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Sample records for crise energetica contribuicoes

  1. Managing Crises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation, Carol

    1988-01-01

    Many school systems have started to go beyond programs focused on suicide prevention or drug abuse to encompass all types of school crises. School districts and individual schools across tha nation are formulating crisis management plans and in some states they have become mandatory. Basic procedures drawn from plans adopted by schools include the…

  2. When Crises Call

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisch, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters, as well as crises of the man-made variety, call on leaders of school districts to manage scenarios impossible to predict and for which no amount of training can adequately prepare. One thing all major crises hold in common is their far-reaching effects, which can run the gamut from personal safety and mental well-being to the…

  3. Review of book vestibular crises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blagoveshchenskaya, N. S.

    1980-01-01

    The etiology, pathogenesis, clinical practice, treatment and rehabilitation of patients with vestibular crises is discussed. Classifications for vestibular disorders are given. Information on the frequency of vestibular crises is given.

  4. Five Potential Crises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futurist, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Five areas that have great potential for becoming crises in the future are described: a warming of the earth's climate, changing weather patterns and growing seasons; water shortage; the decay of the physical infrastructure, e.g., decay of roads, bridges; breakdown of the international monetary and trading system; and nuclear warfare. (Author/RM)

  5. Forecasting potential crises

    SciTech Connect

    Neufeld, W.P.

    1984-04-01

    Recently, the Trend Analysis Program (TAP) of the American Council of Life Insurance commissioned the Futures Group of Glastonbury, Connecticut, to examine the potential for large-scale catastrophic events in the near future. TAP was specifically concerned with five potential crises: the warming of the earth's atmosphere, the water shortage, the collapse of the physical infrastructure, the global financial crisis, and the threat of nuclear war. We are often unprepared to take action; in these cases, we lose an advantage we might have otherwise had. This is the whole idea behind forecasting: to foresee possibilities and to project how we can respond. If we are able to create forecasts against which we can test policy options and choices, we may have the luxury of adopting policies ahead of events. Rather than simply fighting fires, we have the option of creating a future more to our choosing. Short descriptions of these five potential crises and, in some cases, possible solutions are presented.

  6. Managing Classroom Crises. Fastback 465.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Carlette Jackson; Harris, E. Ann

    This booklet explains the importance of teachers being trained to handle daily crises they face in their classrooms and to see crises as an opportunity for both students and teachers. It discusses the skills and attitudes teachers need in order to be effective crisis managers. After an introduction, three sections examine: "What Is a…

  7. [Demography and crises in Algeria].

    PubMed

    Cherrad, S E

    1996-01-01

    This article argues that demographic factors are an underlying cause of the many political, economic, social, and cultural crises that Algeria has experienced over the course of the 1990s. The author suggests that although the demography of the country is generally ignored when these issues are discussed, the rapid rate of population growth, which has caused the population to double in about 20 years, and the continued dependency burden, due to the fact that over 50% of the population are under age 20, are major causes of the country's current malaise.

  8. Ethical Crises and Cultural Differences

    PubMed Central

    Meleis, Afaf Ibrahim; Jonsen, Albert R.

    1983-01-01

    Generalizations about patients without careful attention to their cultural background, their values and norms could lead to a number of ethical crises. The informed consent, disclosure of diagnosis and prognosis, and discussions of termination of treatment are reflections of Western cultural values. They represent respect for autonomy of clients and respect for openness in communications. For patients from other cultures such practices have different meanings that may violate their own values. The result of such conflict in practices and meanings can render the relationship between patients and health care personnel difficult at best and distrustful at worst. PMID:6613119

  9. The Inevitable School Crises: Are You Ready?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Terrence

    2002-01-01

    Describes five-point crises-management plan: Assemble a school crises team, assign specific roles to each team member, delineate the responsibilities of each team member, conduct training for all staff members. Shares lessons learned in managing crisis situations. (PKP)

  10. Helping Students Cope with Fears and Crises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walz, Garry R., Ed.; Bleuer, Jeanne C., Ed.

    This document consists of two modules extracted from a six-module larger work. Module 1 presents six articles on the topic of "helping students to cope with fears and crises." Module 2 contains 17 articles on "programs and practices for helping students cope with fears and crises." Article titles and authors are as follows: (1)…

  11. Assessing Chaos in Sickle Cell Anemia Crises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Wesley; Le Floch, Francois

    2006-11-01

    Recent developments in sickle cell research and blood flow modeling allow for new interpretations of the sickle cell crises. With an appropriate set of theoretical and empirical equations describing the dynamics of the red cells in their environment, and the response of the capillaries to major changes in the rheology, a complete mathematical system has been derived. This system of equations is believed to be of major importance to provide new and significant insight into the causes of the disease and related crises. With simulations, it has been proven that the system transition from a periodic solution to a chaotic one, which illustrates the onset of crises from a regular blood flow synchronized with the heart beat. Moreover, the analysis of the effects of various physiological parameters exposes the potential to control chaotic solutions, which, in turn, could lead to the creation of new and more effective treatments for sickle cell anemia. .

  12. A model of international financial crises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaizoji, Taisei

    2001-10-01

    This paper proposes a model of international financial crises that is based on the statistical mechanics. In our model the international stock market is composed of two groups of traders mutually influencing each other with respect to their decision behavior, and financial contagion between markets occurs as a result of attempts by traders in the domestic market to imitate the behavior of traders who participate into exchange in a foreign market. This provides a channel through which a crisis in one market such as contemporaneous stock market crashes can be transmitted to other markets. We show that the model can explain the stylized facts characterizing periods of recent international financial crises.

  13. Phase Synchronization Detection of Financial Market Crises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chun-Xia; Wu, Hong-Fa; Zhang, Ying-Chao; Xia, Bing-Ying; Itoh, Masaru

    Financial market is a complex system whose characteristic behaviors can be caught in corresponding time series. Analyzing such time series by appropriate methods will aid in making inferences and predictions. Here phase synchronization approach is used for visual pattern recognition of crises. Based on Empirical Mode Decomposition and the Hilbert transform, phase evolution of various rhythmic components exiting in the market is extracted. Then the concept of synchronization can be successfully applied to crises detection. Unlike other approaches, this detection distinguishes crises from normal state according to variations of interaction among rhythmic components. The empirical results mentioned here convince us of the fact that financial crises take place at the time when the adjustment processes of other quasi-periodic oscillations and the trend are out of synchronization. On the contrary, when other rhythmic oscillations can be synchronized with the trend, the market will develop healthily. The presence and duration of synchronization reflect dynamics of financial market. All these results will enlighten people to disclose its reasons and probe methods for controlling its pathological rhythms.

  14. Three Campus Crises: Lessons for Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Michael

    1992-01-01

    In October 1989-October 1991, Mills College (California) faced three crises: an earthquake; a strike over plans to convert to a coeducational institution; and a devastating fire in the area. The college has learned to focus its structural, human, political, and symbolic frames of reference; communicate; plan; consider the public; and develop…

  15. Dealing with Crises: One Principal's Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Charles F.

    1986-01-01

    The principal of Concord High School (New Hampshire) recounts the 1985-86 school year's four crises--the visits of teacher-astronaut Christa McAuliffe and Secretary of Education William Bennett, the shooting of a former student, and the Challenger space shuttle explosion. The greatest challenge was resuming the normal schedule and fielding media…

  16. Campus Communications in the Age of Crises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Recent catastrophes have brought about numerous critiques and changes to campus communications. In this article, the author shares the lessons she has learned from the crises she experienced during her 18 years of being the president of Trinity (Washington) University. Furthermore, Joan Hinde Stewart, president of Hamilton College, adds her…

  17. Clinical review: The management of hypertensive crises

    PubMed Central

    Varon, Joseph; Marik, Paul E

    2003-01-01

    Hypertension is an extremely common clinical problem, affecting approximately 50 million people in the USA and approximately 1 billion individuals worldwide. Approximately 1% of these patients will develop acute elevations in blood pressure at some point in their lifetime. A number of terms have been applied to severe hypertension, including hypertensive crises, emergencies, and urgencies. By definition, acute elevations in blood pressure that are associated with end-organ damage are called hypertensive crises. Immediate reduction in blood pressure is required only in patients with acute end-organ damage. This article reviews current concepts, and common misconceptions and pitfalls in the diagnosis and management of patients with acutely elevated blood pressure. PMID:12974970

  18. Early Life Crises of Habitable Planets

    SciTech Connect

    Pierrehumbert, Raymond

    2006-02-08

    There are a number of crises that a potentially habitable planet must avoid or surmount if its potential is to be realized. These include the runaway greenhouse, loss of atmosphere by chemical or physical processes, and long-lasting global glaciation. In this lecture I will present research on the climate dynamics governing such processes, with particular emphasis on the lessons to be learned from the cases of Early Mars and the Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth.

  19. Entropy Crises in Glasses and Random Heteropolymers.

    PubMed

    Wolynes, Peter G

    1997-01-01

    The concept of random first order transitions with configurational entropy crises provides a theoretical framework for understanding the glass transition. This paper discusses such transitions in exactly solvable spin glass models and in globular random heteropolymers and their relation to glass transitions in molecular fluids and polymers. The Vogel-Fulcher law is shown to be related to the search time through the energy landscape of an "entropic droplet."

  20. Early Life Crises of Habitable Planets

    ScienceCinema

    Pierrehumbert, Raymond [University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States

    2016-07-12

    There are a number of crises that a potentially habitable planet must avoid or surmount if its potential is to be realized. These include the runaway greenhouse, loss of atmosphere by chemical or physical processes, and long-lasting global glaciation. In this lecture I will present research on the climate dynamics governing such processes, with particular emphasis on the lessons to be learned from the cases of Early Mars and the Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth.

  1. An Attempt at an Eclectic Model of Nonnormative Crises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Alexis J.

    This paper addresses the theory and data from differing disciplines regarding the generic aspects of nonnormative crises (those unrelated to ontogeny or stage of the family life cycle) in order to increase understanding of the underlying processes involved. The first part of the paper reviews the literature on the study of family crises,…

  2. Identifying financial crises in real time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Fonseca, Eder Lucio; Ferreira, Fernando F.; Muruganandam, Paulsamy; Cerdeira, Hilda A.

    2013-03-01

    Following the thermodynamic formulation of a multifractal measure that was shown to enable the detection of large fluctuations at an early stage, here we propose a new index which permits us to distinguish events like financial crises in real time. We calculate the partition function from which we can obtain thermodynamic quantities analogous to the free energy and specific heat. The index is defined as the normalized energy variation and it can be used to study the behavior of stochastic time series, such as financial market daily data. Famous financial market crashes-Black Thursday (1929), Black Monday (1987) and the subprime crisis (2008)-are identified with clear and robust results. The method is also applied to the market fluctuations of 2011. From these results it appears as if the apparent crisis of 2011 is of a different nature to the other three. We also show that the analysis has forecasting capabilities.

  3. Measuring complexity in Brazilian economic crises

    PubMed Central

    Mortoza, Letícia P. D.; Piqueira, José R. C.

    2017-01-01

    Capital flows are responsible for a strong influence on the foreign exchange rates and stock prices macroeconomic parameters. In volatile economies, capital flows can change due to several types of social, political and economic events, provoking oscillations on these parameters, which are recognized as economic crises. This work aims to investigate how these two macroeconomic variables are related with crisis events by using the traditional complex measures due to Lopez-Mancini-Calbet (LMC) and to Shiner-Davison-Landsberg (SDL), that can be applied to any temporal series. Here, Ibovespa (Bovespa Stock Exchange main Index) and the “dollar-real” parity are the background for calculating the LMC and SDL complexity measures. By analyzing the temporal evolution of these measures, it is shown that they might be related to important events that occurred in the Brazilian economy. PMID:28301506

  4. Constructing event trees for volcanic crises

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newhall, C.; Hoblitt, R.

    2002-01-01

    Event trees are useful frameworks for discussing probabilities of possible outcomes of volcanic unrest. Each branch of the tree leads from a necessary prior event to a more specific outcome, e.g., from an eruption to a pyroclastic flow. Where volcanic processes are poorly understood, probability estimates might be purely empirical - utilizing observations of past and current activity and an assumption that the future will mimic the past or follow a present trend. If processes are better understood, probabilities might be estimated from a theoritical model, either subjectively or by numerical simulations. Use of Bayes' theorem aids in the estimation of how fresh unrest raises (or lowers) the probabilities of eruptions. Use of event trees during volcanic crises can help volcanologists to critically review their analysis of hazard, and help officials and individuals to compare volcanic risks with more familiar risks. Trees also emphasize the inherently probabilistic nature of volcano forecasts, with multiple possible outcomes.

  5. Professional conduct of scientists during volcanic crises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    IAVCEI SubcommitteeCrisis Protocols; Newhall, Chris; Aramaki, Shigeo; Barberi, Franco; Blong, Russell; Calvache, Marta; Cheminee, Jean-Louis; Punongbayan, Raymundo; Siebe, Claus; Simkin, Tom; Sparks, Stephen; Tjetjep, Barry; Newhall, Chris

    Stress during volcanic crises is high, and any friction between scientists can distract seriously from both humanitarian and scientific effort. Friction can arise, for example, if team members do not share all of their data, if differences in scientific interpretation erupt into public controversy, or if one scientist begins work on a prime research topic while a colleague with longer-standing investment is still busy with public safety work. Some problems arise within existing scientific teams; others are brought on by visiting scientists. Friction can also arise between volcanologists and public officials. Two general measures may avert or reduce friction: (a) National volcanologic surveys and other scientific groups that advise civil authorities in times of volcanic crisis should prepare, in advance of crises, a written plan that details crisis team policies, procedures, leadership and other roles of team members, and other matters pertinent to crisis conduct. A copy of this plan should be given to all current and prospective team members. (b) Each participant in a crisis team should examine his or her own actions and contribution to the crisis effort. A personal checklist is provided to aid this examination. Questions fall generally in two categories: Are my presence and actions for the public good? Are my words and actions collegial, i.e., courteous, respectful, and fair? Numerous specific solutions to common crisis problems are also offered. Among these suggestions are: (a) choose scientific team leaders primarily for their leadership skills; (b) speak publicly with a single scientific voice, especially when forecasts, warnings, or scientific disagreements are involved; (c) if you are a would-be visitor, inquire from the primary scientific team whether your help would be welcomed, and, in general, proceed only if the reply is genuinely positive; (d) in publications, personnel evaluations, and funding, reward rather than discourage teamwork. Models are

  6. Professional conduct of scientists during volcanic crises

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; Newhall, Chris; Aramaki, Shigeo; Barberi, Franco; Blong, Russell; Calvache, Marta; Cheminee, Jean-Louis; Punongbayan, Raymundo; Siebe, Claus; Simkin, Tom; Sparks, Stephen; Tjetjep, Wimpy

    1999-01-01

    Stress during volcanic crises is high, and any friction between scientists can distract seriously from both humanitarian and scientific effort. Friction can arise, for example, if team members do not share all of their data, if differences in scientific interpretation erupt into public controversy, or if one scientist begins work on a prime research topic while a colleague with longer-standing investment is still busy with public safety work. Some problems arise within existing scientific teams; others are brought on by visiting scientists. Friction can also arise between volcanologists and public officials. Two general measures may avert or reduce friction: (a) National volcanologic surveys and other scientific groups that advise civil authorities in times of volcanic crisis should prepare, in advance of crises, a written plan that details crisis team policies, procedures, leadership and other roles of team members, and other matters pertinent to crisis conduct. A copy of this plan should be given to all current and prospective team members. (b) Each participant in a crisis team should examine his or her own actions and contribution to the crisis effort. A personal checklist is provided to aid this examination. Questions fall generally in two categories: Are my presence and actions for the public good? Are my words and actions collegial, i.e., courteous, respectful, and fair? Numerous specific solutions to common crisis problems are also offered. Among these suggestions are: (a) choose scientific team leaders primarily for their leadership skills; (b) speak publicly with a single scientific voice, especially when forecasts, warnings, or scientific disagreements are involved; (c) if you are a would-be visitor, inquire from the primary scientific team whether your help would be welcomed, and, in general, proceed only if the reply is genuinely positive; (d) in publications, personnel evaluations, and funding, reward rather than discourage teamwork. Models are

  7. Scientists' Perceptions of Communicating During Crises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohaney, J. A.; Hudson-Doyle, E.; Brogt, E.; Wilson, T. M.; Kennedy, B.

    2015-12-01

    To further our understanding of how to enhance student science and risk communication skills in natural hazards and earth science courses, we conducted a pilot study to assess the different perceptions of expert scientists and risk communication practitioners versus the perceptions of students. These differences will be used to identify expert views on best practice, and improve the teaching of communication skills at the University level. In this pilot study, a perceptions questionnaire was developed and validated. Within this, respondents (geoscientists, engineers, and emergency managers; n=44) were asked to determine their agreement with the use and effectiveness of specific communication strategies (within the first 72 hours after a devastating earthquake) when communicating to the public. In terms of strategies and information to the public, the respondents were mostly in agreement, but there were several statements which elicited large differences between expert responses: 1) the role and purpose of the scientific communication during crises (to persuade people to care, to provide advice, to empower people to take action); 2) the scientist's delivery (showing the scientists emotions and enthusiasm for scientific concepts they are discussing); and 3) the amount of data that is discussed (being comprehensive versus 'only the important' data). The most disagreed upon dimension was related to whether to disclose any political influence on the communication. Additionally, scientists identified that being an effective communicator was an important part of their job, and agreed that it is important to practice these skills. Respondents generally indicated that while scientists should be accountable for the science advice provided, they should not be held liable.

  8. Assessment of economic vulnerability to infectious disease crises.

    PubMed

    Sands, Peter; El Turabi, Anas; Saynisch, Philip A; Dzau, Victor J

    2016-11-12

    Infectious disease crises have substantial economic impact. Yet mainstream macroeconomic forecasting rarely takes account of the risk of potential pandemics. This oversight contributes to persistent underestimation of infectious disease risk and consequent underinvestment in preparedness and response to infectious disease crises. One reason why economists fail to include economic vulnerability to infectious disease threats in their assessments is the absence of readily available and digestible input data to inform such analysis. In this Viewpoint we suggest an approach by which the global health community can help to generate such inputs, and a framework to use these inputs to assess the economic vulnerability to infectious disease crises of individual countries and regions. We argue that incorporation of these risks in influential macroeconomic analyses such as the reports from the International Monetary Fund's Article IV consultations, rating agencies and risk consultancies would simultaneously improve the quality of economic risk forecasting and reinforce individual government and donor incentives to mitigate infectious disease risks.

  9. Foreign exchange rate entropy evolution during financial crises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stosic, Darko; Stosic, Dusan; Ludermir, Teresa; de Oliveira, Wilson; Stosic, Tatijana

    2016-05-01

    This paper examines the effects of financial crises on foreign exchange (FX) markets, where entropy evolution is measured for different exchange rates, using the time-dependent block entropy method. Empirical results suggest that financial crises are associated with significant increase of exchange rate entropy, reflecting instability in FX market dynamics. In accordance with phenomenological expectations, it is found that FX markets with large liquidity and large trading volume are more inert - they recover quicker from a crisis than markets with small liquidity and small trading volume. Moreover, our numerical analysis shows that periods of economic uncertainty are preceded by periods of low entropy values, which may serve as a tool for anticipating the onset of financial crises.

  10. The benefits of flexible team interaction during crises.

    PubMed

    Stachowski, Alicia A; Kaplan, Seth A; Waller, Mary J

    2009-11-01

    Organizations increasingly rely on teams to respond to crises. While research on team effectiveness during nonroutine events is growing, naturalistic studies examining team behaviors during crises are relatively scarce. Furthermore, the relevant literature offers competing theoretical rationales concerning effective team response to crises. In this article, the authors investigate whether high- versus average-performing teams can be distinguished on the basis of the number and complexity of their interaction patterns. Using behavioral observation methodology, the authors coded the discrete verbal and nonverbal behaviors of 14 nuclear power plant control room crews as they responded to a simulated crisis. Pattern detection software revealed systematic differences among crews in their patterns of interaction. Mean comparisons and discriminant function analysis indicated that higher performing crews exhibited fewer, shorter, and less complex interaction patterns. These results illustrate the limitations of standardized response patterns and highlight the importance of team adaptability. Implications for future research and for team training are included.

  11. Constraints to addressing food insecurity in protracted crises

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Daniel; Russo, Luca; Alinovi, Luca

    2012-01-01

    A substantial portion of the world's people have not made adequate progress toward overcoming hunger or achieving sustainable livelihoods. The classic approach to addressing chronic food insecurity has been a strategy of agricultural development, supplemented by humanitarian assistance in the event of a shock or crisis—an approach predicated on assumptions that do not fit the context of protracted crises. This article describes protracted crises and argues that they are sufficiently different to warrant special consideration, but there are unique constraints to engagement in protracted crises. The article explores the constraints promoting sustainable livelihoods in these contexts and proposes elements of an alternative approach. It evaluates the limited evidence available about such an approach and outlines important questions for further research. PMID:21646522

  12. Preparing for School Crises: Administrator Perceptions on Supports for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy, Chelsey M.; Maras, Melissa A.; Wang, Ze

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic events and crises involving schools and children often become high-profile occurrences; however, little attention is given to teachers and how they cope with crisis. The purpose of this study was to investigate administrators' perceptions of including additional support for teachers in school crisis policies. Specifically, the study…

  13. An Ecological Momentary Assessment of Relapse Crises in Dieting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carels, Robert A.; Douglass, Olivia M.; Cacciapaglia, Holly M.; O'Brien, William H.

    2004-01-01

    Much of the research on relapse crises in dieting has focused on isolated lapse events and relied heavily on retrospective self-report data. The present study sought to overcome these limitations by using ecological momentary assessment (EMA) techniques to examine situations of dietary temptation and lapse with a sample of obese, formerly…

  14. Danger and Opportunity: Institutional Identity Crises and Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenfeld, Warren J.

    2006-01-01

    Using the theoretical lenses of Erik Erikson, Burton Clark, and Sonia Nieto, the author highlights the case of Colgate University--a private liberal arts university in central New York State--to consider larger issues of institutional identity by investigating points of crises bringing to the surface opposing forces, which struggle, on one hand,…

  15. The Crises and Freedoms of Researching Your Own Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    There has been much work highlighting the benefits of autoethnographic research yet little acknowledgement of the demands researching your own life makes on the emotional and mental wellbeing of the researcher. This paper explores the consequences that can arise as a result of autoethnographic research by detailing the crises involved in…

  16. Supporting Students with Disabilities during School Crises: A Teacher's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Laura S.; Embury, Dusty Columbia; Jones, Ruth E.; Yssel, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Most schools have crisis plans to support student safety, but few plans address the complex needs of students with disabilities. School supports should include analysis of school plans and student strengths and needs to ensure that students with disabilities have the best opportunity to be safe in school crises. Recommendations include developing…

  17. Mental Health Aspects of Responding to Campus Crises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Christopher; Sharma, Micky M.

    2016-01-01

    Tragedy can strike a college campus in unpredictable and often horrific ways that may lead to traumatic responses for individuals and the entire campus community. Crises on campus demand an appropriate response to support the community, provide assistance to affected individuals and guide healing efforts.

  18. Resilience of natural gas networks during conflicts, crises and disruptions.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Rui; Buzna, Lubos; Bono, Flavio; Masera, Marcelo; Arrowsmith, David K; Helbing, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Human conflict, geopolitical crises, terrorist attacks, and natural disasters can turn large parts of energy distribution networks offline. Europe's current gas supply network is largely dependent on deliveries from Russia and North Africa, creating vulnerabilities to social and political instabilities. During crises, less delivery may mean greater congestion, as the pipeline network is used in ways it has not been designed for. Given the importance of the security of natural gas supply, we develop a model to handle network congestion on various geographical scales. We offer a resilient response strategy to energy shortages and quantify its effectiveness for a variety of relevant scenarios. In essence, Europe's gas supply can be made robust even to major supply disruptions, if a fair distribution strategy is applied.

  19. The Transition From Threat Situations to International Crises

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-01

    SEP 197& I.. nternational Relations Research Institut School of International Relations University of Southern California September 1976 THE...TRANSITION FROM THREAT SITUATIONS TO INTERNATIONAL CRISES TR&A Technical Report #34 Threat Recognition and Analysis Project "Approved for public release...the Advanced Research Projects Agency of the Department of Defense and was monitored by ONR under Contract No. N00014-76-C-0137. The views and

  20. [Political crises in Africa and infant and child mortality].

    PubMed

    Garenne, M

    1997-01-01

    Many African countries experienced severe political crises after independence, and in a number of cases the crises had significant demographic consequences, especially for child mortality. Data based on maternity histories allowed the reconstruction of child mortality trends over the past 20-30 years in Uganda, Ghana, Rwanda, Madagascar, and Mozambique. The indicator used was the child mortality quotient (number of deaths of under-5 children per 1000 births). Uganda's child mortality declined from 227/1000 in 1960 to 154/1000 in 1970, but the trend was reversed in 1971, when Idi Amin Dada came to power, and the rate reached 204/1000 in 1982 before beginning to decline again. The level of mortality remained high, however, and was still 160/1000 in 1988. Ghana suffered a political and economic crisis during 1979-84. Child mortality rose from 130/1000 in 1978 to 175/1000 in 1983. Mortality rates began a rapid decline after structural adjustment programs were begun, possibly due to improved management of health services. The child mortality rate in Rwanda increased from around 220/1000 in 1960 to 240/1000 in 1975, before beginning a decline in the late 1970s that reached 140/1000 by 1990. The period of political stability and relative prosperity during the 15-year reign of Juvenal Habyarimana was associated with the decline. Political crises marked by student and peasant uprisings were associated with Madagascar's child mortality rate increase from about 145/1000 in 1960 to 185/1000 in 1985. Mozambique was beset by civil war after independence, in which destruction of the health infrastructure was a strategy. The child mortality rate increased from 270/1000 to 470/1000 between 1975 and 1986, a peak war year. The factors by which political crises affect mortality so profoundly remain to be explained, but particular attention should be given to studying the health sector.

  1. EPA guidance on mental health and economic crises in Europe.

    PubMed

    Martin-Carrasco, M; Evans-Lacko, S; Dom, G; Christodoulou, N G; Samochowiec, J; González-Fraile, E; Bienkowski, P; Gómez-Beneyto, M; Dos Santos, M J H; Wasserman, D

    2016-03-01

    This European Psychiatric Association (EPA) guidance paper is a result of the Working Group on Mental Health Consequences of Economic Crises of the EPA Council of National Psychiatric Associations. Its purpose is to identify the impact on mental health in Europe of the economic downturn and the measures that may be taken to respond to it. We performed a review of the existing literature that yields 350 articles on which our conclusions and recommendations are based. Evidence-based tables and recommendations were developed through an expert consensus process. Literature dealing with the consequences of economic turmoil on the health and health behaviours of the population is heterogeneous, and the results are not completely unequivocal. However, there is a broad consensus about the deleterious consequences of economic crises on mental health, particularly on psychological well-being, depression, anxiety disorders, insomnia, alcohol abuse, and suicidal behaviour. Unemployment, indebtedness, precarious working conditions, inequalities, lack of social connectedness, and housing instability emerge as main risk factors. Men at working age could be particularly at risk, together with previous low SES or stigmatized populations. Generalized austerity measures and poor developed welfare systems trend to increase the harmful effects of economic crises on mental health. Although many articles suggest limitations of existing research and provide suggestions for future research, there is relatively little discussion of policy approaches to address the negative impact of economic crises on mental health. The few studies that addressed policy questions suggested that the development of social protection programs such as active labour programs, social support systems, protection for housing instability, and better access to mental health care, particularly at primary care level, is strongly needed.

  2. A Role for Science in Responding to Health Crises

    PubMed Central

    Brothers, Reginald; Murata, Christina E.

    2016-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security's (DHS) Science and Technology (S&T) Directorate plays a role in public health that extends beyond biodefense. These responsibilities were exercised as part of the 2014-16 Ebola outbreak, leading to productive and beneficial contributions to the international public health response and improved operations in the United States. However, we and others have identified numerous areas for improvement. Based on our successes and lessons learned, we propose a number of ways that DHS, the interagency, and academia can act now to ensure improved responses to future public health crises. These include pre-developing scientific capabilities to respond agnostically to threats, and disease-specific master question lists to organize and inform initial efforts. We are generating DHS-specific playbooks and tools for anticipating future needs and capturing requests from DHS components and our national and international partners, where efforts will also be used to refine and exercise communication and information-sharing practices. These experiences and improvement efforts have encouraged discussions on the role of science in developing government policy, specifically responding to public health crises. We propose specific considerations for both scientists and government decision makers to ensure that the best available science is incorporated into policy and operational decisions to facilitate highly effective responses to future health crises. PMID:27482881

  3. A Systematic Review on Health Resilience to Economic Crises

    PubMed Central

    Glonti, Ketevan; Gordeev, Vladimir S.; Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Reeves, Aaron; Stuckler, David; McKee, Martin; Roberts, Bayard

    2015-01-01

    Background The health effects of recent economic crises differ markedly by population group. The objective of this systematic review is to examine evidence from longitudinal studies on factors influencing resilience for any health outcome or health behaviour among the general population living in countries exposed to financial crises. Methods We systematically reviewed studies from six electronic databases (EMBASE, Global Health, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science) which used quantitative longitudinal study designs and included: (i) exposure to an economic crisis; (ii) changes in health outcomes/behaviours over time; (iii) statistical tests of associations of health risk and/or protective factors with health outcomes/behaviours. The quality of the selected studies was appraised using the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. PRISMA reporting guidelines were followed. Results From 14,584 retrieved records, 22 studies met the eligibility criteria. These studies were conducted across 10 countries in Asia, Europe and North America over the past two decades. Ten socio-demographic factors that increased or protected against health risk were identified: gender, age, education, marital status, household size, employment/occupation, income/ financial constraints, personal beliefs, health status, area of residence, and social relations. These studies addressed physical health, mortality, suicide and suicide attempts, mental health, and health behaviours. Women’s mental health appeared more susceptible to crises than men’s. Lower income levels were associated with greater increases in cardiovascular disease, mortality and worse mental health. Employment status was associated with changes in mental health. Associations with age, marital status, and education were less consistent, although higher education was associated with healthier behaviours. Conclusions Despite widespread rhetoric about the importance of resilience, there was a dearth of studies

  4. Double crises in two-parameter dynamical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, H.B.; Ueda, Y.; Grebogi, C.; Yorke, J.A.

    1995-09-25

    A crisis is a sudden discontinuous change in a chaotic attractor as a system parameter is varied. We investigate phenomena observed when two parameters of a dissipative system are varied simultaneously, following a crisis along a curve in the parameter plane. Two such curves intersect at a point we call a double crisis vertex. The phenomena we study include the double crisis vertex at which an interior and a boundary crisis coincide, and related forms of double crisis. We show how an experimenter can infer a crisis from observations of other related crises at a vertex.

  5. Mobile Response Team Saves Lives in Volcano Crises

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ewert, John W.; Miller, C. Dan; Hendley, James W.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    1997-01-01

    The world's only volcano crisis response team, organized and operated by the USGS, can be quickly mobilized to assess and monitor hazards at volcanoes threatening to erupt. Since 1986, the team has responded to more than a dozen volcano crises as part of the Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP), a cooperative effort with the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance of the U.S. Agency for International Development. The work of USGS scientists with VDAP has helped save countless lives, and the valuable lessons learned are being used to reduce risks from volcano hazards in the United States.

  6. Resolution of psychosocial crises associated with flying in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suedfeld, Peter; Brcic, Jelena

    2011-07-01

    Erikson (1959) proposed a theoretical basis for healthy psychosocial development. His theory posits eight critical conflict situations throughout one's lifetime, each of which can result in a favorable or unfavorable resolution. Autobiographies, memoirs, interviews, personal diaries, and oral histories of 97 international astronauts were content analyzed to assess reported resolutions of Erikson's psychosocial crises, regardless of chronological sequence. We made comparisons across flight phases (before, during, and after), gender, nationality of home space agency, and flight duration. Astronauts reported more favorable than unfavorable outcomes across flight phases and demographic variables. Differences across demographic variables and flight phases, as well as the changes as a result of the flight are discussed.

  7. Anticipating Economic Market Crises Using Measures of Collective Panic.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Dion; Lagi, Marco; de Aguiar, Marcus A M; Chinellato, David D; Braha, Dan; Epstein, Irving R; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2015-01-01

    Predicting panic is of critical importance in many areas of human and animal behavior, notably in the context of economics. The recent financial crisis is a case in point. Panic may be due to a specific external threat or self-generated nervousness. Here we show that the recent economic crisis and earlier large single-day panics were preceded by extended periods of high levels of market mimicry--direct evidence of uncertainty and nervousness, and of the comparatively weak influence of external news. High levels of mimicry can be a quite general indicator of the potential for self-organized crises.

  8. Anticipating Economic Market Crises Using Measures of Collective Panic

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Predicting panic is of critical importance in many areas of human and animal behavior, notably in the context of economics. The recent financial crisis is a case in point. Panic may be due to a specific external threat or self-generated nervousness. Here we show that the recent economic crisis and earlier large single-day panics were preceded by extended periods of high levels of market mimicry—direct evidence of uncertainty and nervousness, and of the comparatively weak influence of external news. High levels of mimicry can be a quite general indicator of the potential for self-organized crises. PMID:26185988

  9. Propagation of crises in the virtual water trade network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamea, Stefania; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca

    2015-04-01

    The international trade of agricultural goods is associated to the displacement of the water used to produce such goods and embedded in trade as a factor of production. Water virtually exchanged from producing to consuming countries, named virtual water, defines flows across an international network of 'virtual water trade' which enable the assessment of environmental forcings and implications of trade, such as global water savings or country dependencies on foreign water resources. Given the recent expansion of commodity (and virtual water) trade, in both displaced volumes and network structure, concerns have been raised about the exposure to crises of individuals and societies. In fact, if one country had to markedly decrease its export following a socio-economical or environmental crisis, such as a war or a drought, many -if not all- countries would be affected due to a cascade effect within the trade network. The present contribution proposes a mechanistic model describing the propagation of a local crisis into the virtual water trade network, accounting for the network structure and the virtual water balance of all countries. The model, built on data-based assumptions, is tested on the real case study of the Argentinean crisis in 2008-09, when the internal agricultural production (measured as virtual water volume) decreased by 26% and the virtual water export of Argentina dropped accordingly. Crisis propagation and effects on the virtual water trade are correctly captured, showing the way forward to investigations of crises impact and country vulnerability based on the results of the model proposed.

  10. Improving communication during volcanic crises on small, vulnerable islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, W. J.; Solana, M. C.; Kilburn, C. R. J.; Sanderson, D.

    2009-05-01

    Increased exposure to volcanic hazard, particularly at vulnerable small islands, is driving an urgent and growing need for improved communication between monitoring scientists, emergency managers and the media, in advance of and during volcanic crises. Information gathering exercises undertaken on volcanic islands (Guadeloupe, St. Vincent and Montserrat) in the Lesser Antilles (eastern Caribbean), which have recently experienced - or are currently experiencing - volcanic action, have provided the basis for the compilation and publication of a handbook on Communication During Volcanic Emergencies, aimed at the principal stakeholder groups. The findings of the on-island surveys point up the critical importance of (1) bringing together monitoring scientists, emergency managers, and representatives of the media, well in advance of a volcanic crisis, and (2), ensuring that procedures and protocols are in place that will allow, as far as possible, effective and seamless cooperation and coordination when and if a crisis situation develops. Communication During Volcanic Emergencies is designed to promote and encourage both of these priorities through providing the first source-book addressing working relationships and inter-linkages between the stakeholder groups, and providing examples of good and bad practice. While targeting the volcanic islands of the eastern Caribbean, the source-book and its content are largely generic, and the advice and guidelines contained therein have equal validity in respect of improving communication before and during crises at any volcano, and have application to the communication issue in respect of a range of other geophysical hazards.

  11. Preventing crises in palliative care in the home. Role of family physicians and nurses.

    PubMed Central

    Howarth, G.; Willison, K. B.

    1995-01-01

    With the current shift to community care, the need for palliative care in the home involving the family physician has increased. Potential causes of crises in the home care of the dying are identified. Strategies to prevent crises are suggested that rely on a team's providing comprehensive and anticipatory care. PMID:7539653

  12. Classroom Killers? Hallway Hostages? How Schools Can Prevent and Manage School Crises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trump, Kenneth S.

    This book attempts to dispel the myths and misconceptions surrounding the lessons learned from national school violence crises and shifting security threat trends. Its objective is to deliver balanced, practical, and cost-effective steps for preventing and managing school crises, including how to recognize "red flag" warnings of potential…

  13. Crises in EFL Proficiency and Teacher Development in the Context of International Donation and Transformation Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birbirso, Dereje Tadesse

    2014-01-01

    Since 2000, Ethiopia has been working to come out of social crises, modernise itself and achieve the Millennium Development Goals. Although provided with billions of dollars by the West and their international agents, little has been changed and the crises seem never to abate, especially in the educational system. This study, thus, critically…

  14. Cinacalcet to prevent parathyrotoxic crises in hypercalcaemic patients awaiting parathyroidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Rostoker, Guy; Bellamy, Jean; Janklewicz, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism is the third most common endocrine disorder. Hypercalcaemia exceeding 3 mmol/l is a major risk factor for parathyrotoxic crises, and management of patients at risk remains a medical challenge. The authors recently managed three such patients referred for severe nephrolithiasis. All had severe hypercalcaemia (at least 3 mmol/l). Instead of the usual management, which involves hospitalisation in an intensive care environment (for about 5–7 days) for rehydration and infusion of intravenous bisphosphonates, followed by emergency parathyroidectomy, the three patients received ambulatory cinacalcet (not an approved indication), 30 mg twice a day. The serum calcium normalised in two cases and declined to a safe level in the third case, allowing minimally invasive parathyroidectomy to be performed at a date chosen according to the patients’ and surgeon’s respective schedules. The authors consider that cinacalcet may benefit severely hypercalcaemic patients awaiting surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism. PMID:22696718

  15. Scenarios for Evolving Seismic Crises: Possible Communication Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steacy, S.

    2015-12-01

    Recent advances in operational earthquake forecasting mean that we are very close to being able to confidently compute changes in earthquake probability as seismic crises develop. For instance, we now have statistical models such as ETAS and STEP which demonstrate considerable skill in forecasting earthquake rates and recent advances in Coulomb based models are also showing much promise. Communicating changes in earthquake probability is likely be very difficult, however, as the absolute probability of a damaging event is likely to remain quite small despite a significant increase in the relative value. Here, we use a hybrid Coulomb/statistical model to compute probability changes for a series of earthquake scenarios in New Zealand. We discuss the strengths and limitations of the forecasts and suggest a number of possible mechanisms that might be used to communicate results in an actual developing seismic crisis.

  16. Otto Stern, the Gdh Sum Rule and Various Spin Crises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drechsel, D.

    2001-02-01

    The history of spin and anomalous magnetic moment is full of puzzles and "crises" from the first observations in the 1920's to the present day. The Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rule connects the anomalous magnetic moment with the helicity dependent cross section for photoproduction, and as such checks the internal consistency of our understanding of the nucleon spin structure. Various generalizations of the sum rule have been proposed for the case of virtual photons, thus interpolating from the real photon point to deep inelastic scattering. A series of recent and newly proposed experiments with beam and target/recoil polarization will study this transition between the coherent spin-dependent response and the incoherent response of the partons in the scaling region.

  17. Investigation on financial crises with the negative-information-propagation-induced model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Feng-Hua; Deng, Yanbin; Huang, Yong-Chang

    2017-03-01

    We first argue about the similarity between the propagation phenomenon of negative information about potential deterioration of economic situation in group of investors and the propagation phenomenon of infectious disease in crowd Applying the negative-information-propagation-induced model built based on above argument, we investigate the relationship between the generation of financial crises and propagation effects of negative information We introduce the discrimination parameter to distinguish whether or not negative information will be propagated extensively in group of investors. We also introduce the target critical value of financial crises. By comparing the theoretically predicted ratio of the long term projected number of total investors to the total number of investors at some time as initial time with target critical value of financial crises, the model can provide real-time monitoring of whether the curve of total number of investors is progressing toward the direction of generating financial crises or running on track of financial markets safety. If at some time this ratio is computed to be less than the target critical value of financial crises, governments can take relevant measures to prevent the generation of financial crises in advance Governments' interference helps to recover the confidence of investors so that they never will again believe in negative information to continue their investment. Results from theoretical and numerical analysis show that the number of investors who hold the belief of potential deterioration of economic situation, and the number of investors who withdraw capital and depart from financial markets for avoiding business loss when governments make appropriate interference are lowered compared to that without appropriate governments' interference. The results show the effectiveness of governments in preventing financial crises from the viewpoint of the negative information-propagation-induced model, namely governments

  18. Identity and intimacy crises and their relationship to internet dependence among college students.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya-Rong

    2006-10-01

    In an attempt to test Kandell's proposition that internet dependents used the internet as a coping mechanism against underlying psychological issues, this study investigated the extent to which the fifth and sixth Eriksonian crises (identity, intimacy), were related to internet dependence (online chatting, gaming) among college students. Students spending more than 10 hours per week on chatting/gaming were classified as dependents. On the basis of a national sample of freshmen in Taiwan, this study found that the dependents scored significantly lower on most of the measures that reflected the successful resolution of the crises, and higher on the measures that reflected unsuccessful resolution of the crises. Kandell's proposition was supported.

  19. Multiple crises and global health: New and necessary frontiers of health politics

    PubMed Central

    Schrecker, Ted

    2012-01-01

    The world economy is entering an era of multiple crises, involving finance, food security and global environmental change. This article assesses the implications for global public health, describes the contours of post-2007 crises in food security and finance, and then briefly indicates the probable health impacts. There follows a discussion of the crisis of climate change, one that will unfold over a longer time frame but with manifestations that may already be upon us. The article then discusses the political economy of responses to these crises, noting the formidable obstacles that exist to equitable resolution. The article concludes by noting the threat that such crises present to recent progress in global health, arguing that global health researchers and practitioners must become more familiar with the relevant social processes, and that proposed solutions that neglect the continuing importance of the nation-state are misdirected. PMID:22657093

  20. Multiple crises and global health: new and necessary frontiers of health politics.

    PubMed

    Schrecker, Ted

    2012-01-01

    The world economy is entering an era of multiple crises, involving finance, food security and global environmental change. This article assesses the implications for global public health, describes the contours of post-2007 crises in food security and finance, and then briefly indicates the probable health impacts. There follows a discussion of the crisis of climate change, one that will unfold over a longer time frame but with manifestations that may already be upon us. The article then discusses the political economy of responses to these crises, noting the formidable obstacles that exist to equitable resolution. The article concludes by noting the threat that such crises present to recent progress in global health, arguing that global health researchers and practitioners must become more familiar with the relevant social processes, and that proposed solutions that neglect the continuing importance of the nation-state are misdirected.

  1. The impact of economic crises on social inequalities in health: what do we know so far?

    PubMed

    Bacigalupe, Amaia; Escolar-Pujolar, Antonio

    2014-07-25

    Since 2008, Western countries are going through a deep economic crisis whose health impacts seem to be fundamentally counter-cyclical: when economic conditions worsen, so does health, and mortality tends to rise. While a growing number of studies have presented evidence on the effect of crises on the average population health, a largely neglected aspect of research is the impact of crises and the related political responses on social inequalities in health, even if the negative consequences of the crises are primarily borne by the most disadvantaged populations. This commentary will reflect on the results of the studies that have analyzed the effect of economic crises on social inequalities in health up to 2013. With some exceptions, the studies show an increase in health inequalities during crises, especially during the Southeast Asian and Japanese crises and the Soviet Union crisis, although it is not always evident for both sexes or all health or socioeconomic variables. In the Nordic countries during the nineties, a clear worsening of health equity did not occur. Results about the impacts of the current economic recession on health equity are still inconsistent. Some of the factors that could explain this variability in results are the role of welfare state policies, the diversity of time periods used in the analyses, the heterogeneity of socioeconomic and health variables considered, the changes in the socioeconomic profile of the groups under comparison in times of crises, and the type of measures used to analyze the magnitude of social inequalities in health. Social epidemiology should further collaborate with other disciplines to help produce more accurate and useful evidence about the relationship between crises and health equity.

  2. ["Snow" and "Walpurgisnacht". Hans Castorp's exemplary maturation crises in "Zauberberg"].

    PubMed

    Heinrich, K; Walter, C

    1995-01-01

    On the occasion of a rather incidental visit in the sanatorium "Berghof" at Davos, Hans Castorp, the--as to his primary personality--asthenic and low-profile protagonist of the "Zauberberg" is gradually getting caught up in the maelstrom of the there prevailing timelessness and irresponsibility, this being interrupted solely by two tapering to crisis episodes: his amouressness to Mme. Chauchat as an erotic crisis and by the visionary daydream during a snowstorm about the abilities of men as a cognitive, mental crisis. Both events are triggered by a pathoid irritability, following the maxim of Th. Mann that illness, decay and death as borderline experiences may be the presupposition for cognition and reversal. Both crises end without consequences--the "Zauberberg" is the negation of the novel of education and development in the narrower sense. The unsuccessfulness and undecidedness of Hans Castorp's existence culminate in the open end of the novel, regarding his surviving on the battle field, and is in strict contrast to Adrian Leverkühn's determined autoinfection with Lues with the aim of artistic perfection and the creative break-through of "Doctor Faustus". Hans Castorp's regression and self-fragmentation within the decadent-morbid atmosphere of the sanatorium lead to his storming into the battles of the First World War as a last and existential crisis; it is here where finally the individual and national fate are merging. Hans Castorp becomes the paradigma of the German pre-war bourgeoisie and its crisis-prone development.

  3. Neonatal cardiomyopathies and metabolic crises due to oxidative phosphorylation defects.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Manuel; Ogier de Baulny, Hélène; Lombès, Anne

    2011-08-01

    Neonatal cardiomyopathies due to mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) defects are extremely severe conditions which can be either isolated or included in a multi-organ disease, with or without metabolic crises, of which profound lactic acidosis is the prominent feature. Cardiomyopathy is more often hypertrophic than dilated. Antenatal manifestations such as fetal cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia and/or hydrops have been reported. Pathophysiological mechanisms are complex, going beyond ATP deficiency of the high-energy-consuming neonatal myocardium. Birth is a key metabolic period when the myocardium switches ATP production from anaerobic glycolysis to mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and OXPHOS. Heart-specificity of the defect may be related to the specific localization of the defect, to the high myocardium dependency on OXPHOS, and/or to interaction between the primary genetic alteration and other factors such as modifier genes. Therapeutic options are limited but standardized diagnostic procedures are mandatory to confirm the OXPHOS defect and to identify its causal mutation, allowing genetic counseling and potential prenatal diagnosis.

  4. Preventing food crises using a food policy approach.

    PubMed

    Timmer, C Peter

    2010-01-01

    A food crisis occurs when rates of hunger and malnutrition rise sharply at local, national, or global levels. This definition distinguishes a food crisis from chronic hunger, although food crises are far more likely among populations already suffering from prolonged hunger and malnutrition. A food crisis is usually set off by a shock to either supply or demand for food and often involves a sudden spike in food prices. It is important to remember that in a market economy, food prices measure the scarcity of food, not its value in any nutritional sense. Except in rare circumstances, the straightforward way to prevent a food crisis is to have rapidly rising labor productivity through economic growth and keep food prices stable while maintaining access by the poor. The formula is easier to state than to implement, especially on a global scale, but it is good to have both the objective, reducing short-run spikes in hunger, and the deep mechanisms, pro-poor economic growth and stable food prices, clearly in mind. A coherent food policy seeks to use these mechanisms, and others, to achieve a sustained reduction in chronic hunger over the long run while preventing spikes in hunger in the short run.

  5. Communications Contingency Plan: Planning for Crises and Controversy. Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treise, Deborah; Bernstein, Arla G.; Yates, Brad

    1998-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with a variety of Marshall Space Flight Center personnel and local media representatives in Huntsville, Alabama, in order to identify the current perceptions of these individuals regarding communication effectiveness between MSFC and the media. The purposes of the Phase One report are to (1) assess the need for a contingency plan for communicating in situations of crisis and controversy; (2) identify goals and objectives for the planning process; and (3) provide recommendations for future planning activities to achieve the goals and objectives outlined in Phase One. It is strongly recommended that MSFC personnel who are involved in communications with the media participate in a facilitated, strategic communications planning process in order to develop Phase Two of the Communications Contingency Plan (CCP). Phase Two will address (1) the categorizing, ranking and prioritizing of crises and controversies; (2) the development of action steps and implementation strategies for the CCP; and (3) the development of a monitoring and evaluation process for ongoing plan effectiveness.

  6. Impact of the topology of global macroeconomic network on the spreading of economic crises.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyu-Min; Yang, Jae-Suk; Kim, Gunn; Lee, Jaesung; Goh, Kwang-Il; Kim, In-mook

    2011-03-31

    Throughout economic history, the global economy has experienced recurring crises. The persistent recurrence of such economic crises calls for an understanding of their generic features rather than treating them as singular events. The global economic system is a highly complex system and can best be viewed in terms of a network of interacting macroeconomic agents. In this regard, from the perspective of collective network dynamics, here we explore how the topology of the global macroeconomic network affects the patterns of spreading of economic crises. Using a simple toy model of crisis spreading, we demonstrate that an individual country's role in crisis spreading is not only dependent on its gross macroeconomic capacities, but also on its local and global connectivity profile in the context of the world economic network. We find that on one hand clustering of weak links at the regional scale can significantly aggravate the spread of crises, but on the other hand the current network structure at the global scale harbors higher tolerance of extreme crises compared to more "globalized" random networks. These results suggest that there can be a potential hidden cost in the ongoing globalization movement towards establishing less-constrained, trans-regional economic links between countries, by increasing vulnerability of the global economic system to extreme crises.

  7. Science during crisis: the application of social science during major environmental crises

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Machlis, Gary; Ludwig, Kris; Manfredo, Michael J.; Vaske, Jerry J.; Rechkemmer, Andreas; Duke, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Historical and contemporary experience suggests that science plays an increasingly critical role in governmental and institutional responses to major environmental crises. Recent examples include major western wildfires (2009), the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (2010), the Fukushima nuclear accident (2011), and Hurricane Sandy (2012). The application of science during such crises has several distinctive characteristics, as well as essential requirements if it is to be useful to decision makers. these include scope conditions that include coupled natural/human systems, clear statement of uncertainties and limitations, description of cascading consequences, accurate sense of place, estimates of magnitude of impacts, identification of beneficiaries and those adversely affected, clarity and conciseness, compelling visualization and presentation, capacity to speak "truth to power", and direct access to decision makers. In this chapter, we explore the role and significance of science – including all relevant disciplines and focusing attention on the social sciences – in responding to major environmental crises. We explore several important questions: How is science during crisis distinctive? What social science is most useful during crises? What distinctive characteristics are necessary for social science to make meaningful contributions to emergency response and recovery? How might the social sciences be integrated into the strategic science needed to respond to future crises? The authors, both members of the Department of the Interior's innovative Strategic Sciences Group, describe broad principles of engagement as well as specific examples drawn from history, contemporary efforts (such as during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill), and predictions of environmental crises still to be confronted.

  8. Impact of the Topology of Global Macroeconomic Network on the Spreading of Economic Crises

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyu-Min; Yang, Jae-Suk; Kim, Gunn; Lee, Jaesung; Goh, Kwang-Il; Kim, In-mook

    2011-01-01

    Throughout economic history, the global economy has experienced recurring crises. The persistent recurrence of such economic crises calls for an understanding of their generic features rather than treating them as singular events. The global economic system is a highly complex system and can best be viewed in terms of a network of interacting macroeconomic agents. In this regard, from the perspective of collective network dynamics, here we explore how the topology of the global macroeconomic network affects the patterns of spreading of economic crises. Using a simple toy model of crisis spreading, we demonstrate that an individual country's role in crisis spreading is not only dependent on its gross macroeconomic capacities, but also on its local and global connectivity profile in the context of the world economic network. We find that on one hand clustering of weak links at the regional scale can significantly aggravate the spread of crises, but on the other hand the current network structure at the global scale harbors higher tolerance of extreme crises compared to more “globalized” random networks. These results suggest that there can be a potential hidden cost in the ongoing globalization movement towards establishing less-constrained, trans-regional economic links between countries, by increasing vulnerability of the global economic system to extreme crises. PMID:21483794

  9. Energy crises and cooperation: Do international institutions matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakarova, Vessela P.

    The risk of an oil supply disruption still exists. Oil reserves are increasingly concentrated in a handful of unreliable regimes, plagued by piracy and terrorism. Natural disasters and chokepoint incidents have increased in frequency. In addition, oil is expected to remain a significant part of the energy mix up until 2030. By that time Europe will be importing 90% of its oil. Thus, oil supply security will become an increasingly important feature of European politics. One way to counter the noxious consequences of an oil disruption is to cooperate. International cooperation is a critical factor in any type of crisis, however, it is especially important when it comes to a finite, highly concentrated and critical commodity like oil. The lack of coordination might lead to scrambling and oil hoarding, which dramatically exacerbate the crisis. Yet cooperation in the oil issue-area has been the subject of only a few studies, none of which provides a systematic and comprehensive analysis. They are also limited in their scope and findings. This dissertation aims to partially fill this lacuna. It employs a structured focused comparison to study European consumer countries' cooperation in times of oil supply shortages. There have been fifteen such crises since the Second World War, three of which with dramatic consequences for the world economy. The analysis evaluates European cooperative efforts in seven of these cases, starting with the Abadan crisis in 1951. The cases are selected on the basis of their magnitude and economic impact. In particular, I look at intergovernmental negotiations within existing international bodies prior to, during and immediately after the crisis. The findings suggest that institutions are more likely to facilitate interstate cooperation in the presence of a strong leader (a hegemon) - a role, which in the case of the oil issue-area was assumed by the US until the early 1970s.

  10. Abdominal injuries in communal crises: The Jos experience

    PubMed Central

    Ojo, Emmanuel Olorundare; Ozoilo, Kenneth N.; Sule, Augustine Z.; Ugwu, Benjamin T.; Misauno, Michael A.; Ismaila, Bashiru O.; Peter, Solomon D.; Adejumo, Adeyinka A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Abdominal injuries contribute significantly to battlefield trauma morbidity and mortality. This study sought to determine the incidence, demographics, clinical features, spectrum, severity, management, and outcome of abdominal trauma during a civilian conflict. Materials and Methods: A prospective analysis of patients treated for abdominal trauma during the Jos civil crises between December 2010 and May 2012 at the Jos University Teaching Hospital. Results: A total of 109 victims of communal conflicts with abdominal injuries were managed during the study period with 89 (81.7%) males and 20 (18.3%) females representing about 12.2% of the total 897 combat related injuries. The peak age incidence was between 21 and 40 years (range: 3–71 years). The most frequently injured intra-abdominal organs were the small intestine 69 (63.3%), colon 48 (44%), and liver 41 (37.6%). Forty-four (40.4%) patients had extra-abdominal injuries involving the chest in 17 (15.6%), musculoskeletal 12 (11%), and the head in 9 (8.3%). The most prevalent weapon injuries were gunshot 76 (69.7%), explosives 12 (11%), stab injuries 11 (10.1%), and blunt abdominal trauma 10 (9.2%). The injury severity score varied from 8 to 52 (mean: 20.8) with a fatality rate of 11 (10.1%) and morbidity rate of 29 (26.6%). Presence of irreversible shock, 3 or more injured intra-abdominal organs, severe head injuries, and delayed presentation were the main factors associated with mortality. Conclusion: Abdominal trauma is major life-threatening injuries during conflicts. Substantial mortality occurred with loss of nearly one in every 10 hospitalized victims despite aggressive emergency room resuscitation. The resources expenditure, propensity for death and expediency of timing reinforce the need for early access to the wounded in a concerted trauma care systems. PMID:26957819

  11. Crucial crises in biology: life in the deep biosphere.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, R

    1998-12-01

    The origin and evolution of life on Earth are the result of a series of crises that have taken place on the planet over about 4500 millions of years since it originated. Biopoiesis (origin of life), ecopoiesis (origin of ecosystems) and the first ecosystems (stromatolites and microbial mats), as well as eukaryopoiesis (origin of nucleated cells) are revised. The paper then focuses on the study of the deep biosphere, describing ecosystems never found before, which are independent of solar radiation and have changed previous assumptions about the requirements of life; even the concept of biosphere, as Vernadsky defined it, has increased its scope. Since the discovery, in 1987, of bacteria growing in the crevices of rocks at 500 m deep, in boreholes drilled near the Savanna River, Aiken, South Carolina, other bacteria have been found in the deep subsurface reaching depths of about 3 km (e.g., in the Columbia River Basalt Group, near Richland, Washington state), in an anaerobic, hot, high-pressure environment. Some kinds of microorganisms can thrive at such depths, living in many cases a geochemical existence, by using very specialized metabolisms, which depend on the local environments. The existence of organisms independent from photosynthetic production is the most outstanding, novel feature of the deep biosphere. Living beings might not need other energy and chemical sources than those which occur in the development of all planetary bodies. Life, therefore, could even be an ineluctable outcome of planetary evolution and, as a corollary, a natural continuation of the usual development of physical phenomena in the universe.

  12. Types of anaemic crises in paediatric patients with sickle cell anaemia seen in Enugu, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Juwah, A; Nlemadim, E; Kaine, W

    2004-01-01

    Background: Anaemic crises in paediatric patients with sickle cell anaemia are major causes of morbidity and mortality. Some children admitted to hospitals' emergency rooms or paediatric wards of the hospitals with severe anaemia die before blood transfusion. Aims and Methods: A total of 108 episodes of anaemic crises were prospectively evaluated in 108 patients with sickle cell anaemia attending the paediatric sickle cell clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria. Results: Hyper-haemolytic crises were the commonest types of anaemic crises in the patients studied. The mean haemoglobin concentration of 44.66 (SD 6.42) g/l in crises was significantly lower than the mean steady state level of 78.69 (SD 8.50) g/l. Reticulocytes, unconjugated serum bilirubin concentrations, and the presence of nucleated red blood cells were also increased. About 4.6% of patients were not jaundiced at presentation even though they were profoundly anaemic. Their haematological indices gradually returned to normal without marked changes in their serum bilirubin concentrations. These patients were probably in the early recovery phase of aplastic crises. The classical presentation of acute splenic sequestration crisis with a rapidly enlarging spleen and hypotension was not observed. This was probably because of its precipitate nature and accompanying circulatory collapse, which carried a high mortality rate. Minor forms of sequestration crises may have occurred in the liver and spleen. Conclusions: Malaria appeared to have played a role in precipitating some of the hyper-haemolytic episodes. Further studies to elucidate this role are required so that appropriate recommendations regarding malaria prophylaxis can be made in patients with sickle cell anaemia. PMID:15155406

  13. Global effects of local food-production crises: a virtual water perspective

    PubMed Central

    Tamea, Stefania; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    By importing food and agricultural goods, countries cope with the heterogeneous global water distribution and often rely on water resources available abroad. The virtual displacement of the water used to produce such goods (known as virtual water) connects together, in a global water system, all countries participating to the international trade network. Local food-production crises, having social, economic or environmental origin, propagate in this network, modifying the virtual water trade and perturbing local and global food availability, quantified in terms of virtual water. We analyze here the possible effects of local crises by developing a new propagation model, parsimonious but grounded on data-based and statistically-verified assumptions, whose effectiveness is proved on the Argentinean crisis in 2008–09. The model serves as the basis to propose indicators of crisis impact and country vulnerability to external food-production crises, which highlight that countries with largest water resources have the highest impact on the international trade, and that not only water-scarce but also wealthy and globalized countries are among the most vulnerable to external crises. The temporal analysis reveals that global average vulnerability has increased over time and that stronger effects of crises are now found in countries with low food (and water) availability. PMID:26804492

  14. Crises Management in the Oil and Gas Industry: The Niger Delta Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odemene, Glory C.

    The Niger Delta crises escalated beyond the borders of the Nigerian nation to become an issue that affected individuals and corporations around the world. This study led to the discovery of how the local crises escalated with international implications. This discovery was accomplished by addressing how the Niger Delta crises escalated from villages to international scenes, with notable impacts on the environment, health, safety, security, and financial segments of local, international, private, and corporate entities. Using Sweeny's crisis decision theory and Lazarus and Folkman's coping theory, the study considered the coping strategies of community members, the decisions, and actions they took in response to the management approaches of the government and the oil and gas companies (OGCs). This qualitative study utilized historical narrative to collect data by interviewing 4 participants who lived and worked in the region during the crises. NVivo was used for manual and automatic coding of data, as well as for categorization and connection of codes. Content analysis of identified codes and categories revealed the themes and trends in the experiences narrated by participants. Findings include the root causes, trend of escalation, and management strategies of the government and the OGCs that influenced the crises. These findings will help to influence policies and practices in the region and enhance effective management of current and emerging conflicts, with possibilities of restoring stability and security in the areas and in the nation at large.

  15. Global effects of local food-production crises: a virtual water perspective.

    PubMed

    Tamea, Stefania; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca

    2016-01-25

    By importing food and agricultural goods, countries cope with the heterogeneous global water distribution and often rely on water resources available abroad. The virtual displacement of the water used to produce such goods (known as virtual water) connects together, in a global water system, all countries participating to the international trade network. Local food-production crises, having social, economic or environmental origin, propagate in this network, modifying the virtual water trade and perturbing local and global food availability, quantified in terms of virtual water. We analyze here the possible effects of local crises by developing a new propagation model, parsimonious but grounded on data-based and statistically-verified assumptions, whose effectiveness is proved on the Argentinean crisis in 2008-09. The model serves as the basis to propose indicators of crisis impact and country vulnerability to external food-production crises, which highlight that countries with largest water resources have the highest impact on the international trade, and that not only water-scarce but also wealthy and globalized countries are among the most vulnerable to external crises. The temporal analysis reveals that global average vulnerability has increased over time and that stronger effects of crises are now found in countries with low food (and water) availability.

  16. Global effects of local food-production crises: a virtual water perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamea, Stefania; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    By importing food and agricultural goods, countries cope with the heterogeneous global water distribution and often rely on water resources available abroad. The virtual displacement of the water used to produce such goods (known as virtual water) connects together, in a global water system, all countries participating to the international trade network. Local food-production crises, having social, economic or environmental origin, propagate in this network, modifying the virtual water trade and perturbing local and global food availability, quantified in terms of virtual water. We analyze here the possible effects of local crises by developing a new propagation model, parsimonious but grounded on data-based and statistically-verified assumptions, whose effectiveness is proved on the Argentinean crisis in 2008–09. The model serves as the basis to propose indicators of crisis impact and country vulnerability to external food-production crises, which highlight that countries with largest water resources have the highest impact on the international trade, and that not only water-scarce but also wealthy and globalized countries are among the most vulnerable to external crises. The temporal analysis reveals that global average vulnerability has increased over time and that stronger effects of crises are now found in countries with low food (and water) availability.

  17. Government management of two media-facilitated crises involving dioxin contamination of food.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Casey J; Lok, Corie; Morley, Katija; Powell, Douglas A

    2011-03-01

    Incidents become crises through a constant and intense public scrutiny facilitated by the media. Two incidents involving dioxin contamination of food led to crises in Belgium and the Republic of Ireland in 1999 and 2008, respectively. Thought to cause cancer in humans, dioxins reached the food supply in both incidents through the contamination of fat used for animal feed. The food and agricultural industries connected to each incident relied on crisis management activities of federal governments to limit adverse public reaction. Analysis of the management of the two crises by their respective federal governments, and a subsequent review of crisis management literature, led to the development of an effective crisis management model. Such a model, appropriately employed, may insulate industries associated with a crisis against damaged reputations and financial loss.

  18. How do economic crises affect migrants’ risk of infectious disease? A systematic-narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Karanikolos, Marina; Williams, Gemma; Mladovsky, Philipa; King, Lawrence; Pharris, Anastasia; Suk, Jonathan E.; Hatzakis, Angelos; McKee, Martin; Noori, Teymur; Stuckler, David

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is not well understood how economic crises affect infectious disease incidence and prevalence, particularly among vulnerable groups. Using a susceptible-infected-recovered framework, we systematically reviewed literature on the impact of the economic crises on infectious disease risks in migrants in Europe, focusing principally on HIV, TB, hepatitis and other STIs. Methods: We conducted two searches in PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, websites of key organizations and grey literature to identify how economic changes affect migrant populations and infectious disease. We perform a narrative synthesis in order to map critical pathways and identify hypotheses for subsequent research. Results: The systematic review on links between economic crises and migrant health identified 653 studies through database searching; only seven met the inclusion criteria. Fourteen items were identified through further searches. The systematic review on links between economic crises and infectious disease identified 480 studies through database searching; 19 met the inclusion criteria. Eight items were identified through further searches. The reviews show that migrant populations in Europe appear disproportionately at risk of specific infectious diseases, and that economic crises and subsequent responses have tended to exacerbate such risks. Recessions lead to unemployment, impoverishment and other risk factors that can be linked to the transmissibility of disease among migrants. Austerity measures that lead to cuts in prevention and treatment programmes further exacerbate infectious disease risks among migrants. Non-governmental health service providers occasionally stepped in to cater to specific populations that include migrants. Conclusions: There is evidence that migrants are especially vulnerable to infectious disease during economic crises. Ring-fenced funding of prevention programs, including screening and treatment, is important for

  19. The Impact of Prolonged Economic Downturns and Economic Crises on the Nursing Profession.

    PubMed

    Phua, Kai-Lit; Hue, Jia-Wern

    2015-01-01

    Prolonged economic downturns and economic crises are affecting nations around the world, including developed countries such as Portugal, Spain, and Greece. In the United States, recovery from the latest economic crisis has been accompanied by a persistently high rate of unemployment. To a large extent, the impacts on the nursing profession may depend on the severity of economic downturns and their duration in the country of employment of nurses. Nurses in certain areas of patient care (such as mental health) may also be more strongly affected because of the impact of economic crises and high unemployment on morbidity patterns. Emigration of nurses may also increase as a result of prolonged economic crisis.

  20. Crizanlizumab for the Prevention of Pain Crises in Sickle Cell Disease.

    PubMed

    Ataga, Kenneth I; Kutlar, Abdullah; Kanter, Julie; Liles, Darla; Cancado, Rodolfo; Friedrisch, João; Guthrie, Troy H; Knight-Madden, Jennifer; Alvarez, Ofelia A; Gordeuk, Victor R; Gualandro, Sandra; Colella, Marina P; Smith, Wally R; Rollins, Scott A; Stocker, Jonathan W; Rother, Russell P

    2017-02-02

    Background The up-regulation of P-selectin in endothelial cells and platelets contributes to the cell-cell interactions that are involved in the pathogenesis of vaso-occlusion and sickle cell-related pain crises. The safety and efficacy of crizanlizumab, an antibody against the adhesion molecule P-selectin, were evaluated in patients with sickle cell disease. Methods In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial, we assigned patients to receive low-dose crizanlizumab (2.5 mg per kilogram of body weight), high-dose crizanlizumab (5.0 mg per kilogram), or placebo, administered intravenously 14 times over a period of 52 weeks. Patients who were receiving concomitant hydroxyurea as well as those not receiving hydroxyurea were included in the study. The primary end point was the annual rate of sickle cell-related pain crises with high-dose crizanlizumab versus placebo. The annual rate of days hospitalized, the times to first and second crises, annual rates of uncomplicated crises (defined as crises other than the acute chest syndrome, hepatic sequestration, splenic sequestration, or priapism) and the acute chest syndrome, and patient-reported outcomes were also assessed. Results A total of 198 patients underwent randomization at 60 sites. The median rate of crises per year was 1.63 with high-dose crizanlizumab versus 2.98 with placebo (indicating a 45.3% lower rate with high-dose crizanlizumab, P=0.01). The median time to the first crisis was significantly longer with high-dose crizanlizumab than with placebo (4.07 vs. 1.38 months, P=0.001), as was the median time to the second crisis (10.32 vs. 5.09 months, P=0.02). The median rate of uncomplicated crises per year was 1.08 with high-dose crizanlizumab, as compared with 2.91 with placebo (indicating a 62.9% lower rate with high-dose crizanlizumab, P=0.02). Adverse events that occurred in 10% or more of the patients in either active-treatment group and at a frequency that was at least twice as high

  1. Seven Destructive Seismic Crises in 12th Century Syria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidoboni, E.; Bernardini, F.

    2002-12-01

    Between 1114 and 1170 Syria was struck by 7 seismic crises: 5 were great earthquakes (August and November 1114, November 1115, June 1117, June 1170), amongst which that of 29th June 1170 represents one of the most destructive events of the Middle-Eastern and Mediterranean area. Instead 2 were long and violent tremor sequences without a real main shock: the first one went on from October 1138 to June 1139, the second from September 1156 to May 1159. Until now all of these seismic events had been known mostly through Arab sources. However, owing to the particular political and military situation in the Syria of that period, such sources could not provide a complete frame of reference. Indeed, in those years in the territories of Syria and present-day Lebanon, some Latin States had been formed due to the military invasion of the Frankish Crusades. Furthermore, Syria was a privileged territory of travellers from various countries heading towards Palestine. Hence, basing ourselves on complex and diversified types of sources, precious new data have emerged written in Latin, Frankish, Greek, Armenian and Syrian. At the same time, the contribution of the Arab sources has been broadened. The overall picture that has emerged offers a new observational basis that has allowed us to date, differentiate, localise and thoroughly evaluate the elements of at least 5 of these earthquakes (the best documented ones: November 1114, 1115, 1138-39, 1156-59 and 1170). Overall nearly 90 hit locations have been identified, about 30 of which new and unknown to the previous studies. It has thus been possible for the first time to shed light on the intense seismic activity that affected this region in the dark ages. In just less than 60 years all of the vast territory that includes present-day Lebanon, north-eastern Syria and south-eastern Turkey was repeatedly struck. The earthquakes of 13th November 1114 and 29th November 1115 (until today often muddled up), and the sequence in 1138-39 hit

  2. Crises and Opportunities: The Futures of Scholarly Publishing. ACLS Occasional Paper, No. 57

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alonso, Carlos J.; Davidson, Cathy N.; Unsworth, John M.; Withey, Lynne

    2003-01-01

    Presented herein are papers presented at a session entitled "Crises and Opportunities: The Future of Scholarly Publishing," from the American Council of Learned Societies (ACLS) Annual Meeting, May 10, 2003. Four speakers approached this topic from different standpoints: as leaders of learned societies, as senior university officials, from the…

  3. Lessons Learned from School Crises and Emergencies, Vol. 1, Issue 2, Fall 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Lessons Learned" is a series of publications that are a brief recounting of actual school emergencies and crises. School and student names have been changed to protect identities. Information for this publication was gathered through a series of interviews with school stakeholders involved in the actual incident. This "Lessons Learned" issue…

  4. Bibliography of Selected Literature in the 1970s Related to Crises, Family Stress, Coping and Adaptation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesser, Barbara

    This bibliography of literature from the 1970s related to crises, family stress, coping, and adaptation contains references of particular interest to professionals in the areas of counseling, education, and family social, psychological and health services. The bibliography is divided into 26 categories; references are classified according to major…

  5. THE "FREE SPEECH" CRISES AT BERKELEY, 1964-1965--SOME ISSUES FOR SOCIAL AND LEGAL RESEARCH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LUNSFORD, TERRY F.

    AN EXAMINATION WAS MADE OF THE ISSUES AND EVENTS OF THE "FREE SPEECH" CRISES ON THE BERKELEY CAMPUS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA IN AN ATTEMPT TO PROVIDE THE BASIS FOR MORE SYSTEMATIC AND DISPASSIONATE STUDY OF CERTAIN ISSUES BEHIND THE STUDENT PROTESTS, AND TO STIMULATE SOCIAL AND LEGAL RESEARCH ON THESE ISSUES. FOLLOWING AN…

  6. Identity Crises in Love and at Work: Dispositional Optimism as a Durable Personal Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    Using the 2004 General Social Survey (N = 453), the identity stress process is investigated in terms of crises in intimate relationships and at the workplace. I discuss dispositional optimism as a psychological resource that is relatively independent of the situation and the self, making it ideal for structurally disadvantaged actors and for…

  7. Risks and Crises for Healthcare Providers: The Impact of Cloud Computing

    PubMed Central

    Glasberg, Ronald; Hartmann, Michael; Tamm, Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    We analyze risks and crises for healthcare providers and discuss the impact of cloud computing in such scenarios. The analysis is conducted in a holistic way, taking into account organizational and human aspects, clinical, IT-related, and utilities-related risks as well as incorporating the view of the overall risk management. PMID:24707207

  8. The Nigerian State and Global Economic Crises: Socio-Political Implications and Policy Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olaopa, O. R.; Ogundari, I. O.; Akindele, S. T.; Hassan, O. M.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses how economic reforms, as a reaction to the effects of the global financial crises, have intensified popular unrests and redefined the composition, interests, and socio-economic and political attitudes of Nigeria's increasingly complex social strata. We relied basically on secondary data to analyze some of the fundamental…

  9. Reacting to Crises: The Risk-Averse Nature of Contemporary American Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several decades, numerous arguments have been made advancing the notion that the failings of the public education system in the United States have placed the nation's national security or economic prosperity at risk. This article will examine some of these "crises" and explore how arguments claiming that the shortcomings of…

  10. Past Adolescence, into and across Adulthood: Career Crises and Major Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakshi, Anuradha J.

    2011-01-01

    Career-related crises and major decisions, support for these, and job satisfaction were surveyed in 124 varied individuals from Mumbai, India. All participants were in the post-career-entry stage and engaged in paid work; they differed with regard to age (range 18-75 years), sex, marital status, religion, education, occupation, income, and…

  11. Give Us This Day Our Daily Bread: Manufacturing Crises in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cizek, Gregory J.

    1999-01-01

    The model currently guiding educational policy development--constructing crises and crafting solutions--has a long, unproductive history. To shrug off American education's perpetual crisis mode, educators should expand their descriptive vocabularies, apply the "so what" test, adopt demonstrably effective solutions, eschew a crisis…

  12. Random Acts of Senseless Video: An Organizational Psychology Perspective on the "Identity Crises" of Corporate Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutenko, Gregory

    Corporate television suffers from at least two "identity crises": departmental isolation, and the lack of a legitimate identity for the corporate video product itself. Video departments are not usually viewed and accepted by the organizational whole as natural evolutions of a historically defined and behaviorally integrated system. The…

  13. Prevention of Targeted School Violence by Responding to Students' Psychosocial Crises: The NETWASS Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuschner, Vincenz; Fiedler, Nora; Schultze, Martin; Ahlig, Nadine; Göbel, Kristin; Sommer, Friederike; Scholl, Johanna; Cornell, Dewey; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    The standardized, indicated school-based prevention program "Networks Against School Shootings" combines a threat assessment approach with a general model of prevention of emergency situations in schools through early intervention in student psychosocial crises and training teachers to recognize warning signs of targeted school violence.…

  14. Variations of Young Germans' Informal Conceptions of Financial and Economic Crises Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aprea, Carmela; Sappa, Viviana

    2014-01-01

    The development of a sound understanding of financial and economic crises phenomena must be considered an important goal within the scope of citizenship, economic and social science education. As with every other educational endeavour, this intention requires solid information about what informal conceptions learners hold about this specific…

  15. Comparing emerging and mature markets during times of crises: A non-extensive statistical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namaki, A.; Koohi Lai, Z.; Jafari, G. R.; Raei, R.; Tehrani, R.

    2013-07-01

    One of the important issues in finance and economics for both scholars and practitioners is to describe the behavior of markets, especially during times of crises. In this paper, we analyze the behavior of some mature and emerging markets with a Tsallis entropy framework that is a non-extensive statistical approach based on non-linear dynamics. During the past decade, this technique has been successfully applied to a considerable number of complex systems such as stock markets in order to describe the non-Gaussian behavior of these systems. In this approach, there is a parameter q, which is a measure of deviation from Gaussianity, that has proved to be a good index for detecting crises. We investigate the behavior of this parameter in different time scales for the market indices. It could be seen that the specified pattern for q differs for mature markets with regard to emerging markets. The findings show the robustness of the stated approach in order to follow the market conditions over time. It is obvious that, in times of crises, q is much greater than in other times. In addition, the response of emerging markets to global events is delayed compared to that of mature markets, and tends to a Gaussian profile on increasing the scale. This approach could be very useful in application to risk and portfolio management in order to detect crises by following the parameter q in different time scales.

  16. Marketing Crises in Tourism: Communication Strategies in the United States and Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Herrero, Alfonso; Pratt, Cornelius B.

    1998-01-01

    Compares crisis-response strategies of marketing-communication professionals in tourism organizations (TOs) in the United States and Spain. Reports the extent to which they use proven crisis-management strategies. Indicates significant differences between the countries' TOs in both their extant plans for responding to marketing crises and in their…

  17. Nine Going on Seventeen: Boundary Crises in the Cultural Map of Childhood/Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Claudia; Reid-Walsh, Jacqueline

    Boundary crises for girls moving into adolescence were studied by analyzing "Seventeen" magazine to contribute to the discourse around redefining childhood. The border between childhood and adolescence appears to be moving downward, and as the boundary goes down, the moral panic in society often goes up. To analyze "Seventeen,"…

  18. Reclaiming Paedeia in an Age of Crises: Education and the Necessity of Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozolinš, Janis Talivaldis

    2015-01-01

    Education needs to prepare students to have understanding of themselves, of their relationships to others, to have an ability to make good moral and other judgements and to act on these. If education has a role to play in the alleviation of the crises facing the world, then there is some urgency in reflecting on what kind of education is needed in…

  19. Vulnerability of countries to food-production crises propagating in the virtual water trade network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamea, S.; Laio, F.; Ridolfi, L.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, the international trade of food and agricultural commodities has undergone a marked increase of exchanged volumes and an expansion of the trade network. This globalization of trade has both positive and negative effects, but the interconnectedness and external dependency of countries generate complex dynamics which are often difficult to understand and model. In this study we consider the volume of water used for the production of agricultural commodities, virtually exchanged among countries through commodity trade, i.e. the virtual water trade. Then, we set up a parsimonious mechanistic model describing the propagation, into the global trade network, of food-production crises generated locally by a social, economic or environmental event (such as war, economic crisis, drought, pest). The model, accounting for the network structure and the virtual water balance of all countries, bases on rules derived from observed virtual water flows and on data-based and statistically verified assumption. It is also tested on real case studies that prove its capability to capture the main features of crises propagation. The model is then employed as the basis for the development of an index of country vulnerability, measuring the exposure of countries to crises propagating in the virtual water trade network. Results of the analysis are discussed within the context of socio-economic and environmental conditions of countries, showing that not only water-scarce, but also wealthy and globalized countries, are among the most vulnerable to external crises. The temporal analysis for the period 1986-2011 reveals that the global average vulnerability has strongly increased over time, confirming the increased exposure of countries to external crises which may occur in the virtual water trade network.

  20. Re-evaluation of bone pain in patients with type 1 Gaucher disease suggests that bone crises occur in small bones as well as long bones.

    PubMed

    Baris, Hagit N; Weisz Hubshman, Monika; Bar-Sever, Zvi; Kornreich, Liora; Shkalim Zemer, Vered; Cohen, Ian J

    2016-09-01

    Bone crises in type 1 Gaucher disease are reported in long bones and occasionally in weight bearing bones and other bones, but rarely in small bones of the hands and feet. We retrospectively examined the incidence of bone pain in patients followed at the Rabin Medical Center, Israel, before and following the initiation of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and evaluated them for bone crises. Of 100 type I Gaucher disease patients, 30 (30%) experienced one or more bone crises. Small bone crises represented 31.5% of all bone crises and were always preceded by crises in other bones. While the incidence of long bone crises reduced after the initiation of ERT, small bone crises increased. Almost 60% of patients with bone crises were of the N370S/84GG genotype suggesting a greater susceptibility of N370S/84GG patients to severe bone complications. These patients also underwent the greatest number of splenectomies (70.6% of splenectomised patients). Splenectomised patients showed a trend towards increased long and small bone crises after surgery. Active investigation of acute pain in the hands and feet in patients in our cohort has revealed a high incidence of small bone crises. Physicians should consider imaging studies to investigate unexplained pain in these areas.

  1. Currency crises and the evolution of foreign exchange market: Evidence from minimum spanning tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Wooseok; Lee, Junghoon; Chang, Woojin

    2011-02-01

    We examined the time series properties of the foreign exchange market for 1990-2008 in relation to the history of the currency crises using the minimum spanning tree (MST) approach and made several meaningful observations about the MST of currencies. First, around currency crises, the mean correlation coefficient between currencies decreased whereas the normalized tree length increased. The mean correlation coefficient dropped dramatically passing through the Asian crisis and remained at the lowered level after that. Second, the Euro and the US dollar showed a strong negative correlation after 1997, implying that the prices of the two currencies moved in opposite directions. Third, we observed that Asian countries and Latin American countries moved away from the cluster center (USA) passing through the Asian crisis and Argentine crisis, respectively.

  2. Subsequent biotic crises delayed marine recovery following the late Permian mass extinction event in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Foster, William J; Danise, Silvia; Price, Gregory D; Twitchett, Richard J

    2017-01-01

    The late Permian mass extinction event was the largest biotic crisis of the Phanerozoic and has the longest recovery interval of any extinction event. It has been hypothesised that subsequent carbon isotope perturbations during the Early Triassic are associated with biotic crises that impeded benthic recovery. We test this hypothesis by undertaking the highest-resolution study yet made of the rock and fossil records of the entire Werfen Formation, Italy. Here, we show that elevated extinction rates were recorded not only in the Dienerian, as previously recognised, but also around the Smithian/Spathian boundary. Functional richness increases across the Smithian/Spathian boundary associated with elevated origination rates in the lower Spathian. The taxonomic and functional composition of benthic faunas only recorded two significant changes: (1) reduced heterogeneity in the Dienerian, and (2) and a faunal turnover across the Smithian/Spathian boundary. The elevated extinctions and compositional shifts in the Dienerian and across the Smithian/Spathian boundary are associated with a negative and positive isotope excursion, respectively, which supports the hypothesis that subsequent biotic crises are associated with carbon isotope shifts. The Spathian fauna represents a more advanced ecological state, not recognised in the previous members of the Werfen Formation, with increased habitat differentiation, a shift in the dominant modes of life, appearance of stenohaline taxa and the occupation of the erect and infaunal tiers. In addition to subsequent biotic crises delaying the recovery, therefore, persistent environmental stress limited the ecological complexity of benthic recovery prior to the Spathian.

  3. Markets during world oil supply crises: an analysis of industry, consumer, and governmental response

    SciTech Connect

    Erfle, Stephen; Pound, John; Kalt, Joseph

    1981-04-01

    An analysis of the response of American markets to supply crises in world oil markets is presented. It addresses four main issues: the efficiency of the operation of American oil markets during oil supply crises; the problems of both economic efficiency and social equity which arise during the American adaptation process; the propriety of the Federal government's past policy responses to these problems; and the relationship between perceptions of the problems caused by world oil crises and the real economic natures of these problems. Specifically, Chapter 1 presents a theoretical discussion of the effects of a world supply disruption on the price level and supply availability of the world market oil to any consuming country including the US Chapter 2 provides a theoretical and empirical analysis of the efficiency of the adaptations of US oil product markets to higher world oil prices. Chapter 3 examines the responses of various groups of US oil firms to the alterations observed in world markets, while Chapter 4 presents a theoretical explanation for the price-lagging behavior exhibited by firms in the US oil industry. Chapter 5 addresses the nature of both real and imagined oil market problems in the US during periods of world oil market transition. (MCW)

  4. Subsequent biotic crises delayed marine recovery following the late Permian mass extinction event in northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Danise, Silvia; Price, Gregory D.; Twitchett, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    The late Permian mass extinction event was the largest biotic crisis of the Phanerozoic and has the longest recovery interval of any extinction event. It has been hypothesised that subsequent carbon isotope perturbations during the Early Triassic are associated with biotic crises that impeded benthic recovery. We test this hypothesis by undertaking the highest-resolution study yet made of the rock and fossil records of the entire Werfen Formation, Italy. Here, we show that elevated extinction rates were recorded not only in the Dienerian, as previously recognised, but also around the Smithian/Spathian boundary. Functional richness increases across the Smithian/Spathian boundary associated with elevated origination rates in the lower Spathian. The taxonomic and functional composition of benthic faunas only recorded two significant changes: (1) reduced heterogeneity in the Dienerian, and (2) and a faunal turnover across the Smithian/Spathian boundary. The elevated extinctions and compositional shifts in the Dienerian and across the Smithian/Spathian boundary are associated with a negative and positive isotope excursion, respectively, which supports the hypothesis that subsequent biotic crises are associated with carbon isotope shifts. The Spathian fauna represents a more advanced ecological state, not recognised in the previous members of the Werfen Formation, with increased habitat differentiation, a shift in the dominant modes of life, appearance of stenohaline taxa and the occupation of the erect and infaunal tiers. In addition to subsequent biotic crises delaying the recovery, therefore, persistent environmental stress limited the ecological complexity of benthic recovery prior to the Spathian. PMID:28296886

  5. Early Cretaceous CO2 Pulses: Trigger of Carbon Cycle Perturbations and of Biocalcification Crises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weissert, H.; Wissler, L.; Hennig, S.

    2003-04-01

    The Early Cretaceous C-isotope curve is marked by several positive carbon isotope anomalies with an amplitude of 2-3 ppm and lasting up to millions of years. The two most prominent of these excursions are of Late Valanginian and Aptian age. Isotopic mass balance models suggest that positive carbon isotope excursions reflect altered partitioning of carbon between the oxidized and reduced carbon sinks and that these changes occurred in response to elevated atmospheric CO_2 levels and coupled climate change. Both carbon isotope anomalies coincide with episodes of increased volcanic activity, which is regarded as the source of excess atmospheric carbon dioxide. The Aptian carbon isotope anomaly is preceded by a short-lived negative carbon isotope pulse of up to 2 ppm amplitude while a comparable pulse is not recognized at the base of the Valanginian carbon isotope excursion. This C- isotope event may record a climate-induced destabilisation of sedimentary gas hydrates and the sudden release of methane to oceans and atmosphere. Both, the Aptian and the Valanginian carbon isotope excursions are accompanied by biocalcification crises on carbonate platforms and in pelagic environments. The Valanginian carbonate platform drowning, the nannoconid crisis and the disappearance of calpionellids coincide with the beginning of the positive carbon isotope anomaly. The Aptian biocalcification crises on platforms and in pelagic environments started before the negative carbon isotope spike. Both crises in biocalcification may have been triggered by p CO_2-induced changes in surface water chemistry and/or by sudden changes in temperatures and/or by changes in nutrient levels. Available paleoclimate data and the bulk oxygen isotope records show no evidence for major low latitude ocean paleotemperature changes at the base of the Valanginian isotope anomaly. Partial choking of carbonate production during the Aptian occurred at a time of decreasing oxygen isotope values in pelagic bulk

  6. Functional and genetic characterization of clinical malignant hyperthermia crises: a multi-centre study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a rare pharmacogenetic disorder which is characterized by life-threatening metabolic crises during general anesthesia. Classical triggering substances are volatile anesthetics and succinylcholine (SCh). The molecular basis of MH is excessive release of Ca2+ in skeletal muscle principally by a mutated ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1). To identify factors explaining the variable phenotypic presentation and complex pathomechanism, we analyzed proven MH events in terms of clinical course, muscle contracture, genetic factors and pharmocological triggers. Methods In a multi-centre study including seven European MH units, patients with a history of a clinical MH episode confirmed by susceptible (MHS) or equivocal (MHE) in vitro contracture tests (IVCT) were investigated. A test result is considered to be MHE if the muscle specimens develop pathological contractures in response to only one of the two test substances, halothane or caffeine. Crises were evaluated using a clinical grading scale (CGS), results of IVCT and genetic screening. The effects of SCh and volatile anesthetics on Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) were studied in vitro. Results A total of 200 patients met the inclusion criteria. Two MH crises (1%) were triggered by SCh (1 MHS, 1 MHE), 18% by volatile anesthetics and 81% by a combination of both. Patients were 70% male and 50% were younger than 12 years old. Overall, CGS was in accord with IVCT results. Crises triggered by enflurane had a significantly higher CGS compared to halothane, isoflurane and sevoflurane. Of the 200 patients, 103 carried RyR1 variants, of which 14 were novel. CGS varied depending on the location of the mutation within the RyR1 gene. In contrast to volatile anesthetics, SCh did not evoke Ca2+ release from isolated rat SR vesicles. Conclusions An MH event could depend on patient-related risk factors such as male gender, young age and causative RyR1 mutations as well as on the use

  7. Perturbation of Aptian and Valanginian Carbon Cycle and Marine Biocalcification Crises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weissert, H.; Burla, S.

    2005-12-01

    The mid-Cretaceous is known as a time of major perturbations of the global carbon cycle, which coincided with widespread biocalcification crises. Detailed Ccarbonate and Corganic carbon isotope records through the early Aptian show a prominent negative spike followed by a positive carbon isotope anomaly with amplitude of up to 3permil. Based on cyclostratigraphy, the negative C-isotope anomaly lasted up to a few hundred thousand years while the positive excursion had duration of up to millions of years. The negative spike coincides with low oxygen isotope values documented from the Pacific and Tethys Oceans. Tethyan carbon isotope data indicate that fractionation between marine organic matter and carbonate was largest during the time of most negative carbon isotope values. These data provide evidence that atmospheric carbon dioxide levels were highest during the time of the negative spike. The negative carbon isotope spike coincides with a major biocalcification crisis which is recorded in pelagic, neritic and coastal environments. New carbon and strontium isotope data from Aptian coastal successions in Portugal confirm that the most severe Aptian biocalcification crisis started before but culminated during negative carbon isotope anomaly. The widespread Aptian biocalcifcation crisis seems to have been triggered by elevated atmospheric CO2 values related to volcanic activity. Sudden methane release contributed to an amplification of greenhouse climate and it led to further weakening of marine calcification. Comparable calcification crises are recognized in the Valanginian. There, a negative carbon isotope anomaly recoding a methane pulse is not observed. Volcanic degassing alone seems to have triggered this calcification crisis. The positive carbon isotope excursions in the early Aptian and in the Valanginian following the biocalcification crises record the response of oceans and biota to greenhouse climate. Increased organic carbon burial and an accelerated

  8. A review of pharmaceutical policies in response to economic crises and sanctions.

    PubMed

    Kheirandish, Mehrnaz; Rashidian, Arash; Kebriaeezade, Abbas; Cheraghali, Abdol Majid; Soleymani, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    An economic crisis has been defined as a situation in which the scale of a country's economy becomes smaller in a period of time. Economic crises happen for various reasons, including economic sanctions. Economic crises in a country may affect national priorities for investment and expenditure and reduce available resources, and hence may affect the health care sector including access to medicines. We reviewed the pharmaceutical policies that the countries adopted in order to mitigate the potential negative effects on access to medicines. We reviewed published reports and articles after conducting a comprehensive search of the PubMed and the Google Scholar. After extracting relevant data from the identified articles, we used the World Health Organization (WHO) access to medicines framework as a guide for the categorization of the policies. We identified a total of 40 studies, of which 10 reported the national pharmaceutical policies adopted to reduce the negative impacts of economic crises on access to medicines in high-income and middle-income countries. We identified 89 policies adopted in the 11 countries and categorized them into 12 distinct policy directions. Most of the policies focused on financial aspects of the pharmaceutical sector. In some cases, countries adopted policies that potentially had negative effects on access to medicines. Only Italy had adopted policies encompassing all four accesses to medicine factors recommended by the WHO. While the countries have adopted many seemingly effective policies, little evidence exists on the effectiveness of these policies to improve access to medicines at a time of an economic crisis.

  9. Coordinating the Provision of Health Services in Humanitarian Crises: a Systematic Review of Suggested Models

    PubMed Central

    Lotfi, Tamara; Bou-Karroum, Lama; Darzi, Andrea; Hajjar, Rayan; El Rahyel, Ahmed; El Eid, Jamale; Itani, Mira; Brax, Hneine; Akik, Chaza; Osman, Mona; Hassan, Ghayda; El-Jardali, Fadi; Akl, Elie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Our objective was to identify published models of coordination between entities funding or delivering health services in humanitarian crises, whether the coordination took place during or after the crises. Methods: We included reports describing models of coordination in sufficient detail to allow reproducibility. We also included reports describing implementation of identified models, as case studies. We searched Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the WHO Global Health Library. We also searched websites of relevant organizations. We followed standard systematic review methodology. Results: Our search captured 14,309 citations. The screening process identified 34 eligible papers describing five models of coordination of delivering health services: the “Cluster Approach” (with 16 case studies), the 4Ws “Who is Where, When, doing What” mapping tool (with four case studies), the “Sphere Project” (with two case studies), the “5x5” model (with one case study), and the “model of information coordination” (with one case study). The 4Ws and the 5x5 focus on coordination of services for mental health, the remaining models do not focus on a specific health topic. The Cluster approach appears to be the most widely used. One case study was a mixed implementation of the Cluster approach and the Sphere model. We identified no model of coordination for funding of health service. Conclusion: This systematic review identified five proposed coordination models that have been implemented by entities funding or delivering health service in humanitarian crises. There is a need to compare the effect of these different models on outcomes such as availability of and access to health services. PMID:27617167

  10. A review of pharmaceutical policies in response to economic crises and sanctions

    PubMed Central

    Kheirandish, Mehrnaz; Rashidian, Arash; Kebriaeezade, Abbas; Cheraghali, Abdol Majid; Soleymani, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    An economic crisis has been defined as a situation in which the scale of a country's economy becomes smaller in a period of time. Economic crises happen for various reasons, including economic sanctions. Economic crises in a country may affect national priorities for investment and expenditure and reduce available resources, and hence may affect the health care sector including access to medicines. We reviewed the pharmaceutical policies that the countries adopted in order to mitigate the potential negative effects on access to medicines. We reviewed published reports and articles after conducting a comprehensive search of the PubMed and the Google Scholar. After extracting relevant data from the identified articles, we used the World Health Organization (WHO) access to medicines framework as a guide for the categorization of the policies. We identified a total of 40 studies, of which 10 reported the national pharmaceutical policies adopted to reduce the negative impacts of economic crises on access to medicines in high-income and middle-income countries. We identified 89 policies adopted in the 11 countries and categorized them into 12 distinct policy directions. Most of the policies focused on financial aspects of the pharmaceutical sector. In some cases, countries adopted policies that potentially had negative effects on access to medicines. Only Italy had adopted policies encompassing all four accesses to medicine factors recommended by the WHO. While the countries have adopted many seemingly effective policies, little evidence exists on the effectiveness of these policies to improve access to medicines at a time of an economic crisis. PMID:26312250

  11. The role of motivation, responsibility, and integrative complexity in crisis escalation: comparative studies of war and peace crises.

    PubMed

    Winter, David G

    2007-05-01

    Drawing on D. G. Winter's (1993) comparison of 1914 and the Cuban Missile Crisis, the author identified 8 paired crises (1 escalating to war, 1 peacefully resolved). Documents (diplomatic messages, speeches, official media commentary) from each crisis were scored for power, affiliation, and achievement motivation; text measures of responsibility and activity inhibition; and integrative complexity. Aggregated effect-size results show that war crises had significantly higher levels of power motivation and responsibility, whereas peace crises showed trends toward higher integrative complexity and achievement motivation. Follow-up analyses suggested that these results are robust with respect to both sides in a crisis, type of material scored, and historical time. The power motive results extend previous findings, but the responsibility results suggest that responsibility plays a paradoxical role in war. Future research directions are sketched, and the role of psychological content analysis in monitoring the danger of war is discussed.

  12. International crises and global health electives: lessons for faculty and institutions.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Beat D; Carlough, Martha; Dent, Georgette; Peña, Rodolfo; Morgan, Douglas R

    2010-10-01

    Student participation in global health electives and community service initiatives is associated with a number of favorable outcomes, and student interest in participating in such experiences is high. Increasingly, medical schools are facilitating and supervising global health opportunities. The inherent risks and uncertainties of global community service deserve careful consideration as schools engage more actively in this area. This article presents how one institution managed three crises in three electives in a single year. The H1N1 flu epidemic impacted a group of students bound for Mexico, a political upheaval affected a student group working in Honduras, and a hurricane threatened a student group in Nicaragua. This article outlines lessons learned from responding to these crises. Well-defined institutional travel policies, clear communication plans in the event of an emergency, a responsible administrative entity for global experiences, and formal predeparture training for students and faculty can help institutions better respond to unpredictable events. A comprehensive examination of these lessons and reflections on how to institutionalize the various components may help other institutions prepare for such events and lessen negative impact on student learning.

  13. Evaluation and management of pediatric hypertensive crises: hypertensive urgency and hypertensive emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Nirali H; Romero, Sarah K; Kaelber, David C

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension (HTN) in the pediatric population is estimated to have a world-wide prevalence of 2%–5%. As with adults, pediatric patients with HTN can present with hypertensive crises include hypertensive urgency and hypertensive emergencies. However, pediatric blood pressure problems have a greater chance of being from secondary causes of HTN, as opposed to primary HTN, than in adults. Thorough evaluation of a child with a hypertensive emergency includes accurate blood pressure readings, complete and focused symptom history, and appropriate past medical, surgical, and family history. Physical exam should include height, weight, four-limb blood pressures, a general overall examination and especially detailed cardiovascular and neurological examinations, including fundoscopic examination. Initial work-up should typically include electrocardiography, chest X-ray, serum chemistries, complete blood count, and urinalysis. Initial management of hypertensive emergencies generally includes the use of intravenous or oral antihypertensive medications, as well as appropriate, typically outpatient, follow-up. Emergency department goals for hypertensive crises are to (1) safely lower blood pressure, and (2) treat/minimize acute end organ damage, while (3) identifying underlying etiology. Intravenous antihypertensive medications are the treatment modality of choice for hypertensive emergencies with the goal of reducing systolic blood pressure by 25% of the original value over an 8-hour period. PMID:27147865

  14. Crises and Collective Socio-Economic Phenomena: Simple Models and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe

    2013-05-01

    Financial and economic history is strewn with bubbles and crashes, booms and busts, crises and upheavals of all sorts. Understanding the origin of these events is arguably one of the most important problems in economic theory. In this paper, we review recent efforts to include heterogeneities and interactions in models of decision. We argue that the so-called Random Field Ising model ( rfim) provides a unifying framework to account for many collective socio-economic phenomena that lead to sudden ruptures and crises. We discuss different models that can capture potentially destabilizing self-referential feedback loops, induced either by herding, i.e. reference to peers, or trending, i.e. reference to the past, and that account for some of the phenomenology missing in the standard models. We discuss some empirically testable predictions of these models, for example robust signatures of rfim-like herding effects, or the logarithmic decay of spatial correlations of voting patterns. One of the most striking result, inspired by statistical physics methods, is that Adam Smith's invisible hand can fail badly at solving simple coordination problems. We also insist on the issue of time-scales, that can be extremely long in some cases, and prevent socially optimal equilibria from being reached. As a theoretical challenge, the study of so-called "detailed-balance" violating decision rules is needed to decide whether conclusions based on current models (that all assume detailed-balance) are indeed robust and generic.

  15. Finite-time singularities in the dynamics of Mexican financial crises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose; Ibarra-Valdez, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    Historically, symptoms of Mexican financial crises have been strongly reflected in the dynamics of the Mexican peso to the dollar exchange currency market. Specifically, in the Mexican financial crises during 1990's, the peso suffered significant depreciation processes, which has important impacts in the macro- and micro-economical environment. In this paper, it is shown that the peso depreciation growth was greater than an exponential and that these growth rates are compatible with a spontaneous singularity occurring at a critical time, which signals an abrupt transition to new dynamical conditions. As in the major 1990's financial crisis in 1994-1995, some control actions (e.g., increasing the USA dollar supply) are commonly taken to decelerate the degree of abruptness of peso depreciation. Implications of these control actions on the crisis dynamics are discussed. Interestingly, by means of a simple model, it is demonstrated that the time at which the control actions begin to apply is critical to moderate the adverse effects of the financial crisis.

  16. A Numeric Scorecard Assessing the Mental Health Preparedness for Large-Scale Crises at College and University Campuses: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgin, Rick A.

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale crises continue to surprise, overwhelm, and shatter college and university campuses. While the devastation to physical plants and persons is often evident and is addressed with crisis management plans, the number of emotional casualties left in the wake of these large-scale crises may not be apparent and are often not addressed with…

  17. Managing an Infectious Disease Outbreak in a School. Lessons Learned from School Crises and Emergencies. Volume 2, Issue 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Lessons Learned" is a series of publications that are a brief recounting of actual school emergencies and crises. This "Lessons Learned" issue focuses on an infectious disease incident, which resulted in the death of a student, closure of area schools and the operation of an on-site school vaccine clinic. The report highlights the critical need…

  18. Incorporating Chemical Hazards into an Emergency Management Plan. Lessons Learned from School Crises and Emergencies. Volume 2, Issue 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Lessons Learned" is a series of publications that are a brief recounting of actual school emergencies and crises. This "Lessons Learned" issue focuses on a chemical spill that went unreported for approximately seven years, setting off a series of responses from the school district's Environmental Health and Safety Department (EHS) and the state…

  19. Coping with Multiple Suicides among Middle School Students. Lessons Learned from School Crises and Emergencies. Volume 2, Issue 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Lessons Learned" is a series of publications that are a brief recounting of actual school emergencies and crises. This "Lessons Learned" issue addresses the experience of a school district where three middle school students hung themselves within a three-week timeframe. Although deaths were apparently unconnected, the school district is part of a…

  20. Educating Children in the Midst of Health Crises: A Phenomenological Study of Teachers in Children's Hospital Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Johnna N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose, Scope, and Method of Study: Hospital school teachers are a unique population of educators highly qualified and experienced in teaching students who are facing health crises. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the lived experience of teaching seriously ill students in the hospital school setting. The study was…

  1. Improving Responses to Individual and Family Crises. Learning Guide 10. Project Connect. Linking Self-Family-Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emily Hall Tremaine Foundation, Inc., Hartford, CT.

    This learning guide on improving responses to individual and family crises is part of a series of learning guides developed for competency-based adult consumer and homemaking education programs in community colleges, adult education centers, community centers, and the workplace. Focus is on the connections among personal, family, and job…

  2. Perioperative Anaesthetic Approach in a Homozygous Sickle Cell Anaemia Patient with Frequent Pain Crises.

    PubMed

    Tuzcu, Kasım; Karcıoğlu, Murat; Davarcı, Işıl; Hakimoğlu, Sedat; Akküçük, Seçkin

    2014-12-01

    Sickle cell disease (HbS) is a haemolytic anaemia characterized by the formation of abnormal haemoglobin. In patients with sickle cell disease, high rates of erythrocyte generation, degradation, and hyperbilirubinemia increase the risk for cholelithiasis. Previous studies have found that the incidence of cholelithiasis is 70% in adult patients. In sickle cell disease, decreased oxygen concentration leads to the sickling of erythrocytes by causing aggregation and polymerization. Sickle erythrocytes can have devastating effects on many vital organs by causing microvascular occlusion. In patients with sickle cell anaemia, anaesthetic technique, anaesthetic agents, and surgical trauma may cause additional risk. In this case report, we present a perioperative anaesthetic approach in the laparoscopic cholecystectomy of a patient with HbS, elevated liver function tests, and frequent pain crises.

  3. Architectures engender crises: The emergence of power laws in social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tohmé, Fernando; Larrosa, Juan M. C.

    2016-05-01

    Recent financial crises posed a number of questions. The most salient were related to the cogency of derivatives and other sophisticated hedging instruments. One claim is that all those instruments rely heavily on the assumption that events in the world are guided by normal distributions while, instead, all the evidence shows that they actually follow fat-tailed power laws. Our conjecture is that it is the very financial architecture that engenders extreme events. Not on purpose but just because of its complexity. That is, the system has an internal connection structure that is able to propagate and enhance initially small disturbances. The final outcome ends up not being correlated with its triggering event. To support this claim, we appeal to the intuition drawn from the behavior of social networks. Most of the interesting cases constitute scale-free structures. In particular, we contend, those that arise from strategic decisions of the agents.

  4. Perioperative Anaesthetic Approach in a Homozygous Sickle Cell Anaemia Patient with Frequent Pain Crises

    PubMed Central

    Tuzcu, Kasım; Karcıoğlu, Murat; Davarcı, Işıl; Hakimoğlu, Sedat; Akküçük, Seçkin

    2014-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (HbS) is a haemolytic anaemia characterized by the formation of abnormal haemoglobin. In patients with sickle cell disease, high rates of erythrocyte generation, degradation, and hyperbilirubinemia increase the risk for cholelithiasis. Previous studies have found that the incidence of cholelithiasis is 70% in adult patients. In sickle cell disease, decreased oxygen concentration leads to the sickling of erythrocytes by causing aggregation and polymerization. Sickle erythrocytes can have devastating effects on many vital organs by causing microvascular occlusion. In patients with sickle cell anaemia, anaesthetic technique, anaesthetic agents, and surgical trauma may cause additional risk. In this case report, we present a perioperative anaesthetic approach in the laparoscopic cholecystectomy of a patient with HbS, elevated liver function tests, and frequent pain crises. PMID:27366449

  5. Energy security in the post-Cold War era: Identifying future courses for crises

    SciTech Connect

    Freund, M.T.; Wise, J.A.; Ulibarri, C.A.; Shaw, B.R.; Seely, H.E.; Roop, J.M.

    1994-11-01

    This paper addresses US energy security in the post-Cold War era for a conference on energy security jointly sponsored by the Department of Energy and the National Defense University. It examines the evolving nature of energy security based on analysis of past crisis-inducing events and-discusses potentially important geopolitical, environmental, regulatory, and economic developments during the next twenty-five years. The paper steps beyond the traditional economic focus of energy security issues to examine the interplay between fundamental economic and technical drivers on the one hand, and political, environmental, and perceptual phenomena, on the other hand, that can combine to create crises where none were expected. The paper expands on the premise that the recent demise of the Soviet Union and other changing world conditions have created a new set of energy dynamics, and that it is imperative that the United States revise its energy security perspective accordingly. It proceeds by reviewing key factors that comprise the concepts of ``energy security`` and ``energy crisis`` and how they may fit into the new world energy security equation. The study also presents a series of crisis scenarios that could develop during the next twenty-five years, paying particular attention to mechanisms and linked crisis causes and responses. It concludes with a discussion of factors that may serve to warn analysts and decision makers of impending future crises conditions. The crisis scenarios contained in this report should be viewed only as a representative sample of the types of situations that could occur. They serve to illustrate the variety of factors that can coalesce to produce a ``crisis.``

  6. Evidence on the Effectiveness of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) Interventions on Health Outcomes in Humanitarian Crises: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Anita; Blanchet, Karl; Ensink, Jeroen H. J.; Roberts, Bayard

    2015-01-01

    Background Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions are amongst the most crucial in humanitarian crises, although the impact of the different WASH interventions on health outcomes remains unclear. Aim To examine the quantity and quality of evidence on WASH interventions on health outcomes in humanitarian crises, as well as evaluate current evidence on their effectiveness against health outcomes in these contexts. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted of primary and grey quantitative literature on WASH interventions measured against health outcomes in humanitarian crises occurring from 1980–2014. Populations of interest were those in resident in humanitarian settings, with a focus on acute crisis and early recovery stages of humanitarian crises in low and middle-income countries. Interventions of interest were WASH-related, while outcomes of interest were health-related. Study quality was assessed via STROBE/CONSORT criteria. Results were analyzed descriptively, and PRISMA reporting was followed. Results Of 3963 studies initially retrieved, only 6 published studies measured a statistically significant change in health outcome as a result of a WASH intervention. All 6 studies employed point-of-use (POU) water quality interventions, with 50% using safe water storage (SWS) and 35% using household water treatment (HWT). All 6 studies used self-reported diarrhea outcomes, 2 studies also reported laboratory confirmed outcomes, and 2 studies reported health treatment outcomes (e.g. clinical admissions). 1 study measured WASH intervention success in relation to both health and water quality outcomes; 1 study recorded uptake (use of soap) as well as health outcomes. 2 studies were unblinded randomized-controlled trials, while 4 were uncontrolled longitudinal studies. 2 studies were graded as providing high quality evidence; 3 studies provided moderate and 1 study low quality evidence. Conclusion The current evidence base on the impact of WASH

  7. Crisis Reliability Indicators Supporting Emergency Services (CRISES): A Framework for Developing Performance Measures for Behavioral Health Crisis and Psychiatric Emergency Programs.

    PubMed

    Balfour, Margaret E; Tanner, Kathleen; Jurica, Paul J; Rhoads, Richard; Carson, Chris A

    2016-01-01

    Crisis and emergency psychiatric services are an integral part of the healthcare system, yet there are no standardized measures for programs providing these services. We developed the Crisis Reliability Indicators Supporting Emergency Services (CRISES) framework to create measures that inform internal performance improvement initiatives and allow comparison across programs. The framework consists of two components-the CRISES domains (timely, safe, accessible, least-restrictive, effective, consumer/family centered, and partnership) and the measures supporting each domain. The CRISES framework provides a foundation for development of standardized measures for the crisis field. This will become increasingly important as pay-for-performance initiatives expand with healthcare reform.

  8. C3I for Crisis, Emergency and Consequence Management (C3I pour la gestion des crises, des urgences et de leurs consequences)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    May 2009 C3I for Crisis, Emergency and Consequence Management (C3I pour la gestion des crises , des urgences et de leurs conséquences) Research and...consequence management. ES - 2 RTO-MP-IST-086 C3I pour la gestion des crises , des urgences et de leurs conséquences (RTO-MP-IST-086...contre-terrorisme, de sécurité nationale/publique et de réponse collective face aux situations d’urgence (à la fois gestion des crises et gestion de leurs

  9. The Nature of Punctuational Crises and the Spenglerian Model of Civilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clube, S. V. M.

    acknowledged dispensers of prognosis and mitigation who endorsed the adverse implications of 'blazing stars' (astrologers, soothsayers etc.) were commonly impugned and censured. Nowadays, of course, we are able to recognise that the Earth's environment is not only one of essentially uniformitarian calm, as formerly assumed, but one that is also interrupted by 'punctuational crises', each crisis being the sequence of events which arises due to the fragmentation of an individual comet whose orbit intersects the Earth's. That even modest crises can arouse apprehension is known through the circumstances of the nineteenth century break-up of Comet Biela. Indeed it seems that these crises are rather frequently characterized by relatively violent (paradigm shifting) transmutations of human society such as were originally proposed by Spengler and Toynbee more than sixty years ago on the basis of historical analysis alone. It would appear, then, that the historical fear of comets which has been with us since the foundation of civilization, far from being the reflection of an astrological perception of the cosmos which was deranged and therefore abandoned, has a perfectly rational basis in occasional cometary fragmentation events. Such events recur and evidently have quite serious implications for society and government today. Thus when cosmic danger returns and there is growing awareness of the fact, we find that society is capable of becoming uncontrollably convulsed as 'enlightenment' spreads. A revival of millenarian expectations under these circumstances, for example, is not so much an underlying consequence but a deviant manifestation of the violent turmoil into which society falls, often to revolutionary effect.

  10. Being in two minds: the neural basis of experiencing action crises in personal long-term goals.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Marcel; Baur, Volker; Brandstätter, Veronika; Hänggi, Jürgen; Jäncke, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Although the successful pursuit of long-term goals constitutes an essential prerequisite to personal development, health, and well-being, little research has been devoted to the understanding of its underlying neural processes. A critical phase in the pursuit of long-term goals is defined as an action crisis, conceptualized as the intra-psychic conflict between further goal pursuit and disengagement from the goal. In the present research, we applied an interdisciplinary (cognitive and neural) approach to the analysis of processes underlying the experience of an action crisis. In Study 1, a longitudinal field study, action crises in personal goals gave rise to an increased and unbiased (re)evaluation of the costs and benefits (i.e., rewards) of the goal. Study 2 was a magnetic resonance imaging study examining resting-state functional connectivity. The extent of experienced action crises was associated with enhanced fronto-accumbal connectivity signifying increased reward-related impact on prefrontal action control. Action crises, furthermore, mediated the relationship between a dispositional measure of effective goal pursuit (action orientation) and fronto-accumbal connectivity. The converging and complementary results from two methodologically different approaches advance the understanding of the neurobiology of personal long-term goals, especially with respect to the role of rewards in the context of goal-related conflicts.

  11. The impact of digital technology on health of populations affected by humanitarian crises: Recent innovations and current gaps.

    PubMed

    Mesmar, Sandra; Talhouk, Reem; Akik, Chaza; Olivier, Patrick; Elhajj, Imad H; Elbassuoni, Shady; Armoush, Sarah; Kalot, Joumana; Balaam, Madeline; Germani, Aline; Ghattas, Hala

    2016-11-01

    Digital technology is increasingly used in humanitarian action and promises to improve the health and social well-being of populations affected by both acute and protracted crises. We set out to (1) review the current landscape of digital technologies used by humanitarian actors and affected populations, (2) examine their impact on health and well-being of affected populations, and (3) consider the opportunities for and challenges faced by users of these technologies. Through a systematic search of academic databases and reports, we identified 50 digital technologies used by humanitarian actors, and/or populations affected by crises. We organized them according to the stage of the humanitarian cycle that they were used in, and the health outcomes or determinants of health they affected. Digital technologies were found to facilitate communication, coordination, and collection and analysis of data, enabling timely responses in humanitarian contexts. A lack of evaluation of these technologies, a paternalistic approach to their development, and issues of privacy and equity constituted major challenges. We highlight the need to create a space for dialogue between technology designers and populations affected by humanitarian crises.

  12. Entropies of negative incomes, Pareto-distributed loss, and financial crises.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jianbo; Hu, Jing; Mao, Xiang; Zhou, Mi; Gurbaxani, Brian; Lin, Johnny

    2011-01-01

    Health monitoring of world economy is an important issue, especially in a time of profound economic difficulty world-wide. The most important aspect of health monitoring is to accurately predict economic downturns. To gain insights into how economic crises develop, we present two metrics, positive and negative income entropy and distribution analysis, to analyze the collective "spatial" and temporal dynamics of companies in nine sectors of the world economy over a 19 year period from 1990-2008. These metrics provide accurate predictive skill with a very low false-positive rate in predicting downturns. The new metrics also provide evidence of phase transition-like behavior prior to the onset of recessions. Such a transition occurs when negative pretax incomes prior to or during economic recessions transition from a thin-tailed exponential distribution to the higher entropy Pareto distribution, and develop even heavier tails than those of the positive pretax incomes. These features propagate from the crisis initiating sector of the economy to other sectors.

  13. Cross-border portfolio investment networks and indicators for financial crises.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Andreas C; Joseph, Stephan E; Chen, Guanrong

    2014-02-10

    Cross-border equity and long-term debt securities portfolio investment networks are analysed from 2002 to 2012, covering the 2008 global financial crisis. They serve as network-proxies for measuring the robustness of the global financial system and the interdependence of financial markets, respectively. Two early-warning indicators for financial crises are identified: First, the algebraic connectivity of the equity securities network, as a measure for structural robustness, drops close to zero already in 2005, while there is an over-representation of high-degree off-shore financial centres among the countries most-related to this observation, suggesting an investigation of such nodes with respect to the structural stability of the global financial system. Second, using a phenomenological model, the edge density of the debt securities network is found to describe, and even forecast, the proliferation of several over-the-counter-traded financial derivatives, most prominently credit default swaps, enabling one to detect potentially dangerous levels of market interdependence and systemic risk.

  14. Collaboration in crisis: Carer perspectives on police and mental health professional's responses to mental health crises.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Alice; Warren, Narelle; Peterson, Violeta; Hollander, Yitzchak; Boscarato, Kara; Lee, Stuart

    2016-10-01

    For many situations involving a mental health crisis, carers (e.g. family or friends) are present and either attempt to help the person overcome the crisis or request assistance from professional services (e.g. mental health or police). Comparatively, little research has explored how carers experience the crisis, the professional response and how the nature of the response, in turn, impacts carers. The current study was conducted to explore these issues during individual interviews with nine carers who had previous contact with police and mental health services during a crisis response. Collected data described the definition and perceived impact of a mental health crisis for carers, how carers had experienced a crisis response from police and mental health services, and how the professional response had impacted on carers. Of importance was the finding that carers were often themselves traumatized by witnessing or being involved in the crisis, however, were rarely offered direct education or support to help them cope or prevent future crises. A number of carers described a reluctance to request assistance from professional services due to previous poor experiences. This highlighted the importance of implementing strategies to deliver more timely, respectful, specialist and collaborative crisis responses to improve carer and consumer outcomes.

  15. Metahabilitation: Transforming Life Crises: A Story of Enhanced Recovery Involving Addiction and Dependency.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    Individuals experience crisis when their estimation of resources needed to successfully manage traumatic situations such as addiction and dependency is greater than their perception of resources available. Some recovery models are limited in their perspective on enhanced outcomes, failing to put the individual in a position of strength and on the path to a positive, more meaningful future. Rehabilitation can be too general, failing to incorporate personal experiences of trauma into the therapeutic plan. Recovery models must address these insufficiencies and promote an individual's biological, psychological, and spiritual abilities to transform and experience higher levels of functioning-actually brought about by traumas and personal life crises such as addictions and dependencies. These conditions become vehicles, providing opportunities to creatively restructure the self and find significant existential meaning. A heuristic study revealed insights into advanced recovery. The results identified limitations of current rehabilitative models and informed the development of the unique recovery concept and process: metahabilitation. A case study provides an overview and shows the model as it applies to addiction and dependency.

  16. The role of igneous and metamorphic processes in triggering mass extinctions and Earth crises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensen, Henrik; Planke, Sverre; Polozov, Alexander G.; Jerram, Dougal; Jones, Morgan T.

    2016-04-01

    Mass extinctions and transient climate events commonly coincide in time with the formation of Large igneous provinces (LIPs). The end-Permian event coincides with the Siberian Traps, the end-Triassic with the Central Atlantic Magmatic Event (CAMP), the Toarcian with the Karoo LIP, and the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) with the North Atlantic Igneous Province. Although the temporal relationship between volcanism and the environmental crises has been known for decades, the geological processes linking LIPs to these environmental events are strongly debated: Explosive LIP volcanism should lead to short term cooling (not long term warming), mantle CO2 is too 13C-enriched to explain negative 13C carbon isotope excursions from sedimentary sequences, the LIP volcanism is poorly dated and apparently lasts much longer that the associated environmental events, large portions of the LIPs remain poorly explored, especially the sub-volcanic parts where sills and dikes are emplaced in sedimentary host rocks, and thus gas flux estimates from contact aureoles around sill intrusions are often poorly constrained. In this presentation, we discuss the status of LIP research with an emphasis on the sub volcanic processes. We show that potential for degassing of greenhouse gases, aerosols, and ozone destructive gases is substantial and can likely explain the triggering of both climatic events and mass extinctions.

  17. Long-range dependence in returns and volatility of global gold market amid financial crises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omane-Adjepong, Maurice; Boako, Gideon

    2017-04-01

    Using sampled historical daily gold market data from 07-03-1985 to 06-01-2015, and building on a related work by Bentes (2016), this paper examines the presence of long-range dependence (LRD) in the world's gold market returns and volatility, accounting for structural breaks. The sampled gold market data was divided into subsamples based on four global crises: the September 1992 collapse of the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM), the Asian financial crisis of mid-1997, the Subprime meltdown of 2007, and the recent European sovereign debt crisis, which hit the world's market with varying effects. LRD test was carried-out on the full-sample and subsample periods using three semiparametric methods-before and after adjusting for structural breaks. The results show insignificant evidence of LRD in gold returns. However, very diminutive evidence is found for periods characterized by financial/economic shocks, with no significant detections for post-shock periods. Collectively, this is indicative that the gold market is less speculative, and hence could be somehow less risky for hedging and portfolio diversification.

  18. Cross-border Portfolio Investment Networks and Indicators for Financial Crises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Andreas C.; Joseph, Stephan E.; Chen, Guanrong

    2014-02-01

    Cross-border equity and long-term debt securities portfolio investment networks are analysed from 2002 to 2012, covering the 2008 global financial crisis. They serve as network-proxies for measuring the robustness of the global financial system and the interdependence of financial markets, respectively. Two early-warning indicators for financial crises are identified: First, the algebraic connectivity of the equity securities network, as a measure for structural robustness, drops close to zero already in 2005, while there is an over-representation of high-degree off-shore financial centres among the countries most-related to this observation, suggesting an investigation of such nodes with respect to the structural stability of the global financial system. Second, using a phenomenological model, the edge density of the debt securities network is found to describe, and even forecast, the proliferation of several over-the-counter-traded financial derivatives, most prominently credit default swaps, enabling one to detect potentially dangerous levels of market interdependence and systemic risk.

  19. From famine to food crisis: what history can teach us about local and global subsistence crises.

    PubMed

    Vanhaute, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The number of famine prone regions in the world has been shrinking for centuries. It is currently mainly limited to sub-Saharan Africa. Yet the impact of endemic hunger has not declined and the early twenty-first century seems to be faced with a new threat: global subsistence crises. In this essay I question the concepts of famine and food crisis from different analytical angles: historical and contemporary famine research, food regime theory, and peasant studies. I will argue that only a more integrated historical framework of analysis can surpass dualistic interpretations grounded in Eurocentric modernization paradigms. This article successively debates historical and contemporary famine research, the contemporary food regime and the new global food crisis, the lessons from Europe's 'grand escape' from hunger, and the peasantry and 'depeasantization' as central analytical concepts. Dualistic histories of food and famine have been dominating developmentalist stories for too long. This essay shows how a blending of historical and contemporary famine research, food regime theory and new peasant studies can foster a more integrated perspective.

  20. EDs credit drills, community engagement with helping them manage casualties from tornado crises.

    PubMed

    2011-07-01

    Emergency department leaders at DCH Regional Medical Center in Tuscaloosa, AL, and Cullman Regional Medical Center in Cullman, AL, credit their regular practice drills with helping them deal with unprecedented demand when deadly tornadoes swept through the South this past April. Both facilities used the hospital instant command structure (HICS) to mobilize the resources needed to care for the surge in patients, and say the approach worked well in helping them meet the needs of their communities. However, the crises also showcased opportunities for improvement. The ED at DCH Regional Medical Center saw more than 600 patients on the day of the storm, a three-fold increase in the hospital's typical volume. CRMC treated 99 patients in the seven hours immediately following the storm when it usually treats 114 patients per day. In addition to a big surge in patients, both hospitals dealt with power outages that limited access to some services such as radiology. Triage proved particularly challenging at DCH Regional Medical Center, as patients flowed into the hospital from numerous access points. The hospital plans to assign coordinators to each area of the hospital to better manage the influx in the future. When reviewing emergency operations plans, Joint Commission reviewers often find deficiencies in hazard vulnerability analyses as well as the processes used to determine the emergency credentials of licensed independent practitioners.

  1. Cross-border Portfolio Investment Networks and Indicators for Financial Crises

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Andreas C.; Joseph, Stephan E.; Chen, Guanrong

    2014-01-01

    Cross-border equity and long-term debt securities portfolio investment networks are analysed from 2002 to 2012, covering the 2008 global financial crisis. They serve as network-proxies for measuring the robustness of the global financial system and the interdependence of financial markets, respectively. Two early-warning indicators for financial crises are identified: First, the algebraic connectivity of the equity securities network, as a measure for structural robustness, drops close to zero already in 2005, while there is an over-representation of high-degree off-shore financial centres among the countries most-related to this observation, suggesting an investigation of such nodes with respect to the structural stability of the global financial system. Second, using a phenomenological model, the edge density of the debt securities network is found to describe, and even forecast, the proliferation of several over-the-counter-traded financial derivatives, most prominently credit default swaps, enabling one to detect potentially dangerous levels of market interdependence and systemic risk. PMID:24510060

  2. Midlife Crises in Dwarf Galaxies in the NGC 5353/4 Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tully, R. Brent; Trentham, Neil

    2008-04-01

    This third paper in a series about the dwarf galaxy populations in groups within the Local Supercluster concerns the intermediate mass (2.1 × 1013 M sun) NGC 5353/4 Group with a core dominated by S0 systems and a periphery of mostly spiral systems. Dwarf galaxies are strongly concentrated toward the core. The mass-to-light ratio M/LR = 105 M sun/L sun is a factor of 3 lower than for the two groups studied earlier in the series. The properties of the group suggest it is much less dynamically evolved than those two groups of early-type galaxies. By comparison, the NGC 5353/4 Group lacks superluminous systems but has a large fraction of intermediate-luminosity galaxies; or equivalently, a luminosity function with a flatter faint-end slope. The luminosity function for the NGC 5353/4 Group should steepen as the intermediate-luminosity galaxies merge. Evidence for the ongoing collapse of the group is provided by the unusually large incidence of star-formation activity in small galaxies with early morphological types. The pattern in the distribution of galaxies with activity suggests a succession of infall events. Residual gas in dwarfs that enter the group is used up in sputtering events. The resolution of midlife crises is exhaustion.

  3. Chaos and crises in a model for cooperative hunting: a symbolic dynamics approach.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Jorge; Januário, Cristina; Martins, Nuno; Sardanyés, Josep

    2009-12-01

    In this work we investigate the population dynamics of cooperative hunting extending the McCann and Yodzis model for a three-species food chain system with a predator, a prey, and a resource species. The new model considers that a given fraction sigma of predators cooperates in prey's hunting, while the rest of the population 1-sigma hunts without cooperation. We use the theory of symbolic dynamics to study the topological entropy and the parameter space ordering of the kneading sequences associated with one-dimensional maps that reproduce significant aspects of the dynamics of the species under several degrees of cooperative hunting. Our model also allows us to investigate the so-called deterministic extinction via chaotic crisis and transient chaos in the framework of cooperative hunting. The symbolic sequences allow us to identify a critical boundary in the parameter spaces (K,C(0)) and (K,sigma) which separates two scenarios: (i) all-species coexistence and (ii) predator's extinction via chaotic crisis. We show that the crisis value of the carrying capacity K(c) decreases at increasing sigma, indicating that predator's populations with high degree of cooperative hunting are more sensitive to the chaotic crises. We also show that the control method of Dhamala and Lai [Phys. Rev. E 59, 1646 (1999)] can sustain the chaotic behavior after the crisis for systems with cooperative hunting. We finally analyze and quantify the inner structure of the target regions obtained with this control method for wider parameter values beyond the crisis, showing a power law dependence of the extinction transients on such critical parameters.

  4. [Health threats and health system crises. An approach to early warning and response. 2008 SESPAS Report].

    PubMed

    Simón Soria, Fernando; Guillén Enríquez, Francisco Javier

    2008-04-01

    The world is changing more and faster than ever before. New diseases are coming to light each year, controlled diseases are reemerging as potential threats, and natural or man-made disasters are increasingly affecting human health. The "International Health Regulations (2005)" reflect the changes in the response of public health to this new situation. Surveillance of specific diseases and predefined control measures have been replaced by surveillance of public health events of international concern and control measures adapted to each situation. The public health events of international interest are characterized by their seriousness, predictability, the risk of international spread and potential for travel or trade restrictions. The development of the European Early Warning and Response System in 1998 and the creation of the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control in 2005 demonstrate political commitment in Europe, with early detection of and response to public health threats. However, timely risk evaluation and response at a national level requires improved data digitalization and accessibility, automatic notification processes, data analysis and dissemination of information, the combination of information from multiple sources and adaptation of public health services. The autonomous regions in Spain are initiating this adaptation process, but interoperability between systems and the development of guidelines for a coordinated response should be steered by the National Interregional Health Council and coordinated by the Ministry of Health. Efficient early warning systems of health threats that allow for a timely response and reduce uncertainty about information would help to minimize the risk of public health crises. The profile of public health threats is nonspecific. Early detection of threats requires access to information from multiple sources and efficient risk assessment. Key factors for improving the response to public health threats are the

  5. On the dynamics of the world demographic transition and financial-economic crises forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akaev, A.; Sadovnichy, V.; Korotayev, A.

    2012-05-01

    The article considers dynamic processes involving non-linear power-law behavior in such apparently diverse spheres, as demographic dynamics and dynamics of prices of highly liquid commodities such as oil and gold. All the respective variables exhibit features of explosive growth containing precursors indicating approaching phase transitions/catastrophes/crises. The first part of the article analyzes mathematical models of demographic dynamics that describe various scenarios of demographic development in the post-phase-transition period, including a model that takes the limitedness of the Earth carrying capacity into account. This model points to a critical point in the early 2050s, when the world population, after reaching its maximum value may decrease afterward stabilizing then at a certain stationary level. The article presents an analysis of the influence of the demographic transition (directly connected with the hyperexponential growth of the world population) on the global socioeconomic and geopolitical development. The second part deals with the phenomenon of explosive growth of prices of such highly liquid commodities as oil and gold. It is demonstrated that at present the respective processes could be regarded as precursors of waves of the global financial-economic crisis that will demand the change of the current global economic and political system. It is also shown that the moments of the start of the first and second waves of the current global crisis could have been forecasted with a model of accelerating log-periodic fluctuations superimposed over a power-law trend with a finite singularity developed by Didier Sornette and collaborators. With respect to the oil prices, it is shown that it was possible to forecast the 2008 crisis with a precision up to a month already in 2007. The gold price dynamics was used to calculate the possible time of the start of the second wave of the global crisis (July-August 2011); note that this forecast has turned out

  6. Identifying the causes of water crises: A configurational frequency analysis of 22 basins world wide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, V.; Gorelick, S.; Lambin, E.; Rozelle, S.; Thompson, B.

    2010-12-01

    Freshwater "scarcity" has been identified as being a major problem world-wide, but it is surprisingly hard to assess if water is truly scarce at a global or even regional scale. Most empirical water research remains location specific. Characterizing water problems, transferring lessons across regions, to develop a synthesized global view of water issues remains a challenge. In this study we attempt a systematic understanding of water problems across regions. We compared case studies of basins across different regions of the world using configurational frequency analysis. Because water crises are multi-symptom and multi-causal, a major challenge was to categorize water problems so as to make comparisons across cases meaningful. In this study, we focused strictly on water unsustainability, viz. the inability to sustain current levels of the anthropogenic (drinking water, food, power, livelihood) and natural (aquatic species, wetlands) into the future. For each case, the causes of three outcome variables, groundwater declines, surface water declines and aquatic ecosystem declines, were classified and coded. We conducted a meta-analysis in which clusters of peer-reviewed papers by interdisciplinary teams were considered to ensure that the results were not biased towards factors privileged by any one discipline. Based on our final sample of 22 case study river basins, some clear patterns emerged. The meta-analysis suggests that water resources managers have long overemphasized the factors governing supply of water resources and while insufficient attention has been paid to the factors driving demand. Overall, uncontrolled increase in demand was twice as frequent as declines in availability due to climate change or decreased recharge. Moreover, groundwater and surface water declines showed distinct causal pathways. Uncontrolled increases in demand due to lack of credible enforcement were a key factor driving groundwater declines; while increased upstream abstractions

  7. Chaos and crises in a model for cooperative hunting: A symbolic dynamics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Jorge; Januário, Cristina; Martins, Nuno; Sardanyés, Josep

    2009-12-01

    In this work we investigate the population dynamics of cooperative hunting extending the McCann and Yodzis model for a three-species food chain system with a predator, a prey, and a resource species. The new model considers that a given fraction σ of predators cooperates in prey's hunting, while the rest of the population 1-σ hunts without cooperation. We use the theory of symbolic dynamics to study the topological entropy and the parameter space ordering of the kneading sequences associated with one-dimensional maps that reproduce significant aspects of the dynamics of the species under several degrees of cooperative hunting. Our model also allows us to investigate the so-called deterministic extinction via chaotic crisis and transient chaos in the framework of cooperative hunting. The symbolic sequences allow us to identify a critical boundary in the parameter spaces (K ,C0) and (K ,σ) which separates two scenarios: (i) all-species coexistence and (ii) predator's extinction via chaotic crisis. We show that the crisis value of the carrying capacity Kc decreases at increasing σ, indicating that predator's populations with high degree of cooperative hunting are more sensitive to the chaotic crises. We also show that the control method of Dhamala and Lai [Phys. Rev. E 59, 1646 (1999)] can sustain the chaotic behavior after the crisis for systems with cooperative hunting. We finally analyze and quantify the inner structure of the target regions obtained with this control method for wider parameter values beyond the crisis, showing a power law dependence of the extinction transients on such critical parameters.

  8. Rig Side Online Drilling Support System for Prediction and Prevention of Upcoming Crises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandl, B.; Winter, M.; Fruhwirth, R.; Riedel, F.; Zeiner, H.

    2012-04-01

    Safety requirements play a central role in drilling operations worldwide. Especially, protecting the crew from injury, preventing damage to equipment and avoiding environmental pollution are of utmost importance. Prevailing drilling procedures already provide a high degree of safety; but uncertainties hinder efficient and accurate risk assessment. Uncertainties are primarily introduced due to the unknown structure of the rock formation and other unknowns in the drilling process. Insufficient insight into ongoing processes may therefore lead to unexpected and unwanted critical drilling situations. To support drilling engineers in the early detection and subsequently in the prevention of upcoming crises, we present a modular drilling support system for in-situ usage on rigs which improves insight into processes and current drilling operations. In our case, the system consists of a complete data processing chain including several modules for data acquisition from sensors on the drilling platform, feature generation, online learning and problem-specific visualization. While data acquisition modules collect data from sensors at the rig and produce a live data stream in an appropriate format, the data processing algorithms analyze the data streams in real time and classify the drilling operations, detect emerging potentially critical situations and give appropriate advice to the drilling crew, if possible. A (geo-)physically motivated extended feature generator produces additional features to improve the quality-performance (recognition rate) of the algorithms. Finally, all sensor data streams as well as the output of the extended feature generator, the results of several adaptive online learning algorithms and a set of sensor data quality indicators of the rig are visualized in a novel user interface to support drilling employees at the rig. As a result, the current drilling situation is presented in a comprehensive manner and in real time.

  9. Systematic review of the evidence on the effectiveness of sexual and reproductive health interventions in humanitarian crises

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Emily; Post, Nathan; Hossain, Mazeda; Blanchet, Karl; Roberts, Bayard

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This systematic review aims to evaluate evidence on the effectiveness of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) interventions delivered in humanitarian crises. Setting Crisis affected low-income or middle-income countries. Participants Crisis-affected populations in low-income or middle-income countries. Method Peer-reviewed and grey literature sources were systematically searched for relevant papers detailing interventions from 1 January 1980 until the search date on 30 April 2013. Data from included studies were then extracted, and the papers’ quality evaluated using criteria based on modified STROBE and CONSORT checklists. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcomes include, but are not limited to, changes in morbidity, mortality, sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnosis or gender-based violence. Secondary outcomes include, but are not limited to, reported condom use or skilled attendance at birth. Primary outputs include, but are not limited to, condoms distributed or education courses taught. Results Of 7149 returned citations, 15 studies met the inclusion criteria. Only one randomised controlled trial was identified. The remaining observational studies were of moderate quality, demonstrating limited use of controls and inadequate attempts to address bias. Evidence of effectiveness was available for the following interventions: impregnated bed nets for pregnant women, subsidised refugee healthcare, female community health workers, and tiered community reproductive health services. Conclusions The limited evidence base for SRH interventions highlights the need for improved research on the effectiveness of public health interventions in humanitarian crises. While interventions proven efficacious in stable settings are being used in humanitarian efforts, more evidence is required to demonstrate the effectiveness of delivering and scaling-up such interventions in humanitarian crises. PMID:26685020

  10. Evaluation of the return periods of water crises and evaporation in Monte Cotugno reservoir (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copertino, Vito; Lo Vecchio, Giuseppina; Marotta, Lucia; Pastore, Vittoria; Ponzio, Giuseppe; Scavone, Giuseppina; Telesca, Vito; Vita, Michele

    2010-05-01

    In the past water resources management has been dealt and solved increasing water availabilities; today such opportunities have been considerably reduced and the technical-scientific perspectives are addressed above all to improve water system effectiveness and to promote an use of water resources that holds account of the droughts frequency and based on a correct estimate of the hydrologic balance. In this work a study on the water stored in Monte Cotugno reservoir in Sinni river - Basilicata (Southern Italy) - is proposed, estimating water crises return periods and reservoir evaporation. For such purpose the runs method was applied, based on the comparison between the temporal series of the "water volume" hydrological variable and a threshold representative of the "normal" conditions regarding which the availability in excess or defect was estimated. This allowed to individualize the beginning and the end of a water crisis event and to characterize the droughts in terms of duration, sum deficit and intensity. Therefore the return period was evaluated by means of the methodology proposed by Shiau and Shen in 2001, turned out equal approximately to 6 years. Such value was then verified with a frequency analysis of the "water volume" random variable, using the Weibull's distribution. Subsequently, the Fourier's analysis in the last twenty years was carried out, obtaining the same result of the previous methods. Moreover, in proximity of the Monte Cotugno reservoir the weather station of Senise is located, managed by ALSIA (Agenzia Lucana di Sviluppo e Innovazione in Agricultura), that provides in continuous measurements of air temperature and humidity, wind speed and direction, and global solar radiation since 2000. Such parameters allowed to apply five methods for reservoir evaporation estimate selected from those proposed in the literature, of which the first three, the Jensen-Haise's method, Makkink's method and Stephens-Stewart's one are based on solar radiation

  11. A Distributed Architecture for Tsunami Early Warning and Collaborative Decision-support in Crises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moßgraber, J.; Middleton, S.; Hammitzsch, M.; Poslad, S.

    2012-04-01

    The presentation will describe work on the system architecture that is being developed in the EU FP7 project TRIDEC on "Collaborative, Complex and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises". The challenges for a Tsunami Early Warning System (TEWS) are manifold and the success of a system depends crucially on the system's architecture. A modern warning system following a system-of-systems approach has to integrate various components and sub-systems such as different information sources, services and simulation systems. Furthermore, it has to take into account the distributed and collaborative nature of warning systems. In order to create an architecture that supports the whole spectrum of a modern, distributed and collaborative warning system one must deal with multiple challenges. Obviously, one cannot expect to tackle these challenges adequately with a monolithic system or with a single technology. Therefore, a system architecture providing the blueprints to implement the system-of-systems approach has to combine multiple technologies and architectural styles. At the bottom layer it has to reliably integrate a large set of conventional sensors, such as seismic sensors and sensor networks, buoys and tide gauges, and also innovative and unconventional sensors, such as streams of messages from social media services. At the top layer it has to support collaboration on high-level decision processes and facilitates information sharing between organizations. In between, the system has to process all data and integrate information on a semantic level in a timely manner. This complex communication follows an event-driven mechanism allowing events to be published, detected and consumed by various applications within the architecture. Therefore, at the upper layer the event-driven architecture (EDA) aspects are combined with principles of service-oriented architectures (SOA) using standards for communication and data exchange. The most prominent challenges on this layer

  12. Socioeconomic status and length of hospital stay in children with vaso-occlusive crises of sickle cell disease.

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, Angela M.; Bauchner, Howard

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between socioeconomic status and length of hospital stay for vaso-occlusive crises in children with sickle cell disease. METHODS: 19,174 discharges (aged 1-20 years), with a primary diagnosis of sickle cell disease with crisis were analyzed from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Kid Inpatient Database 2000. Socioeconomic status was assessed using an area-based measure, median household income by ZIP code and an individual-level measure, insurance status. We adjusted for age, gender, hospital location/teaching status, presence of pneumonia, number of diagnoses on record and number of procedures performed. Negative binomial regression models using generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to assess length of stay. RESULTS: Socioeconomic status as measured by income was not associated with length of stay (incidence rate ratio (highest versus lowest category) = 1.04 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.11)). In contrast, socioeconomic status as measured by insurance was associated with length of stay [adjusted incidence rate ratio = 1.04 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.08)), although the magnitude of this difference is small and not likely to be clinically important. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence to suggest that socioeconomic status has any clinically important effect on length of hospital stay in children with vaso-occlusive crises in sickle cell disease. PMID:17393942

  13. The Impact of Economic Crises on Communicable Disease Transmission and Control: A Systematic Review of the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Suhrcke, Marc; Stuckler, David; Suk, Jonathan E.; Desai, Monica; Senek, Michaela; McKee, Martin; Tsolova, Svetla; Basu, Sanjay; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Hunter, Paul; Rechel, Boika; Semenza, Jan C.

    2011-01-01

    There is concern among public health professionals that the current economic downturn, initiated by the financial crisis that started in 2007, could precipitate the transmission of infectious diseases while also limiting capacity for control. Although studies have reviewed the potential effects of economic downturns on overall health, to our knowledge such an analysis has yet to be done focusing on infectious diseases. We performed a systematic literature review of studies examining changes in infectious disease burden subsequent to periods of crisis. The review identified 230 studies of which 37 met our inclusion criteria. Of these, 30 found evidence of worse infectious disease outcomes during recession, often resulting from higher rates of infectious contact under poorer living circumstances, worsened access to therapy, or poorer retention in treatment. The remaining studies found either reductions in infectious disease or no significant effect. Using the paradigm of the “SIR” (susceptible-infected-recovered) model of infectious disease transmission, we examined the implications of these findings for infectious disease transmission and control. Key susceptible groups include infants and the elderly. We identified certain high-risk groups, including migrants, homeless persons, and prison populations, as particularly vulnerable conduits of epidemics during situations of economic duress. We also observed that the long-term impacts of crises on infectious disease are not inevitable: considerable evidence suggests that the magnitude of effect depends critically on budgetary responses by governments. Like other emergencies and natural disasters, preparedness for financial crises should include consideration of consequences for communicable disease control. PMID:21695209

  14. Management of natural crises with choreography and orchestration of federated warning-systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haener, Rainer; Waechter, Joachim; Hammitzsch, Martin

    2013-04-01

    The project Collaborative, Complex and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC), co-funded by the European Commission in its Seventh Framework Programme focuses on real-time intelligent information management in earth management. The addressed challenges include the design and implementation of a robust and scalable service infrastructure supporting the integration of existing resources, components and systems. Key challenge for TRIDEC is establishing a network of independent systems, cooperatively interacting as a collective in a system-of-systems (SoS). For this purpose TRIDEC adopts enhancements of service-oriented architecture (SOA) principles in terms of an event-driven architecture (EDA) design (SOA 2.0). In this way TRIDEC establishes large-scale concurrent and intelligent information management of a manifold of crisis types by focusing on the integration of autonomous, task-oriented and geographically distributed systems. To this end TRIDEC adapts both ways SOA 2.0 offers: orchestration and choreography. In orchestration, a central knowledge-based processing framework takes control over the involved services and coordinates their execution. Choreography on the other hand avoids central coordination. Rather, each system involved in the SoS follows a global scenario without a single point of control but specifically defined (enacted, agreed upon) trigger conditions. More than orchestration choreography allows collaborative business processes of various heterogeneous sub-systems (e.g. cooperative decision making) by concurrent Complex Event Processing (CEP) and asynchronous communication. These types of interaction adapt the concept of decoupled relationships between information producers (e.g. sensors and sensor systems) and information consumers (e.g. warning systems and warning dissemination systems). Asynchronous communication is useful if a participant wants to trigger specific actions by delegating the responsibility (separation of concerns

  15. Responding To Infectious Disease: Multiple Cases of Staph Infections in a Rural School District. Lessons Learned From School Crises and Emergencies, Volume 3, Issue 3, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Lessons Learned" is a series of publications that are a brief recounting of actual school emergencies and crises. This "Lessons Learned" issue focuses on an incident involving several cases of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) at a rural high school. MRSA is a specific strain of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria (often called staph)…

  16. Communication and Collaboration During Natural Disasters: The Lessons Learned From Past Experience. Lessons Learned From School Crises and Emergencies, Volume 3, Issue 2, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Lessons Learned" is a series of publications that are a brief recounting of actual school emergencies and crises. This "Lessons Learned" issue focuses on the response and recovery efforts to wildfires by the San Diego County Office of Education (SDCOE) and its school and community partners. Natural disasters such as floods,…

  17. A Manual-Based Intervention to Address Clinical Crises and Retain Patients in the Treatment of Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Diane E.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Puumala, Susan E.; Silva, Susan G.; Rezac, Amy J.; Hallin, Mary J.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Weller, Elizabeth B.; Pathak, Sanjeev; Simons, Anne D.; March, John S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To describe a manual-based intervention to address clinical crises and retain participants in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Method: The use of adjunct services for attrition prevention (ASAP) is described for adolescents (ages 12-17 years) during the 12-week acute treatment in TADS, from 2000 to 2003.…

  18. Responding To and Recovering From an Active Shooter Incident That Turns Into a Hostage Situation. Lessons Learned From School Crises and Emergencies, Volume 2, Issue 6, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Lessons Learned" is a series of publications that are a brief recounting of actual school emergencies and crises. This "Lessons Learned" issue focuses on an active shooter situation that escalated to a hostage situation that required multiple law enforcement agencies and other first responders and agencies to coordinate response and recovery…

  19. Bi-allelic Truncating Mutations in TANGO2 Cause Infancy-Onset Recurrent Metabolic Crises with Encephalocardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Laura S; Distelmaier, Felix; Alhaddad, Bader; Hempel, Maja; Iuso, Arcangela; Küpper, Clemens; Mühlhausen, Chris; Kovacs-Nagy, Reka; Satanovskij, Robin; Graf, Elisabeth; Berutti, Riccardo; Eckstein, Gertrud; Durbin, Richard; Sauer, Sascha; Hoffmann, Georg F; Strom, Tim M; Santer, René; Meitinger, Thomas; Klopstock, Thomas; Prokisch, Holger; Haack, Tobias B

    2016-02-04

    Molecular diagnosis of mitochondrial disorders is challenging because of extreme clinical and genetic heterogeneity. By exome sequencing, we identified three different bi-allelic truncating mutations in TANGO2 in three unrelated individuals with infancy-onset episodic metabolic crises characterized by encephalopathy, hypoglycemia, rhabdomyolysis, arrhythmias, and laboratory findings suggestive of a defect in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. Over the course of the disease, all individuals developed global brain atrophy with cognitive impairment and pyramidal signs. TANGO2 (transport and Golgi organization 2) encodes a protein with a putative function in redistribution of Golgi membranes into the endoplasmic reticulum in Drosophila and a mitochondrial localization has been confirmed in mice. Investigation of palmitate-dependent respiration in mutant fibroblasts showed evidence of a functional defect in mitochondrial β-oxidation. Our results establish TANGO2 deficiency as a clinically recognizable cause of pediatric disease with multi-organ involvement.

  20. Bi-allelic Truncating Mutations in TANGO2 Cause Infancy-Onset Recurrent Metabolic Crises with Encephalocardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kremer, Laura S.; Distelmaier, Felix; Alhaddad, Bader; Hempel, Maja; Iuso, Arcangela; Küpper, Clemens; Mühlhausen, Chris; Kovacs-Nagy, Reka; Satanovskij, Robin; Graf, Elisabeth; Berutti, Riccardo; Eckstein, Gertrud; Durbin, Richard; Sauer, Sascha; Hoffmann, Georg F.; Strom, Tim M.; Santer, René; Meitinger, Thomas; Klopstock, Thomas; Prokisch, Holger; Haack, Tobias B.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular diagnosis of mitochondrial disorders is challenging because of extreme clinical and genetic heterogeneity. By exome sequencing, we identified three different bi-allelic truncating mutations in TANGO2 in three unrelated individuals with infancy-onset episodic metabolic crises characterized by encephalopathy, hypoglycemia, rhabdomyolysis, arrhythmias, and laboratory findings suggestive of a defect in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. Over the course of the disease, all individuals developed global brain atrophy with cognitive impairment and pyramidal signs. TANGO2 (transport and Golgi organization 2) encodes a protein with a putative function in redistribution of Golgi membranes into the endoplasmic reticulum in Drosophila and a mitochondrial localization has been confirmed in mice. Investigation of palmitate-dependent respiration in mutant fibroblasts showed evidence of a functional defect in mitochondrial β-oxidation. Our results establish TANGO2 deficiency as a clinically recognizable cause of pediatric disease with multi-organ involvement. PMID:26805782

  1. Livelihoods, power, and food insecurity: adaptation of social capital portfolios in protracted crises--case study Burundi.

    PubMed

    Vervisch, Thomas G A; Vlassenroot, Koen; Braeckman, Johan

    2013-04-01

    The failure of food security and livelihood interventions to adapt to conflict settings remains a key challenge in humanitarian responses to protracted crises. This paper proposes a social capital analysis to address this policy gap, adding a political economy dimension on food security and conflict to the actor-based livelihood framework. A case study of three hillsides in north Burundi provides an ethnographic basis for this hypothesis. While relying on a theoretical framework in which different combinations of social capital (bonding, bridging, and linking) account for a diverse range of outcomes, the findings offer empirical insights into how social capital portfolios adapt to a protracted crisis. It is argued that these social capital adaptations have the effect of changing livelihood policies, institutions, and processes (PIPs), and clarify the impact of the distribution of power and powerlessness on food security issues. In addition, they represent a solid way of integrating political economy concerns into the livelihood framework.

  2. Pneumomédiastin compliquant une crise d’éclampsie: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Doumiri, Mouhssine; Motiaa, Youssef; Oudghiri, Nezha; Saoud, Anas Tazi

    2014-01-01

    Le pneumomédiastin associé à l'emphysème sous cutané et le pneumothorax, sont des complications rares de la grossesse et surviennent au cours du travail obstétrical. Nous rapportons l'observation d'une parturiente de 25ans, sans antécédent pathologique particulier, admise pour une crise d’éclampsie à 36 semaines d'aménorrhées avec une mort fœtale et trouble de la conscience. L'examen clinique a montré un emphysème sous cutané étendu du visage jusqu’à l'abdomen sans notion de traumatisme et un score de Glasgow à 10. Après mise en condition, traitement de la crise d’éclampsie, stabilisation de la tension artérielle et retour à l’état de conscience, une TDM cervico-thoraco-abdominale a été demandée et a révélé la présence d'un pneumomédiastin important avec un discret pneumothorax droit postérieur et un pneumopéritoine important qui n'ont pas nécessité de drainage pleural. Deux jours après son admission, la patiente a expulsé un mort-né d'un poids de 1800 grammes avec forceps et sans efforts d'expulsions sous analgésie péridurale. Le contrôle radiologique à une semaine a noté une nette diminution de l'emphysème sous cutané et du pneumomédiastin. La patiente a quitté l'hôpital après dix jours. PMID:25838864

  3. Institutional and relational determinants in high- and medium-extent food product crises: the inner perspective of a public health crisis.

    PubMed

    Charlebois, Sylvain; Horan, Hilary

    2010-08-01

    In 2008, Canada enacted its biggest-ever food recall in response to a Listeria crisis, stemming from a Maple Leaf Foods plant, that killed 22 Canadians. Afterwards, Maple Leaf's market share quickly returned to pre-crisis levels, but the long-term repercussions of the scare still reverberate in Maple Leaf's brand. In this case study, which offers an organizational perspective on the food recall, data was collected, through in-depth interviews of persons involved in the crisis response, and analyzed. The aim of this paper is to make transparent the ways in which Maple Leaf Foods organized their resources to manage the 2008 food recall. Results reveal that institutional and relational determinants are the most important factors in high- and medium-extent food product crises, whereas external and internal effects primarily influence an organization's capacity to cope with severe crises. Based on these findings, a conceptual framework is presented and managerial implications are discussed.

  4. ET-1 and ecNOS gene polymorphisms andsusceptibility to acute chest syndrome and painful vaso-occlusive crises in children with sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Chaar, Vicky; Tarer, Vanessa; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Diara, Jean Pierre; Elion, Jacques; Romana, Marc

    2006-09-01

    The association of endothelin 1 (ET-1) and endothelial constitutive nitric oxide synthase (ecNOS) gene polymorphisms (G5665T and T8002C, VNTR and T-786C respectively) with the occurrence of acute chest syndrome and painful vaso-occlusive crises was evaluated in homozygous SS children. This retrospective study reveals that ET-1 T8002 and ecNOS C-786 alleles are associated with, respectively, an increased and a decreased risk of acute chest syndrome.

  5. Effectiveness of Mechanisms and Models of Coordination between Organizations, Agencies and Bodies Providing or Financing Health Services in Humanitarian Crises: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Akl, Elie A.; El-Jardali, Fadi; Bou Karroum, Lama; El-Eid, Jamale; Brax, Hneine; Akik, Chaza; Osman, Mona; Hassan, Ghayda; Itani, Mira; Farha, Aida; Pottie, Kevin; Oliver, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    Background Effective coordination between organizations, agencies and bodies providing or financing health services in humanitarian crises is required to ensure efficiency of services, avoid duplication, and improve equity. The objective of this review was to assess how, during and after humanitarian crises, different mechanisms and models of coordination between organizations, agencies and bodies providing or financing health services compare in terms of access to health services and health outcomes. Methods We registered a protocol for this review in PROSPERO International prospective register of systematic reviews under number PROSPERO2014:CRD42014009267. Eligible studies included randomized and nonrandomized designs, process evaluations and qualitative methods. We electronically searched Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the WHO Global Health Library and websites of relevant organizations. We followed standard systematic review methodology for the selection, data abstraction, and risk of bias assessment. We assessed the quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. Results Of 14,309 identified citations from databases and organizations' websites, we identified four eligible studies. Two studies used mixed-methods, one used quantitative methods, and one used qualitative methods. The available evidence suggests that information coordination between bodies providing health services in humanitarian crises settings may be effective in improving health systems inputs. There is additional evidence suggesting that management/directive coordination such as the cluster model may improve health system inputs in addition to access to health services. None of the included studies assessed coordination through common representation and framework coordination. The evidence was judged to be of very low quality. Conclusion This systematic review provides evidence of possible effectiveness of information coordination

  6. The Opportunities of Crises and Emergency Risk Communication in Activities of Serbian Public Health Workforce in Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Radović, V; Ćurčić, L

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was a recommendation and establishment the concept of the appropriate communication between public health, other competent services and population in emergency as the corner stone which guarantee that all goals which are important for community life will be achieved. Methods: We used methodology appropriate for social science: analyses of documents, historical approach and comparative analysis. Results: The finding shows the urgent need for accepting of crises and emergency risk communication principles, or some similar concepts, in Serbia, and implementing effective two way communication especially in multiethnic region. The pragmatic value of the paper lays in information about the recent improvement of health workforce and emergency services in emergencies using new concept of communication and as source of numerous useful documents published in USA and few recent Serbian examples. Conclusion: Health workforce has significant role in the process of protection of population in emergencies. Policy makers should work on finding a way to improve their coordination and communication, creating new academic programs, providing of adequate training, and financial means in order to give them different role in society and provide visibility. From other side health workforce should build back to the citizen trust in what they are doing for society welfare using all their skills and abilities. PMID:23308348

  7. The Crisis Intervention Team Model of Police Response to Mental Health Crises: A Primer for Mental Health Practitioners.

    PubMed

    Watson, Amy C; Fulambarker, Anjali J

    2012-12-01

    As persons with mental illnesses and law enforcement become increasingly entangled, the collaboration of police and mental health service providers has become critical to appropriately serving the needs of individuals experiencing mental health crises. This article introduces the Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) Model as a collaborative approach to safely and effectively address the needs of persons with mental illnesses, link them to appropriate services, and divert them from the criminal justice system if appropriate. We discuss the key elements of the CIT model, implementation and its related challenges, as well as variations of the model. While this model has not undergone enough research to be deemed an Evidence-Based Practice, it has been successfully utilized in many law enforcement agencies worldwide and is considered a "Best Practice" model in law enforcement. This primer for mental health practitioners serves as an introduction to a model that may already be utilized in their community or serve as a springboard for the development CIT programs where they do not currently exist.

  8. The Crisis Intervention Team Model of Police Response to Mental Health Crises: A Primer for Mental Health Practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Amy C.; Fulambarker, Anjali J.

    2013-01-01

    As persons with mental illnesses and law enforcement become increasingly entangled, the collaboration of police and mental health service providers has become critical to appropriately serving the needs of individuals experiencing mental health crises. This article introduces the Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) Model as a collaborative approach to safely and effectively address the needs of persons with mental illnesses, link them to appropriate services, and divert them from the criminal justice system if appropriate. We discuss the key elements of the CIT model, implementation and its related challenges, as well as variations of the model. While this model has not undergone enough research to be deemed an Evidence-Based Practice, it has been successfully utilized in many law enforcement agencies worldwide and is considered a “Best Practice” model in law enforcement. This primer for mental health practitioners serves as an introduction to a model that may already be utilized in their community or serve as a springboard for the development CIT programs where they do not currently exist. PMID:24039557

  9. The food, fuel, and financial crises affect the urban and rural poor disproportionately: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Ruel, Marie T; Garrett, James L; Hawkes, Corinna; Cohen, Marc J

    2010-01-01

    The vulnerability of the urban poor to the recent food and fuel price crisis has been widely acknowledged. The unfolding global financial crisis, which brings higher unemployment and underemployment, is likely to further intensify this vulnerability. This paper reviews the evidence concerning the disproportionate vulnerability of the urban compared with the rural poor to these types of shocks. It reviews some of the unique characteristics of urban life that could make the urban poor particularly susceptible to price and financial shocks and summarizes the evidence regarding the disproportionate vulnerability of the urban poor. The focus is on impacts on poverty, food insecurity, and malnutrition. The review shows that although the urban poor are clearly one of the population groups most affected by the current (and previous) crises, the rural poor, landless, and net buyers are in no better position to confront the crisis without significant suffering. The poorest of the poor are the ones who will be most affected, irrespective of the continent, country, or urban or rural area where they live. The magnitude and severity of their suffering depends on their ability to adapt and on the specific nature, extent, and duration of the coping strategies they adopt. A better understanding of how these coping strategies are used and staggered is critical to help design triggers for action that can prevent households from moving to more desperate measures. Using these early coping strategies as early warning indicators could help prevent dramatic losses in welfare.

  10. Recurrent Muscle Weakness with Rhabdomyolysis, Metabolic Crises, and Cardiac Arrhythmia Due to Bi-allelic TANGO2 Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Lalani, Seema R.; Liu, Pengfei; Rosenfeld, Jill A.; Watkin, Levi B.; Chiang, Theodore; Leduc, Magalie S.; Zhu, Wenmiao; Ding, Yan; Pan, Shujuan; Vetrini, Francesco; Miyake, Christina Y.; Shinawi, Marwan; Gambin, Tomasz; Eldomery, Mohammad K.; Akdemir, Zeynep Hande Coban; Emrick, Lisa; Wilnai, Yael; Schelley, Susan; Koenig, Mary Kay; Memon, Nada; Farach, Laura S.; Coe, Bradley P.; Azamian, Mahshid; Hernandez, Patricia; Zapata, Gladys; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Muzny, Donna M.; Lotze, Timothy; Clark, Gary; Wilfong, Angus; Northrup, Hope; Adesina, Adekunle; Bacino, Carlos A.; Scaglia, Fernando; Bonnen, Penelope E.; Crosson, Jane; Duis, Jessica; Maegawa, Gustavo H.B.; Coman, David; Inwood, Anita; McGill, Jim; Boerwinkle, Eric; Graham, Brett; Beaudet, Art; Eng, Christine M.; Hanchard, Neil A.; Xia, Fan; Orange, Jordan S.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Lupski, James R.; Yang, Yaping

    2016-01-01

    The underlying genetic etiology of rhabdomyolysis remains elusive in a significant fraction of individuals presenting with recurrent metabolic crises and muscle weakness. Using exome sequencing, we identified bi-allelic mutations in TANGO2 encoding transport and Golgi organization 2 homolog (Drosophila) in 12 subjects with episodic rhabdomyolysis, hypoglycemia, hyperammonemia, and susceptibility to life-threatening cardiac tachyarrhythmias. A recurrent homozygous c.460G>A (p.Gly154Arg) mutation was found in four unrelated individuals of Hispanic/Latino origin, and a homozygous ∼34 kb deletion affecting exons 3–9 was observed in two families of European ancestry. One individual of mixed Hispanic/European descent was found to be compound heterozygous for c.460G>A (p.Gly154Arg) and the deletion of exons 3–9. Additionally, a homozygous exons 4–6 deletion was identified in a consanguineous Middle Eastern Arab family. No homozygotes have been reported for these changes in control databases. Fibroblasts derived from a subject with the recurrent c.460G>A (p.Gly154Arg) mutation showed evidence of increased endoplasmic reticulum stress and a reduction in Golgi volume density in comparison to control. Our results show that the c.460G>A (p.Gly154Arg) mutation and the exons 3–9 heterozygous deletion in TANGO2 are recurrent pathogenic alleles present in the Latino/Hispanic and European populations, respectively, causing considerable morbidity in the homozygotes in these populations. PMID:26805781

  11. The impact of critical event checklists on medical management and teamwork during simulated crises in a surgical daycare facility.

    PubMed

    Everett, T C; Morgan, P J; Brydges, R; Kurrek, M; Tregunno, D; Cunningham, L; Chan, A; Forde, D; Tarshis, J

    2017-03-01

    Although the incidence of major adverse events in surgical daycare centres is low, these critical events may not be managed optimally due to the absence of resources that exist in larger hospitals. We aimed to study the impact of operating theatre critical event checklists on medical management and teamwork during whole-team operating theatre crisis simulations staged in a surgical daycare facility. We studied 56 simulation encounters (without and with a checklist available) divided between an initial session and then a retention session several months later. Medical management and teamwork were quantified via percentage adherence to key processes and the Team Emergency Assessment Measure, respectively. In the initial session, medical management was not improved by the presence of a checklist (56% without checklist vs. 62% with checklist; p = 0.50). In the retention session, teams performed significantly worse without the checklists (36% without checklist vs. 60% with checklist; p = 0.04). We did not observe a change in non-technical skills in the presence of a checklist in either the initial or retention sessions (68% without checklist vs. 69% with checklist (p = 0.94) and 69% without checklist vs. 65% with checklist (p = 0.36), respectively). Critical events checklists do not improve medical management or teamwork during simulated operating theatre crises in an ambulatory surgical daycare setting.

  12. Autopsy statistics on the relative frequency of acute myocardial infarction in the Japanese mental workers and the unemployed during the two oil-crises periods.

    PubMed

    Chang, N C; Kawai, S; Okada, R

    1989-03-20

    In order to investigate whether job induced emotional stress, arising from socioenvironmental disasters would act as a trigger for the onset of AMI, the author reviewed all pathological autopsies throughout Japan 15 years old and over. Data was obtained from publications of the "Annual of the Pathological Autopsy Cases in Japan" for the years 1966-1968 (a period of high economic growth), 1973-1975 (1974, the year of the first oil crisis), and 1978-1980 (1979, the year of the second oil crisis). Relative frequencies of AMI were significantly higher during the years of both oil crises than in both the preceding and following years (2.6% in 1973, 3.7% in 1974, 3.0% in 1975; 2.8% in 1978, 3.2% in 1979, and 2.0% in 1980), and in each of three years of the high economic growth period (1.9-2.2% in 1966-1968). The proportions of managers and officials among AMI victims were significantly higher in the years of both oil crises than in both the preceding and following years (13.4% in 1973, 17.5% in 1974, 12.5% in 1975; 11.6% in 1978, 15.8% in 1979, and 11.1% in 1980). Moreover, there was a significantly higher value in the year of first oil crisis than in each of three years of the high economic growth period (11.7-13.1% in 1966-1968). The proportions of "out of job" persons were also significantly higher in the years of both oil crises than in the preceding years (24.0% in 1973, 29.3% in 1974, 27.8% in 1975; 24.1% in 1978, 29.1% in 1979, and 27.4% in 1980). For 11,199 randomly selected autopsies, the proportions of AMI in the above two occupational groups were significantly higher in the years of both oil crises than in the preceding years. Moreover, the proportion of "out of job" persons was significantly higher in the year of first oil crisis than in each of three years of the high economic growth period. A similar trend was noted among professional and technical workers, with more AMI occurring in this group during the years of both oil crises than in both the preceding

  13. Crise convulsive chez les abuseurs de Tramadol et caféine: à propos de 8 cas et revue de la littérature

    PubMed Central

    Maiga, Djibo Douma; Seyni, Houdou; Sidikou, Amadou; Azouma, Alfazazi

    2012-01-01

    Nous rapportons Huit cas de crises convulsives diagnostiquées comme maladie épileptique après ingestion de Tramadol et d'autres substances psychotropes dont la Caféine dans une région ou maladie épileptique et addiction au café sont fréquentes. L'objectif de ce travail était d'informer les praticiens sur le risque de convulsion lié à la consommation du Tramadol seul ou en association avec d'autres psychotropes en s'appuyant sur les données de la littérature. Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective et exhaustive de patients vus en consultation ambulatoire pour crise convulsive et consommation de Tramadol et de caféine de janvier à mai 2012. Les données collectées étaient les caractéristiques sociodémographiques et de la consommation de Tramadol. Le diagnostic de crise convulsive a été posé sur les renseignements obtenus à l'anamnèse. Tous les patients ont été soumis à un examen neurologique et aux critères de dépendance du Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSMIV)-R par rapport à leur consommation de Tramadol. Nous n'avons pas trouvé dans la littérature médicale de cas de consommation concomitante de Tramadol et de Caféine. Les données expérimentales suggèrent une action synergique du Tramadol et de la Caféine sur la douleur et le seuil épileptogène. Nos observations plaident également en faveur d'une synergie d'action de ces deux molécules dans la survenue des crises convulsives. La fréquence des crises convulsives suite à une intoxication par le Tramadol et la caféine est susceptible d'augmenter en Afrique en raison du mésusage croissant de ces substances. Une étude comparative usagers de Tramadol associé à la Caféine et usagers du Tramadol seul devrait permettre d’évaluer le risque. PMID:23308329

  14. Forecasting of magnitude and duration of currency crises based on the analysis of distortions of fractal scaling in exchange rate fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uritskaya, Olga Y.

    2005-05-01

    Results of fractal stability analysis of daily exchange rate fluctuations of more than 30 floating currencies for a 10-year period are presented. It is shown for the first time that small- and large-scale dynamical instabilities of national monetary systems correlate with deviations of the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) exponent from the value 1.5 predicted by the efficient market hypothesis. The observed dependence is used for classification of long-term stability of floating exchange rates as well as for revealing various forms of distortion of stable currency dynamics prior to large-scale crises. A normal range of DFA exponents consistent with crisis-free long-term exchange rate fluctuations is determined, and several typical scenarios of unstable currency dynamics with DFA exponents fluctuating beyond the normal range are identified. It is shown that monetary crashes are usually preceded by prolonged periods of abnormal (decreased or increased) DFA exponent, with the after-crash exponent tending to the value 1.5 indicating a more reliable exchange rate dynamics. Statistically significant regression relations (R=0.99, p<0.01) between duration and magnitude of currency crises and the degree of distortion of monofractal patterns of exchange rate dynamics are found. It is demonstrated that the parameters of these relations characterizing small- and large-scale crises are nearly equal, which implies a common instability mechanism underlying these events. The obtained dependences have been used as a basic ingredient of a forecasting technique which provided correct in-sample predictions of monetary crisis magnitude and duration over various time scales. The developed technique can be recommended for real-time monitoring of dynamical stability of floating exchange rate systems and creating advanced early-warning-system models for currency crisis prevention.

  15. "Peer2Peer" – A university program for knowledge transfer and consultation in dealing with psychosocial crises in med-school and medical career

    PubMed Central

    Vajda, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Medical students are exposed to various psychosocial problems and challenges. Specific consultations services and programs can support them. “Peer2Peer” is such a consultation program and was implemented at the Medical University of Graz. It focusses on crisis intervention, psychosocial stress management, junior mentoring as well as student education in this field. Besides, it also offers student tutors of the program practical skills trainings. The program was restructured in winter term 2014/15. Methods: On the one hand, “Peer2Peer” gives insights into topics such as the current state of research concerning the students’ psychological strain and psychosocial crises in acutely stressful situations and preventive approaches for coping with these kinds of situations on the other hand. These aspects are taught by means of elective courses, lectures and workshops. Furthermore, “Peer2Peer” provides consultation services by student tutors who give face-to-face advice if required. These tutors receive ongoing training in organizational and professional issues. Results: Since the summer term of 2015, 119 students have been trained (via lectures and elective courses), while 61 contacts (short consultation) and 33 contacts (full consultation) have been supervisied. In total, two psychotherapeutic and one psychosocial follow ups were recommended. There are seven students who participate as tutors in the program. Conclusions: The “Peer2Peer” program is intended to enable a low-threshold access for medical students facing psychosocial crises situations and to help them in dealing with stress and learning problems. An increase in support contacts from the summer term of 2015 to the winter term of 2015/16 can be considered a success. A first evaluation of the different components of the program started in the winter semester of 2015/16. The student tutors have not only acquired practical skills in dealing with students in crises situations but also

  16. Averting comfortable lifestyle crises.

    PubMed

    Bilton, Rod

    2013-01-01

    How have climate change and diet shaped the evolution of human energy metabolism, and responses to vitamin C, fructose and uric acid? Through the last three millennia observant physicians have noted the association of inappropriate diets with increased incidence of obesity, heart disease, diabetes and cancer, and over the past 300 years doctors in the UK observed that overeating increased the incidence of these diseases. Anthropological studies of the Inuit culture in the mid-nineteenth century revealed that humans can survive and thrive in the virtual absence of dietary carbohydrate. In the 1960s, Cahill revealed the flexibility of human metabolism in response to partial and total starvation and demonstrated that type 2 diabetics were better adapted than healthy subjects to conserving protein during fasting. The potential role for brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in temperature maintenance and dietary calorie control was suggested by Rothwell and Stock from their experiments with 'cafeteria fed rats' in the 1980s. Recent advances in gene array studies and PET scanning support a role for this process in humans. The industrialisation of food processing in the twentieth century has led to increases in palatability and digestibility with a parallel loss of quality leading to overconsumption and the current obesity epidemic. The switch from animal to vegetable fats at the beginning of the twentieth century, followed by the rapid increase in sugar and fructose consumption from 1979 is mirrored by a steep increase in obesity in the 1980s, in the UK and USA. Containment of the obesity epidemic is compounded by the addictive properties of sugar which involve the same dopamine receptors in the pleasure centres of the brain as for cocaine, nicotine and alcohol. Of the many other toxic effects of excessive sugar consumption, immunocompromisation, kidney damage, atherosclerosis, oxidative stress and cancer are highlighted. The WHO and guidelines on sugar consumption include: alternative non-sugar sweeteners; toxic side-effects of aspartame. Stevia and xylitol as healthy sugar replacements; the role of food processing in dietary health; and beneficial effects of resistant starch in natural and processed foods. The rise of maize and soya-based vegetable oils have led to omega-6 fat overload and imbalance in the dietary ratio of omega-3 to omega-6 fats. This has led to toxicity studies with industrial trans fats; investigations on health risks associated with stress and comfort eating; and abdominal obesity. Other factors to consider are: diet, cholesterol and oxidative stress, as well as the new approaches to the chronology of eating and the health benefits of intermittent fasting.

  17. Energy Crises in Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, John C.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses some long-range aspects of energy resources and consumption, including the history of current energy crisis, resource and reserve estimates, and future of the energy industry. Indicates that the United States of American has enough fossil and nuclear fuel to last, respectively, for 500 years and a million years. (CC)

  18. Forecasting Potential Crises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, William P.

    1984-01-01

    By foreseeing the possibility of crisis, we can plan how to respond. Five potential crisis areas are identified and possible consequences discussed. The areas are the warming of the earth; water shortage; collapse of the physical infrastructure, e.g., decay of roads; global financial crisis; and the threat of nuclear war. (Author/RM)

  19. A GCH1 haplotype confers sex-specific susceptibility to pain crises and altered endothelial function in adults with sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Belfer, Inna; Youngblood, Victoria; Darbari, Deepika S; Wang, Zhengyuan; Diaw, Lena; Freeman, Lita; Desai, Krupa; Dizon, Michael; Allen, Darlene; Cunnington, Colin; Channon, Keith M; Milton, Jacqueline; Hartley, Stephen W; Nolan, Vikki; Kato, Gregory J; Steinberg, Martin H; Goldman, David; Taylor, James G

    2014-02-01

    GTP cyclohydrolase (GCH1) is rate limiting for tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) synthesis, where BH4 is a cofactor for nitric oxide (NO) synthases and aromatic hydroxylases. GCH1 polymorphisms are implicated in the pathophysiology of pain, but have not been investigated in African populations. We examined GCH1 and pain in sickle cell anemia where GCH1 rs8007267 was a risk factor for pain crises in discovery (n = 228; odds ratio [OR] 2.26; P = 0.009) and replication (n = 513; OR 2.23; P = 0.004) cohorts. In vitro, cells from sickle cell anemia subjects homozygous for the risk allele produced higher BH4. In vivo physiological studies of traits likely to be modulated by GCH1 showed rs8007267 is associated with altered endothelial dependent blood flow in females with SCA (8.42% of variation; P = 0.002). The GCH1 pain association is attributable to an African haplotype with where its sickle cell anemia pain association is limited to females (OR 2.69; 95% CI 1.21-5.94; P = 0.01) and has the opposite directional association described in Europeans independent of global admixture. The presence of a GCH1 haplotype with high BH4 in populations of African ancestry could explain the association of rs8007267 with sickle cell anemia pain crises. The vascular effects of GCH1 and BH4 may also have broader implications for cardiovascular disease in populations of African ancestry.

  20. Probabilistic approach to decision making under uncertainty during volcanic crises. Retrospective analysis of the 2011 eruption of El Hierro, in the Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobradelo, Rosa; Martí, Joan; Kilburn, Christopher; López, Carmen

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the potential evolution of a volcanic crisis is crucial to improving the design of effective mitigation strategies. This is especially the case for volcanoes close to densely-populated regions, where inappropriate decisions may trigger widespread loss of life, economic disruption and public distress. An outstanding goal for improving the management of volcanic crises, therefore, is to develop objective, real-time methodologies for evaluating how an emergency will develop and how scientists communicate with decision makers. Here we present a new model BADEMO (Bayesian Decision Model) that applies a general and flexible, probabilistic approach to managing volcanic crises. The model combines the hazard and risk factors that decision makers need for a holistic analysis of a volcanic crisis. These factors include eruption scenarios and their probabilities of occurrence, the vulnerability of populations and their activities, and the costs of false alarms and failed forecasts. The model can be implemented before an emergency, to identify actions for reducing the vulnerability of a district; during an emergency, to identify the optimum mitigating actions and how these may change as new information is obtained; and after an emergency, to assess the effectiveness of a mitigating response and, from the results, to improve strategies before another crisis occurs. As illustrated by a retrospective analysis of the 2011 eruption of El Hierro, in the Canary Islands, BADEMO provides the basis for quantifying the uncertainty associated with each recommended action as an emergency evolves, and serves as a mechanism for improving communications between scientists and decision makers.

  1. Tsunamis as geomorphic crises: Lessons from the December 26, 2004 tsunami in Lhok Nga, West Banda Aceh (Sumatra, Indonesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris, Raphaël; Wassmer, Patrick; Sartohadi, Junun; Lavigne, Franck; Barthomeuf, Benjamin; Desgages, Emilie; Grancher, Delphine; Baumert, Philippe; Vautier, Franck; Brunstein, Daniel; Gomez, Christopher

    2009-03-01

    Large tsunamis are major geomorphic crises, since they imply extensive erosion, sediment transport and deposition in a few minutes and over hundreds of kilometres of coast. Nevertheless, little is known about their geomorphologic imprints. The December 26, 2004 tsunami in Sumatra (Indonesia) was one of the largest and deadliest tsunamis in recorded human history. We present a description of the coastal erosion and boulder deposition induced by the 2004 tsunami in the Lhok Nga Bay, located to the West of Banda Aceh (northwest Sumatra). The geomorphological impact of the tsunami is evidenced by: beach erosion (some beaches have almost disappeared); destruction of sand barriers protecting the lagoons or at river mouths; numerous erosion escarpments typically in the order of 0.5-1.5 m when capped by soil and more than 2 m in dunes; bank erosion in the river beds (the retreat along the main river is in the order of 5-15 m, with local retreats exceeding 30 m); large scars typically 20-50 cm deep on slopes; dislodgement of blocks along fractures and structural ramps on cliffs. The upper limit of erosion appears as a continuous trimline at 20-30 m a.s.l., locally reaching 50 m. The erosional imprints of the tsunami extend to 500 m from the shoreline and exceed 2 km along riverbeds. The overall coastal retreat from Lampuuk to Leupung was 60 m (550,000 m 2) and locally exceeded 150 m. Over 276,000 m 3 of coastal sediments were eroded by the tsunami along the 9.2 km of sandy coast. The mean erosion rate of the beaches was ~ 30 m 3/m of coast and locally exceeded 80 m 3/m. The most eroded coasts were tangent to the tsunami wave train, which was coming from the southwest. The fringing reefs were not efficient in reducing the erosional impact of the tsunami. The 220 boulders measured range from 0.3 to 7.2 m large (typically 0.7-1.5 m), with weights from over 50 kg up to 85 t. We found one boulder, less than 1 m large, at 1 km from the coastline, but all the others were

  2. What Good Are Positive Emotions in Crises? A Prospective Study of Resilience and Emotions Following the Terrorist Attacks on the United States on September 11th, 2001

    PubMed Central

    Fredrickson, Barbara L.; Tugade, Michele M.; Waugh, Christian E.; Larkin, Gregory R.

    2009-01-01

    Extrapolating from B. L. Fredrickson's (1998, 2001) broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, the authors hypothesized that positive emotions are active ingredients within trait resilience. U.S. college students (18 men and 28 women) were tested in early 2001 and again in the weeks following the September 11th terrorist attacks. Mediational analyses showed that positive emotions experienced in the wake of the attacks— gratitude, interest, love, and so forth—fully accounted for the relations between (a) precrisis resilience and later development of depressive symptoms and (b) precrisis resilience and postcrisis growth in psychological resources. Findings suggest that positive emotions in the aftermath of crises buffer resilient people against depression and fuel thriving, consistent with the broaden-and-build theory. Discussion touches on implications for coping. PMID:12585810

  3. What good are positive emotions in crises? A prospective study of resilience and emotions following the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11th, 2001.

    PubMed

    Fredrickson, Barbara L; Tugade, Michele M; Waugh, Christian E; Larkin, Gregory R

    2003-02-01

    Extrapolating from B. L. Fredrickson's (1998, 2001) broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, the authors hypothesized that positive emotions are active ingredients within trait resilience. U.S. college students (18 men and 28 women) were tested in early 2001 and again in the weeks following the September 11th terrorist attacks. Mediational analyses showed that positive emotions experienced in the wake of the attacks--gratitude, interest, love, and so forth--fully accounted for the relations between (a) precrisis resilience and later development of depressive symptoms and (b) precrisis resilience and postcrisis growth in psychological resources. Findings suggest that positive emotions in the aftermath of crises buffer resilient people against depression and fuel thriving, consistent with the broaden-and-build theory. Discussion touches on implications for coping.

  4. What Evidence Exists for Initiatives to Reduce Risk and Incidence of Sexual Violence in Armed Conflict and Other Humanitarian Crises? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Spangaro, Jo; Adogu, Chinelo; Ranmuthugala, Geetha; Powell Davies, Gawaine; Steinacker, Léa; Zwi, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Sexual violence is highly prevalent in armed conflict and other humanitarian crises and attracting increasing policy and practice attention. This systematic review aimed to canvas the extent and impact of initiatives to reduce incidence, risk and harm from sexual violence in conflict, post-conflict and other humanitarian crises, in low and middle income countries. Twenty three bibliographic databases and 26 websites were searched, covering publications from 1990 to September 2011 using database-specific keywords for sexual violence and conflict or humanitarian crisis. The 40 included studies reported on seven strategy types: i) survivor care; ii) livelihood initiatives; iii) community mobilisation; iv) personnel initiatives; v) systems and security responses; vi) legal interventions and vii) multiple component interventions. Conducted in 26 countries, the majority of interventions were offered in African countries. Despite the extensive literature on sexual violence by combatants, most interventions addressed opportunistic forms of sexual violence committed in post-conflict settings. Only one study specifically addressed the disaster setting. Actual implementation of initiatives appeared to be limited as was the quality of outcome studies. No studies prospectively measured incidence of sexual violence, although three studies provided some evidence of reductions in association with firewood distribution to reduce women's exposure, as did one program to prevent sexual exploitation and abuse by peacekeeping forces. Apparent increases to risk resulted from lack of protection, stigma and retaliation associated with interventions. Multiple-component interventions and sensitive community engagement appeared to contribute to positive outcomes. Significant obstacles prevent women seeking help following sexual violence, pointing to the need to protect anonymity and preventive strategies. This review contributes a conceptual framework for understanding the forms, settings

  5. What evidence exists for initiatives to reduce risk and incidence of sexual violence in armed conflict and other humanitarian crises? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Spangaro, Jo; Adogu, Chinelo; Ranmuthugala, Geetha; Powell Davies, Gawaine; Steinacker, Léa; Zwi, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Sexual violence is highly prevalent in armed conflict and other humanitarian crises and attracting increasing policy and practice attention. This systematic review aimed to canvas the extent and impact of initiatives to reduce incidence, risk and harm from sexual violence in conflict, post-conflict and other humanitarian crises, in low and middle income countries. Twenty three bibliographic databases and 26 websites were searched, covering publications from 1990 to September 2011 using database-specific keywords for sexual violence and conflict or humanitarian crisis. The 40 included studies reported on seven strategy types: i) survivor care; ii) livelihood initiatives; iii) community mobilisation; iv) personnel initiatives; v) systems and security responses; vi) legal interventions and vii) multiple component interventions. Conducted in 26 countries, the majority of interventions were offered in African countries. Despite the extensive literature on sexual violence by combatants, most interventions addressed opportunistic forms of sexual violence committed in post-conflict settings. Only one study specifically addressed the disaster setting. Actual implementation of initiatives appeared to be limited as was the quality of outcome studies. No studies prospectively measured incidence of sexual violence, although three studies provided some evidence of reductions in association with firewood distribution to reduce women's exposure, as did one program to prevent sexual exploitation and abuse by peacekeeping forces. Apparent increases to risk resulted from lack of protection, stigma and retaliation associated with interventions. Multiple-component interventions and sensitive community engagement appeared to contribute to positive outcomes. Significant obstacles prevent women seeking help following sexual violence, pointing to the need to protect anonymity and preventive strategies. This review contributes a conceptual framework for understanding the forms, settings

  6. [Insanity, life crises and longing for a "real life". On the discussion of deviant behavior and mental disorders in psychiatry of the 19th and 20th century].

    PubMed

    Kanis-Seyfried, Uta

    On insanity, life crises and the longing for a "right life". A contribution to the discussion on the deviant behavior and mental disorders in the psychiatry of the 19th and 20th centuries using the example of patient stories. History of psychiatry, understood as social and cultural history, provides the framework for this micro-historical article. Using the example of three patients treated in Wuerttemberg or Baden psychiatric asylums between 1875 and 1912, the article focuses on the critical analysis of types of asylums, their practices of admissions, therapies and power relations between patients and staff. Ways of thinking and acting, subjective experiences and emotions are exemplified by patient records, personal testimonials and contemporary publications again by patients and staff. The article examines options of patients to influence the institutional daily asylum routine against the background of its complexity and dynamics. Borders, manipulations, malingering and querulous paranoia are at stake here. Furthermore, the article reflects various forms of social interaction with the power regulating therapeutic and disciplinary aspects against the backdrop of the "canons of rules" of the asylum as well as the contemporary political and legal framework.

  7. Formulation and in vitro evaluation of a fast-disintegrating/sustained dual release bucoadhesive bilayer tablet of captopril for treatment of hypertension crises

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Sahar; Yousefi, Gholamhossein; Ansari, Ali Asghar; Mohammadi-Samani, Soliman

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension crisis is one of the main health problems and its effective treatment is of high importance. For this purpose, fast-disintegrating and sustained release formulations of captopril, as a drug of choice, were prepared using conventional mucoadhesive polymers hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (Na-CMC), hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), Carbopol 934 (CP934) and sodium alginate (Na-alg). The optimum sustained release formulations were selected based on mean dissolution time (MDT). The swellability and mucoadhesive properties of selected formulations were assessed and compared. A direct relationship between swelling and release rates/adhesiveness of sustained release formulations was observed. The results showed that formulations containing combination of CP934 and cellulose-based polymers had the highest swellability, sustainability and adhesion strength. These formulations prolonged drug release up to 8 h showing good fitness to Korsemeyer-Peppas model. Moreover, the adopted fast-disintegrating tablet could release up to 100% of drug within 3 min in oral pH. Finally, a dual fast-disintegrating/sustained release bucoadhesive bilayer tablet consisting of optimized formulations was prepared releasing 30% of the drug initially within 15 min and the remaining up to 8 h which could be considered as an appropriate formulation for the treatment of hypertension crises. PMID:27651807

  8. Hypertensive crises in quadriplegic patients. Changes in cardiac output, blood volume, serum dopamine-beta-hydroxylase activity, and arterial prostaglandin PGE2.

    PubMed

    Naftchi, N E; Demeny, M; Lowman, E W; Tuckman, J

    1978-02-01

    The syndrome of autonomic dysreflexia often occurs in quadriplegic subjects and is characterized by paroxysmal hypertension, headache, vasoconstriction below and flushing of the skin above the level of transection, and bradycardia. These attacks may cause hypertnesive encephalopathy, cerebral vascular accidents, and death. In five patients during crises, the mean arterial pressure changed from 95 to 154 mm Hg, heart rate 72 to 45 beats/min, cardiac output 4.76 to 4.70 L/min, and peripheral resistance 1650 to 2660 dynes.sec.cm-5. In eight subjects the control plasma, red cell, and total blood volumes were 19.1, 10.5, and 29.6 ml/cm body height, respectively, and when hypertensive, the plasma protein concentration increased by 9.9% and the hematocrit by 9.5%. Plasma volume was only reduced by an estimated 10-15%. At that time, arterial dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DbetaH) activity increased 65% and prostaglandin E2 concentration by 68%. Thus, the augmented DbetaH activity presented primarily an elevated sympathetic tone and not hemoconcentration of that protein. The rise in prostaglandin may contribute to the severe headaches during hypertensive episodes.

  9. CHESS: a computer-based system for providing information, referrals, decision support and social support to people facing medical and other health-related crises.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, D H; Bosworth, K; Hawkins, R P; Boberg, E W; Bricker, E

    1992-01-01

    CHESS (the Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System) is an interactive, computer-based system to support people facing health-related crises or concerns. CHESS provides information, referral to service providers, support in making tough decisions and networking to experts and others facing the same concerns. CHESS will improve access to health and human services for people who would otherwise face psychological, social, economic or geographic barriers to receiving services. CHESS has developed programs in five specific topic areas: Academic Crisis, Adult Children of Alcoholics, AIDS/HIV Infection, Breast Cancer and Sexual Assault. The lessons learned, and the structures developed, will serve as a model for future implementation of CHESS programs in a broad range of other topic areas. CHESS is designed around three major desired outcomes: 1) improving the emotional health status of users; 2) increasing the cost-effective use of health and human services; and 3) reducing the incidence of risk-taking behaviors that can lead to injury or illness. Pilot-testing and initial analysis of controlled evaluation data has shown that CHESS is extensively used, is useful and easy-to-use, and produces positive emotional outcomes. Further evaluation in continuing.

  10. Low-molecular-weight heparins for managing vasoocclusive crises in people with sickle cell disease: a summary of a cochrane systematic review.

    PubMed

    van Zuuren, Esther J; Fedorowicz, Zbys

    2014-01-01

    We summarize a Cochrane systematic review that was conducted to assess the effects of low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH) for managing vasoocclusive crises (VOC) in people with sickle cell disease. Sickle cell disease is one of the most common and severe genetic disorders in the world. It can be divided into three broadly distinct clinical phenotypes characterized by either hemolysis, pain syndromes or organ damage. Pain is the most prominent symptom of vasoocclusion, and hypercoagulability is a well-established pathogenic phenomenon in people with sickle cell disease. Searches included the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register, abstract books of conference proceedings and several online trials registries (December 2012). One study (with an overall unclear to high risk of bias) comprising 253 participants was included. This study provided limited data, but concluded that tinzaparin resulted in a more rapid resolution of pain, and in a statistically significant lower number of hospitalization days compared to a placebo. Two minor bleeding events were reported as adverse events in the tinzaparin group. Based on the results from this single study, there is incomplete evidence to either support or refute the effectiveness of LMWH in people with sickle cell disease.

  11. Which side of the balance determines the frequency of vaso-occlusive crises in children with sickle cell anemia: Blood viscosity or microvascular dysfunction?

    PubMed

    Charlot, Keyne; Romana, Marc; Moeckesch, Berenike; Jumet, Stéphane; Waltz, Xavier; Divialle-Doumdo, Lydia; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Petras, Marie; Tressières, Benoît; Tarer, Vanessa; Hue, Olivier; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Antoine-Jonville, Sophie; Connes, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Vascular resistance and tissue perfusion may be both affected by impaired vascular function and increased blood viscosity. Little is known about the effects of vascular function on the occurrence of painful vaso-occlusive crises (VOC) in children with sickle cell anemia (SCA). The aim of the present study was to determine which side of the balance (blood viscosity or vascular function) is the most deleterious in SCA and increases the risk for frequent hospitalized VOC. Microvascular function, microcirculatory oxygenation and blood viscosity were determined in a group of 22 SCA children/adolescents at steady state and a group of 13 healthy children/adolescents. Univariate analyses demonstrated blunted microvascular reactivity during local thermal heating test and decreased microcirculatory oxygenation in SCA children compared to controls. Multivariate analysis revealed that increased blood viscosity and decreased microcirculatory oxygenation were independent risk factors of frequent VOC in SCA. In contrast, the level of microvascular dysfunction does not predict VOC rate. In conclusion, increased blood viscosity is usually well supported in healthy individuals where vascular function is not impaired. However, in the context of SCA, microvascular function is impaired and any increase of blood viscosity or decrease in microcirculatory oxygenation would increase the risks for frequent VOC.

  12. Managing Community Resilience to Climate Extremes, Rapid Unsustainable Urbanization, Emergencies of Scarcity, and Biodiversity Crises by Use of a Disaster Risk Reduction Bank.

    PubMed

    Canyon, Deon V; Burkle, Frederick M; Speare, Rick

    2015-12-01

    Earth's climate is changing and national and international decision-makers are recognizing that global health security requires urgent attention and a significant investment to protect the future. In most locations, current data are inadequate to conduct a full assessment of the direct and indirect health impacts of climate change. All states require this information to evaluate community-level resilience to climate extremes and climate change. A model that is being used successfully in the United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand is recommended to generate rapid information to assist decision-makers in the event of a disaster. The model overcomes barriers to success inherent in the traditional ''top-down'' approach to managing crises and recognizes the capacity of capable citizens and community organizers to facilitate response and recovery if provided the opportunity and resources. Local information is a prerequisite for strategic and tactical statewide planning. Time and resources are required to analyze risks within each community and what is required to prevent (mitigate), prepare, respond, recover (rehabilitate), anticipate, and assess any threatening events. Specific requirements at all levels from state to community must emphasize community roles by focusing on how best to maintain, respond, and recover public health protections and the infrastructure necessary for health security.

  13. The Campi Flegrei caldera: historical revision and new data on seismic crises, bradyseisms, the Monte Nuovo eruption and ensuing earthquakes (twelfth century 1582 uc(ad))

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidoboni, Emanuela; Ciuccarelli, Cecilia

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a systematic historical study of the seismic, bradyseismic and eruptive activity of the Campi Flegrei caldera. The aim is to make a revised historical data available for accurate volcanological interpretation, supplying additional data and highlighting spurious previous data. The analysis begins with the supposed 1198 eruption, which did not actually take place. No information is available for the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. As far as the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries are concerned, only direct sources were examined for this paper, and they include many different types of evidence. The chronological breadth of the analysis has also provided information about the seismic crises and bradyseisms prior to the eruption of 1538. The exceptional nature of this 1538 eruption attracted the attention of intellectuals, diplomats and natural philosophers, who left valuable accounts, which we have analysed, and which include many that are still available in their original manuscript form. The previous studies concerning the 1538 eruption were based on 23 (variously used) sources. We have examined 35 additional sources bringing the overall corpus of sources analysed to 58. The results provide a more precise scenario of events preceding the 1538 eruption, including bradyseismic activity starting from the end of the fifteenth century. The chronology of the phenomena described comprises the core result of this study, and has been constructed so as to clarify the time, location and impact of each event. For the 1538 eruption, a countdown is included which may also have a predictive value. For the last 36 hours before eruption began, the countdown is hour-by-hour. The effects of the eruption and earthquakes on people, structures and society are also described for Pozzuoli, Agnano and Naples. The areas where heavy materials and ash fell are likewise indicated, as well are the earth tremors felt by the population from the eruptive crisis

  14. The Campi Flegrei caldera: historical revision and new data on seismic crises, bradyseisms, the Monte Nuovo eruption and ensuing earthquakes (twelfth century 1582 AD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidoboni, Emanuela; Ciuccarelli, Cecilia

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents the results of a systematic historical study of the seismic, bradyseismic and eruptive activity of the Campi Flegrei caldera. The aim is to make a revised historical data available for accurate volcanological interpretation, supplying additional data and highlighting spurious previous data. The analysis begins with the supposed 1198 eruption, which did not actually take place. No information is available for the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. As far as the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries are concerned, only direct sources were examined for this paper, and they include many different types of evidence. The chronological breadth of the analysis has also provided information about the seismic crises and bradyseisms prior to the eruption of 1538. The exceptional nature of this 1538 eruption attracted the attention of intellectuals, diplomats and natural philosophers, who left valuable accounts, which we have analysed, and which include many that are still available in their original manuscript form. The previous studies concerning the 1538 eruption were based on 23 (variously used) sources. We have examined 35 additional sources bringing the overall corpus of sources analysed to 58. The results provide a more precise scenario of events preceding the 1538 eruption, including bradyseismic activity starting from the end of the fifteenth century. The chronology of the phenomena described comprises the core result of this study, and has been constructed so as to clarify the time, location and impact of each event. For the 1538 eruption, a countdown is included which may also have a predictive value. For the last 36?| hours before eruption began, the countdown is hour-by-hour. The effects of the eruption and earthquakes on people, structures and society are also described for Pozzuoli, Agnano and Naples. The areas where heavy materials and ash fell are likewise indicated, as well are the earth tremors felt by the population from the eruptive

  15. Cenozoic evolution of the Pamir plateau recorded in surrounding basins, implications on Asian climate, land-sea distribution and biotic crises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont Nivet, G.; Yang, W.; Blayney, T.; Bougeois, L.; Manceau, C.; Najman, Y.; Proust, J. N.; Guo, Z.; Grothe, A.; Mandic, O.; Fioroni, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Cenozoic Pamir orogen formed in response to the India-Asia collision. Existing datasets shows that the range grew since ca. 25 Ma, however the early Cenozoic history remains unconstrained. In that period, global climate changed from greenhouse to icehouse, the proto-Paratethys sea retreated out of Asia and continental aridification as well as monsoons established over Asia. These environmental changes are held responsible for major floral and faunal crises. However, the causal relationships between these events remains to be established because of the lack of accurate age constraints on their geological records. Here, we provide well-dated stratigraphic records using magneto- and bio-stratigraphy from the basins surrounding the Pamir. Southeast of the Pamir, along the Kunlun Shan into the southwestern Tarim Basin, Eocene marine deposits are continuously overlain by 41 to 15 Ma continental redbeds themselves overlain by conglomerates in a classic foreland sequence with upward increasing grain-size, accumulation rates and provenance proximity. However, North of the Pamir along the southwestern Tian Shan and West of the Pamir into the Afghan-Tadjik Basin, the entire Oligocene period appears to be missing from the record between the last marine and the first continental sediments dated to the Early Miocene. This supports a simple model in response to initial Eocene Pamir indentation with foreland basin activation in the Southeast related to the Kunlun Shan northward thrusting, followed much later by early Miocene activation of the northern foreland basin related to the southwestern Tian Shan overthrusting. The coeval activation of a lithospheric right-lateral strike-slip system along the Pamir/Tarim boundary may have enabled to transfer deformation from the India-Asia collision to the Tian Shan and possibly the Talas Fergana fault. This simple model suggests the following two-stage paleoenvironmental evolution: (1) Late Eocene sea retreat linked to the onset of

  16. Triangulating Information from Recurrent Crises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verte, Lotte; De Moor, Gerrit

    2013-01-01

    Life Space Crisis Intervention (LSCI) is a therapeutic, verbal strategy for intervention with students in crisis. It explores a student's reactions to stressful events to gain insight into thinking, feelings, and behavior in order to strengthen resilience and self-esteem (Long, Wood, & Fecser, 2001). By exploring timelines of challenging…

  17. Psychosocial Crises of Older Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Kenneth

    Retirement is a major issue facing the older American man. Not only must he give up his work, a source of identity and self-esteem, the retiree must also face new relationships with his spouse, children, and peers; and he must learn to use leisure time appropriately. Widowerhood is a second major issue. Aside from deep emotional loss, the widower…

  18. Teacher Socialization through Career Crises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehrke, Nathalie J.; Taylor, Helen K.

    This study examined the nature of teacher layoffs and their effects on the role enactment and coping strategies of teachers. Fourteen high school teachers, who were employed in a large urban school district plagued by declining enrollment, were interviewed. Each teacher had been "riffed" (reduction in force) and recalled at least once in the…

  19. A Tale of Two Crises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frymier, Jack

    1990-01-01

    According to these scenarios, the heart attack victim has a better chance of surviving than the child facing grade retention. Despite parental objections and research studies showing that children held back are three time as likely to drop out of school than children who are promoted, the antiquated practice of grade repetition continues. (MLH)

  20. Responding to School Health Crises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomes, Patricia; Smith, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Today's school administrators face an increasing array of duties. Potentially one of the most serious responsibilities is student health services. It is estimated that 20% to 30% of all school-aged children in the U.S. have a health condition that may require monitoring. A survey of 60 new teachers in a medium-sized school district in California…

  1. Hyperdopaminergic crises in familial dysautonomia

    PubMed Central

    Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Lucy; Martinez, Jose; Axelrod, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether carbidopa (Lodosyn), an inhibitor of dopa-decarboxylase that blocks the synthesis of dopamine outside the brain, is an effective antiemetic in patients with familial dysautonomia (FD) and hyperdopaminergic nausea/retching/vomiting attacks. Methods: We enrolled 12 patients with FD in an open-label titration and treatment study to assess the safety of carbidopa. We then conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study to evaluate its antiemetic efficacy. Results: Previous fundoplication surgery in each patient studied prevented vomiting, but all of the subjects experienced severe cyclical nausea and uncontrollable retching that was refractory to standard treatments. Carbidopa at an average daily dose of 480 mg (range 325–600 mg/day) was well tolerated. In the double-blind phase, patients experienced significantly less nausea and retching while on carbidopa than on placebo (p < 0.03 and p < 0.02, respectively). Twenty-four-hour urinary dopamine excretion was significantly lower while on carbidopa (147 ± 32 µg/gCr) than while on placebo (222 ± 41µg/gCr, p < 0.05). Conclusions: Carbidopa is a safe and effective antiemetic in patients with FD, likely by reducing the formation of dopamine outside the brain. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class II evidence that carbidopa is effective in reducing nausea/retching/vomiting in patients with FD. PMID:23553478

  2. The HAWK Federation and the Development of Black Adolescent Males: Toward a Solution to the Crises of America's Young Black Men. Testimony before the Select Committee on Children, Youth and Families. Congressional Hearings on America's Young Black Men: Isolated and in Trouble (Washington, D.C., July 25, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nobles, Wade W.

    Sources of the crises faced by young black men lie not in the young men, but in society which portrays them as stereotypes. Social conditions are at the root of the following problems of black males: (1) lowered life expectancy; (2) risk of criminality; (3) poor economic conditions; (4) inadequate education; (5) drugs and gang violence; and (6)…

  3. DNA polymorphisms at the BCL11A, HBS1L-MYB, and beta-globin loci associate with fetal hemoglobin levels and pain crises in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Lettre, Guillaume; Sankaran, Vijay G; Bezerra, Marcos André C; Araújo, Aderson S; Uda, Manuela; Sanna, Serena; Cao, Antonio; Schlessinger, David; Costa, Fernando F; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Orkin, Stuart H

    2008-08-19

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a debilitating monogenic blood disorder with a highly variable phenotype characterized by severe pain crises, acute clinical events, and early mortality. Interindividual variation in fetal hemoglobin (HbF) expression is a known and potentially heritable modifier of SCD severity. High HbF levels are correlated with reduced morbidity and mortality. Common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the BCL11A and HBS1L-MYB loci have been implicated previously in HbF level variation in nonanemic European populations. We recently demonstrated an association between a BCL11A SNP and HbF levels in one SCD cohort [Uda M, et al. (2008) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:1620-1625]. Here, we genotyped additional BCL11A SNPs, HBS1L-MYB SNPs, and an SNP upstream of (G)gamma-globin (HBG2; the XmnI polymorphism), in two independent SCD cohorts: the African American Cooperative Study of Sickle Cell Disease (CSSCD) and an SCD cohort from Brazil. We studied the effect of these SNPs on HbF levels and on a measure of SCD-related morbidity (pain crisis rate). We strongly replicated the association between these SNPs and HbF level variation (in the CSSCD, P values range from 0.04 to 2 x 10(-42)). Together, common SNPs at the BCL11A, HBS1L-MYB, and beta-globin (HBB) loci account for >20% of the variation in HbF levels in SCD patients. We also have shown that HbF-associated SNPs associate with pain crisis rate in SCD patients. These results provide a clear example of inherited common sequence variants modifying the severity of a monogenic disease.

  4. Psychologists' Response to Crises: International Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Paul; Seaton, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Tragically, for many schools, the possibility of a crisis such as a natural disaster, extreme violence or a potentially traumatising threat has become a reality. Specialist input from a local psychology service is often sought at such a time. To help one service within the United Kingdom (UK) learn from the experience of other psychologists a…

  5. For aerospace programs, the crises continue.

    PubMed

    Looney, Paul; Beavin, Michael

    2003-05-01

    The Legislative Update column reports on President Bush's supplemental budget request for the war in Iraq, the formation of a defense caucus in the House of Representatives, stabilized funding for airport security, the Department of Homeland Security budget, NASA's budget request, funding for NASA's aeronautics program, and NASA's new authorization. NASA's FY04 budget request is $15.47 billion, less than 1% more than FY03. The aeronautics program budget request for FY04 is $959 million, a decrease of 8.5% from FY03. Congress is working to introduce a multiyear authorization for NASA during the 108th session.

  6. Crises and Turbulence: Sources, Assessments, Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    monetary policy , debt relief, trade barriers aad preferences, technology transfer, aid, and commodity transactions, we find as important parts of the...Department predominance in international monetary policy , responsibility for the issue bundles of the NIEO is Widely scattered among Executive units with...interna- tional monetary policy , Congress has taken pains to keep the Executive on an exceedingly short leash and has made numerous case-by-case

  7. Facing Mental Health Crises on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trela, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    Educating the student body on mental health involves outreach to groups not normally exposed to this information, including athletes, ethnic groups, residence hall inhabitants, fraternities and sororities, and international students. Frontline responders can help facilitate this outreach through initiatives that involve presentations by counselors…

  8. [Grief and crises in Norse literature].

    PubMed

    Høyersten, J G

    1993-03-30

    The significance of literature for psychiatry and vice versa is commented on, as an introduction to a study of Norse literature. This was written down mainly in Iceland in the 13th Century on the basis of oral traditions, some of which date back to the 9th century. From a psychological point of view, the Icelandic Sagas, the Royal Sagas of Snorri Sturluson and the earliest hero-poems of the Edda are of particular interest. This literature includes detailed descriptions of grief and crisis reactions, the management and rituals of grief, and the associated rituals. These patterns have a striking similarity to modern principles of crisis intervention.

  9. Natural hazard metaphors for financial crises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Gordon

    2001-02-01

    Linguistic metaphors drawn from natural hazards are commonly used at times of financial crisis. A brewing storm, a seismic shock, etc., evoke the abruptness and severity of a market collapse. If the language of windstorms, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions is helpful in illustrating a financial crisis, what about the mathematics of natural catastrophes? Already, earthquake prediction methods have been applied to economic recessions, and volcanic eruption forecasting techniques have been applied to market crashes. The purpose of this contribution is to survey broadly the mathematics of natural catastrophes, so as to convey the range of underlying principles, some of which may serve as mathematical metaphors for financial applications.

  10. The Function of Ambiguity in Child Crises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Myron

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the function of ambiguity" (an attitude of hatibual uncertainty, vagueness, and imprecision of communication) in crisis situations involving adult-child interchanges. Makes suggestions for medical and psychiatric counselors. Paper was presented at the meeting of the American Association of Psychiatric Clinics for Children, Boston,…

  11. Technical Staffing Crises and Managing Systems Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Charles K.

    2007-01-01

    Case method teaching is not limited to larger, complex cases. It is often useful to supplement classroom discussions with short cases, ones that have been targeted for one or two discussion points that challenge student thinking beyond the usual lecture or textbook. These shorter cases are called "minicases." The objective of a minicase is to…

  12. Contagion: epidemiological models and financial crises.

    PubMed

    Peckham, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Since the 1990s, economists have drawn on the epidemiology of emerging infectious diseases to explain the diffusion of shock through an increasingly complex financial system. The successful coordination of public health responses to disease threats, and in particular the epidemiological modelling underpinning infection control, has influenced economists' understanding of the risks posed to the stability of the financial system by 'contagion'. While the exportation of analytic models and frames of reference can be fruitful, reinvigorating the destination domain, such analogizing can have a distorting effect. There are differences between biological and financial systems. Moreover, the migration of highly context-specific epidemiological models may undermine the basis of the analogy. Finally, there may be repercussions for the efficacy of public health in the way that its aims are misconstrued in financial analyses.

  13. Black Psyches in Captivity and Crises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulhan, Hussein Abdilahi

    1979-01-01

    Blacks who gain consciousness of their ordained factorship have come to terms with both a personal and a collective past tainted with the scars of slavery, colonialism, and cultural capitulation. Genuine rehabilitation and social reconstruction occur only through critical appraisals of the root causes of social reality. (Author/WI)

  14. Liquidity crises on different time scales.

    PubMed

    Corradi, Francesco; Zaccaria, Andrea; Pietronero, Luciano

    2015-12-01

    We present an empirical analysis of the microstructure of financial markets and, in particular, of the static and dynamic properties of liquidity. We find that on relatively large time scales (15 min) large price fluctuations are connected to the failure of the subtle mechanism of compensation between the flows of market and limit orders: in other words, the missed revelation of the latent order book breaks the dynamical equilibrium between the flows, triggering the large price jumps. On smaller time scales (30 s), instead, the static depletion of the limit order book is an indicator of an intrinsic fragility of the system, which is related to a strongly nonlinear enhancement of the response. In order to quantify this phenomenon we introduce a measure of the liquidity imbalance present in the book and we show that it is correlated to both the sign and the magnitude of the next price movement. These findings provide a quantitative definition of the effective liquidity, which proves to be strongly dependent on the considered time scales.

  15. Managing crises effectively: an intervention model.

    PubMed

    Lawler, T G; Yount, E H

    1987-11-01

    The nature of our work in health care is such that it lends itself to high levels of ambiguity at best and frequently even to the presence of crisis situations. The ability to manage crisis, therefore, is an increasingly vital skill for nurse executives. Creative and productive possibilities can arise from coping well with such serious and unusual events. This article suggests a model for crisis management.

  16. Rural Development: Goals, Dynamics, Crises and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jehlik, Paul J.

    The continuing transition of rural development from its old to present day form is discussed, treating varied perceptions of its goals and the continuing resolution of approaches through legislation and appropriations. Some of the goals are community development, human resources development, natural resources preservation, and a more equitable…

  17. Mid-Life Professional Crises: Two Hypotheses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinell, C. F.

    Burnout must be considered as symptomatic of a serious event in a person's life--a mid-life crisis, as it is widely termed. Numerous writings point out that during a period of life, roughly between the ages of 30 and 55, many people reach a crisis brought on by the realization that everyone's career, status, and life are measurable and limited.…

  18. Endogenous versus Exogenous Origins of Crises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sornette, Didier

    Are large biological extinctions such as the Cretaceous/Tertiary KT boundary due to a meteorite, extreme volcanic activity or self-organized critical extinction cascades? Are commercial successes due to a progressive reputation cascade or the result of a well orchestrated advertisement? Determining the chain of causality for Xevents in complex systems requires disentangling interwoven exogenous and endogenous contributions with either no clear signature or too many signatures. Here, I review several efforts carried out with collaborators which suggest a general strategy for understanding the organizations of several complex systems under the dual effect of endogenous and exogenous fluctuations. The studied examples are: internet download shocks, book sale shocks, social shocks, financial volatility shocks, and financial crashes. Simple models are offered to quantitatively relate the endogenous organization to the exogenous response of the system. Suggestions for applications of these ideas to many other systems are offered.

  19. Liquidity crises on different time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corradi, Francesco; Zaccaria, Andrea; Pietronero, Luciano

    2015-12-01

    We present an empirical analysis of the microstructure of financial markets and, in particular, of the static and dynamic properties of liquidity. We find that on relatively large time scales (15 min) large price fluctuations are connected to the failure of the subtle mechanism of compensation between the flows of market and limit orders: in other words, the missed revelation of the latent order book breaks the dynamical equilibrium between the flows, triggering the large price jumps. On smaller time scales (30 s), instead, the static depletion of the limit order book is an indicator of an intrinsic fragility of the system, which is related to a strongly nonlinear enhancement of the response. In order to quantify this phenomenon we introduce a measure of the liquidity imbalance present in the book and we show that it is correlated to both the sign and the magnitude of the next price movement. These findings provide a quantitative definition of the effective liquidity, which proves to be strongly dependent on the considered time scales.

  20. Improvements in haemolysis and indicators of erythrocyte survival do not correlate with acute vaso-occlusive crises in patients with sickle cell disease: a phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of the Gardos channel blocker senicapoc (ICA-17043).

    PubMed

    Ataga, Kenneth I; Reid, Marvin; Ballas, Samir K; Yasin, Zahida; Bigelow, Carolyn; James, Luther St; Smith, Wally R; Galacteros, Frederic; Kutlar, Abdullah; Hull, James H; Stocker, Jonathan W

    2011-04-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) hydration is regulated in part by the Ca(2+) -activated K(+) efflux (Gardos) channel. Senicapoc selectively blocks potassium efflux through the Gardos channel, reducing RBC dehydration and haemolysis, and increasing haemoglobin levels in sickle cell disease (SCD). This randomized, placebo-controlled trial was designed to determine the safety and clinical efficacy of senicapoc in SCD patients. One hundred and forty-five patients were randomized to receive senicapoc and 144 patients to receive placebo for 52 weeks. Consistent with a previous study, patients in the senicapoc group had significantly increased haematocrit, haemoglobin, and decreased numbers of both dense erythrocytes and reticulocytes when compared to the placebo group. The unblinded Data Monitoring Committee terminated this study early due to a lack of efficacy when it determined that, despite improvements in anaemia and haemolysis, no significant improvement in the rate of sickle cell painful crises was observed in patients treated with senicapoc compared to those on placebo (0·38 vs. 0·31, respectively). Comparisons of the times to first, second and third crises between the senicapoc and placebo groups were not statistically significant. Nausea and urinary tract infections occurred more frequently in the senicapoc group than placebo. Serious adverse events were similar in the two groups.

  1. [The effects of economic crises on health care].

    PubMed

    Chang, Nai-Hsin; Huang, Chiu-Ling; Yang, Yu-O

    2010-08-01

    In September 2008, financial turmoil on Wall Street led to severe losses in that country's financial derivatives market and plunged the United States into the most severe financial crisis in over a decade. The backlash of this "financial tsunami" has affected countries around the world. The world economy, facing the most critical financial crisis since the 1930s, must deal with recession, severe unemployment and general fears of worse to come, which have, in turn, spawned a range of physical, psychological and spiritual problems. In this article we study the effects of the economic crisis on healthcare from several angles, including: decreasing incomes causing changing attitudes toward seeking healthcare; decreasing numbers of people covered by medical insurance; increasing impact on the job market of untreated illnesses; changing national healthcare policies in response to economic pressures; increasing physical, psychological and social problems resulting from economic problems; and the need for the nursing profession to respond to these and other rapid changes in the healthcare landscape. Nursing staff are sometimes unaware of social problems outside their profession. This article may, therefore, provide a general reference to medical and nursing staff on the effects of the economic crisis on healthcare.

  2. Priorities for Adult Education in a World of Crises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echeverria, Luis

    1983-01-01

    The economic crisis facing the world today shows us very clearly that we ought to rethink, redefine and characterize with precision the new role of adult education. A new role should help in contributing effectively to the quest for new ways, truly different alternatives toward a true and authentic development. (SSH)

  3. Coordination for Effective Performance during Crises When Training Matters.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-29

    Organizational learning ; training; crisis; communication 05 09 breakdowns; simulation 𔄃 ABSTRACT IContinue on reverse if necessary and identify by block...an untrained organization team structure may be more optimal. Keywords: " Organizational learning * Training * Crisis " Communication Breakdowns...behavior is historically based (Lindblom, 1959; Steinbruner, 1974; Levitt and March, 1988); organizational learning depends, at least in part, on the

  4. [Burnout. Stress coping disorder and meaning of life crises].

    PubMed

    Brühlmann, T

    2013-09-01

    Burnout is not a medical diagnosis but a developmental aberration which is associated with the risk of subsequent mental and somatic diseases. It can be summarized under a fatigue process with stress symptoms, societal-linked stressors and a driving force stress intensifier. In the mental stress circle, burnout presents as an accelerated vicious spiral driven by high demands. Therapeutic stress management encompasses improvement in life balance, cognitive information processing and functionality of the behavioral pattern as well as deceleration of the stress spiral. Burnout is also a meaning of life crisis, triggered by the narrowing of performance and success. The anthropological therapeutic approach targets an enhancement of self-conception and lifestyle. Other available therapy approaches for burnout include pharmacotherapy, coaching, management consulting and inpatient treatment.

  5. New Drug Might Reduce Sickle Cell Pain Crises

    MedlinePlus

    ... at the meeting of the American Society of Hematology, in San Diego. They'll also be published ... Medicine ; Dec. 4, 2016, presentation, American Society of Hematology meeting, San Diego HealthDay Copyright (c) 2016 HealthDay . ...

  6. Murder-suicide: A reaction to interpersonal crises.

    PubMed

    Haines, Janet; Williams, Christopher L; Lester, David

    2010-10-10

    The aim of this study was to examine the nature of homicide-suicides and determine the ways in which they differ from suicides without the perpetration of homicide in terms of their demographic characteristics, suicide, medical and psychiatric history, their psychological state leading up to the suicide, and their motives for their suicidal behavior. Cases of homicide-suicide from a 20-year period were extracted from the Coroner's inquest files and were matched to suicide-only cases on the basis of age and sex. The characteristics that predominantly distinguished the homicide-suicides were based on psychological state leading up to the act and motive for the act. It is proposed that homicide-suicides may be better understood within an expressive homicide framework.

  7. Using social media to communicate during crises: an analytic methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Marjorie

    2011-06-01

    The Emerging Media Integration Team at the Department of the Navy Office of Information (CHINFO) has recently put together a Navy Command Social Media Handbook designed to provide information needed to safely and effectively use social media. While not intended to be a comprehensive guide on command use of social media or to take the place of official policy, the Handbook provides a useful guide for navigating a dynamic communications environment. Social media are changing the way information is diffused and decisions are made, especially for Humanitarian Assistance missions when there is increased emphasis on Navy commands to share critical information with other Navy command sites, government, and official NGO (nongovernmental organization) sites like the American Red Cross. In order to effectively use social media to support such missions, the Handbook suggests creating a centralized location to funnel information. This suggests that as the community of interest (COI) grows during a crisis, it will be important to ensure that information is shared with appropriate organizations for different aspects of the mission such as evacuation procedures, hospital sites, location of seaports and airports, and other topics relevant to the mission. For example, in the first 14 days of the U.S. Southern Command's Haiti HA/DR (Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief) mission, the COI grew to over 1,900 users. In addition, operational conditions vary considerably among incidents, and coordination between different groups is often set up in an ad hoc manner. What is needed is a methodology that will help to find appropriate people with whom to share information for particular aspects of a mission during a wide range of events related to the mission. CNA has developed such a methodology and we would like to test it in a small scale lab experiment.

  8. Cultural considerations in child and adolescent psychiatric emergencies and crises.

    PubMed

    Pumariega, Andres J; Rothe, Eugenio

    2003-10-01

    The United States is a country of immigrants. With the exception of Native Americans, every other American is, or descends from, an immigrant. First- and second-generation immigrant children are the most rapidly growing segment of the American population. The future of American society is ultimately related to the adaptation of these children. Addressing psychiatric emergencies in these populations requires attention to their cultural differences and needs.

  9. Black swans, wicked problems, and science during crises

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Machlis, G.E.; McNutt, M.K.

    2011-01-01

    Oceanic resources face challenges that are significant and widespread, including (but not limited to) overharvesting, climate change, selected stock collapse, coral reef decline, species extinction, pollution, and more. These challenges are the focus of much ocean science, which is helping to inform policy and guide management actions. The steady growth of research results and the emergence of new research needs have been systematically reviewed through periodic assessments, such as those of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (Valdés et al., 2010).

  10. Apologies and Public Relations Crises at Chrysler, Toshiba, and Volvo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearit, Keith Michael

    1994-01-01

    Analyzes the corporate apologetic discourses of three paradigmatic cases (at Chrysler, Toshiba, and Volvo) and examines the use of persuasive descriptions and strategic dissociations preferred by these corporate apologists. Shows how organizations label their wrongdoing in a way that displays sorrow but limits culpability and use dissociations to…

  11. Lessons for Health From Insights into Environmental Crises.

    PubMed

    Benatar, Solomon; Poland, Blake

    2016-10-01

    The health of whole populations within nations and globally and the implications of climate change are two of the most important challenges facing humanity in the 21st century. Both are components of a complex global crisis that must be acknowledged and addressed. Here we draw the attention of health professionals to some emerging threats and insights from key works of environmentalists in the hope that these may catalyze reflection on the broader challenges facing human health at a time of deep planetary malaise.

  12. Impact Crises, Mass Extinctions, and Galactic Dynamics: A Unified Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampino, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    A general hypothesis linking mass extinctions of life with impacts of large asteroids and comets is based on astronomical data, impact dynamics, and geological information. The waiting times of large-body impacts on the Earth, derived from the flux of Earth-crossing asteroids and comets, and the estimated size of impacts capable of causing large-scale environmental disasters predict that impacts of objects (sup 3)5 km in diameter ((sup 3)10(exp 7) Mt TNT equivalent) could be sufficient to explain the record of about 25 extinction pulses in the last 540 m.y., with the five recorded major mass extinctions related to the impacts of the largest objects of (sup 3)10 km in diameter ( (sup 3)10(exp 8) Mt events). Smaller impacts (about 10(exp 6)-10(exp 7) Mt), with significant regional and even global environmental effects, could be responsible for the lesser boundaries in the geologic record. Tests of the "kill curve" relationship for impact-induced extinctions based on new data on extinction intensities and several well-dated large impact craters suggest that major mass extinctions require large impacts, and that a step in the kill curve may exist at impacts that produce craters of -100 km diameter, with smaller impacts capable of only relatively weak extinction pulses. Single impact craters < about 60 km in diameter should not be associated with global extinction pulses detectable in the Sepkoski database (although they may explain stage and zone boundaries marked by lesser faunal turnover), but multiple impacts in that size range may produce significant stepped extinction pulses. Statistical tests of the last occurrences of species at mass-extinction boundaries are generally consistent with predictions for abrupt or stepped extinctions, and several boundaries are known to show "catastrophic" signatures of environmental disasters and biomass crash, impoverished postextinction fauna and flora dominated by stress-tolerant and opportunistic species, and gradual ecological recovery and radiation of new taxa. Isotopic and other geochemical signatures are also generally consistent with the expected after-effects of catastrophic impacts. Seven of the recognized extinction pulses are associated with concurrent (in some cases multiple) stratigraphic impact markers (e.g., layers with high Ir, shocked minerals, microtektites), and/or large, dated impact craters. Other less-well-studied crisis intervals show elevated Ir, still well below that of the K/T spike, which might be explained by low-Ir impactors, ejecta blowoff, or the sedimentary reworking and dilution of impact signatures. The best explanation for a possible periodic component of about 30 m.y. in mass extinctions and clusters of impacts is the modulation of the comet flux associated with the solar system's periodic passage through the plane of the Milky Way Galaxy. The quantitative agreement among paleontological, geological, and astronomical data suggests an important underlying unification of the processes involved.

  13. Political Leadership in the Time of Crises: Primum non Nocere.

    PubMed

    Burkle, Frederick M; Hanfling, Dan

    2015-05-29

    Long before the 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa, the United States was already experiencing a failure of confidence between politicians and scientists, primarily focused on differences of opinion on climate extremes. This ongoing clash has culminated in an environment where politicians most often no longer listen to scientists. Importation of Ebola virus to the United States prompted an immediate political fervor over travel bans, sealing off borders and disputes over the reliability of both quarantine and treatment protocol. This demonstrated that evidenced- based scientific discourse risks taking a back seat to political hyperbole and fear. The role of public health and medical expertise should be to ensure that cogent response strategies, based upon good science and accumulated knowledge and experience, are put in place to help inform the development of sound public policy. But in times of crisis, such reasoned expertise and experience are too often overlooked in favor of the partisan press "sound bite", where fear and insecurity have proved to be severely counterproductive. While scientists recognize that science cannot be entirely apolitical, the lessons from the impact of Ebola on political discourse shows that there is need for stronger engagement of the scientific community in crafting messages required for response to such events. This includes the creation of moral and ethical standards for the press, politicians and scientists, a partnership of confidence between the three that does not now exist and an "elected officials" toolbox that helps to translate scientific evidence and experience into readily acceptable policy and public communication.

  14. Crises are for using: The 1988 drought in Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Gerlach, L.P. )

    1993-01-01

    In 1988 Minnesotans responded to a crisis of severe drought with arguments and conflicts over plans to restrict water use and to augment water supply to the Minneapolis-St. Paul area with water from the northern headwaters of the Mississippi River. Officials, specialists, and their critics complained that these arguments and conflicts created a context of disorder that frustrated rational management of the biophysical crisis. They found that the disorder to which they referred was generated by active and at times deliberate institutional competition and debate among water stakeholders, both governmental and nongovernmental, as these stakeholders used the crisis as an opportunity to advance or defend institutional objectives argues that the socio-cultural disorder is characteristic not of institutional confusion but of a process of building and managing complex institutional arrangements. The stakeholders' actions are orderly and predictable in that they are informed by their respective cultures of interest, identify, and meaning, and their interactions are orderly and predictable in that they are informed by their respective cultures of interest, identify, and meaning, and their interactions are orderly in that they represent strategic exchanges, expressed through rhetorical discourse. The competing parties defer to no single authority; rather, they came to terms through negotiation, which is polycentric and voluntary rather than centralized and authoritarian. Importantly, the parties interacted in episodes of biophysical and then socio-political crisis. They used each crisis as an opportunity to promote competing organizational goals, hence provoking new crisis. But through this turbulent process they generated new, complex water management arrangements and wove this into new social relationships and cultural designs.

  15. [Complex febrile crises: should we change the way we act?].

    PubMed

    Martinez-Cayuelas, E; Herraiz-Martinez, M; Villacieros-Hernandez, L; Cean-Cabrera, L; Martinez-Salcedo, E; Alarcon-Martinez, H; Domingo-Jimenez, R; Perez-Fernandez, V

    2014-11-16

    Introduccion. Las convulsiones febriles son una de las causas mas frecuentes de consulta. Hasta ahora, los pacientes con convulsiones febriles complejas (CFC) deben ingresar, dado el mayor porcentaje de epilepsia y complicaciones agudas descrito clasicamente. En la actualidad hay estudios que apoyan ser menos invasivos en el abordaje de estos pacientes. Objetivo. Describir las caracteristicas de los pacientes ingresados por CFC y proponer un nuevo protocolo de actuacion. Pacientes y metodos. Analisis retrospectivo de historias clinicas de ingresados por CFC (enero de 2010-diciembre de 2013). Se ofrecen datos epidemiologicos, clinicos, pruebas complementarias y evolucion. Resultados. Las CFC suponian un 4,2% de los ingresos de neuropediatria (n = 67). Edad media al evento: 25 meses. El 47% tenia antecedentes familiares patologicos, y el 31%, antecedentes personales de convulsion febril previa. En el 54% de los pacientes, la CFC duro menos de cinco minutos; hubo recurrencia, la mayoria con un total de dos crisis y durante el primer dia (las CFC por recurrencia son las mas frecuentes). De las pruebas complementarias realizadas, ninguna de ellas sirvio como apoyo diagnostico en el momento agudo. Durante su seguimiento, cinco pacientes presentaron complicaciones. Los pacientes con antecedentes familiares de convulsiones febriles presentan mayor riesgo de epilepsia o recurrencia (p = 0,02), sin diferencias significativas respecto a la edad, numero de crisis, intervalo de fiebre, estado epileptico o tipo de CFC. Conclusiones. Las CFC no asocian mayores complicaciones agudas; las exploraciones complementarias no permiten discriminar precozmente a los pacientes de riesgo. Su ingreso podria evitarse en ausencia de otros signos clinicos y limitarse a casos seleccionados.

  16. Religiosity and Self-Destructive Crises in the Institutionalized Elderly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Franklyn L.

    1977-01-01

    This study focuses on the relationship of intensity of religious commitment to use of indirect life-threatening behavior among elderly, chronically ill hospital patients. Findings indicate intensity of religious commitment is a potentially more meaningful measure of religiosity than formal church membership. (Author)

  17. Political Leadership in the Time of Crises: Primum non Nocere

    PubMed Central

    Burkle, Frederick M.; Hanfling, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Long before the 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa, the United States was already experiencing a failure of confidence between politicians and scientists, primarily focused on differences of opinion on climate extremes. This ongoing clash has culminated in an environment where politicians most often no longer listen to scientists. Importation of Ebola virus to the United States prompted an immediate political fervor over travel bans, sealing off borders and disputes over the reliability of both quarantine and treatment protocol. This demonstrated that evidenced- based scientific discourse risks taking a back seat to political hyperbole and fear. The role of public health and medical expertise should be to ensure that cogent response strategies, based upon good science and accumulated knowledge and experience, are put in place to help inform the development of sound public policy. But in times of crisis, such reasoned expertise and experience are too often overlooked in favor of the partisan press “sound bite”, where fear and insecurity have proved to be severely counterproductive. While scientists recognize that science cannot be entirely apolitical, the lessons from the impact of Ebola on political discourse shows that there is need for stronger engagement of the scientific community in crafting messages required for response to such events. This includes the creation of moral and ethical standards for the press, politicians and scientists, a partnership of confidence between the three that does not now exist and an “elected officials” toolbox that helps to translate scientific evidence and experience into readily acceptable policy and public communication. PMID:26069853

  18. School Buses Answer Calls for Help in Crises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borja, Rhea R.

    2005-01-01

    Five days after Hurricane Katrina struck New Orleans, a convoy of 142 air-conditioned school buses from the 209,000-student Texas district rumbled to life. Loaded with food and bottled water, staffed by 350 school employees, and accompanied by bus-repair trucks and a phalanx of school police cars, the yellow buses traveled all night to reach the…

  19. The Strategy for Safety: Preventing Crises through Safety Audits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Sara Goldsmith

    2013-01-01

    In this article the author demonstrates the importance of school safety audits and describes what schools should focus on in a safety audit. Ultimately, each school should determine its own safety audit strategy based on its unique circumstances, including the type of community within which it is located, the age of the students it serves, and the…

  20. The Environment of Crises in the Nigerian Education System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwagwu, Cordelia C.

    1997-01-01

    During 1960-95, unplanned and uncontrolled educational expansion in Nigeria, coupled with a population explosion, military coups, and a depressed economy, created an environment of crisis in the educational system. Problems included poor funding; inadequate facilities; corruption in admissions, certification, and examination practices; emergence…

  1. Controls from within the Classroom: Crises or Conversations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Mary Margaret; Valenti, Michael W.

    2009-01-01

    In sharp contrast to the specialized therapeutic environments Redl and Wineman describe in "Controls from Within," today's students with emotional and behavioral disorders usually find themselves in general education classrooms. Sadly, many general educators are not prepared for such challenging students. All too often, their interactions lead to…

  2. Thought Leaders during Crises in Massive Social Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Corley, Courtney D.; Farber, Robert M.; Reynolds, William

    2012-05-24

    The vast amount of social media data that can be gathered from the internet coupled with workflows that utilize both commodity systems and massively parallel supercomputers, such as the Cray XMT, open new vistas for research to support health, defense, and national security. Computer technology now enables the analysis of graph structures containing more than 4 billion vertices joined by 34 billion edges along with metrics and massively parallel algorithms that exhibit near-linear scalability according to number of processors. The challenge lies in making this massive data and analysis comprehensible to an analyst and end-users that require actionable knowledge to carry out their duties. Simply stated, we have developed language and content agnostic techniques to reduce large graphs built from vast media corpora into forms people can understand. Specifically, our tools and metrics act as a survey tool to identify thought leaders' -- those members that lead or reflect the thoughts and opinions of an online community, independent of the source language.

  3. Land-Based Air Power in Third World Crises

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    difficult task . Even in situations where discrete political objectives are sought by applying a measured degree of military force, it is virtually impossible...location almost as quickly as it deployed; and, unlike other forms of air power, land-based aircraft has the capability to be placed over virtually ...noteworthy that the ability of the United States to employ it is virtually unsurpassed in the international arena. Our most formidable competitor, the USSR

  4. Oxidative stress and energy crises in neuronal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, David G

    2008-12-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in many forms of cell death, particularly in the central nervous system. The mitochondria are required at the same time to generate adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) for the cell, sequester excess cytoplasmic Ca(2+), and both produce and detoxify superoxide free radicals. The electron transport chain and proton circuit are central in keeping these three balls in the air at the same time. We have investigated the bioenergetics of the in situ mitochondria in cultured neurons exposed to pathological glutamate concentrations to model glutamate excitotoxicity and have revised the conventional view that mitochondrial calcium loading results in increased oxidative stress that damages the mitochondrion and ultimately the cell. Instead, a central role is played under these conditions by limitations in mitochondrial and cellular ATP generating capacity. Sodium and calcium entering via the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor impose a large energetic load on cells and can use the entire respiratory capacity of the in situ mitochondria. As a result, even modest restrictions in mitochondrial capacity -- caused by low concentrations of electron transport chain inhibitors such as rotenone, as in models of Parkinson's disease; low concentrations of uncouplers, to test the so-called neuroprotective mild uncoupling hypothesis; or preexisting oxidative stress -- greatly potentiate glutamate excitotoxicity. Our findings may lead to a reevaluation of the potential for mild uncoupling to provide a neuroprotective role in aging-related neurodegenerative disorders because the deleterious consequences of restricting ATP generating capacity greatly outweigh the negligible effects on the levels of mitochondrial superoxide radicals in intact neurons.

  5. Conceptual crises and the addictions: a philosophy of science perspective.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, H J

    1986-01-01

    This article examines the field of addictions and suggests that it is in the midst of a conceptual crisis. As a result of its immaturity, the addiction's field evidences energy, naivete, curiosity, intensely conflicting and polarized explanations of its identity and purpose, anomalous research findings, and few "facts." From a philosophy of science perspective, these characteristics are considered as indicators of the developmental stages that are associated with the evolution of scientific disciplines. A philosophy of science perspective is applied to the history of the substance abuse field and the consequent implications examined. A discussion of normal science, language, the role of paradigms, and scientific reductionism is included.

  6. A Learning Cycle on Exponential Growth and the Energy Crises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykstra, D. I., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Describes nature and logistics of a learning cycle approach to teaching exponential growth and the energy crisis. Used with both science and nonscience majors, the cycle uses no algebra, never mentions the terms exponential or logarithmic, and requires a calculator. Instructions for obtaining student and instructor materials are provided.…

  7. Food security in protracted crises: building more effective policy frameworks.

    PubMed

    Flores, Margarita; Khwaja, Yasmeen; White, Philip

    2005-06-01

    This paper considers the principal elements that underpin policy frameworks for supporting food security in protracted crisis contexts. It argues that maintaining the food entitlements of crisis-affected populations must extend beyond interventions to ensure immediate human survival. A 'policy gap' exists in that capacities for formulating policy responses to tackle the different dimensions of food insecurity in complex, fluid crisis situations tend to be weak. As a result, standardised, short-term intervention designs are created that fall short of meeting the priority needs of affected populations in the short and long term and only partially exploit the range of policy options available. The paper discusses key attributes of agency frameworks that could support more effective policy processes to address longer term as well as immediate food security needs. Additionally, it points to some main challenges likely to be encountered in developing such frameworks and, with the participation of beneficiaries, translating them into effective action.

  8. The Role of European Security Institutions in Future Crises

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-05

    evolves into a true European Union though, the WEU wilt gradually replace NATO. CSCE wilt not only provide a platform for fundamental discussions on...around the EC with NATO providing the mili- tary component. As the EC evolves into a true European Union though, the WEU will gradually replace NATO...word .... ......... .. 82 The road to a European Union ... ......... 88 Strengths and weaknesses ..... ........... 91 Conclusion

  9. Same-Page Lessons from Front-Page Crises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    In a university's time of crisis, reporters will often attempt to catch the president and board members in conflicting responses in order to develop a "gotcha" news story. It is important for leaders not to take the bait. In times of crisis, board members and institutional leaders must not only control the message and flow of…

  10. Successful Career Women at Midlife: Crises and Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieblich, Amia

    1986-01-01

    Investigated life history of American career women (N=24) at midlife. The transitions experienced by these women during their lifetimes were categorized into "masculine" or "feminine" types. It was found that they were distributed about equally between the two types of transitions, thus excluding a simple biological approach.…

  11. Successful career women at midlife: crises and transitions.

    PubMed

    Lieblich, A

    1986-01-01

    Recent theories and studies have gradually clarified some of the psychological processes of middle age. Most interesting are the contributions that maintain different developmental processes for women and men. Three of the major theories in the area seem to converge in proposing a process of gradual cross-sex transition in adulthood, the result of which may be a more integrated or androgynous personality structure in the second half of life. A different model of adult development, centered on midlife crisis, was proposed by Levinson et al. as a universal stage in men's life cycle. Similar theory and research about women are not as conclusive. The present study investigated in depth the life history of twenty-five American career women at midlife. Such women sociologically combine feminine and masculine roles and may be considered as a test case for the theories. The transitions experienced by these women during their lifetimes were categorized into "masculine" or "feminine" types. It was found that they were distributed about equally between the two types of transitions, thus excluding a simple biological approach. Acute midlife crisis was reported by only about a third of the sample. It is proposed that the double role protects these women from acute crisis.

  12. Can Events Predict Violent Intra-State Crises?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Adversarial Intent Approved for release by Original signed by K.C. Wulterkens K.C. Wulterkens For Chair, Knowledge and Information Management Committee...Defence (DND) and the Canadian Forces (CF) for a more informed security assessment and contingency planning for the deployment of an intervention...approach, it might introduce irrelevant information that creates ‘noise’ in the analysis. Perhaps events should be filtered on the basis of the type of

  13. On Hospital Wards, Patient Crises May Have 'Domino Effect'

    MedlinePlus

    ... assistant professor of medicine at the University of Chicago, said in a university news release. "After caring ... patients who were admitted to the University of Chicago Medicine from 2009 to 2013. The researchers focused ...

  14. A Survey of LEA Guidance and Support for the Management of Crises in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibble, David G.

    1999-01-01

    An investigation into guidance and support offered schools by 17 (British) local education authorities found considerable variations. Every school should have a senior management team member responsible for critical incident planning. Schools need guidance in preventing and handling floods, fires, structural damage, and violent incidents. (21…

  15. A unified theory of impact crises and mass extinctions: quantitative tests.

    PubMed

    Rampino, M R; Haggerty, B M; Pagano, T C

    1997-05-30

    Several quantitative tests of a general hypothesis linking impacts of large asteroids and comets with mass extinctions of life are possible based on astronomical data, impact dynamics, and geological information. The waiting times of large-body impacts on the Earth derived from the flux of Earth-crossing asteroids and comets, and the estimated size of impacts capable of causing, large-scale environmental disasters, predict the impacts of objects > or = 5 km in diameter (> or = 10(7) Mt TNT equivalent) could be sufficient to explain the record of approximately 25 extinction pulses in the last 540 Myr, with the 5 recorded major mass extinctions related to impacts of the largest objects of > or = 10 km in diameter (> or = 10(8) Mt events). Smaller impacts (approximately 10(6) Mt), with significant regional environmental effects, could be responsible for the lesser boundaries in the geologic record. Tests of the "kill curve" relationship for impact-induced extinctions based on new data on extinction intensities, and several well-dated large impact craters, also suggest that major mass extinctions require large impacts, and that a step in the kill curve may exist at impacts that produce craters of approximately 100 km diameter, smaller impacts being capable of only relatively weak extinction pulses. Single impact craters less than approximately 60 km in diameter should not be associated with detectable global extinction pulses (although they may explain stage and zone boundaries marked by lesser faunal turnover), but multiple impacts in that size range may produce significant stepped extinction pulses. Statistical tests of the last occurrences of species at mass-extinction boundaries are generally consistent with predictions for abrupt or stepped extinctions, and several boundaries are known to show "catastrophic" signatures of environmental disasters and biomass crash, impoverished postextinction fauna and flora dominated by stress-tolerant and opportunistic species, and gradual ecological recovery and radiation of new taxa. Isotopic and other geochemical signatures are also generally consistent with the expected after-effects of catastrophic impacts. Seven of the recognized extinction pulses seem to be associated with concurrent (in some cases multiple) stratigraphic impact markers (e.g., layers with high iridium, shocked minerals, microtektites), and/or large, dated impact craters. Other less well-studied crisis intervals show elevated iridium, but well below that of the K/T spike, which might be explained by low-Ir impactors, ejecta blowoff, or sedimentary reworking and dilution of impact signatures. The best explanation for a possible periodic component of approximately 30 Myr in mass extinctions and clusters of impacts is the pulselike modulation of the comet flux associated with the solar system's periodic passage through the plane of the Milky Way Galaxy. The quantitative agreement between paleontologic and astronomical data suggests an important underlying unification of the processes involved.

  16. The Comprehensive School in Spain: A Review of Its Development Cycle and Crises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolívar, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe, analyse and evaluate the successive comprehensive reforms in Spain as a "paradigmatic" example of the emergence, evolution and crisis of the comprehensive school. In the first part, we describe the development of the comprehensive school project (1970-2013), using the image of the life cycle,…

  17. The effects of crises on differential mortality by sex in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Langsten, R

    1981-01-01

    Although the data available for secondary analysis are not ideal for the task at hand, they confirm that in normal times Bangladesh conforms to the South Asian pattern of sex differentials in mortality with females generally having higher death rates, and they clearly show that, in crisis years, the differential is inverted, with males in certain age groups suffering disproportionate increases in mortality. This crisis effect on sex differentials in mortality has been noted previously and on this point all observers appear to agree. Disagreement arises, however, as to the reasons why death rates among males increase more than those of females in crisis years. Explanations offered previously are either contradicted by available evidence or appear to be, at best, partial reasons for changes in some age groups. This paper reviews a number of suggested explanations, both cultural and demographic, which may provide an understanding of the mechanisms by which the normal sex specific mortality differentials are reversed at times of crisis. Some existing data, not currently available for detailed analysis, may be useful in examining some of the suggested reasons, particularly the demographic reasons. In the absence of far more information about intrafamilial decision making processes and how these may change in times of crisis, it is impossible to understand fully the reasons for changes in the mortality disadvantage. While the strong cultural bias favoring males offers a reason for lower male mortality, likely intervening variables such as nutrition and use of health facilities show only modest evidence of this bias. Crisis situations are those caused by war, severe flooding, price changes, and cyclones or other severe weather patterns, all of which impact on food production and access to health care.

  18. Crises in Campus Management. Case Studies in the Administration of Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauer, George J., Ed.

    The case study approach is used to analyze problems of college and university administration. Among the topics treated in this collection of essays are: from the expanding university to the steady state; university reorganization; the metropolitan state university; intercampus relations in multicampus universities; the politics of program reform;…

  19. Expanding the concept of significant choice through consideration of health literacy during crises.

    PubMed

    Wickline, Morgan; Sellnow, Timothy L

    2013-11-01

    Nilsen defined the concept of the ethic of significant as "choice making that is voluntary, free from physical or mental coercion . . . based on all the information available when the decision must be made." This study highlights the importance of speakers in crisis situations not only meeting the ethical stipulations of significant choice but also taking into consideration the health literacy of their audience. Health literacy is defined as the ability of individuals to gather, interpret, and understand information regarding health matters. To advance this claim, a case study involving a food recall is examined. Television news coverage was analyzed to observe the importance of both significant choice and health literacy in such public communication. The findings, from the standpoint of significant choice and health literacy, indicate that the messages disseminated during this crisis failed to account for a notable portion of the audience. From a practical standpoint this study asserts that clear and open communication cannot be considered only from the perspective of the party sending the message. Rather, careful consideration of the audience's ability to comprehend and act on the information is equally important.

  20. Bell ringers' bruises and broken bones: capers and crises in campanology.

    PubMed Central

    Lamont, A C; London, N J

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the incidence, aeriology, and outcome of injuries due to bell ringing. DESIGN--Retrospective review of the last six years' issues of Ringing World, advertisement in Ringing World, and a postal questionnaire sent to 20 active ringing towers. SUBJECTS--Regular bell ringers. RESULTS--Seventy nine injuries were identified both from review and by advertisement in Ringing World. The incidence of injury among 221 ringers identified by postal questionnaire was 1.8% a year. CONCLUSION--Although sonerous, bell ringing can be dangerous and occasionally even fatal. Doctors should be aware of the dangers to which campanologists expose themselves. Images FIG 3 FIG 4 PMID:2279156

  1. When It Rains It Pours: Crises at Oakmont University SACSA Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akers, C. Ryan; Heiselt, April K.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a case study at Oakmont University where a presidential debate will be held on campus. Oakmont University is a large public research institution located in the Southeastern United States. This Carnegie Doctoral/Research I institution enrolls more than 35,000, 75% undergraduate and 25% graduate students. Located in somewhat of…

  2. Misunderstood Dragon or Underestimated Panda: How China Reacts to External National Security Crises

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    Emphasis added. Scobell, 84. 28 Li, Millett, and Yu, 40. 29 Peng Dehuai, Memoirs of a Chinese Marshal: The Autobiographical Notes of Peng Dehuai...was prepared to fight, even if the US used nuclear weapons. 34 This message was not lost on the Johnson administration. The recent memory of US...1953. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2000. Dehuai, Peng. Memoirs of a Chinese Marshal: The autobiographical notes of Peng Dehuai (1898

  3. Navigating catastrophes: Local but not global optimisation allows for macro-economic navigation of crises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harré, Michael S.

    2013-02-01

    Two aspects of modern economic theory have dominated the recent discussion on the state of the global economy: Crashes in financial markets and whether or not traditional notions of economic equilibrium have any validity. We have all seen the consequences of market crashes: plummeting share prices, businesses collapsing and considerable uncertainty throughout the global economy. This seems contrary to what might be expected of a system in equilibrium where growth dominates the relatively minor fluctuations in prices. Recent work from within economics as well as by physicists, psychologists and computational scientists has significantly improved our understanding of the more complex aspects of these systems. With this interdisciplinary approach in mind, a behavioural economics model of local optimisation is introduced and three general properties are proven. The first is that under very specific conditions local optimisation leads to a conventional macro-economic notion of a global equilibrium. The second is that if both global optimisation and economic growth are required then under very mild assumptions market catastrophes are an unavoidable consequence. Third, if only local optimisation and economic growth are required then there is sufficient parametric freedom for macro-economic policy makers to steer an economy around catastrophes without overtly disrupting local optimisation.

  4. Dynamic Evolution of Financial Network and its Relation to Economic Crises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ya-Chun; Wei, Zong-Wen; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2013-02-01

    The static topology properties of financial networks have been widely investigated since the work done by Mantegna, yet their dynamic evolution with time is little considered. In this paper, we comprehensively study the dynamic evolution of financial network by a sliding window technique. The vertices and edges of financial network are represented by the stocks from S&P500 components and correlations between pairs of daily returns of price fluctuation, respectively. Furthermore, the duration of stock price fluctuation, spanning from January 4, 1985 to September 14, 2009, makes us to carefully observe the relation between the dynamic topological properties and big financial crashes. The empirical results suggest that the financial network has the robust small-world property when the time evolves, and the topological structure drastically changes when the big financial crashes occur. This correspondence between the dynamic evolution of financial network and big financial crashes may provide a novel view to understand the origin of economic crisis.

  5. Health in financial crises: economic recession and tuberculosis in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Arinaminpathy, Nimalan; Dye, Christopher

    2010-11-06

    The ongoing global financial crisis, which began in 2007, has drawn attention to the effect of declining economic conditions on public health. A quantitative analysis of previous events can offer insights into the potential health effects of economic decline. In the early 1990s, widespread recession across Central and Eastern Europe accompanied the collapse of the Soviet Union. At the same time, despite previously falling tuberculosis (TB) incidence in most countries, there was an upsurge of TB cases and deaths throughout the region. Here, we study the quantitative relationship between the lost economic productivity and excess TB cases and mortality. We use the data of the World Health Organization for TB notifications and deaths from 1980 to 2006, and World Bank data for gross domestic product. Comparing 15 countries for which sufficient data exist, we find strong linear associations between the lost economic productivity over the period of recession for each country and excess numbers of TB cases (r(2) = 0.94, p < 0.001) and deaths (r(2) = 0.94, p < 0.001) over the same period. If TB epidemiology and control are linked to economies in 2009 as they were in 1991 then the Baltic states, particularly Latvia, are now vulnerable to another upturn in TB cases and deaths. These projections are in accordance with emerging data on drug consumption, which indicate that these countries have undergone the greatest reductions since the beginning of 2008. We recommend close surveillance and monitoring during the current recession, especially in the Baltic states.

  6. "Soft" Pedagogy? The Invention of a "Feminine" Pedagogy as a Cause of Educational Crises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmerman, M. C.

    2011-01-01

    Every now and then the feminisation of the teaching force is put forth as a barrier to reduce educational equality between the sexes. The feminisation of education is supposed to have a negative impact on boys' achievement, causing educational as well as behavioural problems. It is not just boys who allegedly suffer; over the years, the…

  7. Earn, Learn...Serve? Federal Work-Study Program Confronts Midlife Crises as It Nears 40.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzick, Abbey

    2003-01-01

    Suggests that although research indicates that integrating work experience with schools is a key workforce development strategy, the Federal Work-Study (FWS) program, which provides campuses with matching funds to support part-time jobs for financially needy students, is being threatened. Describes the FWS program, noting that a growing body of…

  8. Existential crises in two religious patients: Vicissitudes of faith and the emergence of the true self.

    PubMed

    Fattori, Lucia; Secchi, Cesare

    2015-08-01

    The authors present two clinical cases involving an existential crisis which led the patients to lose what had been the foundation in their lives, their faith. Although the therapeutic settings differ--the first patient had a few psychotherapy sessions following a psychotic episode with a mystical background, while the second was in the final stage of analytic treatment - the authors highlight how in both clinical cases a loss of faith becomes a total and urgent crisis of the Self. The fracture which ensues seems to generate an intense engagement of the body which, paradoxically during a loss of faith, induces an experience of ecstasy of the kind that has traditionally been reported. In the first case the experience of ecstasy was lived first-hand by the patient who thereafter redefined the psychotic breakdown as a "moment of truth"; whereas the second patient, through a deep projective identification, induces an eerie countertransferential feeling of 'metaphysical' shortfall in the agnostic psychoanalyst, triggering bewilderment, physical discomfort and awe in him. In both cases the authors believe that the notable somatic involvement may be correlated to a potentially profound and unprecedented contact with the True Self.

  9. Coordinating Information and Decisions of Hierarchical Distributed Decision Units in Crises

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-08-01

    dynamic / turbulence structure cognitive complexity / cognitive style architecture cognitive map / mental model / policy organization confidence...designs for organizational decision systems. One simulation form is a computer model of the key variables; the other is a simulator with distributed...features are double edged but viewed solely as assets. For example, the development of shared mental models , while reducing communications needs, also

  10. The Changing Face of Crises and Aid in the Asia-Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Burkle, Frederick M.; Hamon, David W.; Walker, Peter; Benjamin, Georges C.

    2014-01-01

    Both US foreign policy and global attention attest to the strategic, economic, and political importance of Asia. Yet, the region faces urgent challenges that must be addressed if it is to remain stable and prosperous. The densely populated countries of the Asia-Pacific are beleaguered by poverty, population displacement, decreasing access to potable water and adequate sanitation, and high rates of disease morbidity and mortality. New and reemerging diseases known to have originated in Asia over the past decades have spread globally by international trade, tourism, worker migration, and agricultural exportation. Unremitting naturally occurring and man-made disasters have strained Southeast Asia's already fragile disaster and public health response infrastructures and the essential services they provide (eg, surveillance, vaccination, maternal and child health, and mental health programs). Following disasters, governments often contract with the broader humanitarian community (eg, indigenous and international NGOs) and seek the assistance of militaries to provide essential services. Yet, their roles and capabilities in addressing acute and chronic health issues in the wake of complex disasters remain unclear. Current mechanisms of nation-state and outside organization interaction, including dissimilar operational platforms, may limit true partnership on behalf of the health security mission. Additionally, concerns regarding skill sets and the lack of standards-based training raise questions about the balance between developing internal response capabilities and professionalizing external, deployable resources. Both the mega-disasters that are forecast for the region and the global health security threats that are expected to emanate from them require an increased focus on improving the Asia-Pacific's emergency preparedness and response posture. PMID:25268048

  11. Pathological basis of symptoms and crises in sickle cell disorder: implications for counseling and psychotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ilesanmi, Oluwatoyin Olatundun

    2010-01-01

    Sickle Cell Disorder (SCD) is a congenital hemoglobinopathy. There is little in literature regarding the psychological variables affecting individuals living with SCD and all of the significant people around them. There are also limited numbers of trained clinical psychologists and genetic counselors to cater for the psychotherapeutic needs of individuals living with SCD. Even among those who have been trained, only a few might have fully grasped the complexities of the disease pathology. Early understanding of its pathological nature, sources, types, complications, pathophysiological basis, and clinical severity of symptoms among clinical psychologists, genetic counselors and psychotherapists, as well as general medical practitioners, could guide them in providing holistic care for dealing with and reducing pain among individuals living with SCD. It could allow risk-based counseling for families and individuals. It could also justify the early use of disease-modifying or curative interventions, such as hydroxyurea (HU), chronic transfusions (CTs), or stem-cell transplantation (SCT) by general medical practitioners. Hence, the need for this paper on the pathophysiology of SCD. PMID:22184515

  12. Cultural Crises and Educational Change in Teacher Education: Challenge of the Eighties and Nineties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobeih, Nabil Ahmed Amer

    The contribution that education has made to the development of the world and the realization of human ideals is assessed, and the present social situation is analyzed against the background of inherited human values held in common by most people. Major societal changes are pointed out: the population explosion; urbanization; the rise of…

  13. War Criminals, War Victims: Andersonville, Nuremburg, Hiroshima, My Lai. Crises in World Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Lawrence, Ed.; And Others

    This pamphlet, intended for senior high school students, examines the complexities of applying international law to questions of individual rights and responsibilities in time of war. Case studies of four actual courtroom trials are presented. Events leading up to the trials (relating to Andersonville, Nuremberg, Hiroshima, and My Lai) are…

  14. Use of Naval Force in Crises: A Theory of Stratified Crisis Interaction. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    Reference to the Period 1944-1949," Department of State Publication 3573, Far Eastern Series 30, August 1949, pp. 59-411; Michael Schaller, The U.S...included a promise to close the "missile gap" alleged to exist with the Soviet Union. In his inaugural address in January, Kennedy 96 Michael R...Strobe Talbott (Boston: Little, Brown, 1970), p. 493. For discussions of the Soviet decision, see Michael Tatu, Power in the Kremlin: From Khrushchev to

  15. Real Time Tracking of Magmatic Intrusions by means of Ground Deformation Modeling during Volcanic Crises

    PubMed Central

    Cannavò, Flavio; Camacho, Antonio G.; González, Pablo J.; Mattia, Mario; Puglisi, Giuseppe; Fernández, José

    2015-01-01

    Volcano observatories provide near real-time information and, ultimately, forecasts about volcano activity. For this reason, multiple physical and chemical parameters are continuously monitored. Here, we present a new method to efficiently estimate the location and evolution of magmatic sources based on a stream of real-time surface deformation data, such as High-Rate GPS, and a free-geometry magmatic source model. The tool allows tracking inflation and deflation sources in time, providing estimates of where a volcano might erupt, which is important in understanding an on-going crisis. We show a successful simulated application to the pre-eruptive period of May 2008, at Mount Etna (Italy). The proposed methodology is able to track the fast dynamics of the magma migration by inverting the real-time data within seconds. This general method is suitable for integration in any volcano observatory. The method provides first order unsupervised and realistic estimates of the locations of magmatic sources and of potential eruption sites, information that is especially important for civil protection purposes. PMID:26055494

  16. Real Time Tracking of Magmatic Intrusions by means of Ground Deformation Modeling during Volcanic Crises.

    PubMed

    Cannavò, Flavio; Camacho, Antonio G; González, Pablo J; Mattia, Mario; Puglisi, Giuseppe; Fernández, José

    2015-06-09

    Volcano observatories provide near real-time information and, ultimately, forecasts about volcano activity. For this reason, multiple physical and chemical parameters are continuously monitored. Here, we present a new method to efficiently estimate the location and evolution of magmatic sources based on a stream of real-time surface deformation data, such as High-Rate GPS, and a free-geometry magmatic source model. The tool allows tracking inflation and deflation sources in time, providing estimates of where a volcano might erupt, which is important in understanding an on-going crisis. We show a successful simulated application to the pre-eruptive period of May 2008, at Mount Etna (Italy). The proposed methodology is able to track the fast dynamics of the magma migration by inverting the real-time data within seconds. This general method is suitable for integration in any volcano observatory. The method provides first order unsupervised and realistic estimates of the locations of magmatic sources and of potential eruption sites, information that is especially important for civil protection purposes.

  17. Real Time Tracking of Magmatic Intrusions by means of Ground Deformation Modeling during Volcanic Crises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannavò, Flavio; Camacho, Antonio G.; González, Pablo J.; Mattia, Mario; Puglisi, Giuseppe; Fernández, José

    2015-06-01

    Volcano observatories provide near real-time information and, ultimately, forecasts about volcano activity. For this reason, multiple physical and chemical parameters are continuously monitored. Here, we present a new method to efficiently estimate the location and evolution of magmatic sources based on a stream of real-time surface deformation data, such as High-Rate GPS, and a free-geometry magmatic source model. The tool allows tracking inflation and deflation sources in time, providing estimates of where a volcano might erupt, which is important in understanding an on-going crisis. We show a successful simulated application to the pre-eruptive period of May 2008, at Mount Etna (Italy). The proposed methodology is able to track the fast dynamics of the magma migration by inverting the real-time data within seconds. This general method is suitable for integration in any volcano observatory. The method provides first order unsupervised and realistic estimates of the locations of magmatic sources and of potential eruption sites, information that is especially important for civil protection purposes.

  18. Risk perceptions and trust following the 2010 and 2011 Icelandic volcanic ash crises.

    PubMed

    Eiser, J Richard; Donovan, Amy; Sparks, R Stephen J

    2015-02-01

    Eruptions at the Icelandic volcanoes of Eyjafjallajökull (2010) and Grimsvötn (2011) produced plumes of ash posing hazards to air traffic over northern Europe. In imposing restrictions on air traffic, regulators needed to balance the dangers of accidents or aircraft damage against the cost and inconvenience to travelers and industry. Two surveys examined how members of the public viewed the necessity of the imposed restrictions and their trust in different agencies as estimators of the level of risk. Study 1 was conducted with 213 British citizens (112 males, 101 females), who completed questionnaires while waiting for flights at London City Airport during May 2012. Study 2 involved an online survey of 301 Icelandic citizens (172 males, 127 females, 2 undeclared gender) during April 2012. In both samples, there was general support for the air traffic restrictions, especially among those who gave higher estimates of the likelihood of an air accident or mishap having otherwise happened. However, in both countries, the (minority of) respondents who had personally experienced travel disruption were less convinced that these restrictions were all necessary. Scientists, the International Civil Aviation Organization, and (in Iceland) the Icelandic Department of Civil Protection were all highly trusted, and seen as erring on the side of caution in their risk estimates. Airlines were seen as more likely to underestimate any risk. We conclude that perceptions of the balance between risk and caution in judgments under uncertainty are influenced by one's own motives and those attributed to others.

  19. Greek-Turkish Crises since 1955. Implications for Greek-Turkish Conflict Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-03-01

    Greek Turkish friendship cannot be threatened or disturbed by the Cyprus question."(Alexandris, 1992, p.267) Both countries were seen as "... Siamese ... twins guarding the vital gates of warm water entry and exit into the Black 7 Robert McDonald in Adelphi Papers 229, London:IISS, Spring 1988, p. 7 2 8 The

  20. [The treatment of posner-schlossmann's syndrome. (acute glaucomatocyclitic crises) (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Huismans, H

    1975-12-01

    In the surgery two patients with Posner-Schlossmann-Syndrome were observed for several months. The therapy of the acute attack secondary glaucoma was the combination of Diamox, Cortison - and Neosynephrine eye-drops. With Pilocarpine the I.O.P. lowering was insufficient. In one case corneal precipitates typical for Heterochromia complicata Fuchs were observed.

  1. Federal interagency communication strategies for addressing radiation emergencies and other public health crises.

    PubMed

    Miller, Charles W; McCurley, M Carol

    2011-11-01

    Federal agencies have a variety of roles and responsibilities related to communicating with the public before, during, and after a radiological emergency. To better understand the various efforts currently underway, the Radiation Studies Branch of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention convened a roundtable of representatives from federal agencies with responsibility for communicating with the public about radiation emergencies. Roundtable participants shared valuable information about efforts underway to develop information and messages for a variety of audiences and agreed that continued interagency coordination and dialogue about communication before, during, and after an event are needed. The group suggested several strategies for future collaborative efforts and indicated a desire to continue working together to develop and assess messages for radiological emergency preparedness and response. The group also recommended that more work be done to determine whether messages need to be packaged or tailored for specific special populations and suggested that more research be conducted to answer questions about specific audience/cultural needs around communicating radiation risks. Since this roundtable, attendees have continued to work together to develop and test messages for the public.

  2. An analysis of the current crises in the discipline of science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yager, Robert E.; Bybee, Rodger; Gallagher, James J.; Renner, John W.

    Demographic information concerning the thirty-five largest graduate centers for science education was collected. The information verified the decrease in the average number of graduates, number of faculty members, external support for special projects in such centers for science education. Programs have remained static over the twenty-year period. Faculty members at the institutions are stable and possess similar backgrounds; research interests of the faculty members vary and do not represent major commitments for many. When perceptions of discipline problems are studied, lack of agreement concerning goals and objectives are most frequently cited. This is followed by perceived lack of vision and leadership in the profession. Other perceived problems include public and parental apathy toward science and science education, limited budgets and facilities, and limited dialogue among professionals and the public. Science educators have proposed solutions to discipline problems as further evidence of crisis. The most common solutions proposed include (1) development of a theory base for the discipline, (2) structuring of a rationale for the discipline, (3) greater financial and public support, and (4) improved programs, including inservice education.As a view of the future is provided, the central issue emerges regarding the absence of goals in science education that are relevant to contemporary priorities in science, society, and education. Suggestion is made that failure to correct this deficiency will result in further deterioration in all areas of the current crisis.

  3. Selecting Students, Selecting Priorities: How Universities Manage Enrollment during Times of Economic Crises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holley, Karri; Harris, Michael

    2010-01-01

    As the economic recession continues to threaten state funding, federal support and financial aid allocations, colleges and universities increasingly rely on student enrollment and tuition as a revenue source. This article, examines how universities respond to this challenge, particularly in the areas of student recruitment and admission. These…

  4. Doves and hawks in economics revisited: An evolutionary quantum game theory based analysis of financial crises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanauske, Matthias; Kunz, Jennifer; Bernius, Steffen; König, Wolfgang

    2010-11-01

    The last financial and economic crisis demonstrated the dysfunctional long-term effects of aggressive behaviour in financial markets. Yet, evolutionary game theory predicts that under the condition of strategic dependence a certain degree of aggressive behaviour remains within a given population of agents. However, as a consequence of the financial crisis, it would be desirable to change the “rules of the game” in a way that prevents the occurrence of any aggressive behaviour and thereby also the danger of market crashes. The paper picks up this aspect. Through the extension of the well-known hawk-dove game by a quantum approach, we can show that dependent on entanglement, evolutionary stable strategies also can emerge, which are not predicted by the classical evolutionary game theory and where the total economic population uses a non-aggressive quantum strategy.

  5. The Only Honest Thing: Autoethnography, Reflexivity and Small Crises in Fieldwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delamont, Sara

    2009-01-01

    There has been a rising acceptance of autoethnography in the past 15 years. Instead of studying social phenomena, in an appropriately reflexive way, some scholars have taken to researching themselves. Drawing on concrete examples from an ongoing ethnographic project, the paper contrasts the beneficial, even essential, practices of autobiographical…

  6. Crises in the Southern Caucasus: Cold War, Cold Peace or a New Beginning?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Georgia’s current territory coincides with that of the former Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic ( SSR ). Within the Georgian SSR , Abkhazia held the...Prior to the breakup of the Soviet Union, the Georgian SSR termi- nated South Ossetia’s status as an autonomous oblast in 1990. Riots erupted in the... SSR . As a consequence Georgia inherited three poten- tial break-away regions: Adjara1, Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Abkhaz and South Ossetian drive for

  7. Organizing, Training, and Equipping the Air Force for Crises and Lesser Conflicts,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    forces; • surveillance, from air and space, especially airborne warning and control systems (AWACS) for the enforcement of air security; Summary...APADS Advanced precision airborne delivery system AWACS Airborne warning and control system C3I Command, control , communications, and intelligence...munition PME Professional military education PSYOPS Psychological operations RAF Royal Air Force (British) RED HORSE Rapid engineer deployable

  8. Major and micro seismo-volcanic crises in the Asal Rift, Djibouti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltzer, G.; Doubre, C.; Tomic, J.

    2009-05-01

    The Asal-Ghoubbet Rift is located on the eastern branch of the Afar triple junction between the Arabia, Somalia, and Nubia tectonic plates. The last major seismo-volcanic crisis on this segment occurred in November 1978, involving two earthquakes of mb=5+, a basaltic fissure eruption, the development of many open fissures across the rift and up to 80 cm of vertical slip on the bordering faults. Geodetic leveling revealed ~2 m of horizontal opening of the rift accompanied by ~70 cm of subsidence of the inner-floor, consistent with models of the elastic deformation produced by the injection of magma in a system of two dykes. InSAR data acquired at 24-day intervals during the last 12 years by the Canadian Radarsat satellite over the Asal Rift show that the two main faults activated in 1978 continue to slip with periods of steady creep at rates of 0.3-1.3 mm/yr, interrupted by sudden slip events of a few millimeters, in 2000 and 2003. Slip events are coincident with bursts of micro earthquakes distributed around and over the Fieale volcanic center in the eastern part of the Asal Rift. In both cases (the 1978 crisis and micro-slip events), the observed geodetic moment released by fault slip exceeds by a few orders of magnitude the total seismic moment released by earthquakes over the same period. Aseismic fault slip is likely to be the faults response to a changing stress field associated with a volcanic process and not due to dry friction on faults. Sustained injection of magma (1978 crisis) and/or crustal fluids (micro-slip events) in dykes and fissures is a plausible mechanism to control fluid pressure in the basal parts of faults and trigger aseismic slip. In this respect, the micro-events observed by InSAR during a 12-year period of low activity in the rift and the 1978 seismo-volcanic episode are of same nature.

  9. Preserved aragonite cements in Miocene coral reefs: a record of Messinian salinity crises in Mediterranean

    SciTech Connect

    Esteban, M.; Prezbindowski, D.R.

    1985-02-01

    Layers of fibrous aragonite cement up to 2 cm thick, developed on aragonitic corals and micritic cements, occur in outcrops of Miocene coral reefs in western Sicily. These aragonitic fabrics show only minor amounts of corrosion after subaerial exposure for at least 3 m.y. Their preservation is attributed to encasement by subsequent gypsum cements. Although these botryoidal, banded aragonite cements are strontium-rich (7000 ppm) and resemble modern marine examples, they were precipitated in secondarily enlarged pores that formed during erosional episodes. Multiple cycles of enrichment in oxygen and carbon stable isotopes are recorded in the aragonite cement layers. The delta/sup 18/O values of these cycles range from -0.9 to +6.8 per thousand, whereas the delta/sup 13/C values range from +0.6 to +3.8 per thousand (PDB). These cyclic variations, indicated by isotopic data together with the petrology of the cements, are believed to record major changes in salinity, temperature, and organic productivity of the Mediterranean waters during the Miocene-Pliocene transition. These Messinian reefs were subaerially exposed and later onlapped by the upper evaporite unit with multiple cycles of marine hypersaline carbonate and evaporite deposition separated by periods of erosion. Aragonite cements formed in the enlarged cavities of the lower Messinian reefs during time of deposition of the upper evaporite and recorded the changes in Mediterranean water chemistry. This cementation is believed to have continued into the early Pliocene when colder Atlantic waters invaded the Mediterranean, ending reef growth and evaporite deposition.

  10. Goal Disengagement in Emerging Adulthood: The Adaptive Potential of Action Crises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandstätter, Veronika; Herrmann, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    In emerging adulthood, being committed to and making progress on important personal goals constitutes a source of identity and well-being. Goal striving, however, does not always go without problems. Even though highly committed to a goal, individuals may experience recurring setbacks and, consequently, increasing doubts about the goal that might…

  11. Myths and Crises: American Masculinity in 1980s Vietnam War Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-12

    NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Army Command and General Staff College ATTN: ATZL-SWD-GD......in the earlier eighties and depict a more nuanced performance of masculinity. The study provides insight into the role masculinity plays in society

  12. Speech Data Analysis for Semantic Indexing of Video of Simulated Medical Crises

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    on the extracted features. For instance, an audio segment can be labeled as music , commercial, speech, envi- ronmental background noise, or other...dialogue detection in movies [29], social network analysis [30], medical assessment (e.g. depression) [31], music information retrieval [32], and...excellent representation of the human voice and musical signals. 2.2.1.2 Perceptual Linear Prediction (PLP) The PLP speech analysis technique [41] is

  13. Life crises on land across the Permian-Triassic boundary in South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yuanqiao; Shi, G. R.

    2009-02-01

    The western Guizhou and eastern Yunnan area of southwest China commands a unique and significant position globally in the study of Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) events as it contains well and continuously exposed PTB sections of marine, non-marine and marginal-marine origin in the same area. By using a range of high-resolution stratigraphic methods including biostratigraphy, eventostratigraphy, chronostratigraphy and chemostratigraphy, not only are the non-marine PTB sections correlated with their marine counterparts in the study area with high-resolution, the non-marine PTB sections of the study area can also be aligned with the PTB Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) at Meishan in eastern China. Plant megafossils ("megaplants") in the study area indicate a major loss in abundance and diversity across the PTB, and no coal beds and/or seams have been found in the non-marine Lower Triassic although they are very common in the non-marine Upper Permian. The megaplants, however, did not disappear consistently across the whole area, with some elements of the Late Permian Cathaysian Gigantopteris flora surviving the PTB mass extinction and locally even extending up to the Lower Triassic. Palynomorphs exhibit a similar temporal pattern characterized by a protracted stepwise decrease from fern-dominated spores in the Late Permian to pteridosperm and gymnosperm-dominated pollen in the Early Triassic, which was however punctuated by an accelerated loss in both abundance and diversity across the PTB. Contemporaneous with the PTB crisis in the study area was the peculiar prevalence and dominance of some fungi and/or algae species. The temporal patterns of megaplants and palynomorphs across the PTB in the study area are consistent with the regional trends of plant changes in South China, which also show a long-term decrease in species diversity from the Late Permian Wuchiapingian through the Changhsingian to the earliest Triassic, with about 48% and 77% losses of species occurring respectively in the end-Wuchiapingian and end-Changhsingian. Such consistent patterns, at both local and regional scales, contradict the hypothesis of a regional isochronous extinction of vegetation across the PTB, and hence call into question the notion that the end-Permian mass extinction was a one-hit disaster. Instead, the data from the study area and South China appears more consistent with a scenario that invokes climate change as the main driver for the observed land vegetation changes across the PTB in South China.

  14. A Unified Theory of Impact Crises and Mass Extinctions: Quantitative Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampino, Michael R.; Haggerty, Bruce M.; Pagano, Thomas C.

    1997-01-01

    Several quantitative tests of a general hypothesis linking impacts of large asteroids and comets with mass extinctions of life are possible based on astronomical data, impact dynamics, and geological information. The waiting of large-body impacts on the Earth derive from the flux of Earth-crossing asteroids and comets, and the estimated size of impacts capable of causing large-scale environmental disasters, predict that impacts of objects greater than or equal to 5 km in diameter (greater than or equal to 10 (exp 7) Mt TNT equivalent) could be sufficient to explain the record of approximately 25 extinction pulses in the last 540 Myr, with the 5 recorded major mass extinctions related to impacts of the largest objects of greater than or equal to 10 km in diameter (greater than or equal to 10(exp 8) Mt Events). Smaller impacts (approximately 10 (exp 6) Mt), with significant regional environmental effects, could be responsible for the lesser boundaries in the geologic record.

  15. Drought as a Catalyst for Early Medieval European Subsistence Crises and Violence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludlow, Francis; Cook, Edward; Kostick, Conor; McCormick, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Tree-ring records provide one of most reliable means of reconstructing past climatic conditions, from longer-term multi-decadal fluctuations in temperature and precipitation to inter-annual variability, including years that experienced extreme weather. When combined with written records of past societal behaviour and the incidence of major societal stresses (e.g., famine, disease, and conflict), such records hold the potential to shed new light on historical interactions between climate and society. Recent years have seen the continued development of long dendroclimatic reconstructions, including, most recently the development of the Old World Drought Atlas (OWDA; Cook et al., 2015) which for the first time makes available a robust reconstruction of spring-summer hydroclimatic conditions and extremes for the greater European region, including the entirety of the Dark Ages. In this paper, we examine the association between hydroclimatic extremes identified in the OWDA and well-dated reports of severe drought in early medieval European annals and chronicles, and find a clear statistical correspondence, further confirming the accuracy of the OWDA and its importance as an independent record of hydroclimatic extremes, a resource that can now be drawn upon in both paleoclimatology and studies of climatic impacts on human society. We proceed to examine the association between hydroclimatic extremes identified in the OWDA and the incidence of a range of major societal stresses (scarcity and famine, epidemic disease, and mass human mortality) drawn from an exhaustive survey of early medieval European annals and chronicles. The outcome of this comparison firmly implicates drought as a significant driver of major societal stresses during early medieval times. Using a record of the violent killings of societal elites recorded on a continuous annual basis in medieval Irish monastic annals, we further examine the role of hydroclimatic extremes as triggers in medieval violence and conflict.

  16. [Homicide crimes as irrational responses to existential crises exemplified by separation dates].

    PubMed

    Lehmann, E

    1995-01-01

    It is investigated whether killing delicts as a "solution" of conflicts between partners are the expression of a fateful situative restraint, or whether it is the personal disposition of the committer which entails killing. The fundamentals of the discussion are examinations of 98 criminals with killing delicts, 36 of whom "solved" a conflict in partnership by killing the partner. The 36 separation crimes can be subdivided into four groups according to the prevailing causes. 16 happened due to the partner's intention to leave, 14 due to humiliation and severe offence, 3 due to material self-interest, and 3 in states of delusion. For each of the four groups a typical representative in his constellation of situation and personality is described. Generalized, it will be questioned under which circumstances someone develops the will to kill the partner, and who possesses the capability to realize this will. It can be shown by systematical exploration of their personality by means of objective personality testing procedures that almost all criminals who have committed murder show a conspicuous structure of personality. Hysterical and/or sociopathic properties predispose a person to acts of personally-impertinent or personally-short-sighted violence.

  17. Critical decision points in crisis support: using checklists and flow charts in psychological crises.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jeffrey T

    2011-01-01

    The field of crisis intervention has grown dramatically during the last hundred years. Many new procedures and techniques have been added to the crisis intervention repertoire. Periodically, providers of crisis intervention, psychological first aid, critical incident stress management, or Peer Support overlook important elements of crisis intervention or make inadvertent mistakes as they attempt to intervene. The use of checklists and flow charts, similar to those used in aviation and medicine, may assist crisis intervention personnel in properly assessing a traumatic event and its impact on the people involved. Simple checklists and flow charts may significantly decrease the potential for mistakes in crisis intervention. This article provides background on the development of flip charts in aviation and medicine and suggests how these tools may be utilized within the field of crisis intervention. Examples of checklists and flow charts that are relevant to crisis intervention are provided. The article also provides guidelines for developing additional checklists and flow charts for use in crisis intervention services.

  18. Revisiting Past Earthquakes and Seismo-Volcanic Crises Using Declassified Optical Satellite Imagery (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollingsworth, J.; Leprince, S.; Ayoub, F.; Avouac, J.

    2009-12-01

    In this study we demonstrate that the recently declassified Corona KH-9 images can be used to measure ground deformation due to seismotectonic and volcanic events from optical sub-pixel correlation. We use high resolution (6-9 m) satellite images, available from the USGS for a relatively small cost ($30 per image, swath measuring 250 x 125 km). The images are processed with the user-friendly software package COSI-Corr, which allows for automatic and precise ortho-rectification, co-registration, and sub-pixel correlation of pushbroom satellite and aerial images. Knowledge of the camera calibration information is required to determine the interior and exterior orientation parameters of the camera, which are in turn needed to successfully orthorectify and co-register the images using COSI-Corr. Because the camera information still remains classified, we follow the approach of Surazakov, et al., (2009), who conclude the Hexagon KH9 camera system is similar to the NASA Large Format Camera (LFC) system. We successfully tested the approach on the 1999 Hector Mine, USA (Ms 7.4) and 1992 Landers, USA (Ms 7.5) earthquakes and then moved on to analyze a number of other large events. We have in particular been able to measure the surface deformation induced by the 1975-1984 Krafla rifting crisis in NE Iceland, by correlating a Hexagon image from 15th September 1977 with a SPOT5 image from 2002. During the period 1977-2002 we find an average E-W extension of 3±0.5 m across the rift, which extends NNE from Lake Myvatn in the south to Ásbyrgi canyon near the coast to the north (a distance of over 40 km) and were able to determine which faults were activated. We have also co-registered a number of Hexagon images to both SPOT and ASTER images (orthorectified using either SRTMv2 or ASTER GDEM topographic data) to determine the co-seismic rupture location and amount of displacement in various significant intraplate earthquakes for which InSAR or GPS data is unavailable: 1976.07.28 Tangshan, China (Ms 7.8); 1979.11.27 Kowli-Bonyabad, Iran (Ms 7.1); 1990.06.20 Rudbar-Tarom, Iran (Ms 7.7). The various examples discussed above highlight the potential for using inexpensive declassified Hexagon images to investigate tectonic deformation dating back to the onset of the KH9 program in 1971.

  19. The European air traffic management response to volcanic ash crises: towards institutionalised aviation crisis management.

    PubMed

    Dopagne, Jacques

    2011-06-01

    A cloud of ash drifting from the erupting Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland in April and May 2010 covered Europe and created an unprecedented situation. It resulted in an almost complete lockdown of European airspace in the period from 15th to 21st April, 2010: more than 100,000 flights were cancelled, 10 million people were affected and over US$1.8bn was lost by airlines globally. This paper presents the air traffic management (ATM) view of the situation. Through an analysis of the evolution of the events in the affected region, the paper will provide more details on ATM planning, reaction and follow-up actions. Furthermore, the influence of this event on the identification of further improvements needed to advance volcanic procedures internationally will be discussed. Actions undertaken since the end of the event - the establishment of the European Aviation Crisis Coordination Cell, running of the International Civil Aviation Organization VOLCEX 11/01 volcanic ash exercise and European response to the Grimsvötn eruption in May 2011 - will be discussed at the end of the paper.

  20. The Atlantic Crises: Britain, Europe, and Parting from the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    and Turkey. Great-power rivalry aside, in the 1930s U.S. international economic policy (in particu- lar its protectionism ) was largely destructive...which is, put simply, between diplomatic isolationism and engagement. It is not isolationist in the original sense of that term, nor has it been since...difficult to gauge. It may lead to a retreat into isolationism ; it may enhance the unilateralist tendencies; it may even lead to a deeper engagement

  1. Diet shifts and population dynamics of estuarine foraminifera during ecosystem recovery after experimentally induced hypoxia crises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouwer, G. M.; Duijnstee, I. A. P.; Hazeleger, J. H.; Rossi, F.; Lourens, L. J.; Middelburg, J. J.; Wolthers, M.

    2016-03-01

    This study shows foraminiferal dynamics after experimentally induced hypoxia within the wider context of ecosystem recovery. 13C-labeled bicarbonate and glucose were added to the sediments to examine foraminiferal diet shifts during ecosystem recovery and test-size measurements were used to deduce population dynamics. Hypoxia-treated and undisturbed patches were compared to distinguish natural (seasonal) fluctuations from hypoxia-induced responses. The effect of timing of disturbance and duration of recovery were investigated. The foraminiferal diets and population dynamics showed higher fluctuations in the recovering patches compared to the controls. The foraminiferal diet and population structure of Haynesina germanica and Ammonia beccarii responded differentially and generally inversely to progressive stages of ecosystem recovery. Tracer inferred diet estimates in April and June and the two distinctly visible cohorts in the test-size distribution, discussed to reflect reproduction in June, strongly suggest that the ample availability of diatoms during the first month of ecosystem recovery after the winter hypoxia was likely profitable to A. beccarii. Enhanced reproduction itself was strongly linked to the subsequent dietary shift to bacteria. The distribution of the test dimensions of H. germanica indicated that this species had less fluctuation in population structure during ecosystem recovery but possibly reproduced in response to the induced winter hypoxia. Bacteria seemed to consistently contribute more to the diet of H. germanica than diatoms. For the diet and test-size distribution of both species, the timing of disturbance seemed to have a higher impact than the duration of the subsequent recovery period.

  2. Collaboration Between Academia and Practice: Interprofessional Crises Leadership and Disaster Management.

    PubMed

    Hoying, Cheryl; Farra, Sharon; Mainous, Rosalie; Baute, Rebecca; Gneuhs, Matthew

    2017-02-01

    An innovative interprofessional disaster preparedness program was designed and implemented through an academic-practice partnership between a large midwestern children's hospital and a community-based state university. This course was part of a constellation of courses developed in response to Presidential Directive (HSPD) 8, a mandate to standardize disaster response training that was issued after the inefficiencies following Hurricane Katrina. A hybrid immersive and didactic approach was used to train senior leadership and frontline clinicians. Included were simulated experiences at the National Center for Medical Readiness, a workshop, and online modules. The program that focused on crisis leadership and disaster management was developed and implemented to serve patient-centered organizations.

  3. Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on Contractor Field Support during Crises

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    protect those special systems. This report rejects military compulsion as a solution to re- taining contractors and offers a series of affirmative...within DOD which would make contractor civilian employees subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice or other forms of military compulsion are...solution which would entail military compulsion . An oral presentation on the report was given at the meeting of the Defense Science Board at Colorado

  4. Precipitating Events in Adolescent Suicidal Crises: Exploring Stress-Reactive and Nonreactive Risk Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Ryan M.; Pettit, Jeremy W.; Green, Kelly L.; Morgan, Sharon T.; Schatte, Dawnelle J.

    2012-01-01

    Factors distinguishing adolescents who experienced a precipitating event in the week preceding a suicidal crisis from those who did not were examined. Among 130 suicidal inpatients (mean age = 15.01 years), those who experienced a precipitating event reported significantly lower depressive symptom scores, better perceived problem solving, less…

  5. Introducing the World Population Crises to Secondary Social Studies Classes: An Inquiry-Oriented Instructional Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Randall C.

    1970-01-01

    The author contends that students must be alerted to the dangers of overpopulation of the world and to the methods that exist to control population growth. He suggests topics for student inquiry. (CK)

  6. Biofuel: an alternative to fossil fuel for alleviating world energy and economic crises.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, Keshav; Stalick, Wayne M; McKay, Scott; Geme, Gija; Bhattarai, Nimisha

    2011-01-01

    The time has come when it is desirable to look for alternative energy resources to confront the global energy crisis. Consideration of the increasing environmental problems and the possible crisis of fossil fuel availability at record high prices dictate that some changes will need to occur sooner rather than later. The recent oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is just another example of the environmental threats that fossil fuels pose. This paper is an attempt to explore various bio-resources such as corn, barley, oat, rice, wheat, sorghum, sugar, safflower, and coniferous and non-coniferous species for the production of biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel). In order to assess the potential production of biofuel, in this paper, countries are organized into three groups based on: (a) geographic areas; (b) economic development; and(c) lending types, as classified by the World Bank. First, the total fossil fuel energy consumption and supply and possible carbon emission from burning fossil fuel is projected for these three groups of countries. Second, the possibility of production of biofuel from grains and vegetative product is projected. Third, a comparison of fossil fuel and biofuel is done to examine energy sustainability issues.

  7. Chilean Armed Forces and Their Capacity in the Context of the International Crises

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-15

    National Defense University acknowledges the volatility of incidents: They may appear as “threatening to the state, its territories , citizens and...State does not hold any aggressive intentions towards any country in the world; neither has it had territorial claims in the neighboring context. b) The...sovereignty and its territorial integrity. c) The Chilean State has the responsibility to maintain an adequate military capability to assist in the

  8. Divorce Injustices: Perceptions of Formerly Wealthy Women of the Stressors, Crises, and Traumas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rettig, Kathryn D.

    2007-01-01

    The current study was funded by the Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station, Project 53-054 Decision Making Integral to Relationship Transitions in Families. The perspectives presented in the paper do not represent views of the funding agency and errors remain the sole responsibility of the author. This article is a major revision of a…

  9. The Cold War and Beyond: From Deterrence to Detente--to What? Crises in World Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Lawrence, Ed.; And Others

    The book, intended for senior high school students, is one of a series concerned with problems of world order. The bipolar system (domination of the international system through maintenance of a balance of power between the United States and the Soviet Union) is described and defined by presenting case studies of the Hungarian rebellion in 1956,…

  10. What Happens If They Say No? Preserving Access to Critical Commercial Space Capabilities during Future Crises

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Operation Nickel Grass ( ONG ) resupply of Israeli forces. Arab forces used the de- lay to inflict heavy losses on Israeli forces and secure territorial...PLACE The basic lesson from ONG should speak loudly to national security space professionals. Despite Washington’s cachet as a customer, Ameri- can...planning for them now. Failure to do so places the nation at risk of experiencing the same dilemma that oc- curred during ONG . Without meaningful

  11. A generic open-source software framework supporting scenario simulations in bioterrorist crises.

    PubMed

    Falenski, Alexander; Filter, Matthias; Thöns, Christian; Weiser, Armin A; Wigger, Jan-Frederik; Davis, Matthew; Douglas, Judith V; Edlund, Stefan; Hu, Kun; Kaufman, James H; Appel, Bernd; Käsbohrer, Annemarie

    2013-09-01

    Since the 2001 anthrax attack in the United States, awareness of threats originating from bioterrorism has grown. This led internationally to increased research efforts to improve knowledge of and approaches to protecting human and animal populations against the threat from such attacks. A collaborative effort in this context is the extension of the open-source Spatiotemporal Epidemiological Modeler (STEM) simulation and modeling software for agro- or bioterrorist crisis scenarios. STEM, originally designed to enable community-driven public health disease models and simulations, was extended with new features that enable integration of proprietary data as well as visualization of agent spread along supply and production chains. STEM now provides a fully developed open-source software infrastructure supporting critical modeling tasks such as ad hoc model generation, parameter estimation, simulation of scenario evolution, estimation of effects of mitigation or management measures, and documentation. This open-source software resource can be used free of charge. Additionally, STEM provides critical features like built-in worldwide data on administrative boundaries, transportation networks, or environmental conditions (eg, rainfall, temperature, elevation, vegetation). Users can easily combine their own confidential data with built-in public data to create customized models of desired resolution. STEM also supports collaborative and joint efforts in crisis situations by extended import and export functionalities. In this article we demonstrate specifically those new software features implemented to accomplish STEM application in agro- or bioterrorist crisis scenarios.

  12. Preventing Acute Malnutrition among Young Children in Crises: A Prospective Intervention Study in Niger

    PubMed Central

    Langendorf, Céline; Roederer, Thomas; de Pee, Saskia; Brown, Denise; Doyon, Stéphane; Mamaty, Abdoul-Aziz; Touré, Lynda W.-M.; Manzo, Mahamane L.; Grais, Rebecca F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Finding the most appropriate strategy for the prevention of moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) and severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in young children is essential in countries like Niger with annual “hunger gaps.” Options for large-scale prevention include distribution of supplementary foods, such as fortified-blended foods or lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) with or without household support (cash or food transfer). To date, there has been no direct controlled comparison between these strategies leading to debate concerning their effectiveness. We compared the effectiveness of seven preventive strategies—including distribution of nutritious supplementary foods, with or without additional household support (family food ration or cash transfer), and cash transfer only—on the incidence of SAM and MAM among children aged 6–23 months over a 5-month period, partly overlapping the hunger gap, in Maradi region, Niger. We hypothesized that distributions of supplementary foods would more effectively reduce the incidence of acute malnutrition than distributions of household support by cash transfer. Methods and Findings We conducted a prospective intervention study in 48 rural villages located within 15 km of a health center supported by Forum Santé Niger (FORSANI)/Médecins Sans Frontières in Madarounfa. Seven groups of villages (five to 11 villages) were allocated to different strategies of monthly distributions targeting households including at least one child measuring 60 cm–80 cm (at any time during the study period whatever their nutritional status): three groups received high-quantity LNS (HQ-LNS) or medium-quantity LNS (MQ-LNS) or Super Cereal Plus (SC+) with cash (€38/month [US$52/month]); one group received SC+ and family food ration; two groups received HQ-LNS or SC+ only; one group received cash only (€43/month [US$59/month]). Children 60 cm–80 cm of participating households were assessed at each monthly distribution from August to December 2011. Primary endpoints were SAM (weight-for-length Z-score [WLZ]<−3 and/or mid-upper arm circumference [MUAC]<11.5 cm and/or bipedal edema) and MAM (−3≤WLZ<−2 and/or 11.5≤MUAC<12.5 cm). A total of 5,395 children were included in the analysis (615 to 1,054 per group). Incidence of MAM was twice lower in the strategies receiving a food supplement combined with cash compared with the cash-only strategy (cash versus HQ-LNS/cash adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 2.30, 95% CI 1.60–3.29; cash versus SC+/cash HR = 2.42, 95% CI 1.39–4.21; cash versus MQ-LNS/cash HR = 2.07, 95% CI 1.52–2.83) or with the supplementary food only groups (HQ-LNS versus HQ-LNS/cash HR = 1.84, 95% CI 1.35–2.51; SC+ versus SC+/cash HR = 2.53, 95% CI 1.47–4.35). In addition, the incidence of SAM was three times lower in the SC+/cash group compared with the SC+ only group (SC+ only versus SC+/cash HR = 3.13, 95% CI 1.65–5.94). However, non-quantified differences between groups, may limit the interpretation of the impact of the strategies. Conclusions Preventive distributions combining a supplementary food and cash transfer had a better preventive effect on MAM and SAM than strategies relying on cash transfer or supplementary food alone. As a result, distribution of nutritious supplementary foods to young children in conjunction with household support should remain a pillar of emergency nutritional interventions. Additional rigorous research is vital to evaluate the effectiveness of these and other nutritional interventions in diverse settings. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01828814 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:25180584

  13. Responding to Crises in Transnational Education: New Challenges for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feast, Vicki; Bretag, Tracey

    2005-01-01

    This paper is based on a case study of an Australian university involved in the delivery of transnational programs in an educational environment that has been increasingly characterized by commercial considerations. The researchers conducted focus group interviews with both general and academic staff to ascertain the personal, academic and…

  14. Rethinking Engineering Design and Decision Making in Response to Economic, Social, and Environmental Crises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderburg, Willem H.

    2009-01-01

    High levels of specialization have created knowledge with little or no "peripheral vision," and the resulting "blind spots" are causing many "collisions" with human life, society, and the biosphere. Each discipline and specialty must be equipped with a "map" showing its connections to everything else, but especially the negative consequences that…

  15. Food crises, food regimes and food movements: rumblings of reform or tides of transformation?

    PubMed

    Holt Giménez, Eric; Shattuck, Annie

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the potential for food movements to bring about substantive changes to the current global food system. After describing the current corporate food regime, we apply Karl Polanyi's 'double-movement' thesis on capitalism to explain the regime's trends of neoliberalism and reform. Using the global food crisis as a point of departure, we introduce a comparative analytical framework for different political and social trends within the corporate food regime and global food movements, characterizing them as 'Neoliberal', 'Reformist', 'Progressive', and 'Radical', respectively, and describe each trend based on its discourse, model, and key actors, approach to the food crisis, and key documents. After a discussion of class, political permeability, and tensions within the food movements, we suggest that the current food crisis offers opportunities for strategic alliances between Progressive and Radical trends within the food movement. We conclude that while the food crisis has brought a retrenchment of neoliberalization and weak calls for reform, the worldwide growth of food movements directly and indirectly challenge the legitimacy and hegemony of the corporate food regime. Regime change will require sustained pressure from a strong global food movement, built on durable alliances between Progressive and Radical trends.

  16. Participatory and action research as a transformative praxis: responding to humanitarian crises from the margins.

    PubMed

    Lykes, M Brinton

    2013-11-01

    This article reports on a small set of community-based participatory projects designed collaboratively by and for survivors directly affected by armed conflict in Guatemala and some of their family members in the North (i.e., in New Orleans, Louisiana, and New England). Local protagonists deeply scarred by war and gross violations of human rights drew on indigenous beliefs and practices, creativity, visual performance arts, and participatory and action research strategies to develop and perform collaborative community-based actions. These initiatives constitute a people's psychosocial praxis. Through their individual and collective narratives and actions, Mayan and African American women and Latinas perform a psychology from the "two-thirds world," one that draws on postcolonial theory and methodology to retheorize trauma and resilience. These voices, creative representations, and actions of women from the Global South transform earlier, partial efforts to decenter EuroAmerican epistemologies underlying dominant models of trauma that reduce complex collective phenomena to individual pathology, refer to continuous trauma as past, are ahistorical, and universalize culturally particular realities.

  17. Surviving Economic Crises through Education. Global Studies in Education, Volume 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, David R., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book comes at a time of increasing anxiety about the repercussions of financial instability and the probability of widespread market volatility. The educators and researchers whose work is collected here have considered these factors deeply when constructing their responses to prevailing financial conditions. These views guide the reader…

  18. Essential factors for effective psychological response to disasters and other crises.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, J T

    1999-01-01

    Few human experiences contain the intensely concentrated horror, terror, and awesome power associated with a disaster. Nature's destructive forces and events in which humans rage out of control against one another can serve as trigger mechanisms for overwhelming psychological reactions in the survivors, community members, and rescuers. Appropriate crisis intervention strategies and tactics are often thrown off balance, delayed, and made more complex by the sheer magnitude of the catastrophe. Few guidelines for effective community crisis or disaster response team activities in a disaster have been written to date. This article will help to fill-in the information gaps and enhance a psychological team's ability to provide better crisis intervention services during disasters.

  19. Changing Pre-Service Teachers' Purposes of Education through Existential Crises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, R. Scott

    2004-01-01

    This article considers changing the purposes of education held by pre-service teachers. It argues that purposes of education are inextricably linked to life meanings and purposes. Employing an existential perspective, mainly through Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Heidegger, Sartre and Morris, the fundamental beliefs that one has regarding the meaning and…

  20. [Cesarean section on a full-term parturient with convulsive crises].

    PubMed

    Errando, C L; Tatay, J; Revert, A; Peiró, C; Lloréns, J

    2003-01-01

    A 34-years-old woman in her 35th week of pregnancy experienced epileptic seizures and underwent emergency cesarean delivery of a healthy boy under general anesthesia. The patient had no history of epilepsy and the seizures were later attributed to an intracerebral cavernous angioma. She received treatment with phenytoin and was asymptomatic 3 months later. Although seizures unrelated to preeclampsia or eclampsia in pregnancy are rare, differential diagnosis must determine the etiology of the crisis.

  1. Are We Prepared? Four WMD Crises That Could Transform U.S. Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    any one of which could occur today and adversely affect the foreign and national secu- rity policies of the United States for many years to come...disrupt and destroy adver - sary WMD and associated delivery systems during combat operations ✦ technologies to secure, neutralize, disable, and...incidents. It currently stocks large quantities of certain vaccines (sufficient smallpox vaccine for the entire popula- tion and several million doses of

  2. Trial by Fire (and Tornado) Taught Us to Plan for Crises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caylor, Mary Jane

    1991-01-01

    Based on Huntsville (Alabama) schools' experience with a devastating fire, the superintendent later ensured adequate fire insurance coverage, promoted regular fire drills, and developed an emergency response plan that delineated staff responsibilities, communication modes, and training and updating procedures. The plan served the district well…

  3. The changing face of crises and aid in the Asia-Pacific.

    PubMed

    Gursky, Elin A; Burkle, Frederick M; Hamon, David W; Walker, Peter; Benjamin, Georges C

    2014-01-01

    Both US foreign policy and global attention attest to the strategic, economic, and political importance of Asia. Yet, the region faces urgent challenges that must be addressed if it is to remain stable and prosperous. The densely populated countries of the Asia-Pacific are beleaguered by poverty, population displacement, decreasing access to potable water and adequate sanitation, and high rates of disease morbidity and mortality. New and reemerging diseases known to have originated in Asia over the past decades have spread globally by international trade, tourism, worker migration, and agricultural exportation. Unremitting naturally occurring and man-made disasters have strained Southeast Asia's already fragile disaster and public health response infrastructures and the essential services they provide (eg, surveillance, vaccination, maternal and child health, and mental health programs). Following disasters, governments often contract with the broader humanitarian community (eg, indigenous and international NGOs) and seek the assistance of militaries to provide essential services. Yet, their roles and capabilities in addressing acute and chronic health issues in the wake of complex disasters remain unclear. Current mechanisms of nation-state and outside organization interaction, including dissimilar operational platforms, may limit true partnership on behalf of the health security mission. Additionally, concerns regarding skill sets and the lack of standards-based training raise questions about the balance between developing internal response capabilities and professionalizing external, deployable resources. Both the mega-disasters that are forecast for the region and the global health security threats that are expected to emanate from them require an increased focus on improving the Asia-Pacific's emergency preparedness and response posture.

  4. The Impact of Economic Crises on American Universities: Lessons from the Past

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Khawas, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    Universities around the world have been affected by the recent global economic crisis. Many are challenged by reduced resources, yet they also face greater demands to help spur recovery in their respective countries. This paper explores how colleges and universities in the United States were affected by, and subsequently responded to, several 20th…

  5. Management of the volcanic crises of Galeras volcano: Social, economic and institutional aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, Omar D.

    1997-05-01

    This paper presents a summary of the institutional management of the volcanic hazard and risk in the areas that surround Galeras volcano, Colombia, during its recent activity. The social and economic problems discussed have stemmed from difficulties in forecasting the behavior of the volcano and the inadequate management of the warnings by various government bodies and the media. The Galeras situation had economic, social, and psychological effects that contributed to resistance in implementing mitigation measures. Furthermore, the political authorities were reluctant to accept the volcanic risk. At regional and local levels, certain business organizations and a large part of the population also were inadequately prepared to accept the risk, despite the effort and insistence at the national level to implement a volcano emergency preparedness plan.

  6. Preparing for Crises in the Schools: A Manual for Building School Crisis Response Teams. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E.; Sandoval, Jonathan; Lewis, Sharon

    Psychologists who are experienced in crisis response present a framework for a proactive response to tragedy. An introductory chapter presents an overview. Chapter 2 offers a brief review of crisis theory. Chapter 3 contains a review of strategies for starting crisis-response plans. Chapter 4 reviews recommendations for securing a commitment to…

  7. Crises as Catalysts for Change: Re-Energising Teacher Education in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Background: Teacher education has been the subject of a seven-year review culminating with the issuing of a consultation document "Teacher education in a climate of change: The way forward" (Department for Employment and Learning and Department for Education 2010). Issues of rationalisation, demographic trends, the over-provision of…

  8. Use of Naval Force in Crises: A Theory of Stratified Crisis Interaction. Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis. Letter to author, April 7, 1988. Morin , Rear Admiral James B., U.S. Navy (Retired). Commanding Officer of USS Franklin D...Russak, 1977. Bottome, Edgar M. The Missile Gap: A Study of the Formula- tion of Military and Political Policy. Cranbury, NJ: Associated University...The Memoirs of Richard Nixon. New York: Grosset and Dunlap, 1978. O’Ballance, Edgar . The Third Arab-Israeli War. Hamden, CT: Archon Books, 1972

  9. Decisions, Events and Perceptions in International Crises. Volume I. Measuring Perceptions to Predict International Conflict

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-01

    succinctly stated by Dorwin Cartwright : Social and political conflicts, although often stemming from divergent economic interests and power, cannot be...ideologies. (4) It may also Dorwin Cartwright , "Analysis of Qualitative Material," in Festinger & Katz iedF.), Research Methods in the Behavioral

  10. Three Essays on the Role of Social Media in Social Crises: A Collective Sensemaking View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Onook

    2013-01-01

    Flexible, mobile, and distributive social web technologies afforded online users with unprecedented opportunities to connect previously disconnected groups of people at a distance surrounding shared interests or common issues. Reflecting the opportunities opened by social web technologies, recent extreme events have exposed both positive and…

  11. Use of Naval Force in Crises: A Theory of Stratified Crisis Interaction. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    Phil Williams, Crisis Management (New York: John Wiley, 1976 ), p. 202; Richard N. Lebow, Between Peace and War (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University...Powers and Navies," Adelphi Papers No. 123 (London: International Institute for Strategic Studies, 1976 ), p. 28. 18Geoffrey Till, Maritime Strategy and...doesn’t stir up that kind of emotion. An attack on an American ship on the high seas is bound to set off skyrockets and the ’Star Spangled Banner’l§nd ’Hail

  12. International energy trade impacts on water resource crises: an embodied water flows perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J. C.; Zhong, R.; Zhao, P.; Zhang, H. W.; Wang, Y.; Mao, G. Z.

    2016-07-01

    Water and energy are coupled in intimate ways (Siddiqi and Anadon 2011 Energy Policy 39 4529-40), which is amplified by international energy trade. The study shows that the total volume of energy related international embodied water flows averaged 6298 Mm3 yr-1 from 1992-2010, which represents 10% of the water used for energy production including oil, coal, gas and electricity production. This study calculates embodied water import and export status of 219 countries from 1992 to 2010 and embodied water flow changes of seven regions over time (1992/2000/2010). In addition, the embodied water net export risk-crisis index and net embodied water import benefit index are established. According to the index system, 33 countries export vast amounts of water who have a water shortage, which causes water risk and crisis related to energy trade. While 29 countries abate this risk due to their rich water resource, 45 countries import embodied water linked to energy imports. Based on the different status of countries studied, the countries were classified into six groups with different policy recommendations.

  13. Federal Solutions to School Fiscal Crises: Lessons from Nixon's Failed National Sales Tax for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venters, Monoka; Hauptli, Meghan V.; Cohen-Vogel, Lora

    2012-01-01

    Applying a Multiple Streams framework, the article documents the development and ultimate undoing of what became known as the national sales tax plan for education. The authors identify four factors that coalesced to lead the Nixon administration to propose replacing local property taxes with a federal value-added tax to finance K-12 education.…

  14. Re-Storying Wilderness and Adventure Therapies: Healing Places and Selves in an Era of Environmental Crises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Alette

    2011-01-01

    This paper begins by examining the therapeutic work of wilderness and adventure therapy through the lens of narrative counselling and the concept of the narrative-self. The terms "wilderness" and "adventure" are unpacked and attention is drawn to the risks of working uncritically with these concepts. Illustrations of alternative understandings of…

  15. ‘I Haue Ben Crised and Besy’: Illness and Resilience in the Fifteenth-Century Stonor Letters

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    The modern and medieval meanings of words reporting ill health often bear little resemblance to one another. This article compares the use of ‘diseased’ and ‘sick’ in the fifteenth-century Stonor family letters. It examines the word ‘crased’, which implies physical ill health most directly, but also suggests emotional, psychological, or spiritual distress in female family members especially. The article then turns to the practical implications of poor health, asking how and why it affected the day-to-day concerns of the Stonors and their associates. It uncovers compelling evidence for resilience in the face of many and competing calls of duty. Finally, the article presents unique palaeographical evidence for the impact of illness, where a correspondent is so ‘seke’ that he can scarcely hold his pen. PMID:27499834

  16. Will Economic Crises in Africa Weaken Rural-Urban Ties? Insights from Child Fosterage Trends in Cameroon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eloundou-Enyegue, Parfait M.; Stokes, C. Shannon

    2002-01-01

    In many African countries, rural-urban kinship ties support the education and economic mobility of rural children through fosterage into urban families. Demographic survey data from central Cameroon indicate major rural-urban differences in child fosterage relative to family characteristics and child's school performance, and show lower rural…

  17. The Impact of the HIV/AIDS and Economic Crises on Orphans and Other Vulnerable Children in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitiyo, George; Chitiyo, Morgan

    2009-01-01

    Zimbabwe, like most of Sub-Saharan Africa, has been hard-hit by HIV/ AIDS. National estimates reported by the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare put the prevalence rates of HIV in the age group between 15 and 49 at 15.3% (World Health Organization [WHO], UNICEF, & UNAIDS, 2008). This is one of the highest HIV/AIDS prevalence rates in the…

  18. Early Warning Signals of Financial Crises with Multi-Scale Quantile Regressions of Log-Periodic Power Law Singularities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qun; Zhang, Qunzhi; Sornette, Didier

    2016-01-01

    We augment the existing literature using the Log-Periodic Power Law Singular (LPPLS) structures in the log-price dynamics to diagnose financial bubbles by providing three main innovations. First, we introduce the quantile regression to the LPPLS detection problem. This allows us to disentangle (at least partially) the genuine LPPLS signal and the a priori unknown complicated residuals. Second, we propose to combine the many quantile regressions with a multi-scale analysis, which aggregates and consolidates the obtained ensembles of scenarios. Third, we define and implement the so-called DS LPPLS Confidence™ and Trust™ indicators that enrich considerably the diagnostic of bubbles. Using a detailed study of the "S&P 500 1987" bubble and presenting analyses of 16 historical bubbles, we show that the quantile regression of LPPLS signals contributes useful early warning signals. The comparison between the constructed signals and the price development in these 16 historical bubbles demonstrates their significant predictive ability around the real critical time when the burst/rally occurs.

  19. Two Future American Leaders React to the Middle East Crises of 1939 and 1948: A Documentary Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nurse, Ronald J.

    1974-01-01

    In 1939 and 1948, John Kennedy and Robert Kennedy visited the Middle East, both while seniors in college. This article consists of two letters written to their parents from Palestine assessing the problems of their day between Arab and Jew. Questions to stimulate classroom discussion are included. (Author/RM)

  20. The Use of Counter-Attack in Apologetic Public Relations Crises: The Case of General Motors vs. Dateline NBC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearit, Keith Michael

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes an apologetic exchange between General Motors (GM) and NBC in 1992-93 over the safety of GM's C/K trucks. Concludes that NBC and GM used "kategoria-based apologiae," a heavy-handed strategy, in their interchange, but that, when used correctly, the strategy can be an important resource in challenging inaccurate and/or misleading…

  1. Early Warning Signals of Financial Crises with Multi-Scale Quantile Regressions of Log-Periodic Power Law Singularities

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qun; Zhang, Qunzhi; Sornette, Didier

    2016-01-01

    We augment the existing literature using the Log-Periodic Power Law Singular (LPPLS) structures in the log-price dynamics to diagnose financial bubbles by providing three main innovations. First, we introduce the quantile regression to the LPPLS detection problem. This allows us to disentangle (at least partially) the genuine LPPLS signal and the a priori unknown complicated residuals. Second, we propose to combine the many quantile regressions with a multi-scale analysis, which aggregates and consolidates the obtained ensembles of scenarios. Third, we define and implement the so-called DS LPPLS Confidence™ and Trust™ indicators that enrich considerably the diagnostic of bubbles. Using a detailed study of the “S&P 500 1987” bubble and presenting analyses of 16 historical bubbles, we show that the quantile regression of LPPLS signals contributes useful early warning signals. The comparison between the constructed signals and the price development in these 16 historical bubbles demonstrates their significant predictive ability around the real critical time when the burst/rally occurs. PMID:27806093

  2. Classical distributive justice and the European healthcare system: rethinking the foundations of European health care in an age of crises.

    PubMed

    Bauzon, Stéphane

    2015-04-01

    The state subvention and distribution of health care not only jeopardize the financial sustainability of the state, but also restrict without a conclusive rational basis the freedom of patients to decide how much health care and of what quality is worth what price. The dominant biopolitics of European health care supports a healthcare monopoly in the hands of the state and the medical profession, which health care should be (re)opened to the patient's authority to deal directly for better basic health care. In a world where it is impossible for all to receive equal access to the best of basic health care, one must critically examine the plausible scope of the authority of the state to limit access to better basic health care. Classical distributive justice affords a basis for re-examining the current European ideology of equality, human dignity, and solidarity that supports healthcare systems with unsustainable egalitarian concerns.

  3. Mice doubly-deficient in lysosomal hexosaminidase A and neuraminidase 4 show epileptic crises and rapid neuronal loss.

    PubMed

    Seyrantepe, Volkan; Lema, Pablo; Caqueret, Aurore; Dridi, Larbi; Bel Hadj, Samar; Carpentier, Stephane; Boucher, Francine; Levade, Thierry; Carmant, Lionel; Gravel, Roy A; Hamel, Edith; Vachon, Pascal; Di Cristo, Graziella; Michaud, Jacques L; Morales, Carlos R; Pshezhetsky, Alexey V

    2010-09-16

    Tay-Sachs disease is a severe lysosomal disorder caused by mutations in the HexA gene coding for the α-subunit of lysosomal β-hexosaminidase A, which converts G(M2) to G(M3) ganglioside. Hexa(-/-) mice, depleted of β-hexosaminidase A, remain asymptomatic to 1 year of age, because they catabolise G(M2) ganglioside via a lysosomal sialidase into glycolipid G(A2), which is further processed by β-hexosaminidase B to lactosyl-ceramide, thereby bypassing the β-hexosaminidase A defect. Since this bypass is not effective in humans, infantile Tay-Sachs disease is fatal in the first years of life. Previously, we identified a novel ganglioside metabolizing sialidase, Neu4, abundantly expressed in mouse brain neurons. Now we demonstrate that mice with targeted disruption of both Neu4 and Hexa genes (Neu4(-/-);Hexa(-/-)) show epileptic seizures with 40% penetrance correlating with polyspike discharges on the cortical electrodes of the electroencephalogram. Single knockout Hexa(-/-) or Neu4(-/-) siblings do not show such symptoms. Further, double-knockout but not single-knockout mice have multiple degenerating neurons in the cortex and hippocampus and multiple layers of cortical neurons accumulating G(M2) ganglioside. Together, our data suggest that the Neu4 block exacerbates the disease in Hexa(-/-) mice, indicating that Neu4 is a modifier gene in the mouse model of Tay-Sachs disease, reducing the disease severity through the metabolic bypass. However, while disease severity in the double mutant is increased, it is not profound suggesting that Neu4 is not the only sialidase contributing to the metabolic bypass in Hexa(-/-) mice.

  4. Rethinking Disorienting Dilemmas within Real-Life Crises: The Role of Reflection in Negotiating Emotionally Chaotic Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malkki, Kaisu

    2012-01-01

    This study elaborates on how a disorienting dilemma, a life-event crisis, may trigger reflection. The study comprised an analysis of interviews with involuntarily childless women, who were in the process of negotiating emotionally chaotic experiences. The implications for Jack Mezirow's theory of transformative learning are explored. Compared with…

  5. Academic Institutions' Critical Guidelines for Health Care Workers Who Deploy to West Africa for the Ebola Response and Future Crises.

    PubMed

    Cranmer, Hilarie; Aschkenasy, Miriam; Wildes, Ryan; Kayden, Stephanie; Bangsberg, David; Niescierenko, Michelle; Kemen, Katie; Hsiao, Kai-Hsun; VanRooyen, Michael; Burkle, Frederick M; Biddinger, Paul D

    2015-10-01

    The unprecedented Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa, with its first cases documented in March 2014, has claimed the lives of thousands of people, and it has devastated the health care infrastructure and workforce in affected countries. Throughout this outbreak, there has been a critical lack of health care workers (HCW), including physicians, nurses, and other essential non-clinical staff, who have been needed, in most of the affected countries, to support the medical response to EVD, to attend to the health care needs of the population overall, and to be trained effectively in infection protection and control. This lack of sufficient and qualified HCW is due in large part to three factors: 1) limited HCW staff prior to the outbreak, 2) disproportionate illness and death among HCWs caused by EVD directly, and 3) valid concerns about personal safety among international HCWs who are considering responding to the affected areas. These guidelines are meant to inform institutions who deploy professional HCWs.

  6. The Variable Scale Evacuation Model (VSEM): a new tool for simulating massive evacuation processes during volcanic crises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrero, J. M.; García, A.; Llinares, A.; Rodríguez-Losada, J. A.; Ortiz, R.

    2010-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions are among the most awesome and powerful displays of nature's force, constituting a major natural hazard for society (a single eruption can claim thousands of lives in an instant). Consequently, assessment and management of volcanic risk have become critically important goals of modern volcanology. Over recent years, numerous tools have been developed to evaluate volcanic risk and support volcanic crisis management: probabilistic analysis of future eruptions, hazard and risk maps, event trees, etc. However, there has been little improvement in the tools that may help Civil Defense officials to prepare Emergency Plans. Here we present a new tool for simulating massive evacuation processes during volcanic crisis: the Variable Scale Evacuation Model (VSEM). The main objective of the VSEM software is to optimize the evacuation process of Emergency Plans during volcanic crisis. For this, the VSEM allows the simulation of an evacuation considering different strategies depending on diverse impact scenarios. VSEM is able to calculate the required time for the complete evacuation taking into account diverse evacuation scenarios (number and type of population, infrastructure, road network, etc.) and to detect high-risk or "blackspots" of the road network. The program is versatile and can work at different scales, thus being capable of simulating the evacuation of small villages as well as huge cities.

  7. Classroom Communication and National Crises: Student Information Needs in the Aftermath of the 2001 Terrorist Attacks on the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulmer, Robert R.; Hemphill, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about students' reactions to their university's attempt to manage their informational and emotional needs during a time of national crisis. A survey of students immediately following the 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States found that students wanted the university to stay open and function as a place for sense making…

  8. A cost-effectiveness analysis of self-debriefing versus instructor debriefing for simulated crises in perioperative medicine in Canada

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose High-fidelity simulation training is effective for learning crisis resource management (CRM) skills, but cost is a major barrier to implementing high-fidelity simulation training into the curriculum. The aim of this study was to examine the cost-effectiveness of self-debriefing and traditional instructor debriefing in CRM training programs and to calculate the minimum willingness-to-pay (WTP) value when one debriefing type becomes more cost-effective than the other. Methods This study used previous data from a randomized controlled trial involving 50 anesthesiology residents in Canada. Each participant managed a pretest crisis scenario. Participants who were randomized to self-debrief used the video of their pretest scenario with no instructor present during their debriefing. Participants from the control group were debriefed by a trained instructor using the video of their pretest scenario. Participants individually managed a post-test simulated crisis scenario. We compared the cost and effectiveness of self-debriefing versus instructor debriefing using net benefit regression. The cost-effectiveness estimate was reported as the incremental net benefit and the uncertainty was presented using a cost-effectiveness acceptability curve. Results Self-debriefing costs less than instructor debriefing. As the WTP increased, the probability that self-debriefing would be cost-effective decreased. With a WTP ≤Can$200, the self-debriefing program was cost-effective. However, when effectiveness was priced higher than cost-savings and with a WTP >Can$300, instructor debriefing was the preferred alternative. Conclusion With a lower WTP (≤Can$200), self-debriefing was cost-effective in CRM simulation training when compared to instructor debriefing. This study provides evidence regarding cost-effectiveness that will inform decision-makers and clinical educators in their decision-making process, and may help to optimize resource allocation in education. PMID:28028288

  9. When crises collide: how intimate partner violence and poverty intersect to shape women's mental health and coping?

    PubMed

    Goodman, Lisa A; Smyth, Katya Fels; Borges, Angela M; Singer, Rachel

    2009-10-01

    Until recently, the connection between intimate partner violence (IPV) and persistent poverty had been largely ignored. Recent research indicates, however, that the two phenomena cooccur at high rates; produce parallel effects; and, in each other's presence, constrain coping options. Therefore, both external situational, and internal psychological difficulties are missed when women contending with both poverty and IPV are viewed through the lens of just one or just the other. This article describes mental health consequences for women who contend with both partner violence and poverty. It proposes that the stress, powerlessness, and social isolation at the heart of both phenomena combine to produce posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and other emotional difficulties. The article also introduces the term ''survival-focused coping'' to describe women's methods of coping with IPV in the context of poverty and highlights the role that domestic violence advocates, mental health providers, and researchers can play in addressing these tightly intertwined phenomena.

  10. Placing Engineering and Other Professions under Public Oversight: A First Step toward Dealing with Our Economic, Social, and Environmental Crises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderburg, Willem H.

    2012-01-01

    The strengths and weaknesses of the discipline-based organization of our professions can help us understand both the enormous successes of our civilization and its equally spectacular failures. Placing engineering and other professions under greater public scrutiny is recommended as a first step toward addressing our deep structural economic,…

  11. Development of Computer-Supported Assessment and Treatment Consultation for Emotional Crises (CATCEC) for a Submarine Environment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    Cannabis Intoxication Dependent Personality Disorder ON, Inhalant Intoxication Schizoid Personality Disorder Minor Tranquilizer Intoxication Compulsive...somatization disorder , and to limit the scope of personality disorder assessment. These decisions were based on the belief that those diagnoses were...AFFECTIVE SYNDROME ANXIETY DISORDERS - Hallucinogen Affective Disorder Phobias OP A YPanic Disorder ORGANIC PERSONALITY SYNDROME Obsessive-Compulsive

  12. Grassroots Heritage: A Multi-Method Investigation of How Social Media Sustain the Living Heritage of Historic Crises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Sophia B.

    2011-01-01

    Unprecedented uses of information and communication technology (ICT) and particularly social media (e.g., Wikipedia, Facebook, and Twitter) are occurring in times of crisis. This dissertation investigates the socio-technical practices emerging from the use of social media and how these practices help to "sustain the living heritage" of…

  13. Putting a Lid on Crises: Issues Management Can Control a Crisis Before It Boils Over and You Get Burned.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauer, Larry D.

    1983-01-01

    Issues management is defined as a distant early warning system through which colleges and universities can develop strategies to deal with legislative, community, and internal issues before they reach a crisis point. The issues management process at Texas Christian University is described. (MLW)

  14. A resource for those preparing for and responding to natural disasters, humanitarian crises, and major healthcare emergencies.

    PubMed

    Allen, Claire

    2014-12-01

    This article describes the dissemination and knowledge transfer activities of Evidence Aid, which was established after the Indian Ocean tsunami of December 2004 to provide a single source of evidence that would help people make well-informed decisions when preparing for and responding to disasters. Evidence Aid has a dedicated website (www.EvidenceAid.org) to provide access to more than 160 systematic reviews and several other documents relevant to people working on disaster risk reduction, planning, response, recovery, rehabilitation, and resilience. It combines this with a social media presence and Special Collections that bundle together related Cochrane Reviews (www.TheCochraneLibrary.com). The aim is to make it easier for users who need this evidence and don't have time to browse through multiple documents and distill them before making their decisions. Evidence Aid will continue to identify and share resources and knowledge with those who most need it at the time that they need it most. It is working with several partners to identify relevant Cochrane and non-Cochrane systematic reviews and is engaging with users who, by sharing their information and their knowledge needs, will allow Evidence Aid to target its efforts to these priority areas.

  15. Making Sense of the Nursing Education Crises in California: A Program Planning Study Prospectus. Report 09-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Stacy

    2009-01-01

    In the absence of continuous legislative and institutional intervention, the demand for services provided by vocational and registered nurses in California over the next ten years will greatly outpace the supply of nurses anticipated to flow from postsecondary degree programs. Nursing education and supply issues can be better understood and…

  16. Can Interest-Free Finance Limit the Frequency of Crises and the Volatility of the Business Cycle?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-14

    effectively pays interest. Thus, the sale of debt is prohibited. Insurance , or takaful , poses another problem. In the middle ages, when the church in...Last year, the Congress of the United States passed a bill limiting leverage on banks that pose a systemic risk to the economy. Previously, banks were...the legal theory recommends profit-and-loss-sharing (PLS) schemes, where a manager and investor each take a proportional share of profits based

  17. From "Hope & Glory" to "Waterloo Road:" Mediating Discourses of "Crises" Surrounding Schools and Schooling in British Television Drama, 1999-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Anthony; Edwards, Gail

    2013-01-01

    Popular television drama is an important discursive site engaging the public with debates about schooling and professional identity. Between 1999 and 2011, external discourses of "crisis" (of academic achievement or students' mental and emotional health) were mediated as alternative discourses of "crisis, failure, and…

  18. Multiple Alternatives Modeling in Determining Fiscal Roll-Backs during Educational Funding Crises. Interim Draft. Paper and Report Series No. 70.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wholeben, Brent E.; Sullivan, John M.

    This report provides an extensive discussion of the use of criterion referenced, mathematical modeling procedures to determine which budget reductions minimize reduction in the quality of educational programs. Part I, "Evaluation of Potential Budgeting Roll-backs under Educational Fiscal Crisis," explains the basic design of multiple…

  19. Public Policy Failure and Fiasco in Education: Perspectives on the British Examinations Crises of 2000-2002 and Other Episodes since 1975

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, William

    2007-01-01

    In recent years there has been a re-appraisal within political science of the characteristics of various kinds of public policy failure. At the same time, the political significance of education has grown in most liberal democracies. The present paper examines public policy in British education since the mid-1970s and asks: What goes wrong in…

  20. Crises and Resilience at the Frontline—Public Health Facility Managers under Devolution in a Sub-County on the Kenyan Coast

    PubMed Central

    Nyikuri, Mary; Tsofa, Benjamin; Barasa, Edwine; Okoth, Philip; Molyneux, Sassy

    2015-01-01

    Background Public primary health care (PHC) facilities are for many individuals the first point of contact with the formal health care system. These facilities are managed by professional nurses or clinical officers who are recognised to play a key role in implementing health sector reforms and facilitating initiatives aimed at strengthening community involvement. Little in-depth research exists about the dimensions and challenges of these managers’ jobs, or on the impact of decentralisation on their roles and responsibilities. In this paper, we describe the roles and responsibilities of PHC managers–or ‘in-charges’ in Kenya, and their challenges and coping strategies, under accelerated devolution. Methods The data presented in this paper is part of a wider set of activities aimed at understanding governance changes under devolution in Kenya, under the umbrella of a ‘learning site’. A learning site is a long term process of collaboration between health managers and researchers deciding together on key health system questions and interventions. Data were collected through seven formal in depth interviews and observations at four PHC facilities as well as eight in depth interviews and informal interactions with sub-county managers from June 2013 to July 2014. Drawing on the Aragon framework of organisation capacity we discuss the multiple accountabilities, daily routines, challenges and coping strategies among PHC facility managers. Results PHC in-charges perform complex and diverse roles in a difficult environment with relatively little formal preparation. Their key concerns are lack of job clarity and preparedness, the difficulty of balancing multidirectional accountability responsibilities amidst significant resource shortages, and remuneration anxieties. We show that day-to-day management in an environment of resource constraints and uncertainty requires PHC in-charges who are resilient, reflective, and continuously able to learn and adapt. We highlight the importance of leadership development including the building of critical soft skills such as relationship building. PMID:26696096

  1. A space-borne, multi-parameter, Virtual Volcano Observatory for the real-time, anywhere-anytime support to decision-making during eruptive crises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrucci, F.; Tampellini, M.; Loughlin, S. C.; Tait, S.; Theys, N.; Valks, P.; Hirn, B.

    2013-12-01

    The EVOSS consortium of academic, industrial and institutional partners in Europe and Africa, has created a satellite-based volcano observatory, designed to support crisis management within the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) framework of the European Commission. Data from 8 different payloads orbiting on 14 satellite platforms (SEVIRI on-board MSG-1, -2 and -3, MODIS on-board Terra and Aqua, GOME-2 and IASI onboard MetOp-A, OMI on-board Aura, Cosmo-SkyMED/1, /2, /3 and /4, JAMI on-board MTSAT-1 and -2, and, until April 8th2012, SCHIAMACHY on-board ENVISAT) acquired at 5 different down-link stations, are disseminated to and automatically processed at 6 locations in 4 countries. The results are sent, in four separate geographic data streams (high-temperature thermal anomalies, volcanic Sulfur dioxide daily fluxes, volcanic ash and ground deformation), to a central facility called VVO, the 'Virtual Volcano Observatory'. This system operates 24H/24-7D/7 since September 2011 on all volcanoes in Europe, Africa, the Lesser Antilles, and the oceans around them, and during this interval has detected, measured and monitored all subaerial eruptions occurred in this region (44 over 45 certified, with overall detection and processing efficiency of ~97%). EVOSS borne realtime information is delivered to a group of 14 qualified end users, bearing the direct or indirect responsibility of monitoring and managing volcano emergencies, and of advising governments in Comoros, DR Congo, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Montserrat, Uganda, Tanzania, France and Iceland. We present the full set of eruptions detected and monitored - from 2004 to present - by multispectral payloads SEVIRI onboard the geostationary platforms of the MSG constellation, for developing and fine tuning-up the EVOSS system along with its real-time, pre- and post-processing automated algorithms. The set includes 91% of subaerial eruptions occurred at 15 volcanoes (Piton de la Fournaise, Karthala, Jebel al Tair, Erta Ale, Manda Hararo, Dalafilla, Nabro, Ol Doinyo Lengai, Nyiamulagira, Nyiragongo, Etna, Stromboli, Eyjafjallajökull, Grimsvötn, Soufriere Hills) showing radiant fluxes above ~0.5 GW and/or SO2 columns in excess of ~6 DU. Porting of automated thermal algorithms on MTSAT's JAMI (orbiting at 145°E) was developed on the eruptions of Merapi, Semeru Kliuchevskoi, Bezymianny and Shiveluch in 2006-2007, calibrated on the frequent activity of Batu Tara, and demonstrated on the 2012-2013 large eruption of Tolbachik.

  2. Homeland security planning: what victory gardens and Fidel Castro can teach us in preparing for food crises in the United States.

    PubMed

    Endres, A Bryan; Endres, Jody M

    2009-01-01

    Two historical examples provide important insight into how federal government policies can integrate regional and local food systems to achieve food security during a time of acute crisis. During World War II, American home gardeners, through the federal government's Victory Garden program, supplied 40 percent of the nation's fresh produce, while simultaneously maintaining pre-war commodity production policies favoring large agricultural interests. The recent food crisis in Cuba, precipitated by the collapse of Soviet-bloc trade in the early 1990s, is another historical example that could inform U.S. policymakers on how to achieve food self-sufficiency through reemphasis on small farmers using sustainable practices supplemented with urban gardening. This article aims to ignite government action to strengthen and integrate regional and local food systems into federal food security planning so that citizens can be best prepared for a food emergency. The article first examines laws, regulations and policies put in place during World War II that employed regional and local food networks to satisfy a significant amount of civilian food supply needs. The article also looks at more recent Cuban efforts to achieve forced food self-reliance when, after the end of the Cold War, Soviet subsidies and preferential trading of energy and food supplies ceased almost overnight.

  3. Epilepsies et crises épileptiques aiguës chez l'enfant en Afrique subsaharienne: défis et espoirs

    PubMed Central

    Kaputu-Kalala-Malu, Célestin

    2016-01-01

    L’épilepsie est une maladie neurologique fréquemment rencontrée en Afrique Subsaharienne (ASS) au sein de la population pédiatrique. Bien que sa prévalence exacte au sein de cette population ne serait pas connue, il y a lieu de penser qu'elle n'est pas très différente de celle de la population générale à cause de l’âge précoce de son début - avant 20 ans dans plus 60% des cas - et à l'absence de la distribution bimodale retrouvée dans les pays industrialisés. Tout au long de cette revue de la littérature, une réalité se dégage: la prise en charge globale de l'enfant épileptique en ASS est inadéquate. Pour inverser cette tendance, les défis à relever semblent être de trois ordres. Outre la recherche, ces défis comportent une dimension thérapeutique et une dimension éducationnelle. Il y a nécessité de former des médecins à la pratique de la neurologie pédiatrique tout en créant des conditions de travail qui limitent la fuite des cerveaux. Il est urgent d'identifier et de combler les besoins nécessaires à la prise en charge correcte des enfants épileptiques selon les pays et les régions (indisponibilité des médicaments anti comitiaux, l'absence des guidelines nationaux, le déficit d'encadrement de guérisseurs traditionnels…) enfin, il est impérieux d'encourager la réalisation des études visant à établir l'incidence et la prévalence correctes des épilepsies chez l'enfant afin de faciliter la pose des jalons des mesures de lutte ciblées. PMID:27217883

  4. Emergency surgery data and documentation reporting forms for sudden-onset humanitarian crises, natural disasters and the existing burden of surgical disease.

    PubMed

    Burkle, Frederick M; Nickerson, Jason W; von Schreeb, Johan; Redmond, Anthony D; McQueen, Kelly A; Norton, Ian; Roy, Nobhojit

    2012-12-01

    Following large-scale disasters and major complex emergencies, especially in resource-poor settings, emergency surgery is practiced by Foreign Medical Teams (FMTs) sent by governmental and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). These surgical experiences have not yielded an appropriate standardized collection of data and reporting to meet standards required by national authorities, the World Health Organization, and the Inter-Agency Standing Committee's Global Health Cluster. Utilizing the 2011 International Data Collection guidelines for surgery initiated by Médecins Sans Frontières, the authors of this paper developed an individual patient-centric form and an International Standard Reporting Template for Surgical Care to record data for victims of a disaster as well as the co-existing burden of surgical disease within the affected community. The data includes surgical patient outcomes and perioperative mortality, along with referrals for rehabilitation, mental health and psychosocial care. The purpose of the standard data format is fourfold: (1) to ensure that all surgical providers, especially from indigenous first responder teams and others performing emergency surgery, from national and international (Foreign) medical teams, contribute relevant and purposeful reporting; (2) to provide universally acceptable forms that meet the minimal needs of both national authorities and the Health Cluster; (3) to increase transparency and accountability, contributing to improved humanitarian coordination; and (4) to facilitate a comprehensive review of services provided to those affected by the crisis.

  5. Standardizing Chaos: A Neo-Institutional Analysis of the INEE Minimum Standards for Education in Emergencies, Chronic Crises and Early Reconstruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, Patricia; Andina, Marina

    2010-01-01

    Violent conflict and humanitarian disasters such as floods, famines, or tsunamis, have existed since the start of human history. However, it is only recently that education in these emergency situations has emerged as a visible organizational field. We aim to use a unique theoretical application of sociological neo-institutionalism to explain the…

  6. L'Education a l'Heure de la Crise: A la Recherche de l'Equilibre (Education in a Time of Crisis: The Search for Balance).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayrand, Georges

    1993-01-01

    Describes contemporary educational thought as polarized between the reductionist views of utilitarianism and the unifying views of holism. Explains cultural evolution in terms of the Taoist principles of yin and yang. Evaluates current trends in education, and raises epistemological problems. Discusses the potential effect of utilitarian and…

  7. Study of chronic hemolytic anaemia patients in Rio de Janeiro: prevalence of anti-human parvovirus B19 IgG antibodies and the development aplastic crises.

    PubMed

    Sant'Anna, Anadayr L M; Garcia, Rita de Cássia N Cubel; Marzoche, Mônica; da Rocha, Heloisa Helena A Gallo; Paula, Maria Tereza M; Lobo, Clarisse C; Nascimento, Jussara P

    2002-01-01

    The prevalence of anti-human parvovirus B19 IgG antibodies was determined in sera from 165 chronic hemolytic anemia patients, receiving medical care at Instituto Estadual de Hematologia (IEHE), Rio de Janeiro, during the year of 1994. This sample represents around 10% of the chronic hemolytic anemia patients attending at IEHE. Most of these patients (140) have sickle cell disease. Anti-B19 IgG antibodies were detected in 32.1% of patients. No statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) was seen between IgG antibody prevalence in male (27.8%) and female (35.5%) patients. Anti-B19 IgG antibodies were more frequent in older (37.6%) than younger (28.2%) than 20 years old patients, although this difference had no statistical significance (p > 0.05). Anti-B19 IgG antibody prevalence showed that 67.9% of patients enrolled in the study were susceptible to B19 acute infection. With the aim to detect acute B19 infection, patients follow up continued until February 1996. During this period four patients presented transient aplastic crisis due to human parvovirus B19 as confirmed by the detection of specific IgM antibodies. All four patients were younger than 20 years old, and 3 were younger than 10 years old. Three of them were sickle cell disease patients. Three of the four acute B19 infection occurred during 1994 springtime.

  8. School Psychology in the New Millennium: Constructing and Implementing a Blueprint for Intervening in Crises Involving Disasters and/or Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tramonte, Michael R.

    This paper offers advice to school psychologists concerning the future of their profession in relation to crisis intervention. Crisis intervention will be more of a priority as the year 2000 approaches; therefore school psychologists need to expand their role and change their focus to include intervention to all children. School psychologists need…

  9. An Experimental Workshop in the Emotional Problems of College Students, Report of the Annual Workshop in Emotional Problems of College Students (2nd, Greeley, Colorado, July 19-22, 1967).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Coll., Greeley. Counseling and Testing Center.

    Reproduced here are the presentations and discussions of the workshop. The following topics were covered: (1) the role of religion in student crises; (2) the role of the college in student crises; (3) the community and college resources in student crises; (4) homosexual activities; (5) the view of an academic dean on student crises; (6) the…

  10. Non-Linear Effects of Self Generated Alfven Waves in Oblique Shocks and Cosmic Ray Acceleration Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina-Tanco, G. A.; Opher, R.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Se presentan resultados numericos para un modelo hidrodinamico de cuatro componentes (plasma de fondo, particulas energeticas, ondas de Alfven autogeneradas y campo magnetico) para choques oblicuos. ABSTRACT. Numerical results of a four component hydrodynamic model (background plasma, energetic particles, self-generated Alfven waves and magnetic field) for oblique shocks are presented. Keq wo't : COSMIC RAY-GENERAL - PLASMAS - SHOCK WAVES

  11. Nouvelles contraintes sur la crise de salinité messinienne par l'étude d'une plate-forme carbonatée marginale (bassin de Sorbas, Espagne)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conesa, Gilles; Martin, Jean-Paul Saint; Cornée, Jean-Jacques; Muller, Jacques

    1999-01-01

    A new sketch of the primary sedimentary anatomy of the Messinian carbonate platform of Cariatiz is proposed, including basinal deposits, after removing late tectonic deformations. It leads, with sedimentological results, to a new sequence stratigraphy interpretation. The platform developed throughout two transgressive cycles, without important sea-level drop nor aerial erosional unconformity. Its latest oolitic unit is partly coeval with basinal gypsum deposits which are related to the Messinian salinity crisis. We could not prove that the Mediterranean dessicated during the platform development.

  12. Understanding Adulthood. A Review and Analysis of the Works of Three Leading Authorities on the Stages and Crises in Adult Development. California Personnel and Guidance Association Monograph Number 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerstein, Martin; Papen-Daniel, Michele

    Adult development theorists believe that the changes that occur during the adult years are predictable and age linked. Their theories explain how change is resolved by the majority of the adult population. Three persons whose research has been influential in the field of adult development during the 1970s are Erik Erikson, Daniel Levinson, and…

  13. Systems Concepts for Integrated Air Defense of Multinational Mobile Crisis Reaction Forces (Concepts de systemes pour la defense aerienne integree de forces internationales mobiles d’intervention en situation de crise)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    outlined. This concept makes use of passive electro- optical sensors for panoramic surveillance in silent mode. Based upon infra -red Focal Plane Array...will be detected, tracked and classified with high probability of detection. As opposed to Infra -Red Search and Track (IRST) systems known so far, this...upon infra -red (IR) technology. Those IRST systems did not, however, fulfill the performance 2-3 requirements for reliable air surveillance and target

  14. [Risk communication during health crises: results of a cross-sectional study to evaluate the effectiveness of adopted corporate communication strategies during the H1N1 influenza pandemic in Italy and on the training needs of health professionals].

    PubMed

    De Giusti, Maria; Mannocci, Alice; Miccoli, Silvia; Palazzo, Caterina; Di Thiene, Domitilla; Scalmato, Valeria; Ursillo, Paolo; Monteduro, Maria Antonietta; Turri, Alberto; Mazzoli, Pier Giovanni; Boccia, Antonio; La Torre, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of corporate communication activities carried out during the A(H1N1) pandemic influenza in Italy and to identify educational needs of health professionals with regards to crisis communication. The study compared two samples representing respectively the general population and health professionals, living in different regions of northern, central and southern Italy. A self-administered questionnaire was used, with questions on knowledge about preventive measures during a pandemic and on satisfaction with the adopted communication campaigns. Study results highlight that both samples had very little knowledge of appropriate preventive behaviors to be adopted during a pandemic. The sample of health professionals received a greater amount of information about the pandemic with respect to the general population and showed a strong interest toward the problem of receiving adequate training in risk communication. The degree of knowledge about preventive measures is directly proportional to the existence of institutional communication activities and to having consulted a health professional.

  15. When Crisis Strikes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudle, Melissa

    1994-01-01

    School crises may be categorized as emergency situations, human-made crises, natural events, medical emergencies, and mechanical crises. Central to any successful crisis-management plan are onsite and district-level crisis response teams. Plans should specify staff responsibilities; provide for communication codes, devices, and procedures;…

  16. Energy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Canada, Britain, and Spain. We found that the energy industry is not in crisis ; however, U.S. government policies, laws, dollars, and even public...CEIMAT (Centro de Investagaciones Energeticas , Medioambeintales y Tecnologicas) Research and development Page 3 of 28ENERGY 8/10/04http://www.ndu.edu...procurement or storage of standard, common use fuels. NATURAL GAS Natural gas, abundant globally and domestically, offers energy versatility among

  17. Assessing the Resource Gap in a Changing Arctic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    Arctic. Potential Search and Rescue (SAR) and environmental crises include oil spills , airline emergencies, and foundering cruise ships. Currently, the...crises are increasing with the opening Arctic. Potential Search and Rescue (SAR) and environmental crises include oil spills , airline emergencies, and...militarized disputes is unlikely. A more likely danger is the possibility of large-scale man-made disasters such as an oil spill , airline emergencies, and

  18. Defense Transformation a’ la francaise and U.S. Interests. Strategic Forum, Number 233, September 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    evokes the possibility of sudden and “devastating” state-on-state crises in Asia and warns of volatile, nonmilitary threats ranging from cyberattacks...increasingly volatile and unpredictable crises . The “knowl- edge-anticipation” function—which covers a range of intelligence and other information...in American focus from Europe toward pressing crises in the Middle East and Asia; and, albeit less cer- tain, a more inward focus among part of the

  19. Indonesia: The Economic Crisis 1997-1998.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    Sabotage Should Be An International Crime, Third World Network Features, August 1997. 130 Paul Krugman , Currency Crises. 152 such a way...137 Paul Krugman , Currencies and Crises, p.xiv-xv, 1992, the MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, London, England. 157 158 V...Grauwe, Economic and Monetary Turmoil, Financial Times, February 20, 1998. Paul Krugman , Currencies and Crises, p.xiv-xv, 1992, the MIT Press

  20. [Clinico-statistical analysis of arterial hypertension complicated with hypertensive crisis in Moscow in 2005-2009].

    PubMed

    Gaponova, N I; Plavunov, N F; Tereshchenko, S N; Baratashvili, V L; Abdurakhmanov, V R; Komissarenko, I A; Filippov, D V; Podkopaev, D V

    2011-01-01

    Clinicostatistical analysis of arterial hypertension complicated with hypertensive crisis using data of Moscow A.S.Puchkov Station of Urgent and Emergent Medical Aid revealed 14% rise in number of hypertensive crises during the period from 2005 to 2009. Number of hypertensive crises increased among persons of young age (18-35 years). Frequency of cerebrovascular complications of hypertensive crises was age dependent with maximal values among men aged 36-74 years and women older than 75 years.

  1. The U.S. Financial Crisis: The Global Dimension With Implications for U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-10

    and prevent future crises . In order to give these proposals political backing, world leaders have called for international meetings to address...interests and facilitating business operations without creating a moral hazard. In addition to preventing future crises through legislative, oversight, and...Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division. the capacity to address financial crises at the national, regional, and multilateral levels with possibly a

  2. La Crise est arrivee: la croissance des programmes de francais langue seconde et ses repercussions sur la qualite et le nombre des enseignants (The Crisis Has Arrived: The Growth of French as a Second Language Programs and Repercussions for the Quality and Number of Teachers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obadia, Andre A.

    1989-01-01

    A study of faculties of education in Canadian universities shows that the quality of French teacher training needs improvement and may run the risk of further deterioration. The tremendous student increase in French-as-a-Second-Language programs is already causing a gradual but serious shortage of French teachers. (Author/MSE)

  3. Transdisciplinary Collaborations for Sustainability Education: Institutional and Intragroup Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Tina Lynn

    2015-01-01

    This article takes as its point of departure the many converging crises of sustainability and the responsibility of higher education institutions and faculty members to participate in mitigating these crises to any extent possible. The author characterizes sustainability education as transdisciplinary praxis, explores the institutional and…

  4. Long-Term Impact of Famine: Enduring Disasters and Opportunities for Progress. Staff Report No. AGES870212.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabbs-Zeno, Carl C.

    Throughout history, famine has been linked to many of the most severe crises of humanity. Even with millenary of collective experience, the reaction of the world community to the an intense food crises fails to address the long-term impacts of famine. As governments and populations strive to cope with famine, many long-term changes take place in…

  5. Planning for a Better Future: California 2025. 2011 Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Policy Institute of California, 2011

    2011-01-01

    California's current economic and fiscal realities make nonpartisan, objective information on the state's future challenges all the more critical. Understandably, the search is on for immediate solutions to the unprecedented crises people face today. But if the present crises make policymakers shelve long-term planning, the result may be an even…

  6. The Crisis Manual for Early Childhood Teachers: How To Handle the Really Difficult Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Karen

    More and more teachers report the increasing incidence of crises in children's lives, crises that interfere with the child's ability to learn. Noting that developmentally appropriate curricula must respond to the issues of immediate concern and interest to children, this source book assists teachers in facing difficult issues in the classroom and…

  7. Renormalization Group Analysis of October Market Crashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gluzman, S.; Yukalov, V. I.

    The self-similar analysis of time series, suggested earlier by the authors, is applied to the description of market crises. The main attention is payed to the October 1929, 1987 and 1997 stock market crises, which can be successfully treated by the suggested approach. The analogy between market crashes and critical phenomena is emphasized.

  8. Before Crisis Hits: Building a Strategic Crisis Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Larry L.; Millar, Dan P.

    This guide offers suggestions to college administrators for dealing with a variety of emergency or crisis situations that could affect a community college's effectiveness. The authors used the Institute for Crisis Management's (ICM) four types of crises in higher education as the framework for the guide. The four types of crises are: (1) sudden;…

  9. Learning the Legalities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Victoria

    1987-01-01

    Certain types of crises cry out for legal counsel. Becoming familiar with the basics of media law is suggested for public relations offices. Three types of crises that call for legal advice include: litigation or potential litigation; a violation of a law or regulation; or incidents with any hint of liability. (MLW)

  10. Intercultural Competence in Education, Counselling and Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portera, Agostino

    2014-01-01

    The present era of globalization, interdependence and multicultural societies has brought about both opportunities and crises in educational institutions. Especially schools and families seem to be unable to cope with such revolutionary changes. The crises also concern all fields involved in maintaining social welfare, including counselling and…

  11. Classroom Crisis Counseling in the Aftermath of School Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paris, Norma Jean

    Numerous counseling needs are generated in the aftermath of school crises, particularly crises involving school violence. Meeting these needs can be assisted when school psychologists involve classroom teachers in the planning and implementation of crisis counseling. This paper provides information about a crisis counseling intervention model…

  12. Crisis Management Plans in Higher Education: Commonalities, Attributes, and Perceived Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Mary Keane

    2012-01-01

    Crisis has remained as prevalent in our lives today as it ever has been, especially in this post-9/11 era. People handle all types of crises, whether personally, professionally or socially. Arguably, people's worldviews after the tragedies of September 11, 2001 have never been the same, including the way they manage and respond to crises. This…

  13. Episodic processes, invasion and faunal mosaics in evolutionary and ecological time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Episodes of ecological perturbation and faunal turnover represent crises for global biodiversity and have occurred periodically across Earth history on a continuum linking deep evolutionary and shallow ecological time. Major extinction events and biodiversity crises across the 540 milion years of th...

  14. Learning through Crisis: The Educator's Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Lori D.

    2008-01-01

    One of the most pressing challenges when facilitating a conversation on human crises is the normalizing push to move forward and avoid living in the past. Unfortunately, when conversations about human crises are ignored or rushed through, the learning process is stunted. Students lose a valuable opportunity to develop empathy and cultural…

  15. Educational Reform or National Survival: Take Your Pick.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiter, Carl

    In response to the Holmes and Carnegie reports that call for educational reforms in the teaching profession, this paper argues that the financial support for these future reforms will be diverted to fund the research to combat the emerging national crises that ultimately will threaten national security. Describing the emerging crises in this paper…

  16. The U.S. Financial Crisis: The Global Dimension With Implications for U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-18

    and prevent future crises . In order to give these proposals political backing, world leaders have called for international meetings to address...facilitating business operations without creating a moral hazard. In addition to preventing future crises through legislative, oversight, and...The first is among the industrialized nations of the world where most of the losses from subprime mortgage debt, excessive leveraging of investments

  17. Community Crisis Intervention; A Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batson, Ruth; Peters, Lyda

    This manual is designed to help community mental health workers to intervene effectively in community crises, particularly school desegregation. The rationale for involving mental health personnel in community crises is explained. The need for expertise among such workers is emphasized, and strategies for gaining this expertise are outlined. Also…

  18. Higher Education and Regulation: Counting the Costs of Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, John

    1975-01-01

    Describes the financial crises in colleges and universities caused by the enactment of federal social legislation, such as equal employment opportunity provisions, the Equal Pay Act, minimum wage law, unemployment insurance, and affirmative action programs. (MLH)

  19. The Three Mile Island Disaster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Emeral

    1980-01-01

    For the past decade, education has been experiencing meltdown, explosions, radiation leaks, heat pollution, and management crises, just like the Three Mile Island disaster. This article offers suggestions on how to deal with these problems. (Author/LD)

  20. 76 FR 2198 - Agency Information Collection: Emergency Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... earned. VA must also reach out to Veterans who are experiencing mental health crises and provide...: Veterans Health Administration, Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In compliance with... organizations, and other important and influential stakeholders. Therefore, the Veterans Health...

  1. Agricultural Education: Key to Providing Broader Opportunities for Third World Women in Production Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lelle, Mark A.; Holt, Barbara A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors focus on providing opportunities for women in Third World countries in agriculture. A review of the body of knowledge in agricultural development and of the issues surrounding current world food crises is included. (CH)

  2. Influence diagrams as oil spill decision science tools

    EPA Science Inventory

    Making inferences on risks to ecosystem services (ES) from ecological crises can be more reliably handled using decision science tools. Influence diagrams (IDs) are probabilistic networks that explicitly represent the decisions related to a problem and evidence of their influence...

  3. 76 FR 29135 - National Defense Transportation Day and National Transportation Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... respond to crises or natural disasters at home and abroad with urgency. Maintaining the transportation...-efficient, more environmentally sustainable, and offers more transportation choices to our citizens than...

  4. First report of successful stem cell transplantation in a patient with sickle cell hemoglobin D disease.

    PubMed

    Hamidieh, Amir Ali; Jalili, Mahdi; Khojasteh, Omid; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir

    2010-07-01

    Sickle cell hemoglobin D disease is a rare variant of sickle cell disease. Affected patients suffer from episodes of acute exacerbation of clinical course with a wide range of manifestations such as acute chest syndrome, stroke, painful vaso-occlusive crises, acute sequestration crises, joint necrosis, organ failure, infections, and temporary aplastic crises, collectively called sickling crises. Conventional treatments for patients with sickle cell disease include hydroxyurea therapy and prophylactic red blood cell transfusion. However, morbidity and mortality rates remain high with these remedies. In this article, we report hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as an alternative treatment in children with high-risk factors. According to our knowledge and an extensive review of the literature, stem cell transplantation in sickle cell hemoglobin D disease previously has not been reported in any published study and our patient is the first case.

  5. Familial dysautonomia

    MedlinePlus

    Riley-Day syndrome; FD; Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy - type III (HSAN III); Autonomic crises - familial dysautonomia ... PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 107. Sarnat HB. Autonomic neuropathies. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, ...

  6. Cross-National Crisis Indicators Project.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-01

    between interstate and intrastate crises. The final chapter emphasizes the importance of ’crossing’ levels of analysis and attempting to anchor crisis theory within a more general international relations theoretical edifice.

  7. Project CARE: A Response to Students at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormany, Robert B.

    1987-01-01

    Project CARE was developed by the West Shores School District (Lemoyne, Pennsylvania) to provide supportive services for at-risk students. It provides programs to address issues of child abuse, family crises, suicide, and student abduction. MD)

  8. Fragmentation or differentiation: questioning the crisis in psychology.

    PubMed

    Zittoun, Tania; Gillespie, Alex; Cornish, Flora

    2009-06-01

    There is a recurrent discourse about the fragmentation of psychology and its crises as a science, which often leads to a disenchanted view about its future. To this discourse we oppose a developmental one, in which crises can be occasions for development, and in which development might imply differentiation. We first review why psychology can be said to be in crisis. We then situate the crisis in the pragmatics of doing psychology. Crises occur when psychologists have problems either working with other psychologists or with communities. We argue that collaborative research is a way to overcome these crises. Specifically we suggest three specific scientific activities that can lead to the development of psychology: collaborative research methods, the identification of nodal concepts that enable the bringing together of different approaches and disciplines, and the creation and maintenance of institutional spaces that enable creative, collaborative work.

  9. Some Guidelines for Energy Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kryger, King C.

    1977-01-01

    This article offers guidelines for educational programs developed for the purpose of educating students and adults on the seriousness of the energy crises and the steps that must be taken to cope with it. (JD)

  10. The study of effects of small perturbations on chaotic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Grebogi, C.; Yorke, J.A.

    1991-12-01

    This report discusses the following topics: controlling chaotic dynamical systems; embedding of experimental data; effect of noise on critical exponents of crises; transition to chaotic scattering; and distribution of floaters on a fluid surface. (LSP)

  11. The study of effects of small perturbations on chaotic systems. Progress report, January 1991--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Grebogi, C.; Yorke, J.A.

    1991-12-01

    This report discusses the following topics: controlling chaotic dynamical systems; embedding of experimental data; effect of noise on critical exponents of crises; transition to chaotic scattering; and distribution of floaters on a fluid surface. (LSP)

  12. United States Military-To-Military Contact with the People’s Liberation Army of China

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    might help avert these very crises that may lead to war. In addition, case studies of Indonesia and El Salvador show that the long-held traditions of...Engagement, Military Exchanges, Military Relations, Peacetime Engagement, International Military Education and Training, IMET, Indonesia , El Salvador...very crises that may lead to war. In addition, case studies of Indonesia and El Salvador show that the long-held traditions of strong military

  13. Managing the Growing Chinese Power in SE Asia: The U.S. Struggle to Maintain Power Projection in the Face of the Rising Middle Kingdom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-04

    have closed much of China to outside development and commercialism. Today the world is one large, global market . Nations cannot ignore areas of the...budgets and other global crises, the U.S. cannot wait to develop a cost-effective plan for being able to blunt, counter, and defeat this rapidly...allow for U.S. interests in the region without a strong U.S. military presence. Despite decreasing defense budgets and other global crises, the

  14. The Global Financial Crisis: Foreign and Trade Policy Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-07

    when we created them. As indicated in Figure 1, the financial crisis began with a rising default level in subprime mortgages, bankruptcies, an...political crises in Eastern Europe and tug-of- war for influence there between Russia and the EU/U.S. Fundamental Philosophies Rise of state capitalism and...designed to prevent future crises and correct past abuses of the system. The fourth phase has been to deal with political and foreign policy effects of the

  15. The Global Financial Crisis: Lessons from Japan’s Lost Decade of the 1990s

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-04

    underlying forces of financial crises . In fiscal policy, the Japanese experience has been used both as an example of stimulus packages that did not work...framework for understanding and analyzing financial crises and policy. Traditionally, economists have viewed the causes of the Great Depression...mistake for them was not to borrow and invest and consequently not be positioned to reap the returns from rising markets. Banks considered most loans

  16. The Effects of the National Debt on the United States as a Superpower

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-22

    disruptions, such as the subprime mortgage crises that spurred the near collapse of the U.S. financial system in 2008-2009 and threatenedthe collapse of...4 budgetary flexibility is reduced because interest cannot be changed directly, unlike other federal spending. Consequently , interest spending is...associatedwithfiscal crises . Past empire falls were marked by sharp imbalances between revenues and expenditures, as well as difficulties with financing

  17. The crisis of the western system of medicine in contemporary capitalism.

    PubMed

    Navarro, V

    1978-01-01

    This article makes a critique of current interpretations of the crises of the western system of medicine and presents alternative explanations for those crises. It indicates that the crises of medicine--reflected in its ubiquitous problems of costs and ineffectiveness--are due to and reflect the crises of legitimation and capital accumulation of contemporary capitalism. The article is divided into six parts: the first two define the characteristics of the crises of western contemporary capitalism and of its system of medicine, with a critique of current theories which try to explain them. Parts three and four contrapose to these theories a Marxist interpretation of the crises, tracing their causes to the needs created by the process of capital accumulation and to the demands expressed by the working population. The needs and demands generated by Capital and Labor are intrinsically in conflict, and are realized in the daily practice of class struggle. The characteristics and consequences of that struggle for health and for the organization, content, and ideology of medicine are analyzed in the fifth part. This class struggle takes place within a political context in which Capital and its social expression, the bouregeoisie or corporate class, have the dominant influence on the organs of the State. The sixth part of the article shows how that dominance determines the nature of the State responses to the crises of medicine. A primary thesis of this paper is that social class, class struggle, capitalism, and imperialism are not passé categories, as most ideologists of capitalism postulate, but rather they are the most important paradigms for understanding the crises of the western system of power and its medicine.

  18. Development and application of a safety assessment methodology for waste disposals

    SciTech Connect

    Little, R.H.; Torres, C.; Schaller, K.H.

    1996-12-31

    As part of a European Commission funded research programme, QuantiSci (formerly the Environmental Division of Intera Information Technologies) and Instituto de Medio Ambiente of the Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (IMA/CIEMAT) have developed and applied a comprehensive, yet practicable, assessment methodology for post-disposal safety assessment of land-based disposal facilities. This Safety Assessment Comparison (SACO) Methodology employs a systematic approach to the collection, evaluation and use of waste and disposal system data. It can be used to assess engineered barrier performance, the attenuating properties of host geological formations, and the long term impacts of a facility on the environment and human health, as well as allowing the comparison of different disposal options for radioactive, mixed and non-radioactive wastes. This paper describes the development of the methodology and illustrates its use.

  19. Energy Savers: Tips for Saving Energy and Money at Home; El Ahorro de Energa: Sugerencias para ahorrar energa y dinero en el hogar

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.

    2000-06-01

    The Department of Energy of the United States of America works to guarantee provisions of safe energy, reliable and economically accessible to support to one developing economy and to protect the atmosphere. These suggestions and ideas to increase the energy efficiency in their house represent simple ways in which our citizens can contribute to preserve the atmosphere at world-wide level, to reduce the level of contamination of the air and to reserve our natural resources for future generations. [Spanish] El Departamento de Energa de los Estados Unidos de America trabaja para garantizar suministros de energa seguros, confiables y econmicamente accesibles para apoyar a una economa en desarrollo y proteger el medio ambiente. Estas sugerencias e ideas para aumentar la eficiencia energetica en su casa representan maneras sencillas en que nuestros ciudadanos pueden contribuir a preservar el medio ambiente a nivel mundial, a reducir el nivel de contaminacin del aire y a reservar nuestros recursos naturales para las generaciones futuras.

  20. Conceptos Basicos Sobre el Propano

    SciTech Connect

    2016-08-01

    El propano provee energia a mas de 143.000 vehiculos en los Estados Unidos y 23 millones en todo el mundo. Flotas de todos los Estados Unidos han implementado con exito el uso de vehiculos que funcionan con gas propano, y en la actualidad varios funcionan gracias a este gas, incluyendo autobuses escolares, lanzaderas y autobuses publicos, asi como tambien furgonetas, taxis, vehiculos utilizados por las fuerzas del orden, barredoras de calles y camiones para uso profesional. El propano tambien se utiliza con frecuencia en aplicaciones fuera de la carretera, tales como montacargas, podadoras y equipos de uso profesional y otros equipos agricolas. Las ventajas del propano incluyen la disponibilidad interna, su rendimiento y el hecho de que genera menos emisiones de gases contaminantes que otras alternativas energeticas.

  1. Recent investigations on robot mechanics at D.I.M.E.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brancati, Renato; Rossi, Cesare; Russo, Michele

    1999-03-01

    Recent investigations in robot mechanics at Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica per l'Energetica of the University of Naples Federico II (D.I.M.E.) are here reported. In general, the aim of these investigations is to obtain trajectories and paths from the end effector of a robot with the highest possible accuracy. In particular, these investigations consider the influence of circumferential backlash and transmission elasticity on the accuracy of a trajectory, and the possibility of obtaining more accurate paths via optimum positioning and orientation of the paths in the work space. The investigations were carried out both through simulation and experimentally; the simulations were performed using the ADAMS and Matlab-Simulink computer programs while the experiments involved use of an industrial robot and a prototype designed and built at D.I.M.E.

  2. Monitoring the acute phase response to vaso-occlusive crisis in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, J; Stone, P C; Akinola, N O; Gallimore, J R; Pepys, M B

    1994-01-01

    AIMS--To identify suitable acute phase proteins as objective markers of tissue ischaemia during painful vaso-occlusive crises in sickle cell disease. METHODS--The prodromal and established phases of 14 vaso-occlusive crises were studied longitudinally in 10 patients with sickle cell anaemia. Automated solid phase enzyme immunoassays were used to measure the fast responding acute phase proteins C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A protein. Slower responding glycoproteins (fibrinogen, orosomucoid, sialic acid and concanavalin-A binding) were measured in parallel. RESULTS--C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A protein increased early in crisis, sometimes within the early (prodromal) phase. Crises that resolved within 24 hours in hospital showed a minor and transient rise compared with crises that required treatment for four days or more. In eight crises treated by patients at home the acute phase response ranged from minor to a level consistent with extensive tissue ischaemia. CONCLUSIONS--Sensitive enzyme immunoassays for C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A protein are of potential value for monitoring the onset of tissue ischaemia in sickle cell crisis and for confirming subsequent resolution. PMID:7510726

  3. Natural disaster and crisis: lessons learned about cleft and craniofacial care from Hurricane Katrina and the West Bank.

    PubMed

    van Aalst, John A; Strauss, Ronald P; Fox, Lynn; Cassell, Cynthia H; Stein, Margot; Moses, Michael; Alexander, Mary Ellen

    2011-11-01

    Cleft care is generally characterized by staged, carefully timed surgeries and long-term, team-centered follow-up. Acute and chronic crises can wreak havoc on the comprehensive team care required by children with craniofacial anomalies. In addition, there is evidence that crises, including natural disasters and chronic disruptions, such as political turmoil and poverty, can lead to an increased incidence of craniofacial anomalies. The purpose of this article is to delineate the impact of acute and chronic crises on cleft care. Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans, Louisiana, in 2005, resulted in an acute crisis that temporarily disrupted the infrastructure necessary to deliver cleft care; chronic turmoil in the West Bank/Palestine has resulted in an absence of infrastructure to deliver cleft care. Through these central examples, this article will illustrate-through the prism of cleft care-the need for (1) disaster preparedness for acute crises, (2) changing needs following acute crises that may lead to persistent chronic disruption, and (3) baseline and long-term monitoring of population changes after a disaster has disrupted a health care delivery system.

  4. Effects of nutritional stress and socio-economic status on maternal mortality in six German villages, 1766-1863.

    PubMed

    Scalone, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of nutritional stress on maternal mortality arising from short-term economic crises in eighteenth-century and nineteenth-century Germany, and how these effects might have been mitigated by socio-economic status. Historical data from six German villages were used to assess how socio-economic conditions and short-term economic crises following poor harvests may have affected maternal mortality. The results show that 1 year after an increase in grain prices the risk of maternal death increased significantly amongst the wives of those working outside the agricultural sector, and more so than for the wives of those working on farms. Nutritional crises seem to have had a significantly stronger impact on maternal mortality in the period 2-6 weeks after childbirth, when mothers were most prone to infections and indirect, obstetrical causes of maternal death. The findings indicate that both nutritional stress and socio-economic factors contributed to maternal mortality.

  5. Evidence from ammonoids and conodonts for multiple Early Triassic mass extinctions

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Ammonoids and conodonts, being characterized by exceptionally high background rates of origination and extinction, were vulnerable to global environmental crises, which characteristically intensified background rates of extinction. Thus, it is not surprising that these taxa suffered conspicuous mass extinctions at the times of three negative Early Triassic global carbon isotopic excursions that resembled those associated with the two preceding Permian mass extinctions. In keeping with their high rates of origination, both the ammonoids and conodonts rediversified dramatically between the Early Triassic crises. Other marine taxa, characterized by much lower intrinsic rates of origination, were held at low levels of diversity by the Early Triassic crises; because global mass extinctions affect all marine life, these taxa must have experienced relatively modest expansions and contractions that have yet to be discovered, because they do not stand out in the fossil record and because the stratigraphic ranges of these taxa, being of little value for temporal correlation, have not been thoroughly studied. PMID:19721005

  6. The United Nations' humanitarian pillar: refocusing the UN's disaster and emergency roles and responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Kent, Randolph C

    2004-06-01

    Changes in the nature of humanitarian crises and in the ways that the international community responds to such crises demand a radically overhauled role for the United Nations system. At a time when the UN and its member states are pursuing reform of some of that institution's most fundamental peace and security functions, this paper suggests that reform, too, is required to meet humanitarian crises of the future. This paper proposes a new type of operational role for the UN, while at the same time arguing that the UN has to place itself in the vanguard of humanitarian assistance as "the standard-bearer". The article draws many of its conclusions and recommendations from a recently completed study, requested by the Inter-Agency Standing Committee, concerning the effect for the UN system of changes in humanitarian financing.

  7. Pseudopheochromocytoma Associated with Domestic Assault

    PubMed Central

    Le, H. M.; Carbutti, G.; Ilisei, D.; Bouccin, E.

    2016-01-01

    Pseudopheochromocytoma has a clinical presentation that is similar to pheochromocytoma. It manifests itself with paroxysmal hypertension crises, associated with various symptoms such as headaches, chest pain, nausea, palpitations, and dizziness. Patients are usually asymptomatic in between the crises. Unlike pheochromocytoma, there is no catecholamines overproduction in this pathology: hypertensive peaks are caused by a hyperactivation of the sympathetic nervous system, which is often triggered by a psychological trauma in the past. Treatment of pseudopheochromocytoma can be challenging due to normal blood pressure values in between the hypertensive peaks; it includes alpha- and beta-blockers for moderate crises and prevention and must be combined with psychopharmacologic agents such as anxiolytics or antidepressant drugs. Psychotherapy and dietetic treatment are also crucial in pseudopheochromocytoma management. PMID:27738531

  8. Evidence from ammonoids and conodonts for multiple Early Triassic mass extinctions.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Steven M

    2009-09-08

    Ammonoids and conodonts, being characterized by exceptionally high background rates of origination and extinction, were vulnerable to global environmental crises, which characteristically intensified background rates of extinction. Thus, it is not surprising that these taxa suffered conspicuous mass extinctions at the times of three negative Early Triassic global carbon isotopic excursions that resembled those associated with the two preceding Permian mass extinctions. In keeping with their high rates of origination, both the ammonoids and conodonts rediversified dramatically between the Early Triassic crises. Other marine taxa, characterized by much lower intrinsic rates of origination, were held at low levels of diversity by the Early Triassic crises; because global mass extinctions affect all marine life, these taxa must have experienced relatively modest expansions and contractions that have yet to be discovered, because they do not stand out in the fossil record and because the stratigraphic ranges of these taxa, being of little value for temporal correlation, have not been thoroughly studied.

  9. Communicating with external publics: managing public opinion and behavior.

    PubMed

    Ristino, Robert J

    2007-01-01

    In health care organizational settings public relations plays an important role in managing relationships with a variety of external publics as well as with society in general. Managing these relationships involves both reactive and proactive communication activities. Reactively, public relations responds to public issues, crises and concerns, as well as inquiries from the media and other social institutions. Proactively, public relations engages in deliberately planned campaigns and programs to inform, influence or change behaviors of targeted publics for a wide range of strategic purposes. These purposes include managing the organization's image and identity; influencing public policies; supporting health promotion and education; promoting fund raising and volunteerism; and managing organizational change and crises.

  10. Castel Gandolfo workshop: an introduction to the impact of climate change, the economic crisis, and the increase in the food prices on malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Bloem, Martin W; Semba, Richard D; Kraemer, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The global food supply system is facing serious new challenges from economic and related crises and climate change, which directly affect the nutritional well-being of the poor by reducing their access to nutritious food. To cope, vulnerable populations prioritize consumption of calorie-rich but nutrient-poor food. Consequently, dietary quality and eventually quantity decline, increasing micronutrient malnutrition (or hidden hunger) and exacerbating preexisting vulnerabilities that lead to poorer health, lower incomes, and reduced physical and intellectual capabilities. This article introduces the series of papers in this supplement, which explore the relationships between crises and their cumulative impacts among vulnerable populations, particularly through hidden hunger.

  11. Interactions between global and grazing bifurcations in an impacting system.

    PubMed

    Mason, Joanna F; Piiroinen, Petri T

    2011-03-01

    It is well known that the locus of boundary crises in smooth systems contains gaps that give rise to periodic windows. We show that this phenomenon can also be observed in an impacting system, and that the mechanism by which these gaps are created is different. Namely, here gaps are created and disappear at points along the branches of boundary crises where they are intersected by branches of grazing bifurcations. We locate a novel type of double-crisis vertex which we call a grazing-crisis vertex. Additionally, we illustrate several types of basin-boundary metamorphosis that are intricately related with grazing bifurcations.

  12. Quantifying Trading Behavior in Financial Markets Using Google Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preis, Tobias; Moat, Helen Susannah; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2013-04-01

    Crises in financial markets affect humans worldwide. Detailed market data on trading decisions reflect some of the complex human behavior that has led to these crises. We suggest that massive new data sources resulting from human interaction with the Internet may offer a new perspective on the behavior of market participants in periods of large market movements. By analyzing changes in Google query volumes for search terms related to finance, we find patterns that may be interpreted as ``early warning signs'' of stock market moves. Our results illustrate the potential that combining extensive behavioral data sets offers for a better understanding of collective human behavior.

  13. Hostage negotiation: psychological principles and practices.

    PubMed

    Miller, Laurence

    2005-01-01

    Resolution of hostage crises may take hours or days of intensely focused and stressful negotiation, requiring the use of virtually every crisis intervention strategy known to psychology and law enforcement. This article describes the nature of hostage crises and the factors that contribute to prospects for a successful resolution. Outlined are basic strategies of hostage negotiation and crisis management culled from the psychological and law enforcement literature. Recommendations are offered to civilians for surviving a hostage crisis. Finally, the article emphasizes the collaborative working relationship between mental health and law enforcement professionals that can have a lifesaving impact for citizens in peril.

  14. Reaching out to take on TB in Somalia.

    PubMed

    Moore, David A J; Granat, Simo M

    2014-01-01

    Among the many challenges facing populations disrupted by complex emergencies, personal security and food security rank much higher than access to healthcare. However, over time health needs assume increasing importance. Many complex crises occur in settings where the background incidence of TB is already high; social and economic conditions in crises are then highly conducive to amplification of the existing TB problem. Innovative approaches to delivery of diagnostic and treatment services, transition planning and integration with other healthcare providers and services are vital. In the extremely challenging environment of Somalia, multiple partners are making headway though collaboration and innovation.

  15. Correlation and network topologies in global and local stock indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobi, Ashadun; Lee, Sungmin; Kim, Doo Hwan; Lee, Jae Woo

    2014-07-01

    We examined how the correlation and network structure of the global indices and local Korean indices have changed during years 2000-2012. The average correlations of the global indices increased with time, while the local indices showed a decreasing trend except for drastic changes during the crises. A significant change in the network topologies was observed due to the financial crises in both markets. The Jaccard similarities identified the change in the market state due to a crisis in both markets. The dynamic change of the Jaccard index can be used as an indicator of systemic risk or precursors of the crisis.

  16. Quantifying Wikipedia Usage Patterns Before Stock Market Moves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moat, Helen Susannah; Curme, Chester; Avakian, Adam; Kenett, Dror Y.; Stanley, H. Eugene; Preis, Tobias

    2013-05-01

    Financial crises result from a catastrophic combination of actions. Vast stock market datasets offer us a window into some of the actions that have led to these crises. Here, we investigate whether data generated through Internet usage contain traces of attempts to gather information before trading decisions were taken. We present evidence in line with the intriguing suggestion that data on changes in how often financially related Wikipedia pages were viewed may have contained early signs of stock market moves. Our results suggest that online data may allow us to gain new insight into early information gathering stages of decision making.

  17. Quantifying Trading Behavior in Financial Markets Using Google Trends

    PubMed Central

    Preis, Tobias; Moat, Helen Susannah; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Crises in financial markets affect humans worldwide. Detailed market data on trading decisions reflect some of the complex human behavior that has led to these crises. We suggest that massive new data sources resulting from human interaction with the Internet may offer a new perspective on the behavior of market participants in periods of large market movements. By analyzing changes in Google query volumes for search terms related to finance, we find patterns that may be interpreted as “early warning signs” of stock market moves. Our results illustrate the potential that combining extensive behavioral data sets offers for a better understanding of collective human behavior. PMID:23619126

  18. Quantifying Wikipedia Usage Patterns Before Stock Market Moves

    PubMed Central

    Moat, Helen Susannah; Curme, Chester; Avakian, Adam; Kenett, Dror Y.; Stanley, H. Eugene; Preis, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Financial crises result from a catastrophic combination of actions. Vast stock market datasets offer us a window into some of the actions that have led to these crises. Here, we investigate whether data generated through Internet usage contain traces of attempts to gather information before trading decisions were taken. We present evidence in line with the intriguing suggestion that data on changes in how often financially related Wikipedia pages were viewed may have contained early signs of stock market moves. Our results suggest that online data may allow us to gain new insight into early information gathering stages of decision making.

  19. Crisis intervention for nurses.

    PubMed

    Chase, Emily

    2013-06-01

    Cancer diagnoses and treatments can be crisis-causing events that overwhelm the usual coping abilities of patients and their families. Oncology nurses constantly are observing and attending to patients' diverse needs, ranging from biomedical to emotional, social, and psychological. Nurses have the chance to be first responders in times of patient crises, as they are in the position to recognize the crisis, respond effectively, and transform the crisis into a pivotal learning experience. This article discusses a way to think about patient and family crises that empowers nurses to respond in a manner appropriate to the cultural context and respectful of the individual space of the patient.

  20. Effects of the financial crisis on the wealth distribution of Korea's companies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Kyuseong; Kim, Soo Yong; Swanson, Todd; Kim, Jooyun

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the distribution functions of Korea's top-rated companies during two financial crises. A power-law scaling for rank distribution, as well as cumulative probability distribution, was found and observed as a general pattern. Similar distributions can be shown in other studies of wealth and income distributions. In our study, the Pareto exponents designating the distribution differed before and after the crisis. The companies covered in this research are divided into two subgroups during a period when the subprime mortgage crisis occurred. Various industrial sectors of Korea's companies were found to respond differently during the two financial crises, especially the construction sector, financial sectors, and insurance groups.

  1. Conservation Photography as Environmental Education: Focus on the Pedagogues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farnsworth, Bruce Evan

    2011-01-01

    This research examines the genre of conservation photography as a legitimate and highly relevant pedagogical enterprise well poised amid the proliferation of digital media and environmental crises. This small-scale qualitative study closely follows the work of four professional photojournalists. This research asserts that the professional…

  2. The Secure Rural Schools Act of 2000: Does It Make Rural Schools Secure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebert, Krista M.; Calkin, David E.; Schuster, Ervin G.

    2004-01-01

    State budget crises, along with voter-passed initiatives limiting property tax levies, have severely reduced school financing in many states in recent years. Rural schools may be particularly vulnerable in that they are typically less able to generate revenue because funding often is tied to enrollment, rural districts tend to have lower property…

  3. Seeking Clarity About Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagstrom, David

    1999-01-01

    The "clearness committee," a Quaker practice, might provide an avenue for educators grappling with crises and seeking clarity about their worries and concerns over time. A Lewis and Clark College seminar held in April 1998 dealt with an administrator's fears about carrying on following a former student's suicide. Steps for freeing one's…

  4. The Role of Adult Education and Learning Policy in Fostering Societal Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milana, Marcella; Rasmussen, Palle; Holford, John

    2016-01-01

    The idea of "sustainability" as a core value has slowly permeated policy and practice at governmental and institutional levels, in public and private policy. However, at times when social and economic crises have revealed the fragility of existing institutions and policies, it is important to consider how sustainability is -- and could…

  5. Dealing with Crisis: Teachable Moments in the Social Studies Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipscomb, George B.

    2002-01-01

    September 11, 2001 is a day that will live in the hearts and minds of Americans for a long time. During the classes following the events, some teachers were asked by students about the events. Although some teachers may not have been specifically trained to deal with individual or societal crises, many were skilled at taking advantage of the…

  6. Toward Successful School Crisis Intervention: 9 Key Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaksec, Charles M., III

    2007-01-01

    Despite their best and frequently heroic efforts, school crisis intervention teams often find themselves unprepared for the many types of tragedies they face. This timely text prompts crisis intervention team members to reevaluate their beliefs and practices and consider a new approach to dealing with school crises. The author, a longtime school…

  7. Time Management Behavior as a Predictor of Role-Related Stress: Implications for School Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esters, Irvin G.; Castellanos, Ellen F.

    School counselors' roles can be described along a continuum from reactive to proactive. Whereas reactive services respond to crises, provide counseling, and provide other interventions, proactive services include programs provided with the intent to prevent problems before they occur. As increasing demands are placed on students, and as academic…

  8. Implication of Radicalisation for Nigerian Education: A Philosophical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwafor, Naboth H. A.; Nwogu, Godpower A. I.

    2015-01-01

    The crises rocking the foundations of this world and threatening its existence have assumed a horrifying dimension. This situation is compounded by the increasing drift by young people into radicalized violent extremist militant groups. This paper attempts a conceptual analysis of the term radicalisation, the processes involved in it, its…

  9. Censorship and the Teaching of English in the Two-Year College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agee, Hugh

    This paper defines censorship, provides a brief historical review of book censorship throughout history, and delineates the issues and problems involved in establishing an effective relationship between school and community with regard to book selection and evaluation. Guidelines, designed to prevent censorship crises before they occur, are…

  10. Being professional in the social media world.

    PubMed

    Chan, Steven D

    2012-01-01

    What is at stake for dentists in the world of social media? Because it is unrealistic to completely avoid the new network, dentists should master some of these skills: risk management, crises management, and reputation management, as well as understanding that the playing field is not even. Guidelines for professional use of media are presented, along with some suggestions for effective participation.

  11. Campuses Respond to Violent Tragedy. American Council on Education Series on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Dorothy G.

    This book presents 10 case studies of how universities and colleges respond to violent tragedies, both on- and off-campus, and offers suggestions for institutions to prepare themselves to deal with such crises. Each case study of a specific case of violence or other tragedy was based on interviews with the participants and reports on the specific…

  12. The Impact of Perception of Performance Appraisal and Distributive Justice Fairness on Employees' Ethical Decision Making in Paternalist Organizational Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goksoy, Asli; Alayoglu, Nihat

    2013-01-01

    Ethics in decision making has been an issue for academics, practitioners, and governmental regulators for decades. In the last decade, numerous scandals and consequently many corporate crises in the global business world have added credence to the criticisms of business ethics. Therefore, it is vital to understand the factors affecting employees'…

  13. Charting the Impacts of University-Child Welfare Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briar-Lawson, Katharine, Ed.; Zlotnik, Joan Levy, Ed.

    Few fields of service command as much public attention as child welfare. Workforce development is often a less visible yet critical response to service delivery crises and efforts to improve child and family outcomes. In the late 1980s, a campaign was undertaken to rebuild public child welfare systems with trained social workers. The subsequent…

  14. Needs Assessment of Volunteers in a Non-Profit Organization in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yin-Che; Lin, Chen-Cheng

    2009-01-01

    The idea of helping people by the medium of telephone was inspired by Rev. Alan Walker, Superintendent of the Central Methodist Mission in Sydney since 1958. Having made several radio and TV appearances, Rev. Walker found himself being called by people facing difficulties and personal crises. He did not have the time or the energy to give them the…

  15. The "Psychosomatic Family" Reconsidered II: Recalling a Defective Model and Looking Ahead.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, James C.; Anderson, Barbara J.

    1989-01-01

    Comments on psychosomatic family concept. Reviews decline of psychosomatic models of illness that assume that arousal is the only or primary means by which psychosocial factors influence illness. Focuses on brittle diabetes, noting the potential for family theorists to develop more adequate models of poor self-care and medical crises as…

  16. Talking to Parents: Communication in Times of Crisis and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendell, Charlene

    2002-01-01

    Camps should always have a crisis management plan, but the events of September 11, 2001, make it especially important. Honest communication with parents is paramount--directors should choose their words carefully and control the tone of their voices. Examples are given of crises involving weather, transportation, and a shooting. Questions to…

  17. Phases of Recognition and Management of Financial Crisis in Public Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, L. R.

    Based in part on interviews conducted in 32 municipalities, this paper is intended to provide information to public managers, policy analysts, and others on methods for improving the management of retrenchment. A model summarizes how public organizations recognize and attempt to manage financial crises and prolonged financial stress. Some cutback…

  18. From Stress to Distress: Conceptualizing the British Family Farming Patriarchal Way of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Linda; Evans, Nick

    2009-01-01

    "Rural stress" and "farming stress" are terms that have become commonly appropriated by British health-based academic disciplines, the medical profession and social support networks, especially since the agricultural "crises" of B.S.E. and Foot and Mouth disease. Looking beyond the media headlines, it is apparent that…

  19. Role of Iraqi Higher Education Institutes in Handling National/International Environmental and Health Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Maliky, Salam J. Bash

    2012-01-01

    Huge environmental and health crises such as the use of Depleted Uranium (DU) munitions during the military activities against Iraq and the required responses are amongst the fields that Iraqi higher education institutions (HEIs) may have a crucial role. Similar international cases, such as Agent Orange (Vietnam), Three Mile Island (USA) and…

  20. A Practical Management Model for Difficult Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Paul

    1991-01-01

    A discussion of the student activities administrator's role in solving substantial problems on the job looks at typical difficult situations and offers models for dealing with them. Each model consists of five practical steps for problem resolution. Situations addressed include emergencies, motivational crises, and externally imposed…

  1. Technology and the Broken Higher Education Cost Model: Insights from the Delta Cost Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirshstein, Rita; Wellman, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Although U.S. higher education has faced numerous crises and dilemmas in its history, the situation in which colleges and universities find themselves at the moment is indeed different. Shrinking public subsidies coupled with historic rises in tuitions come at the same time that colleges and universities have been tasked to dramatically increase…

  2. The Nation and the Soldier in German Civil-Military Relations, 1800-1945

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    opportunity for foreign war presented itself in the Schleswig- Holstein crises with Denmark, Bismarck capitalized on this confrontation to skillfully quiet...elite could be assured of a decisive influence in the new regime.352 [They] had no scruples about sacrificing the holiest cows of Prussian

  3. Personnel Administration in Higher Education. Handbook of Faculty and Staff Personnel Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortunato, Ray T.; Waddell, D. Geneva

    Ways to develop and implement personnel policies and procedures are described that should prevent problems from becoming crises in higher education institutions. Based on the authors' more than 40 years of combined experience in higher education personnel administration, this handbook offers a detailed guide to the intricacies of faculty and staff…

  4. Pedagogies That Explore Food Practices: Resetting the Table for Improved Eco-Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Carol E.; Barter, Barbara G.

    2015-01-01

    As health threats appear with increasing regularity in our food systems and other food crises loom worldwide, we look to rural areas to provide local and nutritious foods. Educationally, we seek approaches to food studies that engage students and their communities and, ultimately, lead to positive action. Yet food studies receive only generic…

  5. Other Alternative Diesel Fuels from Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The energy crises of the 1970’s and early 1980’s provided impetus for developing alternative diesel fuels from vegetable oils and animal fats. Other driving forces may be derived from the Clean Air Act and its amendments and farmers desire to develop new uses for surplus agricultural commodities. ...

  6. America's Disposable Children: Setting the Stage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeakey, Carol Camp

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a theme issue that examines the crises facing urban black males in the juvenile justice system, concentrating on research on the new penology and African American males, historical and contemporary perspectives to crime and punishment, and crime and socially structured opportunity. Notes the importance of breaking the cycle of poverty,…

  7. Geographical Education for Environmental Citizenship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huckle, John

    1986-01-01

    Describes the concept of environmental citizenship and shows how to apply it to the "African crisis" and Australia. Claims geography can link a concern for a better world to the realities of world economic and political order thereby revealing the inadequacies of the accounts of crises offered by governments and the media. (JDH)

  8. Community College Presidents' Decision-Making Processes during a Potential Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Judith Kaye

    2013-01-01

    This case study addressed how community college presidents make decisions under conditions that can escalate to full-scale crises. The purpose of this study was to gather data to support the development of alternative models or refinement of existing models for crisis decision making on community college campuses, using an abbreviated…

  9. Effective Schooling in Rural Africa Report 4: Frequently Asked Questions about Effective Schooling in Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC. Human Development Network.

    The challenges of making rural schools more effective vary with different types of rural conditions. But typically these challenges might include any of the following: teacher shortages, lack of facilities, isolation, HIV/AIDS and related social stigma, war crises and displaced populations, multigrade and shift teaching, administration of small…

  10. Teachers' Reports of Outreach to School-Based Providers of Mental Health Services Following the 2013 Boston Marathon Attack

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jennifer Greif; Xuan, Ziming; Kwong, Lana; Holt, Melissa K.; Comer, Jonathan S.

    2016-01-01

    After mass crises, trauma-exposed children report increased psychological distress, yet most receive no mental health (MH) services and supports. This study identifies factors associated with teachers' reports of outreach to school-based MH providers (such as social workers, psychologists, and counselors) as well as provision of informal supports…

  11. Enough Is Enough: A Student Affairs Perspective on Preparedness and Response to a Campus Shooting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, Brian O., Ed.; LaBanc, Brandi Hephner, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Recent campus crises have highlighted that campus administrators will be judged by three things: What the campus was doing before the crisis, its immediate response during the crisis, and the follow-up after the crisis. Born out of the call by Virginia Tech's Zenobia Hikes for urgent action to stem the tide of societal violence, and the NASPA…

  12. Family and Staff Perspectives on Service Use for Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities in Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMorris, Carly A.; Weiss, Jonathan A.; Cappelletti, Gabriella; Lunsky, Yona

    2013-01-01

    Carers of individuals with an intellectual disability are often responsible for managing their children's psychiatric crises when they arise. The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of families using crisis and short-term transitional supports from the perspectives of families and of crisis and transitional support staff. Three…

  13. 77 FR 69484 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-19

    ... control of epidemics, and protect the population from public health crises such as human-made or natural... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... recommending appropriate actions to protect the public's health. When state, local, or foreign...

  14. 77 FR 47847 - Proposed Data Collections Submitted for Public Comment and Recommendations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... epidemics, and protect the population from public health crises such as human-made or natural biological... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... recommending appropriate actions to protect the public's health. When state, local, or foreign...

  15. Evaluating Crisis Intervention Services for Youth within an Emergency Department: A View from within

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dion, Jacinthe; Kennedy, Allison; Cloutier, Paula; Gray, Clare

    2010-01-01

    An innovative crisis intervention programme was created at the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario in Canada in order to provide emergency assessments for youth presenting with mental health crises. The current investigation presents an overview of the programme and examines the emergency staff's perception and satisfaction with it.…

  16. Sustainable Communities: A Lens for Envisioning and Achieving a Community-Based Culture of Social and Ecological Peace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhagen, Frans C.

    2014-01-01

    One of the obstacles to dealing with the social and ecological crises that obstruct the achievement of a culture of peace is silo thinking in global governance. A unidimensional mode of planning, silo thinking leads to decisions based on the area of expertise of a particular agency or intergovernmental organization and fails to recognize linkages…

  17. Digital Dreams and Dashboards: Notable Government Documents 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffths, David N.

    2010-01-01

    Though some libraries thrived in 2009, many more took a beating, and the fiscal crises that have struck many states and thousands of municipal governments in 2010 increase the odds that the effects of the new Great Recession will be felt over the long term. The decline in payroll and collections budgets have led to a loss of expertise and key…

  18. Organizational Learning and Crisis Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jia

    2007-01-01

    The impact of crises on organizations has been stronger than ever. This article explores the role of organizational learning in crisis management, an area that has received little attention from HRD community. Recognizing the dynamics and interconnectedness of crisis management, organizational learning, and organizational change, the article…

  19. Mapping a Crisis, One Text Message at a Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauduy, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    An interactive mapping project is revolutionizing the way crises are reported and managed, and is spotlighting the value of citizen journalism. The project, called Ushahidi, which means testimony in Swahili, uses crowdsourcing (gathering information from a large number of people) to map crisis information. This crisis mapping tool has since been…

  20. The Institutional Rise of the Chaebols Throughout South Koreas Transitional Vulnerabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    industrialization; political economy; economic liberalism; mercantilism ; institutionalism; Chaebol; 1997 IMF Crisis. 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 83 16...10  1.  Mercantilism .......................................................................................11  2.  Economic Sociology... system prevented political turmoil and economic crises. The historical vantage of South Korean industrialization allows a specific evaluation of the

  1. The Victor-Bostrom Fund Report: Food and Population. Report No. 19, Summer-Fall 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Victor-Bostrom Fund Committee, Washington, DC.

    Eleven articles comprise this document which presents commentaries on nutrition, population, and environmental education. The articles deal specifically with the crises of a rapidly growing world population, a worsening world food situation, and an energy crisis. A number of specific recommendations, both national and international, are offered to…

  2. Navigating Change: Employee Communication in Times of Instability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuFrene, Debbie D.; Lehman, Carol M.

    2014-01-01

    Employees often perceive periods of change--no matter how warranted or beneficial--as crises, exhibiting both cognitive and emotional reactions including feelings of insecurity and uncertainty, even fear, chaos, stress, betrayal, grief, and anger. Management must have a clear strategy for communicating with employees through change, as employee…

  3. Common Errors in School Crisis Response: Learning from Our Mistakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell, Dewey G.; Sheras, Peter L.

    1998-01-01

    Describes five school crises. In each case example, errors in crisis management by school staff exacerbated the crisis and resulted in deleterious consequences for the school, its students, and the surrounding community. Identifies common themes of leadership, teamwork, and responsibility that are critical to successful crisis management.…

  4. Refuge from Crisis: Refugee Women Build Political Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magno, Cathryn

    2008-01-01

    For women who have escaped political crises, NGOs can provide a healing space. This study explores nonformal and informal educational processes that occur in NGOs founded and staffed by refugee women who have resettled in the United States. Interviews and documents demonstrate that the refugee women gain knowledge and skills through participation…

  5. Crafting and Dismantling the Egalitarian Social Contract: The Changing State-Society Relations in Korea's Educational Policymaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sang-Young

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the changing dynamics between the Korean state and society in the field of educational policymaking. From the 1960s to the 1980s, the Korean developmental state implemented a series of drastic egalitarian educational policies to address serious educational crises that were mainly driven by Korea's affluent middle class.…

  6. Moral Development and Student Motivation in Moral Education: A Singapore Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Recent world events such as the threat of terrorism and the global economic crises have rekindled an interest in ethics and values education. This study, conducted in Singapore, combines a Kohlbergian approach to the assessment of moral judgement with a framework based on the self-determination theory to assess the motivational regulations of…

  7. Teenage Suicide: A Critical Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NJEA Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Suicide and attempted suicide among teenagers has risen dramatically since 1960, especially among girls. Three theories of the causes of suicide (emotional crises, brain chemistry and nonexpression of grief) are discussed. Depression and other first stage warning signals, and the nature of second stage "cries for help," are considered. (CM)

  8. Reinforcing the "Diminished" Subject? the Implications of the "Vulnerability Zeitgeist" for Well-Being in Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecclestone, K.; Rawdin, C.

    2016-01-01

    Pessimistic discourses about crises in youth and children's well-being, mental health and vulnerability permeate English educational policy and practice. These generate vague and slippery elisions of wellbeing and mental health, and the related rise of an ad hoc, confusing market of psycho-emotional interventions promoted by new types of…

  9. The Current Attack on Women's Rights: A Political-Economic Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kress, June

    The right-wing attack on women's rights in the United States manifests itself in the regulation of reproductive rights, the family, and the workplace and corresponds to the changing needs of capital in an era of social and economic crises. Against this background, anti-abortion legislation, the Family Protection Act, and discrimination in the…

  10. Media Spectacle, Insurrection and the Crisis of Neoliberalism from the Arab Uprisings to Occupy Everywhere!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellner, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    I argue that 2011 witnessed a series of challenges to neoliberalism on a global scale perhaps not seen since the political upheavals of 1968, and that media spectacle provided the form of a series of global insurgences from the North African Arab Uprisings to the Occupy movements. Crises of neoliberalism also generated movements in Italy, Spain,…

  11. U.S.-China Strategic Dialogue, Phase 8 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    1400 Lunch, Ocean 2 Ballroom 1400-1600 Managing Crises and Avoiding Escalation If a serious crisis erupts, what factors in the U.S.-China context...Confidence and Security Building Measures Matsonia Room, Mariposa Room, and Ocean 1 Ballroom 1215-1400 Lunch, Ocean 1 Ballroom Pre-function Lanai

  12. Values Education and Student Satisfaction: German Business Students' Perceptions of Universities' Value Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moosmayer, Dirk C.; Siems, Florian U.

    2012-01-01

    As a result of the past decade's financial crises, the focus on students' values as an output of higher management education has increased. Simultaneously, marketing theory has become prevalent in the management of higher education institutions, such that student satisfaction represents a key output variable for their service provision. This study…

  13. Observations of a Father: My Son Has Spina Bifida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remmel, Carl L.

    1982-01-01

    The author reviews his experiences as the father of a child with spina bifida, a congenital problem in which the spine is not completely enclosed. He recounts his feelings upon first finding out about the condition and his son's subsequent surgeries and crises. (CL)

  14. Pollution: Problems and Solutions. Grade Nine, Unit One, 9.1 Comprehensive Social Studies Curriculum for the Inner City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamison, Sandra; Campbell, Bruce

    The ninth grade unit of the FICSS series (Focus on Inner City Social Studies -- see SO 008 271) studies the economic and political realities of the inner city. This document, the first unit of the 9th grade section, deals with the ecological crises involving pollution and its causes. Specific problems include air pollution, pesticides, herbicides,…

  15. Affective Reactions in Some Parents of Deaf-Blind Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrie, Carolyn

    Emotional problems and behavioral patterns of parents who have deaf blind children are described clinically and in short case studies. Deaf blind young children are said to be isolated from their families due to lack of sensory cues; to display behaviors such as back arching and fear of walking; and to experience frequent health crises such as…

  16. Press Responsibility for Health News: Beyond Precision and Toward Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burd, Gene

    In addition to investigative and interpretative reporting, journalists might adopt a new approach to the news--preventive journalism. Preventive journalism would concentrate on news and information that could be used to prevent crises and conditions upon which the mass media thrive. In one area, public health, preventive journalism could be used…

  17. "I Have Big Things Planned for My Future": The Limits and Possibilities of Transformative Agency in Zambian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajaj, Monisha

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the extent to which participation in alternative human values education affects students' conceptions of agency amidst the economic and HIV/AIDS crises in Ndola, Zambia. Drawing on the concept of transformative agency as developed by critical research in education, this study examines conceptions of agency based on data…

  18. Regional Educational Equity Policies: Learning from Inter-District Integration Programs. Research Brief No. 9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnigan, Kara S.; Holme, Jennifer Jellison

    2015-01-01

    Across the U.S., urban school districts are in a deepening state of crisis. Problems of academic failure, financial debt, and enrollment loss have been reported in many of the nation's largest cities. In local and national policy debates, there are two distinct explanations about the reasons for these crises. One explanation for school failure…

  19. Carrying the Family through Adolescence: The Significance of Parent-Parent Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullrich, Manuela

    The quality of the parent-parent relationship is considered as an important factor for managing stressful family crises. The assumption in this study is that specific patterns of parent-parent communication make it easier or more difficult to adjust to changes in the family that are required when the first child enters early adolescence. In a…

  20. Duel at High Noon: A Replay of Cormier's Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headley, Kathy Neal

    1994-01-01

    Examines the fictional works of Robert Cormier, particularly his depiction of good versus evil and his negative and pessimistic view of humanity. Considers Cormier's interest in moral issues and individual development crises in his novels. Describes Cormier's appeal for young readers and encourages using his fiction in schools. (HB)