative agency investigations. 115.271 Section 115.271 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Community Confinement Facilities Investigations §...

  4. 28 CFR 115.271 - Criminal and administrative agency investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Criminal and administrative agency investigations. 115.271 Section 115.271 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Community Confinement Facilities Investigations §...

  5. 8 CFR 1003.41 - Evidence of criminal conviction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evidence of criminal conviction. 1003.41 Section 1003.41 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... that indicates the existence of a conviction; (4) Minutes of a court proceeding or a transcript of...

  6. 8 CFR 1003.41 - Evidence of criminal conviction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Evidence of criminal conviction. 1003.41 Section 1003.41 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... that indicates the existence of a conviction; (4) Minutes of a court proceeding or a transcript of...

  7. 8 CFR 1003.41 - Evidence of criminal conviction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evidence of criminal conviction. 1003.41 Section 1003.41 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... that indicates the existence of a conviction; (4) Minutes of a court proceeding or a transcript of...

  8. 8 CFR 1003.41 - Evidence of criminal conviction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evidence of criminal conviction. 1003.41 Section 1003.41 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... that indicates the existence of a conviction; (4) Minutes of a court proceeding or a transcript of...

  9. 8 CFR 1003.41 - Evidence of criminal conviction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence of criminal conviction. 1003.41 Section 1003.41 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... that indicates the existence of a conviction; (4) Minutes of a court proceeding or a transcript of...

  10. Enhancing the Career Development of Individuals Who Have Criminal Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mindi N.; Cummings, Devon L.

    2010-01-01

    Large numbers of individuals are involved in the criminal justice system. Upon release, most have difficulty finding employment and stabilizing economic resources, which contribute to recidivism. To date, the role of work in the lives of ex-offenders has virtually been ignored in the vocational literature. The purpose of this article is to…

  11. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: can diminished responsibility diminish criminal behaviour?

    PubMed

    Mela, Mansfield; Luther, Glen

    2013-01-01

    This text examines how current scientific knowledge has the potential of fulfilling one of the major functions of the criminal justice system. Scientific knowledge should be used to ensure that the criminal justice system's functioning results in maximizing societal protection and crime reduction. Abnormal states of the mind contribute to criminal behaviour and are considered in exculpatory defences. The failure of the long standing insanity defence and its utility among cognitively impaired offenders, provided impetus to this work. In estimating the success rates (or lack thereof) of raised defences for the cases of the 'invisible disorder', fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), coming before the Canadian Courts, we sought to expound on the reasons, from knowledge and pragmatic perspectives. We propose that a diminished responsibility defence and verdict that recognizes the 'grey zone' between 'knowing' and 'not knowing' based on neurocognitive disparities in FASD serves the individual, legal system and the society better than the current practice.

  12. Criminal typology of veterans entering substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Nicole R; Blonigen, Daniel; Finlay, Andrea; Timko, Christine

    2015-07-01

    Criminal justice involvement among veterans is a critical and timely concern, yet little is known about criminal histories and clinical characteristics among veterans seeking treatment for substance use disorders (SUDs). The present study examined criminal typology, clinical characteristics, treatment utilization, and 12-step mutual-help group (MHG) participation among veterans (N = 332) at intake to SUD treatment at the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), and 6 months and 1 year post-intake. Cluster analysis yielded three types of criminal histories mild-(78.9%), moderate (13.6%), and severe (7.5%)-distinguished by type of offense, number of convictions, and number of months incarcerated. At intake, participants with mild criminal histories reported more alcohol problems and fewer legal and employment problems than participants with moderate and severe criminal histories. Participants with severe criminal histories were most likely to attend a 12-step MHG meeting in the year post-intake, but all groups had high attendance. When only participants who had attended at least one meeting in the year post-intake were compared, participants with mild criminal histories worked more steps and were more involved in 12-step practices. All groups improved between baseline and follow-up and did not differ at follow-ups on substance use or other clinical outcomes. Multiple regressions identified treatment utilization and MHG attendance, but not baseline criminal history, as significant predictors of improved substance use problem severity at follow-up. Outpatient treatment and 12-step MHG attendance appear to be important components of recovery for veterans with varying criminal histories. Clinicians in SUD treatment programs should screen for criminal histories at treatment intake to ensure appropriate treatment planning.

  13. [Penal aspects of psychiatric intervention: management modes and impact of new criminal legislation].

    PubMed

    Laberge, D; Morin, D; Robert, M

    1995-01-01

    Psychiatry and criminal justice have been closely related for a long time. Traces of such ties can already be found during the 19th century through the establishment of the contemporary systems of social control. Various questions that will mark the development of policies in this domain were important objects of discussion and analysis: Is mental illness a cause of criminality? Should the "insane" be held responsible for their crimes? What are the appropriate measures to heal, reform, control? In other words, should we consider the individual as sick or as criminal? If these questions are formulated differently nowadays they haven't lost any of their relevance. In this article, we will briefly present the forms of intervention available to the criminal justice system when dealing with persons suffering from mental health problems. This presentation is based on recent studies conducted in Montreal, elsewhere in Canada, as well as in the United States. The main stages of the criminal justice process will be examined, taking into account the recent modifications to the Canadian Criminal Code and its impact on the relations between the courts and psychiatric facilities. This type of situation is not without impact on community mental health for two main reasons. First, with the diminishing public funding of various health services there seems to be a growing practice of criminalization of persons suffering from mental health problems, especially the most vulnerable segments of this population. Secondly, there is a growing trend, in the criminal justice system, of requiring support from community groups or facilities to deal with these criminalized individuals. In the coming years criminalization will constitute an increasing and complex challenge for community mental health.

  14. The criminalization of treating end of life patients with risky pain medication and the role of the extreme emergency situation.

    PubMed

    Castellano, Gina

    2007-10-01

    This Note examines the legality of physicians treating patients near the end of life with risky pain medication, specifically during an extreme emergency situation. The issues discussed include whether such treatment should be criminalized and, if criminalized, what standard should be used to determine culpability. This Note proposes that physicians should not be shielded from the criminal justice system, but that the standard of double effect intent should be expressly adopted in the adjudication of such cases.

  15. Indian Justice: A Research Bibliography. Council of Planning Librarians Exchange Bibliography 1134, October 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Vincent J.

    Compiled for educators, social workers, police officers, planners, and others interested in the problem of criminal justice for Native Americans, this bibliography cites 911 materials pertaining to American Indian justice. Covering the period from 1966 to 1975, citations were extracted from the following indices and abstracts: Readers' Guide to…

  16. Restorative Justice, Reintegration, and Race: Reclaiming Collective Identity in the Postracial Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utheim, Ragnhild

    2014-01-01

    Restorative justice has gained ascendancy within both judicial systems and educational settings through which court-involved youth are resocialized as part of reintegration intervention. This article explores the conflict over collective representation at the intersections among public education, criminal justice, and restorative intervention. The…

  17. Restorative Justice in Schools: The Influence of Race on Restorative Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Allison Ann; Welch, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Schools today are more frequently using punitive discipline practices to control student behavior, despite the greater effectiveness of community-building techniques on compliance that are based on restorative justice principles found in the criminal justice system. Prior research testing the racial threat hypothesis has found that the racial…

  18. A Phenomenological Study of the Experience of Respondents in Campus-Based Restorative Justice Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meagher, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this dissertation was the use of restorative justice practices in the collegiate setting. Some have expressed concern with the legal nature of campus conduct processes. Restorative practices have been implemented in criminal justice and K-12 settings and are seen by some as an antidote to overly legalistic campus conduct processes.…

  19. "I Was Dead Restorative Today": From Restorative Justice to Restorative Approaches in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCluskey, G.; Lloyd, G.; Stead, J.; Kane, J.; Riddell, S.; Weedon, E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores definitions and understandings of restorative practices in education. It offers a critique of current theoretical models of restorative justice originally derived from the criminal justice system and now becoming popular in educational settings. It questions the appropriateness of these concepts as they are being introduced to…

  20. Neuroscience and legal determination of criminal responsibility.

    PubMed

    Eastman, Nigel; Campbell, Colin

    2006-04-01

    Neuroscience is increasingly identifying associations between biology and violence that appear to offer courts evidence relevant to criminal responsibility. In addition, in a policy era of 'zero tolerance of risk', evidence of biological abnormality in some of those who are violent, or biological markers of violence, may be seized on as a possible basis for preventive detention in the interest of public safety. However, there is a mismatch between questions that the courts and society wish answered and those that neuroscience is capable of answering. This poses a risk to the proper exercise of justice and to civil liberties.

  1. Health & justice: health care for people involved in the justice system.

    PubMed

    2010-03-01

    The issue of health and justice is especially pressing because people involved in the justice system are one of the most medically vulnerable groups in this country. They are often at-risk youth, children and adults with a history of physical and sexual abuse, low-income men of color, and people with high rates of chronic and communicable disease who may also be struggling with mental illness and substance abuse. Health funders have found that focusing on people entering, in, or emerging from the criminal and juvenile justice systems increases the likelihood of connecting with vulnerable populations that are hard to pull into traditional health interventions. Successful initiatives targeting these groups improve health, reduce recidivism, and transform systems by building cross-sectoral partnerships among health, justice, mental health, and substance abuse systems, which may require policy change at the local, state, and federal levels.

  2. The Impact of Acceptance of Electronic Evidence before and after the 2006 Federal Rules of Evidence on Criminal Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrego, Jesus

    2010-01-01

    Legal scholars have established that the U.S. Department of Justice's 2004 Federal Rules of Evidence (FRE) has created confusion in legal rulings on criminal cases involving digital evidence, resulting in conflicting verdicts. With the 2006 FRE update, the Department of Justice attempted to correct the problem. The conceptual framework for this…

  3. Miscarriages of justice: the role of homicide review.

    PubMed

    Jones, Dean

    2011-04-01

    Miscarriages of justice within the United Kingdom have received much publicity since the early nineties and served to undermine confidence in the Criminal Justice system. One fairly recent activity on the part of the Association of Chief Police Officers which has served to reduce the likelihood of such miscarriages is the principle of the review of major crime investigations and in particular murder inquiries. This paper reflects upon the possible causes of flawed investigations which have led to miscarriages of justice over the recent past and refers to the major academic work which supports the principle of reviewing murder inquiries.

  4. A Call for Restorative Justice in Higher Education Judicial Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Karen L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to provide support for post-secondary institutions' exploring and implementing restorative justice in their judicial practices. Although restorative principles have been employed successfully across the globe in criminal proceedings and K-12 education, most colleges and universities have not yet embraced this practice. By exploring…

  5. Parents in Prison: Justice Literacy and Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, Laura; Baille, Daphne

    2011-01-01

    With the highest incarceration rate in the world, the United States has set an inauspicious precedent. More than 1.7 million American children--one in every 43--have a parent in jail or prison. The generational effects of incarceration are deep and lasting and include vastly increased risks of criminal justice involvement among the children of…

  6. Restorative justice as social justice for victims of gendered violence: a standpoint feminist perspective.

    PubMed

    van Wormer, Katherine

    2009-04-01

    This article provides an overview of restorative justice as a process and examines its relevance to women who have been victimized by physical and sexual abuse. The starting point is the justice system with its roots in adversarial, offender-oriented practices of obtaining justice. The widespread dissatisfaction by battered women and rape victims and their advocates with the current system of mandatory law enforcement opens the door for consideration of alternative forms of dealing with domestic violence. Restorative justice strategies, as argued here, have several major advantages. Like social work, these strategies are solution-based rather than problem-based processes, give voice to marginalized people, and focus on healing and reconciliation. Moreover, restorative justice offers an avenue through which the profession of social work can re-establish its historic role in criminal justice. The four models most relevant to women's victimization are victim-offender conferencing, family group conferencing, healing circles, and community reparations. Each model is examined separately from a feminist standpoint. The discussion is informed by insights from the teachings of standpoint feminist theory and social work values, especially social justice.

  7. Restorative justice as social justice for victims of gendered violence: a standpoint feminist perspective.

    PubMed

    van Wormer, Katherine

    2009-04-01

    This article provides an overview of restorative justice as a process and examines its relevance to women who have been victimized by physical and sexual abuse. The starting point is the justice system with its roots in adversarial, offender-oriented practices of obtaining justice. The widespread dissatisfaction by battered women and rape victims and their advocates with the current system of mandatory law enforcement opens the door for consideration of alternative forms of dealing with domestic violence. Restorative justice strategies, as argued here, have several major advantages. Like social work, these strategies are solution-based rather than problem-based processes, give voice to marginalized people, and focus on healing and reconciliation. Moreover, restorative justice offers an avenue through which the profession of social work can re-establish its historic role in criminal justice. The four models most relevant to women's victimization are victim-offender conferencing, family group conferencing, healing circles, and community reparations. Each model is examined separately from a feminist standpoint. The discussion is informed by insights from the teachings of standpoint feminist theory and social work values, especially social justice. PMID:19366159

  8. Underage Drinking: Information on Federal Funds Targeted at Prevention. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources, House Committee on Government Reform, and to Representative John L. Mica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stana, Richard M.

    This document describes a project undertaken to identify the nature and extent of Federal efforts related to the prevention of underage drinking to assist Congress in its deliberations on whether additional attention to alcohol use is needed. The report specifically aims to identify the amount of appropriated fiscal year 2000 Federal funds that…

  9. The perfect match: Do criminal stereotypes bias forensic evidence analysis?

    PubMed

    Smalarz, Laura; Madon, Stephanie; Yang, Yueran; Guyll, Max; Buck, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    This research provided the first empirical test of the hypothesis that stereotypes bias evaluations of forensic evidence. A pilot study (N = 107) assessed the content and consensus of 20 criminal stereotypes by identifying perpetrator characteristics (e.g., sex, race, age, religion) that are stereotypically associated with specific crimes. In the main experiment (N = 225), participants read a mock police incident report involving either a stereotyped crime (child molestation) or a nonstereotyped crime (identity theft) and judged whether a suspect's fingerprint matched a fingerprint recovered at the crime scene. Accompanying the suspect's fingerprint was personal information about the suspect of the type that is routinely available to fingerprint analysts (e.g., race, sex) and which could activate a stereotype. Participants most often perceived the fingerprints to match when the suspect fit the criminal stereotype, even though the prints did not actually match. Moreover, participants appeared to be unaware of the extent to which a criminal stereotype had biased their evaluations. These findings demonstrate that criminal stereotypes are a potential source of bias in forensic evidence analysis and suggest that suspects who fit criminal stereotypes may be disadvantaged over the course of the criminal justice process. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. THE CRIMINAL PSYCHOPATH: HISTORY, NEUROSCIENCE, TREATMENT, AND ECONOMICS.

    PubMed

    Kiehl, Kent A; Hoffman, Morris B

    2011-01-01

    The manuscript surveys the history of psychopathic personality, from its origins in psychiatric folklore to its modern assessment in the forensic arena. Individuals with psychopathic personality, or psychopaths, have a disproportionate impact on the criminal justice system. Psychopaths are twenty to twenty-five times more likely than non-psychopaths to be in prison, four to eight times more likely to violently recidivate compared to non-psychopaths, and are resistant to most forms of treatment. This article presents the most current clinical efforts and neuroscience research in the field of psychopathy. Given psychopathy's enormous impact on society in general and on the criminal justice system in particular, there are significant benefits to increasing awareness of the condition. This review also highlights a recent, compelling and cost-effective treatment program that has shown a significant reduction in violent recidivism in youth on a putative trajectory to psychopathic personality. PMID:24944437

  11. THE CRIMINAL PSYCHOPATH: HISTORY, NEUROSCIENCE, TREATMENT, AND ECONOMICS

    PubMed Central

    Kiehl, Kent A.; Hoffman, Morris B.

    2014-01-01

    The manuscript surveys the history of psychopathic personality, from its origins in psychiatric folklore to its modern assessment in the forensic arena. Individuals with psychopathic personality, or psychopaths, have a disproportionate impact on the criminal justice system. Psychopaths are twenty to twenty-five times more likely than non-psychopaths to be in prison, four to eight times more likely to violently recidivate compared to non-psychopaths, and are resistant to most forms of treatment. This article presents the most current clinical efforts and neuroscience research in the field of psychopathy. Given psychopathy’s enormous impact on society in general and on the criminal justice system in particular, there are significant benefits to increasing awareness of the condition. This review also highlights a recent, compelling and cost-effective treatment program that has shown a significant reduction in violent recidivism in youth on a putative trajectory to psychopathic personality. PMID:24944437

  12. Youth for Justice. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nessel, Paula A.

    Youth for Justice uses the power of active learning to teach youth practical information about the law while addressing the risks associated with being young in the United States today. This unique initiative is a law-related education (LRE) program supported by the United States Department of Justice's Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency…

  13. Criminality and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Rob

    2016-08-01

    The impacts of climate change imply a reconceptualization of environment-related criminality. Criminology can offer insight into the definitions and dynamics of this behaviour, and outline potential areas of redress.

  14. Without thinking: impulsive aggression and criminal responsibility.

    PubMed

    Shuman, Daniel W; Gold, Liza H

    2008-01-01

    In the U.S. the decision to impose criminal responsibility rests on an assumption about the defendant's decision to engage in proscribed conduct. We punish only those who we believe had the capacity to make a choice. In an increasingly violent world, the criminal law and the assumptions upon which it rests are relentlessly tested. A new generation of neuro-imaging technologies offers to provide insights into structural and functional abnormalities in the brain that may limit the autonomy of many dangerous offenders and unravel the fabric of the criminal justice system. How will the results of these technologies be received by the courts--are they relevant to existing formulations of the prima facie case, the insanity defense, or mitigation of sentence; will changes in the science or the law be required to accommodate this knowledge? The new generation of technologies may appropriately play a role in assessing culpable mental states only if they are also reliable. This short article takes on these and a host of other related questions at the intersection between science, law, and science fiction.

  15. Facial Trustworthiness Predicts Extreme Criminal-Sentencing Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wilson, John Paul; Rule, Nicholas O

    2015-08-01

    Untrustworthy faces incur negative judgments across numerous domains. Existing work in this area has focused on situations in which the target's trustworthiness is relevant to the judgment (e.g., criminal verdicts and economic games). Yet in the present studies, we found that people also overgeneralized trustworthiness in criminal-sentencing decisions when trustworthiness should not be judicially relevant, and they did so even for the most extreme sentencing decision: condemning someone to death. In Study 1, we found that perceptions of untrustworthiness predicted death sentences (vs. life sentences) for convicted murderers in Florida (N = 742). Moreover, in Study 2, we found that the link between trustworthiness and the death sentence occurred even when participants viewed innocent people who had been exonerated after originally being sentenced to death. These results highlight the power of facial appearance to prejudice perceivers and affect life outcomes even to the point of execution, which suggests an alarming bias in the criminal-justice system.

  16. Criminal investigator stress: symptoms, syndromes, and practical coping strategies.

    PubMed

    Miller, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    Without the skill and dedication of criminal investigators, there could literally be no criminal justice system. This group of law enforcement professionals has its own special needs and requires its own special kind of support. The present article describes the special stresses and challenges of homicide and sex crime investigators, and the range of responses shown by these officers. Recommendations are provided for the proper selection and training of investigators, and the personal and professional characteristics of successful investigators are outlined. A variety of stress-coping strategies are then described, some developed by the officers themselves, others with the aid of mental health consultants. The importance of professionalism as a key feature of high-quality investigative work is highlighted, and the ways in which criminal investigators can best access the services of mental health clinicians for their own psychological well-being are discussed.

  17. Concepts Shaping Juvenile Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Rob White's paper explores ways in which community building can be integrated into the practices of juvenile justice work. He provides a model of what can be called "restorative social justice", one that builds upon the juvenile conferencing model by attempting to fuse social justice concerns with progressive juvenile justice practices.

  18. Paradigms of Justice and Love.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Patick H.

    This paper examines the philosophy behind the Pulse Program of Boston College and its attempt at integrating theory and practice and transforming student's paradigms of justice and love. The basic idea of the program, begun in the fall of 1969, is that students receive academic credit for participation in off-campus field projects which have a…

  19. The criminalization of domestic violence: what social workers need to know.

    PubMed

    Danis, Fran S

    2003-04-01

    Domestic violence is a crosscutting issue that affects clients seeking social work services. The criminalization of domestic violence refers to efforts to address domestic violence through the passage and enforcement of criminal and civil laws. This article reviews the social science, legal, and criminal justice literature regarding interventions used to stop domestic violence. The theoretical foundations and effectiveness of police interventions, the use of protective orders, prosecution and victim advocacy, court responses, batterers' intervention as a condition of probation, and coordinated community responses to domestic violence are examined. Implications for social work practice are given, along with basic information for assisting clients who are victims of violence in their own homes.

  20. Criminal Rehabilitation Through Medical Intervention: Moral Liability and the Right to Bodily Integrity.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Criminal offenders are sometimes required, by the institutions of criminal justice, to undergo medical interventions intended to promote rehabilitation. Ethical debate regarding this practice has largely proceeded on the assumption that medical interventions may only permissibly be administered to criminal offenders with their consent. In this article I challenge this assumption by suggesting that committing a crime might render one morally liable to certain forms of medical intervention. I then consider whether it is possible to respond persuasively to this challenge by invoking the right to bodily integrity. I argue that it is not.

  1. The Criminal Corpse, Anatomists and the Criminal Law: Parliamentary Attempts to Extend the Dissection of Offenders in Late Eighteenth-Century England

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    In the later eighteenth century two schemes were introduced in Parliament for extending the practice of handing over the bodies of executed offenders to anatomists for dissection. Both measures were motivated by the needs of anatomy — including the improvement of surgical skill, the development of medical teaching in the provinces, and for conducting public anatomical demonstrations. Yet both failed to pass into law due to concerns about the possibly damaging effects in terms of criminal justice. Through a detailed analysis of the origins and progress of these two parliamentary measures — a moment when the competing claims of anatomy and criminal justice vied for supremacy over the criminal corpse — the following article sheds light on judicial attitudes to dissection as a method of punishment and adds to our understanding of why the dread of dissection would come to fall upon the dead poor (rather than executed offenders) in the nineteenth century. PMID:25821241

  2. Homeless veterans in supported housing: exploring the impact of criminal history.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2013-11-01

    This article described the criminal histories of a multisite sample of homeless veterans enrolled in the Housing and Urban Development-Veterans Affairs Supportive Housing (HUD-VASH) program, presented a method of categorizing them, and compared outcomes among veterans with different criminal histories. A national dataset on a total of 1,160 participants over a 1-year period was analyzed. Cluster analyses were conducted on the criminal histories of participants and groups of participants were compared on program entry characteristics and outcomes. Before entry into the HUD-VASH program, 79% of participants had been charged with at least one criminal charge. The most common criminal charges were disorderly conduct, vagrancy, and public intoxication. At program entry, participants with more extensive criminal histories showed poorer status in employment, housing, substance abuse, and quality of life compared with participants with minor or no criminal histories. However, once enrolled in supported housing, there were no group differences in outcomes and all groups showed substantial improvements in housing. These findings suggest that most homeless veterans have had involvement in the criminal justice system, albeit mostly to a small extent. Supported housing programs, like HUD-VASH, that serve homeless veterans regardless of their criminal history should be supported. PMID:24079354

  3. "What Happened to Our Sense of Justice?" Tracing Agency and Critical Engagement in a Youth Participatory Action Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giraldo-García, Regina J.; Galletta, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Tracing the nature of critical engagement and agency among youth in a participatory action research (PAR) collective, the study attends to the manner in which critical engagement and agency developed over time for the youth researchers. The focus of the project was to conduct a survey among ninth grade students concerning their early high school…

  4. [Alcohol and criminal behavior].

    PubMed

    Arzt, G

    1990-05-01

    The topic 'alcohol and crime' has several aspects. This article shows how drug administration is based on a complex network of legal provisions and is enforced by criminal law sanctions. As to crimes influenced by alcohol, drunken driving is by far the most important and best researched field. Next, the article turns to the role of alcohol with regard to severe common crimes such as murder or child abuse. Finally, the issue of drunkenness as a defence is raised and the treatment of alcoholics as a criminal law sanction discussed.

  5. Predictors of Criminal Charges for Youth in Public Mental Health during the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pullmann, M. D.

    2010-01-01

    Dual involvement with the mental health system and justice system is relatively frequent for young adults with mental health problems, yet the research on factors predictive of dual involvement is incomplete. This study extends past research on predictors of criminal charges for people in the public mental health system in four ways. First, this…

  6. 28 CFR 2.30 - False information or new criminal conduct: Discovery after release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: Discovery after release. 2.30 Section 2.30 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE... parole or has engaged in any criminal conduct during the current sentence prior to the delivery of the parole certificate, the Regional Commissioner may reopen the case pursuant to the procedures of §...

  7. Imprisoned Generation: Young Men under Criminal Custody in New York State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correctional Association of New York, New York.

    New York State's prisons today are a brooding omnipresence hanging over poor African American and Latino communities in the large urban centers of the state. On any given day, nearly 1 in 4 (over 23%) of young African American men is under control of the criminal justice system, which is 2 times more than all full-time Black male college enrollees…

  8. 39 CFR 233.9 - Regulations governing remission or mitigation of administrative, civil, and criminal forfeitures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... General of the United States or that official's designee. (5) Beneficial owner means a person with actual... Section, Criminal Division, United States Department of Justice. (7) General creditor means one whose... jurisdiction of the United States; (B) Declines to enter or reenter the United States to submit to...

  9. 39 CFR 233.9 - Regulations governing remission or mitigation of administrative, civil, and criminal forfeitures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... General of the United States or that official's designee. (5) Beneficial owner means a person with actual... Section, Criminal Division, United States Department of Justice. (7) General creditor means one whose... jurisdiction of the United States; (B) Declines to enter or reenter the United States to submit to...

  10. 28 CFR 906.2 - Third party handling of criminal history record information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Third party handling of criminal history record information. 906.2 Section 906.2 Judicial Administration NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION AND PRIVACY COMPACT COUNCIL OUTSOURCING OF NONCRIMINAL JUSTICE ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS § 906.2 Third party...

  11. 28 CFR 906.2 - Third party handling of criminal history record information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Third party handling of criminal history record information. 906.2 Section 906.2 Judicial Administration NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION AND PRIVACY COMPACT COUNCIL OUTSOURCING OF NONCRIMINAL JUSTICE ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS § 906.2 Third party...

  12. The Criminalization of Domestic Violence: What Social Workers Need To Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danis, Fran S.

    2003-01-01

    This article reviews the social science, legal, and criminal justice literature regarding interventions used to stop domestic violence. Examines the theoretical foundations and effectiveness of police interventions, the use of protective orders, prosecutions and victim advocacy, court responses, and coordinated community responses to domestic…

  13. 28 CFR 2.30 - False information or new criminal conduct: Discovery after release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false False information or new criminal conduct: Discovery after release. 2.30 Section 2.30 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States...

  14. Screening for Malingering in a Criminal-Forensic Sample with the Personality Assessment Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boccaccini, Marcus T.; Murrie, Daniel C.; Duncan, Scott A.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined how overreporting of psychopathology indices on the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; L. C. Morey, 1991) performed as screening measures for malingering in a sample of 166 defendants undergoing pretrial court-ordered evaluations in the federal criminal justice system. Using results from the Structured…

  15. Drug Addiction Treatment in the Criminal Justice System

    MedlinePlus

    ... sentenced for drug offenses were incarcerated for drug trafficking. [v] Simple possession is even less of a ... in your area. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration ...

  16. Evaluating Human Rights Advocacy on Criminal Justice and Sex Work.

    PubMed

    Amon, Joseph; Wurth, Margaret; McLemore, Megan

    2015-06-11

    Between October 2011 and September 2013, we conducted research on the use, by police and/or prosecutors, of condom possession as evidence of intent to engage in prostitution-related offenses. We studied the practice in five large, geographically diverse cities in the U.S. To facilitate our advocacy on this issue, conducted concurrent to and following our research, we developed an advocacy framework consisting of six dimensions: (1) raising awareness, (2) building and engaging coalitions, (3) framing debate, (4) securing rhetorical commitments, (5) reforming law and policy, and (6) changing practice. Using a case study approach, we describe how this framework also provided a basis for the evaluation of our work, and discuss additional considerations and values related to the measurement and evaluation of human rights advocacy.

  17. Criminal Justice and Forensic Science Reform Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Leahy, Patrick J. [D-VT

    2011-01-25

    01/25/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (text of measure as introduced: CR S195-202) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. 78 FR 76860 - Contraband Screening for Criminal Justice Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... Sought: The NIJ SSBT CoE seeks input to inform the planning and preparation of an upcoming Contraband..., Surveillance and Biometric Technologies Center of Excellence (SSBT CoE) intends to produce and publish a market... general comments with regard to this report for the SSBT CoE to consider, including which categories...

  19. Effective Administration of Criminal Justice Act of 2012

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Leahy, Patrick J. [D-VT

    2012-06-21

    06/21/2012 Read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (text of measure as introduced: CR S4422) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. Under construction: Brain formation, culpability, and the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Burke, Alison S

    2011-01-01

    Should adolescents be held as culpable for their behavior as adults? Adolescence is a tumultuous time, full of change and transformation. This paper examines the development of brain functions and cognitive capabilities of teenagers. It explores the effect of alcohol use on brain development and the fundamental cognitive differences between adolescents and adults. This knowledge, coupled with the assessment of developmental perspective, suggests that the adultification of youth (or waiver to adult court) is unduly harsh for youth whose brains have not fully formed.

  1. The Effects of Incarceration: Myth-Busting in Criminal Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wormith, J. Stephen

    Nowhere is myth more commonplace than in the correctional setting. With its foundation firmly implanted in tradition and folklore, a great deal of prison management is based on intuitive principles. Moreover, the popular theoretical positions concerning the impact of incarceration have been equally intuitive, or at best ideologically based in the…

  2. Forcible Rape: Institutionalized Sexism in the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robin, Gerald D.

    1977-01-01

    Achieving more humane and dignified treatment of rape victims in the arms of the law has been provided by "rape crisis centers." This approach has been significantly aided by successful attempts to modify the basic definition of the crime and to revise the legal elements needed for conviction. (Author)

  3. Justice and medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Gillon, R

    1985-07-20

    Justice, in the sense of fair adjudication between conflicting claims, is held to be relevant to a wide range of issues in medical ethics. Several differing concepts of justice are briefly described, including Aristotle's formal principle of justice, libertarian theories, utilitarian theories, Marxist theories, the theory of John Rawls, and the view--held, for example, by W.D. Ross--that justice is essentially a matter of reward for individual merit.

  4. Justice and medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Gillon, R

    1985-07-20

    Justice, in the sense of fair adjudication between conflicting claims, is held to be relevant to a wide range of issues in medical ethics. Several differing concepts of justice are briefly described, including Aristotle's formal principle of justice, libertarian theories, utilitarian theories, Marxist theories, the theory of John Rawls, and the view--held, for example, by W.D. Ross--that justice is essentially a matter of reward for individual merit. PMID:3926121

  5. Models of distributive justice.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Philosophical disagreement about justice rages over at least two questions. The most immediate is a substantial question, concerning the conditions under which particular distributive arrangements can be said to be just or unjust. The second, deeper, question concerns the nature of justice itself. What is justice? Here we can distinguish three views. First, justice as mutual advantage sees justice as essentially a matter of the outcome of a bargain. There are times when two parties can both be better off by making some sort of agreement. Justice, on this view, concerns the distribution of the benefits and burdens of the agreement. Second, justice as reciprocity takes a different approach, looking not at bargaining but at the idea of a fair return or just price, attempting to capture the idea of justice as equal exchange. Finally justice as impartiality sees justice as 'taking the other person's point of view' asking 'how would you like it if it happened to you?' Each model has significantly different consequences for the question of when issues of justice arise and how they should be settled. It is interesting to consider whether any of these models of justice could regulate behaviour between non-human animals.

  6. Juvenile Justice & Youth Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, James C.

    Youth violence and the juvenile justice system in the United States are explored. Part 1 takes stock of the situation. The first chapter discusses the origins and evaluation of the juvenile justice system, and the second considers the contributions of the Federal Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act to the existing juvenile justice…

  7. Restorative justice for sexual violence: repairing victims, building community, and holding offenders accountable.

    PubMed

    Koss, Mary P; Bachar, Karen J; Hopkins, C Quince

    2003-06-01

    Problems in criminal justice system response to date and acquaintance rape, and the nonpenetration sexual offenses are identified: (1) these crimes are often markers of a career of sexual offense, yet they are widely viewed as minor; (2) perpetrators of these crimes are now held accountable in ways that reduce their future threat of sex offending; and (3) current criminal justice response to these crimes disappoints and traumatizes victims and families. In response to these identified problems, we are implementing and evaluating RESTORE, an innovative victim-driven, community-based restorative justice program. Restorative justice views crime as harm for which the person responsible must be held accountable in meaningful ways. RESTORE uses a community conference to involve the victim, offender, and both parties' family and friends in a face-to-face dialogue directed at identifying the harm, and developing a plan for repair, rehabilitation, and reintegration into the community.

  8. Criminal deterrence as a public health strategy.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, J P

    2001-11-17

    Deterrence is an established theme in criminal justice, but its role in prevention of assault has been treated with ambivalence and even hostility in medicine. The extent to which offenders can be persuaded, through knowledge of criminal and health risks, not to injure others is emerging from studies of the health effects of firearm and other crime legislation, and from macro-level studies and controlled experiments of police interventions. There is convincing evidence that motorists can be deterred from alcohol-impaired driving, and recognition that specific, targeted, and visible police work and increasing certainty of punishment are effective interventions. By contrast, duration of imprisonment and generic police initiatives such as blanket increases in police numbers seem to have little effect on deterrence, at least in the context of the decline in US homicide rates since 1991, to which demographic and economic factors seem to have contributed little. Together with established and cost-effective preschool education and early family support, targeted policing and increasing rates of conviction should be integrated into strategies for injury prevention.

  9. Age and criminal poisonings.

    PubMed

    Stankova, Evgenia; Gesheva, Margarita; Hubenova, Aneta

    2005-01-01

    We present a series of 8 cases of acute combined poisonings, occurred in an identical way in patients over 70 years of age for a period of 6 months. The way of exposure, characteristic of the clinical presentation, complications and the outcome of the intoxications, as well as the therapeutic approach is described. In all of the cases combined drug intoxication with benzodiazepines and opiates have been proved. The impact of the combination of two toxic substances: the first causing rapid and brief suppression of the consciousness and the second, causing prolonged continuation of the already suppressed consciousness, on the clinical course is discussed. The similarities in the circumstances of the exposure, clinical course of the poisonings, the identified toxic substances, lead to the consideration of criminal characteristic of the poisonings. The contact with the corresponding authorities brought off the disclosure of a group of criminals, committed the intentional intoxications with the aim of robbery. Age, with all its various characteristics, has been discussed as a factor for occurrence of criminal poisonings. PMID:16225098

  10. Criminal thinking styles among people with serious mental illness in jail.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Amy Blank; Farkas, Kathleen; Ishler, Karen J; Gearhart, Michael; Morgan, Robert; Ashe, Melinda

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend the investigation of criminal thinking of persons with mental illness beyond prison and community settings to a jail setting. Participants consisted of 122 individuals incarcerated in a county jail who were diagnosed with a severe mental illness, including schizophrenia spectrum and major mood disorders. Results indicated that people with mental illness in this sample of jail inmates presented with thinking styles that support a criminal lifestyle, and have criminal thinking styles that follow a pattern that is very similar to a sample of prison inmates with serious mental illness. These findings support the need for therapeutic programs for justice-involved persons with serious mental illness to develop a multipronged treatment approach that integrates interventions for individuals' criminal thinking and antisocial attitudes with treatment for their mental illness and substance abuse issues.

  11. Justice within social dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, David A; Steel, Julie E; Woodell, Andria J; Bembenek, Alicia F

    2003-01-01

    The defining feature of social dilemma situations is the inherent conflict faced by those involved: should one act in his or her own individual best interest or sacrifice a measure of one's personal payoff to help maximize the joint payoff of the group as a whole? In such dilemmas, those making individualistic and defecting choices are always at a competitive advantage relative to those who choose to cooperate. One seemingly inevitable consequence of the resulting resource allocation asymmetry is that it must challenge and threaten the cooperator's sense of fairness and justice, and it is the reaction of those caught in social dilemmas to this injustice and unfairness that is the focus of this article. We examine how justice processes-distributive justice, procedural justice, restorative justice, and retributive justice-operate in social dilemmas. Within this examination, we consider ideas from classic and contemporary conceptual analyses of justice to provide a broader context within which to understand social dilemmas and the roles that justice plays as people strive to ensure fair outcomes for themselves and for others. We conclude with the proposal of a 4-stage, sequential model of justice in social dilemmas that posits groups move between the types of justice concerns when unfair and unsatisfactory outcomes (e.g., inequitable resource allocations, violations of agreed-on allocation rules, intentional and egregious exploitation of the group) cause members to "recognize the necessity" for change to ensure fair and just outcomes for all.

  12. Assessing the "criminalization" of the mentally ill in Canada.

    PubMed

    Davis, S

    1992-10-01

    This paper is an overview of the conceptual and methodological problems encountered trying to assess the hypothesis that the mentally ill, as a consequence of deinstitutionalization, are being "criminalized". Generalizations are difficult to make, in large part because most of the studies are American and do not fit well into the Canadian scene. Relevant Canadian findings are reviewed and compared to the US data. There is some evidence that Canadian patients may be diverted from the criminal justice system more often than in the US, where there are fewer resources. However, this conclusion must be tempered by the fact that Canadian surveys have found high rates of mental disorder among prison and jail inmates.

  13. Cultural considerations in the criminal law: the sentencing process.

    PubMed

    Boehnlein, James K; Schaefer, Michele N; Bloom, Joseph D

    2005-01-01

    In forensic psychiatry, there is increasing recognition of the importance of culture and ethnicity in the criminal justice process as the population becomes more culturally diverse. However, there has been little consideration of the role of cultural factors in the trial process for criminal defendants, particularly in the sentencing phase of trial. Using a capital murder case study, this article explores the role of cultural forensic psychiatric consultation, focusing on the sentencing phase of trial as the place where the full scope and power of a cultural evaluation can be brought most effectively to the attention of the court. Cultural psychiatric perspectives can enrich a core forensic evaluation and be maximally helpful to the court, by exploring family dynamics and psychological health influenced by cultural history, immigrant and refugee experiences, and sociocultural environment. Specific recommendations and cautions for effective cultural consultation in forensic psychiatry are discussed.

  14. Addiction between therapy and criminalization.

    PubMed

    Birklbauer, Alois; Schmidthuber, Kathrin

    2014-12-01

    The present paper delves into the question of whether and to what extent it is appropriate to leave addiction problems between the conflicting priorities of therapy and criminalization. After outlining the issue the criminal addictive behaviour including crimes associated with drug misuse and with obtaining drugs is described. Subsequently it is discussed if and how you could make allowances for addiction-related legal insanity in the criminal law sector. Following a few remarks on the principle of "voluntary therapy instead of penal sanction" as a way to alleviate the strict law on narcotic drugs misuse a summary and an outlook with criminal-political demands complete the issue.

  15. Addiction between therapy and criminalization.

    PubMed

    Birklbauer, Alois; Schmidthuber, Kathrin

    2014-12-01

    The present paper delves into the question of whether and to what extent it is appropriate to leave addiction problems between the conflicting priorities of therapy and criminalization. After outlining the issue the criminal addictive behaviour including crimes associated with drug misuse and with obtaining drugs is described. Subsequently it is discussed if and how you could make allowances for addiction-related legal insanity in the criminal law sector. Following a few remarks on the principle of "voluntary therapy instead of penal sanction" as a way to alleviate the strict law on narcotic drugs misuse a summary and an outlook with criminal-political demands complete the issue. PMID:25377376

  16. Justice and Negotiation.

    PubMed

    Druckman, Daniel; Wagner, Lynn M

    2016-01-01

    This review article examines the literature regarding the role played by principles of justice in negotiation. Laboratory experiments and high-stakes negotiations reveal that justice is a complex concept, both in relation to attaining just outcomes and to establishing just processes. We focus on how justice preferences guide the process and outcome of negotiated exchanges. Focusing primarily on the two types of principles that have received the most attention, distributive justice (outcomes of negotiation) and procedural justice (process of negotiation), we introduce the topic by reviewing the most relevant experimental and field or archival research on the roles played by these justice principles in negotiation. A discussion of the methods used in these studies precedes a review organized in terms of a framework that highlights the concept of negotiating stages. We also develop hypotheses based on the existing literature to point the way forward for further research on this topic.

  17. Criminal Careers and Cognitive Scripts: An Investigation into Criminal Versatility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavin, Helen; Hockey, David

    2010-01-01

    "Criminal careers" denotes ways in which offenders develop specialisms and versatility, but studies linking delinquency to social skills deficits have not attempted to explore cognitive, internalised processes by which such "careers" might be chosen. This study investigated criminal minds via script theory: "internal" scripts are used to guide…

  18. [The pedophilic criminal].

    PubMed

    Heim, M; Morgner, J

    1985-02-01

    After a review of the literature dealing with pedophilia, the results of an analysis of 100 forensic psychiatric reports dealing with pedophile criminals are described. They show that, except for a few homosexual pedophiles, pedophilia is a pseudoperversion originating from different developmental conditions and, in individual cases, verifiable personality traits. The authors discuss problems involved in the forensic-psychiatric assessment of these delinquents. Attention is drawn to the necessity of purposeful, coordinated further education in this respect to enable the existing considerable discrepancies between forensic-psychiatric evaluation of these and other sexual deviants to be overcome.

  19. Under the Rule of Thumb: Battered Women and the Administration of Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerebenics, Gail; And Others

    This report by the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights evaluates the treatment of adult women who are victims of domestic violence by the criminal and civil justice systems and by various service agencies. First, an overview of State domestic violence statutes and relief services is presented. The present responses and potential roles of police…

  20. School Problems and Learning about Crime and Justice Systems: Principals' Views.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartsch, Robert A.; Cheurprakobkit, Sutham

    2002-01-01

    Examines the attitudes of Texas junior high/middle school and high school principals (n=207). Focuses on the severity of four school problems and the possibility of five criminology and criminal justice concepts. States that these are important for students to learn about to deter school crime. Includes references. (CMK)

  1. Outliers in American juvenile justice: the need for statutory reform in North Carolina and New York.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, Frank; Ford, Elizabeth

    2015-05-01

    There is a well-established and growing body of evidence from research that adolescents who commit crimes differ in many regards from their adult counterparts and are more susceptible to the negative effects of adjudication and incarceration in adult criminal justice systems. The age of criminal court jurisdiction in the United States has varied throughout history; yet, there are only two remaining states, New York and North Carolina, that continue to automatically charge 16 year olds as adults. This review traces the statutory history of juvenile justice in these two states with an emphasis on political and social factors that have contributed to their outlier status related to the age of criminal court jurisdiction. The neurobiological, psychological, and developmental aspects of the adolescent brain and personality, and how those issues relate both to a greater likelihood of rehabilitation in appropriate settings and to greater vulnerability in adult correctional facilities, are also reviewed. The importance of raising the age in New York and North Carolina not only lies in protecting incarcerated youths but also in preventing the associated stigma following release. Mental health practitioners are vital to the process of local and national juvenile justice reform. They can serve as experts on and advocates for appropriate mental health care and as experts on the adverse effects of the adult criminal justice system on adolescents.

  2. The Law and Juvenile Justice for People of Color in Elementary and Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Frank; Russo, Charles J.; Hunter, Richard C.

    2002-01-01

    Recent crime control laws have negatively impacted children of color, imposing a form of social control. Increased laws and punishments have not deterred juvenile delinquents but rather increased the number of criminals. Recommends teaching children about the justice system through education on the Constitution, thus encouraging them to obey the…

  3. Advocating for Social Justice: The Context for Change in School Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Margaret R.; O'Bryon, Elisabeth C.

    2008-01-01

    Inequalities and disparities abound in U.S. society. Research studies reveal that across the contexts of people's lives--in the workplace, the home, churches, banking and lending, health care, criminal justice system, and schools--unevenness and disparities exist across racial, gender, sexual orientation, language background, ability, and…

  4. Kids, Cops, and Communities. National Institute of Justice Issues and Practices in Criminal Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaiken, Marcia R.

    This report is designed to help law enforcement administrators and officers understand and institute a strategy to help prevent violence through community oriented policing services carried out in collaboration with youth-serving organizations. Descriptions of programs are based on a study that involved a survey of 579 affiliates of 7 national…

  5. A criminal offender introspective report.

    PubMed

    Barnett, O; Barnett, D J

    1975-08-01

    The development of a new scale suitable for research with the criminal offender was described. Based on the factor analysis of an item pool delineating sociopathic personality traits, five factors were derived to compose an 80-item criminal offender introspective report (COIR). PMID:1195092

  6. Drug Use and Criminal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Ludwig; Hyatt, Murray P.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of addiction and crime is presented. Crimes of violence and sex crimes are contrasted with non-violent criminal behavior when drug-connected. It is suggested that alternative methods of dealing with drug abuse and criminal behavior be explored, and that several previously discarded methods be re-examined. (Author)

  7. Craziness and criminal responsibility.

    PubMed

    Morse, S J

    1999-01-01

    This article addresses why mental disorder is relevant to criminal responsibility. It begins by considering the meaning of criminal responsibility because it is impossible to understand the relevance of mental disorder unless one understands responsibility clearly. The next section provides a theoretical account of responsibility and excuse in general and addresses common misconceptions about these topics. The third section examines in detail why mental disorder can sometimes produce either a complete or partial excusing condition, such as legal insanity or "partial responsibility," and whether the U.S. Constitution requires the provision of an excuse based on mental disorder. The section proposes that mental disorder should produce an excusing condition in appropriate cases. The next section considers the relation of mental disorder to mens rea, the mental state "element" that is a definitional criterion of most crimes, and whether the U.S. Constitution requires that defendants be permitted to use evidence of mental disorder to negate mental state elements of the crime charged. This section argues that mental disorder rarely negates mens rea, but in those cases in which a plausible claim for negation could be made, defendants should be allowed to make this claim.

  8. 77 FR 18266 - Meeting of the Department of Justice Global Justice Information Sharing Initiative Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs Meeting of the Department of Justice Global Justice Information Sharing Initiative Federal Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs (OJP), Justice. ACTION: Notice...

  9. 76 FR 54498 - Meeting of the Department of Justice Global Justice Information Sharing Initiative Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs Meeting of the Department of Justice Global Justice Information Sharing Initiative Federal Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs (OJP), Justice. ACTION: Notice...

  10. 76 FR 13226 - Meeting of the Department of Justice Global Justice Information Sharing Initiative Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs Meeting of the Department of Justice Global Justice Information Sharing Initiative Federal Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs (OJP), Justice. ACTION: Notice...

  11. At a Loss for Words: Nosological Impotence in the Search for Justice.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Kenneth J

    2016-03-01

    The assessment and trial of Norwegian mass-murderer Anders Breivik, including disparate opinions about his sanity, raise questions about distinguishing "bad" from "mad." Although he was ultimately found criminally responsible, the tenacity and pervasiveness of his beliefs suggested delusional thinking. The author reflects on the difficulty psychiatrists have with nomenclature generally and on the application of imprecise classification to criminal justice. Ideally, a classification system should "carve nature at its joints." Barring that, psychiatry needs operational definitions to appreciate the differences between idiosyncratic, psychotic thinking, and shared subcultural beliefs or ideologies. The concept of extreme overvalued belief provides a basis for making this distinction, when applied in the criminal justice context. PMID:26944742

  12. New Labour, Social Justice and Disabled Students in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila; Tinklin, Teresa; Wilson, Alastair

    2005-01-01

    This article draws on findings from an Economic and Social Research Council funded research project entitled "Disabled Students and Multiple Policy Innovations in Higher Education"(R000239069). It begins with a brief review of theories of social justice and their implications for widening access policies for disabled students. Social justice may…

  13. Art and Social Justice Education: Culture as Commons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Therese M., Ed.; Ploof, John, Ed.; Hochtritt, Lisa J., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Art and Social Justice Education" offers inspiration and tools for educators to craft critical, meaningful, and transformative arts education curriculum and arts integration projects. The images, descriptive texts, essays, and resources are grounded within a clear social justice framework and linked to ideas about culture as commons. Essays and a…

  14. Relational Restorative Justice Pedagogy in Educator Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaandering, Dorothy

    2014-01-01

    What would a professional development experience rooted in the philosophy, principles, and practices of restorative justice look and feel like? This article describes how such a professional development project was designed to implement restorative justice principles and practices into schools in a proactive, relational and sustainable manner by…

  15. Rethinking Conceptual Definitions of the Criminal Career and Serial Criminality.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, Arnon

    2016-01-01

    Since Cesare Lombroso's days, criminology seeks to define, explain, and categorize the various types of criminals, their behaviors, and motives. This aim has theoretical as well as policy-related implications. One of the important areas in criminological thinking focuses chiefly on recidivist offenders who perform large numbers of crimes and/or commit the most dangerous crimes in society (rape, murder, arson, and armed robbery). These criminals have been defined as "habitual offenders," "professional criminals," "career criminals," and "serial offenders." The interest in these criminals is a rational one, given the perception that they present a severe threat to society. The main challenge in this area of research is a conceptual problem that has significant effects across the field. To this day, scholars have reused and misused titles to define and explain different concepts. The aim of this article is 3-fold. First, to review the concepts of criminal career, professional crime, habitual offenses, and seriality with a critical attitude on confusing terms. Second, to propose the redefinition of concepts mentioned previously, mainly on the criminal career. Third, to propose a theoretical model to enable a better understanding of, and serve as a basis for, further research in this important area of criminology.

  16. Communication, Law, and Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anapol, Malthon M.

    The author takes the position that communication is an essential, but often overlooked component of law and justice; furthermore, some of the current problems in the area of law and justice are basically communication problems. The author traces the early development of communication and law as closely related disciplines, with emphasis on the…

  17. Justice and Lecturer Professionalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macfarlane, Bruce

    2001-01-01

    Presents a conceptual framework for debating the ethics of pedagogy. The concepts of procedural, retributive, remedial, and distributive justice are presented as a means of incorporating many of the key ethical challenges that confront lecturers new to higher education. Recommends this justice framework as a means of encouraging practitioners to…

  18. Not So "Simple Justice"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban, Wayne

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author provides his analyses on Richard Kluger's "Simple Justice," a book that portrays the major players involved in the landmark "Brown" decision. He comments generally on Kluger and highlights a few interesting aspects of his analysis, including his interpretation of the actions of then clerk and later justice and still…

  19. Counseling and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsaker, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author expands on "The Scandal of Social Work Education," a National Association of Scholars study documenting the commitment to left-wing "social justice" in social work programs at ten major public institutions. He presents a critical exploration of social justice ideology in academic and professional mental health training…

  20. Imagining Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArdle, Felicity; Knight, Linda; Stratigos, Tina

    2013-01-01

    This article examines how creativity and the arts can assist teachers who teach from a social justice perspective, and how knowledge built through meaningful experiences of difference can make a difference. Just as imagining is central to visual arts practice, so too is the capacity to imagine a necessity for social justice. The authors ask what…