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Sample records for crimped barley grain

  1. Barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. malting and brewing industries are America’s largest consumers of barley, purchasing more than one-half of the U.S. barley grain crop. More than 70% of the hectares seeded to barley are seeded to cultivars recommended by the American Malting Barley Association (AMBA). The malting and brewi...

  2. Allele-dependent barley grain beta-amylase activity.

    PubMed

    Erkkilä, M J; Leah, R; Ahokas, H; Cameron-Mills, V

    1998-06-01

    The wild ancestor of cultivated barley, Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) A. & Gr. (H. spontaneum), is a source of wide genetic diversity, including traits that are important for malting quality. A high beta-amylase trait was previously identified in H. spontaneum strains from Israel, and transferred into the backcross progeny of a cross with the domesticated barley cv Adorra. We have used Southern-blot analysis and beta-amy1 gene characterization to demonstrate that the high beta-amylase trait in the backcross line is co-inherited with the beta-amy1 gene from the H. spontaneum parent. We have analyzed the beta-amy1 gene organization in various domesticated and wild-type barley strains and identified three distinct beta-amy1 alleles. Two of these beta-amy1 alleles were present in modern barley, one of which was specifically found in good malting barley cultivars. The third allele, linked with high grain beta-amylase activity, was found only in a H. spontaneum strain from the Judean foothills in Israel. The sequences of three isolated beta-amy1 alleles are compared. The involvement of specific intron III sequences, in particular a 126-bp palindromic insertion, in the allele-dependent expression of beta-amylase activity in barley grain is proposed.

  3. Allele-Dependent Barley Grain β-Amylase Activity1

    PubMed Central

    Erkkilä, Maria J.; Leah, Robert; Ahokas, Hannu; Cameron-Mills, Verena

    1998-01-01

    The wild ancestor of cultivated barley, Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) A. & Gr. (H. spontaneum), is a source of wide genetic diversity, including traits that are important for malting quality. A high β-amylase trait was previously identified in H. spontaneum strains from Israel, and transferred into the backcross progeny of a cross with the domesticated barley cv Adorra. We have used Southern-blot analysis and β-amy1 gene characterization to demonstrate that the high β-amylase trait in the backcross line is co-inherited with the β-amy1 gene from the H. spontaneum parent. We have analyzed the β-amy1 gene organization in various domesticated and wild-type barley strains and identified three distinct β-amy1 alleles. Two of these β-amy1 alleles were present in modern barley, one of which was specifically found in good malting barley cultivars. The third allele, linked with high grain β-amylase activity, was found only in a H. spontaneum strain from the Judean foothills in Israel. The sequences of three isolated β-amy1 alleles are compared. The involvement of specific intron III sequences, in particular a 126-bp palindromic insertion, in the allele-dependent expression of β-amylase activity in barley grain is proposed. PMID:9625721

  4. Water uptake in barley grain: Physiology; genetics and industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Cu, Suong; Collins, Helen M; Betts, Natalie S; March, Timothy J; Janusz, Agnieszka; Stewart, Doug C; Skadhauge, Birgitte; Eglinton, Jason; Kyriacou, Bianca; Little, Alan; Burton, Rachel A; Fincher, Geoffrey B

    2016-01-01

    Water uptake by mature barley grains initiates germination and is the first stage in the malting process. Here we have investigated the effects of starchy endosperm cell wall thickness on water uptake, together with the effects of varying amounts of the wall polysaccharide, (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan. In the latter case, we examined mutant barley lines from a mutant library and transgenic barley lines in which the (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan synthase gene, HvCslF6, was down-regulated by RNA interference. Neither cell wall thickness nor the levels of grain (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan were significantly correlated with water uptake but are likely to influence modification during malting. However, when a barley mapping population was phenotyped for rate of water uptake into grain, quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis identified specific regions of chromosomes 4H, 5H and 7H that accounted for approximately 17%, 18% and 11%, respectively, of the phenotypic variation. These data indicate that variation in water uptake rates by elite malting cultivars of barley is genetically controlled and a number of candidate genes that might control the trait were identified under the QTL. The genomics data raise the possibility that the genetic variation in water uptake rates might be exploited by breeders for the benefit of the malting and brewing industries. PMID:26566843

  5. Evolution of the Grain Dispersal System in Barley.

    PubMed

    Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Hensel, Goetz; Kilian, Benjamin; Senthil, Natesan; Chen, Guoxiong; Sameri, Mohammad; Azhaguvel, Perumal; Sakuma, Shun; Dhanagond, Sidram; Sharma, Rajiv; Mascher, Martin; Himmelbach, Axel; Gottwald, Sven; Nair, Sudha K; Tagiri, Akemi; Yukuhiro, Fumiko; Nagamura, Yoshiaki; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Takashi; Willcox, George; Middleton, Christopher P; Wicker, Thomas; Walther, Alexander; Waugh, Robbie; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Stein, Nils; Kumlehn, Jochen; Sato, Kazuhiro; Komatsuda, Takao

    2015-07-30

    About 12,000 years ago in the Near East, humans began the transition from hunter-gathering to agriculture-based societies. Barley was a founder crop in this process, and the most important steps in its domestication were mutations in two adjacent, dominant, and complementary genes, through which grains were retained on the inflorescence at maturity, enabling effective harvesting. Independent recessive mutations in each of these genes caused cell wall thickening in a highly specific grain "disarticulation zone," converting the brittle floral axis (the rachis) of the wild-type into a tough, non-brittle form that promoted grain retention. By tracing the evolutionary history of allelic variation in both genes, we conclude that spatially and temporally independent selections of germplasm with a non-brittle rachis were made during the domestication of barley by farmers in the southern and northern regions of the Levant, actions that made a major contribution to the emergence of early agrarian societies. PMID:26232223

  6. Megapixel imaging of (micro)nutrients in mature barley grains

    PubMed Central

    Lombi, Enzo; Smith, Euan; Hansen, Thomas H.; Paterson, David; de Jonge, Martin D.; Howard, Daryl L.; Persson, Daniel P.; Husted, Søren; Ryan, Chris; Schjoerring, Jan K.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the accumulation and distribution of essential nutrients in cereals is of primary importance for improving the nutritional quality of this staple food. While recent studies have improved the understanding of micronutrient loading into the barley grain, a detailed characterization of the distribution of micronutrients within the grain is still lacking. High-definition synchrotron X-ray fluorescence was used to investigate the distribution and association of essential elements in barley grain at the micro scale. Micronutrient distribution within the scutellum and the embryo was shown to be highly variable between elements in relation to various morphological features. In the rest of the grain, the distribution of some elements such as Cu and Zn was not limited to the aleurone layer but extended into the endosperm. This pattern of distribution was less marked in the case of Fe and, in particular, Mn. A significant difference in element distribution was also found between the ventral and dorsal part of the grains. The correlation between the elements was not consistent between and within tissues, indicating that the transport and storage of elements is highly regulated. The complexity of the spatial distribution and associations has important implications for improving the nutritional content of cereal crops such as barley. PMID:20819790

  7. Antioxidants, Enzyme Inhibitors, and Biogenic Compounds in Grain Extracts of Barleys.

    PubMed

    Maliar, Tibor; Slaba, Gabriela; Nemeček, Peter; Maliarová, Mária; Benková, Michaela; Havrlentová, Michaela; Ondrejovič, Miroslav; Kraic, Ján

    2015-11-01

    The content of biogenic compounds and the biological activities of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)-grain extracts was evaluated. The sufficiently large and heterogeneous set of barley genotypes (100 accessions) enabled the selection of special genotypes interesting for potential industrial, pharmaceutical, and medicinal applications. Barley genotypes with the highest contents of phenols, phenolic acids, flavonoids, biogenic thiols, and amines, radical-scavenging activity, as well as inhibitory activities of trypsin, thrombin, collagenase, urokinase, and cyclooxygenase were identified.

  8. Antioxidants, Enzyme Inhibitors, and Biogenic Compounds in Grain Extracts of Barleys.

    PubMed

    Maliar, Tibor; Slaba, Gabriela; Nemeček, Peter; Maliarová, Mária; Benková, Michaela; Havrlentová, Michaela; Ondrejovič, Miroslav; Kraic, Ján

    2015-11-01

    The content of biogenic compounds and the biological activities of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)-grain extracts was evaluated. The sufficiently large and heterogeneous set of barley genotypes (100 accessions) enabled the selection of special genotypes interesting for potential industrial, pharmaceutical, and medicinal applications. Barley genotypes with the highest contents of phenols, phenolic acids, flavonoids, biogenic thiols, and amines, radical-scavenging activity, as well as inhibitory activities of trypsin, thrombin, collagenase, urokinase, and cyclooxygenase were identified. PMID:26567946

  9. Increasing abscisic acid levels by immunomodulation in barley grains induces precocious maturation without changing grain composition.

    PubMed

    Staroske, Nicole; Conrad, Udo; Kumlehn, Jochen; Hensel, Götz; Radchuk, Ruslana; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Weschke, Winfriede; Weber, Hans

    2016-04-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) accumulates in seeds during the transition to the seed filling phase. ABA triggers seed maturation, storage activity, and stress signalling and tolerance. Immunomodulation was used to alter the ABA status in barley grains, with the resulting transgenic caryopses responding to the anti-ABA antibody gene expression with increased accumulation of ABA. Calculation of free versus antibody-bound ABA reveals large excess of free ABA, increasing signficantly in caryopses from 10 days after fertilization. Metabolite and transcript profiling in anti-ABA grains expose triggered and enhanced ABA-functions such as transcriptional up-regulation of sucrose-to-starch metabolism, storage protein synthesis and ABA-related signal transduction. Thus, enhanced ABA during transition phases induces precocious maturation but negatively interferes with growth and development. Anti-ABA grains display broad constitutive gene induction related to biotic and abiotic stresses. Most of these genes are ABA- and/or stress-inducible, including alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases, peroxidases, chaperones, glutathione-S-transferase, drought- and salt-inducible proteins. Conclusively, ABA immunomodulation results in precocious ABA accumulation that generates an integrated response of stress and maturation. Repression of ABA signalling, occurring in anti-ABA grains, potentially antagonizes effects caused by overshooting production. Finally, mature grain weight and composition are unchanged in anti-ABA plants, although germination is somewhat delayed. This indicates that anti-ABA caryopses induce specific mechanisms to desensitize ABA signalling efficiently, which finally yields mature grains with nearly unchanged dry weight and composition. Such compensation implicates the enormous physiological and metabolic flexibilities of barley grains to adjust effects of unnaturally high ABA amounts in order to ensure and maintain proper grain development.

  10. Increasing abscisic acid levels by immunomodulation in barley grains induces precocious maturation without changing grain composition

    PubMed Central

    Staroske, Nicole; Conrad, Udo; Kumlehn, Jochen; Hensel, Götz; Radchuk, Ruslana; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Weschke, Winfriede; Weber, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) accumulates in seeds during the transition to the seed filling phase. ABA triggers seed maturation, storage activity, and stress signalling and tolerance. Immunomodulation was used to alter the ABA status in barley grains, with the resulting transgenic caryopses responding to the anti-ABA antibody gene expression with increased accumulation of ABA. Calculation of free versus antibody-bound ABA reveals large excess of free ABA, increasing signficantly in caryopses from 10 days after fertilization. Metabolite and transcript profiling in anti-ABA grains expose triggered and enhanced ABA-functions such as transcriptional up-regulation of sucrose-to-starch metabolism, storage protein synthesis and ABA-related signal transduction. Thus, enhanced ABA during transition phases induces precocious maturation but negatively interferes with growth and development. Anti-ABA grains display broad constitutive gene induction related to biotic and abiotic stresses. Most of these genes are ABA- and/or stress-inducible, including alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases, peroxidases, chaperones, glutathione-S-transferase, drought- and salt-inducible proteins. Conclusively, ABA immunomodulation results in precocious ABA accumulation that generates an integrated response of stress and maturation. Repression of ABA signalling, occurring in anti-ABA grains, potentially antagonizes effects caused by overshooting production. Finally, mature grain weight and composition are unchanged in anti-ABA plants, although germination is somewhat delayed. This indicates that anti-ABA caryopses induce specific mechanisms to desensitize ABA signalling efficiently, which finally yields mature grains with nearly unchanged dry weight and composition. Such compensation implicates the enormous physiological and metabolic flexibilities of barley grains to adjust effects of unnaturally high ABA amounts in order to ensure and maintain proper grain development. PMID:26951372

  11. Increasing abscisic acid levels by immunomodulation in barley grains induces precocious maturation without changing grain composition.

    PubMed

    Staroske, Nicole; Conrad, Udo; Kumlehn, Jochen; Hensel, Götz; Radchuk, Ruslana; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Weschke, Winfriede; Weber, Hans

    2016-04-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) accumulates in seeds during the transition to the seed filling phase. ABA triggers seed maturation, storage activity, and stress signalling and tolerance. Immunomodulation was used to alter the ABA status in barley grains, with the resulting transgenic caryopses responding to the anti-ABA antibody gene expression with increased accumulation of ABA. Calculation of free versus antibody-bound ABA reveals large excess of free ABA, increasing signficantly in caryopses from 10 days after fertilization. Metabolite and transcript profiling in anti-ABA grains expose triggered and enhanced ABA-functions such as transcriptional up-regulation of sucrose-to-starch metabolism, storage protein synthesis and ABA-related signal transduction. Thus, enhanced ABA during transition phases induces precocious maturation but negatively interferes with growth and development. Anti-ABA grains display broad constitutive gene induction related to biotic and abiotic stresses. Most of these genes are ABA- and/or stress-inducible, including alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases, peroxidases, chaperones, glutathione-S-transferase, drought- and salt-inducible proteins. Conclusively, ABA immunomodulation results in precocious ABA accumulation that generates an integrated response of stress and maturation. Repression of ABA signalling, occurring in anti-ABA grains, potentially antagonizes effects caused by overshooting production. Finally, mature grain weight and composition are unchanged in anti-ABA plants, although germination is somewhat delayed. This indicates that anti-ABA caryopses induce specific mechanisms to desensitize ABA signalling efficiently, which finally yields mature grains with nearly unchanged dry weight and composition. Such compensation implicates the enormous physiological and metabolic flexibilities of barley grains to adjust effects of unnaturally high ABA amounts in order to ensure and maintain proper grain development. PMID:26951372

  12. Origin of worldwide cultivated barley revealed by NAM-1 gene and grain protein content.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yonggang; Ren, Xifeng; Sun, Dongfa; Sun, Genlou

    2015-01-01

    The origin, evolution, and distribution of cultivated barley provides powerful insights into the historic origin and early spread of agrarian culture. Here, population-based genetic diversity and phylogenetic analyses were performed to determine the evolution and origin of barley and how domestication and subsequent introgression have affected the genetic diversity and changes in cultivated barley on a worldwide scale. A set of worldwide cultivated and wild barleys from Asia and Tibet of China were analyzed using the sequences for NAM-1 gene and gene-associated traits-grain protein content (GPC). Our results showed Tibetan wild barley distinctly diverged from Near Eastern barley, and confirmed that Tibet is one of the origin and domestication centers for cultivated barley, and in turn supported a polyphyletic origin of domesticated barley. Comparison of haplotype composition among geographic regions revealed gene flow between Eastern and Western barley populations, suggesting that the Silk Road might have played a crucial role in the spread of genes. The GPC in the 118 cultivated and 93 wild barley accessions ranged from 6.73 to 12.35% with a mean of 9.43%. Overall, wild barley had higher averaged GPC (10.44%) than cultivated barley. Two unique haplotypes (Hap2 and Hap7) caused by a base mutations (at position 544) in the coding region of the NAM-1 gene might have a significant impact on the GPC. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes of NAM-1 associated with GPC in barley could provide a useful method for screening GPC in barley germplasm. The Tibetan wild accessions with lower GPC could be useful for malt barley breeding. PMID:26483818

  13. Origin of worldwide cultivated barley revealed by NAM-1 gene and grain protein content

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yonggang; Ren, Xifeng; Sun, Dongfa; Sun, Genlou

    2015-01-01

    The origin, evolution, and distribution of cultivated barley provides powerful insights into the historic origin and early spread of agrarian culture. Here, population-based genetic diversity and phylogenetic analyses were performed to determine the evolution and origin of barley and how domestication and subsequent introgression have affected the genetic diversity and changes in cultivated barley on a worldwide scale. A set of worldwide cultivated and wild barleys from Asia and Tibet of China were analyzed using the sequences for NAM-1 gene and gene-associated traits-grain protein content (GPC). Our results showed Tibetan wild barley distinctly diverged from Near Eastern barley, and confirmed that Tibet is one of the origin and domestication centers for cultivated barley, and in turn supported a polyphyletic origin of domesticated barley. Comparison of haplotype composition among geographic regions revealed gene flow between Eastern and Western barley populations, suggesting that the Silk Road might have played a crucial role in the spread of genes. The GPC in the 118 cultivated and 93 wild barley accessions ranged from 6.73 to 12.35% with a mean of 9.43%. Overall, wild barley had higher averaged GPC (10.44%) than cultivated barley. Two unique haplotypes (Hap2 and Hap7) caused by a base mutations (at position 544) in the coding region of the NAM-1 gene might have a significant impact on the GPC. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes of NAM-1 associated with GPC in barley could provide a useful method for screening GPC in barley germplasm. The Tibetan wild accessions with lower GPC could be useful for malt barley breeding. PMID:26483818

  14. Origin of worldwide cultivated barley revealed by NAM-1 gene and grain protein content.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yonggang; Ren, Xifeng; Sun, Dongfa; Sun, Genlou

    2015-01-01

    The origin, evolution, and distribution of cultivated barley provides powerful insights into the historic origin and early spread of agrarian culture. Here, population-based genetic diversity and phylogenetic analyses were performed to determine the evolution and origin of barley and how domestication and subsequent introgression have affected the genetic diversity and changes in cultivated barley on a worldwide scale. A set of worldwide cultivated and wild barleys from Asia and Tibet of China were analyzed using the sequences for NAM-1 gene and gene-associated traits-grain protein content (GPC). Our results showed Tibetan wild barley distinctly diverged from Near Eastern barley, and confirmed that Tibet is one of the origin and domestication centers for cultivated barley, and in turn supported a polyphyletic origin of domesticated barley. Comparison of haplotype composition among geographic regions revealed gene flow between Eastern and Western barley populations, suggesting that the Silk Road might have played a crucial role in the spread of genes. The GPC in the 118 cultivated and 93 wild barley accessions ranged from 6.73 to 12.35% with a mean of 9.43%. Overall, wild barley had higher averaged GPC (10.44%) than cultivated barley. Two unique haplotypes (Hap2 and Hap7) caused by a base mutations (at position 544) in the coding region of the NAM-1 gene might have a significant impact on the GPC. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes of NAM-1 associated with GPC in barley could provide a useful method for screening GPC in barley germplasm. The Tibetan wild accessions with lower GPC could be useful for malt barley breeding.

  15. Acrylamide elution from roasted barley grains into mugicha and its formation during roasting.

    PubMed

    Mizukami, Yuzo; Yoshida, Mitsuru; Ono, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigated acrylamide elution from roasted barley grain into mugicha and its formation during roasting of the grain. Mugicha is an infusion of roasted barley grains. Highly water-soluble acrylamide was easily extracted to mugicha from milled roasted barley grains in teabags. On the other hand, the acrylamide concentration in mugicha prepared from loose grain increased with longer simmering and steeping times. During roasting in a drum roaster, the acrylamide concentration of the grain increased as the surface temperature rose, reaching a maximum at 180-240°C. Above this temperature, the acrylamide concentration decreased with continued roasting, exhibiting an inverted 'U'-shaped curve. For most of the samples, the acrylamide concentration showed good correlation with the value of the colour space parameter L*. The dark-coloured roasted barley grains with lower L* values contained lower amounts of acrylamide as a result of deep roasting. The level of asparagine in barley grains was found to be a significant factor related to acrylamide formation in roasted barley products. The data are an important contribution to the mitigation of acrylamide intake from mugicha.

  16. Acrylamide elution from roasted barley grains into mugicha and its formation during roasting.

    PubMed

    Mizukami, Yuzo; Yoshida, Mitsuru; Ono, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigated acrylamide elution from roasted barley grain into mugicha and its formation during roasting of the grain. Mugicha is an infusion of roasted barley grains. Highly water-soluble acrylamide was easily extracted to mugicha from milled roasted barley grains in teabags. On the other hand, the acrylamide concentration in mugicha prepared from loose grain increased with longer simmering and steeping times. During roasting in a drum roaster, the acrylamide concentration of the grain increased as the surface temperature rose, reaching a maximum at 180-240°C. Above this temperature, the acrylamide concentration decreased with continued roasting, exhibiting an inverted 'U'-shaped curve. For most of the samples, the acrylamide concentration showed good correlation with the value of the colour space parameter L*. The dark-coloured roasted barley grains with lower L* values contained lower amounts of acrylamide as a result of deep roasting. The level of asparagine in barley grains was found to be a significant factor related to acrylamide formation in roasted barley products. The data are an important contribution to the mitigation of acrylamide intake from mugicha. PMID:26678848

  17. High night temperatures during grain number determination reduce wheat and barley grain yield: a field study.

    PubMed

    García, Guillermo A; Dreccer, M Fernanda; Miralles, Daniel J; Serrago, Román A

    2015-11-01

    Warm nights are a widespread predicted feature of climate change. This study investigated the impact of high night temperatures during the critical period for grain yield determination in wheat and barley crops under field conditions, assessing the effects on development, growth and partitioning crop-level processes driving grain number per unit area (GN). Experiments combined: (i) two contrasting radiation and temperature environments: late sowing in 2011 and early sowing in 2013, (ii) two well-adapted crops with similar phenology: bread wheat and two-row malting barley and (iii) two temperature regimes: ambient and high night temperatures. The night temperature increase (ca. 3.9 °C in both crops and growing seasons) was achieved using purpose-built heating chambers placed on the crop at 19:000 hours and removed at 7:00 hours every day from the third detectable stem node to 10 days post-flowering. Across growing seasons and crops, the average minimum temperature during the critical period ranged from 11.2 to 17.2 °C. Wheat and barley grain yield were similarly reduced under warm nights (ca. 7% °C(-1) ), due to GN reductions (ca. 6% °C(-1) ) linked to a lower number of spikes per m(2) . An accelerated development under high night temperatures led to a shorter critical period duration, reducing solar radiation capture with negative consequences for biomass production, GN and therefore, grain yield. The information generated could be used as a starting point to design management and/or breeding strategies to improve crop adaptation facing climate change.

  18. High night temperatures during grain number determination reduce wheat and barley grain yield: a field study.

    PubMed

    García, Guillermo A; Dreccer, M Fernanda; Miralles, Daniel J; Serrago, Román A

    2015-11-01

    Warm nights are a widespread predicted feature of climate change. This study investigated the impact of high night temperatures during the critical period for grain yield determination in wheat and barley crops under field conditions, assessing the effects on development, growth and partitioning crop-level processes driving grain number per unit area (GN). Experiments combined: (i) two contrasting radiation and temperature environments: late sowing in 2011 and early sowing in 2013, (ii) two well-adapted crops with similar phenology: bread wheat and two-row malting barley and (iii) two temperature regimes: ambient and high night temperatures. The night temperature increase (ca. 3.9 °C in both crops and growing seasons) was achieved using purpose-built heating chambers placed on the crop at 19:000 hours and removed at 7:00 hours every day from the third detectable stem node to 10 days post-flowering. Across growing seasons and crops, the average minimum temperature during the critical period ranged from 11.2 to 17.2 °C. Wheat and barley grain yield were similarly reduced under warm nights (ca. 7% °C(-1) ), due to GN reductions (ca. 6% °C(-1) ) linked to a lower number of spikes per m(2) . An accelerated development under high night temperatures led to a shorter critical period duration, reducing solar radiation capture with negative consequences for biomass production, GN and therefore, grain yield. The information generated could be used as a starting point to design management and/or breeding strategies to improve crop adaptation facing climate change. PMID:26111197

  19. The role of alpha-glucosidase in germinating barley grains.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Duncan; Rejzek, Martin; Naested, Henrik; Smedley, Mark; Otero, Sofía; Fahy, Brendan; Thorpe, Frazer; Nash, Robert J; Harwood, Wendy; Svensson, Birte; Denyer, Kay; Field, Robert A; Smith, Alison M

    2011-02-01

    The importance of α-glucosidase in the endosperm starch metabolism of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings is poorly understood. The enzyme converts maltose to glucose (Glc), but in vitro studies indicate that it can also attack starch granules. To discover its role in vivo, we took complementary chemical-genetic and reverse-genetic approaches. We identified iminosugar inhibitors of a recombinant form of an α-glucosidase previously discovered in barley endosperm (ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE97 [HvAGL97]), and applied four of them to germinating grains. All four decreased the Glc-to-maltose ratio in the endosperm 10 d after imbibition, implying inhibition of maltase activity. Three of the four inhibitors also reduced starch degradation and seedling growth, but the fourth did not affect these parameters. Inhibition of starch degradation was apparently not due to inhibition of amylases. Inhibition of seedling growth was primarily a direct effect of the inhibitors on roots and coleoptiles rather than an indirect effect of the inhibition of endosperm metabolism. It may reflect inhibition of glycoprotein-processing glucosidases in these organs. In transgenic seedlings carrying an RNA interference silencing cassette for HvAgl97, α-glucosidase activity was reduced by up to 50%. There was a large decrease in the Glc-to-maltose ratio in these lines but no effect on starch degradation or seedling growth. Our results suggest that the α-glucosidase HvAGL97 is the major endosperm enzyme catalyzing the conversion of maltose to Glc but is not required for starch degradation. However, the effects of three glucosidase inhibitors on starch degradation in the endosperm indicate the existence of unidentified glucosidase(s) required for this process.

  20. Uptake of proline by the scutellum of germinating barley grain

    SciTech Connect

    Vaeisaenen, E.; Sopanen, T.

    1986-04-01

    Scutella separated from germinating grains of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Himalaya) took up 1 millimolar L-(/sup 14/C)proline at an initial rate of about 6.5 micromoles gram/sup -1/ fresh weight hour/sup -1/ (pH 5, 30/sup 0/C). The uptake had a pH optimum at 5. The bulk of the uptake (93%) was via carrier-mediated active transport. All of the 19 L-amino acids tested at 10 millimolar concentration inhibited the mediated uptake of 1 millimolar proline, the inhibitions varying from 18 to 76%. By studying how large a fraction of the mediated uptake was inhibitable by asparagine, alanine, glutamine, and leucine, the mediated uptake was shown to be due to three components. Two of these are most probably attributable to the two nonspecific uptake systems proposed earlier to act in the uptake of glutamine and leucine. The third component was not inhibited by glutamine, asparagine, or alanine, but was inhibited by unlabeled proline and leucine. The uptake by this system was apparently carrier-mediated active transport. D-Proline inhibited this system as strongly as L-proline. Nine of the 16 L-amino tested at 50 millimolar concentrations did not inhibit the uptake of 1 millimolar proline by this system. Valine, leucine, isoleucine, and the basic amino acids were inhibitory, but in spite of this, they did not appear to be taken up by this system. It seems therefore that in addition to two nonspecific amino acid uptake systems the scutella have an uptake system which is specific for proline. It is likely that this proline-specific system accounts for the bulk of proline uptake in a germinating grain.

  1. The impact of Fusarium culmorum infection on the protein fractions of raw barley and malted grains.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Pedro M; Waters, Deborah M; Arendt, Elke K

    2013-03-01

    Contaminating fungi, such as Fusarium species, produce metabolites that may interfere with normal barley grain proteolysis pattern and consequently, affect malt and beer quality. Protein compositional changes of an initial mixture of 20 % Fusarium culmorum infected and 80 % noninfected mature barley grains and respective malt are reported here. Proteolytic activity of infected barley grains (IBG) and respective malt, with controls (uninfected grains), were characterized using protease inhibitors from each class of this enzyme, including metallo-, cysteine, serine, and aspartic proteases, as well as uninhibited protease fractions. The proteins were extracted according to the Osborne fractionation and separated by size exclusion chromatography. Additionally, two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis (GE) was used to analyze hydrophobic storage proteins isolated from the control and IBG. Analyses revealed that F. culmorum IBG had a twofold increase of proteolytic activity compared to the control sample, which showed an increase in all protease classes with aspartic proteases dominating. Infected and control malt grains were comparable with cysteine proteases representing almost 50 % of all proteolytic enzymes detected. Protein extractability was 31 % higher in IBG compared to the control barley. The albumin fraction showed that several metabolic proteins decreased and increased at different rates during infection and malting, thus showing a complex F. culmorum infection interdependence. Prolamin storage proteins were more hydrophobic during barley fungal infection. F. culmorum interfered with the grain hydrolytic protein profile, thereby altering the grain's protein content and quality.

  2. Effects of Break Crops on Yield and Grain Protein Concentration of Barley in a Boreal Climate

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Ling; Yli-Halla, Markku; Stoddard, Frederick L.; Mäkelä, Pirjo S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Rotation with dicotyledonous crops to break cereal monoculture has proven to be beneficial to successive cereals. In two fields where the soil had been subjected to prolonged, continuous cereal production, two 3-year rotation trials were established. In the first year, faba bean, turnip rape and barley were grown, as first crops, in large blocks and their residues tilled into the soil after harvest. In the following year, barley, buckwheat, caraway, faba bean, hemp and white lupin were sown, as second crops, in each block and incorporated either at flowering stage (except barley) or after harvest. In the third year, barley was grown in all plots and its yield and grain protein concentration were determined. Mineral N in the plough layer was determined two months after incorporation of crops and again before sowing barley in the following year. The effect of faba bean and turnip rape on improving barley yields and grain protein concentration was still detectable two years after they were grown. The yield response of barley was not sensitive to the growth stage of second crops when they were incorporated, but was to different second crops, showing clear benefits averaging 6-7% after white lupin, faba bean and hemp but no benefit from caraway or buckwheat. The effect of increased N in the plough layer derived from rotation crops on barley yields was minor. Incorporation of plants at flowering stage slightly increased third-year barley grain protein concentration but posed a great potential for N loss compared with incorporation of crop residues after harvest, showing the value of either delayed incorporation or using catch crops. PMID:26076452

  3. Effects of Break Crops on Yield and Grain Protein Concentration of Barley in a Boreal Climate.

    PubMed

    Zou, Ling; Yli-Halla, Markku; Stoddard, Frederick L; Mäkelä, Pirjo S A

    2015-01-01

    Rotation with dicotyledonous crops to break cereal monoculture has proven to be beneficial to successive cereals. In two fields where the soil had been subjected to prolonged, continuous cereal production, two 3-year rotation trials were established. In the first year, faba bean, turnip rape and barley were grown, as first crops, in large blocks and their residues tilled into the soil after harvest. In the following year, barley, buckwheat, caraway, faba bean, hemp and white lupin were sown, as second crops, in each block and incorporated either at flowering stage (except barley) or after harvest. In the third year, barley was grown in all plots and its yield and grain protein concentration were determined. Mineral N in the plough layer was determined two months after incorporation of crops and again before sowing barley in the following year. The effect of faba bean and turnip rape on improving barley yields and grain protein concentration was still detectable two years after they were grown. The yield response of barley was not sensitive to the growth stage of second crops when they were incorporated, but was to different second crops, showing clear benefits averaging 6-7% after white lupin, faba bean and hemp but no benefit from caraway or buckwheat. The effect of increased N in the plough layer derived from rotation crops on barley yields was minor. Incorporation of plants at flowering stage slightly increased third-year barley grain protein concentration but posed a great potential for N loss compared with incorporation of crop residues after harvest, showing the value of either delayed incorporation or using catch crops. PMID:26076452

  4. Acrylamide in roasted barley grains: presence, correlation with colour and decrease during storage.

    PubMed

    Mizukami, Yuzo; Yoshida, Mitsuru; Isagawa, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Kumiko; Ono, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the presence of acrylamide in roasted barley grains, and assessed the correlation between acrylamide concentration and colour, and also examined acrylamide decrease during storage. Acrylamide concentrations in 45 commercially available roasted barley grains were analysed. The mean and standard deviation were 0.24 and 0.08 mg kg(-1), respectively. The CIE colour parameter a* value had little correlation with acrylamide concentration in roasted barley grains; however, the L* and b* values showed correlations with acrylamide concentration in the grains, yielding a correlation coefficient of 0.42 and 0.40, respectively. Darker-coloured roasted barley grains with lower L* values may contain lower amounts of acrylamide. Although acrylamide concentration decreased by 40% in the grains, and decreased by 36% in the milled grains (teabag form) after 309 days of storage at room temperature a significant difference in the rate of acrylamide decrease was not observed between the grain and teabag forms. The data obtained in this study are of importance to the risk assessment and management of acrylamide exposure in Japan.

  5. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Two Barley Cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) with Contrasting Grain Protein Content

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Baojian; Luan, Haiye; Lin, Shen; Lv, Chao; Zhang, Xinzhong; Xu, Rugen

    2016-01-01

    Grain protein contents (GPCs) of barley seeds are significantly different between feed and malting barley cultivars. However, there is still no insight into the proteomic analysis of seed proteins between feed and malting barley cultivars. Also, the genetic control of barley GPC is still unclear. GPCs were measured between mature grains of Yangsimai 3 and Naso Nijo. A proteome profiling of differentially expressed protein was established by using a combination of 2-DE and tandem mass spectrometry. In total, 502 reproducible protein spots in barley seed proteome were detected with a pH range of 4–7 and 6–11, among these 41 protein spots (8.17%) were detected differentially expressed between Yangsimai 3 and Naso Nijo. Thirty-four protein spots corresponding to 23 different proteins were identified, which were grouped into eight categories, including stress, protein degradation and post-translational modification, development, cell, signaling, glycolysis, starch metabolism, and other functions. Among the identified proteins, enolase (spot 274) and small subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (spot 271) are exclusively expressed in barley Yangsimai 3, which may be involved in regulating seed protein expression. In addition, malting quality is characterized by an accumulation of serpin protein, Alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor CMb and Alpha-amylase inhibitor BDAI-1. Most noticeably, globulin, an important storage protein in barley seed, undergoes post-translational processing in both cultivars, and also displays different expression patterns. PMID:27200019

  6. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Two Barley Cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) with Contrasting Grain Protein Content.

    PubMed

    Guo, Baojian; Luan, Haiye; Lin, Shen; Lv, Chao; Zhang, Xinzhong; Xu, Rugen

    2016-01-01

    Grain protein contents (GPCs) of barley seeds are significantly different between feed and malting barley cultivars. However, there is still no insight into the proteomic analysis of seed proteins between feed and malting barley cultivars. Also, the genetic control of barley GPC is still unclear. GPCs were measured between mature grains of Yangsimai 3 and Naso Nijo. A proteome profiling of differentially expressed protein was established by using a combination of 2-DE and tandem mass spectrometry. In total, 502 reproducible protein spots in barley seed proteome were detected with a pH range of 4-7 and 6-11, among these 41 protein spots (8.17%) were detected differentially expressed between Yangsimai 3 and Naso Nijo. Thirty-four protein spots corresponding to 23 different proteins were identified, which were grouped into eight categories, including stress, protein degradation and post-translational modification, development, cell, signaling, glycolysis, starch metabolism, and other functions. Among the identified proteins, enolase (spot 274) and small subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (spot 271) are exclusively expressed in barley Yangsimai 3, which may be involved in regulating seed protein expression. In addition, malting quality is characterized by an accumulation of serpin protein, Alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor CMb and Alpha-amylase inhibitor BDAI-1. Most noticeably, globulin, an important storage protein in barley seed, undergoes post-translational processing in both cultivars, and also displays different expression patterns.

  7. Spatially resolved analysis of variation in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain micronutrient accumulation.

    PubMed

    Detterbeck, Amelie; Pongrac, Paula; Rensch, Stefan; Reuscher, Stefan; Pečovnik, Matic; Vavpetič, Primož; Pelicon, Primož; Holzheu, Stefan; Krämer, Ute; Clemens, Stephan

    2016-09-01

    Genetic biofortification requires knowledge on natural variation and the underlying mechanisms of micronutrient accumulation. We therefore studied diversity in grain micronutrient concentrations and spatial distribution in barley (Hordeum vulgare), a genetically tractable model cereal and an important crop with widespread cultivation. We assembled a diverse collection of barley cultivars and landraces and analysed grain micronutrient profiles in genebank material and after three independent cultivations. Lines with contrasting grain zinc (Zn) accumulation were selected for in-depth analysis of micronutrient distribution within the grain by micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (μ-PIXE). Also, we addressed association with grain cadmium (Cd) accumulation. The analysis of > 120 lines revealed substantial variation, especially in grain Zn concentrations. A large fraction of this variation is due to genetic differences. Grain dissection and μ-PIXE analysis of contrasting lines showed that differences in grain Zn accumulation apply to all parts of the grain including the endosperm. Cd concentrations exceeded the Codex Alimentarius threshold in most of the representative barley lines after cultivation in a Cd-contaminated agricultural soil. Two important conclusions for biofortification are: first, high-Zn grains contain more Zn also in the consumed parts of the grain; and second, higher micronutrient concentrations are strongly associated with higher Cd accumulation. PMID:27125321

  8. Spatially resolved analysis of variation in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain micronutrient accumulation.

    PubMed

    Detterbeck, Amelie; Pongrac, Paula; Rensch, Stefan; Reuscher, Stefan; Pečovnik, Matic; Vavpetič, Primož; Pelicon, Primož; Holzheu, Stefan; Krämer, Ute; Clemens, Stephan

    2016-09-01

    Genetic biofortification requires knowledge on natural variation and the underlying mechanisms of micronutrient accumulation. We therefore studied diversity in grain micronutrient concentrations and spatial distribution in barley (Hordeum vulgare), a genetically tractable model cereal and an important crop with widespread cultivation. We assembled a diverse collection of barley cultivars and landraces and analysed grain micronutrient profiles in genebank material and after three independent cultivations. Lines with contrasting grain zinc (Zn) accumulation were selected for in-depth analysis of micronutrient distribution within the grain by micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (μ-PIXE). Also, we addressed association with grain cadmium (Cd) accumulation. The analysis of > 120 lines revealed substantial variation, especially in grain Zn concentrations. A large fraction of this variation is due to genetic differences. Grain dissection and μ-PIXE analysis of contrasting lines showed that differences in grain Zn accumulation apply to all parts of the grain including the endosperm. Cd concentrations exceeded the Codex Alimentarius threshold in most of the representative barley lines after cultivation in a Cd-contaminated agricultural soil. Two important conclusions for biofortification are: first, high-Zn grains contain more Zn also in the consumed parts of the grain; and second, higher micronutrient concentrations are strongly associated with higher Cd accumulation.

  9. CoulArray electrochemical evaluation of tocopherol and tocotrienol isomers in barley, oat and spelt grains.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Maria L; Marangon, Katia; Bugatti, Carlo

    2009-02-01

    Hexane extracts obtained from Hordeum vulgare L. (barley), Avena sativa L. (oat), Triticum spelta Schrank and Triticum dicoccum Schrank ex Schübler (spelt or emmer) whole grains, were examined for their tocochromanol (tocopherol and tocotrienol) content. The analyses were carried out on fatty extracts by means of HPLC coupled with a coulometric array electrochemical detector (ECD). Due to the specific high selectivity of the detector, the sample can be directly injected without any preliminary treatment (e.g., saponification). Eight tocochromanol isomers have been detected in barley grains. Different barley cultivars examined showed a tocochromanol content ranging from 1620 to 1852 ng/g caryopses. Oat grains contained ca. 45 ng/g caryopses and Triticum species ca.1070 ng/g caryopses. The results are considered in view of a potential use of vitamin E derivatives as human health enhancer and as sources of antioxidants for food lipid preservation.

  10. Tubing crimping pliers

    DOEpatents

    Lindholm, G.T.

    1981-02-27

    The disclosure relates to pliers and more particularly to pliers for crimping two or more pieces of copper tubing together prior to their being permanently joined by brazing, soldering or the like. A die containing spring-loaded pins rotates within a cammed ring in the head of the pliers. As the die rotates, the pins force a crimp on tubing held within the pliers.

  11. cis-trans-Isomerization of unsaturated fatty acids during /γ-irradiation of barley grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geißler, Christian; Brede, Ortwin; Reinhardt, Jürgen

    2003-06-01

    Gamma-irradiating barley grains with doses of 10-100 kGy, a dose dependent isomerization of the naturally occurring cis-unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic, cis-vaccenic, linoleic and also of linolenic acid was found. Whereas the effect was negligible up to 10 kGy, at 50 kGy the trans-fatty acid level became comparable to that of other natural products like butter fat which means that there is no essential nutrition danger. The cis-trans-isomerization found in barley grains is explained mainly by a thiyl radical driven process rather than direct isomerization.

  12. Accelerated rates of protein evolution in barley grain and pistil biased genes might be legacy of domestication.

    PubMed

    Shi, Tao; Dimitrov, Ivan; Zhang, Yinling; Tax, Frans E; Yi, Jing; Gou, Xiaoping; Li, Jia

    2015-10-01

    Traits related to grain and reproductive organs in grass crops have been under continuous directional selection during domestication. Barley is one of the oldest domesticated crops in human history. Thus genes associated with the grain and reproductive organs in barley may show evidence of dramatic evolutionary change. To understand how artificial selection contributes to protein evolution of biased genes in different barley organs, we used Digital Gene Expression analysis of six barley organs (grain, pistil, anther, leaf, stem and root) to identify genes with biased expression in specific organs. Pairwise comparisons of orthologs between barley and Brachypodium distachyon, as well as between highland and lowland barley cultivars mutually indicated that grain and pistil biased genes show relatively higher protein evolutionary rates compared with the median of all orthologs and other organ biased genes. Lineage-specific protein evolutionary rates estimation showed similar patterns with elevated protein evolution in barley grain and pistil biased genes, yet protein sequences generally evolve much faster in the lowland barley cultivar. Further functional annotations revealed that some of these grain and pistil biased genes with rapid protein evolution are related to nutrient biosynthesis and cell cycle/division. Our analyses provide insights into how domestication differentially shaped the evolution of genes specific to different organs of a crop species, and implications for future functional studies of domestication genes.

  13. Dormancy of the barley grain is correlated with gibberellic Acid responsiveness of the isolated aleurone layer.

    PubMed

    Schuurink, R C; Sedee, N J; Wang, M

    1992-12-01

    The relationship between barley grain dormancy and gibberellic acid (GA(3)) responsiveness of aleurone layers has been investigated. Barley (Hordeum distichum L. cvs Triumph and Kristina) grains were matured under defined conditions in a phytotron. Grains of Triumph plants grown under long-day/warm conditions had lower dormancy levels than grains of plants grown under short-day/cool conditions. Aleurone layers isolated from grains of long-day Triumph plants secreted more alpha-amylase and had a higher responsiveness to GA(3) as measured by alpha-amylase secretion. Storage of the grains increased both the percentage of germination and the responsiveness of the aleurone to GA(3). Use of different sterilization methods to break dormancy confirmed the correlation between germination percentage and aleurone layer GA(3) responsiveness. The response of embryoless Triumph grains to GA(3) was lower than that of the isolated aleurone layers, suggesting a role of the starchy endosperm in regulating the GA(3) response of the aleurone layer. Grains of the cultivar Kristina harvested from short day- and long day-grown plants lacked dormancy, and their isolated aleurone layers had a similar responsiveness to GA(3) as measured by alpha-amylase secretion. The data indicate that the physiological state of the aleurone layers contributes to the percentage germination of the grains.

  14. Association mapping of grain hardness, polyphenol oxidase, total phenolics, amylose content, and ß-glucan in US barley breeding germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A renewed interest in breeding barley specifically for food end-uses is being driven by increased consumer interest in healthier foods. We conducted association mapping on physicochemical properties of barley that play a role in food quality and processing including, grain hardness, polyphenol oxid...

  15. Differences in Grain Ultrastructure, Phytochemical and Proteomic Profiles between the Two Contrasting Grain Cd-Accumulation Barley Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hongyan; Cao, Fangbin; Wang, Nanbo; Zhang, Mian; Mosaddek Ahmed, Imrul; Zhang, Guoping; Wu, Feibo

    2013-01-01

    To reveal grain physio-chemical and proteomic differences between two barley genotypes, Zhenong8 and W6nk2 of high- and low- grain-Cd-accumulation, grain profiles of ultrastructure, amino acid and proteins were compared. Results showed that W6nk2 possesses significantly lower protein content, with hordein depicting the greatest genotypic difference, compared with Zhenong8, and lower amino acid contents with especially lower proportion of Glu, Tyr, Phe and Pro. Both scanning and transmission electron microscopy observation declared that the size of A-type starch molecule in W6nk2 was considerably larger than that of Zhenong8. Grains of Zhenong8 exhibited more protein-rich deposits around starch granules, with some A-type granules having surface pits. Seventeen proteins were identified in grains, using 2-DE coupled with mass spectrometry, with higher expression in Zhenong8 than that in W6nk2; including z-type serpin, serpin-Z7 and alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor CM, carbohydrate metabolism, protein synthesis and signal transduction related proteins. Twelve proteins were less expressed in Zhenong8 than that in W6nk2; including barley trypsin inhibitor chloroform/methanol-soluble protein (BTI-CMe2.1, BTI-CMe2.2), trypsin inhibitor, dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), pericentrin, dynein heavy chain and some antiviral related proteins. The data extend our understanding of mechanisms underlying Cd accumulation/tolerance and provides possible utilization of elite genetic resources in developing low-grain-Cd barley cultivars. PMID:24260165

  16. A role for barley CRYPTOCHROME1 in light regulation of grain dormancy and germination.

    PubMed

    Barrero, Jose M; Downie, A Bruce; Xu, Qian; Gubler, Frank

    2014-03-01

    It is well known that abscisic acid (ABA) plays a central role in the regulation of seed dormancy and that transcriptional regulation of genes encoding ABA biosynthetic and degradation enzymes is responsible for determining ABA content. However, little is known about the upstream signaling pathways impinging on transcription to ultimately regulate ABA content or how environmental signals (e.g., light and cold) might direct such expression in grains. Our previous studies indicated that light is a key environmental signal inhibiting germination in dormant grains of barley (Hordeum vulgare), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and Brachypodium distachyon and that this effect attenuates as after-ripening progresses further. We found that the blue component of the light spectrum inhibits completion of germination in barley by inducing the expression of the ABA biosynthetic gene 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and dampening expression of ABA 8'-hydroxylase, thus increasing ABA content in the grain. We have now created barley transgenic lines downregulating the genes encoding the blue light receptors CRYTOCHROME (CRY1) and CRY2. Our results demonstrate that CRY1 is the key receptor perceiving and transducing the blue light signal in dormant grains.

  17. Effect of Whole-Grain Barley on the Human Fecal Microbiota and Metabolome

    PubMed Central

    De Angelis, Maria; Montemurno, Eustacchio; Vannini, Lucia; Cosola, Carmela; Cavallo, Noemi; Gozzi, Giorgia; Maranzano, Valentina; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gesualdo, Loreto

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we compared the fecal microbiota and metabolomes of 26 healthy subjects before (HS) and after (HSB) 2 months of diet intervention based on the administration of durum wheat flour and whole-grain barley pasta containing the minimum recommended daily intake (3 g) of barley β-glucans. Metabolically active bacteria were analyzed through pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and community-level catabolic profiles. Pyrosequencing data showed that levels of Clostridiaceae (Clostridium orbiscindens and Clostridium sp.), Roseburia hominis, and Ruminococcus sp. increased, while levels of other Firmicutes and Fusobacteria decreased, from the HSB samples to the HS fecal samples. Community-level catabolic profiles were lower in HSB samples. Compared to the results for HS samples, cultivable lactobacilli increased in HSB fecal samples, while the numbers of Enterobacteriaceae, total coliforms, and Bacteroides, Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, and Aeromonas bacteria decreased. Metabolome analyses were performed using an amino acid analyzer and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry solid-phase microextraction. A marked increase in short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), such as 2-methyl-propanoic, acetic, butyric, and propionic acids, was found in HSB samples with respect to the HS fecal samples. Durum wheat flour and whole-grain barley pasta containing 3% barley β-glucans appeared to be effective in modulating the composition and metabolic pathways of the intestinal microbiota, leading to an increased level of SCFA in the HSB samples. PMID:26386056

  18. Supplementation of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose into yeast leavened all-whole grain barley bread potentiates cholesterol-lowering effect.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunsook; Turowski, Maciej; Anderson, W H Kerr; Young, Scott A; Kim, Yookyung; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2011-07-27

    We investigated in Syrian Golden hamsters the biological impact and its underlying mechanism of single whole grain breads supplemented with 2-3% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), a semisynthetic viscous soluble dietary fiber (SDF) as a substitute for gluten. Hamsters were fed high-fat diets supplemented with 48-65% (w/w) differently ground, freeze-dried single grain breads including whole grain wheat, barley, barley supplemented with HPMC, debranned oat, and oat supplemented with HPMC which were compared to a diet containing microcrystalline cellulose (control). All single grain breads significantly lowered plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations compared to the control. Enrichment with HPMC further lowered plasma and hepatic cholesterol concentrations. Despite the reduced molecular weight of naturally occurring soluble (1--->3),(1--->4)-β-d-glucan (β-glucan) caused by the bread-making process, whole grain barley breads downregulated hepatic expression of CYP7A1 and HMG-CoAR genes that are responsible for bile acid and cholesterol synthesis, suggesting a possible role of bioactive compounds such as short-chain fatty acids and phenolic compounds from barley bread. Barley bread enriched with HPMC downregulated expression of ABCG5 gene. Taken together, it appears that distinctive modulation of synthesis and excretion of hepatic cholesterol and bile acid contributes to the cholesterol-lowering properties of whole grain barley breads and breads enriched with HPMC. These data suggests that alternative whole grain breads supplemented with HPMC may provide consumers with a staple food that can assist in cholesterol management.

  19. GA Enhanced a-Amylase Synthesis in Halved Grains of Barley (Hordeum vulgare): A Simple Laboratory Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, P. W.

    1972-01-01

    A laboratory demonstration is suggested for the formation of a-amylase enzyme in halved grains of barley. Data presented in the article provide some information of the pattern of a- and b-amylase activity during germination. (PS)

  20. Piriformospora indica mycorrhization increases grain yield by accelerating early development of barley plants

    PubMed Central

    Achatz, Beate; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Franken, Philipp

    2010-01-01

    Root colonization by the basidiomycete fungus Piriformospora indica induces host plant tolerance against abiotic and biotic stress, and enhances growth and yield. As P. indica has a broad host range, it has been established as a model system to study beneficial plant-microbe interactions. Moreover, its properties led to the assumption that P. indica shows potential for application in crop plant production. Therefore, possible mechanisms of P. indica improving host plant yield were tested in outdoor experiments: Induction of higher grain yield in barley was independent of elevated pathogen levels and independent of different phosphate fertilization levels. In contrast to the arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus Glomus mosseae total phosphate contents of host plant roots and shoots were not significantly affected by P. indica. Analysis of plant development and yield parameters indicated that positive effects of P. indica on grain yield are due to accelerated growth of barley plants early in development. PMID:21150264

  1. Comparison of manual and automatic sampling for monitoring ochratoxin A in barley grain.

    PubMed

    Andersson, M G; Reiter, E V; Lindqvist, P-A; Razzazi-Fazeli, E; Häggblom, P

    2011-08-01

    Automatic and manual sampling for ochratoxin A (OTA) in barley grain was compared under industrial conditions considering sampling uncertainty as well as practical and technical aspects. Ten tonnes of barley inoculated with Penicillium verrucosum were incubated until the OTA concentration reached approximately 15 µg kg(-1) and sampled with manual and automatic sampling. A nested experimental design and ANOVA was used to estimate variance components from sampling, sample reduction, sample preparation and analysis. Manual sampling resulted in a high sampling uncertainty and OTA concentrations in aggregate samples ranged from 2 to 80 µg kg(-1). When aggregate samples were formed by automatic sampling the uncertainty arising from nugget effects and spatial distribution was practically eliminated. Results from this study show that an automatic sampler mounted after a mixer or conveyer can provide representative samples of OTA from a moving stream of barley. Automatic sampling might present a practical and economical alternative to manual sampling for feed mill operators when monitoring low levels of mycotoxins in grain or other commodities. Despite careful precautions, sample preparation and analysis resulted in a relative uncertainty of ±40% (p = 0.95), which was attributed to the sub-sampling following the two grinding steps. Size fractionation of the coarsely ground barley showed that 40% of the total amount of OTA was present in a small fraction of fine particles with a strong tendency to aggregate or stick to equipment and containers. Thus, in order to take advantage of the automatic sampling, it is crucial to apply an appropriate sub-sampling to prevent segregation of particles which may affect the OTA measurements.

  2. Influence of whole grain barley, whole grain wheat, and refined rice-based foods on short-term satiety and energy intake.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Natalia; Gallaher, Daniel D; Arndt, Elizabeth A; Marquart, Len

    2009-12-01

    This study compared the effect of whole grain high-fiber barley, whole grain wheat and refined rice-based foods on energy intake and satiety. Forty-seven healthy subjects consumed a breakfast of hot cereal and a snack mix containing either barley, wheat, or refined rice, followed by an ad libitum smorgasbord lunch using a crossover design. Energy intake was measured at the lunch using plate waste. Hunger, fullness, desire to eat, amount of food consumed, and thirst were assessed using a modified Visual Analog Scale (VAS) before and after the breakfast, snack and lunch. Energy intake at lunch did not differ among products. There were no differences in the area under the time curve in modified VAS scores among products for any parameter. However, subjects reported significantly less hunger before lunch compared to their hunger before breakfast when consuming the barley, but there was no significant reduction in hunger before lunch after consumption of wheat or rice. In conclusion, intake of a whole grain high-fiber barley, whole grain wheat, or refined rice breakfast and snack did not decrease energy intake acutely, but consumption of whole grain high-fiber barley foods significantly decreased hunger whereas whole wheat and refined rice foods did not.

  3. Fructan extracts from wheat stem and barley grain stimulate large bowel fermentation in rats.

    PubMed

    Belobrajdic, Damien P; Jenkins, Colin L D; Bushell, Rhys; Morell, Matthew K; Bird, Anthony R

    2012-08-01

    The benefits of inulin-type fructans for bowel health are well established, but less so for other fructan sources. In vitro data suggest that fructans extracted from cereals are readily fermented and produce favorable short-chain fatty acid profiles; however, whether this occurs in vivo is unknown. We hypothesized that in rats, fructans extracted from wheat stem and barley grain would have similar effects on fermentation as oligofructose (OF). Fifty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to 1 of 7 dietary treatments that contained either 2% or 5% fructan, provided by a barley grain fructan extract (BGFE), a wheat stem fructan extract, or OF or no added fructan (control). The duration of the feeding study was 14 days. Rats fed diets containing 5% fructan had higher cecal digesta weights; larger acetate, propionate, and total short-chain fatty acid pools; and lower pHs in comparison with the control group. In addition, only the 5% OF and 5% BGFE groups increased cecal butyrate pools, and 5% BGFE was the only group in which colonic digesta pH was lower than that of the control. Diets containing 2% fructan did not affect any of these fermentation end points. Whereas bifidobacteria numbers in cecal digesta of 2% and 5% OF were higher than that in the control group, they were not different from those in rats fed diets containing BGFE and wheat stem fructan extract. Barley grain and wheat stem fructans produced similar large bowel fermentation patterns to OF when fed to rats at 5% of the diet. PMID:22935343

  4. In situ identification and quantification of starch-hydrolyzing bacteria attached to barley and corn grain in the rumen of cows fed barley-based diets.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yun; Kong, Yunhong; Seviour, Robert; Yang, Hee-Eun; Forster, Robert; Vasanthan, Thavaratnam; McAllister, Tim

    2015-08-01

    Cereal grains rich in starch are widely used to meet the energy demands of high-producing beef and dairy cattle. Bacteria are important players in starch digestion in the rumen, and thus play an important role in the hydrolysis and fermentation of cereal grains. However, our understanding of the composition of the rumen starch-hydrolyzing bacteria (SHB) is limited. In this study, BODIPY FL DQ starch staining combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and quantitative FISH were applied to label, identify and quantify SHB possessing active cell-surface-associated (CSA) α-amylase activity in the rumen of heifers fed barley-based diets. When individual cells of SHB with active CSA α-amylase activity were enumerated, they constituted 19-23% of the total bacterial cells attached to particles of four different cultivars of barley grain and corn. Quantitative FISH revealed that up to 70-80% of these SHB were members of Ruminococcaceae in the phylum Firmicutes but were not Streptococcus bovis, Ruminobacter amylophilus, Succinomonas amylolytica, Bifidobacterium spp. or Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, all of whose amylolytic activities have been demonstrated previously in vitro. The proportion of barley grain in the diet had a large impact on the percentage abundance of total SHB and Ruminococcaceae SHB in these animals. PMID:26142428

  5. In situ identification and quantification of starch-hydrolyzing bacteria attached to barley and corn grain in the rumen of cows fed barley-based diets.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yun; Kong, Yunhong; Seviour, Robert; Yang, Hee-Eun; Forster, Robert; Vasanthan, Thavaratnam; McAllister, Tim

    2015-08-01

    Cereal grains rich in starch are widely used to meet the energy demands of high-producing beef and dairy cattle. Bacteria are important players in starch digestion in the rumen, and thus play an important role in the hydrolysis and fermentation of cereal grains. However, our understanding of the composition of the rumen starch-hydrolyzing bacteria (SHB) is limited. In this study, BODIPY FL DQ starch staining combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and quantitative FISH were applied to label, identify and quantify SHB possessing active cell-surface-associated (CSA) α-amylase activity in the rumen of heifers fed barley-based diets. When individual cells of SHB with active CSA α-amylase activity were enumerated, they constituted 19-23% of the total bacterial cells attached to particles of four different cultivars of barley grain and corn. Quantitative FISH revealed that up to 70-80% of these SHB were members of Ruminococcaceae in the phylum Firmicutes but were not Streptococcus bovis, Ruminobacter amylophilus, Succinomonas amylolytica, Bifidobacterium spp. or Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, all of whose amylolytic activities have been demonstrated previously in vitro. The proportion of barley grain in the diet had a large impact on the percentage abundance of total SHB and Ruminococcaceae SHB in these animals.

  6. Proteomic analysis of mature barley grains from C-hordein antisense lines.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Daiana; Gaziola, Salete Aparecida; Boaretto, Luis Felipe; Azevedo, Ricardo Antunes

    2016-05-01

    Hordeins are the major storage proteins in barley grains and are responsible for their low nutritional quality. Previously, antisense C-hordein barley lines were generated and were shown to contain a more balanced amino acid composition and an altered storage protein profile. In the present study, a proteomic approach that combined two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry was used to (1) identify the changes in the protein profile of non-storage proteins (salt soluble fraction) in antisense C-hordein barley lines (L1, L2 and L3) and (2) map the differentially expressed proteins compared to the non-transgenic control line (Hordeum vulgare cv. Golden Promise). Moreover, the changes in the proteins were correlated with the more balanced amino acid composition of these lines, with special attention to the lysine content. The results showed that suppression of C-hordein expression does not exclusively affect hordein synthesis and accumulation. The more balanced amino acid composition observed in the transgenic lines L1, L2 and L3 was an indirect result of the profound alterations in the patterns of the non-storage proteins. The observed changes included up-regulated expression of the proteins involved in stress and detoxification (L1), defence (L2 and L3), and storage globulins (L1, L2 and L3). To a lesser extent, the proteins involved in grain metabolism were also changed. Thus, the increased essential amino acids content results from changes in distinct protein sources among the three antisense C-hordein lines analyzed, although the up-regulated expression of lysine-rich proteins was consistently observed in all lines.

  7. Induction of secondary dormancy by hypoxia in barley grains and its hormonal regulation

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Hai Ha; Bailly, Christophe; Corbineau, Françoise; Leymarie, Juliette

    2013-01-01

    In barley, primary dormant grains did not germinate at 30 °C in air and at 15 °C in an atmosphere containing less than 10% O2, while they germinated easily at 15 °C in air. O2 tension in embryos measured with microsensors was 15.8% at 15 °C but only 0.3% at 30 °C. Incubation of grains at 30 °C is known to induce secondary dormancy in barley, and it was shown here that secondary dormancy was also induced by a 3 d treatment in O2 tensions lower than 10% at 15 °C. After such treatments, the grains lost their ability to germinate subsequently at 15 °C in air. During seed treatment in 5% O2, embryo abscisic acid (ABA) content decreased more slowly than in air and was not altered after transfer into air. Hypoxia did not alter the expression of ABA metabolism genes after 1 d, and induction of HvNCED2 occurred only after 3 d in hypoxia. Embryo sensitivity to ABA was similar in both primary and hypoxia-induced secondary dormant grains. Gibberellic acid (GA) metabolism genes were highly regulated and regulated earlier by the hypoxia treatment, with major changes in HvGA2ox3, HvGA3ox2 and HvGA20ox1 expression after 1 d, resulting in reduced GA signalling. Although a high temperature has an indirect effect on O2 availability, the data showed that it did not affect expression of prolyl-4-hydroxylases and that induction of secondary dormancy by hypoxia at 15 °C or by high temperature in air involved separate signalling pathways. Induction by hypoxia at 15 °C appears to be more regulated by GA and less by ABA than the induction by high temperature. PMID:23519728

  8. Induction of secondary dormancy by hypoxia in barley grains and its hormonal regulation.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Hai Ha; Bailly, Christophe; Corbineau, Françoise; Leymarie, Juliette

    2013-04-01

    In barley, primary dormant grains did not germinate at 30 °C in air and at 15 °C in an atmosphere containing less than 10% O2, while they germinated easily at 15 °C in air. O2 tension in embryos measured with microsensors was 15.8% at 15 °C but only 0.3% at 30 °C. Incubation of grains at 30 °C is known to induce secondary dormancy in barley, and it was shown here that secondary dormancy was also induced by a 3 d treatment in O2 tensions lower than 10% at 15 °C. After such treatments, the grains lost their ability to germinate subsequently at 15 °C in air. During seed treatment in 5% O2, embryo abscisic acid (ABA) content decreased more slowly than in air and was not altered after transfer into air. Hypoxia did not alter the expression of ABA metabolism genes after 1 d, and induction of HvNCED2 occurred only after 3 d in hypoxia. Embryo sensitivity to ABA was similar in both primary and hypoxia-induced secondary dormant grains. Gibberellic acid (GA) metabolism genes were highly regulated and regulated earlier by the hypoxia treatment, with major changes in HvGA2ox3, HvGA3ox2 and HvGA20ox1 expression after 1 d, resulting in reduced GA signalling. Although a high temperature has an indirect effect on O2 availability, the data showed that it did not affect expression of prolyl-4-hydroxylases and that induction of secondary dormancy by hypoxia at 15 °C or by high temperature in air involved separate signalling pathways. Induction by hypoxia at 15 °C appears to be more regulated by GA and less by ABA than the induction by high temperature. PMID:23519728

  9. Post-anthesis N and P dynamics and its impact on grain yield and quality in mycorrhizal barley plants.

    PubMed

    Criado, Maria V; H Gutierrez Boem, Flavio; Roberts, Irma N; Caputo, Carla

    2015-04-01

    An essential goal for modern agriculture is the simultaneous improvement of productivity efficiency and nutrient use efficiency. One way to achieve this goal in crops is to enhance nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) acquisition through the mycorrhizal association. This study examined the effect of mycorrhization on post-anthesis N and P dynamics and its impact on grain yield and quality in barley. In addition, the efficiency of both N and P utilization and remobilization was evaluated. With those purposes, barley plants inoculated or not with Rhizophagus intraradices were grown in a soil poor in N and P under greenhouse conditions. Inoculation with R. intraradices in barley enhanced both N and P content in grain and vegetative tissue and reduced phloem amino acid export rate. On the other hand, both N and P vegetative tissue content and phloem amino acid and P export rates decreased during grain filling, whereas N and P grain content increased in both treatments according to the senescence process. However, whereas N grain concentration decreased during grain filling, P grain concentration did not vary, thus suggesting a differential regulation on grain filling. Inoculation with R. intraradices improved the yield and grain quality, thus demonstrating that inoculation with R. intraradices in barley is beneficial, but mycorrhization caused a diminution in nutrient utilization efficiency. As the phloem remobilization rate of amino acids and P did not decrease during grain filling in R. intraradices-inoculated plants compared to non-inoculated ones, these results suggest that nutrient utilization efficiency is most probably regulated by sink strength rather by a mycorrhizal effect. PMID:25242016

  10. Post-anthesis N and P dynamics and its impact on grain yield and quality in mycorrhizal barley plants.

    PubMed

    Criado, Maria V; H Gutierrez Boem, Flavio; Roberts, Irma N; Caputo, Carla

    2015-04-01

    An essential goal for modern agriculture is the simultaneous improvement of productivity efficiency and nutrient use efficiency. One way to achieve this goal in crops is to enhance nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) acquisition through the mycorrhizal association. This study examined the effect of mycorrhization on post-anthesis N and P dynamics and its impact on grain yield and quality in barley. In addition, the efficiency of both N and P utilization and remobilization was evaluated. With those purposes, barley plants inoculated or not with Rhizophagus intraradices were grown in a soil poor in N and P under greenhouse conditions. Inoculation with R. intraradices in barley enhanced both N and P content in grain and vegetative tissue and reduced phloem amino acid export rate. On the other hand, both N and P vegetative tissue content and phloem amino acid and P export rates decreased during grain filling, whereas N and P grain content increased in both treatments according to the senescence process. However, whereas N grain concentration decreased during grain filling, P grain concentration did not vary, thus suggesting a differential regulation on grain filling. Inoculation with R. intraradices improved the yield and grain quality, thus demonstrating that inoculation with R. intraradices in barley is beneficial, but mycorrhization caused a diminution in nutrient utilization efficiency. As the phloem remobilization rate of amino acids and P did not decrease during grain filling in R. intraradices-inoculated plants compared to non-inoculated ones, these results suggest that nutrient utilization efficiency is most probably regulated by sink strength rather by a mycorrhizal effect.

  11. Monitoring Technology for Gamma-Aminobutyric acid Production in Polished Mochi Barley Grains using a Carbon Dioxide Sensor.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yasuo; Kawata, Kohki; Watanabe, Seiya

    2015-06-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has many biological functions, including the inhibition of blood pressure increases and acceleration of growth hormone secretion. In this study, we discovered the utility of measuring the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) dissolved in the reaction solution, for development of a real-time and convenient technique to estimate GABA production. In addition to mochi barley bran, we examined the polished grains of three species: mochi barley (a variant of hulless barley), barley, and Japanese millet, all soaked in l-glutamic acid (l-Glu) solution at pH 4.5. We found a positive correlation between GABA and CO2 concentrations, and the production of CO2 was suppressed in the absence of l-Glu at pH 4.5. These results suggest that GABA content can be easily predicted by measuring the aqueous CO2 content using a CO2 sensor, during the process of GABA production in polished mochi barley grains and bran.

  12. The barley anion channel, HvALMT1, has multiple roles in guard cell physiology and grain metabolism.

    PubMed

    Xu, Muyun; Gruber, Benjamin D; Delhaize, Emmanuel; White, Rosemary G; James, Richard A; You, Jiangfeng; Yang, Zhenming; Ryan, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    The barley (Hordeum vulgare) gene HvALMT1 encodes an anion channel in guard cells and in certain root tissues indicating that it may perform multiple roles. The protein localizes to the plasma membrane and facilitates malate efflux from cells when constitutively expressed in barley plants and Xenopus oocytes. This study investigated the function of HvALMT1 further by identifying its tissue-specific expression and by generating and characterizing RNAi lines with reduced HvALMT1 expression. We show that transgenic plants with 18-30% of wild-type HvALMT1 expression had impaired guard cell function. They maintained higher stomatal conductance in low light intensity and lost water more rapidly from excised leaves than the null segregant control plants. Tissue-specific expression of HvALMT1 was investigated in developing grain and during germination using transgenic barley lines expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) with the HvALMT1 promoter. We found that HvALMT1 is expressed in the nucellar projection, the aleurone layer and the scutellum of developing barley grain. Malate release measured from isolated aleurone layers prepared from imbibed grain was significantly lower in the RNAi barley plants compared with control plants. These data provide molecular and physiological evidence that HvALMT1 functions in guard cells, in grain development and during germination. We propose that HvALMT1 releases malate and perhaps other anions from guard cells to promote stomatal closure. The likely roles of HvALMT1 during seed development and grain germination are also discussed.

  13. Characteristics and Development of Leucine Transport Activity in the Scutellum of Germinating Barley Grain 1

    PubMed Central

    Sopanen, Tuomas; Uuskallio, Marjukka; Nyman, Seija; Mikola, Juhani

    1980-01-01

    Scutella separated from grains of Himalaya barley after germination for 3 days rapidly took up l-leucine from aerated incubation media; with 1 millimolar leucine the rate varied between 4 and 14 micromoles per gram per hour and the pH optimum was at 3.5 to 5, both depending on buffer composition and prewashing time. The rate of the uptake increased with increasing concentration of leucine in a complex manner, which could be interpreted as multiphasic kinetics with apparent Km values of 3.4 and 15.5 millimolar below and above 3 millimolar leucine, respectively. The uptake took place against a concentration difference (highest estimated ratio 270: 1) and was strongly inhibited by dinitrophenol. Uptake was apparently due to active transport requiring metabolic energy. The development of the uptake activity during germination was studied using Pirkka barley. A low activity was present in the scutella of ungerminated grains. It began to increase after 6 hours imbibition, and the increase was biphasic, the major changes occurring during days 0 to 3 and 4 to 6. The total increase was about 20-fold. The regulation of the development was studied by allowing separated embryos to germinate on agar gel. The increase of uptake activity was strongly inhibited by inhibitors of RNA or protein synthesis. Increase did not require the presence of the embryo proper, and was not affected by gibberellic or abscisic acid. Removal of the endosperm greatly accelerated the increase of uptake activity, and the presence of 5 or 20 millimolar glutamine counteracted the removal of the endosperm. The results suggest that the availability of glutamine or amino acids in general in the endosperm may regulate the development or the activity of the transport system. PMID:16661169

  14. Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Fructan Metabolism in Developing Barley Grains[W

    PubMed Central

    Peukert, Manuela; Thiel, Johannes; Peshev, Darin; Weschke, Winfriede; Van den Ende, Wim; Mock, Hans-Peter; Matros, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain development follows a series of defined morphological and physiological stages and depends on the supply of assimilates (mainly sucrose) from the mother plant. Here, spatio-temporal patterns of sugar distributions were investigated by mass spectrometric imaging, targeted metabolite analyses, and transcript profiling of microdissected grain tissues. Distinct spatio-temporal sugar balances were observed, which may relate to differentiation and grain filling processes. Notably, various types of oligofructans showed specific distribution patterns. Levan- and graminan-type oligofructans were synthesized in the cellularized endosperm prior to the commencement of starch biosynthesis, while during the storage phase, inulin-type oligofructans accumulated to a high concentration in and around the nascent endosperm cavity. In the shrunken endosperm mutant seg8, with a decreased sucrose flux toward the endosperm, fructan accumulation was impaired. The tight partitioning of oligofructan biosynthesis hints at distinct functions of the various fructan types in the young endosperm prior to starch accumulation and in the endosperm transfer cells that accomplish the assimilate supply toward the endosperm at the storage phase. PMID:25271242

  15. Selenium speciation in malt, wort, and beer made from selenium-biofortified two-rowed barley grain.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, Sara; Santamaria, Oscar; Chen, Yi; McGrath, Steve P; Poblaciones, Maria J

    2014-06-25

    Selenium (Se) biofortification of barley is a suitable strategy to increase the Se concentration in grain. In the present paper, the suitability of this Se-biofortified grain for making Se-enriched beer is analyzed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different Se fertilizer doses (0, 10, and 20 g of Se ha(-1)) and forms (sodium selenate or sodium selenite) on the Se loss during the malting and brewing processes and Se speciation in grain, malt, wort, and beer. Samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ICP-MS for total Se and speciation. Mashing-lautering was the process with the greatest Se loss (83.8%). After malting and brewing, only 7.3% of the initial Se was retained in beer, mainly in selenite form. Even so, the fertilizer application of sodium selenate at 20 g ha(-1) increased the total Se concentration almost 6-fold in the final beer in comparison to the use of grain derived from unfertilized barley. The present paper provides evidence that the use of Se-biofortified barley grain as a raw material to produce Se-enriched beer is possible, and the results are comparable to other methods in terms of efficiency.

  16. Genomic dissection of plant development and its impact on thousand grain weight in barley through nested association mapping

    PubMed Central

    Maurer, Andreas; Draba, Vera; Pillen, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Flowering time is a key agronomic trait that plays an important role in crop yield. There is growing interest in dissecting the developmental subphases of flowering to better understand and fine-tune plant development and maximize yield. To do this, we used the wild barley nested association mapping (NAM) population HEB-25, comprising 1420 BC1S3 lines, to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling five developmental traits, plant height, and thousand grain weight. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) enabled us to locate a total of 89 QTLs that genetically regulate the seven investigated traits. Several exotic QTL alleles proved to be highly effective and potentially useful in barley breeding. For instance, thousand grain weight was increased by 4.5g and flowering time was reduced by 9.3 days by substituting Barke elite QTL alleles for exotic QTL alleles at the denso/sdw1 and the Ppd-H1 loci, respectively. We showed that the exotic allele at the semi-dwarf locus denso/sdw1 can be used to increase grain weight since it uncouples the negative correlation between shoot elongation and the ripening phase. Our study demonstrates that nested association mapping of HEB-25 can help unravel the genetic regulation of plant development and yield formation in barley. Moreover, since we detected numerous useful exotic QTL alleles in HEB-25, we conclude that the introgression of these wild barley alleles into the elite barley gene pool may enable developmental phases to be specifically fine-tuned in order to maximize thousand grain weight and, potentially, yield in the long term. PMID:26936829

  17. Genomic dissection of plant development and its impact on thousand grain weight in barley through nested association mapping.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Andreas; Draba, Vera; Pillen, Klaus

    2016-04-01

    Flowering time is a key agronomic trait that plays an important role in crop yield. There is growing interest in dissecting the developmental subphases of flowering to better understand and fine-tune plant development and maximize yield. To do this, we used the wild barley nested association mapping (NAM) population HEB-25, comprising 1420 BC1S3 lines, to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling five developmental traits, plant height, and thousand grain weight. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) enabled us to locate a total of 89 QTLs that genetically regulate the seven investigated traits. Several exotic QTL alleles proved to be highly effective and potentially useful in barley breeding. For instance, thousand grain weight was increased by 4.5 g and flowering time was reduced by 9.3 days by substituting Barke elite QTL alleles for exotic QTL alleles at the denso/sdw1 and the Ppd-H1 loci, respectively. We showed that the exotic allele at the semi-dwarf locus denso/sdw1 can be used to increase grain weight since it uncouples the negative correlation between shoot elongation and the ripening phase. Our study demonstrates that nested association mapping of HEB-25 can help unravel the genetic regulation of plant development and yield formation in barley. Moreover, since we detected numerous useful exotic QTL alleles in HEB-25, we conclude that the introgression of these wild barley alleles into the elite barley gene pool may enable developmental phases to be specifically fine-tuned in order to maximize thousand grain weight and, potentially, yield in the long term.

  18. Genetic dissection of grain beta-glucan and amylose content in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High beta glucan (BG) barleys (Hordeum vulgare L.) have major potential as food ingredients due to the well know health benefits. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with BG have been reported in hulled barley, however no QTL studies have been reported in hulless barley. In this study, QTL an...

  19. Effect of sprouted barley grain supplementation of an herbage or haylage diet on ruminal fermentation and methane output in continuous culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 4-unit dual-flow continuous culture fermentor system was used to assess the effect of supplementing 7-d sprouted barley (SB) or barley grain (BG), with a pasture (orchardgrass) or haylage diet, on nutrient digestibility, VFA production, bacterial protein synthesis, and methane production. Treatmen...

  20. Genomic analysis of 6,000-year-old cultivated grain illuminates the domestication history of barley.

    PubMed

    Mascher, Martin; Schuenemann, Verena J; Davidovich, Uri; Marom, Nimrod; Himmelbach, Axel; Hübner, Sariel; Korol, Abraham; David, Michal; Reiter, Ella; Riehl, Simone; Schreiber, Mona; Vohr, Samuel H; Green, Richard E; Dawson, Ian K; Russell, Joanne; Kilian, Benjamin; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Waugh, Robbie; Fahima, Tzion; Krause, Johannes; Weiss, Ehud; Stein, Nils

    2016-09-01

    The cereal grass barley was domesticated about 10,000 years before the present in the Fertile Crescent and became a founder crop of Neolithic agriculture. Here we report the genome sequences of five 6,000-year-old barley grains excavated at a cave in the Judean Desert close to the Dead Sea. Comparison to whole-exome sequence data from a diversity panel of present-day barley accessions showed the close affinity of ancient samples to extant landraces from the Southern Levant and Egypt, consistent with a proposed origin of domesticated barley in the Upper Jordan Valley. Our findings suggest that barley landraces grown in present-day Israel have not experienced major lineage turnover over the past six millennia, although there is evidence for gene flow between cultivated and sympatric wild populations. We demonstrate the usefulness of ancient genomes from desiccated archaeobotanical remains in informing research into the origin, early domestication and subsequent migration of crop species. PMID:27428749

  1. A Role for Barley CRYPTOCHROME1 in Light Regulation of Grain Dormancy and Germination[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Barrero, Jose M.; Downie, A. Bruce; Xu, Qian; Gubler, Frank

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that abscisic acid (ABA) plays a central role in the regulation of seed dormancy and that transcriptional regulation of genes encoding ABA biosynthetic and degradation enzymes is responsible for determining ABA content. However, little is known about the upstream signaling pathways impinging on transcription to ultimately regulate ABA content or how environmental signals (e.g., light and cold) might direct such expression in grains. Our previous studies indicated that light is a key environmental signal inhibiting germination in dormant grains of barley (Hordeum vulgare), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and Brachypodium distachyon and that this effect attenuates as after-ripening progresses further. We found that the blue component of the light spectrum inhibits completion of germination in barley by inducing the expression of the ABA biosynthetic gene 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and dampening expression of ABA 8’-hydroxylase, thus increasing ABA content in the grain. We have now created barley transgenic lines downregulating the genes encoding the blue light receptors CRYTOCHROME (CRY1) and CRY2. Our results demonstrate that CRY1 is the key receptor perceiving and transducing the blue light signal in dormant grains. PMID:24642944

  2. Tool for Crimping Flexible Circuit Leads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulse, Aaron; Diftler, Myron A.

    2009-01-01

    A hand tool has been developed for crimping leads in flexible tails that are parts of some electronic circuits -- especially some sensor circuits. The tool is used to cut the tails to desired lengths and attach solder tabs to the leads. For tailoring small numbers of circuits for special applications, this hand tool is a less expensive alternative to a commercially available automated crimping tool. The crimping tool consists of an off-the-shelf hand crimping tool plus a specialized crimping insert designed specifically for the intended application.

  3. Wire Crimp Connectors Verification using Ultrasonic Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Perey, Daniel F.; Yost, William T.

    2007-01-01

    The development of a new ultrasonic measurement technique to quantitatively assess wire crimp connections is discussed. The amplitude change of a compressional ultrasonic wave propagating through the junction of a crimp connector and wire is shown to correlate with the results of a destructive pull test, which previously has been used to assess crimp wire junction quality. Various crimp junction pathologies (missing wire strands, incorrect wire gauge, incomplete wire insertion in connector) are ultrasonically tested, and their results are correlated with pull tests. Results show that the ultrasonic measurement technique consistently (as evidenced with pull-testing data) predicts good crimps when ultrasonic transmission is above a certain threshold amplitude level. A physics-based model, solved by finite element analysis, describes the compressional ultrasonic wave propagation through the junction during the crimping process. This model is in agreement within 6% of the ultrasonic measurements. A prototype instrument for applying the technique while wire crimps are installed is also presented.

  4. Study of Barley Grain Molecular Structure for Ruminants Using DRIFT, FTIR-ATR and Synchrotron Radiation Infrared Microspectroscopy (SR-IMS): A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Peiqiang

    2012-05-01

    Barley inherent structures are highly associated with nutrient utilization and availability in both humans and animals. Barley has different degradation kinetics compared with other cereal grains. It has a relatively higher degradation rate and extent, which often cause digestive disorder in the rumen. Therefore understanding barley inherent structure at cellular and molecular levels and processing-induced structure changes is important, because we can manipulate barley inherent structures and digestive behaviors. Several molecular spectroscopy techniques can be used to detect barley inherent structures at cellular and molecular levels. This article reviews several applications of the IR molecular spectral bioanalytical techniques - DRIFT, FT/IR-ATR and SR-IMS for barley chemistry, molecular structure and molecular nutrition research

  5. Effects of Zn Fertilization on Hordein Transcripts at Early Developmental Stage of Barley Grain and Correlation with Increased Zn Concentration in the Mature Grain

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Kaczmarczyk, Agnieszka; Vincze, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Zinc deficiency is causing malnutrition for nearly one third of world populations. It is especially relevant in cereal-based diets in which low amounts of mineral and protein are present. In biological systems, Zn is mainly associated with protein. Cereal grains contain the highest Zn concentration during early developmental stage. Although hordeins are the major storage proteins in the mature barley grain and suggested to be involved in Zn binding, very little information is available regarding the Zn fertilization effects of hordein transcripts at early developmental stage and possible incorporation of Zn with hordein protein of matured grain. Zinc fertilization experiments were conducted in a greenhouse with barley cv. Golden Promise. Zn concentration of the matured grain was measured and the results showed that the increasing Zn fertilization increased grain Zn concentration. Quantitative real time PCR showed increased level of total hordein transcripts upon increasing level of Zn fertilization at 10 days after pollination. Among the hordein transcripts the amount of B-hordeins was highly correlated with the Zn concentration of matured grain. In addition, protein content of the matured grain was analysed and a positive linear relationship was found between the percentage of B-hordein and total grain Zn concentration while C-hordein level decreased. Zn sensing dithizone assay was applied to localize Zn in the matured grain. The Zn distribution was not limited to the embryo and aleurone layer but was also present in the outer part of the endosperm (sub-aleurone layers) which known to be rich in proteins including B-hordeins. Increased Zn fertilization enriched Zn even in the endosperm. Therefore, the increased amount of B-hordein and decreased C-hordein content suggested that B-hordein upregulation or difference between B and C hordein could be one of the key factors for Zn biofortification of cereal grains due to the Zn fertilization. PMID:25250985

  6. Effects of reducing dietary starch content by replacing barley grain with wheat dried distillers grains plus solubles in dairy cow rations on ovarian function.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, E; Colazo, M G; Gobikrushanth, M; Sun, Y Q; Ruiz-Sanchez, A L; Ponce-Barajas, P; Oba, M; Ambrose, D J

    2016-04-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effects of dietary starch content, altered by partial substitution of dietary grain with wheat dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS), on the interval from calving to first ovulation, concentrations of hormones and metabolites in plasma and follicular fluid, and granulosa cell gene expression in preovulatory follicles. Sixty lactating dairy cows were assigned to 1 of 2 diets from calving until 84d postpartum. Diets were formulated to contain either 17.3% rolled barley grain (29.2% starch) or 17.2% wheat DDGS (19.1% starch), with 43.0% barley silage and 21.6% rolled corn grain as the other major ingredients (dry matter basis). Transrectal ultrasonography was performed twice weekly to monitor ovarian dynamics from 7 ± 2d postpartum until ovulation or until 56d in milk, whichever occurred earlier. Plasma concentrations of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were determined in all 60 cows, and that of glucose, fatty acids, and urea in a subset of 24 cows, representing those in which the first ovulation occurred spontaneously within 5 wk postpartum. Estradiol (proestrus) and progesterone (12d postovulation) in plasma were also measured. Concentrations of insulin, IGF-1, glucose, fatty acids, and urea were determined in follicular fluid (wk 9), and the expression of LH receptor, estrogen receptor β, cytochrome P450 aromatase, and plasma type glutathione peroxidase genes measured in granulosa cells obtained from the preovulatory follicles at wk 9 postpartum in the subset of 24 cows. Diets did not alter the interval from calving to first ovulation (32.3 ± 2.5d), but a significantly lower proportion of cows on the DDGS diet (20%) ovulated multiple (≥ 2) follicles at the first ovulation than those on the barley grain diet (40%). The incidence of multiple ovulations tended to be lower at first insemination (10 vs. 21% for cows fed DDGS and barley grain diets, respectively). Mean plasma concentration of insulin was

  7. Crop identification studies using Landsat data Separation of barley from other spring small grains and corn and soybean decision logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dailey, C. L.; Register, D. T.; Abotteen, K. M.; Palmer, W. F.; Spikes, G. D.; Magness, E. R.; Wade, L. C.

    1980-01-01

    Two labeling procedures were developed which identify various agricultural crops through the use of Landsat data. One procedure separates barley from other spring small grains, and the other identifies corn and soybeans. For both procedures, a minimum data set (critical acquisition time) has been designated. Landsat data in both image format and various graphic displays were used along with ancillary data to obtain information which aided in labeling the spectral signatures. The corn and soybean procedure also employed a structured decision logic. Test results for the barley separation procedure emphasized the importance of obtaining a critical acquisition and showed some success especially in areas where spring crops followed the expected growth patterns. Two tests of the corn and soybean procedure produced good labeling accuracies. Problems with the procedure were easy to identify, and some solutions were implemented for the second test. Automation of various parts of the procedure and extension to other crops and regions were recommended.

  8. A roadmap for zinc trafficking in the developing barley grain based on laser capture microdissection and gene expression profiling

    PubMed Central

    Tauris, Birgitte; Borg, Søren; Gregersen, Per L.; Holm, Preben B.

    2009-01-01

    Nutrients destined for the developing cereal grain encounter several restricting barriers on their path towards their final storage sites in the grain. In order to identify transporters and chelating agents that may be involved in transport and deposition of zinc in the barley grain, expression profiles have been generated of four different tissue types: the transfer cells, the aleurone layer, the endosperm, and the embryo. Cells from these tissues were isolated with the ‘laser capture microdissection’ technology and the extracted RNA was subjected to three rounds of T7-based amplification. The amplified RNA was subsequently hybridized to Affymetrix 22K Barley GeneChips. Due to the short average length of the amplified transcripts and the positioning of numerous probe sets at locations more than 400 base pairs (bp) from the poly(A)-tail, a normalization approach was used where the probe positions were taken into account. On the basis of the expression levels of a number of metal homeostasis genes, a working model is proposed for the translocation of zinc from the phloem to the storage sites in the developing grain. PMID:19297552

  9. Wire Crimp Termination Verification Using Ultrasonic Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perey, Daniel F.; Cramer, K. Elliott; Yost, William T.

    2007-01-01

    The development of a new ultrasonic measurement technique to quantitatively assess wire crimp terminations is discussed. The amplitude change of a compressional ultrasonic wave propagating through the junction of a crimp termination and wire is shown to correlate with the results of a destructive pull test, which is a standard for assessing crimp wire junction quality. Various crimp junction pathologies such as undercrimping, missing wire strands, incomplete wire insertion, partial insulation removal, and incorrect wire gauge are ultrasonically tested, and their results are correlated with pull tests. Results show that the nondestructive ultrasonic measurement technique consistently (as evidenced with destructive testing) predicts good crimps when ultrasonic transmission is above a certain threshold amplitude level. A physics-based model, solved by finite element analysis, describes the compressional ultrasonic wave propagation through the junction during the crimping process. This model is in agreement within 6% of the ultrasonic measurements. A prototype instrument for applying this technique while wire crimps are installed is also presented. The instrument is based on a two-jaw type crimp tool suitable for butt-splice type connections. Finally, an approach for application to multipin indenter type crimps will be discussed.

  10. Interactions between barley grain processing and source of supplemental dietary fat on nitrogen metabolism and urea-nitrogen recycling in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gozho, G N; Hobin, M R; Mutsvangwa, T

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of methods of barley grain processing and source of supplemental fat on urea-N transfer to the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and the utilization of this recycled urea-N in lactating dairy cows. Four ruminally cannulated Holstein cows (656.3 +/- 27.7 kg of BW; 79.8 +/- 12.3 d in milk) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods and a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Experimental diets contained dry-rolled barley or pelleted barley in combination with whole canola or whole flaxseed as supplemental fat sources. Nitrogen balance was measured from d 15 to 19, with concurrent measurements of urea-N kinetics using continuous intrajugular infusions of [15N 15N]-urea. Dry matter intake and N intake were higher in cows fed dry-rolled barley compared with those fed pelleted barley. Nitrogen retention was not affected by diet, but fecal N excretion was higher in cows fed dry-rolled barley than in those fed pelleted barley. Actual and energy-corrected milk yield were not affected by diet. Milk fat content and milk fat yield were higher in cows fed dry-rolled barley compared with those fed pelleted barley. Source of supplemental fat did not affect urea-N kinetics. Urea-N production was higher (442.2 vs. 334.3 g of N/d), and urea-N entering the GIT tended to be higher (272.9 vs. 202.0 g of N/d), in cows fed dry-rolled barley compared with those fed pelleted barley. The amount of urea-N entry into the GIT that was returned to the ornithine cycle was higher (204.1 vs. 159.5 g of N/d) in cows fed dry-rolled barley than in pelleted barley-fed cows. The amount of urea-N recycled to the GIT and used for anabolic purposes, and the amounts lost in the urine or feces were not affected by dietary treatment. Microbial nonammonia N supply, estimated using total urinary excretion of purine derivatives, was not affected by diet. These results show that even though barley grain processing altered urea

  11. Barley mutants with low rates of endosperm starch synthesis have low grain dormancy and high susceptibility to preharvest sprouting.

    PubMed

    Howard, Thomas P; Fahy, Brendan; Craggs, Alice; Mumford, Rachel; Leigh, Fiona; Howell, Phil; Greenland, Andy; Smith, Alison M

    2012-04-01

    • Studies of embryo dormancy in relation to preharvest sprouting (PHS) in cereals have focused on ABA and other hormones. The relationship between these phenomena and the rate of grain filling has not been investigated. • A collection of barley mutants impaired in starch synthesis was assessed for preharvest sprouting in the field. In subsequent glasshouse experiments, developing grains were assayed for germination index, sugars, abscisic acid (ABA) and the effects of temperature and exogenous ABA on germination. • Mutant lines displayed greater preharvest sprouting in the field than parental lines. In the glasshouse, nondeep physiological dormancy was reduced in developing grains of five lines with mutations affecting proteins involved in endosperm starch synthesis. Inhibition of germination by exogenous ABA and elevated temperature was decreased in developing mutant grains. Sugar concentrations were high but embryo and endosperm ABA contents were unaltered. • We reveal a direct connection between grain filling and the extent of grain dormancy. Impaired endosperm starch synthesis directly influences the acquisition of embryo dormancy, perhaps because endosperm sugar concentrations modulate the ABA responsiveness of the embryo. Thus environmental or genetic factors that reduce grain filling are likely to reduce dormancy and enhance susceptibility to PHS. PMID:22300545

  12. Self-crimping, biodegradable, electrospun polymer microfibers.

    PubMed

    Surrao, Denver C; Hayami, James W S; Waldman, Stephen D; Amsden, Brian G

    2010-12-13

    Semicrystalline poly(l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (P(LLA-CL)) was used to produce electrospun fibers with diameters on the subcellular scale. P(LLA-CL) was chosen because it is biocompatible and its chemical and physical properties are easily tunable. The use of a rotating wire mandrel as a collection device in the electrospinning process, along with high collection speeds, was used to align electrospun fibers. Upon removal of the fibers from the mandrel, the fibers shrunk in length, producing a crimp pattern characteristic of collagen fibrils in soft connective tissues. The crimping effect was determined to be a result of the residual stresses resident in the fibers due to the fiber alignment process and the difference between the operating temperature (T(op)) and the glass-transition temperature (T(g)) of the polymer. The electrospun fibers could be induced to crimp by adjusting the operating temperature to be greater than that of the polymer glass-transition temperature. Moreover, the crimped fibers exhibited a toe region in their stress-strain profile that is characteristic of collagen present in tendons and ligaments. The crimp pattern was retained during in vitro degradation over 4 weeks. Primary bovine fibroblasts seeded onto these crimped fibers attached, proliferated, and deposited extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules on the surface of the fiber mats. These self-crimping fibers hold great promise for use in tissue engineering scaffolds for connective tissues that require fibers similar in structure to that of crimped collagen fibrils. PMID:21047054

  13. Reciprocal combinations of barley and corn grains in oil-supplemented diets: feeding behavior and milk yield of lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Kargar, S; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Schingoethe, D J

    2014-11-01

    The effect of barley-based (BBD) or corn-based diets (CBD), or their equal blend (BCBD) on dry matter (DM) intake, feeding and chewing behavior, and production performance of lactating dairy cows was evaluated. Nine multiparous Holstein cows (75.6 ± 11.0 d in milk) were used in a triplicate 3 × 3 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Forage-to-concentrate ratio (40:60), forage neutral detergent fiber (20% of DM), total neutral detergent fiber (>29% of DM), and geometric mean particle size (4.3mm) were similar among treatments. Meal patterns, including meal size and intermeal interval, were not affected by the dietary treatments and DM intake (25.6 kg/d) was not different among treatments. Ether extract intake increased linearly with increasing amount of the corn grain in the diets. Due to similar feed intake, actual milk (48.6 kg/d), 4% fat-corrected milk (36.8 kg/d), and fat- and protein-corrected milk (38.1 kg/d) yields were not affected by treatments. Average milk protein percentage and yield were 2.83% and 1.37 kg/d, respectively, and were not different across treatments. Milk fat percentage increased linearly with increasing amount of corn grain in the diets and was greater in CBD relative to BCBD but not BBD (2.31, 2.28, and 2.57%, for BBD, BCBD, and CBD, respectively). However, milk fat yield tended to show a linear increase as the amount of corn grain included in the diets increased. Results indicated that changing diet fermentability by replacing barley grain for corn grain in oil-supplemented diets did not influence feeding patterns and thereby no changes in feed intake and milk yield occurred.

  14. Targeted modification of storage protein content resulting in improved amino acid composition of barley grain.

    PubMed

    Sikdar, Md S I; Bowra, S; Schmidt, D; Dionisio, G; Holm, P B; Vincze, E

    2016-02-01

    C-hordein in barley and ω-gliadins in wheat are members of the prolamins protein families. Prolamins are the major component of cereal storage proteins and composed of non-essential amino acids (AA) such as proline and glutamine therefore have low nutritional value. Using double stranded RNAi silencing technology directed towards C-hordein we obtained transgenic barley lines with up to 94.7% reduction in the levels of C-hordein protein relative to the parental line. The composition of the prolamin fraction of the barley parental line cv. Golden Promise was resolved using SDS-PAGE electrophoresis, the protein band were excised and the proteins identified by quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Subsequent SDS-PAGE separation and analysis of the prolamin fraction of the transgenic lines revealed a reduction in the amounts of C-hordeins and increases in the content of other hordein family members. Analysis of the AA composition of the transgenic lines showed that the level of essential amino acids increased with a concomitant reduction in proline and glutamine. Both the barley C-hordein and wheat ω-gliadin genes proved successful for RNAi-gene mediated suppression of barley C-hordein level. All transgenic lines that exhibited a reduction for C-hordein showed off-target effects: the lines exhibited increased level of B/γ-hordein while D-hordein level was reduced. Furthermore, the multicopy insertions correlated negatively with silencing.

  15. Gibberellin-to-abscisic acid balances govern development and differentiation of the nucellar projection of barley grains.

    PubMed

    Weier, Diana; Thiel, Johannes; Kohl, Stefan; Tarkowská, Danuše; Strnad, Miroslav; Schaarschmidt, Sara; Weschke, Winfriede; Weber, Hans; Hause, Bettina

    2014-10-01

    In cereal grains, the maternal nucellar projection (NP) constitutes the link to the filial organs, forming a transfer path for assimilates and signals towards the endosperm. At transition to the storage phase, the NP of barley (Hordeum vulgare) undergoes dynamic and regulated differentiation forming a characteristic pattern of proliferating, elongating, and disintegrating cells. Immunolocalization revealed that abscisic acid (ABA) is abundant in early non-elongated but not in differentiated NP cells. In the maternally affected shrunken-endosperm mutant seg8, NP cells did not elongate and ABA remained abundant. The amounts of the bioactive forms of gibberellins (GAs) as well as their biosynthetic precursors were strongly and transiently increased in wild-type caryopses during the transition and early storage phases. In seg8, this increase was delayed and less pronounced together with deregulated gene expression of specific ABA and GA biosynthetic genes. We concluded that differentiation of the barley NP is driven by a distinct and specific shift from lower to higher GA:ABA ratios and that the spatial-temporal change of GA:ABA balances is required to form the differentiation gradient, which is a prerequisite for ordered transfer processes through the NP. Deregulated ABA:GA balances in seg8 impair the differentiation of the NP and potentially compromise transfer of signals and assimilates, resulting in aberrant endosperm growth. These results highlight the impact of hormonal balances on the proper release of assimilates from maternal to filial organs and provide new insights into maternal effects on endosperm differentiation and growth of barley grains.

  16. Gibberellin-to-abscisic acid balances govern development and differentiation of the nucellar projection of barley grains

    PubMed Central

    Weier, Diana; Thiel, Johannes; Kohl, Stefan; Tarkowská, Danuše; Strnad, Miroslav; Schaarschmidt, Sara; Weschke, Winfriede; Weber, Hans; Hause, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    In cereal grains, the maternal nucellar projection (NP) constitutes the link to the filial organs, forming a transfer path for assimilates and signals towards the endosperm. At transition to the storage phase, the NP of barley (Hordeum vulgare) undergoes dynamic and regulated differentiation forming a characteristic pattern of proliferating, elongating, and disintegrating cells. Immunolocalization revealed that abscisic acid (ABA) is abundant in early non-elongated but not in differentiated NP cells. In the maternally affected shrunken-endosperm mutant seg8, NP cells did not elongate and ABA remained abundant. The amounts of the bioactive forms of gibberellins (GAs) as well as their biosynthetic precursors were strongly and transiently increased in wild-type caryopses during the transition and early storage phases. In seg8, this increase was delayed and less pronounced together with deregulated gene expression of specific ABA and GA biosynthetic genes. We concluded that differentiation of the barley NP is driven by a distinct and specific shift from lower to higher GA:ABA ratios and that the spatial–temporal change of GA:ABA balances is required to form the differentiation gradient, which is a prerequisite for ordered transfer processes through the NP. Deregulated ABA:GA balances in seg8 impair the differentiation of the NP and potentially compromise transfer of signals and assimilates, resulting in aberrant endosperm growth. These results highlight the impact of hormonal balances on the proper release of assimilates from maternal to filial organs and provide new insights into maternal effects on endosperm differentiation and growth of barley grains. PMID:25024168

  17. Evaluation of the procedure for separating barley from other spring small grains. [North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota and Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magness, E. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The success of the Transition Year procedure to separate and label barley and the other small grains was assessed. It was decided that developers of the procedure would carry out the exercise in order to prevent compounding procedural problems with implementation problems. The evaluation proceeded by labeling the sping small grains first. The accuracy of this labeling was, on the average, somewhat better than that in the Transition Year operations. Other departures from the original procedure included a regionalization of the labeling process, the use of trend analysis, and the removal of time constraints from the actual processing. Segment selection, ground truth derivation, and data available for each segment in the analysis are discussed. Labeling accuracy is examined for North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, and Montana as well as for the entire four-state area. Errors are characterized.

  18. The diffusive transport of gibberellins and abscisic acid through the aleurone layer of germinating barley grain: a mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Bruggeman, F J; Libbenga, K R; Van Duijn, B

    2001-11-01

    A mathematical model of the diffusive transport of abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellins (GAs) through the aleurone layer of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain is presented. The model consists of two partial differential equations describing the accumulation of phytohormone in the apoplastic and symplasmic compartments of the aleurone layer, both spatially and temporally. The mathematical model contains the morphology of the barley grain and the physicochemical properties of the two phytohormones. A mathematical derivation of the accumulation ratios for the two phytohormones between the symplast and apoplast under equilibrium conditions resulted in different distribution mechanisms for GAs and ABA. A sensitivity analysis of the accumulation ratio for GAs indicated high sensitivity to the apoplastic pH and the membrane potential, whereas the accumulation ratio for ABA proved to be most sensitive to the pH difference between the apoplast and symplast. The diffusive transport time for GAs to the basal site of the aleurone layer as calculated with the mathematical model is within a physiologically plausible timescale according to experimental data from the literature. Abscisic acid cannot be transported by diffusion to the end of the aleurone layer as quickly as GAs, according to model simulations. Therefore, the functional role of ABA in germination is likely to be in the vicinity of the embryo.

  19. Milling, water uptake, and modification properties of different barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) lots in relation to grain composition and structure.

    PubMed

    Holopainen, Ulla R M; Pihlava, Juha-Matti; Serenius, Marjo; Hietaniemi, Veli; Wilhelmson, Annika; Poutanen, Kaisa; Lehtinen, Pekka

    2014-09-01

    Milling properties, water uptake, and modification in malting were studied in 14 barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) lots from two consecutive crop years. In all barley lots studied, grains with lower β-glucan and protein content and higher starch content produced finer flours upon milling. Grains with lower β-glucan content also hydrated more rapidly during steeping. A detailed study of two cultivars from two crop years indicated that similar environmental conditions could induce a higher β-glucan content and concentration of aggregated B hordein in the peripheral endosperm and a lower proportion of C hordein entrapped among aggregated hordeins deeper within the endosperm. These characteristics were associated with production of coarser flours during milling as well as with slower water uptake and lower modification. However, the data do not distinguish between the effect of β-glucan content and that of hordein localization. Distribution of β-glucan or total protein within the kernel was not linked to hydration or modification.

  20. Murciano-Granadina Goat Performance and Methane Emission after Replacing Barley Grain with Fibrous By-Products.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Carla; Criscioni, Patricia; Arriaga, Haritz; Merino, Pilar; Espinós, Francisco Juan; Fernández, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effects of substituting dietary barley grain with orange pulp or soybean hulls on energy, nitrogen and carbon balance, methane emission and milk performance in dairy goats. Twelve Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in midlactation were selected and divided into three groups based on similar body weight (42.1 ± 1.2 kg) and milk yield (2.16 ± 0.060 kg/goat/day). The experiment was conducted in an incomplete crossover design where one group of four goats was fed a mixed ration of barley grain (BRL), another group of four goats replaced barley grain with orange pulp (OP) and the last group of four goats with soybean hulls (SH). After adaptation to diets, the goats were allocated to individual metabolism cages and intake, faeces, urine and milk were recorded and analysed. Then, gas exchange measurements were recorded by a mobile open-circuit indirect calorimetry system using a head box. Dry matter intake was similar for all three groups (2.03 kg/d, on average). No influence of the diet was observed for energy balance and the efficiency of use of metabolizable energy for milk production was 0.61. The OP and SH diets showed greater (P < 0.05) fat mobilization (-42.8 kJ/kg of BW0.75, on average) than BRL (19.2 kJ/kg of BW0.75). Pentadecanoic acid (15:0) and heptadecanoic acid (17:0) were potential biomarkers of rumen function because the higher contents found in the milk of OP and SH goats than BRL suggest a negative impact of these diets on rumen bacterial metabolism; probably linked to the lower nitrogen supply of diet OP to synthesize microbial protein and greater content of fat in diet SH. Replacement of cereal grain with fibrous by-products did not increased enteric methane emissions (54.7 L/goat per day, on average). Therefore, lactating goats could utilize dry orange pulp and soybean hulls diets with no detrimental effect on milk performance.

  1. Murciano-Granadina Goat Performance and Methane Emission after Replacing Barley Grain with Fibrous By-Products.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Carla; Criscioni, Patricia; Arriaga, Haritz; Merino, Pilar; Espinós, Francisco Juan; Fernández, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effects of substituting dietary barley grain with orange pulp or soybean hulls on energy, nitrogen and carbon balance, methane emission and milk performance in dairy goats. Twelve Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in midlactation were selected and divided into three groups based on similar body weight (42.1 ± 1.2 kg) and milk yield (2.16 ± 0.060 kg/goat/day). The experiment was conducted in an incomplete crossover design where one group of four goats was fed a mixed ration of barley grain (BRL), another group of four goats replaced barley grain with orange pulp (OP) and the last group of four goats with soybean hulls (SH). After adaptation to diets, the goats were allocated to individual metabolism cages and intake, faeces, urine and milk were recorded and analysed. Then, gas exchange measurements were recorded by a mobile open-circuit indirect calorimetry system using a head box. Dry matter intake was similar for all three groups (2.03 kg/d, on average). No influence of the diet was observed for energy balance and the efficiency of use of metabolizable energy for milk production was 0.61. The OP and SH diets showed greater (P < 0.05) fat mobilization (-42.8 kJ/kg of BW0.75, on average) than BRL (19.2 kJ/kg of BW0.75). Pentadecanoic acid (15:0) and heptadecanoic acid (17:0) were potential biomarkers of rumen function because the higher contents found in the milk of OP and SH goats than BRL suggest a negative impact of these diets on rumen bacterial metabolism; probably linked to the lower nitrogen supply of diet OP to synthesize microbial protein and greater content of fat in diet SH. Replacement of cereal grain with fibrous by-products did not increased enteric methane emissions (54.7 L/goat per day, on average). Therefore, lactating goats could utilize dry orange pulp and soybean hulls diets with no detrimental effect on milk performance. PMID:26983120

  2. Murciano-Granadina Goat Performance and Methane Emission after Replacing Barley Grain with Fibrous By-Products

    PubMed Central

    Ibáñez, Carla; Criscioni, Patricia; Arriaga, Haritz; Merino, Pilar; Espinós, Francisco Juan; Fernández, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effects of substituting dietary barley grain with orange pulp or soybean hulls on energy, nitrogen and carbon balance, methane emission and milk performance in dairy goats. Twelve Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in midlactation were selected and divided into three groups based on similar body weight (42.1 ± 1.2 kg) and milk yield (2.16 ± 0.060 kg/goat/day). The experiment was conducted in an incomplete crossover design where one group of four goats was fed a mixed ration of barley grain (BRL), another group of four goats replaced barley grain with orange pulp (OP) and the last group of four goats with soybean hulls (SH). After adaptation to diets, the goats were allocated to individual metabolism cages and intake, faeces, urine and milk were recorded and analysed. Then, gas exchange measurements were recorded by a mobile open-circuit indirect calorimetry system using a head box. Dry matter intake was similar for all three groups (2.03 kg/d, on average). No influence of the diet was observed for energy balance and the efficiency of use of metabolizable energy for milk production was 0.61. The OP and SH diets showed greater (P < 0.05) fat mobilization (-42.8 kJ/kg of BW0.75, on average) than BRL (19.2 kJ/kg of BW0.75). Pentadecanoic acid (15:0) and heptadecanoic acid (17:0) were potential biomarkers of rumen function because the higher contents found in the milk of OP and SH goats than BRL suggest a negative impact of these diets on rumen bacterial metabolism; probably linked to the lower nitrogen supply of diet OP to synthesize microbial protein and greater content of fat in diet SH. Replacement of cereal grain with fibrous by-products did not increased enteric methane emissions (54.7 L/goat per day, on average). Therefore, lactating goats could utilize dry orange pulp and soybean hulls diets with no detrimental effect on milk performance. PMID:26983120

  3. Barley metallothioneins: MT3 and MT4 are localized in the grain aleurone layer and show differential zinc binding.

    PubMed

    Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Schiller, Michaela; Kichey, Thomas; Hansen, Thomas Hesselhøj; Pedas, Pai; Husted, Søren; Schjoerring, Jan Kofod

    2012-07-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are low-molecular-weight, cysteine-rich proteins believed to play a role in cytosolic zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) homeostasis. However, evidence for the functional properties of MTs has been hampered by methodological problems in the isolation and characterization of the proteins. Here, we document that barley (Hordeum vulgare) MT3 and MT4 proteins exist in planta and that they differ in tissue localization as well as in metal coordination chemistry. Combined transcriptional and histological analyses showed temporal and spatial correlations between transcript levels and protein abundance during grain development. MT3 was present in tissues of both maternal and filial origin throughout grain filling. In contrast, MT4 was confined to the embryo and aleurone layer, where it appeared during tissue specialization and remained until maturity. Using state-of-the-art speciation analysis by size-exclusion chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry on recombinant MT3 and MT4, their specificity and capacity for metal ion binding were quantified, showing a strong preferential Zn binding relative to Cu and cadmium (Cd) in MT4, which was not the case for MT3. When complementary DNAs from barley MTs were expressed in Cu- or Cd-sensitive yeast mutants, MT3 provided a much stronger complementation than did MT4. We conclude that MT3 may play a housekeeping role in metal homeostasis, while MT4 may function in Zn storage in developing and mature grains. The localization of MT4 and its discrimination against Cd make it an ideal candidate for future biofortification strategies directed toward increasing food and feed Zn concentrations.

  4. QTL dissection of the loss of green colour during post-anthesis grain maturation in two-rowed barley.

    PubMed

    Emebiri, Livinus C

    2013-07-01

    Ability to genetically manipulate the loss of green colour during grain maturation has potentials for increasing productivity, disease resistance, and drought and heat tolerance in crop plants. Two doubled haploid, two-rowed barley populations (Vlamingh × Buloke and VB9524 × ND11231*12) were monitored over 2 years for loss of green colour during grain filling using a portable active sensor. The aims were to determine the genomic regions that control trait heritability by quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis, and to examine patterns of QTL-environment interactions under different conditions of water stress. In the Vlamingh × Buloke cross, broad-sense heritability estimate for loss of green colour (measured as the difference in sensor readings taken at anthesis and maturity, ∆SRI) was 0.68, and 0.78 for the VB9524 × ND11231*12 population. In the VB9524 × ND11231*12 population, rapid loss of green colour was positively associated with grain yield and percent plump grains, but in the Vlamingh × Buloke population, a slower loss of green colour (low ∆SRI) was associated with increased grain plumpness. With the aid of a dense array of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and EST-derived SSR markers, a total of nine QTLs were detected across the two populations. Of these, a single major locus on the short arm of barley chromosome 5H was consistently linked with trait variation across the populations and multiple environments. The QTL was independent of flowering time and explained between 5.4 and 15.4 % of the variation observed in both populations, depending on the environment, and although a QTL × E interaction was detected, it was largely due to a change in the magnitude of the effect, rather than a change in direction. The results suggest that loss of green colour during grain maturation may be under the control of a simple genetic architecture, but a careful study of target populations and environments would be required for breeding

  5. (/sup 14/C)sucrose uptake and labeling of starch in developing grains of normal segl barley

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, F.C.; Peterson, D.M.; Nelson, O.E.

    1984-01-01

    Previous work showed that the segl mutant of barley (Hordeum vulgare o Betzes) did not differ from normal Betzes in plant growth, photosynthesis, or fertility, but it produced only shrunken seeds regardless of pollen source. To determine whether defects in sucrose uptake or starch synthesis resulted in the shrunken condition, developing grains of Betzes and segl were cultured in (/sup 14/C)sucrose solutions after slicing transversely to expose the endosperm cavity and free space. In both young grains (before genotypes differed in dry weight) and older grains (17 days after anthesis, when segl grains were smaller than Betzes), sucrose uptake and starch synthesis were similar in both genotypes on a dry weight basis. To determine if sucrose was hydrolyzed during uptake, spikes of Betzes and segl were allowed to take up (fructose-U-/sup 14/C)sucrose 14 days after anthesis and the radioactivity of endosperm sugars was examined during 3 hours of incubation. Whereas less total radioactivity entered the endosperm and the endosperm cavity (free space) of segl, in both genotypes over 96% of the label of endosperm sugars was in sucrose, and there was no apparent initial or progressive randomization of label among hexose moieties of sucrose as compared to the free space sampled after 1 hour of incubation. The authors conclude that segl endosperms are capable of normal sucrose uptake and starch synthesis and that hydrolysis of sucrose is not required for uptake in either genotype. Evidence suggests abnormal development of grain tissue of maternal origin during growth of segl grains.

  6. The Application of Ultrasonic Inspection to Crimped Electrical Connections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Perey, Daniel F.; Yost, William T.

    2010-01-01

    The development of a new ultrasonic measurement technique to quantitatively assess wire crimp terminations is discussed. The development of a prototype instrument, based on a modified, commercially available, crimp tool, is demonstrated for applying this technique when wire crimps are installed. The crimp tool has three separate crimping locations that accommodate the three different ferrule diameters. The crimp tool in this study is capable of crimping wire diameters ranging from 12 to 26 American Wire Gauge (AWG). A transducer design is presented that allows for interrogation of each of the three crimp locations on the crimp tool without reconfiguring the device. An analysis methodology, based on transmitted ultrasonic energy and timing of the first received pulse is shown to correlate to both crimp location in the tool and the AWG of the crimp/ferrule combination. The detectability of a number of the crimp failure pathologies, such as missing strands, partially inserted wires and incomplete crimp compression, is discussed. A wave propagation model, solved by finite element analysis, describes the compressional ultrasonic wave propagation through the junction during the crimping process.

  7. Expression of the Arabidopsis vacuolar H⁺-pyrophosphatase gene (AVP1) improves the shoot biomass of transgenic barley and increases grain yield in a saline field.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Rhiannon K; Marschner, Petra; Shavrukov, Yuri; Berger, Bettina; Tester, Mark; Roy, Stuart J; Plett, Darren C

    2014-04-01

    Cereal varieties with improved salinity tolerance are needed to achieve profitable grain yields in saline soils. The expression of AVP1, an Arabidopsis gene encoding a vacuolar proton pumping pyrophosphatase (H⁺-PPase), has been shown to improve the salinity tolerance of transgenic plants in greenhouse conditions. However, the potential for this gene to improve the grain yield of cereal crops in a saline field has yet to be evaluated. Recent advances in high-throughput nondestructive phenotyping technologies also offer an opportunity to quantitatively evaluate the growth of transgenic plants under abiotic stress through time. In this study, the growth of transgenic barley expressing AVP1 was evaluated under saline conditions in a pot experiment using nondestructive plant imaging and in a saline field trial. Greenhouse-grown transgenic barley expressing AVP1 produced a larger shoot biomass compared to null segregants, as determined by an increase in projected shoot area, when grown in soil with 150 mM NaCl. This increase in shoot biomass of transgenic AVP1 barley occurred from an early growth stage and also in nonsaline conditions. In a saline field, the transgenic barley expressing AVP1 also showed an increase in shoot biomass and, importantly, produced a greater grain yield per plant compared to wild-type plants. Interestingly, the expression of AVP1 did not alter barley leaf sodium concentrations in either greenhouse- or field-grown plants. This study validates our greenhouse-based experiments and indicates that transgenic barley expressing AVP1 is a promising option for increasing cereal crop productivity in saline fields.

  8. Metabolite profiling of barley grain subjected to induced drought stress: responses of free amino acids in differently adapted cultivars.

    PubMed

    Lanzinger, Alexandra; Frank, Thomas; Reichenberger, Gabriela; Herz, Markus; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2015-04-29

    To investigate cultivar-specific metabolite changes upon drought stress in barley grain, differently adapted cultivars were field-grown under drought conditions using a rain-out shelter and under normal weather conditions (2010-2012). The grain was subjected to a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolite profiling approach allowing the analyses of a broad spectrum of lipophilic and hydrophilic low molecular weight constituents. Multi- and univariate analyses demonstrated that there are grain metabolites which were significantly changed upon drought stress, either decreased or increased in all cultivars. On the other hand, for proteinogenic free amino acids increased concentrations were consistently observed in all seasons only in cultivars for which no drought resistance/tolerance had been described. Consistent decreases were seen only in the group of stress tolerant/resistant cultivars. These cultivar-specific correlations were particularly pronounced for branched-chain amino acids. The results indicate that free amino acids may serve as potential markers for cultivars differently adapted to drought stress.

  9. Metabolite profiling of barley grain subjected to induced drought stress: responses of free amino acids in differently adapted cultivars.

    PubMed

    Lanzinger, Alexandra; Frank, Thomas; Reichenberger, Gabriela; Herz, Markus; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2015-04-29

    To investigate cultivar-specific metabolite changes upon drought stress in barley grain, differently adapted cultivars were field-grown under drought conditions using a rain-out shelter and under normal weather conditions (2010-2012). The grain was subjected to a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolite profiling approach allowing the analyses of a broad spectrum of lipophilic and hydrophilic low molecular weight constituents. Multi- and univariate analyses demonstrated that there are grain metabolites which were significantly changed upon drought stress, either decreased or increased in all cultivars. On the other hand, for proteinogenic free amino acids increased concentrations were consistently observed in all seasons only in cultivars for which no drought resistance/tolerance had been described. Consistent decreases were seen only in the group of stress tolerant/resistant cultivars. These cultivar-specific correlations were particularly pronounced for branched-chain amino acids. The results indicate that free amino acids may serve as potential markers for cultivars differently adapted to drought stress. PMID:25867895

  10. Methane emissions from two breeds of beef cows offered diets containing barley straw with either grass silage or brewers' grains.

    PubMed

    Duthie, C-A; Rooke, J A; Hyslop, J J; Waterhouse, A

    2015-10-01

    Increasing the concentration of dietary lipid is a promising strategy for reducing methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants. This study investigated the effect of replacing grass silage with brewers' grains on CH4 emissions of pregnant, non-lactating beef cows of two breeds. The experiment was a two×two factorial design comprising two breeds (LIMx, crossbred Limousin; and LUI, purebred Luing) and two diets consisting of (g/kg diet dry matter (DM)) barley straw (687) and grass silage (301, GS), or barley straw (763) and brewers' grains (226, BG), which were offered ad libitum. Replacing GS with BG increased the acid-hydrolysed ether extract concentration from 21 to 37 g/kg diet DM. Cows (n=48) were group-housed in equal numbers of each breed across two pens and each diet was allocated to one pen. Before measurements of CH4, individual dry matter intake (DMI), weekly BW and weekly body condition score were measured for a minimum of 3 weeks, following a 4-week period to acclimatise to the diets. CH4 emissions were subsequently measured on one occasion from each cow using individual respiration chambers. Due to occasional equipment failures, CH4 measurements were run over 9 weeks giving 10 observations for each breed×treatment combination (total n=40). There were no differences between diets for daily DMI measured in the chambers (9.92 v. 9.86 kg/day for BG and GS, respectively; P>0.05). Cows offered the BG diet produced less daily CH4 than GS-fed cows (131 v. 156 g/day: P0.05). However, when expressed as a proportion of metabolic BW (BW0.75), LUI cows had greater DMI than LIMx cows (84.5 v. 75.7 g DMI/kg BW0.75, P<0.05) and produced more CH4 per kg BW0.75 than LIMx cows (1.30 v. 1.05 g CH4/kg BW0.75; P<0.01). Molar proportions of acetate were higher (P<0.001) and propionate and butyrate lower (P<0.01) in rumen fluid samples from BG-fed compared with GS-fed cows. This study demonstrated that replacing GS with BG in barley straw-based diets can effectively reduce CH4

  11. Drying characteristic of barley under natural convection in a mixed-mode type solar grain dryer

    SciTech Connect

    Basunia, M.A.; Abe, T.

    1999-07-01

    Thin-layer solar drying characteristics of barley were determined at average natural air flow temperature ranging from 43.4 to 51.7 C and for relative humidities ranging from 16.5% to 37.5%. A mixed-mode type natural convection solar dryer was used for this experiment. The data of sample weight, and dry and wet bulb temperatures of the drying air were recorded continuously throughout the drying period for each test. The drying data were then fitted to the Page model. The model gave a good fit for the moisture content with an average standard error of 0.305% dry basis. The parameter N in Page's equation was assumed as a product-dependent constant which made it easy to compare the effects of independent variables on the natural convection solar drying rate without causing considerable error in predicting the drying rate for barley. A linear relationship was found between the parameter K, temperature T, and relative humidity R{sub H}.

  12. Barley Grain Maturation and Germination: Metabolic Pathway and Regulatory Network Commonalities and Differences Highlighted by New MapMan/PageMan Profiling Tools1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Sreenivasulu, Nese; Usadel, Björn; Winter, Andreas; Radchuk, Volodymyr; Scholz, Uwe; Stein, Nils; Weschke, Winfriede; Strickert, Marc; Close, Timothy J.; Stitt, Mark; Graner, Andreas; Wobus, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    Plant seeds prepare for germination already during seed maturation. We performed a detailed transcriptome analysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain maturation, desiccation, and germination in two tissue fractions (starchy endosperm/aleurone and embryo/scutellum) using the Affymetrix Barley1 GeneChip. To aid data evaluation, Arabidopsis thaliana MapMan and PageMan tools were adapted to barley. The analyses allow a number of conclusions: (1) Cluster analysis revealed a smooth transition in transcription programs between late seed maturation and germination within embryo tissues, but not in the endosperm/aleurone. (2) More than 12,000 transcripts are stored in the embryo of dry barley grains, many of which are presumably activated during germination. (3) Transcriptional activation of storage reserve mobilization events occurs at an early stage of germination, well before radicle protrusion. (4) Key genes of gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis are already active during grain maturation at a time when abscisic acid peaks suggesting the formation of an endogenous store of GA in the aleurone. This GA probably acts later during germination in addition to newly synthesized GA. (5) Beside the well-known role of GA in gene activation during germination spatiotemporal expression data and cis-element searches in homologous rice promoters confirm an equally important gene-activating role of abscisic acid during this developmental period. The respective regulatory webs are linked to auxin and ethylene controlled networks. In summary, new bioinformatics PageMan and MapMan tools developed in barley have been successfully used to investigate in detail the transcriptome relationships between seed maturation and germination in an important crop plant. PMID:18281415

  13. S phase of the cell cycle: a key phase for the regulation of thermodormancy in barley grain

    PubMed Central

    Corbineau, FranÇOise

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the occurrence of the cell cycle during germination as related to thermodormancy in barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Pewter) grains in relation with abscisic acid (ABA) by: (i) flow cytometry to determine the progression of the cell cycle; and (ii) reverse transcription-PCR to characterize the expression of some important genes involved in cell-cycle regulation. In dry embryos, cells are mostly (82%) arrested in G1 phase of the cell cycle, the remaining cells being in the G2 (17%) or S phase (0.9%). Germination at 20 °C was associated with an increase in the nuclei population in G2 and S (up to 32.5–44.5 and 9.2–11.3%, respectively, after 18–24h). At 30 °C, partial reactivation of the cell cycle occurred in embryos of dormant grains that did not germinate. Incubation with 50mM hydroxyurea suggests that thermodormancy resulted in a blocking of the nuclei in the S phase. In dry dormant grains, transcripts of CDKA1, CYCA3, KRP4, and WEE1 were present, while those of CDKB1, CDKD1, CYCB1, and CYCD4 were not detected. Incubation at 30 °C resulted in a strong reduction of CDKB1, CYCB1, and CYCD4 expression and overexpression of CDK1 and KRP4. ABA had a similar effect as incubation at 30 °C on the expression of CDKB1, CYCB1, and CYCD4, but did not increase that of CDK1 and KRP4. Patterns of gene expression are discussed with regard to thermodormancy expression and ABA. PMID:22859679

  14. S phase of the cell cycle: a key phase for the regulation of thermodormancy in barley grain.

    PubMed

    Gendreau, Emmanuel; Cayla, Thibaud; Corbineau, Françoise

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the occurrence of the cell cycle during germination as related to thermodormancy in barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Pewter) grains in relation with abscisic acid (ABA) by: (i) flow cytometry to determine the progression of the cell cycle; and (ii) reverse transcription-PCR to characterize the expression of some important genes involved in cell-cycle regulation. In dry embryos, cells are mostly (82%) arrested in G1 phase of the cell cycle, the remaining cells being in the G2 (17%) or S phase (0.9%). Germination at 20 °C was associated with an increase in the nuclei population in G2 and S (up to 32.5-44.5 and 9.2-11.3%, respectively, after 18-24h). At 30 °C, partial reactivation of the cell cycle occurred in embryos of dormant grains that did not germinate. Incubation with 50mM hydroxyurea suggests that thermodormancy resulted in a blocking of the nuclei in the S phase. In dry dormant grains, transcripts of CDKA1, CYCA3, KRP4, and WEE1 were present, while those of CDKB1, CDKD1, CYCB1, and CYCD4 were not detected. Incubation at 30 °C resulted in a strong reduction of CDKB1, CYCB1, and CYCD4 expression and overexpression of CDK1 and KRP4. ABA had a similar effect as incubation at 30 °C on the expression of CDKB1, CYCB1, and CYCD4, but did not increase that of CDK1 and KRP4. Patterns of gene expression are discussed with regard to thermodormancy expression and ABA.

  15. S phase of the cell cycle: a key phase for the regulation of thermodormancy in barley grain.

    PubMed

    Gendreau, Emmanuel; Cayla, Thibaud; Corbineau, Françoise

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the occurrence of the cell cycle during germination as related to thermodormancy in barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Pewter) grains in relation with abscisic acid (ABA) by: (i) flow cytometry to determine the progression of the cell cycle; and (ii) reverse transcription-PCR to characterize the expression of some important genes involved in cell-cycle regulation. In dry embryos, cells are mostly (82%) arrested in G1 phase of the cell cycle, the remaining cells being in the G2 (17%) or S phase (0.9%). Germination at 20 °C was associated with an increase in the nuclei population in G2 and S (up to 32.5-44.5 and 9.2-11.3%, respectively, after 18-24h). At 30 °C, partial reactivation of the cell cycle occurred in embryos of dormant grains that did not germinate. Incubation with 50mM hydroxyurea suggests that thermodormancy resulted in a blocking of the nuclei in the S phase. In dry dormant grains, transcripts of CDKA1, CYCA3, KRP4, and WEE1 were present, while those of CDKB1, CDKD1, CYCB1, and CYCD4 were not detected. Incubation at 30 °C resulted in a strong reduction of CDKB1, CYCB1, and CYCD4 expression and overexpression of CDK1 and KRP4. ABA had a similar effect as incubation at 30 °C on the expression of CDKB1, CYCB1, and CYCD4, but did not increase that of CDK1 and KRP4. Patterns of gene expression are discussed with regard to thermodormancy expression and ABA. PMID:22859679

  16. Ultrasonic Inspection to Quantify Failure Pathologies of Crimped Electrical Connections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Perey, Daniel F.; Yost, William T.

    2014-01-01

    Previous work has shown that ultrasonic inspection provides a means of assessing electrical crimp quality that ensures the electrical and mechanical integrity of an initial crimp before the installation process is completed. The amplitude change of a compressional ultrasonic wave propagating at right angles to the wire axis and through the junction of a crimp termination was shown to correlate with the results of destructive pull tests, which is a standard for assessing crimp wire junction quality. Of additional concern are crimps made at high speed assembly lines for wiring harnesses, which are used for critical applications, such as in aircraft. During high-speed assembly it is possible that many faulty crimps go undetected until long after assembly, and fail in service. The position and speed of the crimping jaw become factors as the high-speed crimp is formed. The work presented in this paper is designed to cover the more difficult and more subtle area of high-speed crimps by taking into account the rate change of the measurements. Building on the previous work, we present an analysis methodology, based on transmitted ultrasonic energy and timing of the first received pulse that is shown to correlate to the gauge of the crimp/ferrule combination and the position of the crimping jaw. Results demonstrating the detectability of a number of the crimp failure pathologies, such as missing strands, partially inserted wires and incomplete crimp compression, are presented. The ability of this technique to estimate crimp height, a mechanical measure of crimp quality, is discussed.

  17. Effect of time and temperature on the hydration process of barley grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanuci, Flávia Daiana; Jorge, Luiz Mario Matos; Jorge, Regina Maria Matos

    2015-03-01

    The barley behavior during hydration regarding to water absorption, density, volume variation, and solids loss is identified, as well as employ mathematical models such as diffusional, Peleg, Weibull distribution function and first order kinetics, in order to verify the effect of temperature on the process. Hydration was carried out over 32 h at six different temperatures: 35, 30, 25, 20, 15 and 10 °C. The hydration isotherms were divided into two phases, the first one comprising the first 8 h, with a high hydration rate, and the second one in which the moisture content increases slowly until it reaches the equilibrium moisture content. During the first hour of process, the solids loss at 35 °C was 3.95 % higher than at 10 °C. The effective diffusion coefficients ranged from 5.14 to 10.8 × 10-12 m2/s. The model of Peleg and the first order kinetics model best described the water absorption characteristics at the temperatures investigated.

  18. HvPap-1 C1A Protease and HvCPI-2 Cystatin Contribute to Barley Grain Filling and Germination.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Dominguez-Figueroa, Jose D; Velasco-Arroyo, Blanca; Cambra, Ines; Gonzalez-Melendi, Pablo; Lopez-Gonzalvez, Angeles; Garcia, Antonia; Hensel, Goetz; Kumlehn, Jochen; Diaz, Isabel; Martinez, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Proteolysis is an essential process throughout the mobilization of storage proteins in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grains during germination. It involves numerous types of enzymes, with C1A Cys proteases the most abundant key players. Manipulation of the proteolytic machinery is a potential way to enhance grain yield and quality, and it could influence the mobilization of storage compounds along germination. Transgenic barley plants silencing or over-expressing the cathepsin F-like HvPap-1 Cys protease show differential accumulation of storage molecules such as starch, proteins, and free amino acids in the grain. It is particularly striking that the HvPap-1 artificial microRNA lines phenotype show a drastic delay in the grain germination process. Alterations to the proteolytic activities in the over-expressing and knock-down grains associated with changes in the level of expression of several C1A peptidases were also detected. Similarly, down-regulating cystatin Icy-2, one of the proteinaceous inhibitors of the cathepsin F-like protease, also has important effects on grain filling. However, the ultimate physiological influence of manipulating a peptidase or an inhibitor cannot be always predicted, since the plant tries to compensate the modified proteolytic effects by modulating the expression of some other peptidases or their inhibitors.

  19. Field studies on the regulation of abscisic acid content and germinability during grain development of barley: molecular and chemical analysis of pre-harvest sprouting.

    PubMed

    Chono, Makiko; Honda, Ichiro; Shinoda, Shoko; Kushiro, Tetsuo; Kamiya, Yuji; Nambara, Eiji; Kawakami, Naoto; Kaneko, Shigenobu; Watanabe, Yoshiaki

    2006-01-01

    To investigate whether the regulation of abscisic acid (ABA) content was related to germinability during grain development, two cDNAs for 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (HvNCED1 and HvNCED2) and one cDNA for ABA 8'-hydroxylase (HvCYP707A1), which are enzymes thought to catalyse key regulatory steps in ABA biosynthesis and catabolism, respectively, were cloned from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Expression and ABA-quantification analysis in embryo revealed that HvNCED2 is responsible for a significant increase in ABA levels during the early to middle stages of grain development, and HvCYP707A1 is responsible for a rapid decrease in ABA level thereafter. The change in the embryonic ABA content of imbibing grains following dormancy release is likely to reflect changes in the expression patterns of HvNCEDs and HvCYP707A1. A major change between dormant and after-ripened grains occurred in HvCYP707A1; the increased expression of HvCYP707A1 in response to imbibition, followed by a rapid ABA decrease and a high germination percentage, was observed in the after-ripened grains, but not in the dormant grains. Under field conditions, HvNCED2 showed the same expression level and pattern during grain development in 2002, 2003, and 2004, indicating that HvNCED2 expression is regulated in a growth-dependent manner in the grains. By contrast, HvNCED1 and HvCYP707A1 showed a different expression pattern in each year, indicating that the expression of these genes is affected by environmental conditions during grain development. The varied expression levels of these genes during grain development and imbibition, which would have effects on the activity of ABA biosynthesis and catabolism, might be reflected, in part, in the germinability in field-grown barley.

  20. Inhibition of germination of dormant barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grains by blue light as related to oxygen and hormonal regulation.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Hai Ha; Sechet, Julien; Bailly, Christophe; Leymarie, Juliette; Corbineau, Françoise

    2014-06-01

    Germination of primary dormant barley grains is promoted by darkness and temperatures below 20 °C, but is strongly inhibited by blue light. Exposure under blue light at 10 °C for periods longer than five days, results in a progressive inability to germinate in the dark, considered as secondary dormancy. We demonstrate that the inhibitory effect of blue light is reinforced in hypoxia. The inhibitory effect of blue light is associated with an increase in embryo abscisic acid (ABA) content (by 3.5- to 3.8-fold) and embryo sensitivity to both ABA and hypoxia. Analysis of expression of ABA metabolism genes shows that increase in ABA mainly results in a strong increase in HvNCED1 and HvNCED2 expression, and a slight decrease in HvABA8'OH-1. Among the gibberellins (GA) metabolism genes examined, blue light decreases the expression of HvGA3ox2, involved in GA synthesis, increases that of GA2ox3 and GA2ox5, involved in GA catabolism, and reduces the GA signalling evaluated by the HvExpA11 expression. Expression of secondary dormancy is associated with maintenance of high embryo ABA content and a low HvExpA11 expression. The partial reversion of the inhibitory effect of blue light by green light also suggests that cryptochrome might be involved in this hormonal regulation. PMID:24256416

  1. Inhibition of germination of dormant barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grains by blue light as related to oxygen and hormonal regulation.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Hai Ha; Sechet, Julien; Bailly, Christophe; Leymarie, Juliette; Corbineau, Françoise

    2014-06-01

    Germination of primary dormant barley grains is promoted by darkness and temperatures below 20 °C, but is strongly inhibited by blue light. Exposure under blue light at 10 °C for periods longer than five days, results in a progressive inability to germinate in the dark, considered as secondary dormancy. We demonstrate that the inhibitory effect of blue light is reinforced in hypoxia. The inhibitory effect of blue light is associated with an increase in embryo abscisic acid (ABA) content (by 3.5- to 3.8-fold) and embryo sensitivity to both ABA and hypoxia. Analysis of expression of ABA metabolism genes shows that increase in ABA mainly results in a strong increase in HvNCED1 and HvNCED2 expression, and a slight decrease in HvABA8'OH-1. Among the gibberellins (GA) metabolism genes examined, blue light decreases the expression of HvGA3ox2, involved in GA synthesis, increases that of GA2ox3 and GA2ox5, involved in GA catabolism, and reduces the GA signalling evaluated by the HvExpA11 expression. Expression of secondary dormancy is associated with maintenance of high embryo ABA content and a low HvExpA11 expression. The partial reversion of the inhibitory effect of blue light by green light also suggests that cryptochrome might be involved in this hormonal regulation.

  2. Antioxidant-guided isolation and mass spectrometric identification of the major polyphenols in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, Nirupama; Rai, Dilip K; Brunton, Nigel P; Gallagher, Eimear; Hossain, Mohammad B

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, the relative contribution of individual/classes of polyphenols in barley, to its antioxidant properties, was evaluated. Flash chromatography was used to fractionate the total polyphenol extract of Irish barley cultivar 'Irina', and fractions with highest antioxidant properties were identified using total phenolic content and three in vitro antioxidant assays: DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC. Flavanols (catechin, procyanidin B, prodelphinidin B, procyanidin C) and a novel substituted flavanol (catechin dihexoside, C27H33O16(-), m/z 613.17), were identified as constituents of the fraction with highest antioxidant capacity. Upon identification of phenolics in the other active fractions, the order of most potent contributors to observed antioxidant capacity of barley extract were, flavanols>flavonols (quercetin)>hydroxycinnamic acids (ferulic, caffeic, coumaric acids). The most abundant polyphenol in the overall extract was ferulic acid (277.7μg/gdw barley), followed by procyanidin B (73.7μg/gdw barley).

  3. Variation in the interaction between alleles of HvAPETALA2 and microRNA172 determines the density of grains on the barley inflorescence

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Kelly; McKim, Sarah M.; Comadran, Jordi; Bonar, Nicola; Druka, Ilze; Uzrek, Nicola; Cirillo, Elisa; Guzy-Wrobelska, Justyna; Collins, Nicholas C.; Halpin, Claire; Hansson, Mats; Dockter, Christoph; Druka, Arnis; Waugh, Robbie

    2013-01-01

    Within the cereal grasses, variation in inflorescence architecture results in a conspicuous morphological diversity that in crop species influences the yield of cereal grains. Although significant progress has been made in identifying some of the genes underlying this variation in maize and rice, in the temperate cereals, a group that includes wheat, barley, and rye, only the dosage-dependent and highly pleiotropic Q locus in hexaploid wheat has been molecularly characterized. Here we show that the characteristic variation in the density of grains along the inflorescence, or spike, of modern cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare) is largely the consequence of a perturbed interaction between microRNA172 and its corresponding binding site in the mRNA of an APELATA2 (AP2)-like transcription factor, HvAP2. We used genome-wide association and biparental mapping to identify HvAP2. By comparing inflorescence development and HvAP2 transcript abundance in an extreme dense-spike mutant and its nearly isogenic WT line, we show that HvAP2 turnover driven by microRNA 172 regulates the length of a critical developmental window that is required for elongation of the inflorescence internodes. Our data indicate that this heterochronic change, an altered timing of developmental events caused by specific temporal variation in the efficiency of HvAP2 turnover, leads to the striking differences in the size and shape of the barley spike. PMID:24065816

  4. Supplements of transgenic malt or grain containing (1,3-1,4)-beta-glucanase increase the nutritive value of barley-based broiler diets to that of maize.

    PubMed

    Von Wettstein, D; Warner, J; Kannangara, C G

    2003-07-01

    1. A diet with addition to normal barley of malt from transgenic barley expressing a protein engineered, thermotolerant Bacillus (1,3-1,4)-beta-glucanase during germination has previously been demonstrated to provide a broiler chicken weight gain comparable to maize diets. It also reduced dramatically the number of birds with adhering sticky droppings, but did not entirely eliminate sticky droppings. One of the objectives of the broiler chicken trials reported here was to determine if higher concentrations of transgenic malt could alleviate the sticky droppings. 2. Another aim was to investigate the feasibility of using mature transgenic grain containing the thermotolerant (1,3-1,4)-beta-glucanase as feed addition and to compare diets containing transgenic grain to a diet with the recommended amount of a commercial beta-glucanase-based product. 3. Inclusion of 75 or 151 g/kg transgenic malt containing 4.7 or 98 mg/kg thermotolerant (1,3-1,4)-beta-glucanase with 545 or 469 g/kg non-transgenic barley instead of maize yielded a weight gain in Cornish Cross broiler chickens indistinguishable from presently used maize diets. The gene encoding the enzyme is expressed in the aleurone with a barley alpha-amylase gene promoter and the enzyme is synthesised with a signal peptide for secretion into the endosperm of the malting grain. 4. Equal weight gain was achieved, when the feed included 39 g/kg transgenic barley grain [containing 66 mg/kg thermotolerant (1,3-1,4)-beta-glucanase] and 581 g/kg non-transgenic barley instead of maize. In this case, the gene encoding the enzyme has been expressed with the D-hordein gene (Hor3-1) promoter during grain maturation. The enzyme is synthesised as a precursor with a signal peptide for transport through the endoplasmic reticulum and targeted into the storage vacuoles. Deposition of the enzyme in the prolamin storage protein bodies of the endosperm protects it from degradation during the programmed cell death of the endosperm in the

  5. Effect of feeding diets containing barley, wheat and corn distillers dried grains with solubles on carcass traits and meat quality in growing rabbits.

    PubMed

    Alagón, Gilbert; Arce, Orlando; Serrano, Paula; Ródenas, Luis; Martínez-Paredes, Eugenio; Cervera, Concepción; Pascual, Juan José; Pascual, Mariam

    2015-03-01

    The effect of dietary inclusion of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on carcass and meat quality of longissimus muscle was studied in 100 growing rabbits from 28 to 59days old. Diets with no DDGS (C), barley (Db20), wheat (Dw20) and corn (Dc20) DDGS at 20% and corn (Dc40) DDGS at 40% were formulated. No effects on most of the carcass traits, texture and water holding capacity were found. Barley and corn DDGS led to a higher dissectible fat percentage. Meat redness was higher with Dw20 and pH was higher with Dw20 and Db20 than with Dc20. Protein and saturated fatty acids concentration declined as corn DDGS level increased. Dc40 led to the lowest saturated/unsaturated fatty acid ratio, atherogenic index and thrombogenic index. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of these DDGS at 20% did not affect most of the carcass and meat quality traits in rabbits. PMID:25437451

  6. Transgenic barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) expressing the wheat aluminium resistance gene (TaALMT1) shows enhanced phosphorus nutrition and grain production when grown on an acid soil.

    PubMed

    Delhaize, Emmanuel; Taylor, Phillip; Hocking, Peter J; Simpson, Richard J; Ryan, Peter R; Richardson, Alan E

    2009-06-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), genetically modified with the Al(3+) resistance gene of wheat (TaALMT1), was compared with a non-transformed sibling line when grown on an acidic and highly phosphate-fixing ferrosol supplied with a range of phosphorus concentrations. In short-term pot trials (26 days), transgenic barley expressing TaALMT1 (GP-ALMT1) was more efficient than a non-transformed sibling line (GP) at taking up phosphorus on acid soil, but the genotypes did not differ when the soil was limed. Differences in phosphorus uptake efficiency on acid soil could be attributed not only to the differential effects of aluminium toxicity on root growth between the genotypes, but also to differences in phosphorus uptake per unit root length. Although GP-ALMT1 out-performed GP on acid soil, it was still not as efficient at taking up phosphorus as plants grown on limed soil. GP-ALMT1 plants grown in acid soil possessed substantially smaller rhizosheaths than those grown in limed soil, suggesting that root hairs were shorter. This is a probable reason for the lower phosphorus uptake efficiency. When grown to maturity in large pots, GP-ALMT1 plants produced more than twice the grain as GP plants grown on acid soil and 80% of the grain produced by limed controls. Expression of TaALMT1 in barley was not associated with a penalty in either total shoot or grain production in the absence of Al(3+), with both genotypes showing equivalent yields in limed soil. These findings demonstrate that an important crop species can be genetically engineered to successfully increase grain production on an acid soil.

  7. Microwave irradiation induced changes in protein molecular structures of barley grains: relationship to changes in protein chemical profile, protein subfractions, and digestion in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaogang; Khan, Nazir A; Zhang, Fangyu; Yang, Ling; Yu, Peiqiang

    2014-07-16

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate microwave irradiation (MIR) induced changes in crude protein (CP) subfraction profiles, ruminal CP degradation characteristics and intestinal digestibility of rumen undegraded protein (RUP), and protein molecular structures in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grains. Samples from hulled (n = 1) and hulless cultivars (n = 2) of barley, harvested from four replicate plots in two consecutive years, were evaluated. The samples were either kept as raw or irradiated in a microwave for 3 min (MIR3) or 5 min (MIR5). Compared to raw grains, MIR5 decreased the contents of rapidly degradable CP subfraction (from 45.22 to 6.36% CP) and the ruminal degradation rate (from 8.16 to 3.53%/h) of potentially degradable subfraction. As a consequence, the effective ruminal degradability of CP decreased (from 55.70 to 34.08% CP) and RUP supply (from 43.31 to 65.92% CP) to the postruminal tract increased. The MIR decreased the spectral intensities of amide 1, amide II, α-helix, and β-sheet and increased their ratios. The changes in protein spectral intensities were strongly correlated with the changes in CP subfractions and digestive kinetics. These results show that MIR for a short period (5 min) with a lower energy input can improve the nutritive value and utilization of CP in barely grains.

  8. The effect of free air carbon dioxide enrichment and nitrogen fertilisation on the chemical composition and nutritional value of wheat and barley grain.

    PubMed

    Wroblewitz, Stefanie; Hüther, Liane; Manderscheid, Remy; Weigel, Hans-Joachim; Wätzig, Hermann; Dänicke, Sven

    2013-08-01

    A rising atmospheric CO2 concentration might influence the nutrient composition of feedstuffs and consequently the nutritional value for livestock. The present study investigates the effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on the chemical composition and nutritional value of winter wheat cv. "Batis" and winter barley cv. "Theresa". Both cereals were grown at two different atmospheric CO2 concentrations (ambient CO2 [AMBI]: 380 ppm and enriched CO2 [free air carbon dioxide enrichment, FACE]: 550 ppm) for two growing seasons. The influence of two different nitrogen (N) fertilisation levels (adequate N supply [N100] and nearly 50% of adequate N supply [N50]) were studied as well. A significant effect was observed for the crude protein content, which declined at FACE condition in a range of 8-16 g kg(-1) in wheat and of 10-20 g kg(-1) in barley. A reduced N fertilisation level resulted in a strong reduction of crude protein concentration in both cereal species. In wheat, a decrease in N supply significantly enhanced the concentration of starch and crude fibre. In barley, only the concentration of fructose increased under FACE condition and reduced N fertilisation. The FACE did not have major effects on the concentrations of minerals, while the influence of N fertilisation was different for both cereals. Whereas no effects could be observed for barley, a reduced N supply caused a significant reduction in concentrations of zinc, manganese and iron in wheat. Furthermore, an undirected effect of atmospheric CO2 and N fertilisation levels were found for the amino acid concentrations. Based on these results, future scenarios of climate change would have an impact on the nutritional value of cereal grains.

  9. Barley HvHMA1 Is a Heavy Metal Pump Involved in Mobilizing Organellar Zn and Cu and Plays a Role in Metal Loading into Grains

    PubMed Central

    Mikkelsen, Maria Dalgaard; Pedas, Pai; Schiller, Michaela; Vincze, Eva; Mills, Rebecca F.; Borg, Søren; Møller, Annette; Schjoerring, Jan K.; Williams, Lorraine E.; Baekgaard, Lone; Holm, Preben Bach; Palmgren, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metal transporters belonging to the P1B-ATPase subfamily of P-type ATPases are key players in cellular heavy metal homeostasis. Heavy metal transporters belonging to the P1B-ATPase subfamily of P-type ATPases are key players in cellular heavy metal homeostasis. In this study we investigated the properties of HvHMA1, which is a barley orthologue of Arabidopsis thaliana AtHMA1 localized to the chloroplast envelope. HvHMA1 was localized to the periphery of chloroplast of leaves and in intracellular compartments of grain aleurone cells. HvHMA1 expression was significantly higher in grains compared to leaves. In leaves, HvHMA1 expression was moderately induced by Zn deficiency, but reduced by toxic levels of Zn, Cu and Cd. Isolated barley chloroplasts exported Zn and Cu when supplied with Mg-ATP and this transport was inhibited by the AtHMA1 inhibitor thapsigargin. Down-regulation of HvHMA1 by RNA interference did not have an effect on foliar Zn and Cu contents but resulted in a significant increase in grain Zn and Cu content. Heterologous expression of HvHMA1 in heavy metal-sensitive yeast strains increased their sensitivity to Zn, but also to Cu, Co, Cd, Ca, Mn, and Fe. Based on these results, we suggest that HvHMA1 is a broad-specificity exporter of metals from chloroplasts and serve as a scavenging mechanism for mobilizing plastid Zn and Cu when cells become deficient in these elements. In grains, HvHMA1 might be involved in mobilizing Zn and Cu from the aleurone cells during grain filling and germination. PMID:23155447

  10. Elastic Response of Crimped Collagen Fibrils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Alan D.; Doehring, Todd C.

    2005-01-01

    A physiologic constitutive expression is presented in algorithmic format for the elastic response of wavy collagen fibrils found in soft connective tissues. The model is based on the observation that crimped fibrils have a three-dimensional structure at the micrometer scale that we approximate as a helical spring. The symmetry of this waveform allows the force/displacement relationship derived from Castigliano's theorem to be solved in closed form. Model predictions are in good agreement with experimental observations for mitral-valve chordae tendineae

  11. Elastic model for crimped collagen fibrils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Alan D.; Doehring, Todd C.

    2005-01-01

    A physiologic constitutive expression is presented in algorithmic format for the nonlinear elastic response of wavy collagen fibrils found in soft connective tissues. The model is based on the observation that crimped fibrils in a fascicle have a three-dimensional structure at the micron scale that we approximate as a helical spring. The symmetry of this wave form allows the force/displacement relationship derived from Castigliano's theorem to be solved in closed form: all integrals become analytic. Model predictions are in good agreement with experimental observations for mitral-valve chordae tendinece.

  12. Barley Metallothioneins: MT3 and MT4 Are Localized in the Grain Aleurone Layer and Show Differential Zinc Binding1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Schiller, Michaela; Kichey, Thomas; Hansen, Thomas Hesselhøj; Pedas, Pai; Husted, Søren; Schjoerring, Jan Kofod

    2012-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are low-molecular-weight, cysteine-rich proteins believed to play a role in cytosolic zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) homeostasis. However, evidence for the functional properties of MTs has been hampered by methodological problems in the isolation and characterization of the proteins. Here, we document that barley (Hordeum vulgare) MT3 and MT4 proteins exist in planta and that they differ in tissue localization as well as in metal coordination chemistry. Combined transcriptional and histological analyses showed temporal and spatial correlations between transcript levels and protein abundance during grain development. MT3 was present in tissues of both maternal and filial origin throughout grain filling. In contrast, MT4 was confined to the embryo and aleurone layer, where it appeared during tissue specialization and remained until maturity. Using state-of-the-art speciation analysis by size-exclusion chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry on recombinant MT3 and MT4, their specificity and capacity for metal ion binding were quantified, showing a strong preferential Zn binding relative to Cu and cadmium (Cd) in MT4, which was not the case for MT3. When complementary DNAs from barley MTs were expressed in Cu- or Cd-sensitive yeast mutants, MT3 provided a much stronger complementation than did MT4. We conclude that MT3 may play a housekeeping role in metal homeostasis, while MT4 may function in Zn storage in developing and mature grains. The localization of MT4 and its discrimination against Cd make it an ideal candidate for future biofortification strategies directed toward increasing food and feed Zn concentrations. PMID:22582132

  13. Tenocyte contraction induces crimp formation in tendon-like tissue

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, David F.; Hill, Patrick; Kadler, Karl E.; Margetts, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Tendons are composed of longitudinally aligned collagen fibrils arranged in bundles with an undulating pattern, called crimp. The crimp structure is established during embryonic development and plays a vital role in the mechanical behaviour of tendon, acting as a shock absorber during loading. However, the mechanism of crimp formation is unknown, partly because of the difficulties of studying tendon development in vivo. Here we used a 3D cell culture system in which embryonic tendon fibroblasts synthesize a tendon-like construct comprised of collagen fibrils arranged in parallel bundles. Investigations using polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy showed that tendon-constructs contained a regular pattern of wavy collagen fibrils. Tensile testing indicated that this superstructure was a form of embryonic crimp producing a characteristic toe region in the stress-strain curves. Furthermore, contraction of tendon fibroblasts was the critical factor in the buckling of collagen fibrils during the formation of the crimp structure. Using these biological data, a finite element model was built that mimics the contraction of the tendon fibroblasts and monitors the response of the ECM. The results show that the contraction of the fibroblasts is a sufficient mechanical impulse to build a planar wavy pattern. Furthermore, the value of crimp wavelength was determined by the mechanical properties of the collagen fibrils and inter-fibrillar matrix. Increasing fibril stiffness combined with constant matrix stiffness led to an increase in crimp wavelength. The data suggest a novel mechanism of crimp formation, and the finite element model indicates the minimum requirements to generate a crimp structure in embryonic tendon. PMID:21735243

  14. Quality control on crimping of large diameter welding pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Lifeng; Gao, Ying; Li, Qiang; Xu, Hongshen

    2012-11-01

    Crimping is used in production of large diameter submerged-arc welding pipes. Many researches are focused on crimping in certain manufacturing mode of welding pipe. The application scopes of research achievements become limited due to lack of uniformity in theoretical analysis. In order to propose a crimping prediction method in order to control forming quality, the theory model of crimping based on elastic-plastic mechanics is established. The main technical parameters are determined by theoretical analysis, including length of crimping, base radius of punch, terminal angle of punch, base radius of die, terminal angle of die and horizontal distance between punch and die. In addition, a method used to evaluate the forming quality is presented, which investigates the bending angle after springback, forming force, straight edge length and equivalent radius of curvature. In order to investigate the effects of technical parameters on forming quality, a two-dimensional finite element model is established by finite element software ABAQUS. The finite element model is verified in that its shapes error is less than 5% by comparable experiments, which shows that their geometric precision meets demand. The crimping characteristics is obtained, such as the distribution of stress and strain and the changes of forming force, and the relation curves of technical parameters on forming quality are given by simulation analysis. The sensitivity analysis indicates that the effects of length of crimping, technical parameters of punch on forming quality are significant. In particular, the data from simulation analysis are regressed by response surface method (RSM) to establish prediction model. The feasible technical parameters are obtained from the prediction model. This method presented provides a new thought used to design technical parameters of crimping forming and makes a basis for improving crimping forming quality.

  15. Improvement of Fermentation and Nutritive Quality of Straw-grass Silage by Inclusion of Wet Hulless-barley Distillers’ Grains in Tibet

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xianjun; Yu, Chengqun; Shimojo, M.; Shao, Tao

    2012-01-01

    In order to develop methods that would enlarge the feed resources in Tibet, mixtures of hulless-barley straw and tall fescue were ensiled with four levels (0, 10%, 20%, and 30% of fresh weight) of wet hulless-barley distillers’ grains (WHDG). The silos were opened after 7, 14 or 30 d of ensiling, and the fermentation characteristics and nutritive quality of the silages were analyzed. WHDG addition significantly improved fermentation quality, as indicated by the faster decline of pH, rapid accumulation of lactic acid (LA) (p<0.05), and lower butyric acid content and ammonia-N/total N (p<0.05) as compared with the control. These results indicated that WHDG additions not only effectively inhibited the activity of aerobic bacteria, but also resulted in faster and greatly enhanced LA production and pH value decline, which restricted activity of undesirable bacteria, resulting in more residual water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) in the silages. The protein content of WHDG-containing silages were significantly higher (p<0.05) higher than that of the control. In conclusion, the addition of WHDG increased the fermentation and nutritive quality of straw-grass silage, and this effect was more marked when the inclusion rate of WHDG was greater than 20%. PMID:25049588

  16. Different Hormonal Regulation of Cellular Differentiation and Function in Nucellar Projection and Endosperm Transfer Cells: A Microdissection-Based Transcriptome Study of Young Barley Grains1[W

    PubMed Central

    Thiel, Johannes; Weier, Diana; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Strickert, Marc; Weichert, Nicola; Melzer, Michael; Czauderna, Tobias; Wobus, Ulrich; Weber, Hans; Weschke, Winfriede

    2008-01-01

    Nucellar projection (NP) and endosperm transfer cells (ETC) are essential tissues in growing barley (Hordeum vulgare) grains, responsible for nutrient transfer from maternal to filial tissues, endosperm/embryo nutrition, and grain development. A laser microdissection pressure catapulting-based transcriptome analysis was established to study NP and ETC separately using a barley 12K macroarray. A major challenge was to isolate high-quality mRNA from preembedded, fixed tissue while maintaining tissue integrity. We show that probes generated from fixed and embedded tissue sections represent largely the transcriptome (>70%) of nonchemically treated and nonamplified references. In NP, the top-down gradient of cellular differentiation is reflected by the expression of C3HC4-type ubiquitin ligases and different histone genes, cell wall biosynthesis and expansin/extensin genes, as well as genes involved in programmed cell death-related proteolysis coupled to nitrogen remobilization, indicating distinct areas simultaneously undergoing mitosis, cell elongation, and disintegration. Activated gene expression related to gibberellin synthesis and function suggests a regulatory role for gibberellins in establishment of the differentiation gradient. Up-regulation of plasmalemma-intrinsic protein and tonoplast-intrinsic protein genes indicates involvement in nutrient transfer and/or unloading. In ETC, AP2/EREBP-like transcription factors and ethylene functions are transcriptionally activated, a response possibly coupled to activated defense mechanisms. Transcriptional activation of nucleotide sugar metabolism may be attributed to ascorbate synthesis and/or cell wall biosynthesis. These processes are potentially controlled by trehalose-6-P synthase/phosphatase, as suggested by expression of their respective genes. Up-regulation of amino acid permeases in ETC indicates important roles in active nutrient uptake from the apoplastic space into the endosperm. PMID:18784282

  17. Comparison of Marginal Circumference of Two Different Pre-Crimped Stainless Steel Crowns for Primary Molars After Re-Crimping

    PubMed Central

    Afshar, Hossein; Ghandehari, Mehdi; Soleimani, Banafsheh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: It is not clear what type of pre-crimped crown is more successful in achieving greater marginal adaptation following re-crimping. This study aimed to assess the changes in the circumference of 3M ESPE and MIB pre-crimped stainless steel crowns (SSCs) for the primary maxillary and mandibular first and second molars following re-crimping. Materials and Methods: This was an in-vitro, experimental study. Initial photographs were obtained from the margins of 3M and MIB SSCs for the upper and lower primary molars using a digital camera. Crown margins were crimped by applying 0.2N force using 114 and 137 pliers. Post-crimping photographs were also obtained and the changes in crown circumference after crimping were calculated using AutoCad software. The percentage of reduction in the circumference of crowns for each tooth was statistically analyzed based on the type of crown using student t-test. The effect of crown design and the associated teeth on the decreased circumference percentage was statistically analyzed by two-sided ANOVA. Results: The percentage of reduction in lower E SSC circumference was 3.71±0.39% in MIB and 6.29±0.62% in 3M crowns. These values were 3.55±0.55% and 7.15±1.13% for the lower Ds, and 3.95±0.43 and 6.24±0.85% for the upper Ds, respectively. For the upper Es, these values were found to be 3.12±0.65% and 5.14±0.94%, respectively. For each tooth, a significant difference was found between MIB and 3M SSCs in terms of the percentage of reduction in crown circumference following crimping. The magnitude of this reduction was smaller in MIB compared to 3M SSCs (P<0.001). Conclusion: Considering the significant reduction in the marginal circumference of precrimped SSCs following re-crimping, it appears that this manipulation must be necessarily performed for MIB and 3M pre-crimped SSCs. By using 3M SSCs, higher marginal adaptation can be achieved following crimping. PMID:27559353

  18. 7 CFR 810.205 - Grades and grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles...

  19. 7 CFR 810.205 - Grades and grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles...

  20. 7 CFR 810.205 - Grades and grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles...

  1. 7 CFR 810.205 - Grades and grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles...

  2. 7 CFR 810.205 - Grades and grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles...

  3. Investigation of Water Dynamics and the Effect of Evapotranspiration on Grain Yield of Rainfed Wheat and Barley under a Mediterranean Environment: A Modelling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kefeng; Bosch-Serra, Angela D.; Boixadera, Jaume; Thompson, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Agro-hydrological models have increasingly become useful and powerful tools in optimizing water and fertilizer application, and in studying the environmental consequences. Accurate prediction of water dynamics in such models is essential for models to produce reasonable results. In this study, detailed simulations were performed for water dynamics of rainfed winter wheat and barley grown under a Mediterranean climate over a 10-year period. The model employed (Yang et al., 2009. J. Hydrol., 370, 177-190) uses easily available agronomic data, and takes into consideration of all key soil and plant processes in controlling water dynamics in the soil-crop system, including the dynamics of root growth. The water requirement for crop growth was calculated according to the FAO56, and the soil hydraulic properties were estimated using peto-transfer functions (PTFs) based on soil physical properties and soil organic matter content. Results show that the simulated values of soil water content at the depths of 15, 45 and 75 cm agreed with the measurements well with the root of the mean squared errors of 0.027 cm3 cm-3 and the model agreement index of 0.875. The simulated seasonal evapotranspiration (ET) ranged from 208 to 388 mm, and grain yield was found to correlate with the simulated seasonal ET in a linear manner within the studied ET range. The simulated rates of grain yield increase were 17.3 and 23.7 kg ha-l for every mm of water evapotranspired for wheat and barley, respectively. The good agreement of soil water content between measurement and simulation and the simulated relationships between grain yield and seasonal ET supported by the data in the literature indicates that the model performed well in modelling water dynamics for the studied soil-crop system, and therefore has the potential to be applied reliably and widely in precision agriculture. Finally, a two-staged approach using inverse modelling techniques to further improve model performance was discussed

  4. Investigation of Water Dynamics and the Effect of Evapotranspiration on Grain Yield of Rainfed Wheat and Barley under a Mediterranean Environment: A Modelling Approach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kefeng; Bosch-Serra, Angela D; Boixadera, Jaume; Thompson, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Agro-hydrological models have increasingly become useful and powerful tools in optimizing water and fertilizer application, and in studying the environmental consequences. Accurate prediction of water dynamics in such models is essential for models to produce reasonable results. In this study, detailed simulations were performed for water dynamics of rainfed winter wheat and barley grown under a Mediterranean climate over a 10-year period. The model employed (Yang et al., 2009. J. Hydrol., 370, 177-190) uses easily available agronomic data, and takes into consideration of all key soil and plant processes in controlling water dynamics in the soil-crop system, including the dynamics of root growth. The water requirement for crop growth was calculated according to the FAO56, and the soil hydraulic properties were estimated using peto-transfer functions (PTFs) based on soil physical properties and soil organic matter content. Results show that the simulated values of soil water content at the depths of 15, 45 and 75 cm agreed with the measurements well with the root of the mean squared errors of 0.027 cm(3) cm(-3) and the model agreement index of 0.875. The simulated seasonal evapotranspiration (ET) ranged from 208 to 388 mm, and grain yield was found to correlate with the simulated seasonal ET in a linear manner within the studied ET range. The simulated rates of grain yield increase were 17.3 and 23.7 kg ha(-l) for every mm of water evapotranspired for wheat and barley, respectively. The good agreement of soil water content between measurement and simulation and the simulated relationships between grain yield and seasonal ET supported by the data in the literature indicates that the model performed well in modelling water dynamics for the studied soil-crop system, and therefore has the potential to be applied reliably and widely in precision agriculture. Finally, a two-staged approach using inverse modelling techniques to further improve model performance was

  5. Co-fermentation of hemicellulose and starch from barley straw and grain for efficient pentoses utilization in acetone-butanol-ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Kuittinen, Suvi; Zhang, Junhua; Vepsäläinen, Jouko; Keinänen, Markku; Pappinen, Ari

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to efficiently use hemicellulose-based biomass for ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) production by co-fermentation with starch-based biomass. Two processes were investigated: (I) co-fermentation of sugars derived from hemicellulose and starch in a mixture of barley straw and grain that was pretreated with dilute acid; (II) co-fermentation of straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate and gelatinized grain slurry in which the straw was pretreated with dilute acid. The two processes produced 11.3 and 13.5 g/L ABE that contains 7.4 and 7.8 g/L butanol, respectively. In process I, pretreatment with 1.0% H2SO4 resulted in better ABE fermentability than with 1.5% H2SO4, but only 19% of pentoses were consumed. In process II, 95% of pentoses were utilized even in the hemicellulosic hydrolysate pretreated with more severe condition (1.5% H2SO4). The results suggest that process II is more favorable for hemicellulosic biomass utilization, and it is also attractive for sustainable biofuel production due to great biomass availability.

  6. Barley and oats: underutilized nutrition sources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley and oats are two unique ancient crops. Their grains contain beta-glucan in substantial amounts, which can lower cholesterol levels and reduce glycemic response. Yet, food uses of barley and oats are rather limited due to lack of palatability of whole grain food or functionality of milled flou...

  7. Combined moist airtight storage and feed fermentation of barley by the yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus and a lactic acid bacteria consortium

    PubMed Central

    Borling Welin, Jenny; Lyberg, Karin; Passoth, Volkmar; Olstorpe, Matilda

    2015-01-01

    This study combined moist airtight storage of moist grain with pig feed fermentation. Starter cultures with the potential to facilitate both technologies were added to airtight stored moist crimped cereal grain, and the impact on storage microflora and the quality of feed fermentations generated from the grain was investigated. Four treatments were compared: three based on moist barley, either un-inoculated (M), inoculated with Wickerhamomyces anomalus (W), or inoculated with W. anomalus and LAB starter culture, containing Pediococcus acidilactici DSM 16243, Pediococcus pentosaceus DSM 12834 and Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 12837 (WLAB); and one treatment based on dried barley (D). After 6 weeks of storage, four feed fermentations FM, FW, FWLAB, and FD, were initiated from M, W, WLAB, and D, respectively, by mixing the grain with water to a dry matter content of 30%. Each treatment was fermented in batch initially for 7 days and then kept in a continuous mode by adding new feed daily with 50% back-slop. During the 6 week storage period, the average water activity decreased in M, W and WLAB from 0.96 to 0.85, and cereal pH decreased from approximately 6.0 at harvest to 4.5. Feed fermentation conferred a further pH decrease to 3.8–4.1. In M, W and WLAB, molds and Enterobacteriaceae were mostly below detection limit, whereas both organism groups were detected in D. In fermented feed, Enterobacteriaceae were below detection limit in almost all conditions. Molds were detected in FD, for most of the fermentation time in FM and at some sampling points in FW and FWLAB. Starter organisms, especially W. anomalus and L. plantarum comprised a considerable proportion of the yeast and LAB populations, respectively, in both stored grain and fermented feed. However, autochthonous Pichia kudriavzevii and Kazachstania exigua partially dominated the yeast populations in stored grain and fermented feed, respectively. PMID:25954295

  8. Combined moist airtight storage and feed fermentation of barley by the yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus and a lactic acid bacteria consortium.

    PubMed

    Borling Welin, Jenny; Lyberg, Karin; Passoth, Volkmar; Olstorpe, Matilda

    2015-01-01

    This study combined moist airtight storage of moist grain with pig feed fermentation. Starter cultures with the potential to facilitate both technologies were added to airtight stored moist crimped cereal grain, and the impact on storage microflora and the quality of feed fermentations generated from the grain was investigated. Four treatments were compared: three based on moist barley, either un-inoculated (M), inoculated with Wickerhamomyces anomalus (W), or inoculated with W. anomalus and LAB starter culture, containing Pediococcus acidilactici DSM 16243, Pediococcus pentosaceus DSM 12834 and Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 12837 (WLAB); and one treatment based on dried barley (D). After 6 weeks of storage, four feed fermentations FM, FW, FWLAB, and FD, were initiated from M, W, WLAB, and D, respectively, by mixing the grain with water to a dry matter content of 30%. Each treatment was fermented in batch initially for 7 days and then kept in a continuous mode by adding new feed daily with 50% back-slop. During the 6 week storage period, the average water activity decreased in M, W and WLAB from 0.96 to 0.85, and cereal pH decreased from approximately 6.0 at harvest to 4.5. Feed fermentation conferred a further pH decrease to 3.8-4.1. In M, W and WLAB, molds and Enterobacteriaceae were mostly below detection limit, whereas both organism groups were detected in D. In fermented feed, Enterobacteriaceae were below detection limit in almost all conditions. Molds were detected in FD, for most of the fermentation time in FM and at some sampling points in FW and FWLAB. Starter organisms, especially W. anomalus and L. plantarum comprised a considerable proportion of the yeast and LAB populations, respectively, in both stored grain and fermented feed. However, autochthonous Pichia kudriavzevii and Kazachstania exigua partially dominated the yeast populations in stored grain and fermented feed, respectively.

  9. Combined moist airtight storage and feed fermentation of barley by the yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus and a lactic acid bacteria consortium.

    PubMed

    Borling Welin, Jenny; Lyberg, Karin; Passoth, Volkmar; Olstorpe, Matilda

    2015-01-01

    This study combined moist airtight storage of moist grain with pig feed fermentation. Starter cultures with the potential to facilitate both technologies were added to airtight stored moist crimped cereal grain, and the impact on storage microflora and the quality of feed fermentations generated from the grain was investigated. Four treatments were compared: three based on moist barley, either un-inoculated (M), inoculated with Wickerhamomyces anomalus (W), or inoculated with W. anomalus and LAB starter culture, containing Pediococcus acidilactici DSM 16243, Pediococcus pentosaceus DSM 12834 and Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 12837 (WLAB); and one treatment based on dried barley (D). After 6 weeks of storage, four feed fermentations FM, FW, FWLAB, and FD, were initiated from M, W, WLAB, and D, respectively, by mixing the grain with water to a dry matter content of 30%. Each treatment was fermented in batch initially for 7 days and then kept in a continuous mode by adding new feed daily with 50% back-slop. During the 6 week storage period, the average water activity decreased in M, W and WLAB from 0.96 to 0.85, and cereal pH decreased from approximately 6.0 at harvest to 4.5. Feed fermentation conferred a further pH decrease to 3.8-4.1. In M, W and WLAB, molds and Enterobacteriaceae were mostly below detection limit, whereas both organism groups were detected in D. In fermented feed, Enterobacteriaceae were below detection limit in almost all conditions. Molds were detected in FD, for most of the fermentation time in FM and at some sampling points in FW and FWLAB. Starter organisms, especially W. anomalus and L. plantarum comprised a considerable proportion of the yeast and LAB populations, respectively, in both stored grain and fermented feed. However, autochthonous Pichia kudriavzevii and Kazachstania exigua partially dominated the yeast populations in stored grain and fermented feed, respectively. PMID:25954295

  10. 7 CFR 810.201 - Definition of barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Terms Defined § 810.201 Definition of barley. Grain...

  11. 7 CFR 810.201 - Definition of barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Terms Defined § 810.201 Definition of barley. Grain...

  12. 7 CFR 810.201 - Definition of barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Terms Defined § 810.201 Definition of barley. Grain...

  13. 7 CFR 810.201 - Definition of barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Terms Defined § 810.201 Definition of barley. Grain...

  14. 7 CFR 810.201 - Definition of barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Terms Defined § 810.201 Definition of barley. Grain...

  15. Ultrasonic Device for Assessing the Quality of a Wire Crimp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Perey, Daniel F. (Inventor); Cramer, Karl E. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A system for determining the quality of an electrical wire crimp between a wire and ferrule includes an ultrasonically equipped crimp tool (UECT) configured to transmit an ultrasonic acoustic wave through a wire and ferrule, and a signal processor in communication with the UECT. The signal processor includes a signal transmitting module configured to transmit the ultrasonic acoustic wave via an ultrasonic transducer, signal receiving module configured to receive the ultrasonic acoustic wave after it passes through the wire and ferrule, and a signal analysis module configured to identify signal differences between the ultrasonic waves. The signal analysis module is then configured to compare the signal differences attributable to the wire crimp to a baseline, and to provide an output signal if the signal differences deviate from the baseline.

  16. Attaching Thermocouples by Peening or Crimping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murtland, Kevin; Cox, Robert; Immer, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Two simple, effective techniques for attaching thermocouples to metal substrates have been devised for high-temperature applications in which attachment by such conventional means as welding, screws, epoxy, or tape would not be effective. The techniques have been used successfully to attach 0.005- in. (0.127-mm)-diameter type-S thermocouples to substrates of niobium alloy C-103 and stainless steel 416 for measuring temperatures up to 2,600 F (1,427 C). The techniques are equally applicable to other thermocouple and substrate materials. In the first technique, illustrated in the upper part of the figure, a hole slightly wider than twice the diameter of one thermocouple wire is drilled in the substrate. The thermocouple is placed in the hole, then the edge of the hole is peened in one or more places by use of a punch (see figure). The deformed material at the edge secures the thermocouple in the hole. In the second technique a hole is drilled as in the first technique, then an annular relief area is machined around the hole, resulting in structure reminiscent of a volcano in a crater. The thermocouple is placed in the hole as in the first technique, then the "volcano" material is either peened by use of a punch or crimped by use of sidecutters to secure the thermocouple in place. This second technique is preferable for very thin thermocouples [wire diameter .0.005 in. (.0.127 mm)] because standard peening poses a greater risk of clipping one or both of the thermocouple wires. These techniques offer the following advantages over prior thermocouple-attachment techniques: . Because these techniques involve drilling of very small holes, they are minimally invasive . an important advantage in that, to a first approximation, the thermal properties of surrounding areas are not appreciably affected. . These techniques do not involve introduction of any material, other than the substrate and thermocouple materials, that could cause contamination, could decompose, or oxidize

  17. 7 CFR 801.3 - Tolerances for barley pearlers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRAIN INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.3 Tolerances for barley pearlers. The maintenance tolerances...

  18. 7 CFR 801.3 - Tolerances for barley pearlers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRAIN INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.3 Tolerances for barley pearlers. The maintenance tolerances...

  19. 7 CFR 801.3 - Tolerances for barley pearlers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRAIN INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.3 Tolerances for barley pearlers. The maintenance tolerances...

  20. 7 CFR 801.3 - Tolerances for barley pearlers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRAIN INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.3 Tolerances for barley pearlers. The maintenance tolerances...

  1. 7 CFR 801.3 - Tolerances for barley pearlers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRAIN INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.3 Tolerances for barley pearlers. The maintenance tolerances...

  2. Tendon and ligament fibrillar crimps give rise to left-handed helices of collagen fibrils in both planar and helical crimps.

    PubMed

    Franchi, Marco; Ottani, Vittoria; Stagni, Rita; Ruggeri, Alessandro

    2010-03-01

    Collagen fibres in tendons and ligaments run straight but in some regions they show crimps which disappear or appear more flattened during the initial elongation of tissues. Each crimp is formed of collagen fibrils showing knots or fibrillar crimps at the crimp top angle. The present study analyzes by polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy the 3D morphology of fibrillar crimp in tendons and ligaments of rat demonstrating that each fibril in the fibrillar region always twists leftwards changing the plane of running and sharply bends modifying the course on a new plane. The morphology of fibrillar crimp in stretched tendons fulfills the mechanical role of the fibrillar crimp acting as a particular knot/biological hinge in absorbing tension forces during fibril strengthening and recoiling collagen fibres when stretching is removed. The left-handed path of fibrils in the fibrillar crimp region gives rise to left-handed fibril helices observed both in isolated fibrils and sections of different tendons and ligaments (flexor digitorum profundus muscle tendon, Achilles tendon, tail tendon, patellar ligament and medial collateral ligament of the knee). The left-handed path of fibrils represents a new final suprafibrillar level of the alternating handedness which was previously described only from the molecular to the microfibrillar level. When the width of the twisting angle in the fibrillar crimp is nearly 180 degrees the fibrils appear as left-handed flattened helices forming crimped collagen fibres previously described as planar crimps. When fibrils twist with different subsequent rotational angles (< 180 degrees ) they always assume a left-helical course but, running in many different nonplanar planes, they form wider helical crimped fibres.

  3. Alanine aminotransferase controls seed dormancy in barley

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Kazuhiro; Yamane, Miki; Yamaji, Nami; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Tagiri, Akemi; Schwerdt, Julian G.; Fincher, Geoffrey B.; Matsumoto, Takashi; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Komatsuda, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Dormancy allows wild barley grains to survive dry summers in the Near East. After domestication, barley was selected for shorter dormancy periods. Here we isolate the major seed dormancy gene qsd1 from wild barley, which encodes an alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT). The seed dormancy gene is expressed specifically in the embryo. The AlaAT isoenzymes encoded by the long and short dormancy alleles differ in a single amino acid residue. The reduced dormancy allele Qsd1 evolved from barleys that were first domesticated in the southern Levant and had the long dormancy qsd1 allele that can be traced back to wild barleys. The reduced dormancy mutation likely contributed to the enhanced performance of barley in industrial applications such as beer and whisky production, which involve controlled germination. In contrast, the long dormancy allele might be used to control pre-harvest sprouting in higher rainfall areas to enhance global adaptation of barley. PMID:27188711

  4. Alanine aminotransferase controls seed dormancy in barley.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kazuhiro; Yamane, Miki; Yamaji, Nami; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Tagiri, Akemi; Schwerdt, Julian G; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Matsumoto, Takashi; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Komatsuda, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Dormancy allows wild barley grains to survive dry summers in the Near East. After domestication, barley was selected for shorter dormancy periods. Here we isolate the major seed dormancy gene qsd1 from wild barley, which encodes an alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT). The seed dormancy gene is expressed specifically in the embryo. The AlaAT isoenzymes encoded by the long and short dormancy alleles differ in a single amino acid residue. The reduced dormancy allele Qsd1 evolved from barleys that were first domesticated in the southern Levant and had the long dormancy qsd1 allele that can be traced back to wild barleys. The reduced dormancy mutation likely contributed to the enhanced performance of barley in industrial applications such as beer and whisky production, which involve controlled germination. In contrast, the long dormancy allele might be used to control pre-harvest sprouting in higher rainfall areas to enhance global adaptation of barley. PMID:27188711

  5. Strengths and Limitations of Operational Use of 1 Km EO Biophysical Products for Regional Prediction of Grain Yelds in Europe (wheat, barley and maize)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meroni, M.; LEO, O.; Lopez-Lozano, R.; Baruth, B.; Duveiller, G.; Garcia-Condado, S.; Hooker, J.; Seguini, L.

    2014-12-01

    The site-specific relationship between EO indicators and actual crop yields has been explored in many different studies, describing semi-empirical regression models between spatially aggregated biophysical parameters or vegetation indices and observed yields (from field measurements or official statistics). However, when considering larger extensions -from countries to continents- agro-climatic conditions and crop management may differ substantially among regions, and these differences may greatly influence the relationship between biophysical indicators and the observed yields, which may be also driven by limiting factors other than green biomass formation. The present study aims to better assess the contribution of EO indicators within an operational crop yield forecasting system in Europe and neighbouring countries, by evaluating how these above mentioned geographic differences influence the relationship between biophysical indicators and crop yield. We therefore explore, as a first step, the correspondence between fAPAR time-series (1999-2013) and the inter-annual yield variability of wheat, barley and grain maize, at sub-national level across Europe (270-450 Administrative Units, depending on crop). In a second step, we map the agro-climatic contexts in which EO indicators better explain the observed yield inter-annual variability, identify the influence of some meteorological events on the fAPAR -yield relationship and provide some recommendations for further investigation. The results indicate that in water-limited environments (e.g. Mediterranean and Black Sea areas), fAPAR is highly correlated with yields whereas in northern Europe, crop yield appears much less limited by leaf area expansion along the season, and the relationship between yield and EO products becomes more difficult to interpret.

  6. A Method For The Verification Of Wire Crimp Compression Using Ultrasonic Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, K. E.; Perey, Daniel F.; Yost, William t.

    2010-01-01

    The development of a new ultrasonic measurement technique to assess quantitatively wire crimp terminations is discussed. The amplitude change of a compressional ultrasonic wave propagating at right angles to the wire axis and through the junction of a crimp termination is shown to correlate with the results of a destructive pull test, which is a standard for assessing crimp wire junction quality. To demonstrate the technique, the case of incomplete compression of crimped connections is ultrasonically tested, and the results are correlated with pull tests. Results show that the nondestructive ultrasonic measurement technique consistently predicts good crimps when the ultrasonic transmission is above a certain threshold amplitude level. A quantitative measure of the quality of the crimped connection based on the ultrasonic energy transmitted is shown to respond accurately to crimp quality. A wave propagation model, solved by finite element analysis, describes the compressional ultrasonic wave propagation through the junction during the crimping process. This model is in agreement within 6% of the ultrasonic measurements. A prototype instrument for applying this technique while wire crimps are installed is also presented. The instrument is based on a two-jaw type crimp tool suitable for butt-splice type connections. A comparison of the results of two different instruments is presented and shows reproducibility between instruments within a 95% confidence bound.

  7. Fuel cell crimp-resistant cooling device with internal coil

    DOEpatents

    Wittel, deceased, Charles F.

    1986-01-01

    A cooling assembly for fuel cells having a simplified construction whereby coolant is efficiently circulated through a conduit arranged in serpentine fashion in a channel within a member of such assembly. The channel is adapted to cradle a flexible, chemically inert, conformable conduit capable of manipulation into a variety of cooling patterns without crimping or otherwise restricting of coolant flow. The conduit, when assembled with the member, conforms into intimate contact with the member for good thermal conductivity. The conduit is non-corrodible and can be constructed as a single, manifold-free, continuous coolant passage means having only one inlet and one outlet. The conduit has an internal coil means which enables it to be bent in small radii without crimping.

  8. Crimp sealing of tubes flush with or below a fixed surface

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, J.E.; Walmsley, D.; Wapman, P.D.

    1996-08-20

    An apparatus for crimp sealing and severing tubes flush or below a fixed surface. Tube crimping below a fixed surface requires an asymmetric die and anvil configuration. The anvil must be flat so that, after crimping, it may be removed without deforming the crimped tubes. This asymmetric die and anvil is used when a ductile metal tube and valve assembly are attached to a pressure vessel which has a fixed surface around the base of the tube at the pressure vessel. A flat anvil is placed against the tube. Die guides are placed against the tube on a side opposite the anvil. A pinch-off die is inserted into the die guides against the tube. Adequate clearance for inserting the die and anvil around the tube is needed below the fixed surface. The anvil must be flat so that, after crimping, it may be removed without deforming the crimped tubes. 8 figs.

  9. Crimp sealing of tubes flush with or below a fixed surface

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, Jon E.; Walmsley, Don; Wapman, P. Derek

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus for crimp sealing and severing tubes flush or below a fixed surface. Tube crimping below a fixed surface requires an asymmetric die and anvil configuration. The anvil must be flat so that, after crimping, it may be removed without deforming the crimped tubes. This asymmetric die and anvil is used when a ductile metal tube and valve assembly are attached to a pressure vessel which has a fixed surface around the base of the tube at the pressure vessel. A flat anvil is placed against the tube. Die guides are placed against the tube on a side opposite the anvil. A pinch-off die is inserted into the die guides against the tube. Adequate clearance for inserting the die and anvil around the tube is needed below the fixed surface. The anvil must be flat so that, after crimping, it may be removed without deforming the crimped tubes.

  10. Feeding behavior and ruminal pH of corn silage, barley grain, and corn dried distillers' grain offered in a total mixed ration or in a free-choice diet to beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Moya, D; Holtshausen, L; Marti, S; Gibb, D G; McAllister, T A; Beauchemin, K A; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K

    2014-08-01

    Seventy-nine continental crossbred beef heifers (524.4 ± 41.68 kg BW), 16 of which were ruminally cannulated, were used in a 53-d experiment with a generalized randomized block design to assess the effects of barley grain (BG), corn silage (CS), and corn distillers' grain (DG) offered in a free-choice diet on feeding behavior and ruminal fermentation. Treatments were total mixed ration (TMR) consisting of 85% BG, 10% CS, and 5% supplement or free-choice (i.e., self-selection) diets of BG and CS (BGCS), BG and corn dry DG (BGDG), or CS and corn DG (CSDG). Heifers were housed in groups of 9 or 10 in 8 pens and weighed 2 h before feed delivery at d 0, 21, 42, and 52 of the study. Pens were equipped with an electronic feed bunk monitoring system enabling feed intake and feeding behavior to be continuously monitored. Each of these pens was randomly allocated 2 cannulated heifers equipped with indwelling pH probes for continuous measurement of ruminal pH during wk 1, 2, 4, and 7. Blood and rumen contents were taken from cannulated heifers 2 h after feed delivery on d -3, 0, 7, 8, 42, and 49. Cattle fed either TMR or free-choice diets had similar (P > 0.10) ruminal fermentation, blood profile, and growth performance, with the exception of the CSDG diet, for which ruminal pH levels were consistently greater (P < 0.01) and performance was lower (P < 0.01). When DG was a component in free-choice diets, heifers reduced its inclusion in the diet (P < 0.05) over the experiment without affecting growth rate or ruminal fluid pH. Finishing feedlot cattle fed BG and CS separately selected a diet with a greater proportion of BG (85% DMI) compared to the TMR with no signs of acidosis. When cattle were given free-choice access to corn dry DG as an alternative to CS, they consumed levels up to 30% of their total daily DMI. Under the conditions of our experiment cattle can effectively self-select diets without increasing the risk of subclinical acidosis and still maintain similar

  11. Biochemical heterogeneity of malt is caused by both biological variation and differences in processing: I. Individual grain analyses of biochemical parameters in differently steeped barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) malts.

    PubMed

    Kleinwächter, Maik; Müller, Christian; Methner, Frank-Jürgen; Selmar, Dirk

    2014-03-15

    Using individual grain analyses, the degree of inherent biological variation in germinating barley seeds has been established. Even under homogenous laboratory conditions, the activities of the germination-related enzymes α-amylase, β-amylase and β-glucanase varied by a factor of two to three. The comparison with single grain analyses of different industrially produced malts (steeping systems without aeration, with air suction and pressurised aeration) revealed that the heterogeneity of these malts nearly tripled. This increase may be due to the gradients in O2 and CO2 that arise in large industrial steeping vessels. The most homogenous malting in the industrial systems was achieved without any aeration during steeping. Therefore, to improve homogeneity, the common practise of steep aeration should be omitted. Germination progression was quite different within the three exhaustively aerated attempts, which indicated that gaseous composition was not the only factor affecting germination progression.

  12. Ultrasonics Equipped Crimp Tool: A New Technology for Aircraft Wiring Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T.; Perey, Daniel F.; Cramer, Elliott

    2006-01-01

    We report on the development of a new measurement technique to quantitatively assess the condition of wire crimp connections. This ultrasonic (UT) method transmits high frequency sound waves through the joint under inspection. The wire-crimp region filters and scatters the ultrasonic energy as it passes through the crimp and wire. The resulting output (both time and frequency domains) provides a quantitative measure of the joint quality that is independent and unaffected by current. Crimps of poor mechanical and electrical quality will result in low temporal output and will distort the spectrum into unique and predictable patterns, depending on crimp "quality". This inexpensive, real-time measurement system can provide certification of crimps as they are made and recertification of existing wire crimps currently in service. The measurements for re-certification do not require that the wire be disconnected from its circuit. No other technology exists to measure in-situ the condition of wire joints (no electrical currents through the crimp are used in this analytical technique). We discuss the signals obtained from this instrument, and correlate these signals with destructive wire pull tests.

  13. Assessment and Calibration of a Crimp Tool Equipped with Ultrasonic Analysis Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Perey, Daniel F. (Inventor); Cramer, K. Elliott (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method is provided for calibrating ultrasonic signals passed through a crimp formed with respect to a deformable body via an ultrasonically-equipped crimp tool (UECT). The UECT verifies a crimp quality using the ultrasonic signals. The method includes forming the crimp, transmitting a first signal, e.g., a pulse, to a first transducer of the UECT, and converting the first signal, using the first transducer, into a second signal which defines an ultrasonic pulse. This pulse is transmitted through the UECT into the crimp. A second transducer converts the second signal into a third signal, which may be further conditioned, and the ultrasonic signals are calibrated using the third signal or its conditioned variant. An apparatus for calibrating the ultrasonic signals includes a pulse module (PM) electrically connected to the first and second transducers, and an oscilloscope or display electrically connected to the PM for analyzing an electrical output signal therefrom.

  14. Device and Method for Connections Made Between a Crimp Connector and Wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cramer, K. Elliott (Inventor); Perey, Daniel F. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    An ultrasonic device and method obtains desirable crimp connections between a crimp connector and a wire, or bundle of wires, by assessing the desirability of connections made in a wire-to-wire connection and in other situations where two materials with good acoustic propagation characteristics are joined together via deformation. An embodiment of the device as a crimping tool comprises a compressing means, pulse-generating circuitry. at least one ultrasonic transmitting transducer, at least one ultrasonic receiving transducer, receiving circuitry, and a display. The user may return to a previously crimped connection and assess the desirability of the connection by compressing the device about the connection, sending an acoustic signal through the crimp, andco111paring the received signal to a signal obtained from known desirable connections.

  15. The effects on cow performance and calf birth and weaning weight of replacing grass silage with brewers grains in a barley straw diet offered to pregnant beef cows of two different breeds.

    PubMed

    Rooke, J A; Duthie, C-A; Hyslop, J J; Morgan, C A; Waterhouse, T

    2016-08-01

    The effects on cow and calf performance of replacing grass silage with brewers grains in diets based on barley straw and fed to pregnant beef cows are reported. Using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of breed and diet, cows pregnant by artificial insemination (n = 34) of two breeds (cross-bred Limousin, n = 19 and pure-bred Luing, n = 15) were fed diets ad libitum which consisted of either (g/kg dry matter) barley straw (664) and grass silage (325; GS) or barley straw (783) and brewers grains (206, BG) and offered as total mixed rations. From gestation day (GD) 168 until 266, individual daily feed intakes were recorded and cow body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) measured weekly. Calving date, calf sex, birth and weaning BW, and calf age at weaning were also recorded. Between GD 168 and 266, cross-bred Limousin cows gained more weight than Luing cows (p < 0.05) and cows offered BG gained more weight than cows offered GS (p < 0.001). Luing cows lost more BCS than cross-bred Limousin cows (p < 0.05), but diet did not affect BCS. There were no differences in dry matter intake as a result of breed or diet. Calf birth BW, however, was greater for cows fed BG than GS (44 vs. 38 kg, SEM 1.0, p < 0.001) with no difference between breeds. At weaning, calves born to BG-fed cows were heavier than those born to GS-fed cows (330 vs. 286 kg, SEM 9.3, p < 0.01). In conclusion, replacement of grass silage with brewers grains improved the performance of beef cows and increased calf birth and weaning BW. Further analysis indicated that the superior performance of cows offered the BG diet was most likely due to increases in protein supply which may have improved both energy and protein supply to the foetus.

  16. Duplicate polyphenol oxidase genes on barley chromosome 2H and their functional differentiation in the phenol reaction of spikes and grains.

    PubMed

    Taketa, Shin; Matsuki, Kanako; Amano, Satoko; Saisho, Daisuke; Himi, Eiko; Shitsukawa, Naoki; Yuo, Takahisa; Noda, Kazuhiko; Takeda, Kazuyoshi

    2010-09-01

    Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) are copper-containing metalloenzymes encoded in the nucleus and transported into the plastids. Reportedly, PPOs cause time-dependent discoloration (browning) of end-products of wheat and barley, which impairs their appearance quality. For this study, two barley PPO homologues were amplified using PCR with a primer pair designed in the copper binding domains of the wheat PPO genes. The full-lengths of the respective PPO genes were cloned using a BAC library, inverse-PCR, and 3'-RACE. Linkage analysis showed that the polymorphisms in PPO1 and PPO2 co-segregated with the phenol reaction phenotype of awns. Subsequent RT-PCR experiments showed that PPO1 was expressed in hulls and awns, and that PPO2 was expressed in the caryopses. Allelic variation of PPO1 and PPO2 was analysed in 51 barley accessions with the negative phenol reaction of awns. In PPO1, amino acid substitutions of five types affecting functionally important motif(s) or C-terminal region(s) were identified in 40 of the 51 accessions tested. In PPO2, only one mutant allele with a precocious stop codon resulting from an 8 bp insertion in the first exon was found in three of the 51 accessions tested. These observations demonstrate that PPO1 is the major determinant controlling the phenol reaction of awns. Comparisons of PPO1 single mutants and the PPO1PPO2 double mutant indicate that PPO2 controls the phenol reaction in the crease on the ventral side of caryopses. An insertion of a hAT-family transposon in the promoter region of PPO2 may be responsible for different expression patterns of the duplicate PPO genes in barley.

  17. Duplicate polyphenol oxidase genes on barley chromosome 2H and their functional differentiation in the phenol reaction of spikes and grains

    PubMed Central

    Taketa, Shin; Matsuki, Kanako; Amano, Satoko; Saisho, Daisuke; Himi, Eiko; Shitsukawa, Naoki; Yuo, Takahisa; Noda, Kazuhiko; Takeda, Kazuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) are copper-containing metalloenzymes encoded in the nucleus and transported into the plastids. Reportedly, PPOs cause time-dependent discoloration (browning) of end-products of wheat and barley, which impairs their appearance quality. For this study, two barley PPO homologues were amplified using PCR with a primer pair designed in the copper binding domains of the wheat PPO genes. The full-lengths of the respective PPO genes were cloned using a BAC library, inverse-PCR, and 3′-RACE. Linkage analysis showed that the polymorphisms in PPO1 and PPO2 co-segregated with the phenol reaction phenotype of awns. Subsequent RT-PCR experiments showed that PPO1 was expressed in hulls and awns, and that PPO2 was expressed in the caryopses. Allelic variation of PPO1 and PPO2 was analysed in 51 barley accessions with the negative phenol reaction of awns. In PPO1, amino acid substitutions of five types affecting functionally important motif(s) or C-terminal region(s) were identified in 40 of the 51 accessions tested. In PPO2, only one mutant allele with a precocious stop codon resulting from an 8 bp insertion in the first exon was found in three of the 51 accessions tested. These observations demonstrate that PPO1 is the major determinant controlling the phenol reaction of awns. Comparisons of PPO1 single mutants and the PPO1PPO2 double mutant indicate that PPO2 controls the phenol reaction in the crease on the ventral side of caryopses. An insertion of a hAT-family transposon in the promoter region of PPO2 may be responsible for different expression patterns of the duplicate PPO genes in barley. PMID:20616156

  18. Contribution of glycosaminoglycans to the microstructural integrity of fibrillar and fiber crimps in tendons and ligaments.

    PubMed

    Franchi, Marco; De Pasquale, Viviana; Martini, Désirée; Quaranta, Marilisa; Macciocca, Maria; Dionisi, Alessio; Ottani, Vittoria

    2010-10-01

    The biomechanical roles of both tendons and ligaments are fulfilled by the extracellular matrix of these tissues. In particular, tension is mainly transmitted and resisted by protein (collagen, elastin) fibers, whereas compression is opposed by water-soluble glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). GAGs spanning the interfibrillar spaces and interacting with fibrils through the interfibrillar proteoglycans also seem to play a part in transmitting and resisting tensile stresses. Both tendons and ligaments showing similar composition, but different functional roles and collagen array, exhibit periodic undulations of collagen fibers or crimps. Each crimp is composed of many knots of each single fibril or fibrillar crimps. Fibrillar and fiber crimps play a mechanical role in absorbing the initial loading during elongation of both tendons and ligaments, and in recoiling fibrils and fibers when tissues have to return to their original length. This study investigated whether GAGs covalently attached to proteoglycan core proteins directly affect the 3D microstructural integrity of fibrillar crimp regions and fiber crimps in both tendons and ligaments. Achilles tendons and medial collateral ligaments of the knee from eight female Sprague-Dawley rats (90 days old) incubated in a chondroitinase ABC solution to remove GAGs were observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). In addition, isolated fibrils of these tissues obtained by mechanical disruption were analyzed by a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Both Achilles tendons and medial collateral ligaments of the rats after chemical or mechanical removal of GAGs still showed crimps and fibrillar crimps comparable to tissues with a normal GAG content. All fibrils in the fibrillar crimp region always twisted leftwards, thus changing their running plane, and then sharply bent, changing their course on a new plane. These data suggest that GAGs do not affect structural integrity or fibrillar crimp functions that seem mainly related

  19. Transgenic barley: a prospective tool for biotechnology and agriculture.

    PubMed

    Mrízová, Katarína; Holasková, Edita; Öz, M Tufan; Jiskrová, Eva; Frébort, Ivo; Galuszka, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the founder crops of agriculture, and today it is the fourth most important cereal grain worldwide. Barley is used as malt in brewing and distilling industry, as an additive for animal feed, and as a component of various food and bread for human consumption. Progress in stable genetic transformation of barley ensures a potential for improvement of its agronomic performance or use of barley in various biotechnological and industrial applications. Recently, barley grain has been successfully used in molecular farming as a promising bioreactor adapted for production of human therapeutic proteins or animal vaccines. In addition to development of reliable transformation technologies, an extensive amount of various barley genetic resources and tools such as sequence data, microarrays, genetic maps, and databases has been generated. Current status on barley transformation technologies including gene transfer techniques, targets, and progeny stabilization, recent trials for improvement of agricultural traits and performance of barley, especially in relation to increased biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, and potential use of barley grain as a protein production platform have been reviewed in this study. Overall, barley represents a promising tool for both agricultural and biotechnological transgenic approaches, and is considered an ancient but rediscovered crop as a model industrial platform for molecular farming.

  20. Transgenic barley: a prospective tool for biotechnology and agriculture.

    PubMed

    Mrízová, Katarína; Holasková, Edita; Öz, M Tufan; Jiskrová, Eva; Frébort, Ivo; Galuszka, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the founder crops of agriculture, and today it is the fourth most important cereal grain worldwide. Barley is used as malt in brewing and distilling industry, as an additive for animal feed, and as a component of various food and bread for human consumption. Progress in stable genetic transformation of barley ensures a potential for improvement of its agronomic performance or use of barley in various biotechnological and industrial applications. Recently, barley grain has been successfully used in molecular farming as a promising bioreactor adapted for production of human therapeutic proteins or animal vaccines. In addition to development of reliable transformation technologies, an extensive amount of various barley genetic resources and tools such as sequence data, microarrays, genetic maps, and databases has been generated. Current status on barley transformation technologies including gene transfer techniques, targets, and progeny stabilization, recent trials for improvement of agricultural traits and performance of barley, especially in relation to increased biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, and potential use of barley grain as a protein production platform have been reviewed in this study. Overall, barley represents a promising tool for both agricultural and biotechnological transgenic approaches, and is considered an ancient but rediscovered crop as a model industrial platform for molecular farming. PMID:24084493

  1. 7 CFR 810.206 - Grades and grade requirements for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 810.206 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing...

  2. 7 CFR 810.206 - Grades and grade requirements for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 810.206 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing...

  3. 7 CFR 810.206 - Grades and grade requirements for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 810.206 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing...

  4. 7 CFR 810.206 - Grades and grade requirements for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 810.206 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing...

  5. 7 CFR 810.206 - Grades and grade requirements for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Section 810.206 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing...

  6. Generation of Electrospun Nanofibers with Controllable Degrees of Crimping through a Simple, Plasticizer-based Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenying; Lipner, Justin; Moran, Christine H.; Feng, Liangzhu; Li, Xiyu

    2015-01-01

    A method was developed for generating crimped features in uniaxially aligned electrospun nanofibers to mimic the anatomic structure of collagen fibrils in tendon tissues. We demonstrated that nanofibers comprised of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and its copolymers or blends would shrink to generate crimped features along the fiber axis when the sample was treated with ethanol. The degree of crimping could be readily controlled by pre-setting the extent of shrinkage allowed for the fibers. As indicated by results from both Raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry, the crimping was a result of the energy released from the residual stress contained in the electrospun nanofibers. Tensile testing indicates that the crimped nanofibers had a non-linear stiffening behavior with increasing strain, resembling the mechanical behavior of native tendon. In addition, the crimped nanofibers were able to provide better protection to the attached tendon fibroblasts under uniaxial strains when compared to their straight counterparts. Taken together, the crimped nanofibers present a promising new platform for tendon tissue engineering. PMID:25758008

  7. 10. SOUTH BAY SHOWING 300TON R.D. WOOD CO. HYDRAULIC CRIMPING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. SOUTH BAY SHOWING 300-TON R.D. WOOD CO. HYDRAULIC CRIMPING PRESS. VIEW EAST ALSO SHOWING NORTHWEST CORNER OF OFFICE/MACHINE SHOP - Oldman Boiler Works, Fabricating Shop, 32 Illinois Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  8. Bird cherry-oat aphid resistance in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi L., is a serious pest of barley, Hordeum vulgare L., world-wide. It is the most efficient vector of barley yellow dwarf virus, the most important viral disease of small grains in the world. Not all bird cherry-oat aphids acquire the virus while feeding on ...

  9. A description of the reformatted spring small grains labeling procedure used in test 2, part 2 of the US/Canada wheat and barley exploratory experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, W. F.; Magness, E. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The reformatted spring small grains labeling procedure is designed to be used for assigning crop identification labels to a predetermined and selected number of dots. The development and description of this procedure is presented.

  10. The non-touching method of the malting barley quality evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raba, B.; Nowakowski, K.; Lewicki, A.; Przybył, K.; Zaborowicz, M.; Koszela, K.; Boniecki, P.; Mueller, W.

    2014-04-01

    The first important stage of the malt production processes is the malting barley quality evaluation. Presented project was focused on the visual features of malting barley grains. The principal aim was to elaborate complete methodology to determine the level of grains contamination. The article describes the mechanisms of choosing parameters which can distinguish useful for the malt production grains from defects and impurities. Original computer system 'Hordeum v 3.1' helped obtain graphical data from images of contaminated barley samples. Research carried out in this area can improve the quality evaluation process of malting barley.

  11. [Influence of granulated bacterial preparation complex action on the growth and yield of barley].

    PubMed

    Skorokhod, I O; Tserkovniak, L S; Kurdysh, I K; Plotnikov, V V; Gyl'chuk, V G; Korniĭchuk, O V

    2012-01-01

    The influence of granulated bacterial preparation of complex action on the growth and yield of barley (H. distichum L.) has been studied. The treatment of barley seeds by this preparation has been established to have a very significant effect on the mass of 1000 grains, grain natural weight and to increase the yield of plants, but to different degree. Consequently, the interaction of certain barley varieties with bacteria-components of the preparation is rather specific. It has been displayed that the treatment of grains of different barley varieties by the bacterial preparation takes a very significant influence on the function of microbial associations in the rhizosphere.

  12. Crimped tool marks measurement using structured laser analysis: II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarr, Dennis P.; Mullen, Joey H.

    1997-12-01

    Heating and cooling air for an aircraft interior is transported using metal ducts. These ducts vary in size from a few centimeters to 20 centimeters in diameter. In the assembly of aircraft components, a coupling is swaged onto the ducts. In assuring the mechanical dies are operating properly, the crimp mark is checked. The current method of visual inspection and checking with calipers does not allow implementation of statistical process control methods. In an effort to improve this process check, a new measurement method is being developed. A feasibility study indicated that a structured light laser system would be a good approach. A few requirements were: it must be portable to be used at different locations within the fabrication area, it must be fast, it should be easy to use by the mechanic/inspector, the readings must be accurate, and the system is non destructive. Due to the mechanical configuration of the tube and coupling, a camera with magnification optics is used. The measurement of the bump has a maximum of 50.8 microns (0.0020 inch). The system uses computer vision, and custom software written in C++. A low cost frame grabber is used. This paper shows the final production prototype system and its configuration for factory testing. This paper discusses the design and testing of the system.

  13. Psychrotolerant Paenibacillus tundrae isolates from barley grains produce new cereulide-like depsipeptides (paenilide and homopaenilide) that are highly toxic to mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Rasimus, Stiina; Mikkola, Raimo; Andersson, Maria A; Teplova, Vera V; Venediktova, Natalia; Ek-Kommonen, Christine; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja

    2012-05-01

    Paenilide is a novel, heat-stable peptide toxin from Paenibacillus tundrae, which colonizes barley. P. tundrae produced 20 to 50 ng of the toxin mg(-1) of cells (wet weight) throughout a range of growth temperatures from +5°C to +28°C. Paenilide consisted of two substances of 1,152 Da and 1,166 Da, with masses and tandem mass spectra identical to those of cereulide and a cereulide homolog, respectively, produced by Bacillus cereus NS-58. The two components of paenilide were separated from those of cereulide by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), showing a structural difference suggesting the replacement of O-Leu (cereulide) by O-Ile (paenilide). The exposure of porcine spermatozoa and kidney tubular epithelial (PK-15) cells to subnanomolar concentrations of paenilide resulted in inhibited motility, the depolarization of mitochondria, excessive glucose consumption, and metabolic acidosis. Paenilide was similar to cereulide in eight different toxicity endpoints with porcine and murine cells. In isolated rat liver mitochondria, nanomolar concentrations of paenilide collapsed respiratory control, zeroed the mitochondrial membrane potential, and induced swelling. The toxic effect of paenilide depended on its high lipophilicity and activity as a high-affinity potassium ion carrier. Similar to cereulide, paenilide formed lipocations, i.e., lipophilic cationic compounds, with K(+) ions already at 4 mM [K(+)], rendering lipid membranes electroconductive. Paenilide-producing P. tundrae was negative in a PCR assay with primers specific for the cesB gene, indicating that paenilide was not a product of plasmid pCER270, encoding the biosynthesis of cereulide in B. cereus. Paenilide represents the first potassium ionophoric compound described for Paenibacillus. The findings in this paper indicate that paenilide from P. tundrae is a potential food-poisoning agent. PMID:22407690

  14. Molecular characterization of two lipoxygenases from barley.

    PubMed

    van Mechelen, J R; Schuurink, R C; Smits, M; Graner, A; Douma, A C; Sedee, N J; Schmitt, N F; Valk, B E

    1999-04-01

    Two full-length lipoxygenase cDNA sequences (LoxB and LoxC) from barley (Hordeum distichum cv. L. Triumph) are described. The cDNAs share high homology with the barley LoxA cDNA. Southern blotting experiments indicate single copy numbers of the three lipoxygenase genes. RFLP mapping revealed the presence of single lipoxygenase loci. LoxA and LoxB map on chromosome 4 and LoxC on chromosome 7. Two isoenzymes, LOX1 and LOX2, have been purified previously from germinating barley and characterized. LOX1 is encoded by LoxA, while LOX2 is encoded by LoxC. The product related to the third cDNA (loxB) has not been identified so far, suggesting a low protein abundance for the corresponding isoform in barley. Transcripts corresponding with these LOX genes are predominantly observed in grain and in seedling, whereas transcripts corresponding to LoxB and LoxC are also observed in mature vegetative tissue. No lipoxygenase mRNA could be detected in aleurone layer of germinating grain. No significant differences in lipoxygenase mRNA levels were observed in developing grains grown under dormant or non-dormant conditions, suggesting that LOX is not directly involved in induction of grain dormancy.

  15. Process for Nondestructive Evaluation of the Quality of a Crimped Wire Connector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cramer, Karl E. (Inventor); Perey, Daniel F. (Inventor); Williams, Keith A. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A process and apparatus for collecting data for nondestructive evaluation of the quality of a crimped wire connector are provided. The process involves providing a crimping tool having an anvil and opposing jaw for crimping a terminal onto a stranded wire, moving the jaw relative to the anvil to close the distance between the jaw and the anvil and thereby compress the terminal against the wire, while transmitting ultrasonic waves that are propagated through the terminal-wire combination and received at a receiving ultrasonic transducer as the jaw is moved relative to the anvil, and detecting and recording the position of the jaw relative to the anvil as a function of time and detecting and recording the amplitude of the ultrasonic wave that is received at the receiving ultrasonic transducer as a function of time as the jaw is moved relative to the anvil.

  16. Using barley genomics to develop Fusarium head blight resistant wheat and barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight, caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a major problem for wheat and barley growers. During infection, F. graminearum produces trichothecene mycotoxins (e.g., deoxynivalenol or DON) that increases fungal virulence and reduces grain quality and yield. Previous work in Arabidopsis sh...

  17. Benefits of crimped and prestressed CFRP's over noncrimped fibres as reinforcement in machine elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanellopoulos, Ioannis; Vasileiou, Ioannis; Kitsos, Ioannis

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, a representative volume element consisted of a single wavy carbon fibre engulfed in a thermoplastic rectangular matrix is studied in order to examine the effect ofnon-crimped carbon fibre, and specifically its waviness, at the mechanical behavior. In order to quantify these influences and their nonlinear elastic behavior, a plane strain analysis of this model was simulated with finite elements.

  18. Crimped Cover Crop Legume Residue Effects on Sweet Corn (Zea mays L.) Yield in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crimped legume residue can control weeds and supply N for sweet corn production if biomass is sufficient. Three sweet corn (Zea mays L.) open pollinated variety “Suresweet 2011” plantings (April, 2013; July 2013; February 2014) were conducted on an Oxisol (very fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic and...

  19. Evaluating Changes in Tendon Crimp with Fatigue Loading as an ex vivo Structural Assessment of Tendon Damage

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Benjamin R.; Zuskov, Andrey; Sarver, Joseph J.; Buckley, Mark R.; Soslowsky, Louis J.

    2015-01-01

    The complex structure of tendons relates to their mechanical properties. Previous research has associated the waviness of collagen fibers (crimp) during quasi-static tensile loading to tensile mechanics, but less is known about the role of fatigue loading on crimp properties. In this study (IACUC approved), mouse patellar tendons were fatigue loaded while an integrated plane polariscope simultaneously assessed crimp properties. We demonstrate a novel structural mechanism whereby tendon crimp amplitude and frequency are altered with fatigue loading. In particular, fatigue loading increased the crimp amplitude across the tendon width and length, and these structural alterations were shown to be both region and load dependent. The change in crimp amplitude was strongly correlated to mechanical tissue laxity (defined as the ratio of displacement and gauge length relative to the first cycle of fatigue loading assessed at constant load throughout testing), at all loads and regions evaluated. Together, this study highlights the role of fatigue loading on tendon crimp properties as a function of load applied and region evaluated, and offers an additional structural mechanism for mechanical alterations that may lead to ultimate tendon failure. PMID:25773654

  20. Electrospun poly(L-lactide-co-acryloyl carbonate) fiber scaffolds with a mechanically stable crimp structure for ligament tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei; Hayami, James W S; Amsden, Brian G

    2014-05-12

    The aim of this study was to prepare a fibrous scaffold that possesses a crimped morphology using a photo-cross-linkable biodegradable copolymer. To obtain the crimped morphology, the polymer was first electrospun onto a rotating wire mandrel to obtain aligned straight fibers. Postprocessing by immersion in aqueous buffer at 37 °C generated a crimplike pattern in the fibers. It was reasoned that cross-linking the fibers following formation of the crimped structure would endow the scaffolds with a recoverable crimp pattern and mechanical properties similar to that of the collagen fibers in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). To achieve this aim, a trimethylene carbonate based monomer bearing an acrylate pendant group was synthesized and copolymerized with l-lactide. The copolymer was electrospun and photo-cross-linked yielding fibrous scaffolds possessing a substantial increase in tensile modulus and crimp stability compared to the uncross-linked fibrous scaffolds. The crimp-stabilized scaffolds also showed good cytocompatibility toward 3T3 fibroblasts, which attached and grew along the crimped fibers. These findings suggest that these cross-linked fiber scaffolds may be useful for the generation of cultured ligament tissue. PMID:24697661

  1. A crimp-like microarchitecture improves tissue production in fibrous ligament scaffolds in response to mechanical stimuli.

    PubMed

    Surrao, Denver C; Fan, Jackie C Y; Waldman, Stephen D; Amsden, Brian G

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of a crimp-like microarchitecture within electrospun polymer scaffolds on fibroblast extracellular matrix (ECM) production when cultured under dynamic conditions. Electrospun poly(L-lactide-co-D,L-lactide) scaffolds possessing a wave pattern similar to collagen crimp (amplitude: 5 μm and wavelength: 46 μm) were seeded with bovine fibroblasts and mechanically stimulated under dynamic uniaxial tension. The effect of strain amplitude (5%, 10% and 20%) was investigated in a short-term stimulation study. The 10% strain amplitude in the stimulated crimp-like fibre scaffold increased only collagen synthesis, while the 20% strain amplitude increased both collagen and sulphated proteoglycan synthesis compared to stimulated uncrimped (straight) fibre scaffolds and unloaded controls (crimp-like static fibre scaffolds). Alternatively, mechanical stimulation of fibroblasts seeded on uncrimped fibre scaffolds induced significant fibroblast proliferation compared to the stimulated crimp-like fibre scaffolds and no-load controls. Long-term, dynamic mechanical stimulation of fibroblasts seeded on crimp-like fibre scaffolds at 10% strain amplitude resulted in significantly up-regulated collagen accumulation and down-regulated sulphated proteoglycan accumulation. Additionally, the fibroblasts seeded on dynamically stimulated crimp-like fibre scaffolds appeared to form bundles that resembled fascicles, a characteristic hierarchical feature of the native ligament. Our findings demonstrate that fibroblasts seeded on crimp-like fibrous scaffolds respond more favourably (increased ECM synthesis and fascicle formation) to dynamic mechanical loading compared to those grown on scaffolds containing uncrimped (straight) fibres. PMID:22705636

  2. Dryland malt barley yield and quality affected by tillage, cropping sequence, and nitrogen fertilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information is needed on the effects of management practices on dryland malt barley (Hordeum vulgaris L.) and pea (Pisum sativum L.) yields and quality. We evaluated the effects of tillage and cropping sequence combination and N fertilization on dryland malt barley and pea yields, grain characterist...

  3. Barley and Oat beta-Glucan content measured by Calcofluor fluorescence in a microplate assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beta-glucans, linear glucan polymers of mixed linkage, are important constituents of cereal cell walls. They have important health benefits in the human diet, but also can negatively affect the use of barley grain as an animal feed. High beta-glucans in barley malt can also cause problems in brewi...

  4. Glycaemic response to barley porridge varying in dietary fibre content.

    PubMed

    Thondre, Pariyarath S; Wang, Ke; Rosenthal, Andrew J; Henry, Christiani J K

    2012-03-01

    The interest in barley as a food is increasing worldwide because of its high dietary fibre (DF) content and low glycaemic index (GI). DF in cereals may prove beneficial in improving blood glucose response in the long term. However, a dose-dependent effect of insoluble fibre on reducing postprandial blood glucose levels is yet to be proven. The objective of the present study was to determine the glycaemic response to two barley porridges prepared from whole barley grains varying in fibre content. In two separate non-blind randomised crossover trials, ten human subjects consumed barley porridge with 16 g/100 g and 10 g/100 g fibre content provided in different serving sizes (equivalent to 25 and 50 g available carbohydrate). The glycaemic response to both barley porridges was significantly lower than the reference glucose (P < 0·05). There was no significant difference between the glucose areas under the curve or GI for the two barley porridges. We concluded that irrespective of the difference in total fibre content or serving size of barley porridges, their GI values did not differ significantly.

  5. Quantifying relationships between rooting traits and water uptake under drought in Mediterranean barley and durum wheat.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Pedro; Azam-Ali, Sayed; Foulkes, M John

    2014-05-01

    In Mediterranean regions drought is the major factor limiting spring barley and durum wheat grain yields. This study aimed to compare spring barley and durum wheat root and shoot responses to drought and quantify relationships between root traits and water uptake under terminal drought. One spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Rum) and two durum wheat Mediterranean cultivars (Triticum turgidum L. var durum cvs Hourani and Karim) were examined in soil-column experiments under well watered and drought conditions. Root system architecture traits, water uptake, and plant growth were measured. Barley aerial biomass and grain yields were higher than for durum wheat cultivars in well watered conditions. Drought decreased grain yield more for barley (47%) than durum wheat (30%, Hourani). Root-to-shoot dry matter ratio increased for durum wheat under drought but not for barley, and root weight increased for wheat in response to drought but decreased for barley. The critical root length density (RLD) and root volume density (RVD) for 90% available water capture for wheat were similar to (cv. Hourani) or lower than (cv. Karim) for barley depending on wheat cultivar. For both species, RVD accounted for a slightly higher proportion of phenotypic variation in water uptake under drought than RLD.

  6. Evaluation of the US/Canada wheat and barley exploratory experiment shakedown test analyst labeling results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnes, J. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Labeling accuracies using the reformatted labeling procedure are evaluated. The procedure is described and the decision logic applied to six LANDSAT segments from the 1978 crop year. Small grains and nonsmall grains are labeled, and small grains differentiated from barley. An error analysis was performed. Recommended changes to the reformatted procedure are presented.

  7. Barley peroxidase isozymes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laugesen, Sabrina; Bak-Jensen, Kristian Sass; Hägglund, Per; Henriksen, Anette; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte; Roepstorff, Peter

    2007-12-01

    Thirteen peroxidase spots on two-dimensional gels were identified by comprehensive proteome analysis of the barley seed. Mass spectrometry tracked multiple forms of three different peroxidase isozymes: barley seed peroxidase 1, barley seed-specific peroxidase BP1 and a not previously identified putative barley peroxidase. The presence of multiple spots for each of the isozymes reflected variations in post-translational glycosylation and protein truncation. Complete sequence coverage was achieved by using a series of proteases and chromatographic resins for sample preparation prior to mass spectrometric analysis. Distinct peroxidase spot patterns divided the 16 cultivars tested into two groups. The distribution of the three isozymes in different seed tissues (endosperm, embryo, and aleurone layer) suggested the peroxidases to play individual albeit partially overlapping roles during germination. In summary, a subset of three peroxidase isozymes was found to occur in the seed, whereas products of four other barley peroxidase genes were not detected. The present analysis documents the selective expression profiles and post-translational modifications of isozymes from a large plant gene family.

  8. The Barley Phytomer

    PubMed Central

    Forster, Brian P.; Franckowiak, Jerome D.; Lundqvist, Udda; Lyon, Jackie; Pitkethly, Ian; Thomas, William T. B.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Morphological mutants have been useful in elucidating the phytomeric structure of plants. Recently described mutants have shed new light on the ontogeny (development of plant structures) and the phytomeric system of barley (Hordeum vulgare). Since the current model for barley phytomers was not adequate to explain the nature of some mutants, a new model is proposed. Methods New phytomer mutants were detected by visual assessment of mutant families in the Optic barley mutation grid population. This was done at various growth stages using laboratory, glasshouse and field screens. Simple explanations were adopted to account for aberrant phytomer phenotypes and a thesis for a new phytomer model was developed. Key Results and Conclusions A barley phytomer model is presented, in which the origins of vegetative and generative structures can be explained by a single repeating phytomer unit. Organs on the barley plant are divided into two classes, single or paired, depending on their origin. Paired structures are often fused together to create specific organs. The model can be applied to wheat (Triticum aestivum) and related grasses. PMID:17901062

  9. Molecular cloning and characterization of an inorganic pyrophosphatase from barley.

    PubMed

    Visser, K; Heimovaara-Dijkstra, S; Kijne, J W; Wang, M

    1998-05-01

    A cDNA clone with sequence homology to soluble inorganic pyrophosphatase (IPPase) was isolated from a library of developing barley grains. The protein encoded by this clone was produced in transgenic Escherichia coli, and showed IPPase activity. In nondormant barley grains, the gene appeared to be expressed in metabolically active tissue such as root, shoot, embryo and aleurone. During inhibition, a continuous increase of the steady state mRNA level of IPPase was observed in embryos of non-dormant grains. In the embryos of dormant grains its production declined, after an initial increase. With isolated dormant and nondormant embryos, addition of recombinant IPPase, produced by E. coli, enhanced the germination rate. On the other hand, addition of pyrophosphate (PPi), substrate for this enzyme, appeared to reduce the germination rate. A role for this IPPase in germination is discussed.

  10. Inferring geographic origin of barley accessions using molecular markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) National Small Grains Collection (NSGC) has 207 landrace barleys obtained from a nursery grown in the Ukraine in 1930 by N.I. Vavilov, many of which have multiple resistance (MR) to disease similar to accessions from Ethiopia. Vavilov collected germplasm ...

  11. 2012 North Dakota Transgenic Barley FHB Nursery Report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2012 North Dakota transgenic field trials consisted of 23 barley lines, tested in three misted and three non-misted replicates. Plots were sown on May 9, 2012 in hill plots with 10 seed per hill spaced at 30 cm, and all plots were inoculated using the grain spawn method at heading. Lines include...

  12. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) transformation using immature embryos.

    PubMed

    Marthe, Cornelia; Kumlehn, Jochen; Hensel, Goetz

    2015-01-01

    Barley is a major crop species, and also has become a genetic model for the small grain temperate cereals. A draft barley genome sequence has recently been completed, opening many opportunities for candidate gene isolation and functionality testing. Thanks to the development of customizable endonucleases, also site-directed genome modification recently became feasible for higher plants, which marks the beginning of a new era of genetic engineering. The development of improved binary vectors and hypervirulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains has raised the efficiency of genetic transformation in barley to a level where the technique has become relatively routine. The transformation method described here involves immature barley embryos cocultivated with Agrobacterium after removal of their embryo axis. Critical adjustments to the protocol have included the supplementation of the cocultivation medium with the polyphenolic signaling compound acetosyringone at comparatively high concentration and the use of cysteine to reduce the extent of cellular oxidation upon agroinfection. In addition, the use of liquid, rather than solid, cocultivation medium promotes the throughput of the method. The protocol has delivered well over 10,000 transgenic barley plants over the past 10 years. Routine transformation efficiency, calculated on the basis of the recovery of independent transgenics per 100 explants, has reached about 25 % in cultivar (cv.) "Golden Promise". The protocol has proven effective for more than 20 barley cultivars, although some adjustments to the culture conditions have had to be made in some cases. The transformation efficiency of cv. "Golden Promise" remains higher than that of any other cultivar tested.

  13. The effects of GA and ABA treatments on metabolite profile of germinating barley.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuqing; Cai, Shengguan; Ye, Lingzhen; Hu, Hongliang; Li, Chengdao; Zhang, Guoping

    2016-02-01

    Sugar degradation during grain germination is important for malt quality. In malting industry, gibberellin (GA) is frequently used for improvement of malting quality. In this study, the changes of metabolite profiles and starch-degrading enzymes during grain germination, and as affected by GA and abscisic acid (ABA) were investigated using two wild barley accessions XZ72 and XZ95. Totally fifty-two metabolites with known structures were detected and the change of metabolite during germination was time- and genotype dependent. Sugars and amino acids were the most dramatically changed compounds. Addition of GA enhanced the activities of starch-degrading enzymes, and increased most metabolites, especially sugars and amino acids, whereas ABA had the opposite effect. The effect varied with the barley accessions. The current study is the first attempt in investigating the effect of hormones on metabolite profiles in germinating barley grain, being helpful for identifying the factors affecting barley germination or malt quality. PMID:26304431

  14. Digital Method of Analyzing the Bending Stiffness of Non-Crimp Fabrics

    SciTech Connect

    Soteropoulos, Dimitri; Fetfatsidis, Konstantine; Sherwood, James A.; Langworthy, Joanna

    2011-05-04

    A digital-analytical method for characterizing the bending behavior of NCFs (Non-Crimp Fabrics) is developed. The study is based on a hanging fabric loaded to a known displacement. The image of the deformed fabric is captured digitally, and then analyzed to describe the deformed shape of the beam using x-y coordinates. The bending stiffness of the fabric is then determined through an iterative method using a finite element method (ABAQUS). This effective bending stiffness is of importance in the formation of wave defects in NCFs during manufacturing processes such as thermoforming, vacuum assisted resin transfer molding, and compression molding.

  15. The transfer of {sup 137}Cs from barley to beer

    SciTech Connect

    Proehl, G.; Mueller, H.; Voigt, G.

    1997-01-01

    Beer has been brewed from barley contaminated with {sup 137}Cs as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident. The {sup 137}Cs activity has been measured in all intermediate steps and in the by-products of the production process. About 35 % of the {sup 137}Cs in barley were recovered in beer. Processing factors defined as the concentration ratio of processed and raw products were determined to be 0.61, 3.3, 0.1 and 0.11 for malt, malt germs, spent grains and beer, respectively. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  16. 3D finite element simulation of non-crimp fabric composites ultrasonic testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Saffari, N.; Fromme, P.

    2012-05-01

    Composite materials offer many advantages for aerospace applications, e.g., good strength to weight ratio. Different types of composites, such as non-crimp fabrics (NCF), are currently being investigated as they offer reduced manufacturing costs and improved damage tolerance as compared to traditional pre-impregnated composite materials. NCF composites are made from stitched fiber bundles (tows), which typically have a width and thickness of less than a millimeter. This results in strongly inhomogeneous and anisotropic material properties. Different types of manufacturing imperfections, such as porosity, resin pockets, tow crimp and misalignment can lead to reduced material strength and thus to defects following excessive loads or impact, e.g., fracture and delaminations. The ultrasonic non-destructive testing of NCF composites is difficult, as the tow size is comparable to the wavelength, leading to multiple scattering in this inherently three-dimensional structure. For typical material properties and geometry of an NCF composite, a full three-dimensional Finite Element (FE) model has been developed in ABAQUS. The propagation of longitudinal ultrasonic waves has been simulated and the effect of multiple scattering at the fiber tows investigated. The influence of porosity in the epoxy matrix as a typical manufacturing defect on the ultrasonic wave propagation and attenuation has been studied.

  17. Repackaging of Two Bulged Crimp Sealed Cans Containing Plutonium Bearing Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, R.W.

    2003-04-29

    Two cans containing plutonium bearing materials were found during radiography surveillance activities to be bulged. The cans had been stored in DOT 6M shipping containers at the Savannah River Site. The material in the first can (Item CZA96-179) was packaged can/bag/can configuration with the inner and outer cans being crimp sealed. The crimp sealed innermost can was clearly deformed from the radiography picture taken for surveillance purposes. This material had been stored in the shipping container since the mid 1970s. The second can (Item 50014440) contained plutonium bearing material of a different origin. The material had been repackaged at the Savannah River Site in the mid 1990's, and the repackaged can was stored in a 6M shipping drum. A special puncturing tool, which secured the can and allowed for a very controlled puncture of both outer and inner cans was used in a glovebox. The glovebox has a dry air system and an argon supply. The puncturing tool utilized a non-sparking punch and an argon purge. The cans were repackaged into filtered outer cans. A description of the puncturing tool, repackaging activities, and of the materials will be provided.

  18. Spring Small Grains Area Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, W. F.; Mohler, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    SSG3 automatically estimates acreage of spring small grains from Landsat data. Report describes development and testing of a computerized technique for using Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data to estimate acreage of spring small grains (wheat, barley, and oats). Application of technique to analysis of four years of data from United States and Canada yielded estimates of accuracy comparable to those obtained through procedures that rely on trained analysis.

  19. Analysis of grain quality at receival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With an emphasis on wheat and to a lesser extent, barley, we describe the series of post harvest transfer stages of grain between the first point of sale and the export terminal. At each transfer point, a document accompanies a grain consignment that pertains to its quality (class, purity, sanitatio...

  20. Characterisation and functional analysis of two barley caleosins expressed during barley caryopsis development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Hedley, Peter; Cardle, Linda; Wright, Kathryn M; Hein, Ingo; Marshall, David; Waugh, Robbie

    2005-06-01

    Two full-length cDNA sequences homologous to caleosin, a seed-storage oil-body protein from sesame, were identified from a series of barley grain development cDNA libraries and further characterised. The cDNAs, subsequently termed HvClo1 and HvClo2, encode proteins of 34 kDa and 28 kDa, respectively. Real-time RT-PCR indicated that HvClo1 is expressed abundantly during the later stages of embryogenesis and is seed-specific, accumulating in the scutellum of mature embryos. HvClo2 is expressed mainly in the endosperm tissues of the developing grain. We show that HvClo1 and HvClo2 are paralogs that co-segregate on barley chromosome 2HL. Transient expression of HvClo1 in lipid storage and non-storage cells of barley using biolistic particle bombardment indicates that caleosins have different subcellular locations from the structural oil-body protein oleosin, and by inference participate in different sorting pathways. We observe that caleosin sorts via small vesicles, suggesting a likely association with lipid trafficking, membrane expansion and oil-body biogenesis. PMID:15702354

  1. Effects of terminating cover crops with rolling/crimping and herbicides in a cotton no-till system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In fall of 2008, a field experiment was initiated in central Alabama to study the effects of rolling/crimping and different herbicides with different application rates on cover crops termination rates, cotton population and yield. Results from 2009 and 2010 growing seasons are presented. A roller/cr...

  2. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) transformation using embryogenic pollen cultures.

    PubMed

    Otto, Ingrid; Müller, Andrea; Kumlehn, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    The temperate cereal barley is grown as a source of food, feed, and malt. The development of a broad range of genetic resources and associated technologies in this species has helped to establish barley as the prime model for the other Triticeae cereals. The specific advantage of the transformation method presented here is that transgene homozygosity is attained in the same generation as the transgenic event occurred through the coupling of haploid technology with Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Pollen is haploid and, following transformation, can be induced to regenerate into haploid plantlets, which can subsequently subjected to colchicine treatment to obtain diploid, genetically fixed plants. The routine application of the method based on the winter-type barley cultivar 'Igri' over a period of over 10 years has achieved an average yield of about two transgenic plants per donor spike. The whole procedure from pollen isolation to non-segregating transgenic, mature grain takes less than 12 months.

  3. Composition and Functional Lipid Profiles of Low-Phyate Barleys and Related Cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley, one of the earliest cultivated cereal grains in the world, is gaining renewed interest for use in food, feed and as a bioethanol feedstock. Like other grains, its high phytate content is undesirable since phytate affects mineral bioavailability and contributes to P pollution to environment....

  4. An Investigation of Thermal Characteristic of Mechanical Crimp Textured Polyester Yarn by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Someshwar S.; Shaikh, Tasnim N.; Pratap, Arun

    2010-06-01

    Deficiencies related to the lack of bulk in flat continuous filament yarns make them unsuitable for apparel, home textiles as well as other applications such as car seat covering. Hence, texturising is employed to impart lofty and bulky characteristics to them. The two major texturising techniques employed for polyester yarn are false-twist and air-jet texturising. Out of these earlier technique depends on the thermoplasticity of the yarn being textured whereas the later one demands subsequent amount of compressed air to carry out cold fluid texturising. A new concept of mechanical crimp texturising has been designed to overcome these limitations of commercially successful techniques. In this new technique, pre-twisted FDY (Fully Drawn Yarn) flat multifilament yarn has been subjected to the higher false-twisting (depending on yarn fineness) action under the condition of underfeed (depending on ductility of parent yarn). The torque caused due to high level of false-twisting, forces the filaments to follow helical path at a certain angle (depends on magnitude of twist and denier per filament) to the filament yarn longitudinal axis. Internal stresses arising in single filaments tend to bend the filament and take the shape of spatial helical spring. After the yarn has passed through the false twisting unit, the initial twist would reassert itself and lock the already formed crimpy convolutions in position. Mechanical crimp textured polyester yarns with different pre-twist and false-twist levels have been subjected to thermal stress analysis using differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) in heat-cool-heat mode. The samples were heated at a rate of 10°C/minute. Almost all samples appear to be crystalline in nature. However, the melting endotherm does not show sharp peak. Instead, the diffuse nature of the peak is a signature of a partial crystalline nature (48%) of the samples. After melting the specimens, cooling of the same leads to crystallization of the material

  5. The wheat Lr34 gene provides resistance against multiple fungal pathogens in barley.

    PubMed

    Risk, Joanna M; Selter, Liselotte L; Chauhan, Harsh; Krattinger, Simon G; Kumlehn, Jochen; Hensel, Goetz; Viccars, Libby A; Richardson, Terese M; Buesing, Gabriele; Troller, Anna; Lagudah, Evans S; Keller, Beat

    2013-09-01

    The Lr34 gene encodes an ABC transporter and has provided wheat with durable, broad-spectrum resistance against multiple fungal pathogens for over 100 years. Because barley does not have an Lr34 ortholog, we expressed Lr34 in barley to investigate its potential as a broad-spectrum resistance resource in another grass species. We found that introduction of the genomic Lr34 sequence confers resistance against barley leaf rust and barley powdery mildew, two pathogens specific for barley but not virulent on wheat. In addition, the barley lines showed enhanced resistance against wheat stem rust. Transformation with the Lr34 cDNA or the genomic susceptible Lr34 allele did not result in increased resistance. Unlike wheat, where Lr34-conferred resistance is associated with adult plants, the genomic Lr34 transgenic barley lines exhibited multipathogen resistance in seedlings. These transgenic barley lines also developed leaf tip necrosis (LTN) in young seedlings, which correlated with an up-regulation of senescence marker genes and several pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. In wheat, transcriptional expression of Lr34 is highest in adult plants and correlates with increased resistance and LTN affecting the last emerging leaf. The severe phenotype of transgenic Lr34 barley resulted in reduced plant growth and total grain weight. These results demonstrate that Lr34 provides enhanced multipathogen resistance early in barley plant development and implies the conservation of the substrate and mechanism of the LR34 transporter and its molecular action between wheat and barley. With controlled gene expression, the use of Lr34 may be valuable for many cereal breeding programmes, particularly given its proven durability.

  6. Damage Simulation in Non-Crimp Fabric Composite Plates Subjected to Impact Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satyanarayana, Arunkumar; Bogert, Philip B.; Aitharaju, Venkat; Aashat, Satvir; Kia, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Progressive failure analysis (PFA) of non-crimp fabric (NCF) composite laminates subjected to low velocity impact loads was performed using the COmplete STress Reduction (COSTR) damage model implemented through VUMAT and UMAT41 user subroutines in the frame works of the commercial finite element programs ABAQUS/Explicit and LS-DYNA, respectively. To validate the model, low velocity experiments were conducted and detailed correlations between the predictions and measurements for both intra-laminar and inter-laminar failures were made. The developed material and damage model predicts the peak impact load and duration very close with the experimental results. Also, the simulation results of delamination damage between the ply interfaces, in-plane matrix damages and fiber damages were all in good agreement with the measurements from the non-destructive evaluation data.

  7. Separability study of wheat and small grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lennington, R. K.; Marquina, N. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Barley showed significant separability from spring wheat, both multitemporally and on a single date chosen near the turning time for barley. Oats showed occasional multitemporal separability from barley and spring wheat; however, the cause of this separability was not well understood. Oats showed no significant separability from spring wheat on any single date during the growing season. By pooling data from segments having an acquisition near the turning time for barley, a fixed unitemporal projection for aiding in the labeling of barley versus spring wheat and oats was constructed. This projection has about the same separability of barley from spring wheat and oats as the unitemporal greeness versus brightness plot. The new fixed projection has the advantage that barley occurs consistently in the same general location on the plot with respect to spring wheat and oats. Attempts to construct a fixed multitemporal or a segment-dependent multitemporal projection for aiding in the labeling of spring wheat versus other small grains were unsuccessful due to segment availability and the fact that each segment has a unique acquisition history.

  8. Ethnobotany, diverse food uses, claimed health benefits and implications on conservation of barley landraces in North Eastern Ethiopia highlands

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Barley is the number one food crop in the highland parts of North Eastern Ethiopia produced by subsistence farmers grown as landraces. Information on the ethnobotany, food utilization and maintenance of barley landraces is valuable to design and plan germplasm conservation strategies as well as to improve food utilization of barley. Methods A study, involving field visits and household interviews, was conducted in three administrative zones. Eleven districts from the three zones, five kebeles in each district and five households from each kebele were visited to gather information on the ethnobotany, the utilization of barley and how barley end-uses influence the maintenance of landrace diversity. Results According to farmers, barley is the "king of crops" and it is put for diverse uses with more than 20 types of barley dishes and beverages reportedly prepared in the study area. The products are prepared from either boiled/roasted whole grain, raw- and roasted-milled grain, or cracked grain as main, side, ceremonial, and recuperating dishes. The various barley traditional foods have perceived qualities and health benefits by the farmers. Fifteen diverse barley landraces were reported by farmers, and the ethnobotany of the landraces reflects key quantitative and qualitative traits. Some landraces that are preferred for their culinary qualities are being marginalized due to moisture shortage and soil degradation. Conclusions Farmers' preference of different landraces for various end-use qualities is one of the important factors that affect the decision process of landraces maintenance, which in turn affect genetic diversity. Further studies on improving maintenance of landraces, developing suitable varieties and improving the food utilization of barley including processing techniques could contribute to food security of the area. PMID:21711566

  9. Identification and characterization of a partially functional mutation of the cellulose-synthase-like (CslF6) gene in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chemical induced barley mutant m351 was first selected for its low level of mixed-linkage (1,3), (1,4) beta-D-glucan (MLG) in an effort to find barley lines with varied grain MLG contents. The MLG decrease in m351 was associated with thinned endosperm cell walls and increased levels of fructans ...

  10. Genome-wide association mapping of cadmium accumulation in different organs of barley.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dezhi; Sato, Kazuhiro; Ma, Jian Feng

    2015-11-01

    The threshold value of cadmium (Cd) concentration in grains of barley (Hordeum vulgare) is the lowest among cereal crops; however, it is poorly understood how Cd accumulation in barley grain is genetically controlled. We investigated genotypic variation in Cd accumulation of different organs in 100 accessions from a subset of the barley core collection using both hydroponic and Cd-contaminated soil culture. We also performed a genome-wide association (GWA) mapping for Cd accumulation in different organs. A large genotypic variation in the Cd concentration was found in all organs. There was a good correlation between shoot Cd of solution and soil culture, the shoot Cd and grain Cd, but no correlation between the root Cd and grain Cd. GWA mapping detected 9 quantitative trait loci (QTL) for root Cd, 21 for shoot Cd, 14 for root-to-shoot translocation and 15 for grain Cd. A common QTL for the shoot Cd and root-to-shoot translocation was found at 132.6 cM on chromosome 5H. Two major QTL for grain Cd were identified on chromosome 2H and chromosome 5H. The genetic variation in Cd accumulation and major QTL detected provide useful information helpful for cloning candidate genes for Cd accumulation and breeding low-Cd barley cultivars in future.

  11. Genome-wide association mapping of cadmium accumulation in different organs of barley.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dezhi; Sato, Kazuhiro; Ma, Jian Feng

    2015-11-01

    The threshold value of cadmium (Cd) concentration in grains of barley (Hordeum vulgare) is the lowest among cereal crops; however, it is poorly understood how Cd accumulation in barley grain is genetically controlled. We investigated genotypic variation in Cd accumulation of different organs in 100 accessions from a subset of the barley core collection using both hydroponic and Cd-contaminated soil culture. We also performed a genome-wide association (GWA) mapping for Cd accumulation in different organs. A large genotypic variation in the Cd concentration was found in all organs. There was a good correlation between shoot Cd of solution and soil culture, the shoot Cd and grain Cd, but no correlation between the root Cd and grain Cd. GWA mapping detected 9 quantitative trait loci (QTL) for root Cd, 21 for shoot Cd, 14 for root-to-shoot translocation and 15 for grain Cd. A common QTL for the shoot Cd and root-to-shoot translocation was found at 132.6 cM on chromosome 5H. Two major QTL for grain Cd were identified on chromosome 2H and chromosome 5H. The genetic variation in Cd accumulation and major QTL detected provide useful information helpful for cloning candidate genes for Cd accumulation and breeding low-Cd barley cultivars in future. PMID:26061418

  12. Barley Transformation Using Biolistic Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwood, Wendy A.; Smedley, Mark A.

    Microprojectile bombardment or biolistic techniques have been widely used for cereal transformation. These methods rely on the acceleration of gold particles, coated with plasmid DNA, into plant cells as a method of directly introducing the DNA. The first report of the generation of fertile, transgenic barley plants used biolistic techniques. However, more recently Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has been adopted as the method of choice for most cereals including barley. Biolistic procedures are still important for some barley transformation applications and also provide transient test systems for the rapid checking of constructs. This chapter describes methods for the transformation of barley using biolistic procedures and also highlights the use of the technology in transient assays.

  13. Structure of the Yeast DEAD Box Protein Mss116p Reveals Two Wedges that Crimp RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Del Campo, Mark; Lambowitz, Alan M.

    2010-01-12

    The yeast DEAD box protein Mss116p is a general RNA chaperone that functions in mitochondrial group I and II intron splicing, translational activation, and RNA end processing. Here we determined high-resolution X-ray crystal structures of Mss116p complexed with an RNA oligonucleotide and ATP analogs AMP-PNP, ADP-BeF{sub 3}, or ADP-AlF{sub 4}{sup -}. The structures show the entire helicase core acting together with a functionally important C-terminal extension. In all structures, the helicase core is in a closed conformation with a wedge {alpha} helix bending RNA 3' of the central bound nucleotides, as in previous DEAD box protein structures. Notably, Mss116p's C-terminal extension also bends RNA 5' of the central nucleotides, resulting in RNA crimping. Despite reported functional differences, we observe few structural changes in ternary complexes with different ATP analogs. The structures constrain models of DEAD box protein function and reveal a strand separation mechanism in which a protein uses two wedges to act as a molecular crimper.

  14. Parameters optimization of laser brazing in crimping butt using Taguchi and BPNN-GA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Youmin; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Guojun; Yue, Chen; Gu, Yafei; Huang, Yu; Wang, Chunming; Shao, Xinyu

    2015-04-01

    The laser brazing (LB) is widely used in the automotive industry due to the advantages of high speed, small heat affected zone, high quality of welding seam, and low heat input. Welding parameters play a significant role in determining the bead geometry and hence quality of the weld joint. This paper addresses the optimization of the seam shape in LB process with welding crimping butt of 0.8 mm thickness using back propagation neural network (BPNN) and genetic algorithm (GA). A 3-factor, 5-level welding experiment is conducted by Taguchi L25 orthogonal array through the statistical design method. Then, the input parameters are considered here including welding speed, wire speed rate, and gap with 5 levels. The output results are efficient connection length of left side and right side, top width (WT) and bottom width (WB) of the weld bead. The experiment results are embed into the BPNN network to establish relationship between the input and output variables. The predicted results of the BPNN are fed to GA algorithm that optimizes the process parameters subjected to the objectives. Then, the effects of welding speed (WS), wire feed rate (WF), and gap (GAP) on the sum values of bead geometry is discussed. Eventually, the confirmation experiments are carried out to demonstrate the optimal values were effective and reliable. On the whole, the proposed hybrid method, BPNN-GA, can be used to guide the actual work and improve the efficiency and stability of LB process.

  15. Surgical correction of aortic disease using intraluminal, crimped bovine pericardial graft.

    PubMed

    Bernardes, R de C; Reis Filho, F A; Marino, R L; Marino, M A; de Castro, A C; Rabelo, W; Rabelo, R C

    1995-08-01

    We propose the use of a crimped bovine pericardial graft joined to a rigid and grooved ring for the treatment of aortic dissections and aneurysms. This device was developed to support common tubular vascular prostheses of any material, length, diameter, or form, transforming them into intraluminal ones during the surgical procedure. During March 1989 to May 1994, 74 patients underwent an operation on the aorta in which this intraluminal ring, prepared from a tubular prosthesis of bovine pericardium, was used. Twenty-seven patients had an acute type A aortic dissection, 6 had an acute type B aortic dissection, 10 had annuloaortic ectasia, 6 had a descending aortic aneurysm, 3 had a thoracoabdominal aneurysm, and 22 had an abdominal aneurysm. The global mortality rate of 10.8% in the immediate postoperative period cannot be related to the surgical technique or the type of prosthesis used. We conclude from our findings that this modification of the sutureless intraluminal graft, which allows it to be used to replace diseased segments of the aorta, affords the quickest and simplest means of repair and is attended by the least likelihood of anastomotic complications.

  16. Near-infrared analysis of ground barley for use as a feedstock for fuel ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Miryeong; Himmelsbach, David S; Barton, Franklin E; Griffey, Carl A; Brooks, Wynse; Hicks, Kevin B

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the potential of near-infrared spectroscopy for determining the compositional quality properties of barley as a feedstock for fuel ethanol production and to compare the prediction accuracy between calibration models obtained using a Fourier transform near-infrared system (FT-NIR) and a dispersive near-infrared system. The total sample set contained 206 samples of three types of barley, hull-less, malt, and hulled varieties, which were grown at various locations in the eastern U.S. from 2002 to 2005 years. A new hull-less barley variety, Doyce, which was specially bred for potential use in ethanol production, was included in the sample set. One hundred and thirty-eight barley samples were used for calibration and sixty-eight were used for validation. Ground barley samples were scanned on both a FTNIR spectrometer (10 000 to 4000 cm(-1) at 4 cm(-1) resolution) and a dispersive NIR spectrometer (400 to 2498 nm at 10 nm resolution), respectively. Six grain components, moisture, starch, beta-glucan, protein, oil, and ash content, were analyzed as parameters of barley quality. Principal component analysis showed that barley samples could be classified by their types: hull-less, malt, and hulled. Partial least squares regression indicated that both FT-NIR and dispersive NIR spectroscopy have the potential to determine quality properties of barley with an acceptable accuracy, except for beta-glucan content. There was no predictive advantage in using a high-resolution FT-NIR instrument over a dispersive system for most components of barley. PMID:18028696

  17. Extraction of starch from hulled and hull-less barley with papain and aqueous sodium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Priyanka; Tejinder, S

    2014-12-01

    Starch was isolated from hulled (VJM 201) and hull-less (BL 134) barley with papain and aqueous sodium hydroxide treatments. For enzyme-assisted extraction, barley was steeped in water containing 0.2 % SO2 + 0.55 % lactic acid at 50° ± 2 °C for 4-5 h. The slurry was mixed with 0.4-2.0 g papain/kg barley and incubated at 50° ± 2 °C for 1-5 h. Aqueous sodium hydroxide (0.01-0.05 M) was added to the finely ground barley meal. The alkaline slurry was incubated at ambient temperature (25° ± 2 °C) for 15-60 min. The starch and grain fractions were isolated by screening and centrifugation. Increases in the time of treatment significantly affected the fiber, centrifugation and non-starch residue losses. Concentration of papain and sodium hydroxide had negligible effect on extraction losses. The enzyme-assisted extraction efficiency of starch was higher (80.7-84.6 %) than the alkaline method (70.9-83.7 %). The hulled barley showed higher extraction efficiency than the hull-less barley. The slurry treated with 0.4 g papain/kg barley for 5 h and 0.03 M sodium hydroxide for 60 min produced maximal yield of starch. Barley starch showed desirably high pasting temperature, water binding capacity and hold viscosity; and low final and setback viscosity compared with the commercial corn starch. The alkaline extracted hull-less barley starch showed exceptionally high peak and hold viscosities.

  18. Energy inputs and outputs of fuel-alcohol production. Appendices A and B. Ethanol from grain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    Estimates are developed of present energy requirements for producing five grains (corn, grain, sorghum, winter wheat, barley and oats) and of energy requirements for increasing production of two of these grains (corn and grain sorghum). Brief discussions are also included of the overall potential for increasing crop land and for increasing grain production for conversion to ethanol. The energy and materials consumption of both wet and dry milling technologies are considered for the conversion of grain to ethanol.

  19. The Metabolic Signature of Biomass Formation in Barley.

    PubMed

    Ghaffari, Mohammad R; Shahinnia, Fahimeh; Usadel, Björn; Junker, Björn; Schreiber, Falk; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Hajirezaei, Mohammad R

    2016-09-01

    The network analysis of genome-wide transcriptome responses, metabolic signatures and enzymes' relationship to biomass formation has been studied in a diverse panel of 12 barley accessions during vegetative and reproductive stages. The primary metabolites and enzymes involved in central metabolism that determine the accumulation of shoot biomass at the vegetative stage of barley development are primarily being linked to sucrose accumulation and sucrose synthase activity. Interestingly, the metabolic and enzyme links which are strongly associated with biomass accumulation during reproductive stages are related to starch accumulation and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates citrate, malate, trans-aconitate and isocitrate. Additional significant associations were also found for UDP glucose, ATP and the amino acids isoleucine, valine, glutamate and histidine during the reproductive stage. A network analysis resulted in a combined identification of metabolite and enzyme signatures indicative for grain weight accumulation that was correlated with the activity of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), a rate-limiting enzyme involved in starch biosynthesis, and with that of alanine amino transferase involved in the synthesis of storage proteins. We propose that the mechanism related to vegetative and reproductive biomass formation vs. seed biomass formation is being linked to distinct fluxes regulating sucrose, starch, sugars and amino acids as central resources. These distinct biomarkers can be used to engineer biomass production and grain weight in barley. PMID:27388338

  20. Gamma irradiation treatment of cereal grains for chick diets

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, G.L.; Classen, H.L.; Ballance, G.M.

    1986-04-01

    Wheat (W), triticale (T), hulled barley (HB), hull-less barley (HLB), hulled oats (HO), and hull-less oats (HLO) were gamma irradiated (/sup 60/Co) at 0, 3, 6 and 9 Mrad to study the effect of irradiation on the nutritional value of cereal grains for chicks. A significant curvilinear relationship between radiation dose and 3-wk body weight of chicks fed irradiated cereals was noted for T, HB, HLB, HO and HLO. Chicks fed W or T showed no effect or lower body weight, respectively, while body weights of chicks fed barley or oat samples were higher with irradiation. The improvement tended to be maximal at the 6 Mrad level. Irradiation significantly improved the gain-to-feed ratio for chicks fed either HO or HLO. Apparent fat retention and tibia ash were higher in chicks fed irradiated HLO than in those fed untreated HLO. In a second experiment chick body weight, apparent amino acid and fat retention, tibia ash, and gain-to-feed ratios were lower in chicks fed autoclaved (121 degrees C for 20 min) barley than in those fed untreated barley. Irradiation (6 Mrad) subsequent to autoclaving barley samples eliminated these effects. Irradiation appears to benefit cereals containing soluble or mucilagenous fiber types as typified by beta-glucan of barley and oats. These fibers appear prone to irradiation-induced depolymerization, as suggested by increased beta-glucan solubility and reduced extract viscosity for irradiated barley and oat samples.

  1. Interfibre Failure Characterisation of Unidirectional and Triax Glass Fibre Non-Crimp Fabric Reinforced Epoxy Laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laustsen, S.; Lund, E.; Kühlmeier, L.; Thomsen, O. T.

    2015-02-01

    The in-plane failure envelopes of unidirectional (UD) laminae in a UD and a Triax (0°, ±45°) laminate configuration have been investigated. The two laminate configurations have been characterised by testing off-axis specimens in uniaxial tension and compression at different angles relative to the fibre direction and further by Iosipescu shear tests. Strain gauge and Digital Image Correlation (DIC) measurements were used to measure the deformation states during loading, and to record the stress-strain responses to identify the initiation of failure and investigate the heterogeneity of the material and possible parasitic effects. A novel analysis methodology to determine the so-called `failure initiation strength' based on the second derivative of the stresses with respect to the strains has been adopted. The experimentally determined `failure initiation stresses' were compared with predictions from the commonly applied Maximum Stress, Tsai-Wu, and Puck failure criteria. From this work, a thorough comparison of the UD and Triax failure envelopes has been facilitated. It is shown that failure prediction for the Triax laminate based on the failure envelope derived from UD lamina tests may be too conservative in comparison with fitting a failure criterion directly to the Triax laminate test data. The latter approach implies that the Triax laminate is considered as a single lamina with homogenised properties, which in principle violates the theoretical background of the considered failure criteria, since these are established to predict failure for a UD lamina. However, the simple homogenisation is shown to be a useful design oriented approach for providing a simple estimation of the onset of failure in laminate configurations composed of e.g., multiple layers of Triax. Thus, a reliable and efficient approach is offered for the structural integrity assessment, which takes the non-crimp fabric configurations directly or `as delivered' into account.

  2. Tocol composition and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of lipids from barley pearling flour.

    PubMed

    Temelli, F; Stobbe, K; Rezaei, K; Vasanthan, T

    2013-11-01

    Samples of whole grain and 35% pearling flour of 20 different barley varieties grown in Alberta were analyzed for their lipid contents. Total lipid contents of whole grains were within 1.9% to 3.0% (w/w), whereas those of the 35% pearling flour were 4.3% to 7.9%. Lipids of 35% pearling flour fraction of Tercel barley were extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 ) at different pressures (24, 45, and 58 MPa) and temperatures (40 and 60 °C) for 3 h. Lipid recoveries of 73% to 97% were achieved using SC-CO2 extraction under different operational conditions. Tocol contents and compositions of whole grain, 35% pearling flour, and SC-CO2 extracts were analyzed using HPLC. Tocol content of the whole grain was 53.8 to 124.9 μg/g and that of the pearling flour was 195 to 363 μg/g of flour. The hulless barley varieties were higher in tocols, with waxy, double waxy and Tercel varieties having the highest levels (P < 0.05). The ratios of total tocotrienols to total tocopherols varied within 1.6 to 3.9 range. Tocol concentrations of SC-CO2 extract fractions varied from 1171 to 4391 μg/g extract depending on the operational conditions. Barley oil is a good natural source of different tocol isomers rich in tocotrienols.

  3. Influence of weed species and time of glyphosate application on Rhizoctonia root rot of barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia solani AG-8 causes root disease in wheat, barley, canola and other small grains in the dryland inland Pacific Northwest. The pathogen survives between crops on roots of volunteers and grassy weeds. Destroying this green bridge with herbicides such as glyphosate is a common tactic to cont...

  4. A comparison of factors involved in starch degradation in barley germination under laboratory and malting conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grains of the malting barley cultivar Legacy were laboratory germinated (LG) or micromalted (MM) and sampled daily from 0 to 5 days after imbibition/steeping. Alpha-amylase and beta-amylase activities and protein levels along with starch, osmolyte concentration (OC), and sugar (glucose, sucrose, fr...

  5. Impact of removing straw from wheat and barley fields: A literature review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sustainability of straw removal from wheat and barley fields from the standpoint of its effects on soil properties and nutrient cycling is a concern. A recent literature review reveals that there is no negative effect of small grain straw removal on soil organic carbon (SOC) content with irriga...

  6. Drought Response in the Spikes of Barley: Gene Expression in the Lemma, Palea, Awn, and Seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The photosynthetic organs of the barley spike (lemma, palea, and awn) are considered resistant to drought. This is a beneficial trait because they can sustain grain-filling when drought occurs at the reproductive stage. However, there is little information about gene expression in the spike organs u...

  7. Molecular and chemical characterization of a new waxy allele in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley M38 mutant was first selected for its high level of mixed-linkage (1,3), (1,4) beta-D-glucan (MLG) in the grain. This elevated level of MLG was found to be associated with thickened endosperm cell wall and reduced amylose accumulation. The M38 mutation was mapped to a genetic locus flanked by...

  8. A comparison of two milling strategies to reduce the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), a common contaminant of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain, is a threat to feed and food safety in the United States. New strategies to reduce the threat of DON need to be developed and implemented. Previous work has...

  9. Quantitative Trait Loci Associated with the Tocochromanol (Vitamin E) Pathway in Barley

    PubMed Central

    Cuesta-Marcos, Alfonso; Geniza, Matthew; Blake, Tom; Blake, Victoria C.; Butler, Joshua; Chao, Shiaomen; Hole, David J.; Horsley, Rich; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Obert, Don; Smith, Kevin P.; Ullrich, Steven; Hayes, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    The Genome-Wide Association Studies approach was used to detect Quantitative Trait Loci associated with tocochromanol concentrations using a panel of 1,466 barley accessions. All major tocochromanol types- α-, β-, δ-, γ-tocopherol and tocotrienol- were assayed. We found 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with the concentration of one or more of these tocochromanol forms in barley, seven of which were within 2 cM of sequences homologous to cloned genes associated with tocochromanol production in barley and/or other plants. These associations confirmed a prior report based on bi-parental QTL mapping. This knowledge will aid future efforts to better understand the role of tocochromanols in barley, with specific reference to abiotic stress resistance. It will also be useful in developing barley varieties with higher tocochromanol concentrations, although at current recommended daily consumption amounts, barley would not be an effective sole source of vitamin E. However, it could be an important contributor in the context of whole grains in a balanced diet. PMID:26208213

  10. Genome-Wide Comparative Analysis of Flowering-Related Genes in Arabidopsis, Wheat, and Barley

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Fred Y.; Hu, Zhiqiu; Yang, Rong-Cai

    2015-01-01

    Early flowering is an important trait influencing grain yield and quality in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in short-season cropping regions. However, due to large and complex genomes of these species, direct identification of flowering genes and their molecular characterization remain challenging. Here, we used a bioinformatic approach to predict flowering-related genes in wheat and barley from 190 known Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.) flowering genes. We identified 900 and 275 putative orthologs in wheat and barley, respectively. The annotated flowering-related genes were clustered into 144 orthologous groups with one-to-one, one-to-many, many-to-one, and many-to-many orthology relationships. Our approach was further validated by domain and phylogenetic analyses of flowering-related proteins and comparative analysis of publicly available microarray data sets for in silico expression profiling of flowering-related genes in 13 different developmental stages of wheat and barley. These further analyses showed that orthologous gene pairs in three critical flowering gene families (PEBP, MADS, and BBX) exhibited similar expression patterns among 13 developmental stages in wheat and barley, suggesting similar functions among the orthologous genes with sequence and expression similarities. The predicted candidate flowering genes can be confirmed and incorporated into molecular breeding for early flowering wheat and barley in short-season cropping regions. PMID:26435710

  11. Impacts of temperature increase and change in precipitation pattern on crop yield and yield quality of barley.

    PubMed

    Högy, Petra; Poll, Christian; Marhan, Sven; Kandeler, Ellen; Fangmeier, Andreas

    2013-02-15

    Spring barley was grown in a field experiment under moderately elevated soil temperature and changed summer precipitation (amount and frequency). Elevated temperature affected the performance and grain quality characteristics more significant than changes in rainfall. Except for the decrease in thousand grain weight, warming had no impacts on aboveground biomass and grain yield traits. In grains, several proteinogenic amino acids concentrations were increased, whereas their composition was only slightly altered. Concentration and yield of total protein remained unaffected under warming. The concentrations of total non-structural carbohydrates, starch, fructose and raffinose were lower in plants grown at high temperatures, whereas maltose was higher. Crude fibre remained unaffected by warming, whereas concentrations of lipids and aluminium were reduced. Manipulation of precipitation only marginally affected barley grains: amount reduction increased the concentrations of several minerals (sodium, copper) and amino acids (leucine). The projected climate changes may most likely affect grain quality traits of interest for different markets and utilisation requirements. PMID:23194550

  12. Impacts of temperature increase and change in precipitation pattern on crop yield and yield quality of barley.

    PubMed

    Högy, Petra; Poll, Christian; Marhan, Sven; Kandeler, Ellen; Fangmeier, Andreas

    2013-02-15

    Spring barley was grown in a field experiment under moderately elevated soil temperature and changed summer precipitation (amount and frequency). Elevated temperature affected the performance and grain quality characteristics more significant than changes in rainfall. Except for the decrease in thousand grain weight, warming had no impacts on aboveground biomass and grain yield traits. In grains, several proteinogenic amino acids concentrations were increased, whereas their composition was only slightly altered. Concentration and yield of total protein remained unaffected under warming. The concentrations of total non-structural carbohydrates, starch, fructose and raffinose were lower in plants grown at high temperatures, whereas maltose was higher. Crude fibre remained unaffected by warming, whereas concentrations of lipids and aluminium were reduced. Manipulation of precipitation only marginally affected barley grains: amount reduction increased the concentrations of several minerals (sodium, copper) and amino acids (leucine). The projected climate changes may most likely affect grain quality traits of interest for different markets and utilisation requirements.

  13. Enrichment of Antioxidant Capacity and Vitamin E in Pita Made from Barley.

    PubMed

    Do, Thi Thu Dung; Muhlhausler, Beverly; Box, Amanda; Able, Amanda J

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to enhance total antioxidant and vitamin E content of pita bread, by replacing 50% of the standard baker's flour with flours milled from covered (WI2585 and Harrington) or hulless (Finniss) barley genotypes, previously shown to have high antioxidant and vitamin E levels at harvest. Pita breads were made from either 100% baker's flour (control) or 50% malt flour, whole-grain flour, or flour from barley grains pearled at 10%, 15%, and 20% grain weight. Antioxidant capacity and vitamin E content of flours and pitas were determined by their ability to scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. The physical and sensory properties of the pitas were also assessed. All pitas made from either whole grain or pearled barley flour had a higher antioxidant capacity and most also had higher vitamin E content than standard pita. The antioxidant and vitamin E levels were reduced in pearled compared to whole grains, however the extent of that reduction varied among genotypes. The greatest antioxidant and vitamin E levels were found in pita made from malt flour or Finniss whole grain flour. Furthermore, sensory analysis suggested these pitas were acceptable to consumers and retained similar physical and sensory properties to those in the control pita.

  14. From field barley to malt: detection and specification of microbial activity for quality aspects.

    PubMed

    Noots, I; Delcour, J A; Michiels, C W

    1999-01-01

    Barley grain carries a numerous, variable, and complex microbial population that mainly consists of bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi and that can partly be detected and quantified using plating methods and microscopic and molecular techniques. The extent and the activity of this microflora are determined by the altering state of the grain and the environmental conditions in the malt production chain. Three ecological systems can be distinguished: the growing cereal in the field, the dry barley grain under storage, and the germinating barley kernel during actual malting. Microorganisms interact with the malting process both by their presence and by their metabolic activity. In this respect, interference with the oxygen uptake by the barley grain and secretion of enzymes, hormones, toxins, and acids that may affect the plant physiological processes have been studied. As a result of the interaction, microorganisms can cause important losses and influence malt quality as measured by brewhouse performance and beer quality. Of particular concern is the occurrence of mycotoxins that may affect the safety of malt. The development of the microflora during malt production can to a certain extent be controlled by the selection of appropriate process conditions. Physical and chemical treatments to inactivate the microbial population on the barley grain are suggested. Recent developments, however, aim to control the microbial activity during malt production by promoting the growth of desirable microbial cultures, selected either as biocontrol agents inhibiting mycotoxin-producing molds or as starter cultures actively contributing to malt modification. Such techniques may offer natural opportunities to improve the quality and safety of malt.

  15. Development of quick cooking multi-grain dalia utilizing sprouted grains.

    PubMed

    Mridula, D; Sharma, Monika; Gupta, R K

    2015-09-01

    Multi-grain dalia (MGD) formulations were prepared utilizing sprouted wheat and mixer of other three grains (barley, sorghum and pearl millet) in the ratio of 100:0 (MGD-A), 75:25 (MGD-B), 50:50 (MGD-C), 25:75 (MGD-D) and 0:100 (MGD-E), respectively. The mixer of barley, sorghum and pearl millet was prepared using 50, 25, 25 parts of these grains, respectively. The recovery of grits/ dalia (particle size 1.41 to 2 mm) from sprouted wheat and barley was 74.56 and 69.77 %, respectively while sorghum and pearl millet yield 47.94 and 49.39 % (particle size 0.954 to 1.41 mm), respectively. Sprouting brought a reduction of cooking time by about 50 % as compared to un-sprouted studied grains. Cooking time for different MGD formulations ranged from 3.91 to 4.42 min, which was slightly increased with increasing proportion of mixer of barley, sorghum and pearl millet (p > 0.05). Rehydration ratio of MGD samples varied from 3.12 to 3.45 with minimum in MGD-E sample. Though protein content was decreased with increasing proportion of mixer of three grains in MGD samples but in vitro protein digestibility (58.68 to 62.75 %) was similar (p > 0.05). The mean overall sensory acceptability scores for MGD samples ranged from 7.50 to 8.49 with ≥8.0 in samples having up to 75 % grits of mixer of three grains. In view of very good overall sensory acceptability, rich in crude fibre, calcium and iron content and low cooking time, 25:75 parts of sprouted wheat and mixer of studied three grains, respectively may be considered for preparation of acceptable quality quick cooking multi-grain dalia.

  16. The influence of feeding crimped kernel maize silage on broiler production, nutrient digestibility and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Ranjitkar, S; Karlsson, A H; Petersen, M A; Bredie, W L P; Petersen, J S; Engberg, R M

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out in parallel with male Ross 308 broilers over 37 d. An experiment with a total of 736 broilers was performed to study the effect of dietary inclusion of crimped kernel maize silage (CKMS) on broiler production and meat quality. Another study with 32 broilers was carried out from 21 to 25 d to investigate the inclusion of CKMS on nutrient digestibility. In both trials, 4 dietary treatments were used: wheat-based feed (WBF), maize-based feed (MBF), maize-based feed supplemented with 15% CKMS (CKMS-15) and maize-based feed supplemented with 30% CKMS (CKMS-30). Compared with MBF, the dry matter (DM) intakes of broilers receiving CKMS-15 and CKMS-30, respectively, were numerically 7.5 and 6.2% higher and feed conversion ratio 6 and 12% poorer (significant for 30% CKMS), although there were no significant differences in AME content between the three diets. At 37 d, the body weight of birds receiving 15% CKMS was similar to birds fed with MBF. However, the inclusion of 30% CKMS decreased broiler growth. Dietary supplementation with CKMS significantly reduced the apparent digestibility of phosphorus. The fat digestibility was significantly lower for CKMS-30 than for the other three diets. Broiler mortality decreased significantly when CKMS was added to the diet. The consumption of drinking water was significantly lower in all maize-based diets as compared to WBF and was lowest in broilers fed with CKMS-30. An improved litter quality in terms of DM content and a lower frequency of foot pad lesions was observed with broilers supplemented with both dietary levels of CKMS. The addition of CKMS to maize-based diets increased juiciness, tenderness and crumbliness of the meat. In conclusion, the dietary supplementation of 15% CKMS had no negative effect on broiler growth and positively influenced bird welfare in terms of mortality and foot pad health. Therefore, the addition of 15% CKMS to maize-based diets is considered an advantageous feeding

  17. Films based on oxidized starch and cellulose from barley.

    PubMed

    El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Colussi, Rosana; Deon, Vinícius Gonçalves; Pinto, Vânia Zanella; Villanova, Franciene Almeida; Carreño, Neftali Lenin Villarreal; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa

    2015-11-20

    Starch and cellulose fibers were isolated from grains and the husk from barley, respectively. Biodegradable films of native starch or oxidized starches and glycerol with different concentrations of cellulose fibers (0%, 10% and 20%) were prepared. The films were characterized by morphological, mechanical, barrier, and thermal properties. Cellulose fibers isolated from the barley husk were obtained with 75% purity and high crystallinity. The morphology of the films of the oxidized starches, regardless of the fiber addition, was more homogeneous as compared to the film of the native starch. The addition of cellulose fibers in the films increased the tensile strength and decreased elongation. The water vapor permeability of the film of oxidized starch with 20% of cellulose fibers was lower than the without fibers. However the films with cellulose fibers had the highest decomposition with the initial temperature and thermal stability. The oxidized starch and cellulose fibers from barley have a good potential for use in packaging. The addition of cellulose fibers in starch films can contribute to the development of films more resistant that can be applied in food systems to maintain its integrity.

  18. [Cereal grain preference of rats].

    PubMed

    Wang, P Y

    1990-07-01

    Cereal grains are usually used as the main material for preparing rodenticide baits. However, the preferences for different grains varies according to species and habitats of rats, and locations. A formula accepted at one location may not be suitable in other places, where rats are accustomed to different types of food. It is therefore important to understand the feeding habits of local rat species before implementing a control program. Seven kinds of grains, including hulled rice, corn, barley, wheat, sorghum, pranuts, and sweet potatoes were tested to study the preferences of rats in the laboratory. The results revealed that Bandicota nemorivaga, Rattus losea and R. norvegicus prefer hulled rice; Apodemus agrarius and Mus musculus prefer peanuts, and R. rattus prefers corn. The influence of quality and nutrient contents of baits on the consumption of the rats is also discussed. PMID:2402029

  19. [Cereal grain preference of rats].

    PubMed

    Wang, P Y

    1990-07-01

    Cereal grains are usually used as the main material for preparing rodenticide baits. However, the preferences for different grains varies according to species and habitats of rats, and locations. A formula accepted at one location may not be suitable in other places, where rats are accustomed to different types of food. It is therefore important to understand the feeding habits of local rat species before implementing a control program. Seven kinds of grains, including hulled rice, corn, barley, wheat, sorghum, pranuts, and sweet potatoes were tested to study the preferences of rats in the laboratory. The results revealed that Bandicota nemorivaga, Rattus losea and R. norvegicus prefer hulled rice; Apodemus agrarius and Mus musculus prefer peanuts, and R. rattus prefers corn. The influence of quality and nutrient contents of baits on the consumption of the rats is also discussed.

  20. Should wheat, barley, rye, and/or gluten be avoided in a 6-food elimination diet?

    PubMed

    Kliewer, Kara L; Venter, Carina; Cassin, Alison M; Abonia, J Pablo; Aceves, Seema S; Bonis, Peter A; Dellon, Evan S; Falk, Gary W; Furuta, Glenn T; Gonsalves, Nirmala; Gupta, Sandeep K; Hirano, Ikuo; Kagalwalla, Amir; Leung, John; Mukkada, Vincent A; Spergel, Jonathan M; Rothenberg, Marc E

    2016-04-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), a food antigen-mediated disease, is effectively treated with the dietary elimination of 6 foods commonly associated with food allergies (milk, wheat, egg, soy, tree nuts/peanuts, and fish/shellfish). Because wheat shares homologous proteins (including gluten) with barley and rye and can also be processed with these grains, some clinicians have suggested that barley and rye might also trigger EoE as a result of cross-reaction and/or cross-contamination with wheat. In this article, we discuss the theoretical risks of cross-reactivity and cross-contamination among wheat, barley, and rye proteins (including gluten); assess common practices at EoE treatment centers; and provide recommendations for dietary treatment and future studies of EoE.

  1. Should wheat, barley, rye, and/or gluten be avoided in a 6-food elimination diet?

    PubMed

    Kliewer, Kara L; Venter, Carina; Cassin, Alison M; Abonia, J Pablo; Aceves, Seema S; Bonis, Peter A; Dellon, Evan S; Falk, Gary W; Furuta, Glenn T; Gonsalves, Nirmala; Gupta, Sandeep K; Hirano, Ikuo; Kagalwalla, Amir; Leung, John; Mukkada, Vincent A; Spergel, Jonathan M; Rothenberg, Marc E

    2016-04-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), a food antigen-mediated disease, is effectively treated with the dietary elimination of 6 foods commonly associated with food allergies (milk, wheat, egg, soy, tree nuts/peanuts, and fish/shellfish). Because wheat shares homologous proteins (including gluten) with barley and rye and can also be processed with these grains, some clinicians have suggested that barley and rye might also trigger EoE as a result of cross-reaction and/or cross-contamination with wheat. In this article, we discuss the theoretical risks of cross-reactivity and cross-contamination among wheat, barley, and rye proteins (including gluten); assess common practices at EoE treatment centers; and provide recommendations for dietary treatment and future studies of EoE. PMID:26725190

  2. Mobile bag starch prececal disappearance and postprandial glycemic response of four forms of barley in horses.

    PubMed

    Philippeau, C; Varloud, M; Julliand, V

    2014-05-01

    To determine prececal starch digestibili-ty and estimate glucose uptake from the digestion of 4 forms of barley in the small intestine, 4 mature cecally fistulated geldings (449 ± 41 kg BW) fed a 62:38 (wt/wt) meadow hay:concentrate diet at 1.7 kg DM/100 kg BW were included in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment. During each period, horses received 80% DM of their concentrate as 1 of the 4 forms of a same batch of barley, whole grain, 2.5 mm ground, steam flaked, and pelleted. Hay was offered in 2 equal meals and concentrate in 2 unequal meals. The starch supply in the morning meal amounted 2.7 g starch/kg BW. At each period, mobile bag DM and starch disappearance was determined. Except for ground barley, each form of barley was 4 mm ground before being introduced in the bag. Nylon bags containing each substrate were intubated in the horse receiving the pelleted barley. Bags were collected in the cecum for 10 h postintubation. At each period, postprandial glycemia was measured on blood samples collected on the 4 horses via an indwelling jugular catheter just before the concentrate morning meal and for 8 h. No hay in the morning meal was given the day of the measurements. Whole blood glucose was analyzed with a portable blood glucose meter. Mobile bag prececal DM disappearance and starch disappearance depended (P < 0.01) on barley form. Prececal starch disappearance of whole barley was the lowest but no difference (P > 0.05) was detected among the 3 processed grains. No significant effect of barley form was found whatever the glycemic parameters. No significant correlation was reported between glycemic parameters and the amount of prececal mobile bag disappeared starch calculated as the starch intake in the morning meal by the mobile bag starch disappearance. To conclude, the whole form of barley exhibited the lowest prececal mobile bag starch disappearance whereas, in relationship with large individual variations, no significant variation has been shown in

  3. New Starch Phenotypes Produced by TILLING in Barley

    PubMed Central

    Sparla, Francesca; Falini, Giuseppe; Botticella, Ermelinda; Pirone, Claudia; Talamè, Valentina; Bovina, Riccardo; Salvi, Silvio; Tuberosa, Roberto; Sestili, Francesco; Trost, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Barley grain starch is formed by amylose and amylopectin in a 1∶3 ratio, and is packed into granules of different dimensions. The distribution of granule dimension is bimodal, with a majority of small spherical B-granules and a smaller amount of large discoidal A-granules containing the majority of the starch. Starch granules are semi-crystalline structures with characteristic X-ray diffraction patterns. Distinct features of starch granules are controlled by different enzymes and are relevant for nutritional value or industrial applications. Here, the Targeting-Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes (TILLING) approach was applied on the barley TILLMore TILLING population to identify 29 new alleles in five genes related to starch metabolism known to be expressed in the endosperm during grain filling: BMY1 (Beta-amylase 1), GBSSI (Granule Bound Starch Synthase I), LDA1 (Limit Dextrinase 1), SSI (Starch Synthase I), SSIIa (Starch Synthase IIa). Reserve starch of nine M3 mutant lines carrying missense or nonsense mutations was analysed for granule size, crystallinity and amylose/amylopectin content. Seven mutant lines presented starches with different features in respect to the wild-type: (i) a mutant line with a missense mutation in GBSSI showed a 4-fold reduced amylose/amylopectin ratio; (ii) a missense mutations in SSI resulted in 2-fold increase in A:B granule ratio; (iii) a nonsense mutation in SSIIa was associated with shrunken seeds with a 2-fold increased amylose/amylopectin ratio and different type of crystal packing in the granule; (iv) the remaining four missense mutations suggested a role of LDA1 in granule initiation, and of SSIIa in determining the size of A-granules. We demonstrate the feasibility of the TILLING approach to identify new alleles in genes related to starch metabolism in barley. Based on their novel physicochemical properties, some of the identified new mutations may have nutritional and/or industrial applications. PMID:25271438

  4. Secretomics identifies Fusarium graminearum proteins involved in the interaction with barley and wheat.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fen; Jensen, Jens D; Svensson, Birte; Jørgensen, Hans J L; Collinge, David B; Finnie, Christine

    2012-06-01

    Fusarium graminearum is a phytopathogenic fungus primarily infecting small grain cereals, including barley and wheat. Secreted enzymes play important roles in the pathogenicity of many fungi. In order to access the secretome of F. graminearum, the fungus was grown in liquid culture with barley or wheat flour as the sole nutrient source to mimic the host-pathogen interaction. A gel-based proteomics approach was employed to identify the proteins secreted into the culture medium. Sixty-nine unique fungal proteins were identified in 154 protein spots, including enzymes involved in the degradation of cell walls, starch and proteins. Of these proteins, 35% had not been identified in previous in planta or in vitro studies, 70% were predicted to contain signal peptides and a further 16% may be secreted in a nonclassical manner. Proteins identified in the 72 spots showing differential appearance between wheat and barley flour medium were mainly involved in fungal cell wall remodelling and the degradation of plant cell walls, starch and proteins. The in planta expression of corresponding F. graminearum genes was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in barley and wheat spikelets harvested at 2-6 days after inoculation. In addition, a clear difference in the accumulation of fungal biomass and the extent of fungal-induced proteolysis of plant β-amylase was observed in barley and wheat. The present study considerably expands the current database of F. graminearum secreted proteins which may be involved in Fusarium head blight.

  5. Accurate prediction model of bead geometry in crimping butt of the laser brazing using generalized regression neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Y. M.; Chang, Y.; Huang, Y.; Zhang, G. J.; Shao, X. Y.

    2015-12-01

    There are few researches that concentrate on the prediction of the bead geometry for laser brazing with crimping butt. This paper addressed the accurate prediction of the bead profile by developing a generalized regression neural network (GRNN) algorithm. Firstly GRNN model was developed and trained to decrease the prediction error that may be influenced by the sample size. Then the prediction accuracy was demonstrated by comparing with other articles and back propagation artificial neural network (BPNN) algorithm. Eventually the reliability and stability of GRNN model were discussed from the points of average relative error (ARE), mean square error (MSE) and root mean square error (RMSE), while the maximum ARE and MSE were 6.94% and 0.0303 that were clearly less than those (14.28% and 0.0832) predicted by BPNN. Obviously, it was proved that the prediction accuracy was improved at least 2 times, and the stability was also increased much more.

  6. The Genetic Architecture of Barley Plant Stature

    PubMed Central

    Alqudah, Ahmad M.; Koppolu, Ravi; Wolde, Gizaw M.; Graner, Andreas; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Plant stature in temperate cereals is predominantly controlled by tillering and plant height as complex agronomic traits, representing important determinants of grain yield. This study was designed to reveal the genetic basis of tillering at five developmental stages and plant height at harvest in 218 worldwide spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) accessions under greenhouse conditions. The accessions were structured based on row-type classes [two- vs. six-rowed] and photoperiod response [photoperiod-sensitive (Ppd-H1) vs. reduced photoperiod sensitivity (ppd-H1)]. Phenotypic analyses of both factors revealed profound between group effects on tiller development. To further verify the row-type effect on the studied traits, Six-rowed spike 1 (vrs1) mutants and their two-rowed progenitors were examined for tiller number per plant and plant height. Here, wild-type (Vrs1) plants were significantly taller and had more tillers than mutants suggesting a negative pleiotropic effect of this row-type locus on both traits. Our genome-wide association scans further revealed highly significant associations, thereby establishing a link between the genetic control of row-type, heading time, tillering, and plant height. We further show that associations for tillering and plant height are co-localized with chromosomal segments harboring known plant stature-related phytohormone and sugar-related genes. This work demonstrates the feasibility of the GWAS approach for identifying putative candidate genes for improving plant architecture. PMID:27446200

  7. The Genetic Architecture of Barley Plant Stature.

    PubMed

    Alqudah, Ahmad M; Koppolu, Ravi; Wolde, Gizaw M; Graner, Andreas; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Plant stature in temperate cereals is predominantly controlled by tillering and plant height as complex agronomic traits, representing important determinants of grain yield. This study was designed to reveal the genetic basis of tillering at five developmental stages and plant height at harvest in 218 worldwide spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) accessions under greenhouse conditions. The accessions were structured based on row-type classes [two- vs. six-rowed] and photoperiod response [photoperiod-sensitive (Ppd-H1) vs. reduced photoperiod sensitivity (ppd-H1)]. Phenotypic analyses of both factors revealed profound between group effects on tiller development. To further verify the row-type effect on the studied traits, Six-rowed spike 1 (vrs1) mutants and their two-rowed progenitors were examined for tiller number per plant and plant height. Here, wild-type (Vrs1) plants were significantly taller and had more tillers than mutants suggesting a negative pleiotropic effect of this row-type locus on both traits. Our genome-wide association scans further revealed highly significant associations, thereby establishing a link between the genetic control of row-type, heading time, tillering, and plant height. We further show that associations for tillering and plant height are co-localized with chromosomal segments harboring known plant stature-related phytohormone and sugar-related genes. This work demonstrates the feasibility of the GWAS approach for identifying putative candidate genes for improving plant architecture. PMID:27446200

  8. Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci for the Phenolic Acid Contents and Their Association with Agronomic Traits in Tibetan Wild Barley.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shengguan; Han, Zhigang; Huang, Yuqing; Hu, Hongliang; Dai, Fei; Zhang, Guoping

    2016-02-01

    Phenolic acids have been of considerable interest in human nutrition because of their strong antioxidative properties. However, even in a widely grown crop, such as barley, their genetic architecture is still unclear. In this study, genetic control of two main phenolic acids, ferulic acid (FA) and p-coumaric acid (p-CA), and their associations with agronomic traits were investigated among 134 Tibetan wild barley accessions. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified three DArT markers (bpb-2723, bpb-7199, and bpb-7273) associated with p-CA content and one marker (bpb-3653) associated with FA content in 2 consecutive years. The contents of the two phenolic acids were positively correlated with some agronomic traits, such as the first internode length, plant height, and some grain color parameters, and negatively correlated with the thousand-grain weight (TGW). This study provides DNA markers for barley breeding programs to improve the contents of phenolic acids.

  9. Fermentation of Barley by Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Examination of Barley as a Feedstock for Bioethanol Production and Value-Added Products ▿

    PubMed Central

    Gibreel, Amera; Sandercock, James R.; Lan, Jingui; Goonewardene, Laksiri A.; Zijlstra, Ruurd T.; Curtis, Jonathan M.; Bressler, David C.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the ethanol yield potential of three barley varieties (Xena, Bold, and Fibar) in comparison to two benchmarks, corn and wheat. Very high gravity (VHG; 30% solids) fermentations using both conventional and Stargen 001 enzymes for starch hydrolysis were carried out as simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. The grains and their corresponding dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS) were also analyzed for nutritional and value-added characteristics. A VHG traditional fermentation approach utilizing jet-cooking fermentation revealed that both dehulled Bold and Xena barley produced ethanol concentrations higher than that produced by wheat (12.3, 12.2, and 11.9%, respectively) but lower than that produced by corn (13.8%). VHG-modified Stargen-based fermentation of dehulled Bold barley demonstrated comparable performance (14.3% ethanol) relative to that of corn (14.5%) and wheat (13.3%). Several important components were found to survive fermentation and were concentrated in DDGS. The highest yield of phenolics was detected in the DDGS (modified Stargen 001, 20% solids) of Xena (14.6 mg of gallic acid/g) and Bold (15.0 mg of gallic acid/g) when the hull was not removed before fermentation. The highest concentration of sterols in DDGS from barley was found in Xena (3.9 mg/g) when the hull was included. The DDGS recovered from corn had the highest concentration of fatty acids (72.6 and 77.5 mg/g). The DDGS recovered from VHG jet-cooking fermentations of Fibar, dehulled Bold, and corn demonstrated similar levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Corn DDGS was highest in crude fat but was lowest in crude protein and in vitro energy digestibility. Wheat DDGS was highest in crude protein content, similar to previous studies. The barley DDGS was the highest in in vitro energy digestibility. PMID:19114516

  10. Biologically active secondary metabolites of barley. I. Developing techniques and assessing allelopathy in barley.

    PubMed

    Liu, D L; Lovett, J V

    1993-10-01

    Allelopathic effects of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) on white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) were assessed using modified bioassays that reduced other environmental influences. In a Petri dish bioassay, germination of white mustard was delayed and the radicle lengths were significantly inhibited at a density of 0.5 barley seed/cm(2). In a 'siphoning' bioassay apparatus, when the two species were sown together, radicle elongation of white mustard was not inhibited one day after sowing but became increasingly inhibited as bioassay time increased. Barley allelochemicals were released from the roots in a hydroponic system for at least 70 days after commencement of barley germination. Solutions removed from the hydroponic system of growing barley delayed germination and inhibited growth of white mustard. The allelopathic activity of barley was further confirmed at a density of 0.3 barley seed/cm(2) in a modified stairstep apparatus. PMID:24248571

  11. Analysis of alkylresorcinols in wheat germ oil and barley germ oil via HPLC and flourescence detection: Cochromatography with tocols

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alkylresorcinols are long chain phenolic compounds that have been reported to be localized in the outer layers of the kernels of wheat, rye, barley and other grains. A sensitive HPLC method with fluorescence detection was recently reported for the quantitative analysis of alkylresorcinols in cereal...

  12. Developing transgenic wheat and barley that exhibit resistance to Fusarium graminearum via glucoside conjugation of trichothecene mycotoxins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium graminearum infection of wheat and barley results in production of trichothecene mycotoxins including deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV). These mycotoxins result in increased fungal virulence and reduce grain quality. Numerous transcriptomic studies have been conducted by our lab on t...

  13. [Characteristics of dry matter production and nitrogen accumulation in barley genotypes with high nitrogen utilization efficiency].

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi; Li, Ting-Xuan; Zhang, Xi-Zhou; Ji, Lin

    2014-07-01

    A pot experiment was conducted under low (125 mg x kg-1) and normal (250 mg x kg(-1)) nitrogen treatments. The nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency of 22 barley cultivars were investigated, and the characteristics of dry matter production and nitrogen accumulation in barley were analyzed. The results showed that nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency were different for barley under two nitrogen levels. The maximal values of grain yield, nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain and nitrogen harvest index were 2.87, 2.91 and 2.47 times as those of the lowest under the low nitrogen treatment. Grain yield and nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain and nitrogen harvest index of barley genotype with high nitrogen utilization efficiency were significantly greater than low nitrogen utilization efficiency, and the parameters of high nitrogen utilization efficiency genotype were 82.1%, 61.5% and 50.5% higher than low nitrogen utilization efficiency genotype under the low nitrogen treatment. Dry matter mass and nitrogen utilization of high nitrogen utilization efficiency was significantly higher than those of low nitrogen utilization efficiency. A peak of dry matter mass of high nitrogen utilization efficiency occurred during jointing to heading stage, while that of nitrogen accumulation appeared before jointing. Under the low nitrogen treatment, dry matter mass of DH61 and DH121+ was 34.4% and 38.3%, and nitrogen accumulation was 54. 8% and 58.0% higher than DH80, respectively. Dry matter mass and nitrogen accumulation seriously affected yield before jointing stage, and the contribution rates were 47.9% and 54.7% respectively under the low nitrogen treatment. The effect of dry matter and nitrogen accumulation on nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain was the largest during heading to mature stages, followed by sowing to jointing stages, with the contribution rate being 29.5% and 48.7%, 29.0% and 15.8%, respectively. In conclusion, barley genotype with high

  14. Rapid assignment of malting barley varieties by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionisation - Time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Šedo, Ondrej; Kořán, Michal; Jakešová, Michaela; Mikulíková, Renata; Boháč, Michal; Zdráhal, Zbyněk

    2016-09-01

    A method for discriminating malting barley varieties based on direct matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionisation - time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) fingerprinting of proteins was developed. Signals corresponding to hordeins were obtained by simple mixing of powdered barley grain with a MALDI matrix solution containing 12.5mgmL(-1) of ferulic acid in an acetonitrile:water:formic acid 50:33:17 v/v/v mixture. Compared to previous attempts at MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis of barley proteins, the extraction and fractionation steps were practically omitted, resulting in a significant reduction in analytical time and costs. The discriminatory power was examined on twenty malting barley varieties and the practicability of the method was tested on sixty barley samples acquired from Pilsner Urquell Brewery. The method is proposed as a rapid tool for variety assignment and purity determination of malting barley that may replace gel electrophoresis currently used for this purpose. PMID:27041307

  15. Intelligent classification methods of grain kernels using computer vision analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Choon Young; Yan, Lei; Wang, Tianfeng; Lee, Sang Ryong; Park, Cheol Woo

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, a digital image analysis method was developed to classify seven kinds of individual grain kernels (common rice, glutinous rice, rough rice, brown rice, buckwheat, common barley and glutinous barley) widely planted in Korea. A total of 2800 color images of individual grain kernels were acquired as a data set. Seven color and ten morphological features were extracted and processed by linear discriminant analysis to improve the efficiency of the identification process. The output features from linear discriminant analysis were used as input to the four-layer back-propagation network to classify different grain kernel varieties. The data set was divided into three groups: 70% for training, 20% for validation, and 10% for testing the network. The classification experimental results show that the proposed method is able to classify the grain kernel varieties efficiently.

  16. Calcium homeostasis in barley aleurone

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.L.

    1990-02-21

    Under the auspices of the Department of Energy we investigated calcium homeostasis in aleurone cells of barley. This investigation was initiated to explore the role played by extracellular Ca{sup 2+} in gibberellic acid (GA)-induced synthesis and secretion of hydrolases in the aleurone layer. We have focused our attention on four topics that relate to the role of Ca{sup 2+} in regulating the synthesis of {alpha}-amylase. First, we determined the stoichiometry of Ca{sup 2+} binding to the two principal classes of barley {alpha}-amylase and examined some of the biochemical and physical properties of the native and Ca{sup 2+}-depleted forms of the enzyme. Second, since {alpha}-amylase is a Ca{sup 2+} containing metalloenzyme that binds one atom of Ca{sup 2+} per molecule, we developed methods to determine the concentration of Ca{sup 2+} in the cytosol of the aleurone cell. We developed a technique for introducing Ca{sup 2+}-sensitive dyes into aleurone protoplasts that allows the measurement of Ca{sup 2+} in both cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Third, because the results of our Ca{sup 2+} measurements showed higher levels of Ca{sup 2+} in the ER than in the cytosol, we examined Ca{sup 2+} transport into the ER of control and GA-treated aleurone tissue. And fourth, we applied the technique of patch-clamping to the barley aleurone protoplast to examine ion transport at the plasma membrane. Our results with the patch-clamp technique established the presence of K{sup +} channels in the plasma membrane of the aleurone protoplast, and they showed that this cell is ideally suited for the application of this methodology for studying ion transport. 34 refs.

  17. Effects of barley variety fed to steers on carcass characteristics and color of meat.

    PubMed

    Boles, J A; Bowman, J G; Surber, L M M; Boss, D L

    2004-07-01

    This study evaluated the effect of barley varieties in the diets of finishing steers on carcass composition, fat, and lean color and the fatty acid profile of subcutaneous fat. Crossbred steers (391 kg initial BW) were assigned randomly to one of five finishing diets composed primarily of corn (n = 9), Morex barley (n = 9), Steptoe barley, (n = 9), or two experimental barley varieties SM3 (n = 9) and SM5 (n = 9). Grains were cracked prior to feeding. Diets were formulated (DM basis) to be isonitrogenous (2.24% N) and isocaloric (2.01 Mcal/kg NEm and 1.35 Mcal/kg NEg). Steers were slaughtered according to industry-accepted procedures when it was visually estimated that 70% of carcasses would grade USDA Choice. After a 24-h chill at 4 degrees C, carcass quality and yield grade data were collected by trained, experienced university personnel. Objective color (L*, a*, and b*) of both the LM and subcutaneous fat were measured, and samples of subcutaneous fat were removed from the 10th- to 12th-rib region for fatty acid analysis. Diet did not affect hot carcass weight (P = 0.15), fat thickness (P = 0.58), LM area (P = 0.57), percentage of internal fat (P = 0.52), yield grade (P = 0.96), marbling (P = 0.73), or quality grade (P = 0.10). However, the LM from steers fed diets formulated with Morex and SM5 barley varieties tended to be lighter (higher L* values, P = 0.08) than the LM from steers fed the corn-based diet. Additionally, fat from steers fed corn tended to be more yellow (higher Hunter b* values, P = 0.09) than fat from steers fed barley-based diets. Although grain source had only minimal effects on the fatty acid composition of subcutaneous fat samples, pentadecanoic acid (15:0) was greater (P < 0.05) in fat from steers fed SM3 and Steptoe barley varieties than in fat from steers fed corn. Stearic acid (18:0) concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) in fat samples from steers fed corn than in those fed the experimental barley lines (SM3 and SM5). Conversely, fat

  18. Tibet as a potential domestication center of cultivated barley of China.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xifeng; Nevo, Eviatar; Sun, Dongfa; Sun, Genlou

    2013-01-01

    The importance of wild barley from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in the origin and domestication of cultivated barley has long been underestimated. Population-based phylogenetic analyses were performed to study the origin and genetic diversity of Chinese domesticated barley, and address the possibility that the Tibetan region in China was an independent center of barley domestication. Wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) populations from Southwest Asia, Central Asia, and Tibet along with domesticated barley from China were analyzed using two nuclear genes. Our results showed that Tibetan wild barley distinctly diverged from Southwest Asian (Near East) wild barley, that Central Asian wild barley is related to Southwest Asian wild barley, and that Chinese domesticated barley shares the same haplotypes with Tibetan wild barley. Phylogenetic analysis showed a close relationship between Chinese domesticated barley and the Tibetan wild barley, suggesting that Tibetan wild barley was the ancestor of Chinese domesticated barley. Our results favor the polyphyletic origin for cultivated barley.

  19. Regulation of the Flavonoid Biosynthesis Pathway Genes in Purple and Black Grains of Hordeum vulgare

    PubMed Central

    Mock, Hans-Peter; Kukoeva, Tatjana V.; Börner, Andreas; Khlestkina, Elena K.

    2016-01-01

    Barley grain at maturity can have yellow, purple, blue, and black pigmentations which are suggested to play a protective role under stress conditions. The first three types of the colors are caused by phenolic compounds flavonoids; the last one is caused by phytomelanins, oxidized and polymerized phenolic compounds. Although the genetic basis of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway in barley has been thoroughly studied, there is no data yet on its regulation in purple and black barley grains. In the current study, genetic model of Hordeum vulgare ‘Bowman’ near-isogenic lines (NILs) was used to investigate the regulation of the flavonoid biosynthesis in white, purple, and black barley grains. Microsatellite genotyping revealed donor segments in the purple- and black-grained lines on chromosomes 2H (in region of the Ant2 gene determining purple color of grains) and 1H (in region of the Blp gene determining black lemma and pericarp), respectively. The isolated dominant Ant2 allele of the purple-grained line has high level of sequence similarity with the recessive Bowman’s ant2 in coding region, whereas an insertion of 179 bp was detected in promoter region of ant2. This structural divergence between Ant2 and ant2 alleles may underlie their different expression in grain pericarp: Bowman’s Ant2 is not transcribed, whereas it was up-regulated in the purple-grained line with coordinately co-expressed flavonoid biosynthesis structural genes (Chs, Chi, F3h, F3’h, Dfr, Ans). This led to total anthocyain content increase in purple-grained line identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Collectively, these results proved the regulatory function of the Ant2 gene in anthocyanin biosynthesis in barley grain pericarp. In the black-grained line, the specific transcriptional regulation of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway genes was not detected, suggesting that flavonoid pigments are not involved in development of black lemma and pericarp trait. PMID

  20. Effects of grain source, grain processing, and protein degradability on rumen kinetics and microbial protein synthesis in Boer kids.

    PubMed

    Brassard, M-E; Chouinard, P Y; Berthiaume, R; Tremblay, G F; Gervais, R; Martineau, R; Cinq-Mars, D

    2015-11-01

    Microbial protein synthesis in the rumen would be optimized when dietary carbohydrates and proteins have synchronized rates and extent of degradation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of varying ruminal degradation rate of energy and nitrogen sources on intake, nitrogen balance, microbial protein yield, and kinetics of nutrients in the rumen of growing kids. Eight Boer goats (38.2 ± 3.0 kg) were used. The treatments were arranged in a split-plot Latin square design with grain sources (barley or corn) forming the main plots (squares). Grain processing methods and levels of protein degradability formed the subplots in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement for a total of 8 dietary treatments. The grain processing method was rolling for barley and cracking for corn. Levels of protein degradability were obtained by feeding untreated soybean meal (SBM) or heat-treated soybean meal (HSBM). Each experimental period lasted 21 d, consisting of a 10-d adaptation period, a 7-d digestibility determination period, and a 4-d rumen evacuation and sampling period. Kids fed with corn had higher purine derivatives (PD) excretion when coupled with SBM compared with HSBM and the opposite occurred with barley-fed kids ( ≤ 0.01). Unprocessed grain offered with SBM led to higher PD excretion than with HSBM whereas protein degradability had no effect when processed grain was fed ( ≤ 0.03). Results of the current experiment with high-concentrate diets showed that microbial N synthesis could be maximized in goat kids by combining slowly fermented grains (corn or unprocessed grains) with a highly degradable protein supplement (SBM). With barley, a more rapidly fermented grain, a greater microbial N synthesis was observed when supplementing a low-degradable protein (HSBM).

  1. Identification and Fine Mapping of a White Husk Gene in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Zhu, Jinghuan; Shang, Yi; Wang, Junmei; Jia, Qiaojun; Zhang, Qisen; Yang, Jianming; Li, Chengdao

    2016-01-01

    Barley is the only crop in the Poaceae family with adhering husks at maturity. The color of husk at barely development stage could influence the agronomic traits and malting qualities of grains. A barley mutant with a white husk was discovered from the malting barley cultivar Supi 3 and designated wh (white husk). Morphological changes and the genetics of white husk barley were investigated. Husks of the mutant were white at the heading and flowering stages but yellowed at maturity. The diastatic power and α-amino nitrogen contents also significantly increased in wh mutant. Transmission electron microscopy examination showed abnormal chloroplast development in the mutant. Genetic analysis of F2 and BC1F1 populations developed from a cross of wh and Yangnongpi 5 (green husk) showed that the white husk was controlled by a single recessive gene (wh). The wh gene was initially mapped between 49.64 and 51.77 cM on chromosome 3H, which is syntenic with rice chromosome 1 where a white husk gene wlp1 has been isolated. The barley orthologous gene of wlp1 was sequenced from both parents and a 688 bp deletion identified in the wh mutant. We further fine-mapped the wh gene between SSR markers Bmac0067 and Bmag0508a with distances of 0.36 cM and 0.27 cM in an F2 population with 1115 individuals of white husk. However, the wlp1 orthologous gene was mapped outside the interval. New candidate genes were identified based on the barley genome sequence. PMID:27028408

  2. Identification and Fine Mapping of a White Husk Gene in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Hua, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Zhu, Jinghuan; Shang, Yi; Wang, Junmei; Jia, Qiaojun; Zhang, Qisen; Yang, Jianming; Li, Chengdao

    2016-01-01

    Barley is the only crop in the Poaceae family with adhering husks at maturity. The color of husk at barely development stage could influence the agronomic traits and malting qualities of grains. A barley mutant with a white husk was discovered from the malting barley cultivar Supi 3 and designated wh (white husk). Morphological changes and the genetics of white husk barley were investigated. Husks of the mutant were white at the heading and flowering stages but yellowed at maturity. The diastatic power and α-amino nitrogen contents also significantly increased in wh mutant. Transmission electron microscopy examination showed abnormal chloroplast development in the mutant. Genetic analysis of F2 and BC1F1 populations developed from a cross of wh and Yangnongpi 5 (green husk) showed that the white husk was controlled by a single recessive gene (wh). The wh gene was initially mapped between 49.64 and 51.77 cM on chromosome 3H, which is syntenic with rice chromosome 1 where a white husk gene wlp1 has been isolated. The barley orthologous gene of wlp1 was sequenced from both parents and a 688 bp deletion identified in the wh mutant. We further fine-mapped the wh gene between SSR markers Bmac0067 and Bmag0508a with distances of 0.36 cM and 0.27 cM in an F2 population with 1115 individuals of white husk. However, the wlp1 orthologous gene was mapped outside the interval. New candidate genes were identified based on the barley genome sequence.

  3. Identification and Fine Mapping of a White Husk Gene in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Hua, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Zhu, Jinghuan; Shang, Yi; Wang, Junmei; Jia, Qiaojun; Zhang, Qisen; Yang, Jianming; Li, Chengdao

    2016-01-01

    Barley is the only crop in the Poaceae family with adhering husks at maturity. The color of husk at barely development stage could influence the agronomic traits and malting qualities of grains. A barley mutant with a white husk was discovered from the malting barley cultivar Supi 3 and designated wh (white husk). Morphological changes and the genetics of white husk barley were investigated. Husks of the mutant were white at the heading and flowering stages but yellowed at maturity. The diastatic power and α-amino nitrogen contents also significantly increased in wh mutant. Transmission electron microscopy examination showed abnormal chloroplast development in the mutant. Genetic analysis of F2 and BC1F1 populations developed from a cross of wh and Yangnongpi 5 (green husk) showed that the white husk was controlled by a single recessive gene (wh). The wh gene was initially mapped between 49.64 and 51.77 cM on chromosome 3H, which is syntenic with rice chromosome 1 where a white husk gene wlp1 has been isolated. The barley orthologous gene of wlp1 was sequenced from both parents and a 688 bp deletion identified in the wh mutant. We further fine-mapped the wh gene between SSR markers Bmac0067 and Bmag0508a with distances of 0.36 cM and 0.27 cM in an F2 population with 1115 individuals of white husk. However, the wlp1 orthologous gene was mapped outside the interval. New candidate genes were identified based on the barley genome sequence. PMID:27028408

  4. A role for phosphorylation in the regulation of the barley scutellar peptide transporter HvPTR1 by amino acids.

    PubMed

    Waterworth, Wanda M; Ashley, Merewyn K; West, Christopher E; Sunderland, Paul A; Bray, Clifford M

    2005-06-01

    Protein reserves in the cereal endosperm are sequentially degraded to small peptides and amino acids during germination and these are translocated across the scutellum to support growth of the embryo. Peptide transport in the germinating barley grain is mediated by specific carriers localized to the plasma membrane of the scutellar epithelium. In isolated barley embryos peptide transport is rapidly inhibited by amino acid concentrations comparable with those found in the post-germination barley grain. However, this inhibition of HvPTR1 activity is not effected at either the transcriptional or translational level. The protein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid repressed transport of Ala-[14C]Phe, but not [14C]Ala, into the barley scutellar epithelium. In vivo [32P]orthophosphate labelling studies of barley scutellar tissue in combination with immunoprecipitation studies using antiserum raised to HvPTR1 showed that HvPTR1 (66 kDa) is phosphorylated in the presence of amino acids. Immunopurified HvPTR1 was further demonstrated to be phosphorylated on serine residues. Digestion with the N-glycosidase enzyme PNGase F results in a shift in the molecular mass of the protein by 10 kDa, indicating that HvPTR1 is an N-linked glycoprotein. These results provide strong circumstantial evidence that HvPTR1 peptide transport activity in the germinating barley grain is regulated at the post-translational level by phosphorylation in response to rising levels of amino acids emanating from the endosperm as a result of storage protein breakdown and mobilization. This is potentially an important element in balancing the flux of organic nitrogen and carbon from the endosperm to embryo during germination and seedling establishment.

  5. Immunological characterization of the gluten fractions and their hydrolysates from wheat, rye and barley.

    PubMed

    Rallabhandi, Prasad; Sharma, Girdhari M; Pereira, Marion; Williams, Kristina M

    2015-02-18

    Gluten proteins in wheat, rye and barley cause celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine, which affects approximately 1% of the world population. Gluten is comprised of prolamin and glutelin. Since avoidance of dietary gluten is the only option for celiac patients, a sensitive gluten detection and quantitation method is warranted. Most regulatory agencies have set a threshold of 20 ppm gluten in foods labeled gluten-free, based on the currently available ELISA methods. However, these methods may exhibit differences in gluten quantitation from different gluten-containing grains. In this study, prolamin and glutelin fractions were isolated from wheat, rye, barley, oats and corn. Intact and pepsin-trypsin (PT)-digested prolamin and glutelin fractions were used to assess their immunoreactivity and gluten recovery by three sandwich and two competitive ELISA kits. The Western blots revealed varied affinity of ELISA antibodies to gluten-containing grain proteins and no reactivity to oat and corn proteins. ELISA results showed considerable variation in gluten recoveries from both intact and PT-digested gluten fractions among different kits. Prolamin fractions showed higher gluten recovery compared to their respective glutelin fractions. Among prolamins, barley exhibited higher recovery compared to wheat and rye with most of the ELISA kits used. Hydrolysis resulted in reduced gluten recovery of most gluten fractions. These results suggest that the suitability of ELISA for accurate gluten quantitation is dependent upon various factors, such as grain source, antibody specificity, gluten proteins and the level of their hydrolysis in foods.

  6. Thiamine treatments alleviate aphid infestations in barley and pea.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Afaf M; Jonsson, Lisbeth M V

    2013-10-01

    Treatment of plants with thiamine (Vitamin B1) has before been shown to activate plant defence against microorganisms. Here, we have studied the effects of thiamine treatments of plants on aphid reproduction and behaviour. The work was mainly carried out with bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Aphid population growth and aphid acceptance on plants grown from seeds soaked in a 150μM thiamine solution were reduced to ca. 60% of that on control plants. R. padi life span and the total number of offspring were reduced on barley plants treated with thiamine. Healthy aphids and aphids infected with the R. padi virus were similarly affected. Spraying or addition of thiamine at 150μM to nutrient solutions likewise resulted in reduced aphid population growth to ca. 60%, as did plant exposure to thiamine odour at 4mM. Thiamine treatments resulted in reduced aphid population growth also when tested with grain aphid (Sitobion avenae F.) on barley and pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum H.) on pea (Pisum sativum L.). There was no direct effect of thiamine on aphid reproduction or thiamine odour on aphid behaviour, as evaluated using artificial diets and by olfactometer tests, respectively. Two gene sequences regulated by salicylic acid showed higher transcript abundance and one gene sequence regulated by methyl jasmonate showed lower transcript abundance in thiamine-treated plants but not in control plants after aphid infestation. These results suggest that the aphid antibiosis and antixenosis effects may be related to priming of defence, but more studies are needed to explain the effects against aphids.

  7. N2O emission from organic barley cultivation as affected by green manure treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, S.; Hansen, S.; Bleken, M.; Dörsch, P.

    2012-04-01

    Legumes are an important source of nitrogen in stockless organic cereal production. However, substantial amounts of N can be lost from legume-grass leys prior to or after incorporation as green manure (GM). Here we report N2O emissions from a field experiment in SE Norway exploring different green manure management strategies: mulching versus removal of grass-clover herbage during a whole growing season and replacement as biogas residue to a subsequent barley crop. Grass-clover ley had significantly higher N2O emissions as compared with a non fertilized cereal reference during the GM year (2009). Mulching of herbage induced significantly more N2O emission (+ 0.37 kg N2O-N ha-1) throughout the growing season than removing herbage. In spring 2010, all plots were ploughed (with and without GM) resulting in generally higher N2O emissions during barley production. Addition of biogas residue (80 kg N ha-1) in 2010 to previously non mulched GM and unfertilized cereal plots (2009) had no significant effect on cumulative N2O emissions relative to a treatment receiving the same amount of N in form of mulched aboveground GM. Ley management (mulching vs. removing biomass in 2009) had no effect on N2O emissions during barley production in 2010. In general, organic amendments (previously mulched or harvested GM, biorest) increased N2O emissions relative to a reference treatment with low mineral N fertilisation (80 kg N ha-1). Organic cereal production emitted 95 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain, which was substantially higher than in the reference treatment with 80 kg mineral N fertilization in 2010 (47 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain).

  8. N2O emission from organic barley cultivation as affected by green manure management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, S.; Hansen, S.; Azzaroli Bleken, M.; Dörsch, P.

    2012-07-01

    Legumes are an important source of nitrogen in stockless organic cereal production. However, substantial amounts of N can be lost from legume-grass leys prior to or after incorporation as green manure (GM). Here we report N2O emissions from a field experiment in SE Norway exploring different green manure management strategies: mulching versus removal of grass-clover herbage during a whole growing season and return as biogas residue to a subsequent barley crop. Grass-clover ley had small but significantly higher N2O emissions as compared with a non-fertilised cereal reference during the year of green manure (GM) production in 2009. Mulching of herbage induced significantly more N2O emission (+0.37 kg N2O-N ha-1) throughout the growing season than removing herbage. In spring 2010, all plots were ploughed (with and without GM) and sown with barley, resulting in generally higher N2O emissions than during the previous year. Application of biogas residue (60 kg NH4+-N + 50 kg organic N ha-1) before sowing did not increase emissions neither when applied to previous ley plots nor when applied to previously unfertilised cereal plots. Ley management (mulching vs. removing biomass in 2009) had no effect on N2O emissions during barley production in 2010. In general, GM ley (mulched or harvested) increased N2O emissions relative to a cereal reference with low mineral N fertilisation (80 kg N ha-1). Based on measurements covering the growing season 2010, organic cereal production emitted 95 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain, which was substantially higher than in the cereal reference treatment with 80 kg mineral N fertilisation (47 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain).

  9. N2O emission from organic barley cultivation as affected by green manure management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, S.; Hansen, S.; Azzaroli Bleken, M.; Dörsch, P.

    2012-02-01

    Legumes are an important source of nitrogen in stockless organic cereal production. However, substantial amounts of N can be lost from legume-grass leys prior to or after incorporation as green manure (GM). Here we report N2O emissions from a field experiment in SE Norway exploring different green manure management strategies: mulching versus removal of grass-clover herbage during a whole growing season and replacement as biogas residue to a subsequent barley crop. Grass-clover ley had small but significantly higher N2O emissions as compared with a non-fertilized cereal reference during the year of green manure (GM) production in 2009. Mulching of herbage induced significantly more N2O emission (+0.37 kg N2O-N ha-1) throughout the growing season than removing herbage. In spring 2010 all plots were ploughed (with and without GM) and sown with barley, resulting in generally higher N2O emissions than during the previous year. Application of biogas residue (110 kg N ha-1) before sowing did not increase emissions neither when applied to previous ley plots nor when applied to previously unfertilized cereal plots. Ley management (mulching vs. removing biomass in 2009) had no effect on N2O emissions during barley production in 2010. In general, GM ley (mulched or harvested) increased N2O emissions relative to a cereal reference with low mineral N fertilisation (80 kg N ha-1). Organic cereal production emitted 95 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain, which was substantially higher than in the cereal reference treatment with 80 kg mineral N fertilization in 2010 (47 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain).

  10. Assessment and introduction of quantitative resistance to Fusarium head blight in elite spring barley.

    PubMed

    Linkmeyer, A; Götz, M; Hu, L; Asam, S; Rychlik, M; Hausladen, H; Hess, M; Hückelhoven, R

    2013-12-01

    Breeding for resistance is a key task to control Fusarium head blight (FHB), a devastating disease of small cereals leading to economic losses and grain contamination with mycotoxins harmful for humans and animals. In the present work, FHB resistance of the six-rowed spring barley 'Chevron' to FHB in Germany was compared with those of adapted German spring barley cultivars. Both under natural infection conditions and after spray inoculation with conidia of Fusarium culmorum, F. sporotrichioides, and F. avenaceum under field conditions, Chevron showed a high level of quantitative resistance to the infection and contamination of grain with diverse mycotoxins. This indicates that Chevron is not only a little susceptible to deoxynivalenol-producing Fusarium spp. but also to Fusarium spp. producing type A trichothecenes and enniatins. Monitoring the initial infection course of F. culmorum on barley lemma tissue by confocal laser-scanning microscopy provided evidence that FHB resistance of Chevron is partially mediated by a preformed penetration resistance, because direct penetration of floral tissue by F. culmorum was observed rarely on Chevron but was common on susceptible genotypes. Alternatively, F. culmorum penetrated Chevron lemma tissue via stomata, which was unusual for susceptible genotypes. We generated double-haploid barley populations segregating for the major FHB resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) Qrgz-2H-8 of Chevron. Subsequently, we characterized these populations by spray inoculation with conidia of F. culmorum and F. sporotrichioides. This suggested that Qrgz-2H-8 was functional in the genetic background of European elite barley cultivars. However, the degree of achieved resistance was very low when compared with quantitative resistance of the QTL donor Chevron, and the introgression of Qrgz-2H-8 was not sufficient to mediate the cellular resistance phenotype of Chevron in the European backgrounds.

  11. Variability in nutrient composition of cereal grains from different origins.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinyoung; Nam, Doo Seok; Kong, Changsu

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient composition of individual feed ingredient in mixed feed is important for accurate formulation of animal feeds. However, each feed ingredient can be different depending on its origin. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the variability in nutrient compositions of corn, wheat, and barley grains from different origins. Cereal grains used in this study were from 5 countries for 432 corn samples, 5 countries for 65 wheat samples, and 3 countries for 60 barley samples. They were imported to Korea between 2006 and 2015. These grain samples were subjected to analysis for moisture, crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), crude fiber (CF), ash, calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and gross energy (GE). The concentrations of moisture, CP, EE, CF, ash, Ca, P, and GE of corn differed (P < 0.05) among countries. GE in corn samples ranged from 3836 kcal/kg (Ukraine) to 3995 kcal/kg (Brazil). There were also differences (P < 0.05) in moisture, CP, ash, and P of wheat and in moisture, CF, Ca, P, and GE in barley from different countries. GE values in wheat ranged from 3957 kcal/kg (Brazil) to 4058 kcal/kg (United States) and GE values in barley samples ranged from 3894 kcal/kg (India) to 4059 kcal/kg (Australia). The most different nutrient depending on origins was Ca. The coefficient of variation was 65.7 % for corn, 57.4 % for wheat, and 28.8 % for barley. In conclusion, nutrients and energy contents in corn, wheat, and barley from various origins investigated in the present study were different. Therefore, it is important to consider these variations when formulating animal feeds.

  12. Comparing Multiple Reaction Monitoring and Sequential Window Acquisition of All Theoretical Mass Spectra for the Relative Quantification of Barley Gluten in Selectively Bred Barley Lines.

    PubMed

    Colgrave, Michelle L; Byrne, Keren; Blundell, Malcolm; Heidelberger, Sibylle; Lane, Catherine S; Tanner, Gregory J; Howitt, Crispin A

    2016-09-20

    Celiac disease (CD) is a disease of the small intestine that occurs in genetically susceptible subjects triggered by the ingestion of cereal gluten proteins for which the only treatment is strict adherence to a life-long gluten-free diet. Barley contains four gluten protein families, and the existence of barley genotypes that do not accumulate the B-, C-, and D-hordeins paved the way for the development of an ultralow gluten phenotype. Using conventional breeding strategies, three null mutations behaving as recessive alleles were combined to create a hordein triple-null barley variety. Proteomics has become an invaluable tool for characterization and quantification of the protein complement of cereal grains. In this study multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry, viewed as the gold standard for peptide quantification, was compared to the data-independent acquisition strategy known as SWATH-MS (sequential window acquisition of all theoretical mass spectra). SWATH-MS was comparable (p < 0.001) to MRM-MS for 32/33 peptides assessed across the four families of hordeins (gluten) in eight barley lines. The results of SWATH-MS analysis further confirmed the absence of the B-, C-, and D-hordeins in the triple-null barley line and showed significantly reduced levels ranging from <1% to 16% relative to wild-type (WT) cv Sloop for the minor γ-hordein class. SWATH-MS represents a valuable tool for quantitative proteomics based on its ability to generate reproducible data comparable with MRM-MS, but has the added benefits of allowing reinterrogation of data to improve analytical performance, ask new questions, and in this case perform quantification of trypsin-resistant proteins (C-hordeins) through analysis of their semi- or nontryptic fragments. PMID:27533879

  13. The influence of feeding crimped kernel maize silage on growth performance and intestinal colonization with Campylobacter jejuni of broilers.

    PubMed

    Ranjitkar, Samir; Engberg, Ricarda Margarete

    2016-01-01

    An infection trial and a production trial over 35 days were conducted in parallel to study the influence of feeding crimped kernel maize silage (CKMS) on the intestinal Campylobacter jejuni colonization and broiler performance, respectively. The CKMS was used at dietary inclusion levels of 15% and 30% in maize-based diets. Broilers were orally inoculated with 2 × 10(5) log cfu/ml C. jejuni on day 14. Four birds from each pen were randomly selected and killed by cervical dislocation on days 3, 6, 9, 14 and 21 post infection and intestinal contents from ileum, caeca and rectum as well as liver samples were taken. Body weight and feed consumption of broilers were registered on days 13, 22 and 35. On day 35, litter dry matter (DM) was measured and the condition of the foot pads was evaluated. There was no significant effect of CKMS on the colonization of C. jejuni. Body weight of the broilers supplemented with 15% CKMS was comparable with the control maize-based feed, whereas addition of 30% CKMS reduced broiler body weight (P < 0.001). However, DM intake and feed conversion ratio were the same in all three dietary treatments. Furthermore, the foot pad condition of broilers significantly improved with the inclusion of CKMS on broiler diets as a result of a higher DM content in the litter material. It is concluded that CKMS did not influence intestinal Campylobacter colonization, but improved the foot pad health of broilers.

  14. AgRISTARS: Foreign commodity production forecasting. The 1980 US/Canada wheat and barley exploratory experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payne, R. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The crop identification procedures used performed were for spring small grains and are conducive to automation. The performance of the machine processing techniques shows a significant improvement over previously evaluated technology; however, the crop calendars require additional development and refinements prior to integration into automated area estimation technology. The integrated technology is capable of producing accurate and consistent spring small grains proportion estimates. Barley proportion estimation technology was not satisfactorily evaluated because LANDSAT sample segment data was not available for high density barley of primary importance in foreign regions and the low density segments examined were not judged to give indicative or unequvocal results. Generally, the spring small grains technology is ready for evaluation in a pilot experiment focusing on sensitivity analysis to a variety of agricultural and meteorological conditions representative of the global environment.

  15. A preliminary study on the occurrence of Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxin B1 in imported wheat and barley in Penang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K R N; Salleh, Baharuddin

    2010-11-01

    Thirty samples consisting of wheat (15) and barley (15) were collected from different markets in Penang, Malaysia, originating from India and Thailand, respectively. All samples were analyzed for occurrence of Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Aspergillus flavus was dominant in all samples followed by A. niger. AFB1 could be detected in three wheat samples ranging from 0.42 to 1.89 μg/kg and one barley sample had 0.58 μg/kg of AFB1. The AFB1 levels in all the samples were below the Malaysian regulatory limits (<35 μg/kg). The frequency and quantity of AFB1 levels in this study were very low in wheat and barley samples compared to other agricultural commodities reported in India and Thailand. This is the first report on determination of Aspergillus spp. and AFB1 in imported wheat and barley grains in Penang, Malaysia.

  16. Basic leucine zipper family in barley: genome-wide characterization of members and expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Pourabed, Ehsan; Ghane Golmohamadi, Farzan; Soleymani Monfared, Peyman; Razavi, Seyed Morteza; Shobbar, Zahra-Sadat

    2015-01-01

    The basic leucine zipper (bZIP) family is one of the largest and most diverse transcription factors in eukaryotes participating in many essential plant processes. We identified 141 bZIP proteins encoded by 89 genes from the Hordeum vulgare genome. HvbZIPs were classified into 11 groups based on their DNA-binding motif. Amino acid sequence alignment of the HvbZIPs basic-hinge regions revealed some highly conserved residues within each group. The leucine zipper heptads were analyzed predicting their dimerization properties. 34 conserved motifs were identified outside the bZIP domain. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that major diversification within the bZIP family predated the monocot/dicot divergence, although intra-species duplication and parallel evolution seems to be occurred afterward. Localization of HvbZIPs on the barley chromosomes revealed that different groups have been distributed on seven chromosomes of barley. Six types of intron pattern were detected within the basic-hinge regions. Most of the detected cis-elements in the promoter and UTR sequences were involved in seed development or abiotic stress response. Microarray data analysis revealed differential expression pattern of HvbZIPs in response to ABA treatment, drought, and cold stresses and during barley grain development and germination. This information would be helpful for functional characterization of bZIP transcription factors in barley.

  17. Clusters of genes encoding fructan biosynthesizing enzymes in wheat and barley.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Bao-Lam; Mather, Diane E; Schreiber, Andreas W; Toubia, John; Baumann, Ute; Shoaei, Zahra; Stein, Nils; Ariyadasa, Ruvini; Stangoulis, James C R; Edwards, James; Shirley, Neil; Langridge, Peter; Fleury, Delphine

    2012-10-01

    Fructans are soluble carbohydrates with health benefits and possible roles in plant adaptation. Fructan biosynthetic genes were isolated using comparative genomics and physical mapping followed by BAC sequencing in barley. Genes encoding sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST), fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase (1-FFT) and sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferase (6-SFT) were clustered together with multiple copies of vacuolar invertase genes and a transposable element on two barley BAC. Intron-exon structures of the genes were similar. Phylogenetic analysis of the fructosyltransferases and invertases in the Poaceae showed that the fructan biosynthetic genes may have evolved from vacuolar invertases. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed using leaf RNA extracted from three wheat cultivars grown under different conditions. The 1-SST, 1-FFT and 6-SFT genes had correlated expression patterns in our wheat experiment and in existing barley transcriptome database. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were developed and successfully mapped to a major QTL region affecting wheat grain fructan accumulation in two independent wheat populations. The alleles controlling high- and low- fructan in parental lines were also found to be associated in fructan production in a diverse set of 128 wheat lines. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on the mapping and sequencing of a fructan biosynthetic gene cluster and in particular, the isolation of a novel 1-FFT gene from barley.

  18. Clusters of genes encoding fructan biosynthesizing enzymes in wheat and barley.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Bao-Lam; Mather, Diane E; Schreiber, Andreas W; Toubia, John; Baumann, Ute; Shoaei, Zahra; Stein, Nils; Ariyadasa, Ruvini; Stangoulis, James C R; Edwards, James; Shirley, Neil; Langridge, Peter; Fleury, Delphine

    2012-10-01

    Fructans are soluble carbohydrates with health benefits and possible roles in plant adaptation. Fructan biosynthetic genes were isolated using comparative genomics and physical mapping followed by BAC sequencing in barley. Genes encoding sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST), fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase (1-FFT) and sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferase (6-SFT) were clustered together with multiple copies of vacuolar invertase genes and a transposable element on two barley BAC. Intron-exon structures of the genes were similar. Phylogenetic analysis of the fructosyltransferases and invertases in the Poaceae showed that the fructan biosynthetic genes may have evolved from vacuolar invertases. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed using leaf RNA extracted from three wheat cultivars grown under different conditions. The 1-SST, 1-FFT and 6-SFT genes had correlated expression patterns in our wheat experiment and in existing barley transcriptome database. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were developed and successfully mapped to a major QTL region affecting wheat grain fructan accumulation in two independent wheat populations. The alleles controlling high- and low- fructan in parental lines were also found to be associated in fructan production in a diverse set of 128 wheat lines. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on the mapping and sequencing of a fructan biosynthetic gene cluster and in particular, the isolation of a novel 1-FFT gene from barley. PMID:22864927

  19. The Discovery of Resistant Sources of Spring Barley, Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum, and Unique Greenbug Biotypes.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, J Scott; Mornhinweg, Dolores W; Payton, Mark E; Puterka, Gary J

    2016-02-01

    The genetic sources for host-plant resistance to the greenbug (Schizaphis graminum Rondani) in barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) are limited in that only two single dominant genes Rsg1 and Rsg2 are available for the complex of greenbug biotypes. We evaluated four new barley lines from the Wild Barley Diversity Collection (WBDC) that previously showed potential for greenbug resistance. Three of those entries, WBDC 53, WBDC 117, WBDC 336, exhibited very dominant sources of resistance to older known biotypes B, C, E, F, H, I, and TX1, which also add to the host-plant differentials used to separate these greenbug biotypes. We also re-evaluated the earlier known set of greenbug biotypes that have been in culture for several years against the known host-plant differentials, and included seven newer greenbug isolates collected from Wyoming to the full complement of small grain differentials. This resulted in the discovery of five new greenbug biotypes, WY10 MC, WY81, WY10 B, WY12 MC, and WY86. Wyoming isolates WY4 A and WY4 B were identical in their phenotypic profile, and should be combined as a single unique greenbug biotype. These barley trials resulted in finding new sources of host-plant resistance, although more research needs to be conducted on what type of resistance was found, and how it can be used. We also document that the Wheatland, Wyoming area serves as a very conducive environment for the development of new greenbug biotypes.

  20. Basic leucine zipper family in barley: genome-wide characterization of members and expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Pourabed, Ehsan; Ghane Golmohamadi, Farzan; Soleymani Monfared, Peyman; Razavi, Seyed Morteza; Shobbar, Zahra-Sadat

    2015-01-01

    The basic leucine zipper (bZIP) family is one of the largest and most diverse transcription factors in eukaryotes participating in many essential plant processes. We identified 141 bZIP proteins encoded by 89 genes from the Hordeum vulgare genome. HvbZIPs were classified into 11 groups based on their DNA-binding motif. Amino acid sequence alignment of the HvbZIPs basic-hinge regions revealed some highly conserved residues within each group. The leucine zipper heptads were analyzed predicting their dimerization properties. 34 conserved motifs were identified outside the bZIP domain. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that major diversification within the bZIP family predated the monocot/dicot divergence, although intra-species duplication and parallel evolution seems to be occurred afterward. Localization of HvbZIPs on the barley chromosomes revealed that different groups have been distributed on seven chromosomes of barley. Six types of intron pattern were detected within the basic-hinge regions. Most of the detected cis-elements in the promoter and UTR sequences were involved in seed development or abiotic stress response. Microarray data analysis revealed differential expression pattern of HvbZIPs in response to ABA treatment, drought, and cold stresses and during barley grain development and germination. This information would be helpful for functional characterization of bZIP transcription factors in barley. PMID:25173685

  1. Yield and Production Gaps in Rainfed Wheat, Barley, and Canola in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Chapagain, Tejendra; Good, Allen

    2015-01-01

    Improving crop yields are essential to meet the increasing pressure of global food demands. The loss of high quality land, the slowing in annual yield increases of major cereals, increasing fertilizer use, and the effect of this on the environment all indicate that we need to develop new strategies to increase grain yields with less impact on the environment. One strategy that could help address this concern is by narrowing the yield gaps of major crops using improved genetics and management. The objective of this study was to determine wheat (Triticum spp. L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and canola (Brassica napus L.) yields and production gaps in Alberta. We used 10 years of data (2005-2014) to understand yield variability and input efficiency at a farmers' specified level of management, and the yield potential under optimal management to suggest appropriate pathways for closing yield gaps. Significant management gaps were observed between attainable and actual yields of rainfed wheat (24%), barley (25%), and canola (30%). In addition, genetic gaps (i.e., gaps due to genetic selection) in wheat, barley, and canola were 18, 12, and 5%, respectively. Genetic selection with optimal crop management could increase yields of wheat, barley, and canola significantly, with estimated yield gains of 3.42, 1.92, and 1.65 million tons, respectively, each year under rainfed conditions in Alberta. This paper identifies yield gaps and offers suggestions to improve efficiency in crop production. PMID:26635824

  2. Yield and Production Gaps in Rainfed Wheat, Barley, and Canola in Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Chapagain, Tejendra; Good, Allen

    2015-01-01

    Improving crop yields are essential to meet the increasing pressure of global food demands. The loss of high quality land, the slowing in annual yield increases of major cereals, increasing fertilizer use, and the effect of this on the environment all indicate that we need to develop new strategies to increase grain yields with less impact on the environment. One strategy that could help address this concern is by narrowing the yield gaps of major crops using improved genetics and management. The objective of this study was to determine wheat (Triticum spp. L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and canola (Brassica napus L.) yields and production gaps in Alberta. We used 10 years of data (2005–2014) to understand yield variability and input efficiency at a farmers’ specified level of management, and the yield potential under optimal management to suggest appropriate pathways for closing yield gaps. Significant management gaps were observed between attainable and actual yields of rainfed wheat (24%), barley (25%), and canola (30%). In addition, genetic gaps (i.e., gaps due to genetic selection) in wheat, barley, and canola were 18, 12, and 5%, respectively. Genetic selection with optimal crop management could increase yields of wheat, barley, and canola significantly, with estimated yield gains of 3.42, 1.92, and 1.65 million tons, respectively, each year under rainfed conditions in Alberta. This paper identifies yield gaps and offers suggestions to improve efficiency in crop production. PMID:26635824

  3. Activity-based protein profiling of hydrolytic enzymes induced by gibberellic acid in isolated aleurone layers of malting barley.

    PubMed

    Daneri-Castro, Sergio N; Chandrasekar, Balakumaran; Grosse-Holz, Friederike M; van der Hoorn, Renier A L; Roberts, Thomas H

    2016-09-01

    During barley germination, the aleurone layer secretes most of the enzymes required to degrade the endosperm, many of which are yet to be characterized. We used activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) to detect a range of active enzymes extracted from aleurone layers isolated from grains of a commercial malting barley variety incubated with or without gibberellic acid (GA). Enzymes found to be induced by GA were putative aleurains, cathepsin-B-like proteases and serine hydrolases. By using an inhibitory sugar panel, a specific active retaining β-glycosidase in the barley aleurone was identified as a putative xylanase. Our results show that ABPP can be used rapidly to identify a variety of active enzyme isoforms in cereal aleurone without the need for enzyme purification.

  4. Development of quick cooking multi-grain dalia utilizing sprouted grains.

    PubMed

    Mridula, D; Sharma, Monika; Gupta, R K

    2015-09-01

    Multi-grain dalia (MGD) formulations were prepared utilizing sprouted wheat and mixer of other three grains (barley, sorghum and pearl millet) in the ratio of 100:0 (MGD-A), 75:25 (MGD-B), 50:50 (MGD-C), 25:75 (MGD-D) and 0:100 (MGD-E), respectively. The mixer of barley, sorghum and pearl millet was prepared using 50, 25, 25 parts of these grains, respectively. The recovery of grits/ dalia (particle size 1.41 to 2 mm) from sprouted wheat and barley was 74.56 and 69.77 %, respectively while sorghum and pearl millet yield 47.94 and 49.39 % (particle size 0.954 to 1.41 mm), respectively. Sprouting brought a reduction of cooking time by about 50 % as compared to un-sprouted studied grains. Cooking time for different MGD formulations ranged from 3.91 to 4.42 min, which was slightly increased with increasing proportion of mixer of barley, sorghum and pearl millet (p > 0.05). Rehydration ratio of MGD samples varied from 3.12 to 3.45 with minimum in MGD-E sample. Though protein content was decreased with increasing proportion of mixer of three grains in MGD samples but in vitro protein digestibility (58.68 to 62.75 %) was similar (p > 0.05). The mean overall sensory acceptability scores for MGD samples ranged from 7.50 to 8.49 with ≥8.0 in samples having up to 75 % grits of mixer of three grains. In view of very good overall sensory acceptability, rich in crude fibre, calcium and iron content and low cooking time, 25:75 parts of sprouted wheat and mixer of studied three grains, respectively may be considered for preparation of acceptable quality quick cooking multi-grain dalia. PMID:26344997

  5. 2015 nationwide survey revealed Barley stripe mosaic virus in Korean barley fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A seed-transmitted virus has consistently caused significant economic damage to barley crops in Korea in recent years, and may be increasing because many farmers save seed for replanting. Because some barley seed is imported, there is the potential for introduction of new seed-transmitted viruses, c...

  6. Population Subdivision of Fusarium graminearum from Barley and Wheat in the Upper Midwestern United States at the Turn of the Century.

    PubMed

    Liang, Junmin; Lofgren, Lotus; Ma, Zhanhong; Ward, Todd J; Kistler, H Corby

    2015-11-01

    Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat and barley, is one of the most economically destructive pathogens of these grains worldwide. Recent population genetic studies of the pathogen obtained from wheat in North America supported population subdivision in part correlated with the spectrum of trichothecene mycotoxins (chemotype) produced by individuals within each population. In contrast, a recent study of F. graminearum obtained from diseased barley in the upper Midwestern United States concluded that only a single population was present, consisting of individuals with various chemotypes. To test whether strains derived from different hosts potentially have different population dynamics, we obtained the barley strains used in the previous study and compared them with wheat strains isolated at a similar time and geographic origin. A total of 247 F. graminearum isolates from barley were assigned firmly into two clusters using a Bayesian clustering method. Subdivision within the barley population corresponded to the previously described NA1 (correlated with the 15ADON chemotype) and NA2 (correlated with the 3ADON chemotype) populations from wheat. However, in both sampling periods the barley population exhibited a higher level of genetic differentiation between NA1 and NA2 populations, fewer admixed individuals and evidence of unidirectional gene introgression (15ADON strains with NA2 genetic backgrounds). These results suggest less recombination between NA1 and NA2 populations on barley compared with wheat. The frequency of 3ADON chemotype strains in the most recently surveyed barley population suggests a latitudinal cline from the northern (49%), central (40%) to the southern (29%) sampling area. The potential to produce a novel trichothecene, 3α-acetoxy,7α,15-dihydroxy-12,13-epoxytrichothe-9-ene (NX-2), was not detected in the barley population but occurred at a low rate (2.4%) in the wheat population. PMID:26107972

  7. Characterization of Antibodies for Grain-Specific Gluten Detection.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Girdhari M; Rallabhandi, Prasad; Williams, Kristina M; Pahlavan, Autusa

    2016-03-01

    Gluten ingestion causes immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergy or celiac disease in sensitive individuals, and a strict gluten-free diet greatly limits food choices. Immunoassays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are used to quantify gluten to ensure labeling compliance of gluten-free foods. Anti-gluten antibodies may not exhibit equal affinity to gluten from wheat, rye, and barley. Moreover, because wheat gluten is commonly used as a calibrator in ELISA, accurate gluten quantitation from rye and barley contaminated foods may be compromised. Immunoassays utilizing grain-specific antibodies and calibrators may help improve gluten quantitation. In this study, polyclonal antibodies raised against gluten-containing grain-specific peptides were characterized for their immunoreactivity to gluten from different grain sources. Strong immunoreactivity to multiple gluten polypeptides from wheat, rye, and barley was observed in the range 34 to 43 kDa with anti-gliadin, 11 to 15 and 72 to 95 kDa with anti-secalin, and 30 to 43 kDa with anti-hordein peptide antibodies, respectively. Minimal or no cross-reactivity with gluten from other grains was observed among these antibodies. The anti-consensus peptide antibody raised against a repetitive amino acid sequence of proline and glutamine exhibited immunoreactivity to gluten from wheat, rye, barley, and oat. The antibodies exhibited similar immunoreactivity with most of the corresponding grain cultivars by ELISA. The high specificity and minimal cross-reactivity of grain-specific antibodies suggest their potential use in immunoassays for accurate gluten quantitation.

  8. Comparison of the potential rate of population increase of brown and green color morphs of Sitobion avenae (Homoptera: Aphididae) on barley infected and uninfected with Barley yellow dwarf virus.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zu-Qing; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Thieme, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Life tables of brown and green color morphs of the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (Fabricius) reared on barley under laboratory conditions at 20 ± 1°C, 65% ± 5% relative humidity and a photoperiod of 16 : 8 h (L : D) were compared. The plants were either: (i) infected with the Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV); (ii) not infected with virus but previously infested with aphids; or (iii) healthy barley plants, which were not previously infested with aphids. Generally, both color morphs of S. avenae performed significantly better when fed on BYDV-infected plants than on plants that were virus free but had either not been or had been previously infested with aphids. Furthermore, when fed on BYDV-infected plants, green S. avenae developed significantly faster and had a significantly shorter reproductive period than the brown color morph. There were no significant differences in this respect between the two color morphs of S. avenae when they were reared on virus-free plants that either had been or not been previously infested with aphids. These results indicate that barley infected with BYDV is a more favorable host plant than uninfected barley for both the color morphs of S. avenae tested, particularly the green color morph.

  9. Comparison of the potential rate of population increase of brown and green color morphs of Sitobion avenae (Homoptera: Aphididae) on barley infected and uninfected with Barley yellow dwarf virus.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zu-Qing; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Thieme, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Life tables of brown and green color morphs of the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (Fabricius) reared on barley under laboratory conditions at 20 ± 1°C, 65% ± 5% relative humidity and a photoperiod of 16 : 8 h (L : D) were compared. The plants were either: (i) infected with the Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV); (ii) not infected with virus but previously infested with aphids; or (iii) healthy barley plants, which were not previously infested with aphids. Generally, both color morphs of S. avenae performed significantly better when fed on BYDV-infected plants than on plants that were virus free but had either not been or had been previously infested with aphids. Furthermore, when fed on BYDV-infected plants, green S. avenae developed significantly faster and had a significantly shorter reproductive period than the brown color morph. There were no significant differences in this respect between the two color morphs of S. avenae when they were reared on virus-free plants that either had been or not been previously infested with aphids. These results indicate that barley infected with BYDV is a more favorable host plant than uninfected barley for both the color morphs of S. avenae tested, particularly the green color morph. PMID:24382739

  10. A comparison of cadmium and zinc accumulation by four cultivars of barley grown in sludge-amended soils

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, A.C.; Page, A.L.; Foster, K.W.; Jones, T.E.

    1982-07-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to compare the plant-tissue accumulation of Cd and Zn by four cultivars of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grown on three soils amended with 20 and 100 t/ha dried Imhoff tank sludges. Results indicated that metal uptakes by four cultivars of barley (Barsoy, Briggs, Florida 103, and Larker) were not significantly different when they were grown on both sludge-treated and non-sludge-treated (control) soils. The Cd and Zn concentrations of the plant tissue from sludge-treated soils, however, were significantly influenced by the sludge application and the soil type. For four cultivars of barley grown on the Ramona sandy loam soil, the Cd content of grain averaged <0.04 (<0.04-0.03) ..mu..g/g at the control and increased to 0.38 (0.19-0.53) ..mu..g/g at the 100-t/ha sludge treatment. Under the same conditions, the average Zn concentrations of barley grain were 41, 67, and 92 ..mu..g/g for the control, 20-t/ha, and 100-t/ha treatments, respectively. Both soil texture and pH influenced Cd and Zn contents of barley. Crops grown on the Domino loam soil (fine, mixed, thermic Xerollic Calciorthid) accumulated the least amounts of Cd and Zn. At heavy sludge applications, higher levels of plant-tissue Cd and Zn were often found in barley grown on soils of coarser texture (Ramona sandy loam (fine, mixed, thermic Typic Haploxeralf) and Greenfield sandy loam (coarse, mixed, thermic Typic Haploxeralf)) and lower pH (Ramona sand loam, pH = 6.0).

  11. Does Whole Grain Consumption Alter Gut Microbiota and Satiety?

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Danielle N.; Martin, Roy J.; Keim, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes recent studies examining whole grain consumption and its effect on gut microbiota and satiety in healthy humans. Studies comparing whole grains to their refined grain counterparts were considered, as were studies comparing different grain types. Possible mechanisms linking microbial metabolism and satiety are described. Clinical trials show that whole grain wheat, maize, and barley alter the human gut microbiota, but these findings are based on a few studies that do not include satiety components, so no functional claims between microbiota and satiety can be made. Ten satiety trials were evaluated and provide evidence that whole oats, barley, and rye can increase satiety, whereas the evidence for whole wheat and maize is not compelling. There are many gaps in the literature; no one clinical trial has examined the effects of whole grains on satiety and gut microbiota together. Once understanding the impact of whole grains on satiety and microbiota is more developed, then particular grains might be used for better appetite control. With this information at hand, healthcare professionals could make individual dietary recommendations that promote satiety and contribute to weight control. PMID:27417768

  12. Contrasting effects of ethylene perception and biosynthesis inhibitors on germination and seedling growth of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Locke, J M; Bryce, J H; Morris, P C

    2000-11-01

    The effects of the plant growth regulator ethylene, and of ethylene inhibitors, on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) germination and seedling growth were investigated. Exogenous 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) at 100 microM enhanced ethylene production by barley seedlings and stimulated shoot growth, whereas both germination and seedling growth were inhibited by antagonists of ethylene perception (75 microM silver ions, 100 microM 2,5-norbornadiene (NBD)). In contrast, germination was unaffected by, and root and shoot growth of seedlings was strongly stimulated by inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis (10 microM cobalt chloride, 10 microM aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG)). Since the ethylene and polyamine biosynthetic pathways are linked through S:-adenosylmethionine, this prompted further explorations into the role of polyamines in germination and seedling growth. Exogenous polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) at 1 microM concentration stimulated barley seedling growth in a similar fashion to the ethylene biosynthetic inhibitors. Both polyamines and ethylene biosynthetic inhibitors reversed the inhibitory effects of ethylene perception inhibitors on germination and seedling growth. Blocking endogenous ethylene production with aminoethoxyvinylglycine enhanced the free putrescine and spermidine content of germinating barley grains. Thus endogenous polyamines may play a complementary, growth-promotive, role to ethylene in the normal course of barley germination. Further, experiments that have been carried out using inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis may have to be re-evaluated to take the possible effect of polyamines into account.

  13. Trichothecene genotypes and production profiles of Fusarium graminearum isolates obtained from barley cultivated in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Castañares, Eliana; Albuquerque, Diana Ramirez; Dinolfo, María Inés; Pinto, Virginia Fernandez; Patriarca, Andrea; Stenglein, Sebastián Alberto

    2014-06-01

    Fusarium graminearum is one of the most important pathogens isolated from small cereal grains with Fusarium Head Blight symptoms. The presence of this fungus is often linked to the occurrence of several mycotoxins in barley and wheat. The aim of our study was to characterize trichothecene genotypes and production profiles of F. graminearum sensu stricto isolates obtained from barley grains in Argentina. A total of 110 F. graminearum s.s. isolates were analyzed by PCR assays to predict deoxynivalenol (DON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON) and nivalenol (NIV) production, and all isolates were found to belong to the same molecular 15-ADON genotype. Trichothecene production in autoclaved rice was analyzed by using gas chromatography (GC) and confirmed by GC-MS. Of the 110 isolates, 95% were able to produce DON, 71% produced 15-ADON, 63% 3-ADON and 52% NIV. With the exception of a single isolate, all isolates that produced NIV, also produced DON. However, the NIV production was very low, ranging from 0.13 to 0.30 μg/g. Six different production profiles of DON and its acetyl-derivatives were detected, the predominant being simultaneous production of DON, 3-ADON and 15-ADON, followed by DON production, and DON and 15-ADON co-production. This work is the first attempt to characterize the trichothecene genotypes and production profiles of F. graminearum s.s. isolates from Argentinean barley. PMID:24727383

  14. Grain boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Balluffi, R.W.; Bristowe, P.D.

    1991-01-01

    The present document is a progress report describing the work accomplished to date during the second year of our four-year grant (February 15, 1990--February 14, 1994) to study grain boundaries. The research was focused on the following three major efforts: Study of the atomic structure of grain boundaries by means of x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and computer modeling; study of short-circuit diffusion along grain boundaries; and development of a Thin-film Deposition/Bonding Apparatus for the manufacture of high purity bicrystals.

  15. Influence of processing on the comparative feeding value of barley for feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Zinn, R A

    1993-01-01

    Ninety-six crossbred steers were used in a 172-d feedlot growth performance trial to determine the effects of type processing on the comparative feeding value of barley in a 90% concentrate finishing diet. Treatments were: 1) steam-flaked corn (SFC; density = .31 kg/L); 2) dry-rolled barley (DRB; density = .39 kg/L); 3) steam-rolled barley, coarse roll (SRB-C, density = .39 kg/L); and 4) SRB, thin roll (SRB-T, density = .19 kg/L). The ADG was similar (P > .10) across barley treatments, averaging 1.29 kg/d. Feed intake (P < .05) was lower for SRB than for DRB. Diet NE was greater (P < .05) for SRB than for DRB. Feed intake was lower (P < .05) for SFC than for barley diets. The influence of grain processing on characteristics of digestion was evaluated using four Holstein steers (average BW = 230 kg) with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum. Ruminal and total tract digestibility of OM and starch were lower (P < .05) for DRB than for SRB. Ruminal and total tract digestibility of OM and starch were similar (P > .10) for SRB-C and SRB-T. However, passage of nonammonia N was markedly increased (26.9%, P < .01) with SRB-T compared with SRB-C. This increase in ruminal N efficiency was due partly to reduced ruminal degradation of feed N (23.4%, P < .01) and partly to increased microbial N synthesis (13.3%, P > .10). The comparative feeding value of DRB, SRB-C, and SRB-T in this study was 90, 92, and 96% the value of SFC, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Analysis of QTLs for yield components, agronomic traits, and disease resistance in an advanced backcross population of spring barley.

    PubMed

    Li, J Z; Huang, X Q; Heinrichs, F; Ganal, M W; Röder, M S

    2006-05-01

    Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum, the wild progenitor of barley, is a potential source of useful genetic variation for barley breeding programs. The objective of this study was to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in an advanced backcross population of barley. A total of 207 BC3 lines were developed using the 2-rowed German spring cultivar Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare 'Brenda' as a recurrent parent and the H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum accession HS584 as a donor parent. The lines were genotyped by 108 simple-sequence repeat (SSR) markers and evaluated in field tests for the measurement of grain yield and its components, such as ear length, spikelet number per spike, grain number per spike, spike number, and 1000-grain mass, as well as heading date and plant height. A total of 100 QTLs were detected. Ten QTLs with increasing effects were found for ear length, spikelet number, and grain number per spike. Three QTLs contributed by HS584 were found to significantly decrease days to heading across all years at 2 locations. In addition, 2 QTLs from HS584 on chromosomes 2H and 3H were associated with resistance to leaf rust. Based on genotypic data obtained from this population, 55 introgression lines carrying 1 or 2 donor segments were selected to develop a set of doubled-haploid lines, which will be used to reconfirm and investigate the effects of 100 QTLs for future genetic studies.

  17. Cometary grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baum, William A.; Kreidl, Tobias J.; Schleicher, David G.

    1992-01-01

    CCD observations of cometary comas in the spectral continuum are reported. Radial brightness profiles of 14 comets and isophotal maps of three are presented. For 10 of the 14, the azimuthally averaged brightness in the vicinity of the nucleus falls off faster than rho exp -1, where rho is the projected radial distance from the nucleus in the plane of the sky. Simple modeling is used to show that radiation pressure alone cannot account for the observed departures from rho exp -1; it is postulated that the grains fade, i.e., decrease in albedo or size, while they glow outward. For only three of the comets no evidence was found of any grain fading at all. Cases with the most rapid grain fading occurred at small heliocentric distances, but so did some of the cases with no fading, from which large intrinsic differences from comet to comet in the nature of the grain population are inferred.

  18. Interstellar grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, T. P.

    1986-01-01

    There are few aspects of interstellar grains that can be unambiguously defined. Very little can be said that is independent of models or presuppositions; hence issues are raised and questions categorized, rather than providing definitive answers. The questions are issues fall into three general areas; the general physical and chemical nature of the grains; the processes by which they are formed and destroyed; and future observational approaches.

  19. Ontogeny of the barley plant as related to mutation expression and detection of pollen mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgdon, A.L.; Marcus, A.H.; Arenaz, P.; Rosichan, J.L.; Bogyo, T.P.; Nilan, R.A.

    1980-05-29

    Clustering of mutant pollen grains in a population of normal pollen due to premeiotic mutational events complicates translating mutation frequencies into rates. Embryo ontogeny in barley will be described and used to illustrate the formation of such mutant clusters. The nature of the statistics for mutation frequency will be described from a study of the reversion frequencies of various waxy mutants in barley. Computer analysis by a jackknife method of the reversion frequencies of a waxy mutant treated with the mutagen sodium azide showed a significantly higher reversion frequency than untreated material. Problems of the computer analysis suggest a better experimental design for pollen mutation experiments. Preliminary work on computer modeling for pollen development and mutation will be described.

  20. Ontogeny of the barley plant as related to mutation expression and detection of pollen mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgdon, A.L.; Marcus, A.H.; Arenaz, P.; Rosichan, J.L.; Bogyo, T.P.; Nilan, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    Clustering of mutant pollen grains in a population of normal pollen due to premeiotic mutational events complicates translating mutation frequencies into rates. Embryo ontogeny in barley will be described and used to illustrate the formation of such mutant clusters. The nature of the statistics for mutation frequency will be described from a study of the reversion frequencies of various waxy mutants in barley. Computer analysis by a ''jackknife'' method of the reversion of a waxy mutant treated with the mutagen sodium azide showed a significantly higher reversion frequency than untreated material. Problems of the computer analysis suggest a better experimental design for pollen mutation experiments. Preliminary work on computer modeling for pollen development and mutation will be described.

  1. Utilization of two sewage sludges on cropland: yield, nitrogen, and metal uptake in winter barley

    SciTech Connect

    Unger, M.

    1985-01-01

    Two municipal sludges, one from a highly industrialized city, Chicago, and another from a lesser industrialized, highly agricultural area, Tucson, are compared for barley production of Pima c 1 (Typic torrifluvent). Both sludges were responsible for highly significant additions of Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd, and P to the soil each year at the rates of 100mt/ha single and 20mt/ha for 2 years. Nitrogen responses for barley straw and grain were observed from both sludges. Tucson sludge appears to be attractive as a potential fertilizer, not only as an NPK source, but also for its minimal amounts of heavy metals. The Chicago sludge with high levels of heavy metals, particularly Cd, appears unsuited as a fertilizer because of the plant's tendency to take up toxic levels of heavy metals.

  2. Fungi and the natural occurrence of deoxynivalenol and fumonisins in malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Piacentini, Karim C; Savi, Geovana D; Pereira, Maria E V; Scussel, Vildes M

    2015-11-15

    The industrial use of barley grain has experienced continuous growth, mainly due to its economic importance for malt production. From a technological perspective, fungal persistence can reduce product marketability and cause economic losses. In this sense, the aim of the present study was to determine the presence and identification of mycoflora and the occurrence of deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FBs) in malting barley. The samples presented a low count of fungal colonies, with values ranging from 10.5 to 0.5 × 10(1)CFU g(-1) and the species most found were Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides with 26% and 12% of incidence, respectively. In the samples analyzed for mycotoxins occurrence, DON and FBs were present in 18% and 12%, respectively. The high concentrations of toxins found in the malting samples may be strongly influenced by agricultural practices and the weather conditions during critical phases of plant growth.

  3. The 1980 US/Canada wheat and barley exploratory experiment, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bizzell, R. M.; Prior, H. L.; Payne, R. W.; Disler, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    The results from the U.S./Canada Wheat and Barley Exploratory Experiment which was completed during FY 1980 are presented. The results indicate that the new crop identification procedures performed well for spring small grains and that they are conductive to automation. The performance of the machine processing techniques shows a significant improvement over previously evaluated technology. However, the crop calendars will require additional development and refinements prior to integration into automated area estimation technology. The evaluation showed the integrated technology to be capable of producing accurate and consistent spring small grains proportion estimates. However, barley proportion estimation technology was not satisfactorily evaluated. The low-density segments examined were judged not to give indicative or unequivocal results. It is concluded that, generally, the spring small grains technology is ready for evaluation in a pilot experiment focusing on sensitivity analyses to a variety of agricultural and meteorological conditions representative of the global environment. It is further concluded that a strong potential exists for establishing a highly efficient technology or spring small grains.

  4. Physiological and biochemical response of soil-grown barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) to cerium oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Rico, Cyren M; Barrios, Ana C; Tan, Wenjuan; Rubenecia, Rosnah; Lee, Sang Chul; Varela-Ramirez, Armando; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2015-07-01

    A soil microcosm study was performed to examine the impacts of cerium oxide nanoparticles (nCeO2) on the physiology, productivity, and macromolecular composition of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The plants were cultivated in soil treated with nCeO2 at 0, 125, 250, and 500 mg kg(-1) (control, nCeO2-L, nCeO2-M, and nCeO2-H, respectively). Accumulation of Ce in leaves/grains and its effects on plant stress and nutrient loading were analyzed. The data revealed that nCeO2-H promoted plant development resulting in 331 % increase in shoot biomass compared with the control. nCeO2 treatment modified the stress levels in leaves without apparent signs of toxicity. However, plants exposed to nCeO2-H treatment did not form grains. Compared with control, nCeO2-M enhanced grain Ce accumulation by as much as 294 % which was accompanied by remarkable increases in P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Al. Likewise, nCeO2-M enhanced the methionine, aspartic acid, threonine, tyrosine, arginine, and linolenic acid contents in the grains by up to 617, 31, 58, 141, 378, and 2.47 % respectively, compared with the rest of the treatments. The findings illustrate the beneficial and harmful effects of nanoceria in barley.

  5. Metabolic and transcriptional transitions in barley glumes reveal a role as transitory resource buffers during endosperm filling.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Stefan; Hollmann, Julien; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Riewe, David; Weschke, Winfriede; Weber, Hans

    2015-03-01

    During grain filling in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Barke) reserves are remobilized from vegetative organs. Glumes represent the vegetative tissues closest to grains, senesce late, and are involved in the conversion of assimilates. To analyse glume development and metabolism related to grain filling, parallel transcript and metabolite profiling in glumes and endosperm were performed, showing that glume metabolism and development adjusts to changing grain demands, reflected by specific signatures of metabolite and transcript abundances. Before high endosperm sink strength is established by storage product accumulation, glumes form early, intermediary sink organs, shifting then to remobilizing and exporting source organs. Metabolic and transcriptional transitions occur at two phases: first, at the onset of endosperm filling, as a consequence of endosperm sink activity and assimilate depletion in endosperm and vascular tissues; second, at late grain filling, by developmental ageing and senescence. Regulation of and transition between phases are probably governed by specific NAC and WRKY transcription factors, and both abscisic and jasmonic acid, and are accompanied by changed expression of specific nitrogen transporters. Expression and metabolite profiling suggest glume-specific mechanisms of assimilate conversion and translocation. In summary, grain filling and endosperm sink strength coordinate phase changes in glumes via metabolic, hormonal, and transcriptional control. This study provides a comprehensive view of barley glume development and metabolism, and identifies candidate genes and associated pathways, potentially important for breeding improved grain traits.

  6. 7 CFR 407.10 - Group risk plan for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Group risk plan for barley. 407.10 Section 407.10..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.10 Group risk plan for barley. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Barley for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  7. 7 CFR 407.10 - Group risk plan for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Group risk plan for barley. 407.10 Section 407.10..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.10 Group risk plan for barley. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Barley for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  8. 7 CFR 407.10 - Group risk plan for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Group risk plan for barley. 407.10 Section 407.10..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.10 Group risk plan for barley. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Barley for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  9. Identification and expression analyses of cytosolic glutamine synthetase genes in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Goodall, Andrew J; Kumar, Pankaj; Tobin, Alyson K

    2013-04-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) is a key enzyme in nitrogen (N) assimilation, particularly during seed development. Three cytosolic GS isoforms (HvGS1) were identified in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Golden Promise). Quantitation of gene expression, localization and response to N supply revealed that each gene plays a non-redundant role in different tissues and during development. Localization of HvGS1_1 in vascular cells of different tissues, combined with its abundance in the stem and its response to changes in N supply, indicate that it is important in N transport and remobilization. HvGS1_1 is located on chromosome 6H at 72.54 cM, close to the marker HVM074 which is associated with a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for grain protein content (GPC). HvGS1_1 may be a potential candidate gene to manipulate barley GPC. HvGS1_2 mRNA was localized to the leaf mesophyll cells, in the cortex and pericycle of roots, and was the dominant HvGS1 isoform in these tissues. HvGS1_2 expression increased in leaves with an increasing supply of N, suggesting its role in the primary assimilation of N. HvGS1_3 was specifically and predominantly localized in the grain, being highly expressed throughout grain development. HvGS1_3 expression increased specifically in the roots of plants grown on high NH(+)4, suggesting that it has a primary role in grain N assimilation and also in the protection against ammonium toxicity in roots. The expression of HvGS1 genes is directly correlated with protein and enzymatic activity, indicating that transcriptional regulation is of prime importance in the control of GS activity in barley.

  10. Effect of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration on the protein composition of cereal grain.

    PubMed

    Wroblewitz, Stefanie; Hüther, Liane; Manderscheid, Remy; Weigel, Hans-Joachim; Wätzig, Hermann; Dänicke, Sven

    2014-07-16

    The present study investigates effects of rising atmospheric CO2 concentration on protein composition of maize, wheat, and barley grain, especially on the fractions prolamins and glutelins. Cereals were grown at different atmospheric CO2 concentrations to simulate future climate conditions. Influences of two nitrogen fertilization levels were studied for wheat and barley. Enriched CO2 caused an increase of globulin and B-hordein of barley. In maize, the content of globulin, α-zein, and LMW polymers decreased, whereas total glutelin, zein, δ-zein, and HMW polymers rose. Different N supplies resulted in variations of barley subfractions and wheat globulin. Other environmental influences showed effects on the content of nearly all fractions and subfractions. Variations in starch-protein bodies caused by different CO2 treatments could be visualized by scanning electron microscopy. In conclusion, climate change would have impacts on structural composition of proteins and, consequently, on the nutritional value of cereals.

  11. Population subdivision of Fusarium graminearum from barley and wheat in the upper Midwestern United States at the turn of the century

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat and barley, is one of the most economically destructive pathogens of these grains worldwide. Recent population genetic studies of the pathogen obtained from wheat in North America supported population subdivision in part c...

  12. Analysis of grain characters in temperate grasses reveals distinctive patterns of endosperm organization associated with grain shape.

    PubMed

    Hands, Philip; Kourmpetli, Sofia; Sharples, Donna; Harris, Robert G; Drea, Sinéad

    2012-10-01

    Members of the core pooids represent the most important crops in temperate zones including wheat, barley, and oats. Their importance as crops is largely due to the grain, particularly the storage capabilities of the endosperm. In this study, a comprehensive survey of grain morphology and endosperm organization in representatives of wild and cultivated species throughout the core pooids was performed. As sister to the core pooid tribes Poeae, Aveneae, Triticeae, and Bromeae within the Pooideae subfamily, Brachypodium provides a taxonomically relevant reference point. Using macroscopic, histological, and molecular analyses distinct patterns of grain tissue organization in these species, focusing on the peripheral and modified aleurone, are described. The results indicate that aleurone organization is correlated with conventional grain quality characters such as grain shape and starch content. In addition to morphological and organizational variation, expression patterns of candidate gene markers underpinning this variation were examined. Features commonly associated with grains are largely defined by analyses on lineages within the Triticeae and knowledge of grain structure may be skewed as a result of the focus on wheat and barley. Specifically, the data suggest that the modified aleurone is largely restricted to species in the Triticeae tribe.

  13. Analysis of grain characters in temperate grasses reveals distinctive patterns of endosperm organization associated with grain shape

    PubMed Central

    Drea, Sinéad

    2012-01-01

    Members of the core pooids represent the most important crops in temperate zones including wheat, barley, and oats. Their importance as crops is largely due to the grain, particularly the storage capabilities of the endosperm. In this study, a comprehensive survey of grain morphology and endosperm organization in representatives of wild and cultivated species throughout the core pooids was performed. As sister to the core pooid tribes Poeae, Aveneae, Triticeae, and Bromeae within the Pooideae subfamily, Brachypodium provides a taxonomically relevant reference point. Using macroscopic, histological, and molecular analyses distinct patterns of grain tissue organization in these species, focusing on the peripheral and modified aleurone, are described. The results indicate that aleurone organization is correlated with conventional grain quality characters such as grain shape and starch content. In addition to morphological and organizational variation, expression patterns of candidate gene markers underpinning this variation were examined. Features commonly associated with grains are largely defined by analyses on lineages within the Triticeae and knowledge of grain structure may be skewed as a result of the focus on wheat and barley. Specifically, the data suggest that the modified aleurone is largely restricted to species in the Triticeae tribe. PMID:23081982

  14. Whole grain foods and health - a Scandinavian perspective.

    PubMed

    Frølich, Wenche; Aman, Per; Tetens, Inge

    2013-01-01

    The food-based dietary guidelines in the Scandinavian countries that recommend an intake of minimum 75 g whole grain per 10 MJ (2,388 kcal) per day are mainly derived from prospective cohort studies where quantitative but little qualitative details are available on whole grain products. The objective of the current paper is to clarify possible differences in nutritional and health effects of the types of whole grain grown and consumed in the Scandinavian countries. A further objective is to substantiate how processing may influence the nutritional value and potential health effects of different whole grains and whole grain foods. The most commonly consumed whole grain cereals in the Scandinavian countries are wheat, rye, and oats with a considerable inter-country variation in the consumption patterns and with barley constituting only a minor role. The chemical composition of these different whole grains and thus the whole grain products consumed vary considerably with regard to the content of macro- and micronutrients and bioactive components. A considerable amount of scientific substantiation shows that processing methods of the whole grains are important for the physiological and health effects of the final whole grain products. Future research should consider the specific properties of each cereal and its processing methods to further identify the uniqueness and health potentials of whole grain products. This would enable the authorities to provide more specific food-based dietary guidelines in relation to whole grain to the benefit of both the food industry and the consumer. PMID:23411562

  15. Whole grain foods and health – a Scandinavian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Frølich, Wenche; Åman, Per; Tetens, Inge

    2013-01-01

    The food-based dietary guidelines in the Scandinavian countries that recommend an intake of minimum 75 g whole grain per 10 MJ (2,388 kcal) per day are mainly derived from prospective cohort studies where quantitative but little qualitative details are available on whole grain products. The objective of the current paper is to clarify possible differences in nutritional and health effects of the types of whole grain grown and consumed in the Scandinavian countries. A further objective is to substantiate how processing may influence the nutritional value and potential health effects of different whole grains and whole grain foods. The most commonly consumed whole grain cereals in the Scandinavian countries are wheat, rye, and oats with a considerable inter-country variation in the consumption patterns and with barley constituting only a minor role. The chemical composition of these different whole grains and thus the whole grain products consumed vary considerably with regard to the content of macro- and micronutrients and bioactive components. A considerable amount of scientific substantiation shows that processing methods of the whole grains are important for the physiological and health effects of the final whole grain products. Future research should consider the specific properties of each cereal and its processing methods to further identify the uniqueness and health potentials of whole grain products. This would enable the authorities to provide more specific food-based dietary guidelines in relation to whole grain to the benefit of both the food industry and the consumer. PMID:23411562

  16. Factors determining accumulation of mycotoxin producers in cereal grain during harvesting.

    PubMed

    Lugauskas, Albinas; Raila, Algirdas; Zvicevicius, Egidijus; Railiene, Marija; Novosinskas, Henrikas

    2007-01-01

    During the meteorologically contrasting period of 2003-2005, the contamination of winter wheat, malt barley and fodder barley grain with micromycetes during grain harvesting and preparation for storage was investigated. Micromycetes of over 70 species ascribed to 16 genera were isolated and identified, the density of their populations in grain was determined. Micromycetes with a population density of >50% were attributed to dominant species. Short biological characteristic, ecological peculiarities of the dominating micromycetes are provided; factors determining intensity of their development and abilities to synthesise and excrete toxic metabolites are indicated. The importance of grain drying for stabilisation of its contamination with micromycete propagules is highlighted. It is noted that in grain dried in shaft dryer using air at 90 degrees C the number of cfu (colony forming units) was reduced from 2.2 to 8.2 times. When active ventilation is applied, conditions favourable for the development of micromycetes remain longest in the upper layers of the mound. The airflow passing through the layer of damp grain inhibits the development of micromycetes, but an increase of comparative air flow for more than 500 m3x(txh)(-1) did not reduce the abundance of micromycete cfu. After drying Alternaria alternata, Fusarium avenaceum, F. culmorum, Penicillum verrucosum dominated in wheat grain; Aspergillus flavus, Bipolaris sorokiniana, Fusarium chlamydosporum, F. culmorum, F. tricinctum in malts barley grain; Fusarium avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. tricinctum, Alternaria alternata in fodder barley grain. It has been determined that all micromycetes recorded on grain after drying are potential producers of toxic metabolites, i.e. are hazardous to human health.

  17. The prevalence and impact of Fusarium head blight pathogens and mycotoxins on malting barley quality in UK.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, L K; Cook, D J; Edwards, S G; Ray, R V

    2014-06-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium and Microdochium species can significantly affect the yield of barley grain as well as the quality and safety of malt and beer. The present study provides new knowledge on the impacts of the FHB pathogen complex on the malting and brewing quality parameters of naturally infected barley. Quantitative real-time PCR and liquid chromatography double mass spectrometry were used to quantify the predominant FHB pathogens and Fusarium mycotoxins, respectively, in commercially grown UK malting barley samples collected between 2007 and 2011. The predominant Fusarium species identified across the years were F. poae, F. tricinctum and F. avenaceum. Microdochium majus was the predominant Microdochium species in 2007, 2008, 2010 and 2011 whilst Microdochium nivale predominated in 2009. Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone quantified in samples collected between 2007 and 2009 were associated with F. graminearum and F. culmorum, whilst HT-2 and T-2, and nivalenol in samples collected between 2010 and 2011 correlated positively with F. langsethiae and F. poae, respectively. Analysis of the regional distribution and yearly variation in samples from 2010 to 2011 showed significant differences in the composition of the FHB species complex. In most regions (Scotland, the South and North of England) the harvest in 2010 had higher concentrations of Fusarium spp. than in 2011, although no significant difference was observed in the Midlands between the two years. Microdochium DNA was significantly higher in 2011 and in the North of England and Scotland compared to the South or Midlands regions. Pathogens of the FHB complex impacted negatively on grain yield and quality parameters. Thousand grain weight of malting barley was affected significantly by M. nivale and M. majus whilst specific weight correlated negatively with F. avenaceum and F. graminearum. To determine the impact of sub-acute infections of the identified Fusarium and Microdochium

  18. Barley Transformation Using Agrobacterium-Mediated Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwood, Wendy A.; Bartlett, Joanne G.; Alves, Silvia C.; Perry, Matthew; Smedley, Mark A.; Leyland, Nicola; Snape, John W.

    Methods for the transformation of barley using Agrobacterium-mediated techniques have been available for the past 10 years. Agrobacterium offers a number of advantages over biolistic-mediated techniques in terms of efficiency and the quality of the transformed plants produced. This chapter describes a simple system for the transformation of barley based on the infection of immature embryos with Agrobacterium tumefaciens followed by the selection of transgenic tissue on media containing the antibiotic hygromycin. The method can lead to the production of large numbers of fertile, independent transgenic lines. It is therefore ideal for studies of gene function in a cereal crop system.

  19. Genetics of barley hooded suppression.

    PubMed Central

    Roig, Cristina; Pozzi, Carlo; Santi, Luca; Müller, Judith; Wang, Yamei; Stile, Maria Rosaria; Rossini, Laura; Stanca, Michele; Salamini, Francesco

    2004-01-01

    The molecular basis of the barley dominant Hooded (K) mutant is a duplication of 305 bp in intron IV of the homeobox gene Bkn3. A chemical mutagenesis screen was carried out to identify genetical factors that participate in Bkn3 intron-mediated gene regulation. Plants from recurrently mutagenized KK seeds were examined for the suppression of the hooded awn phenotype induced by the K allele and, in total, 41 suK (suppressor of K) recessive mutants were identified. Complementation tests established the existence of five suK loci, and alleles suKB-4, suKC-33, suKD-25, suKE-74, and suKF-76 were studied in detail. All K-suppressed mutants showed a short-awn phenotype. The suK loci have been mapped by bulked segregant analysis nested in a standard mapping procedure based on AFLP markers. K suppressor loci suKB, B, E, and F all map in a short interval of chromosome 7H, while the locus suKD is assigned to chromosome 5H. A complementation test between the four suK mutants mapping on chromosome 7H and the short-awn mutant lks2, located nearby, excluded the allelism between suK loci and lks2. The last experiment made clear that the short-awn phenotype of suK mutants is due to a specific dominant function of the K allele, a function that is independent from the control on hood formation. The suK loci are discussed as candidate participants in the regulation of Bkn3 expression. PMID:15166167

  20. Preprocessed barley, rye, and triticale as a feedstock for an integrated fuel ethanol-feedlot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sosulski, K.; Wang, Sunmin; Ingledew, W.M.

    1997-12-31

    Rye, triticale, and barley were evaluated as starch feedstock to replace wheat for ethanol production. Preprocessing of grain by abrasion on a Satake mill reduced fiber and increased starch concentrations in feed-stock for fermentations. Higher concentrations of starch in flours from preprocessed cereal grains would increase plant throughput by 8-23% since more starch is processed in the same weight of feedstock. Increased concentrations of starch for fermentation resulted in higher concentrations of ethanol in beer. Energy requirements to produce one L of ethanol from preprocessed grains were reduced, the natural gas by 3.5-11.4%, whereas power consumption was reduced by 5.2-15.6%. 7 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Influence of grain type on the insecticidal efficacy of two diatomaceous earth formulations against Rhyzopertha dominica (F) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae).

    PubMed

    Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Athanassiou, Christos G; Pashalidou, Foteini G; Andris, Nickolas S; Tomanović, Zeljko

    2005-07-01

    Laboratory bioassays were carried out in order to evaluate the effectiveness of two diatomaceous earth (DE) formulations, Insecto and SilicoSec, against adults of Rhyzopertha dominica (F) in eight different grain commodities. The adherence of the two DEs to each grain was also measured. The eight grains tested were wheat, whole barley, peeled barley, oats, rye, triticale, rice and maize. These commodities were treated with the DEs at three rates, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 g DE kg(-1) grain. The mortality of R dominica adults was measured after 24 h, 48 h, 7 days and 14 days of exposure in the treated grains at 26 degrees C and 55% RH. After the 14-day mortality count, all adults were removed and the treated grains retained under the same conditions for a further 60 days. The treated grains were subsequently examined for F1 progeny. Significant differences were recorded among the eight grain types as well as between the DE formulations tested. After 14 days of exposure, even at the lowest DE rate for both formulations, adult mortality was high (>90%) in wheat and triticale. In contrast, adult mortality was significantly lower in peeled barley. Increasing the rate improved the efficacy of the DEs significantly in only some of the grains tested. Reproductive capacity in all the treated grains was significantly suppressed when compared with untreated grains. Generally, more F1 individuals of R dominica were noted in the treated peeled barley than in the other commodities. Significant differences in the percentage of DE retention were noted among the eight grains. The highest retention level was noted in rice (>87%) and the lowest in maize (<6%). However, the degree of DE adherence to a given grain was not always indicative of the effectiveness of DE against R dominica.

  2. Analysis of the arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolase gene family in barley does not support their involvement in the remodelling of endosperm cell walls during development.

    PubMed

    Laidlaw, Hunter K C; Lahnstein, Jelle; Burton, Rachel A; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Jobling, Stephen A

    2012-05-01

    Arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolases (AXAHs) are family GH51 enzymes that have been implicated in the removal of arabinofuranosyl residues from the (1,4)-β-xylan backbone of heteroxylans. Five genes encoding barley AXAHs range in size from 4.6 kb to 7.1 kb and each contains 16 introns. The barley HvAXAH genes map to chromosomes 2H, 4H, and 5H. A small cluster of three HvAXAH genes is located on chromosome 4H and there is evidence for gene duplication and the presence of pseudogenes in barley. The cDNAs corresponding to barley and wheat AXAH genes were cloned, and transcript levels of the genes were profiled across a range of tissues at different developmental stages. Two HvAXAH cDNAs that were successfully expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves exhibited similar activities against 4-nitrophenyl α-L-arabinofuranoside, but HvAXAH2 activity was significantly higher against wheat flour arabinoxylan, compared with HvAXAH1. HvAXAH2 also displayed activity against (1,5)-α-L-arabinopentaose and debranched arabinan. Western blotting with an anti-HvAXAH antibody was used to define further the locations of the AXAH enzymes in developing barley grain, where high levels were detected in the outer layers of the grain but little or no protein was detected in the endosperm. The chromosomal locations of the genes do not correspond to any previously identified genomic regions shown to influence heteroxylan structure. The data are therefore consistent with a role for AXAH in depolymerizing arabinoxylans in maternal tissues during grain development, but do not provide compelling evidence for a role in remodelling arabinoxylans during endosperm or coleoptile development in barley as previously proposed. PMID:22378943

  3. Barley hulls and straw constituents and emulsifying properties of their hemicelluloses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley hulls (husks) are potential by-products of barley ethanol production. Barley straw is an abundant biomass in the regions producing barley for malting, feeds, and fuel ethanol. Both barley hulls and straw contain valuable hemicelluloses (arabinoxylans) and other useful carbohydrate and non-car...

  4. Transgenic Production of an Anti HIV Antibody in the Barley Endosperm.

    PubMed

    Hensel, Goetz; Floss, Doreen M; Arcalis, Elsa; Sack, Markus; Melnik, Stanislav; Altmann, Friedrich; Rutten, Twan; Kumlehn, Jochen; Stoger, Eva; Conrad, Udo

    2015-01-01

    Barley is an attractive vehicle for producing recombinant protein, since it is a readily transformable diploid crop species in which doubled haploids can be routinely generated. High amounts of protein are naturally accumulated in the grain, but optimal endosperm-specific promoters have yet to be perfected. Here, the oat GLOBULIN1 promoter was combined with the legumin B4 (LeB4) signal peptide and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal (SE)KDEL. Transgenic barley grain accumulated up to 1.2 g/kg dry weight of recombinant protein (GFP), deposited in small roundish compartments assumed to be ER-derived protein bodies. The molecular farming potential of the system was tested by generating doubled haploid transgenic lines engineered to synthesize the anti-HIV-1 monoclonal antibody 2G12 with up to 160 μg recombinant protein per g grain. The recombinant protein was deposited at the periphery of protein bodies in the form of a mixture of various N-glycans (notably those lacking terminal N-acetylglucosamine residues), consistent with their vacuolar localization. Inspection of protein-A purified antibodies using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy showed that their equilibrium and kinetic rate constants were comparable to those associated with recombinant 2G12 synthesized in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

  5. A theoretical framework for beta-glucan degradation during barley malting.

    PubMed

    Gianinetti, Alberto

    2009-05-01

    During malting, barley germinates and produces hydrolytic enzymes that de-structure the endosperm, making the grains soft and friable. This process starts close to the embryo and spreads throughout the whole grain. It is leaded by the degradation of cell walls, which are mainly constituted of beta-glucans. Fast and extended breakdown of beta-glucans occurs by means of an expanding reaction front driven by beta-glucanase, and appears to follow pseudo-first-order kinetics. Endosperm permeabilization to macromolecules is closely linked to the dismantling of cell walls, thus that access to beta-glucans by beta-glucanase itself is limited. It is shown that the kinetics of beta-glucan degradation during malting are consequent to this condition, and can be explained according to an anomalous evolution of the reverse quasi-steady-state approximation (rQSSA) for enzymatic reactions. In fact, kinetics based on the rQSSA include a transient phase wherein fast substrate depletion is indeed of pseudo-first-order. In the germinating barley, the conditions in which the physical modification of the endosperm occurs are shown to be suitable for the fast transient to persist in dynamic equilibrium while it progressively expands throughout the grain, depleting most beta-glucans and, then, establishing the overall kinetics of beta-glucan breakdown.

  6. Transgenic Production of an Anti HIV Antibody in the Barley Endosperm

    PubMed Central

    Hensel, Goetz; Floss, Doreen M.; Arcalis, Elsa; Sack, Markus; Melnik, Stanislav; Altmann, Friedrich; Rutten, Twan; Kumlehn, Jochen; Stoger, Eva; Conrad, Udo

    2015-01-01

    Barley is an attractive vehicle for producing recombinant protein, since it is a readily transformable diploid crop species in which doubled haploids can be routinely generated. High amounts of protein are naturally accumulated in the grain, but optimal endosperm-specific promoters have yet to be perfected. Here, the oat GLOBULIN1 promoter was combined with the legumin B4 (LeB4) signal peptide and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal (SE)KDEL. Transgenic barley grain accumulated up to 1.2 g/kg dry weight of recombinant protein (GFP), deposited in small roundish compartments assumed to be ER-derived protein bodies. The molecular farming potential of the system was tested by generating doubled haploid transgenic lines engineered to synthesize the anti-HIV-1 monoclonal antibody 2G12 with up to 160 μg recombinant protein per g grain. The recombinant protein was deposited at the periphery of protein bodies in the form of a mixture of various N-glycans (notably those lacking terminal N-acetylglucosamine residues), consistent with their vacuolar localization. Inspection of protein-A purified antibodies using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy showed that their equilibrium and kinetic rate constants were comparable to those associated with recombinant 2G12 synthesized in Chinese hamster ovary cells. PMID:26461955

  7. Transgenic Production of an Anti HIV Antibody in the Barley Endosperm.

    PubMed

    Hensel, Goetz; Floss, Doreen M; Arcalis, Elsa; Sack, Markus; Melnik, Stanislav; Altmann, Friedrich; Rutten, Twan; Kumlehn, Jochen; Stoger, Eva; Conrad, Udo

    2015-01-01

    Barley is an attractive vehicle for producing recombinant protein, since it is a readily transformable diploid crop species in which doubled haploids can be routinely generated. High amounts of protein are naturally accumulated in the grain, but optimal endosperm-specific promoters have yet to be perfected. Here, the oat GLOBULIN1 promoter was combined with the legumin B4 (LeB4) signal peptide and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal (SE)KDEL. Transgenic barley grain accumulated up to 1.2 g/kg dry weight of recombinant protein (GFP), deposited in small roundish compartments assumed to be ER-derived protein bodies. The molecular farming potential of the system was tested by generating doubled haploid transgenic lines engineered to synthesize the anti-HIV-1 monoclonal antibody 2G12 with up to 160 μg recombinant protein per g grain. The recombinant protein was deposited at the periphery of protein bodies in the form of a mixture of various N-glycans (notably those lacking terminal N-acetylglucosamine residues), consistent with their vacuolar localization. Inspection of protein-A purified antibodies using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy showed that their equilibrium and kinetic rate constants were comparable to those associated with recombinant 2G12 synthesized in Chinese hamster ovary cells. PMID:26461955

  8. Rheological properties of barley and flaxseed composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prowashonupana, a barley variety with high ß-glucan content, was dry blended with flaxseed at 10, 20, and 50% for improving nutritional, physical, and functional qualities. Flaxseed is rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs) that is known for lowering blood cholesterol and preve...

  9. Registration of ‘Atlantic’ winter barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Atlantic’ (Reg. No. CV-354, PI 665041), a six-row, hulled winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) tested as VA06B-19 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station, was released in March 2011. Atlantic was derived from the cross VA97B-176/VA92-44-279 using a modified bulk-breeding method. It was evalua...

  10. Viability of barley seeds after long-term exposure to outer side of international space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Manabu; Ishii, Makoto; Mori, Izumi C.; Elena, Shagimardanova; Gusev, Oleg A.; Kihara, Makoto; Hoki, Takehiro; Sychev, Vladimir N.; Levinskikh, Margarita A.; Novikova, Natalia D.; Grigoriev, Anatoly I.

    2011-09-01

    Barley seeds were exposed to outer space for 13 months in a vented metal container without a climate control system to assess the risk of physiological and genetic mutation during long-term storage in space. The space-stored seeds (S0 generation), with an 82% germination rate in 50 seeds, lost about 20% of their weight after the exposure. The germinated seeds showed normal growth, heading, and ripening. The harvested seeds (S1 generation) also germinated and reproduced (S2 generation) as did the ground-stored seeds. The culm length, ear length, number of seed, grain weight, and fertility of the plants from the space-stored seeds were not significantly different from those of the ground-stored seeds in each of the S0 and S1 generation. Furthermore, the S1 and S2 space-stored seeds respectively showed similar β-glucan content to those of the ground-stored seeds. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis with 16 primer combinations showed no specific fragment that appears or disappears significantly in the DNA isolated from the barley grown from the space-stored seeds. Though these data are derived from nine S0 space-stored seeds in a single exposure experiment, the results demonstrate the preservation of barley seeds in outer space for 13 months without phenotypic or genotypic changes and with healthy and vigorous growth in space.

  11. Chemical composition and physicochemical properties of barley dietary fiber by chemical modification.

    PubMed

    Park, Ka Hwa; Lee, Kwang Yeon; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

    2013-09-01

    Chemical modification of dietary fiber (DF), extracted from whole grain barley, was carried out to obtain cross-linked (CL) DF, carboxymethyl (CM) DF, and hydroxypropyl (HP) DF. The DF components, physicochemical properties, and subsequent influence on the in vitro digestibility of wheat starch gels were comparatively investigated. The redistribution of fiber components from chemically modified DF was observed. An increase in the total DF (TDF) content of CL- and HP-DF was observed, which was mainly due to an increase of insoluble DF. Carboxymethylation led to an appreciable increase of soluble DF (1.17-6.20%) but TDF contents slightly decreased. Chemical modification of barley DF led to increases in arabinose (7.1-11.5%) and xylose (10.7-17.5%), but glucose contents decreased (67.4-79.9%). The treatments, especially carboxymethylation, effectively (P<0.05) increased hydration properties (e.g. water solubility, swelling power, and water absorption index). Substitution of 5% wheat starch with CL-, and HP-DF led to decreased in vitro digestibility in comparison to the control starch. Our results suggest that chemical modification improve the DF characteristics of barley and to exploit its potential application as a functional ingredient in fiber-rich products.

  12. Development of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) lines with altered starch granule size distribution.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Sarita; Båga, Monica; Ahuja, Geetika; Rossnagel, Brian G; Chibbar, Ravindra N

    2014-03-12

    Microscope analysis of starches prepared from 139 barley genotypes identified a Japanese genotype, Kinai Kyoshinkai-2 (KK-2), with altered starch granule size distribution. Compared to normal barley starch, KK-2 produced consistently higher volumes of starch granules with 5-15 μm diameter and reduced volumes of starch granules with >15 μm diameter when grown in different environments. A cross between KK-2 and normal starch cultivar CDC Kendall was made and led to the production of 154 F5 lines with alterations to the normal 7:3:1 distribution for A-:B-:C-type starch granule volumes. Three F5 lines showed unimodal starch granule size distribution due to apparent lack of very small (<5.0 μm diameter) C-type starch granules, but the phenotype was accompanied by reduced grain weight and total starch concentration. Five F5 lines produced a significantly larger population of large (>15 μm diameter) A-type starch granules as compared to normal starch and showed on average a 10:4:1 distribution for A-:B-:C-type starch granule volumes. The unusual starch phenotypes displayed by the F5 lines confirm starch granule size distribution in barley can be genetically altered.

  13. Extraction, purification and identification of antifreeze proteins from cold acclimated malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiangli; Zhang, Hui; Chen, Haiying; Wang, Li; Qian, Haifeng; Qi, Xiguang

    2015-05-15

    Antifreeze proteins from cold-acclimated malting barley were extracted by infiltration-centrifugation. The infiltration time was optimised, and its extraction effect was evaluated. The effect of cold acclimation on the accumulation of barley antifreeze proteins (BaAFPs) was assessed by comparing the thermal hysteresis activities (THA) of proteins extracted from both cold acclimated and non-cold acclimated barley grain. Ultra-filtration, ammonium precipitation and column chromatography were used successively to purify the BaAFPs, and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS was used for protein identification. The results showed that infiltration-centrifugation was more targeted than the traditional method, and 10h was the optimal infiltration time. THA was observed only after cold acclimation implied that AFPs only began to accumulate after cold acclimation. After purification, BaAFP-I was obtained at an electrophoresis level and its THA was 1.04°C (18.0 mg ml(-1)). The mass fingerprinting and sequencing results indicated the homology of the BaAFP-I to alpha-amylase inhibitor BDAI-1 (Hordeum vulgare).

  14. Barley has two peroxisomal ABC transporters with multiple functions in β-oxidation.

    PubMed

    Mendiondo, Guillermina M; Medhurst, Anne; van Roermund, Carlo W; Zhang, Xuebin; Devonshire, Jean; Scholefield, Duncan; Fernández, José; Axcell, Barry; Ramsay, Luke; Waterham, Hans R; Waugh, Robbie; Theodoulou, Frederica L; Holdsworth, Michael J

    2014-09-01

    In oilseed plants, peroxisomal β-oxidation functions not only in lipid catabolism but also in jasmonate biosynthesis and metabolism of pro-auxins. Subfamily D ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters mediate import of β-oxidation substrates into the peroxisome, and the Arabidopsis ABCD protein, COMATOSE (CTS), is essential for this function. Here, the roles of peroxisomal ABCD transporters were investigated in barley, where the main storage compound is starch. Barley has two CTS homologues, designated HvABCD1 and HvABCD2, which are widely expressed and present in embryo and aleurone tissues during germination. Suppression of both genes in barley RNA interference (RNAi) lines indicated roles in metabolism of 2,4-dichlorophenoxybutyrate (2,4-DB) and indole butyric acid (IBA), jasmonate biosynthesis, and determination of grain size. Transformation of the Arabidopsis cts-1 null mutant with HvABCD1 and HvABCD2 confirmed these findings. HvABCD2 partially or completely complemented all tested phenotypes of cts-1. In contrast, HvABCD1 failed to complement the germination and establishment phenotypes of cts-1 but increased the sensitivity of hypocotyls to 100 μM IBA and partially complemented the seed size phenotype. HvABCD1 also partially complemented the yeast pxa1/pxa2Δ mutant for fatty acid β-oxidation. It is concluded that the core biochemical functions of peroxisomal ABC transporters are largely conserved between oilseeds and cereals but that their physiological roles and importance may differ.

  15. Transgenic wheat expressing a barley class II chitinase gene has enhanced resistance against Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sanghyun; Mackintosh, Caroline A.; Lewis, Janet; Heinen, Shane J.; Radmer, Lorien; Dill-Macky, Ruth; Baldridge, Gerald D.; Zeyen, Richard J.; Muehlbauer, Gary J.

    2008-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB; scab), primarily caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a devastating disease of wheat worldwide. FHB causes yield reductions and contamination of grains with trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON). The genetic variation in existing wheat germplasm pools for FHB resistance is low and may not provide sufficient resistance to develop cultivars through traditional breeding approaches. Thus, genetic engineering provides an additional approach to enhance FHB resistance. The objectives of this study were to develop transgenic wheat expressing a barley class II chitinase and to test the transgenic lines against F. graminearum infection under greenhouse and field conditions. A barley class II chitinase gene was introduced into the spring wheat cultivar, Bobwhite, by biolistic bombardment. Seven transgenic lines were identified that expressed the chitinase transgene and exhibited enhanced Type II resistance in the greenhouse evaluations. These seven transgenic lines were tested under field conditions for percentage FHB severity, percentage visually scabby kernels (VSK), and DON accumulation. Two lines (C8 and C17) that exhibited high chitinase protein levels also showed reduced FHB severity and VSK compared to Bobwhite. One of the lines (C8) also exhibited reduced DON concentration compared with Bobwhite. These results showed that transgenic wheat expressing a barley class II chitinase exhibited enhanced resistance against F. graminearum in greenhouse and field conditions. PMID:18467324

  16. Liquid digestate from anaerobic treatment of source-separated household waste as fertilizer to barley.

    PubMed

    Haraldsen, Trond Knapp; Andersen, Uno; Krogstad, Tore; Sørheim, Roald

    2011-12-01

    This study examined the efficiency of different organic waste materials as NPK fertilizer, in addition to the risk for leaching losses related to shower precipitation in the first part of the growing season. The experiment was tested in a pot trial on a sandy soil in a greenhouse. Six organic fertilizers were evaluated: liquid anaerobic digestate (LAD) sourced from separated household waste, nitrified liquid anaerobic digestate (NLAD) of the same origin as LAD, meat and bone meal (MBM), hydrolysed salmon protein (HSP), reactor-composted catering waste (CW) and cattle manure (CM). An unfertilized control, calcium nitrate (CN) and Fullgjødsel® 21-4-10 were used as reference fertilizers. At equal amounts of mineral nitrogen both LAD and Fullgjødsel® gave equal yield of barley in addition to equal uptake of N, P, and K in barley grain. NLAD gave significantly lower barley yield than the original LAD due to leaching of nitrate-N after a simulated surplus of precipitation (28 mm) at Zadoks 14. There was significantly increased leaching of nitrate N from the treatments receiving 160 kg N ha(-1) of CN and NLAD in comparison with all the other organic fertilizers. In this study LAD performed to the same degree as Fullgjødsel® NPK fertilizer and it was concluded that LAD can be recommended as fertilizer for cereals. Nitrification of the ammonium N in the digestate caused significantly increased nitrate leaching, and cannot be recommended.

  17. Further Experiments on Gibberellin-Stimulated Amylase Production in Cereal Grains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coppage, Jo; Hill, T. A.

    1973-01-01

    Experiments conducted on wheat and barley grains to analyze activities of alpha- and beta-amylase enzymes. Gibberellins were used exogenously. Techniques are described in detail. Results on different cultivars revealed that beta-amylase was not an invariable result of imbibition. Techniques employed can be used by school students. (PS)

  18. The Impact of qGPC6H on Malting Quality, Grain Composition and Agronomic Performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of barley's more remarkable characteristics is its ability to tolerate variation in seed composition. Selection for increased percentage of one grain component (e.g. protein) can be accomplished by reduction in the percentage of another component (e.g. starch). Starch is the largest contributor ...

  19. Chemical genetics and cereal starch metabolism: structural basis of the non-covalent and covalent inhibition of barley β-amylase.

    PubMed

    Rejzek, Martin; Stevenson, Clare E; Southard, Andrew M; Stanley, Duncan; Denyer, Kay; Smith, Alison M; Naldrett, Mike J; Lawson, David M; Field, Robert A

    2011-03-01

    There are major issues regarding the proposed pathway for starch degradation in germinating cereal grain. Given the commercial importance but genetic intractability of the problem, we have embarked on a program of chemical genetics studies to identify and dissect the pathway and regulation of starch degradation in germinating barley grains. As a precursor to in vivo studies, here we report systematic analysis of the reversible and irreversible inhibition of the major β-amylase of the grain endosperm (BMY1). The molecular basis of inhibitor action was defined through high resolution X-ray crystallography studies of unliganded barley β-amylase, as well as its complexes with glycone site binder disaccharide iminosugar G1M, irreversible inhibitors α-epoxypropyl and α-epoxybutyl glucosides, which target the enzyme's catalytic residues, and the aglycone site binders acarbose and α-cyclodextrin.

  20. Milk production is unaffected by replacing barley or sodium hydroxide wheat with maize cob silage in rations for dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hymøller, L; Hellwing, A L F; Lund, P; Weisbjerg, M R

    2014-05-01

    Starch is an important energy-providing nutrient for dairy cows that is most commonly provided from cereal grains. However, ruminal fermentation of large amounts of easily degradable starch leads to excessive production and accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFA). VFA not only play a vital role in the energy metabolism of dairy cows but are also the main cause of ruminal acidosis and depressed feed intake. The aim of the present study was to compare maize cob silage (MCS) as an energy supplement in rations for dairy cows with highly rumen-digestible rolled barley and with sodium hydroxide wheat (SHW), which has a higher proportion of by-pass starch than barley. Two studies were carried out: (1) a production study on 45 Danish Holstein cows and (2) an intensive study to determine digestibilities, rumen fermentation patterns and methane emission using three rumen-cannulated Danish Holstein cows. Both studies were organised as a 3×3 Latin square with three experimental periods and three different mixed rations. The rations consisted of grass-clover silage and maize silage (~60% of dry matter (DM)), rapeseed cake, soybean meal, sugar beet pulp and one of three different cereals as a major energy supplement: MCS, SHW or rolled barley (~25% of DM). When MCS replaced barley or SHW as an energy supplement in the mixed rations, it resulted in a lower dry matter intake; however, the apparent total tract digestibilities of DM, organic matter, NDF, starch and protein were not different between treatments. The energy-corrected milk yield was unaffected by treatment. The fat content of the milk on the MCS ration was not different from the SHW ration, whereas it was higher on the barley ration. The protein content of the milk decreased when MCS was used in the ration compared with barley and SHW. From ruminal VFA patterns and pH measures, it appeared that MCS possessed roughage qualities with respect to rumen environment, while at the same time being sufficiently energy rich

  1. Milk production is unaffected by replacing barley or sodium hydroxide wheat with maize cob silage in rations for dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hymøller, L; Hellwing, A L F; Lund, P; Weisbjerg, M R

    2014-05-01

    Starch is an important energy-providing nutrient for dairy cows that is most commonly provided from cereal grains. However, ruminal fermentation of large amounts of easily degradable starch leads to excessive production and accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFA). VFA not only play a vital role in the energy metabolism of dairy cows but are also the main cause of ruminal acidosis and depressed feed intake. The aim of the present study was to compare maize cob silage (MCS) as an energy supplement in rations for dairy cows with highly rumen-digestible rolled barley and with sodium hydroxide wheat (SHW), which has a higher proportion of by-pass starch than barley. Two studies were carried out: (1) a production study on 45 Danish Holstein cows and (2) an intensive study to determine digestibilities, rumen fermentation patterns and methane emission using three rumen-cannulated Danish Holstein cows. Both studies were organised as a 3×3 Latin square with three experimental periods and three different mixed rations. The rations consisted of grass-clover silage and maize silage (~60% of dry matter (DM)), rapeseed cake, soybean meal, sugar beet pulp and one of three different cereals as a major energy supplement: MCS, SHW or rolled barley (~25% of DM). When MCS replaced barley or SHW as an energy supplement in the mixed rations, it resulted in a lower dry matter intake; however, the apparent total tract digestibilities of DM, organic matter, NDF, starch and protein were not different between treatments. The energy-corrected milk yield was unaffected by treatment. The fat content of the milk on the MCS ration was not different from the SHW ration, whereas it was higher on the barley ration. The protein content of the milk decreased when MCS was used in the ration compared with barley and SHW. From ruminal VFA patterns and pH measures, it appeared that MCS possessed roughage qualities with respect to rumen environment, while at the same time being sufficiently energy rich

  2. Overexpression of cytokinin dehydrogenase genes in barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Golden Promise) fundamentally affects morphology and fertility.

    PubMed

    Mrízová, Katarína; Jiskrová, Eva; Vyroubalová, Šárka; Novák, Ondřej; Ohnoutková, Ludmila; Pospíšilová, Hana; Frébort, Ivo; Harwood, Wendy A; Galuszka, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Barley is one of the most important cereal crops grown worldwide. It has numerous applications, but its utility could potentially be extended by genetically manipulating its hormonal balances. To explore some of this potential we identified gene families of cytokinin dehydrogenases (CKX) and isopentenyl transferases, enzymes that respectively irreversibly degrade and synthesize cytokinin (CK) plant hormones, in the raw sequenced barley genome. We then examined their spatial and temporal expression patterns by immunostaining and qPCR. Two CKX-specific antibodies, anti-HvCKX1 and anti-HvCKX9, predominantly detect proteins in the aleurone layer of maturing grains and leaf vasculature, respectively. In addition, two selected CKX genes were used for stable, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the barley cultivar Golden Promise. The results show that constitutive overexpression of CKX causes morphological changes in barley plants and prevents their transition to flowering. In all independent transgenic lines roots proliferated more rapidly and root-to-shoot ratios were higher than in wild-type plants. Only one transgenic line, overexpressing CKX under the control of a promoter from a phosphate transporter gene, which is expressed more strongly in root tissue than in aerial parts, yielded progeny. Analysis of several T1-generation plants indicates that plants tend to compensate for effects of the transgene and restore CK homeostasis later during development. Depleted CK levels during early phases of development are restored by down-regulation of endogenous CKX genes and reinforced de novo biosynthesis of CKs.

  3. Barley arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolases: purification, characterization and determination of primary structures from cDNA clones.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, R C; Burton, R A; Hrmova, M; Fincher, G B

    2001-01-01

    A family 51 arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolase, designated AXAH-I, has been purified from extracts of 7-day-old barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings by fractional precipitation with (NH(4))(2)SO(4) and ion-exchange chromatography. The enzyme has an apparent molecular mass of 65 kDa and releases L-arabinose from cereal cell wall arabinoxylans with a pH optimum of 4.3, a catalytic rate constant (k(cat)) of 6.9 s(-1) and a catalytic efficiency factor (k(cat)/K(m)) of 0.76 (ml x s(-1) x mg(-1)). Whereas the hydrolysis of alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl residues linked to C(O)3 of backbone (1-->4)-beta-xylosyl residues proceeds at the fastest rate, alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl residues on doubly substituted xylosyl residues are also hydrolysed, at lower rates. A near full-length cDNA encoding barley AXAH-I indicates that the mature enzyme consists of 626 amino acid residues and has a calculated pI of 4.8. A second cDNA, which is 81% identical with that encoding AXAH-I, encodes another barley AXAH, which has been designated AXAH-II. The barley AXAHs are likely to have key roles in wall metabolism in cereals and other members of the Poaceae. Thus the enzymes could participate in the modification of the fine structure of arabinoxylan during wall deposition, maturation or expansion, or in wall turnover and the hydrolysis of arabinoxylans in germinated grain. PMID:11336650

  4. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3 Regulates Seed Dormancy in Barley.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shingo; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Morishige, Hiromi; Kubo, Yuta; Nakamura, Masako; Ichimura, Kazuya; Seo, Shigemi; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Wu, Jianzhong; Ando, Tsuyu; Hensel, Goetz; Sameri, Mohammad; Stein, Nils; Sato, Kazuhiro; Matsumoto, Takashi; Yano, Masahiro; Komatsuda, Takao

    2016-03-21

    Seed dormancy has fundamental importance in plant survival and crop production; however, the mechanisms regulating dormancy remain unclear [1-3]. Seed dormancy levels generally decrease during domestication to ensure that crops successfully germinate in the field. However, reduction of seed dormancy can cause devastating losses in cereals like wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) due to pre-harvest sprouting, the germination of mature seed (grain) on the mother plant when rain occurs before harvest. Understanding the mechanisms of dormancy can facilitate breeding of crop varieties with the appropriate levels of seed dormancy [4-8]. Barley is a model crop [9, 10] and has two major seed dormancy quantitative trait loci (QTLs), SD1 and SD2, on chromosome 5H [11-19]. We detected a QTL designated Qsd2-AK at SD2 as the single major determinant explaining the difference in seed dormancy between the dormant cultivar "Azumamugi" (Az) and the non-dormant cultivar "Kanto Nakate Gold" (KNG). Using map-based cloning, we identified the causal gene for Qsd2-AK as Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3 (MKK3). The dormant Az allele of MKK3 is recessive; the N260T substitution in this allele decreases MKK3 kinase activity and appears to be causal for Qsd2-AK. The N260T substitution occurred in the immediate ancestor allele of the dormant allele, and the established dormant allele became prevalent in barley cultivars grown in East Asia, where the rainy season and harvest season often overlap. Our findings show fine-tuning of seed dormancy during domestication and provide key information for improving pre-harvest sprouting tolerance in barley and wheat. PMID:26948880

  5. The Dynamics of Transcript Abundance during Cellularization of Developing Barley Endosperm1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Runxuan; Burton, Rachel A; Shirley, Neil J.; Little, Alan; Morris, Jenny; Milne, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Within the cereal grain, the endosperm and its nutrient reserves are critical for successful germination and in the context of grain utilization. The identification of molecular determinants of early endosperm development, particularly regulators of cell division and cell wall deposition, would help predict end-use properties such as yield, quality, and nutritional value. Custom microarray data have been generated using RNA isolated from developing barley grain endosperm 3 d to 8 d after pollination (DAP). Comparisons of transcript abundance over time revealed 47 gene expression modules that can be clustered into 10 broad groups. Superimposing these modules upon cytological data allowed patterns of transcript abundance to be linked with key stages of early grain development. Here, attention was focused on how the datasets could be mined to explore and define the processes of cell wall biosynthesis, remodeling, and degradation. Using a combination of spatial molecular network and gene ontology enrichment analyses, it is shown that genes involved in cell wall metabolism are found in multiple modules, but cluster into two main groups that exhibit peak expression at 3 DAP to 4 DAP and 5 DAP to 8 DAP. The presence of transcription factor genes in these modules allowed candidate genes for the control of wall metabolism during early barley grain development to be identified. The data are publicly available through a dedicated web interface (https://ics.hutton.ac.uk/barseed/), where they can be used to interrogate co- and differential expression for any other genes, groups of genes, or transcription factors expressed during early endosperm development. PMID:26754666

  6. Interstellar grains within interstellar grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernatowicz, Thomas J.; Amari, Sachiko; Zinner, Ernst K.; Lewis, Roy S.

    1991-01-01

    Five interstellar graphite spherules extracted from the Murchison carbonaceous meteorite are studied. The isotopic and elemental compositions of individual particles are investigated with the help of an ion microprobe, and this analysis is augmented with structural studies of ultrathin sections of the grain interiors by transmission electron microscopy. As a result, the following procedure for the formation of the interstellar graphite spherule bearing TiC crystals is inferred: (1) high-temperature nucleation and rapid growth of the graphitic carbon spherule in the atmosphere of a carbon-rich star, (2) nucleation and growth of TiC crystals during continued growth of the graphitic spherule and the accretion of TiC onto the spherule, (3) quenching of the graphite growth process by depletion of C or by isolation of the spherule before other grain types could condense.

  7. Mycological and mycotoxicological evaluation of grain.

    PubMed

    Baliukoniene, Violeta; Bakutis, Bronius; Stankevicius, Henrikas

    2003-01-01

    Grain storage conditions affect its quality. In Lithuania, different types of farms have various harvesting, processing and storing conditions. Grain samples were tested from agricultural granaries of 3 different types with different grain storage conditions in Lithuania. During March-April in 2001 the investigation on mycological and mycotoxicological state of stored grain from different types of agricultural granaries were performed. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) samples (n = 33) were tested from small, medium and large granaries. Barley (Hordeum distichon L.) (n = 22) was tested from small and medium granaries. Considering this issue, 31 species of micromycetes ascribed to 8 genera were isolated and identified. The results obtained indicate that highest levels of micromycetes contamination are found in small granaries with good storing and drying equipment. Micromycetes of some species belonging to the Penicillium Link, Aspergillus Mich. Ex Fr., Fusarium Link, and other genera, are able to produce secondary metabolites - mycotoxins of various compositions that are toxic to plants, animals, and humans. The levels of mycotoxins zearalenone and ochratoxin A were established. The highest concentration of zearalenone and ochratoxin A were found in grains from small farm granaries.

  8. Electronic nose for microbial quality classification of grains.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, A; Winquist, F; Schnürer, J; Sundgren, H; Lundström, I

    1997-04-01

    The odour of grains is in many countries the primary criterion of fitness for consumption. However, smelling of grain for quality grading should be avoided since inhalation of mould spores or toxins may be hazardous to the health and determinations of the off-odours are subjective. An electronic nose, i.e. a gas sensor array combined with a pattern recognition routine might serve as an alternative. We have used an electronic nose consisting of a sensor array with different types of sensors. The signal pattern from the sensors is collected by a computer and further processed by an artificial neural network (ANN) providing the pattern recognition system. Samples of oats, rye and barley with different odours and wheat with different levels of ergosterol, fungal and bacterial colony forming units (cfu) were heated in a chamber and the gas in the chamber was led over the sensory array. The ANN could predict the odour classes of good, mouldy, weakly and strongly musty oats with a high degree of accuracy. The ANN also indicated the percentage of mouldy barley or rye grains in mixtures with fresh grains. In wheat a high degree of correlation between ANN predictions and measured ergosterol as well as with fungal and bacterial cfu was observed. The electronic nose can be developed to provide a simple and fast method for quality classification of grain and is likely to find applications also in other areas of food mycology. PMID:9105927

  9. Characterisation of the mechanical and fracture properties of a uni-weave carbon fibre/epoxy non-crimp fabric composite.

    PubMed

    Bru, Thomas; Hellström, Peter; Gutkin, Renaud; Ramantani, Dimitra; Peterson, Göran

    2016-03-01

    A complete database of the mechanical properties of an epoxy polymer reinforced with uni-weave carbon fibre non-crimp fabric (NCF) is established. In-plane and through-the-thickness tests were performed on unidirectional laminates under normal loading and shear loading. The response under cyclic shear loading was also measured. The material has been characterised in terms of stiffness, strength, and failure features for the different loading cases. The critical energy release rates associated with different failure modes in the material were measured from interlaminar and translaminar fracture toughness tests. The stress-strain data of the tensile, compressive, and shear test specimens are included. The load-deflection data for all fracture toughness tests are also included. The database can be used in the development and validation of analytical and numerical models of fibre reinforced plastics (FRPs), in particular FRPs with NCF reinforcements. PMID:26958626

  10. Characterisation of the mechanical and fracture properties of a uni-weave carbon fibre/epoxy non-crimp fabric composite.

    PubMed

    Bru, Thomas; Hellström, Peter; Gutkin, Renaud; Ramantani, Dimitra; Peterson, Göran

    2016-03-01

    A complete database of the mechanical properties of an epoxy polymer reinforced with uni-weave carbon fibre non-crimp fabric (NCF) is established. In-plane and through-the-thickness tests were performed on unidirectional laminates under normal loading and shear loading. The response under cyclic shear loading was also measured. The material has been characterised in terms of stiffness, strength, and failure features for the different loading cases. The critical energy release rates associated with different failure modes in the material were measured from interlaminar and translaminar fracture toughness tests. The stress-strain data of the tensile, compressive, and shear test specimens are included. The load-deflection data for all fracture toughness tests are also included. The database can be used in the development and validation of analytical and numerical models of fibre reinforced plastics (FRPs), in particular FRPs with NCF reinforcements.

  11. Characterisation of the mechanical and fracture properties of a uni-weave carbon fibre/epoxy non-crimp fabric composite

    PubMed Central

    Bru, Thomas; Hellström, Peter; Gutkin, Renaud; Ramantani, Dimitra; Peterson, Göran

    2016-01-01

    A complete database of the mechanical properties of an epoxy polymer reinforced with uni-weave carbon fibre non-crimp fabric (NCF) is established. In-plane and through-the-thickness tests were performed on unidirectional laminates under normal loading and shear loading. The response under cyclic shear loading was also measured. The material has been characterised in terms of stiffness, strength, and failure features for the different loading cases. The critical energy release rates associated with different failure modes in the material were measured from interlaminar and translaminar fracture toughness tests. The stress–strain data of the tensile, compressive, and shear test specimens are included. The load–deflection data for all fracture toughness tests are also included. The database can be used in the development and validation of analytical and numerical models of fibre reinforced plastics (FRPs), in particular FRPs with NCF reinforcements. PMID:26958626

  12. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Ismagul, Ainur; Mazonka, Iryna; Callegari, Corinne; Eliby, Serik

    2014-01-01

    Barley biotechnology requires efficient genetic engineering tools for producing transgenic plants necessary for conducting reverse genetics analyses in breeding and functional genomics research. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation is an important technique for producing barley transgenics with simple low-copy number transgenes. This chapter reports a refined protocol for the systematic high-throughput transformation of the advanced Australian spring barley breeding line WI4330.

  13. Development and Genetic Characterization of an Advanced Backcross-Nested Association Mapping (AB-NAM) Population of Wild × Cultivated Barley.

    PubMed

    Nice, Liana M; Steffenson, Brian J; Brown-Guedira, Gina L; Akhunov, Eduard D; Liu, Chaochih; Kono, Thomas J Y; Morrell, Peter L; Blake, Thomas K; Horsley, Richard D; Smith, Kevin P; Muehlbauer, Gary J

    2016-07-01

    The ability to access alleles from unadapted germplasm collections is a long-standing problem for geneticists and breeders. Here we developed, characterized, and demonstrated the utility of a wild barley advanced backcross-nested association mapping (AB-NAM) population. We developed this population by backcrossing 25 wild barley accessions to the six-rowed malting barley cultivar Rasmusson. The 25 wild barley parents were selected from the 318 accession Wild Barley Diversity Collection (WBDC) to maximize allelic diversity. The resulting 796 BC2F4:6 lines were genotyped with 384 SNP markers, and an additional 4022 SNPs and 263,531 sequence variants were imputed onto the population using 9K iSelect SNP genotypes and exome capture sequence of the parents, respectively. On average, 96% of each wild parent was introgressed into the Rasmusson background, and the population exhibited low population structure. While linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay (r(2) = 0.2) was lowest in the WBDC (0.36 cM), the AB-NAM (9.2 cM) exhibited more rapid LD decay than comparable advanced backcross (28.6 cM) and recombinant inbred line (32.3 cM) populations. Three qualitative traits: glossy spike, glossy sheath, and black hull color were mapped with high resolution to loci corresponding to known barley mutants for these traits. Additionally, a total of 10 QTL were identified for grain protein content. The combination of low LD, negligible population structure, and high diversity in an adapted background make the AB-NAM an important tool for high-resolution gene mapping and discovery of novel allelic variation using wild barley germplasm.

  14. Transcriptome profiling reveals mosaic genomic origins of modern cultivated barley.

    PubMed

    Dai, Fei; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Wang, Xiaolei; Li, Zefeng; Jin, Gulei; Wu, Dezhi; Cai, Shengguan; Wang, Ning; Wu, Feibo; Nevo, Eviatar; Zhang, Guoping

    2014-09-16

    The domestication of cultivated barley has been used as a model system for studying the origins and early spread of agrarian culture. Our previous results indicated that the Tibetan Plateau and its vicinity is one of the centers of domestication of cultivated barley. Here we reveal multiple origins of domesticated barley using transcriptome profiling of cultivated and wild-barley genotypes. Approximately 48-Gb of clean transcript sequences in 12 Hordeum spontaneum and 9 Hordeum vulgare accessions were generated. We reported 12,530 de novo assembled transcripts in all of the 21 samples. Population structure analysis showed that Tibetan hulless barley (qingke) might have existed in the early stage of domestication. Based on the large number of unique genomic regions showing the similarity between cultivated and wild-barley groups, we propose that the genomic origin of modern cultivated barley is derived from wild-barley genotypes in the Fertile Crescent (mainly in chromosomes 1H, 2H, and 3H) and Tibet (mainly in chromosomes 4H, 5H, 6H, and 7H). This study indicates that the domestication of barley may have occurred over time in geographically distinct regions. PMID:25197090

  15. Characteristics of cloned repeated DNA sequences in the barley genome

    SciTech Connect

    Anan'ev, E.V.; Bochkanov, S.S.; Ryzhik, M.V.; Sonina, N.V.; Chernyshev, A.I.; Shchipkova, N.I.; Yakovleva, E.Yu.

    1986-12-01

    A partial clone library of barley DNA fragments based on plasmid pBR325 was created. The cloned EcoRI-fragments of chromosomal DNA are from 2 to 14 kbp in length. More than 95% of the barley DNA inserts comprise repeated sequences of different complexity and copy number. Certain of these DNA sequences are from families comprising at least 1% of the barley genome. A significant proportion of the clones hybridize with numerous sets of restriction fragments of genome DNA and they are dispersed throughout the barley chromosomes.

  16. Transgenic Wheat, Barley and Oats: Future Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunwell, Jim M.

    Following the success of transgenic maize and rice, methods have now been developed for the efficient introduction of genes into wheat, barley and oats. This review summarizes the present position in relation to these three species, and also uses information from field trial databases and the patent literature to assess the future trends in the exploitation of transgenic material. This analysis includes agronomic traits and also discusses opportunities in expanding areas such as biofuels and biopharming.

  17. Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds

    PubMed Central

    Zawoznik, Myriam S.; Vázquez, Susana C.; Díaz Herrera, Silvana M.; Groppa, María D.

    2014-01-01

    Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR. PMID:25242949

  18. Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds.

    PubMed

    Zawoznik, Myriam S; Vázquez, Susana C; Díaz Herrera, Silvana M; Groppa, María D

    2014-01-01

    Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR.

  19. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) circadian clock genes can respond rapidly to temperature in an EARLY FLOWERING 3-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Brett; Deng, Weiwei; Clausen, Jenni; Oliver, Sandra; Boden, Scott; Hemming, Megan; Trevaskis, Ben

    2016-01-01

    An increase in global temperatures will impact future crop yields. In the cereal crops wheat and barley, high temperatures accelerate reproductive development, reducing the number of grains per plant and final grain yield. Despite this relationship between temperature and cereal yield, it is not clear what genes and molecular pathways mediate the developmental response to increased temperatures. The plant circadian clock can respond to changes in temperature and is important for photoperiod-dependent flowering, and so is a potential mechanism controlling temperature responses in cereal crops. This study examines the relationship between temperature, the circadian clock, and the expression of flowering-time genes in barley (Hordeum vulgare), a crop model for temperate cereals. Transcript levels of barley core circadian clock genes were assayed over a range of temperatures. Transcript levels of core clock genes CCA1, GI, PRR59, PRR73, PRR95, and LUX are increased at higher temperatures. CCA1 and PRR73 respond rapidly to a decrease in temperature whereas GI and PRR59 respond rapidly to an increase in temperature. The response of GI and the PRR genes to changes in temperature is lost in the elf3 mutant indicating that their response to temperature may be dependent on a functional ELF3 gene. PMID:27580625

  20. Infestation and Quantification of Ochratoxigenic Fungi in Barley and Wheat Naturally Contaminated with Ochratoxin A.

    PubMed

    Kuruc, Julie; Hegstad, Justin; Lee, Hyun Jung; Simons, Kristin; Ryu, Dojin; Wolf-Hall, Charlene

    2015-07-01

    Cereal grains are a significant source of ochratoxin A (OTA) in the human diet. Multiple ochratoxigenic Aspergillus and Penicillium spp. have been reported as contaminants on various cereal grains around the world, although relatively few species dominate in any given location. Efforts to mitigate the risk of fungal contamination and OTA accumulation can be made pre- and postharvest. Still, a rapid and reliable screening method is sought that can be used to predict the OTA level of a sample and to inform risk assessments prior to processing. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of two OTA-related indices for OTA level prediction. Infestation rates were determined by direct plating for freshly harvested and stored barley, durum, and hard red spring wheat samples (n = 139) with known OTA levels. Presumptive ochratoxigenic isolates were tested for their ability to produce OTA. The nonribosomal peptide synthase (otanpsPN) involved in OTA biosynthesis was used to quantify ochratoxigenic fungi in barley and wheat. Viable Penicillium verrucosum was present in 45% of the samples. In total, 62.7% (n = 110) of the P. verrucosum isolates tested produced OTA on dichloran yeast extract sucrose 18% glycerol agar. Both OTA level and infestation rate (r = 0.30), as well as OTA level and otanpsPN concentration (r = 0.56), were weakly correlated. Neither infestation rate nor otanpsPN concentration is a reliable predictor of OTA level in a sample.

  1. Infestation and Quantification of Ochratoxigenic Fungi in Barley and Wheat Naturally Contaminated with Ochratoxin A.

    PubMed

    Kuruc, Julie; Hegstad, Justin; Lee, Hyun Jung; Simons, Kristin; Ryu, Dojin; Wolf-Hall, Charlene

    2015-07-01

    Cereal grains are a significant source of ochratoxin A (OTA) in the human diet. Multiple ochratoxigenic Aspergillus and Penicillium spp. have been reported as contaminants on various cereal grains around the world, although relatively few species dominate in any given location. Efforts to mitigate the risk of fungal contamination and OTA accumulation can be made pre- and postharvest. Still, a rapid and reliable screening method is sought that can be used to predict the OTA level of a sample and to inform risk assessments prior to processing. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of two OTA-related indices for OTA level prediction. Infestation rates were determined by direct plating for freshly harvested and stored barley, durum, and hard red spring wheat samples (n = 139) with known OTA levels. Presumptive ochratoxigenic isolates were tested for their ability to produce OTA. The nonribosomal peptide synthase (otanpsPN) involved in OTA biosynthesis was used to quantify ochratoxigenic fungi in barley and wheat. Viable Penicillium verrucosum was present in 45% of the samples. In total, 62.7% (n = 110) of the P. verrucosum isolates tested produced OTA on dichloran yeast extract sucrose 18% glycerol agar. Both OTA level and infestation rate (r = 0.30), as well as OTA level and otanpsPN concentration (r = 0.56), were weakly correlated. Neither infestation rate nor otanpsPN concentration is a reliable predictor of OTA level in a sample. PMID:26197287

  2. Lactation performance and feeding behavior of dairy cows supplemented via automatic feeders with soy hulls or barley based pellets.

    PubMed

    Miron, J; Nikbachat, M; Zenou, A; Ben-Ghedalia, D; Solomon, R; Shoshani, E; Halachmi, I; Livshin, N; Antler, A; Maltz, E

    2004-11-01

    The potential of soy hulls to replace barley grain in pellets supplemented to lactating cows was measured in automatic concentrate feeders (ACF). Thirty-six cows were divided into 2 equal groups and fed 1 of the 2 experimental pellet supplements individually for 7 wk. All cows were group-fed a basic mixture along the feeding lane (~64% of dietary DM) plus a pelleted additive containing 50% barley or soy hulls as barley replacer, fed individually to each cow via the ACF in 6 feeding windows. Extent and rate of in vitro DM digestibility were similar for both types of pellets; however, NDF content and digestibility were higher in the soy hulls pellets. Average number of rewarded cow visits at the ACF, pellets intake per meal, and accumulated intake of pellets (8.64 kg/d DM) were similar in the 2 experimental groups. Most pellets were consumed during day and night in the first 2 h after feeding windows were opened. Total visits per day in the ACF and the maximal interval between visits were similar for the 2 pellets, indicating similar attractiveness to the cow. Predicted intake of the basic mixture was similar in both groups (14.8 to 15.1 kg of DM/d). Higher milk fat content was observed in the soy hulls-fed cows, whereas higher milk protein content was found in the barley-fed cows. Milk yield was similar in both groups. Data suggest that replacement of barley pellets with soy hulls pellets may slightly enhance milk fat while reducing milk protein production for dairy herds using automatic milking systems.

  3. The promoter of the barley aleurone-specific gene encoding a putative 7 kDa lipid transfer protein confers aleurone cell-specific expression in transgenic rice.

    PubMed

    Kalla, R; Shimamoto, K; Potter, R; Nielsen, P S; Linnestad, C; Olsen, O A

    1994-12-01

    This paper describes the aleurone-specific gene Ltp2 from barley, which encodes a putative 7 kDa non-specific lipid transfer protein. As shown by Northern and in situ hybridization analyses, the Ltp2 transcript is present in barley aleurone cells shortly after the initiation of aleurone cell differentiation. The expression of Ltp2 increases until grain mid-maturity, but the mRNA is absent from mature grains. The Ltp2 transcript is undetectable in the embryo and vegetative tissues, confirming the aleurone specificity of the Ltp2 gene. The ability of the isolated 801 bp Ltp2 promoter to direct aleurone-specific expression in immature barley grains is demonstrated by particle bombardment experiments. In these experiments, the activity of the Ltp2 promoter is 5% of the activity of the strong constitutive Actin1 promoter from rice, as quantified by GUS activity measurements. In stably transformed rice plants containing the Ltp2 promoter-Gus construct, the specificity of the Ltp2 promoter is confirmed in vivo by the presence of GUS activity exclusively in the aleurone layer. This study demonstrates the conserved nature of the regulatory signals involved in aleurone-specific gene transcription in cereal grains.

  4. Quantification of amylose, amylopectin, and β-glucan in search for genes controlling the three major quality traits in barley by genome-wide association studies

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Xiaoli; Rasmussen, Søren K.

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for amylose, amylopectin and β-glucan concentration in a collection of 254 European spring barley varieties allowed to identify 20, 17, and 21 single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers, respectively, associated with these important grain quality traits. Negative correlations between the content of amylose and β-glucan (R = −0.62, P < 0.01) and amylopectin and β-glucan (R = −0.487, P < 0.01) were found in this large collection of spring barley varieties. Besides HvCslF6, amo1 and AGPL2, sex6, and waxy were identified among the major genes responsible for β-glucan, amylose and amylopectin content, respectively. Several minor genes like HvGSL4, HvGSL3, and HvCesA6, PWD were also detected by GWAS for the first time. Furthermore, the gene encoding β-fructofuranosidase, located on the short arm of chromosome 7H at 1.49 cM, and SRF6, encoding “leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase protein” on chromosome 2 H, are proposed to be new candidate genes for amylopectin formation in barley endosperm. Several of the associated SNPs on chromosome 1, 5, 6, and 7H mapped to overlapping regions containing QTLs and genes controlling the three grain constituents. In particular chromosomes 5 and 7H carry many QTLs controlling barley grain quality. Amylose, amylopectin and β-glucan were interacted among each other through a metabolic network connected by UDP showing pleiotropic effects. Taken together, these results showed that cereal quality traits related each other and regulated through an interaction network, the identified major genes and genetic regions for amylose, amylopectin and β-glucan is a helpful for further research on carbohydrates and barley breeding. PMID:24860587

  5. A Homolog of Blade-On-Petiole 1 and 2 (BOP1/2) Controls Internode Length and Homeotic Changes of the Barley Inflorescence.

    PubMed

    Jost, Matthias; Taketa, Shin; Mascher, Martin; Himmelbach, Axel; Yuo, Takahisa; Shahinnia, Fahimeh; Rutten, Twan; Druka, Arnis; Schmutzer, Thomas; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Beier, Sebastian; Taudien, Stefan; Scholz, Uwe; Morgante, Michele; Waugh, Robbie; Stein, Nils

    2016-06-01

    Inflorescence architecture in small-grain cereals has a direct effect on yield and is an important selection target in breeding for yield improvement. We analyzed the recessive mutation laxatum-a (lax-a) in barley (Hordeum vulgare), which causes pleiotropic changes in spike development, resulting in (1) extended rachis internodes conferring a more relaxed inflorescence, (2) broadened base of the lemma awns, (3) thinner grains that are largely exposed due to reduced marginal growth of the palea and lemma, and (4) and homeotic conversion of lodicules into two stamenoid structures. Map-based cloning enforced by mapping-by-sequencing of the mutant lax-a locus enabled the identification of a homolog of BLADE-ON-PETIOLE1 (BOP1) and BOP2 as the causal gene. Interestingly, the recently identified barley uniculme4 gene also is a BOP1/2 homolog and has been shown to regulate tillering and leaf sheath development. While the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) BOP1 and BOP2 genes act redundantly, the barley genes contribute independent effects in specifying the developmental growth of vegetative and reproductive organs, respectively. Analysis of natural genetic diversity revealed strikingly different haplotype diversity for the two paralogous barley genes, likely affected by the respective genomic environments, since no indication for an active selection process was detected. PMID:27208226

  6. A Homolog of Blade-On-Petiole 1 and 2 (BOP1/2) Controls Internode Length and Homeotic Changes of the Barley Inflorescence1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Taketa, Shin; Mascher, Martin; Yuo, Takahisa; Beier, Sebastian; Taudien, Stefan; Morgante, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Inflorescence architecture in small-grain cereals has a direct effect on yield and is an important selection target in breeding for yield improvement. We analyzed the recessive mutation laxatum-a (lax-a) in barley (Hordeum vulgare), which causes pleiotropic changes in spike development, resulting in (1) extended rachis internodes conferring a more relaxed inflorescence, (2) broadened base of the lemma awns, (3) thinner grains that are largely exposed due to reduced marginal growth of the palea and lemma, and (4) and homeotic conversion of lodicules into two stamenoid structures. Map-based cloning enforced by mapping-by-sequencing of the mutant lax-a locus enabled the identification of a homolog of BLADE-ON-PETIOLE1 (BOP1) and BOP2 as the causal gene. Interestingly, the recently identified barley uniculme4 gene also is a BOP1/2 homolog and has been shown to regulate tillering and leaf sheath development. While the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) BOP1 and BOP2 genes act redundantly, the barley genes contribute independent effects in specifying the developmental growth of vegetative and reproductive organs, respectively. Analysis of natural genetic diversity revealed strikingly different haplotype diversity for the two paralogous barley genes, likely affected by the respective genomic environments, since no indication for an active selection process was detected. PMID:27208226

  7. Behavior of field-applied triadimefon, malathion, dichlorvos, and their main metabolites during barley storage and beer processing.

    PubMed

    Kong, Zhiqiang; Li, Minmin; Chen, Jieying; Gui, Yuejing; Bao, Yuming; Fan, Bei; Jian, Qiu; Francis, Frédéric; Dai, Xiaofeng

    2016-11-15

    The behavior and fate of 3 pesticides (triadimefon, malathion, and dichlorvos) and the main metabolites (triadimenol and malaoxon) during barley storage or beer processing were assessed using a pilot-plant equipment. The residues of all products were determined using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Field investigation of the dissipation rate kinetics for triadimefon and malathion during storage indicated that their half-life was twice as high when 5 times the recommended dosage was used. Milling had little effect on the removal of dichlorvos and malathion residues, whereas these were substantially removed when the spent grains were filtered after mashing. The calculated processing factors were all <1, indicating the residual ratios of dichlorvos and malathion were reduced during the entire process. In conclusion, storage and processing considerably reduced pesticide residue levels in barley and beer; however, greater focus needs to be paid to the toxicity of their metabolites in commercial by-products.

  8. Behavior of field-applied triadimefon, malathion, dichlorvos, and their main metabolites during barley storage and beer processing.

    PubMed

    Kong, Zhiqiang; Li, Minmin; Chen, Jieying; Gui, Yuejing; Bao, Yuming; Fan, Bei; Jian, Qiu; Francis, Frédéric; Dai, Xiaofeng

    2016-11-15

    The behavior and fate of 3 pesticides (triadimefon, malathion, and dichlorvos) and the main metabolites (triadimenol and malaoxon) during barley storage or beer processing were assessed using a pilot-plant equipment. The residues of all products were determined using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Field investigation of the dissipation rate kinetics for triadimefon and malathion during storage indicated that their half-life was twice as high when 5 times the recommended dosage was used. Milling had little effect on the removal of dichlorvos and malathion residues, whereas these were substantially removed when the spent grains were filtered after mashing. The calculated processing factors were all <1, indicating the residual ratios of dichlorvos and malathion were reduced during the entire process. In conclusion, storage and processing considerably reduced pesticide residue levels in barley and beer; however, greater focus needs to be paid to the toxicity of their metabolites in commercial by-products. PMID:27283683

  9. A comparison of two milling strategies to reduce the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in barley.

    PubMed

    Khatibi, Piyum A; Berger, Greg; Wilson, Jhanel; Brooks, Wynse S; McMaster, Nicole; Griffey, Carl A; Hicks, Kevin B; Nghiem, Nhuan P; Schmale, David G

    2014-05-01

    Winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), a potential feedstock for fuel ethanol production, may be contaminated with the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON). DON is a threat to feed and food safety in the United States and may become concentrated during the production of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). DDGS is a coproduct of fuel ethanol production and is increasingly being used as feed for domestic animals. Therefore, new strategies to reduce the threat of DON in DDGS need to be developed and implemented for grain destined for fuel ethanol production. It is known that large concentrations of DON accumulate in the hulls of wheat and barley. Consequently, improved methods are needed to carefully remove the hull from the grain and preserve the starchy endosperm. Whole kernels from five Virginia winter barley genotypes were used to evaluate the abilities of two different milling strategies (roller milling and precision milling (FitzMill)) for their ability to remove the hull-enriched tissue from the kernel while maintaining starch levels and reducing DON levels in the endosperm-enriched tissue. After whole kernels were milled, DON and starch levels were quantified in the hull-enriched fractions and endosperm-enriched fractions. Initial milling experiments demonstrated that the precision mill system (6 min run time) is able to reduce more DON than the roller mill but with higher starch losses. The average percent DON removed from the kernel with the roller mill was 36.7% ± 5.5 and the average percent DON removed from the dehulled kernel with the precision mill was 85.1% ± 9.0. Endosperm-enriched fractions collected from the roller mill and precision mill contained starch levels ranging from 49.0% ± 12.1 to 59.1% ± 0.5 and 58.5% ± 1.6 to 65.3% ± 3.9, respectively. On average, the precision mill removed a mass of 23.1% ± 6.8 and resulted in starch losses of 9.6% ± 6.3, but produced an endosperm-enriched fraction with relatively very little

  10. The USDA barley core collection: genetic diversity, population structure, and potential for genome-wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Amatriaín, María; Cuesta-Marcos, Alfonso; Endelman, Jeffrey B; Comadran, Jordi; Bonman, John M; Bockelman, Harold E; Chao, Shiaoman; Russell, Joanne; Waugh, Robbie; Hayes, Patrick M; Muehlbauer, Gary J

    2014-01-01

    New sources of genetic diversity must be incorporated into plant breeding programs if they are to continue increasing grain yield and quality, and tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Germplasm collections provide a source of genetic and phenotypic diversity, but characterization of these resources is required to increase their utility for breeding programs. We used a barley SNP iSelect platform with 7,842 SNPs to genotype 2,417 barley accessions sampled from the USDA National Small Grains Collection of 33,176 accessions. Most of the accessions in this core collection are categorized as landraces or cultivars/breeding lines and were obtained from more than 100 countries. Both STRUCTURE and principal component analysis identified five major subpopulations within the core collection, mainly differentiated by geographical origin and spike row number (an inflorescence architecture trait). Different patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) were found across the barley genome and many regions of high LD contained traits involved in domestication and breeding selection. The genotype data were used to define 'mini-core' sets of accessions capturing the majority of the allelic diversity present in the core collection. These 'mini-core' sets can be used for evaluating traits that are difficult or expensive to score. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of 'hull cover', 'spike row number', and 'heading date' demonstrate the utility of the core collection for locating genetic factors determining important phenotypes. The GWAS results were referenced to a new barley consensus map containing 5,665 SNPs. Our results demonstrate that GWAS and high-density SNP genotyping are effective tools for plant breeders interested in accessing genetic diversity in large germplasm collections.

  11. The USDA Barley Core Collection: Genetic Diversity, Population Structure, and Potential for Genome-Wide Association Studies

    PubMed Central

    Endelman, Jeffrey B.; Comadran, Jordi; Bonman, John M.; Bockelman, Harold E.; Chao, Shiaoman; Russell, Joanne; Waugh, Robbie; Hayes, Patrick M.; Muehlbauer, Gary J.

    2014-01-01

    New sources of genetic diversity must be incorporated into plant breeding programs if they are to continue increasing grain yield and quality, and tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Germplasm collections provide a source of genetic and phenotypic diversity, but characterization of these resources is required to increase their utility for breeding programs. We used a barley SNP iSelect platform with 7,842 SNPs to genotype 2,417 barley accessions sampled from the USDA National Small Grains Collection of 33,176 accessions. Most of the accessions in this core collection are categorized as landraces or cultivars/breeding lines and were obtained from more than 100 countries. Both STRUCTURE and principal component analysis identified five major subpopulations within the core collection, mainly differentiated by geographical origin and spike row number (an inflorescence architecture trait). Different patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) were found across the barley genome and many regions of high LD contained traits involved in domestication and breeding selection. The genotype data were used to define ‘mini-core’ sets of accessions capturing the majority of the allelic diversity present in the core collection. These ‘mini-core’ sets can be used for evaluating traits that are difficult or expensive to score. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of ‘hull cover’, ‘spike row number’, and ‘heading date’ demonstrate the utility of the core collection for locating genetic factors determining important phenotypes. The GWAS results were referenced to a new barley consensus map containing 5,665 SNPs. Our results demonstrate that GWAS and high-density SNP genotyping are effective tools for plant breeders interested in accessing genetic diversity in large germplasm collections. PMID:24732668

  12. Field tests of transgenic barley lines in North Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Testing transgenic barley lines for FHB in the greenhouse does not necessarily give the same results as field tests. The objective of this project was to test 18 transgenic lines in replicated trials in an inoculated FHB nursery. Several programs have developed barley lines expressing anti-fungal a...

  13. Genetic diversity analysis of Tibetan wild barley using SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zong-Yun; Liu, Xian-Jun; Zhang, Yi-Zheng; Ling, Hong-Qing

    2006-10-01

    One hundred and six accessions of wild barley collected from Tibet, China, including 50 entries of the two-rowed wild barley Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum (HS), 29 entries of the six-rowed wild barley Hordeum vulgare ssp. agriocrithon (HA), and 27 entries of the six-rowed wild barley Hordeum vulgare ssp. agriocrithon var. lagunculiforme (HL), were analyzed using 30 SSR markers selected from the seven barley linkage groups for studying genetic diversity and evolutionary relationship of the three subspecies of Tibetan wild barley to cultivated barley in China. Over the 30 genetic loci that were studied, 229 alleles were identified among the 106 accessions, of which 70 were common alleles. H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum possesses about thrice more private alleles (2.83 alleles/locus) than HS (0.93 alleles/locus), whereas almost no private alleles were detected in HL. The genetic diversity among-subspecies is much higher than that within-subspecies. Generally, the genetic diversity among the three subspecies is of the order HS > HL > HA. Phylogenetic analysis of the 106 accessions showed that all the accessions of HS and HA was clustered in their own groups, whereas the 27 accessions of HL were separated into two groups (14 entries with group HS and the rest with group HA). This indicated that HL was an intermediate form between HS and HA. Based on this study and previous works, we suggested that Chinese cultivated barley might evolve from HS via HL to HA. PMID:17046592

  14. Pasting and rheological properties of chia composites containing barley flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chia containing omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs) was composited with barley flour having high ß-glucan content. Both omega-3 PUFAs and ß-glucan are well known for lowering blood cholesterol and preventing coronary heart disease. Barley flour was dry blended with ground chia ...

  15. Variation in chemical composition and physical characteristics of cereal grains from different genotypes.

    PubMed

    Rodehutscord, Markus; Rückert, Christine; Maurer, Hans Peter; Schenkel, Hans; Schipprack, Wolfgang; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik; Schollenberger, Margit; Laux, Meike; Eklund, Meike; Siegert, Wolfgang; Mosenthin, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Genotypes of cereal grains, including winter barley (n = 21), maize (n = 27), oats (n = 14), winter rye (n = 22), winter triticale (n = 21) and winter wheat (n = 29), were assayed for their chemical composition and physical characteristics as part of the collaborative research project referred to as GrainUp. Genotypes of one grain species were grown on the same site, except maize. In general, concentrations of proximate nutrients were not largely different from feed tables. The coefficient of variation (CV) for the ether extract concentration of maize was high because the data pool comprised speciality maize bred for its high oil content. A subset of 8 barley, 20 rye, 20 triticale and 20 wheat samples was analysed to differ significantly in several carbohydrate fractions. Gross energy concentration of cereal grains could be predicted from proximate nutrient concentration with good accuracy. The mean lysine concentration of protein was the highest in oats (4.2 g/16 g N) and the lowest in wheat (2.7 g/16 g N). Significant differences were also detected in the concentrations of macro elements as well as iron, manganese, zinc and copper. Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium and lead were below the limit of detection. The concentration of lower inositol phosphates was low, but some inositol pentaphosphates were detected in all grains. In barley, relatively high inositol tetraphosphate concentration also was found. Intrinsic phytase activity was the highest in rye, followed by triticale, wheat, barley and maize, and it was not detectable in oats. Substantial differences were seen in the thousand seed weight, test weight, falling number and extract viscoelasticity characteristics. The study is a comprehensive overview of the composition of different cereal grain genotypes when grown on the same location. The relevance of the variation in composition for digestibility in different animal species will be subject of other communications.

  16. Variation in chemical composition and physical characteristics of cereal grains from different genotypes.

    PubMed

    Rodehutscord, Markus; Rückert, Christine; Maurer, Hans Peter; Schenkel, Hans; Schipprack, Wolfgang; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik; Schollenberger, Margit; Laux, Meike; Eklund, Meike; Siegert, Wolfgang; Mosenthin, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Genotypes of cereal grains, including winter barley (n = 21), maize (n = 27), oats (n = 14), winter rye (n = 22), winter triticale (n = 21) and winter wheat (n = 29), were assayed for their chemical composition and physical characteristics as part of the collaborative research project referred to as GrainUp. Genotypes of one grain species were grown on the same site, except maize. In general, concentrations of proximate nutrients were not largely different from feed tables. The coefficient of variation (CV) for the ether extract concentration of maize was high because the data pool comprised speciality maize bred for its high oil content. A subset of 8 barley, 20 rye, 20 triticale and 20 wheat samples was analysed to differ significantly in several carbohydrate fractions. Gross energy concentration of cereal grains could be predicted from proximate nutrient concentration with good accuracy. The mean lysine concentration of protein was the highest in oats (4.2 g/16 g N) and the lowest in wheat (2.7 g/16 g N). Significant differences were also detected in the concentrations of macro elements as well as iron, manganese, zinc and copper. Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium and lead were below the limit of detection. The concentration of lower inositol phosphates was low, but some inositol pentaphosphates were detected in all grains. In barley, relatively high inositol tetraphosphate concentration also was found. Intrinsic phytase activity was the highest in rye, followed by triticale, wheat, barley and maize, and it was not detectable in oats. Substantial differences were seen in the thousand seed weight, test weight, falling number and extract viscoelasticity characteristics. The study is a comprehensive overview of the composition of different cereal grain genotypes when grown on the same location. The relevance of the variation in composition for digestibility in different animal species will be subject of other communications. PMID:26829392

  17. Transposable element junctions in marker development and genomic characterization of barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley is a model plant in genomic studies of Triticeae species. A complete barley genome sequence will facilitate not only barley breeding programs, but also those for related species. However, the large genome size and high repetitive sequence content complicate the barley genome assembly. The ma...

  18. 7 CFR 407.10 - Area risk protection insurance for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Area risk protection insurance for barley. 407.10... protection insurance for barley. The barley crop insurance provisions for Area Risk Protection Insurance for... Crop Insurance Corporation Area Risk Protection Insurance Barley Crop Insurance Provisions...

  19. Lactic acid and thermal treatments trigger the hydrolysis of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate and modify the abundance of lower myo-inositol phosphates in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Deckardt, Kathrin; Schollenberger, Margit; Rodehutscord, Markus; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2014-01-01

    Barley is an important source of dietary minerals, but it also contains myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) that lowers their absorption. This study evaluated the effects of increasing concentrations (0.5, 1, and 5%, vol/vol) of lactic acid (LA), without or with an additional thermal treatment at 55°C (LA-H), on InsP6 hydrolysis, formation of lower phosphorylated myo-inositol phosphates, and changes in chemical composition of barley grain. Increasing LA concentrations and thermal treatment linearly reduced (P<0.001) InsP6-phosphate (InsP6-P) by 0.5 to 1 g compared to the native barley. In particular, treating barley with 5% LA-H was the most efficient treatment to reduce the concentrations of InsP6-P, and stimulate the formation of lower phosphorylated myo-inositol phosphates such as myo-inositol tetraphosphate (InsP4) and myo-inositol pentaphosphates (InsP5). Also, LA and thermal treatment changed the abundance of InsP4 and InsP5 isomers with Ins(1,2,5,6)P4 and Ins(1,2,3,4,5)P5 as the dominating isomers with 5% LA, 1% LA-H and 5% LA-H treatment of barley, resembling to profiles found when microbial 6-phytase is applied. Treating barley with LA at room temperature (22°C) increased the concentration of resistant starch and dietary fiber but lowered those of total starch and crude ash. Interestingly, total phosphorus (P) was only reduced (P<0.05) in barley treated with LA-H but not after processing of barley with LA at room temperature. In conclusion, LA and LA-H treatment may be effective processing techniques to reduce InsP6 in cereals used in animal feeding with the highest degradation of InsP6 at 5% LA-H. Further in vivo studies are warranted to determine the actual intestinal P availability and to assess the impact of changes in nutrient composition of LA treated barley on animal performance.

  20. Lactic Acid and Thermal Treatments Trigger the Hydrolysis of Myo-Inositol Hexakisphosphate and Modify the Abundance of Lower Myo-Inositol Phosphates in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.; Deckardt, Kathrin; Schollenberger, Margit; Rodehutscord, Markus; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2014-01-01

    Barley is an important source of dietary minerals, but it also contains myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) that lowers their absorption. This study evaluated the effects of increasing concentrations (0.5, 1, and 5%, vol/vol) of lactic acid (LA), without or with an additional thermal treatment at 55°C (LA-H), on InsP6 hydrolysis, formation of lower phosphorylated myo-inositol phosphates, and changes in chemical composition of barley grain. Increasing LA concentrations and thermal treatment linearly reduced (P<0.001) InsP6-phosphate (InsP6-P) by 0.5 to 1 g compared to the native barley. In particular, treating barley with 5% LA-H was the most efficient treatment to reduce the concentrations of InsP6-P, and stimulate the formation of lower phosphorylated myo-inositol phosphates such as myo-inositol tetraphosphate (InsP4) and myo-inositol pentaphosphates (InsP5). Also, LA and thermal treatment changed the abundance of InsP4 and InsP5 isomers with Ins(1,2,5,6)P4 and Ins(1,2,3,4,5)P5 as the dominating isomers with 5% LA, 1% LA-H and 5% LA-H treatment of barley, resembling to profiles found when microbial 6-phytase is applied. Treating barley with LA at room temperature (22°C) increased the concentration of resistant starch and dietary fiber but lowered those of total starch and crude ash. Interestingly, total phosphorus (P) was only reduced (P<0.05) in barley treated with LA-H but not after processing of barley with LA at room temperature. In conclusion, LA and LA-H treatment may be effective processing techniques to reduce InsP6 in cereals used in animal feeding with the highest degradation of InsP6 at 5% LA-H. Further in vivo studies are warranted to determine the actual intestinal P availability and to assess the impact of changes in nutrient composition of LA treated barley on animal performance. PMID:24967651

  1. Holobiont nutrition: considering the role of the gastrointestinal microbiota in the health benefits of whole grains.

    PubMed

    Walter, Jens; Martínez, Inés; Rose, Devin J

    2013-01-01

    Intake of whole grains and other food products high in dietary fiber have long been linked to the prevention of chronic diseases associated with inflammation. A contribution of the gastrointestinal microbiota to these effects has been suggested, but little is known on how whole grains interact with gut bacteria. We have recently published the first human trial that made use of next-generation sequencing to determine the effect of whole grains (whole grain barley, brown rice or a mixture of the two) on fecal microbiota structure and tested for associations between the gut microbiota and blood markers of inflammation, glucose and lipid metabolism. Our study revealed that whole grains impacted gut microbial ecology by increasing microbial diversity and inducing compositional alterations, some of which are considered to have beneficial effects on the host. Interestingly, whole grains, and in particular the combination of whole grain barley and brown rice, caused a reduction in plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), which was linked to compositional features of the gut microbiota. Therefore, the study provided evidence that a short-term increased intake of whole grains led to compositional alterations of the gut microbiota that coincided with improvements in systemic inflammation. In this addendum, we summarize the findings of the study and provide a perspective on the importance of regarding humans as holobionts when considering the health effects of dietary strategies.

  2. Whole Grains and Fiber

    MedlinePlus

    ... fiber. Some examples of refined grains are wheat flour, enriched bread and white rice. Most refined grains are enriched , which means that ... grains. Some examples of enriched grains are wheat flour, enriched bread and white rice. Eating whole grains provides important health benefits: Many ...

  3. Supplementation of Reduced Gluten Barley Diet with Oral Prolyl Endopeptidase Effectively Abrogates Enteropathy-Associated Changes in Gluten-Sensitive Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Sestak, Karol; Thwin, Hazel; Dufour, Jason; Liu, David X.; Alvarez, Xavier; Laine, David; Clarke, Adam; Doyle, Anthony; Aye, Pyone P.; Blanchard, James; Moehs, Charles P.

    2016-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder that affects approximately three million people in the United States. Furthermore, non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) affects an estimated additional 6% of the population, e.g., 20 million in the U.S. The only effective treatment of CD and NCGS requires complete removal of gluten sources from the diet. While required adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) is extremely difficult to accomplish, efforts to develop additional supportive treatments are needed. To facilitate these efforts, we developed a gluten-sensitive (GS) rhesus macaque model to study the effects of novel therapies. Recently reported results from phase one of this project suggest that partial improvement—but not remission—of gluten-induced disease can be accomplished by 100-fold reduction of dietary gluten, i.e., 200 ppm—by replacement of conventional dietary sources of gluten with a mutant, reduced gluten (RG) barley (lys3a)-derived source. The main focus of this (phase two) study was to determine if the inflammatory effects of the residual gluten in lys3a mutant barley grain could be further reduced by oral supplementation with a prolylendopeptidase (PE). Results reveal that PE supplementation of RG barley diet induces more complete immunological, histopathological and clinical remission than RG barley diet alone. The combined effects of RG barley diet and PE supplementation resulted in a further decrease of inflammatory mediators IFN-γ and TNF secretion by peripheral lymphocytes, as well as decreased plasma anti-gliadin and anti-intestinal tissue transglutaminase (TG2) antibodies, diminished active caspase production in small intestinal mucosa, and eliminated clinical diarrhea—all comparable with a gluten-free diet induced remission. In summary, the beneficial results of a combined RG barley and PE administration in GS macaques may warrant the investigation of similar synergistic approaches. PMID:27367722

  4. Supplementation of Reduced Gluten Barley Diet with Oral Prolyl Endopeptidase Effectively Abrogates Enteropathy-Associated Changes in Gluten-Sensitive Macaques.

    PubMed

    Sestak, Karol; Thwin, Hazel; Dufour, Jason; Liu, David X; Alvarez, Xavier; Laine, David; Clarke, Adam; Doyle, Anthony; Aye, Pyone P; Blanchard, James; Moehs, Charles P

    2016-06-28

    Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder that affects approximately three million people in the United States. Furthermore, non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) affects an estimated additional 6% of the population, e.g., 20 million in the U.S. The only effective treatment of CD and NCGS requires complete removal of gluten sources from the diet. While required adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) is extremely difficult to accomplish, efforts to develop additional supportive treatments are needed. To facilitate these efforts, we developed a gluten-sensitive (GS) rhesus macaque model to study the effects of novel therapies. Recently reported results from phase one of this project suggest that partial improvement-but not remission-of gluten-induced disease can be accomplished by 100-fold reduction of dietary gluten, i.e., 200 ppm-by replacement of conventional dietary sources of gluten with a mutant, reduced gluten (RG) barley (lys3a)-derived source. The main focus of this (phase two) study was to determine if the inflammatory effects of the residual gluten in lys3a mutant barley grain could be further reduced by oral supplementation with a prolylendopeptidase (PE). Results reveal that PE supplementation of RG barley diet induces more complete immunological, histopathological and clinical remission than RG barley diet alone. The combined effects of RG barley diet and PE supplementation resulted in a further decrease of inflammatory mediators IFN-γ and TNF secretion by peripheral lymphocytes, as well as decreased plasma anti-gliadin and anti-intestinal tissue transglutaminase (TG2) antibodies, diminished active caspase production in small intestinal mucosa, and eliminated clinical diarrhea-all comparable with a gluten-free diet induced remission. In summary, the beneficial results of a combined RG barley and PE administration in GS macaques may warrant the investigation of similar synergistic approaches.

  5. Supplementation of Reduced Gluten Barley Diet with Oral Prolyl Endopeptidase Effectively Abrogates Enteropathy-Associated Changes in Gluten-Sensitive Macaques.

    PubMed

    Sestak, Karol; Thwin, Hazel; Dufour, Jason; Liu, David X; Alvarez, Xavier; Laine, David; Clarke, Adam; Doyle, Anthony; Aye, Pyone P; Blanchard, James; Moehs, Charles P

    2016-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder that affects approximately three million people in the United States. Furthermore, non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) affects an estimated additional 6% of the population, e.g., 20 million in the U.S. The only effective treatment of CD and NCGS requires complete removal of gluten sources from the diet. While required adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) is extremely difficult to accomplish, efforts to develop additional supportive treatments are needed. To facilitate these efforts, we developed a gluten-sensitive (GS) rhesus macaque model to study the effects of novel therapies. Recently reported results from phase one of this project suggest that partial improvement-but not remission-of gluten-induced disease can be accomplished by 100-fold reduction of dietary gluten, i.e., 200 ppm-by replacement of conventional dietary sources of gluten with a mutant, reduced gluten (RG) barley (lys3a)-derived source. The main focus of this (phase two) study was to determine if the inflammatory effects of the residual gluten in lys3a mutant barley grain could be further reduced by oral supplementation with a prolylendopeptidase (PE). Results reveal that PE supplementation of RG barley diet induces more complete immunological, histopathological and clinical remission than RG barley diet alone. The combined effects of RG barley diet and PE supplementation resulted in a further decrease of inflammatory mediators IFN-γ and TNF secretion by peripheral lymphocytes, as well as decreased plasma anti-gliadin and anti-intestinal tissue transglutaminase (TG2) antibodies, diminished active caspase production in small intestinal mucosa, and eliminated clinical diarrhea-all comparable with a gluten-free diet induced remission. In summary, the beneficial results of a combined RG barley and PE administration in GS macaques may warrant the investigation of similar synergistic approaches. PMID:27367722

  6. Cloning and characterization of root-specific barley lectin

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, D.R.; Raikhel, N.V. )

    1989-09-01

    Cereal lectins are a class of biochemically and antigenically related proteins localized in a tissue-specific manner in embryos and adult plants. To study the specificity of lectin expression, a barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) embryo cDNa library was constructed and a clone (BLc3) for barley lectin was isolated. BLc3 is 972 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 212 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal peptide of 26 amino acid residues followed by a 186 amino acid polypeptide. This polypeptide has 95% sequence identity to the antigenically indistinguishable wheat germ agglutinin isolectin-B (WGA-B) suggesting that BLc3 encodes barley lectin. Further evidence that BLc3 encodes barley lectin was obtained by immunoprecipitation of the in vitro translation products of BLc3 RNA transcripts and barley embryo poly(A{sup +}) RNA. In situ hybridizations with BLc3 showed that barley lectin gene expression is confined to the outermost cell layers of both embryonic and adult root tips. On Northern blots, BLc3 hybridizes to a 1.0 kilobyte mRNA in poly(A{sup +}) RNA from both embryos and root tips. We suggest, on the basis of immunoblot experiments, that barley lectin is synthesized as a glycosylated precursor and processed by removal of a portion of the carboxyl terminus including the single N-linked glycosylation site.

  7. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Oligofructan Metabolism and Suggested Functions in Developing Cereal Grains

    PubMed Central

    Peukert, Manuela; Thiel, Johannes; Mock, Hans-Peter; Marko, Doris; Weschke, Winfriede; Matros, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Oligofructans represent one of the most important groups of sucrose-derived water–soluble carbohydrates in the plant kingdom. In cereals, oligofructans accumulate in above ground parts of the plants (stems, leaves, seeds) and their biosynthesis leads to the formation of both types of glycosidic linkages [β(2,1); β(2,6)-fructans] or mixed patterns. In recent studies, tissue- and development- specific distribution patterns of the various oligofructan types in cereal grains have been shown, which are possibly related to the different phases of grain development, such as cellular differentiation of grain tissues and storage product accumulation. Here, we summarize the current knowledge about oligofructan biosynthesis and accumulation kinetics in cereal grains. We focus on the spatiotemporal dynamics and regulation of oligofructan biosynthesis and accumulation in developing barley grains (deduced from a combination of metabolite, transcript and proteome analyses). Finally, putative physiological functions of oligofructans in developing grains are discussed. PMID:26834760

  8. Starch structure in developing barley endosperm.

    PubMed

    Källman, Anna; Bertoft, Eric; Koch, Kristine; Sun, Chuanxin; Åman, Per; Andersson, Roger

    2015-11-01

    Barley spikes of the cultivars/breeding lines Gustav, Karmosé and SLU 7 were harvested at 9, 12 and 24 days after flowering in order to study starch structure in developing barley endosperm. Kernel dry weight, starch content and amylose content increased during development. Structural analysis was performed on whole starch and included the chain-length distribution of the whole starches and their β-limit dextrins. Karmosé, possessing the amo1 mutation, had higher amylose content and a lower proportion of long chains (DP ≥38) in the amylopectin component than SLU 7 and Gustav. Structural differences during endosperm development were seen as a decrease in molar proportion of chains of DP 22-37 in whole starch. In β-limit dextrins, the proportion of Bfp-chains (DP 4-7) increased and the proportion of BSmajor-chains (DP 15-27) decreased during development, suggesting more frequent activity of starch branching enzymes at later stages of maturation, resulting in amylopectin with denser structure.

  9. Study of the prevalence of chronic, non-specific lung disease and related health problems in the grain-handling industry. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Rankin, J.; Bates, J.; Claremont, A.; Dennis, W.; doPico, G.A.

    1986-10-01

    A total of 310 grain handlers was studied, with attention to prevalence and characteristics of clinical, psychological, immunological, radiological, serological blood and urine parameters to determine any apparent effects from grain-dust exposure. Grain handlers had a higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms and signs than did the city workers who comprised the comparison group. Evidence of accumulative respiratory effect due to recurring exposures to grain dust was found. Acute and chronic airway reactions were induced by exposure to grain dust. Wheezing and dyspnea on exposure were related to length of employment. Grain fever syndrome was prevalent. Cases of acute recurrent conjunctivitis and rhinitis were found along with skin pruritus, mainly on exposure to barley dust. Pesticide exposure caused temporary disabling symptoms. Lung function was adversely affected by grain-dust exposure. Exposure to grain mites and insects in contaminated cereal grain caused a reaction among grain workers.

  10. A novel approach to monitor the hydrolysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare L) malt: a chemometrics approach.

    PubMed

    Cozzolino, D; Degner, S; Eglinton, J

    2014-12-01

    Malting barley is a process that has been profusely studied and is known to be influenced by several physical and biochemical properties of the grain. In particular, the amount of material that can be extracted from the malt (malt extract) is an important measure of brewing performance and end quality. The objectives of this study were (a) to compare the time course of hydrolysis of different malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L) varieties and (b) to evaluate the usefulness of mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy as high-throughput method to monitor malt hydrolysis. Differences in the pattern of hydrolysis were observed between the malt samples analyzed where samples from the same variety that have similar hot water extract (HWE) values tend to have the same pattern of hydrolysis. Principal component score plots based on the MIR spectra showed similar results. Partial least-squares discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) was used to classify malt samples according to their corresponding variety and time course of hydrolysis. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) and the standard error of cross validation (SECV) obtained for the prediction of variety and time course of hydrolysis were 0.67 (1.01) and 0.38 (19.90), respectively. These differences might be the result of the different composition in sugars between the barley varieties analyzed after malting, measured as wort density and not observed when only the HWE value at the end point is reported. This method offers the possibility to measure several parameters in malt simultaneously, reducing the time of analysis as well as requiring minimal sample preparation.

  11. Barley has two peroxisomal ABC transporters with multiple functions in β-oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Mendiondo, Guillermina M.; Medhurst, Anne; van Roermund, Carlo W.; Zhang, Xuebin; Devonshire, Jean; Scholefield, Duncan; Fernández, José; Axcell, Barry; Ramsay, Luke; Waterham, Hans R.; Waugh, Robbie; Theodoulou, Frederica L.; Holdsworth, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    In oilseed plants, peroxisomal β-oxidation functions not only in lipid catabolism but also in jasmonate biosynthesis and metabolism of pro-auxins. Subfamily D ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters mediate import of β-oxidation substrates into the peroxisome, and the Arabidopsis ABCD protein, COMATOSE (CTS), is essential for this function. Here, the roles of peroxisomal ABCD transporters were investigated in barley, where the main storage compound is starch. Barley has two CTS homologues, designated HvABCD1 and HvABCD2, which are widely expressed and present in embryo and aleurone tissues during germination. Suppression of both genes in barley RNA interference (RNAi) lines indicated roles in metabolism of 2,4-dichlorophenoxybutyrate (2,4-DB) and indole butyric acid (IBA), jasmonate biosynthesis, and determination of grain size. Transformation of the Arabidopsis cts-1 null mutant with HvABCD1 and HvABCD2 confirmed these findings. HvABCD2 partially or completely complemented all tested phenotypes of cts-1. In contrast, HvABCD1 failed to complement the germination and establishment phenotypes of cts-1 but increased the sensitivity of hypocotyls to 100 μM IBA and partially complemented the seed size phenotype. HvABCD1 also partially complemented the yeast pxa1/pxa2Δ mutant for fatty acid β-oxidation. It is concluded that the core biochemical functions of peroxisomal ABC transporters are largely conserved between oilseeds and cereals but that their physiological roles and importance may differ. PMID:24913629

  12. Nutritional Physiology of the Khapra Beetle, Trogoderma granarium Everts (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) Fed on Various Barley Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Seifi, S; Naseri, B; Razmjou, J

    2016-02-01

    The Khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium Everts (Coleoptera: Dermestidae), is known as one of the mostserious pests of grains in many parts of the world. In this study, the effect of nine barley cultivars (‘Bahman’,‘CB-84-10’, ‘Fajr 30’, ‘Makuyi’, ‘Nosrat’, ‘Yousof’, ‘13A1’, ‘18A1’, and ‘19 A1’) and a wheat cultivar (‘MV17’, as a control) was determined on the nutritional indices and digestive enzymatic activity of T. granarium at 33 6 1C,relative humidity of 6565%, and a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h. The highest and lowest values of larval weight gain of sixth instar were detected on wheat (0.757±0.068 mg) and cultivar Bahman (0.342±0.071 mg). Also, T. granarium larvae fed on cultivar Bahman had the lowest value of efficiency of conversion of ingested food(10.90±2.09%) as compared with wheat and other barley cultivars. Also, the highest midgut amylolytic and proteolytic activities of sixth instar were on cultivar Bahman (0.364±0.024 mU/mg and 80.54±1.73 U/mg, respectively)and the lowest activities were on cultivar Nosrat (0.043±0.004 mU/mg and 7.15±0.01 U/mg, respectively).It is concluded that barley cultivar Bahman was the most unsuitable host for feeding of T. granarium.

  13. A novel approach to monitor the hydrolysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare L) malt: a chemometrics approach.

    PubMed

    Cozzolino, D; Degner, S; Eglinton, J

    2014-12-01

    Malting barley is a process that has been profusely studied and is known to be influenced by several physical and biochemical properties of the grain. In particular, the amount of material that can be extracted from the malt (malt extract) is an important measure of brewing performance and end quality. The objectives of this study were (a) to compare the time course of hydrolysis of different malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L) varieties and (b) to evaluate the usefulness of mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy as high-throughput method to monitor malt hydrolysis. Differences in the pattern of hydrolysis were observed between the malt samples analyzed where samples from the same variety that have similar hot water extract (HWE) values tend to have the same pattern of hydrolysis. Principal component score plots based on the MIR spectra showed similar results. Partial least-squares discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) was used to classify malt samples according to their corresponding variety and time course of hydrolysis. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) and the standard error of cross validation (SECV) obtained for the prediction of variety and time course of hydrolysis were 0.67 (1.01) and 0.38 (19.90), respectively. These differences might be the result of the different composition in sugars between the barley varieties analyzed after malting, measured as wort density and not observed when only the HWE value at the end point is reported. This method offers the possibility to measure several parameters in malt simultaneously, reducing the time of analysis as well as requiring minimal sample preparation. PMID:25393707

  14. SIRE1 RETROTRANSPOSONS IN BARLEY (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Cakmak, B; Marakli, S; Gozukirmizi, N

    2015-07-01

    Sireviruses are genera of copia LTR retrotransposons with a unique genome structure among retrotransposons. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an economically important plant. In this study, we used mature barley embryos, 10-day-old roots and 10-day-old leaves derived from the same barley plant to investigate SIRE) retrotransposon movements by Inter-Retrotransposon Amplified Polymorphism (IRAP) technique. We found polymorphism rates between 0-64% among embryos, roots and leaves. Polymorphism rates were detected to be 0-27% among embryos, 8-60% among roots, and 11-50% among leaves. Polymorphisms were observed not only among the parts of different individuals, but also on the parts of the same plant (23-64%). The internal domains of SIRE1 (GAG, ENV and RT) were also analyzed in the embryos, roots and leaves. Analysis of band profiles showed no polymorphism for GAG, however, different band patterns were observed among samples for RT and ENV. The sequencing of SIRE1 GAG, ENV and RT domains revealed 79% similarity for GAG, 96% for ENV and 83% for RT to copia retrotransposons. Comparison between barley retrotransposons and SIRE1 in barley indicated that SIRE1-GAG, ENV and RT might be diverge earlier from barley retrotransposons. SIRE1 sequences were compared with SIRE1 in barley, results showed the closest homologues were SIRE1-ENVand SIRE1-RTsequences, and SIRE1-GAG sequences was a sister group to sequences of Glycine max. This study is the first detailed investigation of SIRE1 in barley genome. The obtained findings are expected to contribute to the comprehension of SIRE1 retrotransposon and its role in barley genome.

  15. Effects of grain species and cultivar, thermal processing, and enzymatic hydrolysis on gluten quantitation.

    PubMed

    Pahlavan, Autusa; Sharma, Girdhari M; Pereira, Marion; Williams, Kristina M

    2016-10-01

    Gluten from wheat, rye, and barley can trigger IgE-mediated allergy or Celiac disease in sensitive individuals. Gluten-free labeled foods are available as a safe alternative. Immunoassays such as the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are commonly used to quantify gluten in foods. However, various non-assay related factors can affect gluten quantitation. The effect of gluten-containing grain cultivars, thermal processing, and enzymatic hydrolysis on gluten quantitation by various ELISA kits was evaluated. The ELISA kits exhibited variations in gluten quantitation depending on the gluten-containing grain and their cultivars. Acceptable gluten recoveries were obtained in 200mg/kg wheat, rye, and barley-spiked corn flour thermally processed at various conditions. However, depending on the enzyme, gluten grain source, and ELISA kit used, measured gluten content was significantly reduced in corn flour spiked with 200mg/kg hydrolyzed wheat, rye, and barley flour. Thus, the gluten grain source and processing conditions should be considered for accurate gluten analysis.

  16. Surveillance of stored grain from the 1997 harvest in the United Kingdom for ochratoxin A.

    PubMed

    Scudamore, K A; Patel, S; Breeze, V

    1999-07-01

    This survey examined 306 samples of farm-stored wheat, barley and oats as received at, or tested by, central grain depots in the UK. Samples were taken from lorries or from stored grain using the existing in-house procedures used for quality checking and examined for ochratoxin A using a fully validated analytical HPLC method with a detection limit of 0.1 microgram/kg. Ochratoxin A was detected in 21% of the samples examined, with barley more frequently contaminated than wheat. Mean concentrations of ochratoxin A found for all samples were 0.69 microgram/kg in barley, 0.29 microgram/kg in wheat and 0.15 microgram/kg in oats. The highest concentration found was 17.8 micrograms/kg in a barley feed although concentrations of 81 and 30 micrograms/kg were found in 'reject-grade' wheat samples whose results were excluded from the main survey. In summary, 2.7 and 0.3% of samples exceeded concentrations of 5 and 10 micrograms/kg respectively. There appeared to be significant relationships between ochratoxin A concentrations and moisture content, storage time and geographical area. Although conditions at harvest in 1997 were quite variable countrywide and often wet, results were similar to those found in earlier surveys carried out in the UK.

  17. Simulation of the Manufacturing of Non-Crimp Fabric-Reinforced Composite Wind Turbine Blades to Predict the Formation of Wave Defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetfatsidis, K. A.; Sherwood, J. A.

    2011-05-01

    NCFs (Non-Crimp Fabrics) are commonly used in the design of wind turbine blades and other complex systems due to their ability to conform to complex shapes without the wrinkling that is typically experienced with woven fabrics or prepreg tapes. In the current research, a form of vacuum assisted resin transfer molding known as SCRIMP® is used to manufacture wind turbine blades. Often, during the compacting of the fabric layers by the vacuum pressure, several plies may bunch together out-of-plane and form wave defects. When the resin is infused, the areas beneath the waves become resin rich and can compromise the structural integrity of the blade. A reliable simulation tool is valuable to help predict where waves and other defects may appear as a result of the manufacturing process. Forming simulations often focus on the in-plane shearing and tensile behavior of fabrics and do not necessarily consider the bending stiffness of the fabrics, which is important to predict the formation of wrinkles and/or waves. This study incorporates experimentally determined in-plane shearing, tensile, and bending stiffness information of NCFs into a finite element model (ABAQUS/Explicit) of a 9-meter wind turbine blade to investigate the mechanical behaviors that can lead to the formation of waves as a result of the manufacturing process.

  18. Simulation of the Manufacturing of Non-Crimp Fabric-Reinforced Composite Wind Turbine Blades to Predict the Formation of Wave Defects

    SciTech Connect

    Fetfatsidis, K. A.; Sherwood, J. A.

    2011-05-04

    NCFs (Non-Crimp Fabrics) are commonly used in the design of wind turbine blades and other complex systems due to their ability to conform to complex shapes without the wrinkling that is typically experienced with woven fabrics or prepreg tapes. In the current research, a form of vacuum assisted resin transfer molding known as SCRIMP registered is used to manufacture wind turbine blades. Often, during the compacting of the fabric layers by the vacuum pressure, several plies may bunch together out-of-plane and form wave defects. When the resin is infused, the areas beneath the waves become resin rich and can compromise the structural integrity of the blade. A reliable simulation tool is valuable to help predict where waves and other defects may appear as a result of the manufacturing process. Forming simulations often focus on the in-plane shearing and tensile behavior of fabrics and do not necessarily consider the bending stiffness of the fabrics, which is important to predict the formation of wrinkles and/or waves. This study incorporates experimentally determined in-plane shearing, tensile, and bending stiffness information of NCFs into a finite element model (ABAQUS/Explicit) of a 9-meter wind turbine blade to investigate the mechanical behaviors that can lead to the formation of waves as a result of the manufacturing process.

  19. HvPap-1 C1A protease actively participates in barley proteolysis mediated by abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Velasco-Arroyo, Blanca; Diaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Gandullo, Jacinto; Gonzalez-Melendi, Pablo; Santamaria, M Estrella; Dominguez-Figueroa, Jose D; Hensel, Goetz; Martinez, Manuel; Kumlehn, Jochen; Diaz, Isabel

    2016-07-01

    Protein breakdown and mobilization from old or stressed tissues to growing and sink organs are some of the metabolic features associated with abiotic/biotic stresses, essential for nutrient recycling. The massive degradation of proteins implies numerous proteolytic events in which cysteine-proteases are the most abundant key players. Analysing the role of barley C1A proteases in response to abiotic stresses is crucial due to their impact on plant growth and grain yield and quality. In this study, dark and nitrogen starvation treatments were selected to induce stress in barley. Results show that C1A proteases participate in the proteolytic processes triggered in leaves by both abiotic treatments, which strongly induce the expression of the HvPap-1 gene encoding a cathepsin F-like protease. Differences in biochemical parameters and C1A gene expression were found when comparing transgenic barley plants overexpressing or silencing the HvPap-1 gene and wild-type dark-treated leaves. These findings associated with morphological changes evidence a lifespan-delayed phenotype of HvPap-1 silenced lines. All these data elucidate on the role of this protease family in response to abiotic stresses and the potential of their biotechnological manipulation to control the timing of plant growth. PMID:27217548

  20. Experimental Barley Flour Production in 12,500-Year-Old Rock-Cut Mortars in Southwestern Asia.

    PubMed

    Eitam, David; Kislev, Mordechai; Karty, Adiel; Bar-Yosef, Ofer

    2015-01-01

    Experimental archaeology at a Natufian site in the Southern Levant documents for the first time the use of 12,500-year-old rock-cut mortars for producing wild barley flour, some 2,000 to 3,000 years before cereal cultivation. Our reconstruction involved processing wild barley on the prehistoric threshing floor, followed by use of the conical mortars (a common feature in Natufian sites), thereby demonstrating the efficient peeling and milling of hulled grains. This discovery complements nearly 80 years of investigations suggesting that the Natufians regularly harvested almost-ripe wild cereals using sickles hafted with flint blades. Sickles had been replicated in the past and tested in the field for harvesting cereals, thusly obtaining the characteristic sheen along the edge of the hafted flint blades as found in Natufian remnants. Here we report that Natufian wide and narrow conical mortars enabled the processing of wild barley for making the groats and fine flour that provided considerable quantities of nourishment. Dishes in the Early Natufian (15,000-13,500 CalBP) were groat meals and porridge and subsequently, in the Late Natufian (13,500-11,700 CalBP), we suggest that unleavened bread made from fine flour was added. These food preparing techniques widened the dietary breadth of the sedentary Natufian hunter-gatherers, paving the way to the emergence of farming communities, the hallmark of the Neolithic Revolution.

  1. Rapid Germination of a Barley Mutant Is Correlated with a Rapid Turnover of Abscisic Acid Outside the Embryo.

    PubMed

    Visser, K.; Vissers, APA.; Cagirgan, M. I.; Kijne, J. W.; Wang, M.

    1996-08-01

    In our study of the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in controlling the germination of barley grains, we tested a barley mutant line with a gigantum appearance (Hordeum distichum cv Quantum) for an ABA-insensitive phenotype by assaying germination in the presence of 10-4 M ABA. Dissected embryos of the mutant germinated at least 10 h earlier than did those of the wild type. The half-maximal concentrations of ABA inhibitory for germination were determined to be 5 x 10-4 M for the mutant and 10-6 M for the wild type. Expression of an ABA-induced Rab gene was studied to determine ABA responsiveness. The ABA concentration required for a half-maximal induction of Rab gene expression was 4 x 10-6 M in isolated embryos of both the mutant and wild type. This result suggests that ABA signal transduction pathways were not affected in the mutant. When isolated embryos were allowed to imbibe in water, ABA was released from the mutant and wild-type embryos at the same rate. However, the free ABA level in the incubation medium of the mutant showed a much faster decrease than that of the wild type, as demonstrated by two independent ABA assay methods (high-performance liquid chromatography and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Our results suggest that turnover of ABA outside the embryo is a determining factor in the germination of barley seeds.

  2. Experimental Barley Flour Production in 12,500-Year-Old Rock-Cut Mortars in Southwestern Asia

    PubMed Central

    Eitam, David; Kislev, Mordechai; Karty, Adiel; Bar-Yosef, Ofer

    2015-01-01

    Experimental archaeology at a Natufian site in the Southern Levant documents for the first time the use of 12,500-year-old rock-cut mortars for producing wild barley flour, some 2,000 to 3,000 years before cereal cultivation. Our reconstruction involved processing wild barley on the prehistoric threshing floor, followed by use of the conical mortars (a common feature in Natufian sites), thereby demonstrating the efficient peeling and milling of hulled grains. This discovery complements nearly 80 years of investigations suggesting that the Natufians regularly harvested almost-ripe wild cereals using sickles hafted with flint blades. Sickles had been replicated in the past and tested in the field for harvesting cereals, thusly obtaining the characteristic sheen along the edge of the hafted flint blades as found in Natufian remnants. Here we report that Natufian wide and narrow conical mortars enabled the processing of wild barley for making the groats and fine flour that provided considerable quantities of nourishment. Dishes in the Early Natufian (15,000–13,500 CalBP) were groat meals and porridge and subsequently, in the Late Natufian (13,500–11,700 CalBP), we suggest that unleavened bread made from fine flour was added. These food preparing techniques widened the dietary breadth of the sedentary Natufian hunter-gatherers, paving the way to the emergence of farming communities, the hallmark of the Neolithic Revolution. PMID:26230092

  3. Chemical test for mammalian feces in grain products: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Gerber, H R

    1989-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted to validate the use of the AOAC alkaline phosphatase method for mammalian feces in corn meal, 44.B01-44.B06, for 7 additional products: brown rice cream, oat bran, grits, semolina, pasta flour, farina, and barley plus (a mixture of barley, oat bran, and brown rice). The proposed method determines the presence of alkaline phosphatase, an enzyme contained in mammalian feces, by using phenolphthalein diphosphate as the enzyme substrate in a test agar medium. Fecal matter is separated from the grain products by specific gravity differences in 1% test agar. As the product is distributed on liquid test agar, fecal fragments float while the grain products sink. The alkaline phosphatase cleaves phosphate radicals from phenolphthalein diphosphate, generating free phenolphthalein, which produces a pink to red-purple color around the fecal particles in the previously colorless medium. Collaborators' recovery averages ranged from 21.7 particles (72.3%) for oat bran to 25.3 particles (84.3%) for semolina at the 30 particle spike level. Overall average background was 0.4 positive reactions per food type. The collaborators reported that the method was quick, simple, and easy to use. The method has been approved interim official first action for all 7 grain products. PMID:2808238

  4. A complete ancient RNA genome: identification, reconstruction and evolutionary history of archaeological Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Oliver; Clapham, Alan; Rose, Pam; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Jun; Allaby, Robin G.

    2014-01-01

    The origins of many plant diseases appear to be recent and associated with the rise of domestication, the spread of agriculture or recent global movements of crops. Distinguishing between these possibilities is problematic because of the difficulty of determining rates of molecular evolution over short time frames. Heterochronous approaches using recent and historical samples show that plant viruses exhibit highly variable and often rapid rates of molecular evolution. The accuracy of estimated evolution rates and age of origin can be greatly improved with the inclusion of older molecular data from archaeological material. Here we present the first reconstruction of an archaeological RNA genome, which is of Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus (BSMV) isolated from barley grain ~750 years of age. Phylogenetic analysis of BSMV that includes this genome indicates the divergence of BSMV and its closest relative prior to this time, most likely around 2000 years ago. However, exclusion of the archaeological data results in an apparently much more recent origin of the virus that postdates even the archaeological sample. We conclude that this viral lineage originated in the Near East or North Africa, and spread to North America and East Asia with their hosts along historical trade routes. PMID:24499968

  5. A complete ancient RNA genome: identification, reconstruction and evolutionary history of archaeological Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus.

    PubMed

    Smith, Oliver; Clapham, Alan; Rose, Pam; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Jun; Allaby, Robin G

    2014-02-06

    The origins of many plant diseases appear to be recent and associated with the rise of domestication, the spread of agriculture or recent global movements of crops. Distinguishing between these possibilities is problematic because of the difficulty of determining rates of molecular evolution over short time frames. Heterochronous approaches using recent and historical samples show that plant viruses exhibit highly variable and often rapid rates of molecular evolution. The accuracy of estimated evolution rates and age of origin can be greatly improved with the inclusion of older molecular data from archaeological material. Here we present the first reconstruction of an archaeological RNA genome, which is of Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus (BSMV) isolated from barley grain ~750 years of age. Phylogenetic analysis of BSMV that includes this genome indicates the divergence of BSMV and its closest relative prior to this time, most likely around 2000 years ago. However, exclusion of the archaeological data results in an apparently much more recent origin of the virus that postdates even the archaeological sample. We conclude that this viral lineage originated in the Near East or North Africa, and spread to North America and East Asia with their hosts along historical trade routes.

  6. The Quantum Mixed-Spin Heme State of Barley Peroxidase: A Paradigm for Class III Peroxidases

    SciTech Connect

    Howes, B.D.; Ma, J.; Marzocchi, M.P.; Schiodt, C.B.; Shelnutt, J.A.; Smulevich, G.; Welinder, K.G.; Zhang, J.

    1999-03-23

    Electronic absorption and resonance Raman (RR) spectra of the ferric form of barley grain peroxidase (BP 1) at various pH values both at room temperature and 20 K are . reported, together with EPR spectra at 10 K. The ferrous forms and the ferric complex with fluoride have also been studied. A quantum mechanically mixed-spin (QS) state has been identified. The QS heme species co-exists with 6- and 5-cHS heroes; the relative populations of these three spin states are found to be dependent on pH and temperature. However, the QS species remains in all cases the dominant heme spin species. Barley peroxidase appears to be further characterized by a splitting of the two vinyl stretching modes, indicating that the vinyl groups are differently conjugated with the porphyrin. An analysis of the presently available spectroscopic data for proteins from all three peroxidase classes suggests that the simultaneous occurrence of the QS heme state as well as the splitting of the two vinyl stretching modes is confined to class III enzymes. The former point is discussed in terms of the possible influences of heme deformations on heme spin state. It is found that moderate saddling alone is probably not enough to cause the QS state, although some saddling maybe necessary for the QS state.

  7. Apoptosis in barley aleurone during germination and its inhibition by abscisic acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, M; Oppedijk, B J; Lu, X; Van Duijn, B; Schilperoort, R A

    1996-12-01

    During germination of barley grains, DNA fragmentation was observed in the aleurone. The appearance of DNA fragmentation in the aleurone layer, observed by TUNEL staining in aleurone sections, started near the embryo and extended to the aleurone cells far from the embryo in a time dependent manner. The same spatial temporal activities of hydrolytic enzymes such as alpha-amylase were observed in aleurone. DNA fragmentation could also be seen in vitro under osmotic stress, in isolated aleurone. During aleurone protoplast isolation, a very enhanced and strong DNA fragmentation occurred which was not seen in protoplast preparations of tobacco leaves. ABA was found to inhibit DNA fragmentation occurring in barley aleurone under osmotic stress condition and during protoplast isolation, while the plant growth regulator gibberellic acid counteracted the effect of ABA. Addition of auxin or cytokinin had no significant effect on DNA fragmentation in these cells. To study the role of phosphorylation in ABA signal transduction leading to control of DNA fragmentation (apoptosis), the effects of the phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid and of phenylarisine oxide on apoptosis were studied. We hypothesize that the regulation of DNA fragmentation in aleurone plays a very important role in spatial and temporal control of aleurone activities during germination. The possible signal transduction pathway of ABA leading to the regulation of DNA fragmentation is discussed.

  8. The quantum mixed-spin heme state of barley peroxidase: A paradigm for class III peroxidases.

    PubMed Central

    Howes, B D; Schiodt, C B; Welinder, K G; Marzocchi, M P; Ma, J G; Zhang, J; Shelnutt, J A; Smulevich, G

    1999-01-01

    Electronic absorption and resonance Raman (RR) spectra of the ferric form of barley grain peroxidase (BP 1) at various pH values, at both room temperature and 20 K, are reported, together with electron paramagnetic resonance spectra at 10 K. The ferrous forms and the ferric complex with fluoride have also been studied. A quantum mechanically mixed-spin (QS) state has been identified. The QS heme species coexists with 6- and 5-cHS hemes; the relative populations of these three spin states are found to be dependent on pH and temperature. However, the QS species remains in all cases the dominant heme spin species. Barley peroxidase appears to be further characterized by a splitting of the two vinyl stretching modes, indicating that the vinyl groups are differently conjugated with the porphyrin. An analysis of the currently available spectroscopic data for proteins from all three peroxidase classes suggests that the simultaneous occurrence of the QS heme state as well as the splitting of the two vinyl stretching modes is confined to class III enzymes. The former point is discussed in terms of the possible influences of heme deformations on heme spin state. It is found that moderate saddling alone is probably not enough to cause the QS state, although some saddling may be necessary for the QS state. PMID:10388773

  9. A complete ancient RNA genome: identification, reconstruction and evolutionary history of archaeological Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus.

    PubMed

    Smith, Oliver; Clapham, Alan; Rose, Pam; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Jun; Allaby, Robin G

    2014-01-01

    The origins of many plant diseases appear to be recent and associated with the rise of domestication, the spread of agriculture or recent global movements of crops. Distinguishing between these possibilities is problematic because of the difficulty of determining rates of molecular evolution over short time frames. Heterochronous approaches using recent and historical samples show that plant viruses exhibit highly variable and often rapid rates of molecular evolution. The accuracy of estimated evolution rates and age of origin can be greatly improved with the inclusion of older molecular data from archaeological material. Here we present the first reconstruction of an archaeological RNA genome, which is of Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus (BSMV) isolated from barley grain ~750 years of age. Phylogenetic analysis of BSMV that includes this genome indicates the divergence of BSMV and its closest relative prior to this time, most likely around 2000 years ago. However, exclusion of the archaeological data results in an apparently much more recent origin of the virus that postdates even the archaeological sample. We conclude that this viral lineage originated in the Near East or North Africa, and spread to North America and East Asia with their hosts along historical trade routes. PMID:24499968

  10. Development of DArT-based PCR markers for selecting drought-tolerant spring barley.

    PubMed

    Fiust, Anna; Rapacz, Marcin; Wójcik-Jagła, Magdalena; Tyrka, Mirosław

    2015-08-01

    The tolerance of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars to spring drought is an important agronomic trait affecting crop yield and quality in Poland. Therefore, breeders require new molecular markers to select plants with lower spring drought susceptibility. With the advent of genomic selection technology, simple molecular tools may still be applicable to screen material for markers of the most important traits and in-depth genome scanning. In previous studies, diversity arrays technology (DArT)-based genetic maps were constructed for F2 populations of Polish fodder and malt barley elite breeding lines, and 15 and 18 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to spring drought tolerance were identified, respectively. In this paper, we show the results of a conversion of 30 DArT markers corresponding to 11 QTLs into simple sequence repeat (SSR) and sequence tagged site (STS) markers. Twenty-two polymorphic markers were obtained, including 13 DArT-based SSRs. Additionally, 31 SSR markers, located in close proximity to the DArT markers, were selected from the GrainGenes database and tested. Further analyses of 24 advanced breeding lines with different drought tolerances confirmed that five out of the 30 converted markers, as well as three out of the 31 additional SSR markers, were effective in marker-assisted selection for drought tolerance. The possible function of clones related to these markers in drought tolerance is discussed. PMID:25716655

  11. Grain Handling and Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Troy G.; Minor, John

    This text for a secondary- or postecondary-level course in grain handling and storage contains ten chapters. Chapter titles are (1) Introduction to Grain Handling and Storage, (2) Elevator Safety, (3) Grain Grading and Seed Identification, (4) Moisture Control, (5) Insect and Rodent Control, (6) Grain Inventory Control, (7) Elevator Maintenance,…

  12. Grain Grading and Handling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendleman, Matt; Legacy, James

    This publication provides an introduction to grain grading and handling for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in five chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the jobs performed at a grain elevator and of the techniques used to grade grain. The first chapter introduces the grain industry and…

  13. Greening etiolated barley plants under clinorotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syvash, O. O.; Dovbysh, E. P.; Zolotareva, E. K.

    Plants are capable to react to change of a gravitational field and have sensitive and selective mechanisms, allowing to be guided in a field of gravitation of the Earth. It is known, that changes of gravitational conditions (hyper- or hypogravity) influence metabolic processes in alive organisms. One of the important problems of space biology is studying influence of microgravity on development of the photosynthetic apparatus. Damaging action of weightlessness on photosynthetic processes in plants was shown in a lot of space experiments. However, results of these experiments are inconsistent and do not allow to conclude how varied conditions of weight influence photosynthesis and in particular biosynthesis of chlorophyll. The aim of the communication is an analysis of clinorotation effects on the pigment accumulation and photochemical characteristics of the photosynthetic apparatus during its formation at greening of barley seedlings. Barley plants were grown on a slow horizontal clinostat (2 rpm) and in vertical control at room temperature for 7-8 days (6 days in the dark and 1 or 2 day on white light, ˜ 90 μ Mm-2s-1). Protochlorophyllide (Pchld) and carotenoid (β -carotene, lutein, neoxantin, violaxantin) content in dark grown plants, as well as photosynthetic pigment content after 24 and 48h of greening was determined by TLC. It was found that the content of β -carotene, lutein and neoxantin in clinorotated etiolated plants was on 9-25% higher compared to control. Pchld and violaxantin level was less on 9-11% in clinorotated etiolated plants. The content of Chl a, b and carotenoids in control after 24h greening of barley seedlings exceeded on 10-20% their level in clinorotated variant. After 48h greening the total level of pigments doubled and the difference in the pigment content between control and clinorotated leaves averaged 0-12%, i.e. distinction in pigment content between control and clinorotated variants smoothed out in the greening process. No

  14. Unified microwave moisture sensing technique for grain and seed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabelsi, Samir; Nelson, Stuart O.

    2007-04-01

    A unified method for moisture sensing in cereal grain and oilseed from a single calibration equation, which is obtained from measurement of dielectric properties at a single microwave frequency, is presented. The method is based on a complex permittivity calibration function that is independent of both bulk density and kind of material. Performance of the method was tested for soybeans, corn, wheat, sorghum, barley and oats at 7 GHz and about 23 °C. The standard error of calibration for moisture prediction from complex permittivity measurements was 0.8%.

  15. Levels of fungi and mycotoxins in the samples of grain and grain dust collected from five various cereal crops in eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Krysińska-Traczyk, Ewa; Perkowski, Juliusz; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2007-01-01

    During combine harvesting of 5 various cereal crops (rye, barley, oats, buckwheat, corn) 24 samples of grain and 24 samples of settled grain dust were collected on farms located in the Lublin province of eastern Poland. The samples were examined for the concentration of total microfungi, Fusarium species, deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), and ochratoxin A (OTA). Microfungi able to grow on malt agar were present in 79.2% of grain samples and in 91.7% of grain dust samples in the concentrations of 1.0-801.3x10(3) cfu/g and 1.5-12440.0x10(3) cfu/g, respectively. The concentration of microfungi in grain dust samples was significantly greater than in grain samples (p<0.01). Fusarium strains were isolated from 54.2% of grain samples and from 58.3% of grain dust samples in the concentrations of 0.1-375.0x10(3) cfu/g and 4.0-7,700.0x10(3) cfu/g, respectively. They were found in all samples of grain and grain dust from rye, barley and corn, but only in 0-16.7% of samples of grain and grain dust from oats and buckwheat. DON was found in 79.2% of grain samples and in 100% of grain dust samples in the concentrations of 0.001-0.18 microg/g and 0.006-0.283 microg/g, respectively. NIV was detected in 62.5% of grain samples and in 94.4% of grain dust samples in the concentrations of 0.004-0.502 microg/g and 0.005-0.339 microg/g, respectively. OTA was detected in 58.3% of grain samples and in 91.7% of grain dust samples in the concentrations of 0.00039- 0.00195 microg/g and 0.00036-0.00285 microg/g, respectively. The concentrations of DON, total fusariotoxins (DON+NIV) and OTA were significantly greater in grain dust samples than in grain samples (p<0.05, p<0.05, and p<0.001, respectively). The concentration of Fusarium poae in the samples of rye grain and dust was significantly correlated with the concentrations of DON (p<0.05), NIV (p<0.01), and total fusariotoxins (p<0.05). Similarly, the concentration of Fusarium culmorum in the samples of barley grain and dust was

  16. Recent developments in the genetic engineering of barley

    SciTech Connect

    Mannonen, L.; Kauppinen, V.; Enari, T.M. )

    1994-01-01

    Cereals are the most important group of plants for human nutrition and animal feed. Partially due to the commercial value of crop plants, there has been an ever-increasing interest in using modern biotechnological methods for the improvement of the characteristics of cereals during the past decade. The rapid progress in molecular biology, plant cell culture techniques, and gene transfer technology has resulted in successful transformations of all the major cereals--maize, rice, wheat, and barley. This brings the biotechnological methods closer to the routine also in barley breeding. In this article, the current status of barley genetic engineering, including the patent situation, is reviewed. The needs aims, and possible applications of genetic engineering in barley breeding are discussed. 179 refs.

  17. Barley stripe mosaic virus: Structure and relationship to the tobamoviruses

    SciTech Connect

    Kendall, Amy; Williams, Dewight; Bian, Wen; Stewart, Phoebe L.; Stubbs, Gerald

    2013-09-01

    Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) is the type member of the genus Hordeivirus, rigid, rod-shaped viruses in the family Virgaviridae. We have used fiber diffraction and cryo-electron microscopy to determine the helical symmetry of BSMV to be 23.2 subunits per turn of the viral helix, and to obtain a low-resolution model of the virus by helical reconstruction methods. Features in the model support a structural relationship between the coat proteins of the hordeiviruses and the tobamoviruses. - Highlights: • We report a low-resolution structure of barley stripe mosaic virus. • Barley stripe mosaic virus has 23.2 subunits per turn of the viral helix. • We compare barley stripe mosaic virus with tobacco mosaic virus.

  18. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Hull-Caryopsis Adhesion/Separation Revealed by Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis of Covered/Naked Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Duan, Ruijun; Xiong, Huiyan; Wang, Aidong; Chen, Guoxiong

    2015-01-01

    The covered/naked caryopsis trait of barley is an important agronomic trait because it is directly linked to dietary use. The formation of covered/naked caryopsis is controlled by an NUD transcription factor, which is involved in pericarp cuticle development. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this trait remains so far largely unknown. In this study, comparative transcriptomes of grains three weeks after anthesis of Tibetan Hulless barley landrace Dulihuang and covered barley Morex were analyzed using RNA-seq technique. A total of 4031 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. The Nud gene was overexpressed in Morex, with trace expression in Dulihuang. Among seventeen cuticle related DEGs, sixteen were down regulated and one up regulated in Morex. These results suggest that the Nud gene in covered caryopsis might down regulate cuticle related genes, which may cause a permeable cuticle over pericarp, leading to a hull-caryopsis organ fusion. A functional cuticle covering the pericarp of naked caryopsis might be the result of deletion or low expression level of the Nud gene. The functional cuticle defines a perfect boundary to separate the caryopsis from the hull in naked barley. PMID:26110389

  19. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Hull-Caryopsis Adhesion/Separation Revealed by Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis of Covered/Naked Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Duan, Ruijun; Xiong, Huiyan; Wang, Aidong; Chen, Guoxiong

    2015-06-23

    The covered/naked caryopsis trait of barley is an important agronomic trait because it is directly linked to dietary use. The formation of covered/naked caryopsis is controlled by an NUD transcription factor, which is involved in pericarp cuticle development. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this trait remains so far largely unknown. In this study, comparative transcriptomes of grains three weeks after anthesis of Tibetan Hulless barley landrace Dulihuang and covered barley Morex were analyzed using RNA-seq technique. A total of 4031 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. The Nud gene was overexpressed in Morex, with trace expression in Dulihuang. Among seventeen cuticle related DEGs, sixteen were down regulated and one up regulated in Morex. These results suggest that the Nud gene in covered caryopsis might down regulate cuticle related genes, which may cause a permeable cuticle over pericarp, leading to a hull-caryopsis organ fusion. A functional cuticle covering the pericarp of naked caryopsis might be the result of deletion or low expression level of the Nud gene. The functional cuticle defines a perfect boundary to separate the caryopsis from the hull in naked barley.

  20. Efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus utilization in progenies of factorial crosses between European and exotic cultivars of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Górny, Andrzej G; Ratajczak, Dominika

    2008-01-01

    Previous observations suggested that some landraces, primitive cultivars and other barleys originating from the harsh conditions of the Middle East, North Africa and Tibet might serve as interesting sources of adaptation to low-input agriculture. This opportunity was verified in field experiments performed under reduced rates of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilization. Genetic variation in major components of the efficiency of N and P utilization was examined among F2 and F3 generations of crosses between four European female and seven exotic male lines of spring barley. Preponderance of general combining ability effects was found for most efficiency components, suggesting that the characters are mainly controlled by additive gene action. Non-additive effects appeared to be less or non-significant. Under reduced fertilization, hybrid progenies of the Syrian cv. M.Dingo/D.Alla 106 and the Moroccan cv. Moroc 9-75 exhibit an enhanced yielding and the highest capacity to utilize N and P efficiently in grain mass formation. The results proved that the exotic barleys appear to be particularly useful for breeding programs aiming at improved barley adaptation to less favourable fertilization regimes. PMID:19029682

  1. The Hydrogen Sulfide Donor NaHS Delays Programmed Cell Death in Barley Aleurone Layers by Acting as an Antioxidant.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Xin; Hu, Kang-Di; Lv, Kai; Li, Yan-Hong; Hu, Lan-Ying; Zhang, Xi-Qi; Ruan, Long; Liu, Yong-Sheng; Zhang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    H2S is a signaling molecule in plants and animals. Here we investigated the effects of H2S on programmed cell death (PCD) in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) aleurone layers. The H2S donor NaHS significantly delayed PCD in aleurone layers isolated from imbibed embryoless barley grain. NaHS at 0.25 mM effectively reduced the accumulation of superoxide anion (·O2 (-)), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and malondialdehyde (MDA), promoted the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and decreased those of lipoxygenase (LOX) in isolated aleurone layers. Quantitative-PCR showed that NaHS treatment of aleurone tissue led to enhanced transcript levels of the antioxidant genes HvSOD1, HvAPX, HvCAT1, and HvCAT2 and repressed transcript levels of HvLOX (lipoxygenase gene) and of two cysteine protease genes HvEPA and HvCP3-31. NaHS treatment in gibberellic acid- (GA-) treated aleurone layers also delayed the PCD process, reduced the content of ·O2 (-), and increased POD activity while decreasing LOX activity. Furthermore, α-amylase secretion in barley aleurone layers was enhanced by NaHS treatment regardless of the presence or absence of GA. These data imply that H2S acted as an antioxidant in delaying PCD and enhances α-amylase secretion regardless of the presence of GA in barley aleurone layers.

  2. Production of ethanol from winter barley by the EDGE (enhanced dry grind enzymatic) process

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background US legislation requires the use of advanced biofuels to be made from non-food feedstocks. However, commercialization of lignocellulosic ethanol technology is more complex than expected and is therefore running behind schedule. This is creating a demand for non-food, but more easily converted, starch-based feedstocks other than corn that can fill the gap until the second generation technologies are commercially viable. Winter barley is such a feedstock but its mash has very high viscosity due to its high content of β-glucans. This fact, along with a lower starch content than corn, makes ethanol production at the commercial scale a real challenge. Results A new fermentation process for ethanol production from Thoroughbred, a winter barley variety with a high starch content, was developed. The new process was designated the EDGE (enhanced dry grind enzymatic) process. In this process, in addition to the normal starch-converting enzymes, two accessory enzymes were used to solve the β-glucan problem. First, β-glucanases were used to hydrolyze the β-glucans to oligomeric fractions, thus significantly reducing the viscosity to allow good mixing for the distribution of the yeast and nutrients. Next, β-glucosidase was used to complete the β-glucan hydrolysis and to generate glucose, which was subsequently fermented in order to produce additional ethanol. While β-glucanases have been previously used to improve barley ethanol production by lowering viscosity, this is the first full report on the benefits of adding β-glucosidases to increase the ethanol yield. Conclusions In the EDGE process, 30% of total dry solids could be used to produce 15% v/v ethanol. Under optimum conditions an ethanol yield of 402 L/MT (dry basis) or 2.17 gallons/53 lb bushel of barley with 15% moisture was achieved. The distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) co-product had extremely low β-glucan (below 0.2%) making it suitable for use in both ruminant and mono-gastric animal

  3. Quantitative Trait Loci and Inter-Organ Partitioning for Essential Metal and Toxic Analogue Accumulation in Barley

    PubMed Central

    Reuscher, Stefan; Kolter, Andreas; Hoffmann, Astrid; Pillen, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The concentrations of both essential nutrients and chemically similar toxic analogues accumulated in cereal grains have a major impact on the nutritional quality and safety of crops. Naturally occurring genetic diversity can be exploited for the breeding of improved varieties through introgression lines (ILs). In this study, multi-element analysis was conducted on vegetative leaves, senesced flag leaves and mature grains of a set of 54 ILs of the wild ancestral Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum in the cultivated variety Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare cv. Scarlett. Plants were cultivated on an anthropogenically heavy metal-contaminated soil collected in an agricultural field, thus allowing simultaneous localization of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for the accumulation of both essential nutrients and toxic trace elements in barley as a model cereal crop. For accumulation of the micronutrients Fe and Zn and the interfering toxin Cd, we identified 25, 16 and 5 QTL, respectively. By examining the gene content of the introgressions, we associated QTL with candidate genes based on homology to known metal homeostasis genes of Arabidopsis and rice. Global comparative analyses suggested the preferential remobilization of Cu and Fe, over Cd, from the flag leaf to developing grains. Our data identifies grain micronutrient filling as a regulated and nutrient-specific process, which operates differently from vegetative micronutrient homoeostasis. In summary, this study provides novel QTL for micronutrient accumulation in the presence of toxic analogues and supports a higher degree of metal specificity of trace element partitioning during grain filling in barley than previously reported for other cereals. PMID:27078500

  4. Quantitative Trait Loci and Inter-Organ Partitioning for Essential Metal and Toxic Analogue Accumulation in Barley.

    PubMed

    Reuscher, Stefan; Kolter, Andreas; Hoffmann, Astrid; Pillen, Klaus; Krämer, Ute

    2016-01-01

    The concentrations of both essential nutrients and chemically similar toxic analogues accumulated in cereal grains have a major impact on the nutritional quality and safety of crops. Naturally occurring genetic diversity can be exploited for the breeding of improved varieties through introgression lines (ILs). In this study, multi-element analysis was conducted on vegetative leaves, senesced flag leaves and mature grains of a set of 54 ILs of the wild ancestral Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum in the cultivated variety Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare cv. Scarlett. Plants were cultivated on an anthropogenically heavy metal-contaminated soil collected in an agricultural field, thus allowing simultaneous localization of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for the accumulation of both essential nutrients and toxic trace elements in barley as a model cereal crop. For accumulation of the micronutrients Fe and Zn and the interfering toxin Cd, we identified 25, 16 and 5 QTL, respectively. By examining the gene content of the introgressions, we associated QTL with candidate genes based on homology to known metal homeostasis genes of Arabidopsis and rice. Global comparative analyses suggested the preferential remobilization of Cu and Fe, over Cd, from the flag leaf to developing grains. Our data identifies grain micronutrient filling as a regulated and nutrient-specific process, which operates differently from vegetative micronutrient homoeostasis. In summary, this study provides novel QTL for micronutrient accumulation in the presence of toxic analogues and supports a higher degree of metal specificity of trace element partitioning during grain filling in barley than previously reported for other cereals. PMID:27078500

  5. Effects of graded levels of potato by-products in barley- and corn-based beef feedlot diets: I. Feedlot performance, carcass traits, meat composition, and appearance.

    PubMed

    Nelson, M L; Busboom, J R; Cronrath, J D; Falen, L; Blankenbaker, A

    2000-07-01

    To measure effects of diet on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and beef appearance, 144 crossbred beef steers (333+/-.44 kg) were allotted within weight block (3) to a randomized complete block design with a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Main effects were grain (barley or corn) and level of potato by-product (PB) (0, 10, or 20% of diet DM). Steers were fed diets containing 83% concentrate (grain plus PB), 10% supplement, and 7% alfalfa on a DM basis for an average of 130 d. Level of PB quadratically affected (P < .10) DM intake and gain such that steers fed 10% PB ate more and gained faster. Corn-fed steers were more (P < .05) efficient (5.8 vs 6.3 kg DM/kg gain) and had more (P < .05) kidney, pelvic, and heart fat (2.2 vs 2.0%) than barley-fed steers. A grain x PB interaction was detected (P < .10) for marbling score, which was minimized in steers fed barley diets (small 0) but maximized in those fed corn diets (small 30) at 10% PB. Diet did not affect beef firmness or beef color score. Barley-fed beef had whiter fat (P < .05) than corn-fed beef (2.6 vs 2.9 on a 1 to 7 scale); however, fat luster score was not affected by diet. Small differences were noted in fatty acid profile, purge, drip loss, and muscle pH. No differences were noted in color measurements due to dietary treatment over 7 d of retail shelf life. Overall, differences were small and probably not biologically important. These results indicate that these diets had minimal effects on beef appearance and carcass characteristics, meat composition, and water retention properties. PMID:10907824

  6. Conversion of deoxynivalenol to 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol in barley-derived fuel ethanol co-products with yeast expressing trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) may be concentrated in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; a co-product of fuel ethanol fermentation) when grain containing DON is used to produce fuel ethanol. Even low levels of DON (≤ 5 ppm) in DDGS sold as feed pose a significant threat to the health of monogastric animals. New and improved strategies to reduce DON in DDGS need to be developed and implemented to address this problem. Enzymes known as trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferases convert DON to 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADON), and may reduce its toxicity in plants and animals. Results Two Fusarium trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferases (FgTRI101 and FfTRI201) were cloned and expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) during a series of small-scale ethanol fermentations using barley (Hordeum vulgare). DON was concentrated 1.6 to 8.2 times in DDGS compared with the starting ground grain. During the fermentation process, FgTRI101 converted 9.2% to 55.3% of the DON to 3ADON, resulting in DDGS with reductions in DON and increases in 3ADON in the Virginia winter barley cultivars Eve, Thoroughbred and Price, and the experimental line VA06H-25. Analysis of barley mashes prepared from the barley line VA04B-125 showed that yeast expressing FfTRI201 were more effective at acetylating DON than those expressing FgTRI101; DON conversion for FfTRI201 ranged from 26.1% to 28.3%, whereas DON conversion for FgTRI101 ranged from 18.3% to 21.8% in VA04B-125 mashes. Ethanol yields were highest with the industrial yeast strain Ethanol Red®, which also consumed galactose when present in the mash. Conclusions This study demonstrates the potential of using yeast expressing a trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferase to modify DON during commercial fuel ethanol fermentation. PMID:21888629

  7. Conserved transcriptional regulatory programs underlying rice and barley germination.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li; Tian, Shulan; Kaeppler, Shawn; Liu, Zongrang; An, Yong-Qiang Charles

    2014-01-01

    Germination is a biological process important to plant development and agricultural production. Barley and rice diverged 50 million years ago, but share a similar germination process. To gain insight into the conservation of their underlying gene regulatory programs, we compared transcriptomes of barley and rice at start, middle and end points of germination, and revealed that germination regulated barley and rice genes (BRs) diverged significantly in expression patterns and/or protein sequences. However, BRs with higher protein sequence similarity tended to have more conserved expression patterns. We identified and characterized 316 sets of conserved barley and rice genes (cBRs) with high similarity in both protein sequences and expression patterns, and provided a comprehensive depiction of the transcriptional regulatory program conserved in barley and rice germination at gene, pathway and systems levels. The cBRs encoded proteins involved in a variety of biological pathways and had a wide range of expression patterns. The cBRs encoding key regulatory components in signaling pathways often had diverse expression patterns. Early germination up-regulation of cell wall metabolic pathway and peroxidases, and late germination up-regulation of chromatin structure and remodeling pathways were conserved in both barley and rice. Protein sequence and expression pattern of a gene change quickly if it is not subjected to a functional constraint. Preserving germination-regulated expression patterns and protein sequences of those cBRs for 50 million years strongly suggests that the cBRs are functionally significant and equivalent in germination, and contribute to the ancient characteristics of germination preserved in barley and rice. The functional significance and equivalence of the cBR genes predicted here can serve as a foundation to further characterize their biological functions and facilitate bridging rice and barley germination research with greater confidence. PMID

  8. Conserved Transcriptional Regulatory Programs Underlying Rice and Barley Germination

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Li; Tian, Shulan; Kaeppler, Shawn; Liu, Zongrang; An, Yong-Qiang (Charles)

    2014-01-01

    Germination is a biological process important to plant development and agricultural production. Barley and rice diverged 50 million years ago, but share a similar germination process. To gain insight into the conservation of their underlying gene regulatory programs, we compared transcriptomes of barley and rice at start, middle and end points of germination, and revealed that germination regulated barley and rice genes (BRs) diverged significantly in expression patterns and/or protein sequences. However, BRs with higher protein sequence similarity tended to have more conserved expression patterns. We identified and characterized 316 sets of conserved barley and rice genes (cBRs) with high similarity in both protein sequences and expression patterns, and provided a comprehensive depiction of the transcriptional regulatory program conserved in barley and rice germination at gene, pathway and systems levels. The cBRs encoded proteins involved in a variety of biological pathways and had a wide range of expression patterns. The cBRs encoding key regulatory components in signaling pathways often had diverse expression patterns. Early germination up-regulation of cell wall metabolic pathway and peroxidases, and late germination up-regulation of chromatin structure and remodeling pathways were conserved in both barley and rice. Protein sequence and expression pattern of a gene change quickly if it is not subjected to a functional constraint. Preserving germination-regulated expression patterns and protein sequences of those cBRs for 50 million years strongly suggests that the cBRs are functionally significant and equivalent in germination, and contribute to the ancient characteristics of germination preserved in barley and rice. The functional significance and equivalence of the cBR genes predicted here can serve as a foundation to further characterize their biological functions and facilitate bridging rice and barley germination research with greater confidence. PMID

  9. [Determination of the percentage of grain whisky in commercial whiskies by isotopic mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Koziet, J; Bricout, J; Azoulay, N

    1978-01-01

    Commercial whisky is generally a blend between malt whisky and grain whisky. Corn is one of the main sources of grain and it is now well known that in corn the carbon dioxide assimilation proceeds through carboxylation of phosphoenolpyruvate but in many other plants like barley atmospheric carbon dioxide is fixed on ribulose 1,5 diphosphate. Each pathway of carbon dioxide assimilation is characterized by a fractionation factor of carbon isotopes. Consequently, the organic matter and also the fermentation alcohol of corn or barley show different 13C/12C ratio. The determination of the 13C/12C ratio in the alcohol of blended whisky allows the determination of the percentage of corn whisky.

  10. Comparison of barley stripe mosaic virus strains.

    PubMed

    Hafez, Elsayed E; Abdel Aleem, Engy E; Fattouh, Faiza A

    2008-01-01

    BSMV (barley stripe mosaic virus) particles were obtained in a pure state from infected host plant tissues of Hordeum vulgare. The three genomic parities (alpha, beta and gamma) were amplified by PCR using specific primers for each particle; each was cloned. Partial sequence of the alpha, beta and gamma segments was determined for the Egyptian isolate of barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV AE1). Alignment of nucleotide sequences with that of other known strains of the virus, BSMV type strains (CV17, ND18 and China), and the generation of phylogenetic trees was performed. A low level of homology was detected comparing 467 bp of the a and 643 bp of the segments to that of the other strains, and thus BSMV alpha and beta segments were in separate clusters. However, 1154 bp of the gamma segments of BSMV AE1 showed a high level of homology especially to strain BSMV ND18, as they both formed a distinct cluster. Northern blotting of pure BSMV AE1 virus and H. vulgare-infected tissue were compared using an alpha ND18 specific probe. Western blotting using antibodies specific for the coat protein (CP) and the triple gene block 1 (TGB1) protein, which are both encoded by the beta ND18 segment, still indicated a high level of similarity between proteins produced by BSMV ND18 and AE1. We suggest that the BSMV AE1 isolate is a distinct strain of BSMV which reflects the genetic evolutionary divergence among BSMV strains and members of the Hordeivirus group. PMID:18533473

  11. Soil quality and barley growth as influenced by the land application of two compost types.

    PubMed

    Courtney, R G; Mullen, G J

    2008-05-01

    Agricultural use of organic residues offers an attractive method for their safe disposal and a valuable source of organic amendments and nutrients. A field experiment was conducted to investigate the influences of 0, 25, 50 and 100 t/ha spent mushroom compost (SMC), forced aeration compost (FAC) and inorganic fertilizer on soil properties and yield of barley (Hordeum vulgare). The considered soil properties (0-15 cm), after a growing season, included pH, EC, available P, Kjeldahl N, available cations, DTPA extractable elements, soil OC content, and bulk density and grain yield was also determined. Application of organic materials increased organic status of the soil and nutrient content. The effectiveness of the two composts on improving the productivity of the soil varied. SMC produced strongest correlations between soil nutrient levels and plant yield. Neither compost raised soil copper and zinc to levels that were of concern and high application rates decreased iron content.

  12. Transcriptomic Analysis of Temperature Responses of Aspergillus kawachii during Barley Koji Production

    PubMed Central

    Futagami, Taiki; Mori, Kazuki; Wada, Shotaro; Ida, Hiroko; Kajiwara, Yasuhiro; Takashita, Hideharu; Tashiro, Kosuke; Yamada, Osamu; Omori, Toshiro; Kuhara, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    The koji mold Aspergillus kawachii is used for making the Japanese distilled spirit shochu. During shochu production, A. kawachii is grown in solid-state culture (koji) on steamed grains, such as rice or barley, to convert the grain starch to glucose and produce citric acid. During this process, the cultivation temperature of A. kawachii is gradually increased to 40°C and is then lowered to 30°C. This temperature modulation is important for stimulating amylase activity and the accumulation of citric acid. However, the effects of temperature on A. kawachii at the gene expression level have not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effect of solid-state cultivation temperature on gene expression for A. kawachii grown on barley. The results of DNA microarray and gene ontology analyses showed that the expression of genes involved in the glycerol, trehalose, and pentose phosphate metabolic pathways, which function downstream of glycolysis, was downregulated by shifting the cultivation temperature from 40 to 30°C. In addition, significantly reduced expression of genes related to heat shock responses and increased expression of genes related with amino acid transport were also observed. These results suggest that solid-state cultivation at 40°C is stressful for A. kawachii and that heat adaptation leads to reduced citric acid accumulation through activation of pathways branching from glycolysis. The gene expression profile of A. kawachii elucidated in this study is expected to contribute to the understanding of gene regulation during koji production and optimization of the industrially desirable characteristics of A. kawachii. PMID:25501485

  13. Abiotic stress and control of grain number in cereals.

    PubMed

    Dolferus, Rudy; Ji, Xuemei; Richards, Richard A

    2011-10-01

    Grain number is the only yield component that is directly associated with increased grain yield in important cereal crops like wheat. Historical yield studies show that increases in grain yield are always accompanied by an increase in grain number. Adverse weather conditions can cause severe fluctuations in grain yield and substantial yield losses in cereal crops. The problem is global and despite its impact on world food production breeding and selection approaches have only met with limited success. A specific period during early reproductive development, the young microspore stage of pollen development, is extremely vulnerable to abiotic stress in self-fertilising cereals (wheat, rice, barley, sorghum). A better understanding of the physiological and molecular processes that lead to stress-induced pollen abortion may provide us with the key to finding solutions for maintaining grain number under abiotic stress conditions. Due to the complexity of the problem, stress-proofing our main cereal crops will be a challenging task and will require joint input from different research disciplines.

  14. Combined Noninvasive Imaging and Modeling Approaches Reveal Metabolic Compartmentation in the Barley Endosperm[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Rolletschek, Hardy; Melkus, Gerd; Grafahrend-Belau, Eva; Fuchs, Johannes; Heinzel, Nicolas; Schreiber, Falk; Jakob, Peter M.; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla

    2011-01-01

    The starchy endosperm of cereals is a priori taken as a metabolically uniform tissue. By applying a noninvasive assay based on 13C/1H-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to barley (Hordeum vulgare) grains, we uncovered metabolic compartmentation in the endosperm. 13C-Suc feeding during grain filling showed that the primary site of Ala synthesis was the central region of the endosperm, the part of the caryopsis experiencing the highest level of hypoxia. Region-specific metabolism in the endosperm was characterized by flux balance analysis (FBA) and metabolite profiling. FBA predicts that in the central region of the endosperm, the tricarboxylic acid cycle shifts to a noncyclic mode, accompanied by elevated glycolytic flux and the accumulation of Ala. The metabolic compartmentation within the endosperm is advantageous for the grain's carbon and energy economy, with a prominent role being played by Ala aminotransferase. An investigation of caryopses with a genetically perturbed tissue pattern demonstrated that Ala accumulation is a consequence of oxygen status, rather than being either tissue specific or dependent on the supply of Suc. Hence the 13C-Ala gradient can be used as an in vivo marker for hypoxia. The combination of MRI and metabolic modeling offers opportunities for the noninvasive analysis of metabolic compartmentation in plants. PMID:21856793

  15. KTP laser stapedotomy with a self-crimping, thermal shape memory Nitinol piston: follow-up study reporting intermediate-term hearing.

    PubMed

    Gerlinger, Imre; Bakó, Péter; Piski, Zalán; Révész, Péter; Ráth, Gábor; Karosi, Tamás; Lujber, László

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was an evaluation of the mid-term hearing results after the implantation of a self-crimping heat memory Nitinol piston in stapes surgery. The 12-month postoperative results were compared with those at a minimum of 3 years (maximum 6.7, average 4.4 years). The medical records of all 44 patients who underwent surgery with a Nitinol piston for stapes fixation between November 2005 and January 2007 were evaluated retrospectively. The prostheses used in all cases measured either 4.5 or 4.75 × 0.6 mm. We hypothesized that the 12-month postoperative hearing results would be permanent after an average follow-up of 4.4 years. Thirty-two of the 44 consecutive patients were females and 12 were males. Their mean age was 40.4 years (range 27-69). All underwent a 12-month postoperative audiometric evaluation. 38 (30 females, 8 males, average age 45, range 28-77 years) of the 44 were available for mid-term 4.4-year (minimum 3 years, maximum 6.7 years) postoperative audiometric evaluation. The mean air-bone gap (ABG) for the frequencies 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 kHz at the 12-month postoperative follow-up was 11 dB (SD 4.1) and that after an average 4.4-year postoperative evaluation was 6.4 dB (SD 3.6). The mean decrease in ABG after 12 months was 19.5 dB, and that after the average 4.4 years was 21.3 dB. ABG closure within 10 dB was achieved in 77.2 % after 12 months and in 89.5 % after the average 4.4 years. No patient with an ABG > 20 dB was recorded after the average 4.4 years. The mean air conduction threshold at 4 kHz was examined pre and postoperatively so as to indicate any possible inner ear damage. At the 12-month follow-up, the difference between the pre and postoperative values was -2.5 dB, whereas after the average 4.4 years the difference was surprisingly +13 dB. The individual AC improvements were also demonstrated with the use of Amsterdam Hearing Evaluation Plots (AHEPs). The Nitinol prosthesis allowed excellent intraoperative handling and no

  16. Potassium fertilization and (137)Cs transfer from soil to grass and barley in Sweden after the Chernobyl fallout.

    PubMed

    Rosén, K; Vinichuk, M

    2014-04-01

    Fertilization of soils contaminated by radionuclides with potassium (K) and its effect on (137)Cs transfer from soil to crops is well studied in field conditions; however experiments over many years are few. The effects of potassium fertilization on cesium-137 ((137)Cs) transfer to hay, pasture grass, and barley growing on organic rich soils and mineral sand and loam soils in a number of field experimental sites situated in different environments in Sweden are summarized and discussed. The basic experimental treatments were control (no K fertilizers were applied), 50, 100, and 200 kg K ha(-1). In the experiment, which lasted over 3-6 years, (137)Cs transfer factors in control treatments ranged between 0.0004 m(2) kg(-1) (barley grain on sand soil) and 0.07 m(2) kg(-1) (pasture grass on organic rich soil). Potassium application on soils with low clay content i.e. mineral sand and organic rich soils was effective at the 50-100 kg ha(-1) level. Application of 200 kg K ha(-1) resulted in a five-fold reduction in (137)Cs transfer for hay and up to four-fold for barley grain. The effects of potassium application were generally greater on sand than organic rich soil and were observed already in the first cut. After K application, the reduction in (137)Cs transfer to crops was correlated with (137)Cs:K ratios in plant material. Additional application of zeolite caused a 1.4 reduction of (137)Cs transfer to hay on sand and 1.8-fold reduction on organic rich soil; whereas, application of potash-magnesia and CaO had no effect.

  17. Analysis of expressed sequence tags from cDNA library of Fusarium culmorum infected barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) roots

    PubMed Central

    Tufan, Feyza; Uçarlı, Cüneyt; Gürel, Filiz

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium culmorum is one of the most common and globally important causal agent of root and crown rot diseases of cereals. These diseases cause grain yield loss and reduced grain quality in barley. In this study, we have analyzed an expressed sequence tag (EST) database derived from F. culmorum infected barley root tissues available at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). The 2294 sequences were assembled into 1619 non-redundant sequences consisting of 359 contigs and 1260 singletons using the program CAP3. BLASTX analysis for these sequences was conducted in order to find similar sequences in all databases. Gene Ontology search, enzyme search, KEGG mapping and InterProScan search were done using Blast2GO 3.0.7 tool. By BLASTX analysis, 41.7%, 7.7%, 3.2% and 47.4% of ESTs were categorized as annotated, unannotated, not mapping and without blast hits, respectively. BLASTX analysis revealed that the majority of top hits were barley proteins (43.5%). Based on Gene Ontology classification, 38.3%, 31.3%, and 16% of ESTs were assigned to molecular function, biological process, and cellular component GO terms, respectively. Most abundant GO terms were as follows: 157 sequences were related to response to stress (biological process), 207 sequences were related to ion binding (molecular function), and 160 sequences were related to plastid (cellular component). Furthermore, based on KEGG mapping, 369 sequences could be assigned to 264 enzymes and 83 different KEGG pathways. According to Enzyme Commission (EC) distribution; 94 sequences were transferases (EC2) while 70 sequences were hydrolases (EC3). PMID:25780278

  18. Genetic diversity and association analysis for salinity tolerance, heading date and plant height of barley germplasm using simple sequence repeat markers.

    PubMed

    Eleuch, Lilia; Jilal, Abderrazek; Grando, Stefania; Ceccarelli, Salvatore; Schmising, Maria von Korff; Tsujimoto, Hisashi; Hajer, Amara; Daaloul, Abderrazek; Baum, Michael

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity of barley accessions. Additionally, association trait analysis was conducted for grain yield under salinity, heading date and plant height. For this purpose, 48 barley genotypes were analyzed with 22 microsatellite simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Four of the 22 markers (Bmac316, scssr03907, HVM67 and Bmag770) were able to differentiate all barley genotypes. Cluster and principal coordinate analysis allowed a clear grouping between countries from the same region. The genotypes used in this study have been evaluated for agronomic performance in different environments. Conducting association analysis for grain yield under salinity conditions using TASSEL software revealed a close association of the marker Bmag749 (2H, bin 13) in two different environments with common significant alleles (175, 177), whereas the HVHOTR1 marker (2H, bin 3) was only significant in Sakhar_Egypt with alleles size being 158 and 161. Heading date also showed an association with scssr03907 through the common significant specific allele 111 and EBmac0415 markers in three different agro climatic locations, whereas HVCMA, scssr00103 and HVM67 were linked to heading date in the Egyptian environment only. The plant height association analysis revealed significant markers Bmag770 via the significant allele 152 and scssr09398. PMID:18713351

  19. Analysis of pregerminated barley using hyperspectral image analysis.

    PubMed

    Arngren, Morten; Hansen, Per Waaben; Eriksen, Birger; Larsen, Jan; Larsen, Rasmus

    2011-11-01

    Pregermination is one of many serious degradations to barley when used for malting. A pregerminated barley kernel can under certain conditions not regerminate and is reduced to animal feed of lower quality. Identifying pregermination at an early stage is therefore essential in order to segregate the barley kernels into low or high quality. Current standard methods to quantify pregerminated barley include visual approaches, e.g. to identify the root sprout, or using an embryo staining method, which use a time-consuming procedure. We present an approach using a near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging system in a mathematical modeling framework to identify pregerminated barley at an early stage of approximately 12 h of pregermination. Our model only assigns pregermination as the cause for a single kernel's lack of germination and is unable to identify dormancy, kernel damage etc. The analysis is based on more than 750 Rosalina barley kernels being pregerminated at 8 different durations between 0 and 60 h based on the BRF method. Regerminating the kernels reveals a grouping of the pregerminated kernels into three categories: normal, delayed and limited germination. Our model employs a supervised classification framework based on a set of extracted features insensitive to the kernel orientation. An out-of-sample classification error of 32% (CI(95%): 29-35%) is obtained for single kernels when grouped into the three categories, and an error of 3% (CI(95%): 0-15%) is achieved on a bulk kernel level. The model provides class probabilities for each kernel, which can assist in achieving homogeneous germination profiles. This research can further be developed to establish an automated and faster procedure as an alternative to the standard procedures for pregerminated barley.

  20. Salinity tolerance of foxtail barley (Hordeum jubatum) and desirable pasture grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenhouse studies were conducted to determine the relative salinity tolerance of foxtail barley and seven desirable pasture grasses. Grass species were reed canarygrass, timothy, altai wildrye, tall fescue, tall wheatgrass, orchardgrass, creeping meadow foxtail, and foxtail barley. Grasses were e...

  1. Genetic diversity analysis of barley landraces and cultivars in the Shanghai region of China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z-W; Lu, R-J; Zou, L; Du, Z-Z; Gao, R-H; He, T; Huang, J-H

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed the genetic diversity of 115 barley germplasms, including 112 landraces and three new barley cultivars grown in the Shanghai region, using a set of 11 SSR markers. Sixty-six alleles were observed at the 11 SSR loci, ranged from three to ten, with a mean of six alleles per locus. The polymorphism information content ranged from 0.568 to 0.853, with a mean of 0.732, indicating considerable genetic variation in barley in the Shanghai area. Clustering analysis indicated that these barley accessions could be divided into two categories (A and B). Ninety-seven six-rowed barley cultivars were classified in the A category; sixteen two-rowed and two six-rowed barley cultivars were classified in the B category. This demonstrated genetic differences between two-rowed and six-rowed barley varieties. In addition, we found that the three new barley cultivars are closely related. PMID:22535400

  2. A putative role for amino acid permeases in sink-source communication of barley tissues uncovered by RNA-seq

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The majority of nitrogen accumulating in cereal grains originates from proteins remobilised from vegetative organs. However, interactions between grain filling and remobilisation are poorly understood. We used transcriptome large-scale pyrosequencing of flag leaves, glumes and developing grains to identify cysteine peptidase and N transporter genes playing a role in remobilisation and accumulation of nitrogen in barley. Results Combination of already known and newly derived sequence information reduced redundancy, increased contig length and identified new members of cysteine peptidase and N transporter gene families. The dataset for N transporter genes was aligned with N transporter amino acid sequences of rice and Arabidopsis derived from Aramemnon database. 57 AAT, 45 NRT1/PTR and 22 OPT unigenes identified by this approach cluster to defined subgroups in the respective phylogenetic trees, among them 25 AAT, 8 NRT1/PTR and 5 OPT full-length sequences. Besides, 59 unigenes encoding cysteine peptidases were identified and subdivided into different families of the papain cysteine peptidase clade. Expression profiling of full-length AAT genes highlighted amino acid permeases as the group showing highest transcriptional activity. HvAAP2 and HvAAP6 are highly expressed in vegetative organs whereas HvAAP3 is grain-specific. Sequence similarities cluster HvAAP2 and the putative transporter HvAAP6 together with Arabidopsis transporters, which are involved in long-distance transfer of amino acids. HvAAP3 is closely related to AtAAP1 and AtAAP8 playing a role in supplying N to developing seeds. An important role in amino acid re-translocation can be considered for HvLHT1 and HvLHT2 which are specifically expressed in glumes and flag leaves, respectively. PCA and K-means clustering of AAT transcript data revealed coordinate developmental stages in flag leaves, glumes and grains. Phloem-specific metabolic compounds are proposed that might signal high grain demands

  3. Marketing Farm Grain Crops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridenour, Harlan E.

    This vocational agriculture curriculum on grain marketing contains three parts: teacher guide, student manual, and student workbook. All three are coordinated and cross-referenced. The course is designed to give students of grain marketing a thorough background in the subject and provide practical help in developing grain marketing strategies for…

  4. Aspergillus clavatus tremorgenic neurotoxicosis in cattle fed sprouted grains.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, R A; Kelly, M A; Shivas, R G; Gibson, J A; Cook, P J; Widderick, K; Guilfoyle, A F

    2004-10-01

    Beef and dairy cattle from four different herds in southern and central Queensland fed hydroponically-produced sprouted barley or wheat grain heavily infested with Aspergillus clavatus developed posterior ataxia with knuckling of fetlocks, muscular tremors and recumbency, but maintained appetite. A few animals variously had reduced milk production, hyperaesthesia, drooling of saliva, hypermetria of hind limbs or muscle spasms. Degeneration of large neurones was seen in the brain stem and spinal cord grey matter. The syndrome was consistent with A clavatus tremorgenic mycotoxicosis of ruminants. The cases are the earliest known to be associated with this fungus in Australia. They highlight a potential hazard of hydroponic fodder production systems, which appear to favour A clavatus growth on sprouted grain, exacerbated in some cases by equipment malfunctions that increase operating temperatures. PMID:15887390

  5. 7 CFR 457.102 - Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement. 457.102... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.102 Wheat or barley... Wheat or Barley Winter Coverage Endorsement (This is a continuous endorsement) 1. In return for...

  6. 7 CFR 457.102 - Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement. 457.102... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.102 Wheat or barley... Wheat or Barley Winter Coverage Endorsement (This is a continuous endorsement) 1. In return for...

  7. 7 CFR 457.102 - Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement. 457.102... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.102 Wheat or barley... Wheat or Barley Winter Coverage Endorsement (This is a continuous endorsement) 1. In return for...

  8. 7 CFR 457.102 - Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement. 457.102... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.102 Wheat or barley... Wheat or Barley Winter Coverage Endorsement (This is a continuous endorsement) 1. In return for...

  9. Molecular evidence of RNA polymerase II gene reveals the origin of worldwide cultivated barley

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yonggang; Ren, Xifeng; Sun, Dongfa; Sun, Genlou

    2016-01-01

    The origin and domestication of cultivated barley have long been under debate. A population-based resequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the single copy of RPB2 gene was used to address barley domestication, to explore genetic differentiation of barley populations on the worldwide scale, and to understand gene-pool exchanges during the spread and subsequent development of barley cultivation. Our results revealed significant genetic differentiation among three geographically distinct wild barley populations. Differences in haplotype composition among populations from different geographical regions revealed that modern cultivated barley originated from two major wild barley populations: one from the Near East Fertile Crescent and the other from the Tibetan Plateau, supporting polyphyletic origin of cultivated barley. The results of haplotype frequencies supported multiple domestications coupled with widespread introgression events that generated genetic admixture between divergent barley gene pools. Our results not only provide important insight into the domestication and evolution of cultivated barley, but also enhance our understanding of introgression and distinct selection pressures in different environments on shaping the genetic diversity of worldwide barley populations, thus further facilitating the effective use of the wild barley germplasm. PMID:27786300

  10. Assessment of genetic diversity in Brazilian barley using SSR markers

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Jéssica Rosset; Pereira, Jorge Fernando; Turchetto, Caroline; Minella, Euclydes; Consoli, Luciano; Delatorre, Carla Andréa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Barley is a major cereal grown widely and used in several food products, beverage production and animal fodder. Genetic diversity is a key component in breeding programs. We have analyzed the genetic diversity of barley accessions using microsatellite markers. The accessions were composed of wild and domesticated barley representing genotypes from six countries and three breeding programs in Brazil. A total of 280 alleles were detected, 36 unique to Brazilian barley. The marker Bmag120 showed the greatest polymorphism information content (PIC), with the highest mean value found on chromosome three, and the lowest on chromosomes four and six. The wild accessions presented the highest diversity followed by the foreign genotypes. Genetic analysis was performed using Principal Coordinates Analysis, UPGMA clustering, and Bayesian clustering analysis implemented in Structure. All results obtained by the different methods were similar. Loss of genetic diversity has occurred in Brazilian genotypes. The number of alleles detected in genotypes released in 1980s was higher, whereas most of the cultivars released thereafter showed lower PIC and clustered in separate subgroups from the older cultivars. The use of a more diverse panel of genotypes should be considered in order to exploit novel alleles in Brazilian barley breeding programs. PMID:27007902

  11. Assessment of genetic diversity in Brazilian barley using SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Jéssica Rosset; Pereira, Jorge Fernando; Turchetto, Caroline; Minella, Euclydes; Consoli, Luciano; Delatorre, Carla Andréa

    2016-03-01

    Barley is a major cereal grown widely and used in several food products, beverage production and animal fodder. Genetic diversity is a key component in breeding programs. We have analyzed the genetic diversity of barley accessions using microsatellite markers. The accessions were composed of wild and domesticated barley representing genotypes from six countries and three breeding programs in Brazil. A total of 280 alleles were detected, 36 unique to Brazilian barley. The marker Bmag120 showed the greatest polymorphism information content (PIC), with the highest mean value found on chromosome three, and the lowest on chromosomes four and six. The wild accessions presented the highest diversity followed by the foreign genotypes. Genetic analysis was performed using Principal Coordinates Analysis, UPGMA clustering, and Bayesian clustering analysis implemented in Structure. All results obtained by the different methods were similar. Loss of genetic diversity has occurred in Brazilian genotypes. The number of alleles detected in genotypes released in 1980s was higher, whereas most of the cultivars released thereafter showed lower PIC and clustered in separate subgroups from the older cultivars. The use of a more diverse panel of genotypes should be considered in order to exploit novel alleles in Brazilian barley breeding programs. PMID:27007902

  12. Induction of Barley Leaf Urease 1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuguang; Ching, Te May

    1988-01-01

    Foliar urea application on barley plants increased leaf urease activity for 5 hours with a peak of 20-fold at 2 hours. To discern the mode of urease induction, urea with or without inhibitors and [35S]methionine were incubated with leaf sections for different lengths of time. Urease was extracted, partially purified, electrophoresed, and then quantified by fluorogram. Five urease (U) isozymes were separated by PAGE. Ua and Ub might be polymers or complexes that occurred only at the peak of induced activity. U1 and U2 appeared at 0.5 and 0.75 hour, respectively, after urea induction, peaked at 2 hours, and persisted only in treated leaves for several additional hours indicating that they are transient inducible forms. U3 was the constitutive form present in control and treated leaves. Induction with cordycepin or cycloheximide completely prevented urea stimulated activity and nullified the existence of isozymes Ua, Ub, U1, and U2. 35S-U1, which was labeled in the last hour of induction, appeared on fluorogram 1 hour after induction, peaked at 2 hours, and declined at 3 hours. Results indicated that de novo synthesis of urease is activated by the influx of urea. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:16666013

  13. Ingestion of oats and barley in patients with celiac disease mobilizes cross-reactive T cells activated by avenin peptides and immuno-dominant hordein peptides.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Melinda Y; Tye-Din, Jason A; Stewart, Jessica A; Schmitz, Frederike; Dudek, Nadine L; Hanchapola, Iresha; Purcell, Anthony W; Anderson, Robert P

    2015-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a common CD4(+) T cell mediated enteropathy driven by gluten in wheat, rye, and barley. Whilst clinical feeding studies generally support the safety of oats ingestion in CD, the avenin protein from oats can stimulate intestinal gluten-reactive T cells isolated from some CD patients in vitro. Our objective was to establish whether ingestion of oats or other grains toxic in CD stimulate an avenin-specific T cell response in vivo. We fed participants a meal of oats (100 g/day over 3 days) to measure the in vivo polyclonal avenin-specific T cell responses to peptides contained within comprehensive avenin peptide libraries in 73 HLA-DQ2.5(+) CD patients. Grain cross-reactivity was investigated using oral challenge with wheat, barley, and rye. Avenin-specific responses were observed in 6/73 HLA-DQ2.5(+) CD patients (8%), against four closely related peptides. Oral barley challenge efficiently induced cross-reactive avenin/hordein-specific T cells in most CD patients, whereas wheat or rye challenge did not. In vitro, immunogenic avenin peptides were susceptible to digestive endopeptidases and showed weak HLA-DQ2.5 binding stability. Our findings indicate that CD patients possess T cells capable of responding to immuno-dominant hordein epitopes and homologous avenin peptides ex vivo, but the frequency and consistency of these T cells in blood is substantially higher after oral challenge with barley compared to oats. The low rates of T cell activation after a substantial oats challenge (100 g/d) suggests that doses of oats commonly consumed are insufficient to cause clinical relapse, and supports the safety of oats demonstrated in long-term feeding studies.

  14. Effect of cooked white rice with high β-glucan barley on appetite and energy intake in healthy Japanese subjects: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Aoe, Seiichiro; Ikenaga, Takeshi; Noguchi, Hiroki; Kohashi, Chieko; Kakumoto, Keiji; Kohda, Noriyuki

    2014-12-01

    White rice is a dominant grain-based food in Japan, but excess intake of polished rice may cause obesity. Barley is a grain-based food, similar to white rice, but it has the potential to control appetite and reduce energy intake. We investigated the effect of cooked white rice with high β-glucan barley on appetite and energy intake. The study was conducted as a randomized crossover design with twenty-one healthy Japanese women [mean ± standard deviation body mass index (BMI) 23.3 ± 0.7 kg/m(2)]. Subjects consumed a breakfast of cooked white rice with high β-glucan barley (BAR) or white rice (WR), followed by an ad libitum lunch and dinner. Energy intake was measured at the lunch and the dinner using plate waste. Subjects' perception scores on hunger, fullness, satiety, and prospective food consumption were assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS) before and after the breakfast, lunch and dinner. BAR significantly reduced the VAS scores of hunger and prospective food consumption, and increased fullness before lunch compared to WR (P = 0.032, 0.019 and 0.038, respectively). Energy intake at lunch and the cumulative energy intake (lunch + dinner) subsequent to BAR consumption were significantly lower than WR (P = 0.035 and 0.021, respectively). BAR was able to modulate appetite and reduce energy intake. The combination of white rice with high β-glucan barley could play a beneficial role in preventing and treating obesity and other obesity-related metabolic diseases.

  15. Characterization of the Microchemical Structure of Seed Endosperm within a Cellular Dimension among Six Barley Varieties with Distinct Degradation Kinetics, Using Ultraspatially Resolved Synchrotron-Based Infrared Synchrotron-Based Infrared

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, N.; Yu, P

    2010-01-01

    information and the nutrient value of barley grain, although significant differences in biodegradation kinetics were observed. In conclusion, the studies demonstrated the potential of ultraspatially resolved synchrotron based technology (SFTIRM) to reveal the structural and chemical makeup within cellular and subcellular dimensions without destruction of the inherent structure of cereal grain tissue.

  16. [Ochratoxin A contamination of cereal grain harvested in 2003 and 2004 years].

    PubMed

    Aksenov, I V; Eller, K I; Tutel'ian, V A

    2006-01-01

    The analysis of ochratoxin A--mycotoxin produced by widely distributed Aspergillus and Penicillium--of cereal grain harvested in 2003 - 2004 years were performed by immunoaffinity column clean-up and HPLC with fluorescence detection. This survey examined 282 samples of raw grain wheat, rye, barley and oat 13.8% of all samples contaminated by ochratoxin A in the range 0.2-33.3 mg/kg. Calculation made on the basis of the obtained means showed that the daily ochratoxin A intake of human from cereal grain were from 1.58 to 2.84 ng/kg b.w. Scientific Committee for Food of the European Commission suggested that it was prudent to reduce exposure to ochratoxin A as much as possible below 5 ng/kg bw/day. Codex Alimentarius and European Commission have established maximum permissible level of 5 mg/kg for ochratoxin A in raw cereal grains.

  17. Cell wall degradation is required for normal starch mobilisation in barley endosperm.

    PubMed

    Andriotis, Vasilios M E; Rejzek, Martin; Barclay, Elaine; Rugen, Michael D; Field, Robert A; Smith, Alison M

    2016-01-01

    Starch degradation in barley endosperm provides carbon for early seedling growth, but the control of this process is poorly understood. We investigated whether endosperm cell wall degradation is an important determinant of the rate of starch degradation. We identified iminosugar inhibitors of enzymes that degrade the cell wall component arabinoxylan. The iminosugar 1,4-dideoxy-1, 4-imino-l-arabinitol (LAB) inhibits arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolase (AXAH) but does not inhibit the main starch-degrading enzymes α- and β-amylase and limit dextrinase. AXAH activity in the endosperm appears soon after the onset of germination and resides in dimers putatively containing two isoforms, AXAH1 and AXAH2. Upon grain imbibition, mobilisation of arabinoxylan and starch spreads across the endosperm from the aleurone towards the crease. The front of arabinoxylan degradation precedes that of starch degradation. Incubation of grains with LAB decreases the rate of loss of both arabinoxylan and starch, and retards the spread of both degradation processes across the endosperm. We propose that starch degradation in the endosperm is dependent on cell wall degradation, which permeabilises the walls and thus permits rapid diffusion of amylolytic enzymes. AXAH may be of particular importance in this respect. These results provide new insights into the mobilization of endosperm reserves to support early seedling growth. PMID:27622597

  18. Cell wall degradation is required for normal starch mobilisation in barley endosperm

    PubMed Central

    Andriotis, Vasilios M. E.; Rejzek, Martin; Barclay, Elaine; Rugen, Michael D.; Field, Robert A.; Smith, Alison M.

    2016-01-01

    Starch degradation in barley endosperm provides carbon for early seedling growth, but the control of this process is poorly understood. We investigated whether endosperm cell wall degradation is an important determinant of the rate of starch degradation. We identified iminosugar inhibitors of enzymes that degrade the cell wall component arabinoxylan. The iminosugar 1,4-dideoxy-1, 4-imino-l-arabinitol (LAB) inhibits arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolase (AXAH) but does not inhibit the main starch-degrading enzymes α- and β-amylase and limit dextrinase. AXAH activity in the endosperm appears soon after the onset of germination and resides in dimers putatively containing two isoforms, AXAH1 and AXAH2. Upon grain imbibition, mobilisation of arabinoxylan and starch spreads across the endosperm from the aleurone towards the crease. The front of arabinoxylan degradation precedes that of starch degradation. Incubation of grains with LAB decreases the rate of loss of both arabinoxylan and starch, and retards the spread of both degradation processes across the endosperm. We propose that starch degradation in the endosperm is dependent on cell wall degradation, which permeabilises the walls and thus permits rapid diffusion of amylolytic enzymes. AXAH may be of particular importance in this respect. These results provide new insights into the mobilization of endosperm reserves to support early seedling growth. PMID:27622597

  19. Mutants at the Slender1 locus of barley cv Himalaya. Molecular and physiological characterization.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Peter Michael; Marion-Poll, Annie; Ellis, Marc; Gubler, Frank

    2002-05-01

    A dominant dwarf mutant of barley (Hordeum vulgare) that resembles dominant gibberellin (GA) "-insensitive" or "-nonresponsive" mutants in other species is described. alpha-Amylase production by endosperm half-grains of the mutant required GA3 at concentrations about 100 times that of the WT. The mutant showed only a slight growth response to GA3, even at very high concentrations. However, when additionally dwarfed, growth rate responded to GA3 over the normal concentration range, although only back to the original (dwarf) elongation rate. Genetic studies indicated that the dominant dwarf locus was either closely linked or identical to the Sln1 (Slender1) locus. A barley sequence related to Arabidopsis GAI/RGA was isolated, and shown to represent the Sln1 locus by the analysis of sln1 mutants. The dominant dwarf mutant was also altered in this sequence, indicating that it too is an allele at Sln1. Thus, mutations at Sln1 generate plants of radically different phenotypes; either dwarfs that are largely dominant and GA "-insensitive/-nonresponsive," or the recessive slender types in which GA responses appear to be constitutive. Immunoblotting studies showed that in growing leaves, SLN1 protein localized almost exclusively to the leaf elongation zone. In mutants at the Sln1 locus, there were differences in both the abundance and distribution of SLN1 protein, and large changes in the amounts of bioactive GAs, and of their metabolic precursors and catabolites. These results suggest that there are dynamic interactions between SLN1 protein and GA content in determining leaf elongation rate.

  20. Pyramiding of Ryd2 and Ryd3 conferring tolerance to a German isolate of Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV (BYDV-PAV-ASL-1) leads to quantitative resistance against this isolate.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Christine; Habekuss, Antje; Schliephake, Edgar; Niks, Rients; Broer, Inge; Ordon, Frank

    2011-06-01

    Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) is an economically important pathogen of barley, which may become even more important due to global warming. In barley, several loci conferring tolerance to BYDV-PAV-ASL-1 are known, e.g. Ryd2, Ryd3 and a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 2H. The aim of the present study was to get information whether the level of tolerance against this isolate of BYDV in barley can be improved by combining these loci. Therefore, a winter and a spring barley population of doubled haploid (DH) lines were genotyped by molecular markers for the presence of the susceptibility or the resistance encoding allele at respective loci (Ryd2, Ryd3, QTL on chromosome 2H) and were tested for their level of BYDV-tolerance after inoculation with viruliferous (BYDV-PAV-ASL-1) aphids in field trials. In DH-lines carrying the combination Ryd2 and Ryd3, a significant reduction of the virus titre was detected as compared to lines carrying only one of these genes. Furthermore, spring barley DH-lines with this allele combination also showed a significantly higher relative grain yield as compared to lines carrying only Ryd2 or Ryd3. The QTL on chromosome 2H had only a small effect on the level of tolerance in those lines carrying only Ryd2, or Ryd3 or a combination of both, but the effect in comparison to lines carrying no tolerance allele was significant. Overall, these results show that the combination of Ryd2 and Ryd3 leads to quantitative resistance against BYDV-PAV instead of tolerance.

  1. Pyramiding of Ryd2 and Ryd3 conferring tolerance to a German isolate of Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV (BYDV-PAV-ASL-1) leads to quantitative resistance against this isolate.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Christine; Habekuss, Antje; Schliephake, Edgar; Niks, Rients; Broer, Inge; Ordon, Frank

    2011-06-01

    Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) is an economically important pathogen of barley, which may become even more important due to global warming. In barley, several loci conferring tolerance to BYDV-PAV-ASL-1 are known, e.g. Ryd2, Ryd3 and a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 2H. The aim of the present study was to get information whether the level of tolerance against this isolate of BYDV in barley can be improved by combining these loci. Therefore, a winter and a spring barley population of doubled haploid (DH) lines were genotyped by molecular markers for the presence of the susceptibility or the resistance encoding allele at respective loci (Ryd2, Ryd3, QTL on chromosome 2H) and were tested for their level of BYDV-tolerance after inoculation with viruliferous (BYDV-PAV-ASL-1) aphids in field trials. In DH-lines carrying the combination Ryd2 and Ryd3, a significant reduction of the virus titre was detected as compared to lines carrying only one of these genes. Furthermore, spring barley DH-lines with this allele combination also showed a significantly higher relative grain yield as compared to lines carrying only Ryd2 or Ryd3. The QTL on chromosome 2H had only a small effect on the level of tolerance in those lines carrying only Ryd2, or Ryd3 or a combination of both, but the effect in comparison to lines carrying no tolerance allele was significant. Overall, these results show that the combination of Ryd2 and Ryd3 leads to quantitative resistance against BYDV-PAV instead of tolerance. PMID:21416402

  2. Transmission of Two Viruses that Cause Barley Yellow Dwarf is Controlled by Different Loci in the Aphid, Schizaphis graminum

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Stewart M.; Caillaud, Marina C; Burrows, Mary; Smith, Dawn M.

    2007-01-01

    Clonal populations of the aphid, Schizaphis graminum, have been separated into biotypes based on host preference and their ability to overcome resistance genes in wheat. Recently, several biotypes were found to differ in their ability to transmit one or more of the viruses that cause barley yellow dwarf disease in grain crops, and vector competence was linked to host preference. The genetics of host preference has been studied in S. graminum, but how this may relate to the transmission of plant viruses is unknown. Sexual morphs of a vector and nonvector S. graminum genotype were induced from parthenogenetic females and reciprocal crosses made. Eighty-nine hybrids were generated and maintained by parthenogenesis. Each hybrid was evaluated for its ability to transmit Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV and Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV, and for its ability to colonize two wheat genotypes each expressing a different gene that confers resistance to S. graminum. The F1 genotypes were genetically variable for their ability to transmit virus and to colonize the aphid resistant wheat, but these traits were not genetically correlated. Individual F1 genotypes ranged in transmission efficiency from 0–100% for both viruses, although the overall mean transmission efficiency was similar to the transmission competent parent, indicating directional dominance. The direction of the cross did not significantly affect the vector competency for either virus, suggesting that maternally inherited cytoplasmic factors, or bacterial endosymbionts, did not contribute significantly to the inheritance of vector competency in S. graminum. Importantly, there was no genetic correlation between the ability to transmit Barley yellow dwarf virus and Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV in the F1 genotypes. These results taken together indicate that multiple loci are involved in the circulative transmission, and that the successful transmission of these closely related viruses is regulated by different sets of

  3. Quantitative Trait Loci for Yield and Yield-Related Traits in Spring Barley Populations Derived from Crosses between European and Syrian Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Mikołajczak, Krzysztof; Ogrodowicz, Piotr; Gudyś, Kornelia; Krystkowiak, Karolina; Sawikowska, Aneta; Frohmberg, Wojciech; Górny, Andrzej; Kędziora, Andrzej; Jankowiak, Janusz; Józefczyk, Damian; Karg, Grzegorz; Andrusiak, Joanna; Krajewski, Paweł; Szarejko, Iwona; Surma, Maria; Adamski, Tadeusz; Guzy-Wróbelska, Justyna; Kuczyńska, Anetta

    2016-01-01

    In response to climatic changes, breeding programmes should be aimed at creating new cultivars with improved resistance to water scarcity. The objective of this study was to examine the yield potential of barley recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from three cross-combinations of European and Syrian spring cultivars, and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for yield-related traits in these populations. RILs were evaluated in field experiments over a period of three years (2011 to 2013) and genotyped with simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers; a genetic map for each population was constructed and then one consensus map was developed. Biological interpretation of identified QTLs was achieved by reference to Ensembl Plants barley gene space. Twelve regions in the genomes of studied RILs were distinguished after QTL analysis. Most of the QTLs were identified on the 2H chromosome, which was the hotspot region in all three populations. Syrian parental cultivars contributed alleles decreasing traits' values at majority of QTLs for grain weight, grain number, spike length and time to heading, and numerous alleles increasing stem length. The phenomic and molecular approaches distinguished the lines with an acceptable grain yield potential combining desirable features or alleles from their parents, that is, early heading from the Syrian breeding line (Cam/B1/CI08887//CI05761) and short plant stature from the European semidwarf cultivar (Maresi). PMID:27227880

  4. Quantitative Trait Loci for Yield and Yield-Related Traits in Spring Barley Populations Derived from Crosses between European and Syrian Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Krystkowiak, Karolina; Sawikowska, Aneta; Frohmberg, Wojciech; Górny, Andrzej; Kędziora, Andrzej; Jankowiak, Janusz; Józefczyk, Damian; Karg, Grzegorz; Andrusiak, Joanna; Krajewski, Paweł; Szarejko, Iwona; Surma, Maria; Adamski, Tadeusz; Guzy-Wróbelska, Justyna; Kuczyńska, Anetta

    2016-01-01

    In response to climatic changes, breeding programmes should be aimed at creating new cultivars with improved resistance to water scarcity. The objective of this study was to examine the yield potential of barley recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from three cross-combinations of European and Syrian spring cultivars, and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for yield-related traits in these populations. RILs were evaluated in field experiments over a period of three years (2011 to 2013) and genotyped with simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers; a genetic map for each population was constructed and then one consensus map was developed. Biological interpretation of identified QTLs was achieved by reference to Ensembl Plants barley gene space. Twelve regions in the genomes of studied RILs were distinguished after QTL analysis. Most of the QTLs were identified on the 2H chromosome, which was the hotspot region in all three populations. Syrian parental cultivars contributed alleles decreasing traits' values at majority of QTLs for grain weight, grain number, spike length and time to heading, and numerous alleles increasing stem length. The phenomic and molecular approaches distinguished the lines with an acceptable grain yield potential combining desirable features or alleles from their parents, that is, early heading from the Syrian breeding line (Cam/B1/CI08887//CI05761) and short plant stature from the European semidwarf cultivar (Maresi). PMID:27227880

  5. Origins of GEMS Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messenger, S.; Walker, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the Earth s stratosphere contain high abundances of submicrometer amorphous silicates known as GEMS grains. From their birth as condensates in the outflows of oxygen-rich evolved stars, processing in interstellar space, and incorporation into disks around new stars, amorphous silicates predominate in most astrophysical environments. Amorphous silicates were a major building block of our Solar System and are prominent in infrared spectra of comets. Anhydrous interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) thought to derive from comets contain abundant amorphous silicates known as GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfides) grains. GEMS grains have been proposed to be isotopically and chemically homogenized interstellar amorphous silicate dust. We evaluated this hypothesis through coordinated chemical and isotopic analyses of GEMS grains in a suite of IDPs to constrain their origins. GEMS grains show order of magnitude variations in Mg, Fe, Ca, and S abundances. GEMS grains do not match the average element abundances inferred for ISM dust containing on average, too little Mg, Fe, and Ca, and too much S. GEMS grains have complementary compositions to the crystalline components in IDPs suggesting that they formed from the same reservoir. We did not observe any unequivocal microstructural or chemical evidence that GEMS grains experienced prolonged exposure to radiation. We identified four GEMS grains having O isotopic compositions that point to origins in red giant branch or asymptotic giant branch stars and supernovae. Based on their O isotopic compositions, we estimate that 1-6% of GEMS grains are surviving circumstellar grains. The remaining 94-99% of GEMS grains have O isotopic compositions that are indistinguishable from terrestrial materials and carbonaceous chondrites. These isotopically solar GEMS grains either formed in the Solar System or were completely homogenized in the interstellar medium (ISM). However, the

  6. Digestion during continuous culture fermentation when replacing perennial ryegrass with barley and steam-flaked corn.

    PubMed

    Wales, W J; Kolver, E S; Egan, A R

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the optimal inclusion rate of grain required to maximize nutrient digestion of a diet based on highly digestible pasture. It was hypothesized that maximum digestion would occur at a rate of grain inclusion that resulted in a culture pH of 6.0, reflecting the pH below which fiber digestion would be expected to be compromised. Four dual-flow continuous culture fermenters were used to establish the effects on digestion of replacing freeze-dried, highly digestible ryegrass with 0, 15, 30, and 45% of dry matter as 60% barley, 35% steam-flaked corn, and 5% molasses mix. The respective composite diets were fed twice daily to mimic intake patterns observed in dairy cows offered supplements during milking and offered half their daily allowance of pasture after each milking. Digesta samples were collected during the last 3 d of each of four 9-d experimental periods. Average daily culture pH decreased linearly as proportion of cereal grain in the diet increased, with average daily pH ranging from 6.29 to 5.74. Concentrations of neutral detergent fiber and total fatty acids decreased linearly with increasing proportion of cereal grain in the diet. Digestion of organic matter (OM) was maximized at an interpolated value of 24% grain inclusion and culture pH of 6.0, but the difference in the OM digestibility over the range of grain treatments from 0 to 45% was small (3 percentage units) despite pH changes over a range of 6.3 to 5.7. The relatively small change in OM digestibility was explained by reduced fiber and crude protein digestibilities being balanced by an increased digestion of nonstructural carbohydrate. Although different relationships between ruminal pH and digestibility appear to exist when cows are fed pasture alone compared with a total mixed ration, when starch supplements are included in pasture diets, the relationships associated with feeding a total mixed ration may then be more likely to apply. PMID:19109278

  7. Involvement of Alternative Splicing in Barley Seed Germination.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qisen; Zhang, Xiaoqi; Wang, Songbo; Tan, Cong; Zhou, Gaofeng; Li, Chengdao

    2016-01-01

    Seed germination activates many new biological processes including DNA, membrane and mitochondrial repairs and requires active protein synthesis and sufficient energy supply. Alternative splicing (AS) regulates many cellular processes including cell differentiation and environmental adaptations. However, limited information is available on the regulation of seed germination at post-transcriptional levels. We have conducted RNA-sequencing experiments to dissect AS events in barley seed germination. We identified between 552 and 669 common AS transcripts in germinating barley embryos from four barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare L. Bass, Baudin, Harrington and Stirling). Alternative 3' splicing (34%-45%), intron retention (32%-34%) and alternative 5' splicing (16%-21%) were three major AS events in germinating embryos. The AS transcripts were predominantly mapped onto ribosome, RNA transport machineries, spliceosome, plant hormone signal transduction, glycolysis, sugar and carbon metabolism pathways. Transcripts of these genes were also very abundant in the early stage of seed germination. Correlation analysis of gene expression showed that AS hormone responsive transcripts could also be co-expressed with genes responsible for protein biosynthesis and sugar metabolisms. Our RNA-sequencing data revealed that AS could play important roles in barley seed germination.

  8. Serine proteinases from barley malt may degrade beta-amylase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley seed proteinases are critically important to seed germination and malting in that they generate amino acids from seed N reserves, supporting embryo growth during germination and yeast fermentation during brewing. However, relatively little is known regarding the endogenous protein substrate ...

  9. Registration of ‘Muir’ spring feed barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Muir’ (Reg. No. CV-357, PI 674172) is a two-row, spring, hulled feed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivar developed and evaluated as 07WA-601.6, and released in 2013 by Washington State University (WSU). Muir was derived from the cross ‘Baronesse’/‘Bob’ and selected through singleseed descent from ...

  10. Leaf rust of cultivated barley: pathology and control.

    PubMed

    Park, Robert F; Golegaonkar, Prashant G; Derevnina, Lida; Sandhu, Karanjeet S; Karaoglu, Haydar; Elmansour, Huda M; Dracatos, Peter M; Singh, Davinder

    2015-01-01

    Leaf rust of barley is caused by the macrocyclic, heteroecious rust pathogen Puccinia hordei, with aecia reported from selected species of the genera Ornithogalum, Leopoldia, and Dipcadi, and uredinia and telia occurring on Hordeum vulgare, H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum, Hordeum bulbosum, and Hordeum murinum, on which distinct parasitic specialization occurs. Although Puccinia hordei is sporadic in its occurrence, it is probably the most common and widely distributed rust disease of barley. Leaf rust has increased in importance in recent decades in temperate barley-growing regions, presumably because of more intensive agricultural practices. Although total crop loss does not occur, under epidemic conditions yield reductions of up to 62% have been reported in susceptible varieties. Leaf rust is primarily controlled by the use of resistant cultivars, and, to date, 21 seedling resistance genes and two adult plant resistance (APR) genes have been identified. Virulence has been detected for most seedling resistance genes but is unknown for the APR genes Rph20 and Rph23. Other potentially new sources of APR have been reported, and additivity has been described for some of these resistances. Approaches to achieving durable resistance to leaf rust in barley are discussed.

  11. 7 CFR 457.118 - Malting barley crop insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... accordance with 7 CFR part 400, subpart G. (b) Approved malting variety. A variety of barley specified as... and Drug Administration when determining concentrations of mycotoxins or other substances or... organization of the United States for substances or conditions, including mycotoxins, that are identified...

  12. Leaf rust of cultivated barley: pathology and control.

    PubMed

    Park, Robert F; Golegaonkar, Prashant G; Derevnina, Lida; Sandhu, Karanjeet S; Karaoglu, Haydar; Elmansour, Huda M; Dracatos, Peter M; Singh, Davinder

    2015-01-01

    Leaf rust of barley is caused by the macrocyclic, heteroecious rust pathogen Puccinia hordei, with aecia reported from selected species of the genera Ornithogalum, Leopoldia, and Dipcadi, and uredinia and telia occurring on Hordeum vulgare, H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum, Hordeum bulbosum, and Hordeum murinum, on which distinct parasitic specialization occurs. Although Puccinia hordei is sporadic in its occurrence, it is probably the most common and widely distributed rust disease of barley. Leaf rust has increased in importance in recent decades in temperate barley-growing regions, presumably because of more intensive agricultural practices. Although total crop loss does not occur, under epidemic conditions yield reductions of up to 62% have been reported in susceptible varieties. Leaf rust is primarily controlled by the use of resistant cultivars, and, to date, 21 seedling resistance genes and two adult plant resistance (APR) genes have been identified. Virulence has been detected for most seedling resistance genes but is unknown for the APR genes Rph20 and Rph23. Other potentially new sources of APR have been reported, and additivity has been described for some of these resistances. Approaches to achieving durable resistance to leaf rust in barley are discussed. PMID:26047566

  13. Radiation hybrid map of barley chromosome 3H

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Assembly of the barley genome is complicated by its large size (5.1 Gb) and proportion of repetitive elements (84%). This process is facilitated by high resolution maps for aligning BAC contigs along chromosomes. Available genetic maps; however, do not provide accurate information on the physical po...

  14. Sequence and expression of ferredoxin mRNA in barley

    SciTech Connect

    Zielinski, R.; Funder, P.M.; Ling, V. )

    1990-05-01

    We have isolated and structurally characterized a full-length cDNA clone encoding ferredoxin from a {lambda}gt10 cDNA library prepared from barley leaf mRNA. The ferredoxin clone (pBFD-1) was fused head-to-head with a partial-length cDNA clone encoding calmodulin, and was fortuitously isolated by screening the library with a calmodulin-specific oligonucleotide probe. The mRNA sequence from which pBFD-1 was derived is expressed exclusively in the leaf tissues of 7-d old barley seedlings. Barley pre-ferredoxin has a predicted size of 15.3 kDal, of which 4.6 kDal are accounted for by the transit peptide. The polypeptide encoded by pBFD-1 is identical to wheat ferredoxin, and shares slightly more amino acid sequence similarity with spinach ferredoxin I than with ferredoxin II. Ferredoxin mRNA levels are rapidly increased 10-fold by white light in etiolated barley leaves.

  15. Biotic stress in barley: disease problems and solutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is cultivated over a wider geographic range than almost any other major crop species. It can be found growing from the tropics to the high latitudes and from the seacoast to the highest arable mountaintops. On marginal lands where alkaline soils, drought, or cold summer t...

  16. Registration of Harriman low-phytate, hulled spring barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA-ARS), has released 'Harriman', (Hordeum vulgare L.) (Reg. No. xxxxxx, P.I. xxxxxx). Harriman is a hulled, low-phytate barley, the second to be developed and released by the USDA-ARS. Compared to the previously released hulled, l...

  17. Registration of ‘Merem’ spring malting barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Merem’ is a two-rowed spring malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) developed by the USDA-ARS, Aberdeen, ID, in cooperation with the University of Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station. Merem has been tested in USDA-ARS, and all other cooperative trials as “02Ab17271”. ‘02Ab17271’ is a selection fro...

  18. Isolation and Proteomics Analysis of Barley Centromeric Chromatin Using PICh.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zixian; Jiang, Jiming

    2016-06-01

    Identification of proteins that are directly or indirectly associated with a specific DNA sequence is often an important goal in molecular biology research. Proteomics of isolated chromatin fragments (PICh) is a technique used to isolate chromatin that contains homologous DNA sequence to a specific nucleic acid probe. All proteins directly and indirectly associated with the DNA sequences that hybridize to the probe are then identified by proteomics.1 We used the PICh technique to isolate chromatin associated with the centromeres of barley (Hordeum vulgare) by using a 2'-deoxy-2'fluoro-ribonucleotides (2'-F RNA) probe that is homologous to the AGGGAG satellite DNA specific to barley centromeres. Proteins associated with the barley centromeric chromatin were then isolated and identified by mass spectrometry. Both alpha-cenH3 and beta-cenH3, the two centromeric histone H3 variants associated with barley centromeres, were positively identified. Interestingly, several different H2A and H2B variants were recovered in the PIChed chromatin. The limitations and future potential of PICh in plant chromatin research are discussed. PMID:27142171

  19. A simple sequence repeat-based linkage map of barley.

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, L; Macaulay, M; degli Ivanissevich, S; MacLean, K; Cardle, L; Fuller, J; Edwards, K J; Tuvesson, S; Morgante, M; Massari, A; Maestri, E; Marmiroli, N; Sjakste, T; Ganal, M; Powell, W; Waugh, R

    2000-01-01

    A total of 568 new simple sequence repeat (SSR)-based markers for barley have been developed from a combination of database sequences and small insert genomic libraries enriched for a range of short simple sequence repeats. Analysis of the SSRs on 16 barley cultivars revealed variable levels of informativeness but no obvious correlation was found with SSR repeat length, motif type, or map position. Of the 568 SSRs developed, 242 were genetically mapped, 216 with 37 previously published SSRs in a single doubled-haploid population derived from the F(1) of an interspecific cross between the cultivar Lina and Hordeum spontaneum Canada Park and 26 SSRs in two other mapping populations. A total of 27 SSRs amplified multiple loci. Centromeric clustering of markers was observed in the main mapping population; however, the clustering severity was reduced in intraspecific crosses, supporting the notion that the observed marker distribution was largely a genetical effect. The mapped SSRs provide a framework for rapidly assigning chromosomal designations and polarity in future mapping programs in barley and a convenient alternative to RFLP for aligning information derived from different populations. A list of the 242 primer pairs that amplify mapped SSRs from total barley genomic DNA is presented. PMID:11102390

  20. Involvement of Alternative Splicing in Barley Seed Germination

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qisen; Zhang, Xiaoqi; Wang, Songbo; Tan, Cong; Zhou, Gaofeng; Li, Chengdao

    2016-01-01

    Seed germination activates many new biological processes including DNA, membrane and mitochondrial repairs and requires active protein synthesis and sufficient energy supply. Alternative splicing (AS) regulates many cellular processes including cell differentiation and environmental adaptations. However, limited information is available on the regulation of seed germination at post-transcriptional levels. We have conducted RNA-sequencing experiments to dissect AS events in barley seed germination. We identified between 552 and 669 common AS transcripts in germinating barley embryos from four barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare L. Bass, Baudin, Harrington and Stirling). Alternative 3’ splicing (34%-45%), intron retention (32%-34%) and alternative 5’ splicing (16%-21%) were three major AS events in germinating embryos. The AS transcripts were predominantly mapped onto ribosome, RNA transport machineries, spliceosome, plant hormone signal transduction, glycolysis, sugar and carbon metabolism pathways. Transcripts of these genes were also very abundant in the early stage of seed germination. Correlation analysis of gene expression showed that AS hormone responsive transcripts could also be co-expressed with genes responsible for protein biosynthesis and sugar metabolisms. Our RNA-sequencing data revealed that AS could play important roles in barley seed germination. PMID:27031341

  1. Wheat and barley exposure to nanoceria: Implications for agricultural productivity

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impacts of man-made nanomaterials on agricultural productivity are not yet well understood. A soil microcosm study was performed to assess the physiological, phenological, and yield responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) exposed to nanoceria (n...

  2. Patterns of polymorphism and linkage disequilibrium in cultivated barley

    PubMed Central

    Comadran, Jordi; Ramsay, Luke; MacKenzie, Katrin; Hayes, Patrick; Close, Timothy J.; Muehlbauer, Gary; Stein, Nils

    2010-01-01

    We carried out a genome-wide analysis of polymorphism (4,596 SNP loci across 190 elite cultivated accessions) chosen to represent the available genetic variation in current elite North West European and North American barley germplasm. Population sub-structure, patterns of diversity and linkage disequilibrium varied considerably across the seven barley chromosomes. Gene-rich and rarely recombining haplotype blocks that may represent up to 60% of the physical length of barley chromosomes extended across the ‘genetic centromeres’. By positioning 2,132 bi-parentally mapped SNP markers with minimum allele frequencies higher than 0.10 by association mapping, 87.3% were located to within 5 cM of their original genetic map position. We show that at this current marker density genetically diverse populations of relatively small size are sufficient to fine map simple traits, providing they are not strongly stratified within the sample, fall outside the genetic centromeres and population sub-structure is effectively controlled in the analysis. Our results have important implications for association mapping, positional cloning, physical mapping and practical plant breeding in barley and other major world cereals including wheat and rye that exhibit comparable genome and genetic features. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-010-1466-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:21076812

  3. Transcriptional regulation of the sbeIIb genes in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and barley (Hordeum vulgare): importance of the barley sbeIIb second intron.

    PubMed

    Mutisya, Joel; Sun, Chuanxin; Palmqvist, Sara; Baguma, Yona; Odhiambo, Benjamin; Jansson, Christer

    2006-05-01

    The transcriptional activity of the sorghum sbeIIb gene, encoding starch branching enzyme IIb, is seed specific, with expression in both the endosperm and the embryo. In comparison, expression of barley sbeIIb is confined to the endosperm, whereas that of barley sbeIIa occurs in endosperm, embryonic and vegetative tissues. It has been suggested that the second intron of barley sbeIIb may be instrumental in conferring endosperm-specific expression. Therefore, to further investigate the regulatory mechanisms of barley and sorghum sbe, we examined the tissue-specific activity of the sorghum sbe promoter in transient assays of green fluorescent protein (gfp) reporter constructs. We found that, when linked to the barley sbeIIb second intron, the sorghum sbeIIb promoter could not drive gfp transcription in sorghum or barley embryonic cells. Similar results were obtained for the barley sbeIIa promoter. Database searches showed that sequences homologous to the barley sbeIIb intron also exist in introns and flanking regions of some other grass genes. Deletion mutagenesis of the sorghum sbeIIb promoter identified the minimal promoters required for high- and low-level expression, respectively, but did not reveal any putative promoter elements crucial for expression. A sequence with similarity to the SURE element, implicated in sugar signaling, was located in the distal promoter region of sorghum sbeIIb, upstream of the minimal promoters. SURE elements are present in the proximal promoter regions of the sugar-regulated barley iso1 gene, and barley sbeIIb. In keeping in line with these observations, RNA-gel blot analyses demonstrated that expression of barley sbeIIb was sugar inducible, whereas that of sorghum sbeIIb was not.

  4. Machine vision methods for use in grain variety discrimination and quality analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Philip W.; Sokhansanj, Shahab; Wood, Hugh C.

    1996-12-01

    Decreasing cost of computer technology has made it feasible to incorporate machine vision technology into the agriculture industry. The biggest attraction to using a machine vision system is the computer's ability to be completely consistent and objective. One use is in the variety discrimination and quality inspection of grains. Algorithms have been developed using Fourier descriptors and neural networks for use in variety discrimination of barley seeds. RGB and morphology features have been used in the quality analysis of lentils, and probability distribution functions and L,a,b color values for borage dockage testing. These methods have been shown to be very accurate and have a high potential for agriculture. This paper presents the techniques used and results obtained from projects including: a lentil quality discriminator, a barley variety classifier, a borage dockage tester, a popcorn quality analyzer, and a pistachio nut grading system.

  5. Intake of Tibetan Hull-Less Barley is Associated with a Reduced Risk of Metabolic Related Syndrome in Rats Fed High-Fat-Sucrose Diets

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Lingxiao; Gong, Lingyun; Zhang, Ying

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of whole grain Tibetan hull-less barley on metabolic related syndrome induced by high-fat-sucrose diets in rats. The diets were designed to reflect the dietary patterns of Chinese individuals (>30% energy fat) with refined wheat flour (HFS-W) or Tibetan hull-less barley (HFS-THB) as the main carbohydrate sources. Rats fed HFS-W had increased body weight, abdominal fat deposition, liver weight, liver fat deposition, triglyceride (TG), fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum fasting insulin (FINS), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) scores, and decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels compared to rats fed a basal diet (BD). However, rats fed HFS-THB had reduced body weight gain, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. These findings indicate that whole Tibetan hull-less barley is a functional food that can reduce the prevalence of metabolic related syndrome induced by high-fat-sucrose diets. PMID:24763110

  6. Mass Spectrometric Imaging of Wheat (Triticum spp.) and Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Cultivars: Distribution of Major Cell Wall Polysaccharides According to Their Main Structural Features.

    PubMed

    Veličković, Dušan; Saulnier, Luc; Lhomme, Margot; Damond, Aurélie; Guillon, Fabienne; Rogniaux, Hélène

    2016-08-17

    Arabinoxylans (AX) and (1→3),(1→4)-β-glucans (BG) are the main components of cereal cell walls and influence many aspects of their end uses. Important variations in the composition and structure of these polysaccharides have been reported among cereals and cultivars of a given species. In this work, the spatial distribution of AX and BG in the endosperm of mature grains was established for nine wheat varieties and eight barley varieties using enzymatically assisted mass spectrometry imaging (MSI). Important structural features of the AX and BG polymers that were previously shown to influence their physicochemical properties were assessed. Differences in the distribution of AX and BG structures were observed, both within the endosperm of a given cultivar and between wheat and barley cultivars. This study provides a unique picture of the structural heterogeneity of AX and BG polysaccharides at the scale of the whole endosperm in a series of wheat and barley cultivars. Thus, it can participate meaningfully in a strategy aiming at understanding the structure-function relationships of these two polymers.

  7. Mass Spectrometric Imaging of Wheat (Triticum spp.) and Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Cultivars: Distribution of Major Cell Wall Polysaccharides According to Their Main Structural Features.

    PubMed

    Veličković, Dušan; Saulnier, Luc; Lhomme, Margot; Damond, Aurélie; Guillon, Fabienne; Rogniaux, Hélène

    2016-08-17

    Arabinoxylans (AX) and (1→3),(1→4)-β-glucans (BG) are the main components of cereal cell walls and influence many aspects of their end uses. Important variations in the composition and structure of these polysaccharides have been reported among cereals and cultivars of a given species. In this work, the spatial distribution of AX and BG in the endosperm of mature grains was established for nine wheat varieties and eight barley varieties using enzymatically assisted mass spectrometry imaging (MSI). Important structural features of the AX and BG polymers that were previously shown to influence their physicochemical properties were assessed. Differences in the distribution of AX and BG structures were observed, both within the endosperm of a given cultivar and between wheat and barley cultivars. This study provides a unique picture of the structural heterogeneity of AX and BG polysaccharides at the scale of the whole endosperm in a series of wheat and barley cultivars. Thus, it can participate meaningfully in a strategy aiming at understanding the structure-function relationships of these two polymers. PMID:27463368

  8. Interstellar Dust Grain Alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, B.-G.; Lazarian, A.; Vaillancourt, John E.

    2015-08-01

    Interstellar polarization at optical-to-infrared wavelengths is known to arise from asymmetric dust grains aligned with the magnetic field. This effect provides a potentially powerful probe of magnetic field structure and strength if the details of the grain alignment can be reliably understood. Theory and observations have recently converged on a quantitative, predictive description of interstellar grain alignment based on radiative processes. The development of a general, analytical model for this radiative alignment torque (RAT) theory has allowed specific, testable predictions for realistic interstellar conditions. We outline the theoretical and observational arguments in favor of RAT alignment, as well as reasons the "classical" paramagnetic alignment mechanism is unlikely to work, except possibly for the very smallest grains. With further detailed characterization of the RAT mechanism, grain alignment and polarimetry promise to not only better constrain the interstellar magnetic field but also provide new information on the dust characteristics.

  9. Production of a recombinant industrial protein using barley cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Ritala, A; Wahlström, E H; Holkeri, H; Hafren, A; Mäkeläinen, K; Baez, J; Mäkinen, K; Nuutila, A M

    2008-06-01

    The use of recombinant DNA-based protein production using genetically modified plants could provide a reproducible, consistent quality, safe, animal-component free, origin-traceable, and cost-effective source for industrial proteins required in large amounts (1000s of metric tons) and at low cost (below US$100/Kg). The aim of this work was to demonstrate the feasibility of using barley suspension cell culture to support timely testing of the genetic constructs and early product characterization to detect for example post-translational modifications within the industrial protein caused by the selected recombinant system. For this study the human Collagen I alpha 1 (CIa1) chain gene encoding the complete helical region of CIa1 optimized for monocot expression was fused to its N- and C-terminal telopeptide and to a bacteriophage T4 fibritin foldon peptide encoding sequences. The CIa1 accumulation was targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by fusing the CIa1 gene to an ER-directing signal peptide sequence and an ER retention signal HDEL. The construct containing the CIa1 gene was then introduced into immature barley half embryos or barley cells by particle bombardment. Transgenic barley cells resulting from these transformations were grown as suspension cultures in flasks and in a Wave bioreactor producing CIa1 similar to CIa1 purified from the yeast Pichia pastoris based on Western blotting, pepsin resistance, and mass spectroscopy analysis. The barley cell culture derived-CIa1 intracellular accumulation levels ranged from 2 to 9 microg/l illustrating the need for further process improvement in order to use this technology to supply material for product development activities.

  10. Damage potential of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) on early growth stages of small-grains and canola under subarctic conditions.

    PubMed

    Begna, Sultan H; Fielding, Dennis J

    2003-08-01

    We characterized the type and extent of grasshopper injury to above- and below-ground plant parts for four crops [barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), oats (Avena sativa L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and canola (Brassica campestris L.)] commonly grown, or with potential to grow, in central Alaska. Cages were placed on 48 pots containing plants in second to third leaf stages and stocked with 0, 2, 4, and 6 first-instar Melanoplus sanguinipes F. pot(-1). Plants were harvested 22 d after planting. Stem growth of barley and oats was not affected except at the highest grasshopper treatment. In canola, stem biomass was reduced at the medium and high grasshopper treatments, when most of the leaves had been consumed. The highest grasshopper treatment reduced leaf area in barley and oats by approximately 55%, and caused a significant reduction in dry weight of leaves, stems, and roots (41-72%). Wheat and canola plants were smaller than barley and oats across all treatments and, at the highest grasshopper density, above-ground portions of wheat and canola were completely destroyed. Length and surface area of roots of barley and oats were reduced by 20-28% again at the highest grasshopper density, whereas the reduction for wheat and canola ranged from 50 to 90%. There was little or no difference among all grasshopper densities for C-N ratio in leaf and stem tissues of all crops. The results suggest that wheat and canola are more susceptible than barley and oats and that densities > or = 2 pot(-1) (approximately > or = 50 m(-2)) of even very small grasshoppers could cause significant damage in small-grain and oilseed crop production.

  11. iTAG Barley: A 9-12 classroom module to explore gene expression and segregation using Oregon Wolfe Barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Oregon Wolfe Barleys (OWBs) are a model resource for genetics research and instruction (http://barleyworld.org/oregonwolfe ; http://wheat.pw.usda.gov/ggpages/OWB_gallery/ISS-OWB/index.htm). The population of 94 doubled haploid lines was developed from an F1 of a cross between dominant and reces...

  12. Tocopherols and tocotrienols in barley oil prepared from germ and other fractions from scarification and sieving of hulless barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two cultivars of hulless barley (Doyce and Merlin), were scarified to abrade the outer layers of the kernels (germ, pericarp, and aleurone). The resulting scarification fines fractions were then separated into four particle size subfractions using sieves. Each of the size subfractions was then extr...

  13. Infection patterns in barley and wheat spikes inoculated with wild-type and trichodiene synthase gene disrupted Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Carin; von Wettstein, Diter; Schäfer, Wilhelm; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Felk, Angelika; Maier, Frank J

    2005-11-15

    Fusarium head blight epidemics of wheat and barley cause heavy economic losses to farmers due to yield decreases and production of mycotoxin that renders the grain useless for flour and malt products. No highly resistant cultivars are available at present. Hyphae of germinating fungal spores use different paths of infection: After germination at the extruded tip of an ovary, the hyphae travel along the epicarp in the space between the lemma and palea. Infection of the developing kernel proceeds through the epicarp, successively destroying the layers of the fruit coat and finally the starch and protein accumulating endosperm. Hyphae reaching the rachis proceed to apically located developing kernels. Using a constitutively green fluorescence protein-expressing Fusarium wild-type strain, and its knockout mutant, preventing trichothecene synthesis, we demonstrate that trichothecenes are not a virulence factor during infection through the fruit coat. In the absence of trichothecenes, the fungus is blocked by the development of heavy cell wall thickenings in the rachis node of Nandu wheat, a defense inhibited by the mycotoxin. In barley hyphae of both wild-type and the trichothecene knockout mutant, are inhibited at the rachis node and rachilla, limiting infection of adjacent florets through the phloem and along the surface of the rachis. Effective resistance to Fusarium head blight requires expression of genes that combat these different pathways of infection.

  14. Infection patterns in barley and wheat spikes inoculated with wild-type and trichodiene synthase gene disrupted Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Carin; von Wettstein, Diter; Schäfer, Wilhelm; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Felk, Angelika; Maier, Frank J.

    2005-01-01

    Fusarium head blight epidemics of wheat and barley cause heavy economic losses to farmers due to yield decreases and production of mycotoxin that renders the grain useless for flour and malt products. No highly resistant cultivars are available at present. Hyphae of germinating fungal spores use different paths of infection: After germination at the extruded tip of an ovary, the hyphae travel along the epicarp in the space between the lemma and palea. Infection of the developing kernel proceeds through the epicarp, successively destroying the layers of the fruit coat and finally the starch and protein accumulating endosperm. Hyphae reaching the rachis proceed to apically located developing kernels. Using a constitutively green fluorescence protein-expressing Fusarium wild-type strain, and its knockout mutant, preventing trichothecene synthesis, we demonstrate that trichothecenes are not a virulence factor during infection through the fruit coat. In the absence of trichothecenes, the fungus is blocked by the development of heavy cell wall thickenings in the rachis node of Nandu wheat, a defense inhibited by the mycotoxin. In barley hyphae of both wild-type and the trichothecene knockout mutant, are inhibited at the rachis node and rachilla, limiting infection of adjacent florets through the phloem and along the surface of the rachis. Effective resistance to Fusarium head blight requires expression of genes that combat these different pathways of infection. PMID:16263921

  15. Primary structure of the (1→3,1→4)-β-D-glucan 4-glucohydrolase from barley aleurone

    PubMed Central

    Fincher, Geoffrey B.; Lock, Peter A.; Morgan, Margaret M.; Lingelbach, Klaus; Wettenhall, Richard E. H.; Mercer, Julian F. B.; Brandt, Anders; Thomsen, Karl Kristian

    1986-01-01

    During germination of barley grains, the cell walls of the starchy endosperm are degraded by (1→3,1→4)-β-glucanases (EC 3.2.1.73) secreted from the aleurone and scutellar tissues. The complete sequence of the aleurone (1→3,1→4)-β-glucanase isoenzyme II comprises 306 amino acids and was determined by sequencing nine tryptic peptides (110 residues) and aligning them with the amino acid sequence deduced from a cDNA clone encoding the 291 NH2-terminal residues. Although no amino acid sequence homology with a bacterial (1→3)(1→4)-β-glucanase is apparent, close to 50% homology is found with two large regions of a (1→3)-β-glucanase from tobacco pith tissue. The gene for barley (1→3,1→4)-β-glucanase isoenzyme II shares with that for the α-amylase isoenzyme 1 a strongly preferred use of codons with G and C in the wobble position (94% and 90%, respectively). Both enzymes are secreted from the aleurone cells during germination. Such one-sided codon usage is not characteristic for the gene encoding the (1→3)-β-glucanase of tobacco pith tissue or the hor2-4 gene encoding the B1 hordein storage protein in the endosperm. Images PMID:16593676

  16. Effect of co-milled wheat, green gram and barley on the rheological and quality characteristics of cookies.

    PubMed

    Tulse, Siddharth B; V, Reshma; Rajiv, Jyotsna; Sakhare, Suresh D

    2015-10-01

    Studies were carried out on the co-milling of wheat (W), green gram (GG) and barley (BR) grains using a roller milling system. The co-milled straight run flours obtained by varying proportions of wheat, barley and green gram WGGBR-1 (90:5:5), WGGBR-2 (80:10:10) and WGGBR-3 (70:15:15) were used in the cookie baking experiments. As the amount of GG and BR increased in blend, water absorption increased (56.5-58.4%) and dough stability and extensibility values decreased (104-92 mm). Hardness of cookie doughs and spread ratio (7.70-6.00) of cookies decreased and breaking strength values increased from 2900 to 3700 g in cookies made using co-milled blends WGGBR-1, WGGBR-2 and WGGBR-3. The highest breaking strength value (3700 g), large islands, gummy mouth feel and lowest overall quality score of 51.5 were recorded for cookies made with blend WGGBR-3 indicating that the cookies had unacceptable hard texture. The optimum blend for cookies was WGGBR-2 (80:10:10) and the cookies possessed slightly small islands, crisp, light texture and a pleasant taste. These cookies had 12.30 and 8.00% protein and dietary fibre as against the control cookie values of 8 and 4%, respectively. The in vitro protein digestibility of the control cookies was 61% and it was 51% for cookies made with WGGBR-2 blend.

  17. Infection patterns in barley and wheat spikes inoculated with wild-type and trichodiene synthase gene disrupted Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Carin; von Wettstein, Diter; Schäfer, Wilhelm; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Felk, Angelika; Maier, Frank J

    2005-11-15

    Fusarium head blight epidemics of wheat and barley cause heavy economic losses to farmers due to yield decreases and production of mycotoxin that renders the grain useless for flour and malt products. No highly resistant cultivars are available at present. Hyphae of germinating fungal spores use different paths of infection: After germination at the extruded tip of an ovary, the hyphae travel along the epicarp in the space between the lemma and palea. Infection of the developing kernel proceeds through the epicarp, successively destroying the layers of the fruit coat and finally the starch and protein accumulating endosperm. Hyphae reaching the rachis proceed to apically located developing kernels. Using a constitutively green fluorescence protein-expressing Fusarium wild-type strain, and its knockout mutant, preventing trichothecene synthesis, we demonstrate that trichothecenes are not a virulence factor during infection through the fruit coat. In the absence of trichothecenes, the fungus is blocked by the development of heavy cell wall thickenings in the rachis node of Nandu wheat, a defense inhibited by the mycotoxin. In barley hyphae of both wild-type and the trichothecene knockout mutant, are inhibited at the rachis node and rachilla, limiting infection of adjacent florets through the phloem and along the surface of the rachis. Effective resistance to Fusarium head blight requires expression of genes that combat these different pathways of infection. PMID:16263921

  18. Triticale dried distillers' grain increases alpha-linolenic acid in subcutaneous fat of beef cattle fed oilseeds.

    PubMed

    He, M L; Sultana, H; Oba, M; Kastelic, J P; Dugan, M E R; McKinnon, J J; McAllister, T A

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of triticale dried distillers' grain with solubles (DDGS), flax (FS) and sunflower (SS) seed on growth and the fatty acid profile of subcutaneous (SQ) fat in individually housed steers (n = 15 per diet) fed ad libitum (DM basis); (1) control (CON) 90% barley grain + 10% barley silage; or substitution of barley grain for: (2) 30% DDGS; (3) 10% FS; (4) 30% DDGS + 8.5% FS; (5) 10% SS and (6) 30% DDGS + 8.5% SS. Oilseeds in the combination diets were reduced to maintain diet lipid levels below 9% DM and to determine if favorable changes in the fatty acid profile could be maintained or enhanced at reduced levels of oilseed. Plasma and SQ fat biopsies were collected at 0, 6, and 12 weeks. Inclusion of DDGS decreased (P < 0.05) average daily gain, feed conversion and backfat thickness. Feeding FS increased (P < 0.05) plasma ALA compared to CON and SS and consistently increased (P < 0.01) ALA and non-conjugated and non-methylene interrupted dienes (NCD), whereas SS tended to decrease ALA in fat. Inclusion of DDGS with FS further increased (P < 0.02) ALA and decreased (P < 0.05) NCD and 18:1-t10 in fat. The fact that the levels of n-3 fatty acids in SQ fat from steers fed DDGS + FS were higher than those obtained with FS alone, has obvious benefits to the practical cost of favorably manipulating fatty acid profiles in beef.

  19. The Genetics and Transcriptional Profiles of the Cellulose Synthase-Like HvCslF Gene Family in Barley1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Rachel A.; Jobling, Stephen A.; Harvey, Andrew J.; Shirley, Neil J.; Mather, Diane E.; Bacic, Antony; Fincher, Geoffrey B.

    2008-01-01

    Cellulose synthase-like CslF genes have been implicated in the biosynthesis of (1,3;1,4)-β-d-glucans, which are major cell wall constituents in grasses and cereals. Seven CslF genes from barley (Hordeum vulgare) can be divided into two classes on the basis of intron-exon arrangements. Four of the HvCslF genes have been mapped to a single locus on barley chromosome 2H, in a region corresponding to a major quantitative trait locus for grain (1,3;1,4)-β-d-glucan content. The other HvCslF genes map to chromosomes 1H, 5H, and 7H, and in two cases the genes are close to other quantitative trait loci for grain (1,3;1,4)-β-d-glucan content. Spatial and temporal patterns of transcription of the seven genes have been defined through quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In developing barley coleoptiles HvCslF6 mRNA is most abundant. Transcript levels are maximal in 4- to 5-d coleoptiles, at a time when (1,3;1,4)-β-d-glucan content of coleoptile cell walls also reaches maximal levels. In the starchy endosperm of developing grain, HvCslF6 and HvCslF9 transcripts predominate. Two peaks of transcription are apparent. One occurs just after endosperm cellularization, 4 to 8 d after pollination, while the second occurs much later in grain development, more than 20 d after pollination. Marked varietal differences in transcription of the HvCslF genes are observed during endosperm development. Given the commercial importance of cereal (1,3;1,4)-β-d-glucans in human nutrition, in stock feed, and in malting and brewing, the observation that only two genes, HvCslF6 and HvCslF9, are transcribed at high levels in developing grain is of potential relevance for the future manipulation of grain (1,3;1,4)-β-d-glucan levels. PMID:18258691

  20. Fusariotoxins in Russian Federation 2005-2010 grain harvests.

    PubMed

    Tutelyan, V A; Zakharova, L P; Sedova, I B; Perederyaev, O I; Aristarkhova, T V; Eller, K I

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring results of food grain contamination with fusariotoxins-deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), fumonisins (FB1&FB2), T-2 and HT-2 toxins-are presented. Harvests of 2005-2010 in different regions of Russia were investigated. The occurrence of DON in wheat was 8%, barley 9%, oats 4%, rye 2% and maize 2%. The highest frequency of ZEN contamination was found in oats, the lowest in wheat. Calculated average daily intake of DON varied from 0.066 to 0.096 µg/kg body weight, the highest being found in the Southern region, but substantially lower than the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake. The results of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated the presence of T-2 toxin in 14% and HT-2 toxin in 17% of all samples. The maximum level of T-2 toxin was exceeded only in one sample of barley. Relatively high frequency and levels of FB1&FB2 contamination were found in maize.