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Sample records for crisis group icg

  1. ICG fluorescence imaging and its medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miwa, Mitsuharu; Shikayama, Takahiro

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents a novel optical angiography system, and introduces its medical applications. We developed the optical enhanced imaging system which can observe the blood and lymphatic vessels as the Indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence image. The imaging system consists of 760nm light emitted diode (LED) as excite light, CCD camera as a detector, a high-pass optical filter in front of the CCD and video processing system. The advantage of ICG fluorescence method is safe (radiation free), high sensitive, real time monitoring of blood and/or lymphatic flow, small size, easy to operate and cost effective compared to conventional X-ray angiography or scintigraphy. We have applied this method to several clinical applications such as breast cancer sentinel lymph node (SLN) navigation, lymph edema diagnostic and identification of liver segmentation. In each application, ICG fluorescence method shows useful result. It's indicated that this method is promising technique as optical angiography.

  2. New generation ICG-based contrast agents for ultrasound-switchable fluorescence imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shuai; Cheng, Bingbing; Yao, Tingfeng; Xu, Cancan; Nguyen, Kytai T.; Hong, Yi; Yuan, Baohong

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we developed a new technology, ultrasound-switchable fluorescence (USF), for high-resolution imaging in centimeter-deep tissues via fluorescence contrast. The success of USF imaging highly relies on excellent contrast agents. ICG-encapsulated poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) nanoparticles (ICG-NPs) are one of the families of the most successful near-infrared (NIR) USF contrast agents. However, the first-generation ICG-NPs have a short shelf life (<1 month). This work significantly increases the shelf life of the new-generation ICG-NPs (>6 months). In addition, we have conjugated hydroxyl or carboxyl function groups on the ICG-NPs for future molecular targeting. Finally, we have demonstrated the effect of temperature-switching threshold (Tth) and the background temperature (TBG) on the quality of USF images. We estimated that the Tth of the ICG-NPs should be controlled at ~38–40 °C (slightly above the body temperature of 37 °C) for future in vivo USF imaging. Addressing these challenges further reduces the application barriers of USF imaging. PMID:27775014

  3. New generation ICG-based contrast agents for ultrasound-switchable fluorescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shuai; Cheng, Bingbing; Yao, Tingfeng; Xu, Cancan; Nguyen, Kytai T.; Hong, Yi; Yuan, Baohong

    2016-10-01

    Recently, we developed a new technology, ultrasound-switchable fluorescence (USF), for high-resolution imaging in centimeter-deep tissues via fluorescence contrast. The success of USF imaging highly relies on excellent contrast agents. ICG-encapsulated poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) nanoparticles (ICG-NPs) are one of the families of the most successful near-infrared (NIR) USF contrast agents. However, the first-generation ICG-NPs have a short shelf life (<1 month). This work significantly increases the shelf life of the new-generation ICG-NPs (>6 months). In addition, we have conjugated hydroxyl or carboxyl function groups on the ICG-NPs for future molecular targeting. Finally, we have demonstrated the effect of temperature-switching threshold (Tth) and the background temperature (TBG) on the quality of USF images. We estimated that the Tth of the ICG-NPs should be controlled at ~38–40 °C (slightly above the body temperature of 37 °C) for future in vivo USF imaging. Addressing these challenges further reduces the application barriers of USF imaging.

  4. ICG laser therapy of acne vulgaris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuchin, Valery V.; Altshuler, Gregory B.; Genina, Elina A.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Odoevskaya, Olga D.; Yaroslavsky, Ilya V.

    2004-07-01

    The near-infrared (NIR) laser radiation due to its high penetration depth is widely used in phototherapy. In application to skin appendages a high selectivity of laser treatment is needed to prevent light action on surrounding tissues. Indocyanine Green (ICG) dye may provide a high selectivity of treatment due to effective ICG uploading by a target and its narrow band of considerable absorption just at the wavelength of the NIR diode laser. The goal of this study is to demonstrate the efficacy of the NIR diode laser phototherapy in combination with topical application of ICG suggested for soft and thermal treatment of acne vulgaris. 28 volunteers with facile or back-located acne were enrolled. Skin sites of subjects were stained by ICG and irradiated by NIR laser-diode light (803 or 809 nm). Untreated, only stained and only light irradiated skin areas served as controls. For soft acne treatment, the low-intensity (803 nm, 10 - 50 mW/cm2, 5-10 min) or the medium-intensity (809 nm, 150 - 190 mW/cm2, 15 min) protocols were used. The single and multiple (up to 8-9) treatments were provided. The individual acne lesions were photothermally treated at 18 W/cm2 (803 nm, 0.5 sec) without skin surface cooling or at 200 W/cm2 (809 nm, 0.5 sec) with cooling. The results of the observations during 1-2 months after the completion of the treatment have shown that only in the case of the multiple-wise treatment a combined action of ICG and NIR irradiation reduces inflammation and improves skin state during a month without any side effects. At high power densities (up to 200 W/cm2) ICG stained acne inflammatory elements were destructed for light exposures of 0.5 sec. Based on the concept that hair follicle, especially sebaceous gland, can be intensively and selectively stained by ICG due to dye diffusion through pilosebaceous canal and its fast uptake by living microorganisms, by vital keratinocytes of epithelium of the canal and sebaceous duct, and by rapidly proliferating

  5. Zinn-Haller arterial ring observed by ICG angiography in high myopia

    PubMed Central

    Ohno-Matsui, K.; Futagami, S.; Yamashita, S.; Tokoro, T.

    1998-01-01

    AIMS—To delineate the entire Zinn-Haller arterial ring angiographically in vivo.
METHODS—382 highly myopic eyes (210 patients) with refractive errors greater than −8.25 D were examined using indocyanine green (ICG) videoangiography. A control group of 80 eyes (40 patients) had refractive errors within plano +/− 3 D.
RESULTS—The Zinn-Haller ring was visible in 206 of 382 highly myopic eyes (53.9%) by ICG angiography. Although only a part of the Zinn-Haller ring was visible in 162 of 206 eyes, in the remaining 44 eyes it was observed almost completely around the optic nerve head. No anastomotic channels between lateral and medial short posterior ciliary arteries were filled by ICG angiography. In 22 of the 44 eyes (50.0%) the Zinn-Haller ring was supplied by branches of the lateral and medial short posterior ciliary arteries; in seven eyes, it was supplied only by the lateral short posterior ciliary artery; and in seven eyes, it was supplied only by the medial short posterior ciliary artery. In none of the control subjects was the Zinn-Haller ring visible by ICG angiography.
CONCLUSIONS—The Zinn-Haller ring observed by ICG angiography was not a complete collateral circle between lateral and medial posterior ciliary arteries. Also, the patterns in supply vessels to the Zinn-Haller ring varied. ICG angiography made possible the detailed observation of the Zinn-Haller ring in human eyes in vivo.

 Keywords: Zinn-Haller circle; blood flow; optic nerve head; myopia PMID:9930263

  6. Risk, interest groups and the definition of crisis: the case of volcanic ash.

    PubMed

    Hutter, Bridget M; Lloyd-Bostock, Sally

    2013-09-01

    This paper considers a key aspect of the 'risk society' thesis: the belief that we should be able to manage risks and control the world around us. In particular it focuses on the interface between risk and risk events as socially constructed and the insights that 'critical situations' give us into 'the routine and mundane', the otherwise taken for granted assumptions underlying risk regulation. It does this with reference to the events precipitated by the April 2010 volcanic eruption in the Eyjafjallajökull area of Iceland. The resulting cloud of volcanic ash spread across Europe and much of Europe's airspace was closed to civil aviation for six days, with far reaching consequences including huge financial losses for airlines. The social processes of defining and reacting to risk and crisis both reveal and generate dilemmas and challenges in regulation. This paper examines the role of different interest groups in defining risk expectations and thereby redefining the ash crisis as a regulatory crisis.

  7. Drug delivery monitoring by photoacoustic tomography with an ICG encapsulated double emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xueding; Rajian, Justin R.; Fabiilli, Mario L.; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Carson, Paul L.

    2012-02-01

    We successfully encapsulated ICG in an ultrasound-triggerable perfluorocarbon double emulsion that prevents ICG from binding with plasma proteins. Photoacoustic spectral measurements on point target as well as 2-D photoacoustic images of blood vessels revealed that the photoacoustic spectrum changes significantly in blood when the ICG-loaded emulsion undergoes acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV), which is the conversion of liquid droplets into gas bubbles using ultrasound. Other than providing a new photoacoustic contrast agent, the ICG encapsulated double emulsion, when imaged with photoacoustic tomography, could facilitate spatial and quantitative monitoring of ultrasound initiated drug delivery.

  8. Endoscopic ICG perfusion imaging for flap transplants: technical development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepp, Herbert; Schachenmayr, Hilmar; Ehrhardt, André; Göbel, Werner; Zhorzel, Sven; Betz, Christian Stephan

    2010-02-01

    Objective: Following tumour surgery in the head and neck region, skin flap transplants are usually required to cover the resection area. The purpose of the development was to provide a simple and reliable means to assess whether the transplanted flap is sufficiently perfused. Methods: Fluorescence of intravenously injected Indocyanine green (ICG) was detected with a slightly modified 3-chip CCD camera. Appropriately coated optical filters allow for excitation of ICG with NIR light and detection of NIR ICGfluorescence with the blue channel of the camera. In addition, low intensities of white light can be transmitted to allow for simultaneous display of a remission image in the green and red channels of the camera. Further processing was performed with a LabVIEW program. Results: A satisfactory white light image (red, green and blue display (RGB)) could be calculated from the remission images recorded with the green and red channels of the camera via a look-up table. The look-up table was programmed to provide an optimized blue intensity value for each combination of red and green values. This was generated using a reference image. Implementation of image tracking and intensity measurements in regions of interest (ROIs) in the images is useful to reliably monitor perfusion kinetics of flap and adjacent normal tissue.

  9. Fluorescent property of indocyanine green (ICG) rubber ring using LED and laser light sources

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Nha Young; Kim, Hong Rae; Lee, Hyun Min; Sohn, Dae Kyung; Kim, Kwang Gi

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescent properties of ICG depends on solvent. Fluorescent characteristics of ICG rubber rings and optimized detection system condition were identified. The fluorescent rubber rings are produced by drying mixture of ICG solution and liquid rubber. LED and laser light sources were used to test differences between them. Other variables are ICG molar concentration (100, 80, 60, 40, 20, 10μM), excitation light spectrum (740, 760, 785nm) and angle of view (0~80°). We observed that ICG ring emitted fluorescence at longer wavelength than in blood and aqueous state. Observation angle between 0 and 50 provided similar brightness of images, while others are significantly less luminous. Excitation light between 740~760nm ensured non-overlapping spectrums of excitation light and fluorescence emission. PMID:27280060

  10. Report of the Tort Policy Working Group on the Causes, Extent and Policy Implications of the Current Crisis in Insurance Availability and Affordability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC.

    Causes and implications of the crisis in liability insurance availability and affordability are discussed in this report. The working group concluded that tort law is a major issue in the insurance crisis and that the federal government can address that issue. The group also concluded that the federal government can do little to remedy other…

  11. From Crisis to Transition: The State of Russian Science Based on Focus Groups with Nuclear Physicists

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, T P; Ball, D Y

    2001-12-09

    renewed economic progress in Russia. Russian scientists could also be an important source of support for democratic norms: sociologists of science have long argued that scientists tend to support democracy because it provides them with the freedom in which their research can flourish. At the same time, a more recent study suggests that funding shortages may override the researcher's need for freedom and drive scientists to align themselves with the economic policies espoused by Nationalists and Communists in order to survive. Therefore, much turns on the question: ''What is the state of science in Russia today?'' The good news is that focus group interviews with Russian nuclear physicists conducted in October 2001 suggest that the ''science in crisis'' image is one-sided and misleading. Though scientists still complained about low salaries, lack of respect in society, and other similar issues, the participants in the focus groups also expressed positive sentiments about recent changes in the field of science. To be sure, the financing of science remains at a considerably lower level than during the heyday of Soviet times. Yet, it is now possible to earn a decent living as a scientist because of the greater availability of foreign and domestic grants and contracts. In addition, state funding has stabilized over the past few years. Thus, it is more accurate to say that Russian science is in a state of transition rather than in a state of crisis.

  12. Interest of ICG blood clearance monitoring for reproducible 810-nm diode laser coagulation of blood vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmettre, Thomas; Soulie-Begu, Sylvie; Devoisselle, Jean-Marie; Mordon, Serge R.

    1999-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a method of control of diode laser fluence leading to a reproducible ICG-enhanced selective photocoagulation of blood vessels. This method would use the chromophore clearance, i.e. ICG blood concentration decay to adapt the laser fluence. Materials and Methods: A skin flap window was used on hamsters. After a 15 mg/kg ICG solution injection, photocoagulation of vessels were performed. Results: Selective photocoagulation of blood vessels was obtained only during the first 10 minutes. The fluence required to obtain a selective photocoagulation of vessels (F) was modelized using a one compartment phamacokinetic equation: F equals Of(1-e-t/(tau )). The best fit was obtained for a time constant (tau) equals 4.8 min and Of equals 300 J/cm2 (correlation coefficient r2 equals 0.996). During the first 10 minutes, the fluence required for selective photocoagulation of vessels was increased by a factor 4.5. Conclusion: Fluence required for a selective photocoagulation of vessels was correlated to ICG blood concentration decay. The time constant was equivalent to ICG half-life time in human blood. These results demonstrate that diode laser ICG-enhanced photocoagulation can be controlled by monitoring the ICG blood clearance.

  13. Monoclonal antibody-targeted PEGylated liposome-ICG encapsulating doxorubicin as a potential theranostic agent.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Neus; Al-Ahmady, Zahraa S; Beziere, Nicolas S; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Kostarelos, Kostas

    2015-03-30

    Indocyanine green (ICG) is an FDA-approved, strongly photo-absorbent/fluorescent probe that has been incorporated into a clinically-relevant PEGylated liposome as a flexible optoacoustic contrast agent platform. This study describes the engineering of targeted PEGylated liposome-ICG using the anti-MUC-1 "humanized" monoclonal antibody (MoAb) hCTM01 as a tumour-specific theranostic system. We aimed to visualise non-invasively the tumour accumulation of these MoAb-targeted liposomes over time in tumour-bearing mice using multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT). Preferential accumulation of targeted PEGylated liposome-ICG was studied after intravenous administration in comparison to non-targeted PEGylated liposome-ICG using both fast growing (4T1) and slow growing (HT-29) MUC-1 positive tumour models. Monitoring liposomal ICG in the tumour showed that both targeted and non-targeted liposome-ICG formulations preferentially accumulated into the tumour models studied. Rapid accumulation was observed for targeted liposomes at early time points mainly in the periphery of the tumour volume suggesting binding to available MUC-1 receptors. In contrast, non-targeted PEGylated liposomes showed accumulation at the centre of the tumour at later time points. In an attempt to take this a step further, we successfully encapsulated the anticancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX) into both targeted and non-targeted PEGylated liposome-ICG. The engineering of DOX-loaded targeted ICG liposome systems present a novel platform for combined tumour-specific therapy and diagnosis. This can open new possibilities in the design of advanced image-guided cancer therapeutics.

  14. The CREB binding protein inhibitor ICG-001 suppresses pancreatic cancer growth

    PubMed Central

    Arensman, Michael D.; Telesca, Donatello; Lay, Anna R.; Kershaw, Kathleen M.; Wu, Nanping; Donahue, Timothy R.; Dawson, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly lethal cancer due in part to a lack of highly robust cytotoxic or molecular-based therapies. Recent studies investigating ligand-mediated Wnt/β-catenin signaling have highlighted its importance in pancreatic cancer initiation and progression, as well as its potential as a therapeutic target in PDAC. The small molecule ICG-001 binds CREB-binding protein (CBP) to disrupt its interaction with β-catenin and inhibit CBP function as a co-activator of Wnt/β-catenin-mediated transcription. Given its ability to inhibit Wnt/β-catenin-mediated transcription in vitro and in vivo, as well as its efficacy in preclinical models of colorectal cancer and other Wnt-driven diseases, we examined ICG-001 and its potential role as a therapeutic in PDAC. ICG-001 alone significantly inhibited anchorage-dependent and -independent growth of multiple PDAC lines, and augmented in vitro growth inhibition when used in combination with gemcitabine. ICG-001 had only variable modest effects on PDAC apoptosis and instead mediated PDAC growth inhibition primarily through robust induction of G1 cell cycle arrest. These effects, however, appeared decoupled from its inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin-mediated transcription. DNA microarrays performed on PDAC cells in the context of ICG-001 treatment revealed ICG-001 altered the expression of several genes with well-established roles in DNA replication and cell cycle progression, including direct actions on SKP2 and CDKN1A. ICG-001 also significantly prolonged survival in an in vivo orthotopic xenograft model of PDAC, indicating ICG-001 or derived compounds that disrupt CBP activity are potentially useful small molecule therapeutics for pancreatic cancer. PMID:25082960

  15. Drug delivery monitoring by photoacoustic tomography with an ICG encapsulated double emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajian, Justin Rajesh; Fabiilli, Mario L.; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Carson, Paul L.; Wang, Xueding

    2011-07-01

    The absorption spectrum of indocyanine green (ICG), a nontoxic dye used for medical diagnostics, depends upon its concentration as well as the nature of its environment, i.e., the solvent medium into which it is dissolved. In blood, ICG binds with plasma proteins, thus causing changes in its photoacoustic spectrum. We successfully encapsulated ICG in an ultrasound-triggerable perfluorocarbon double emulsion that prevents ICG from binding with plasma proteins. Photoacoustic spectral measurements on point target as well as 2-D photoacoustic images of blood vessels revealed that the photoacoustic spectrum changes significantly in blood when the ICG-loaded emulsion undergoes acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV), which is the conversion of liquid droplets into gas bubbles using ultrasound. We propose that these changes in the photoacoustic spectrum of the ICG emulsion in blood, coupled with photoacoustic tomography, could be used to spatially and quantitatively monitor ultrasound initiated drug delivery. In addition, we suggest that the photoacoustic spectral change induced by ultrasound exposure could also be used as contrast in photoacoustic imaging to obtain a background free image.

  16. Drug delivery monitoring by photoacoustic tomography with an ICG encapsulated double emulsion.

    PubMed

    Rajian, Justin Rajesh; Fabiilli, Mario L; Fowlkes, J Brian; Carson, Paul L; Wang, Xueding

    2011-07-18

    The absorption spectrum of indocyanine green (ICG), a nontoxic dye used for medical diagnostics, depends upon its concentration as well as the nature of its environment, i.e., the solvent medium into which it is dissolved. In blood, ICG binds with plasma proteins, thus causing changes in its photoacoustic spectrum. We successfully encapsulated ICG in an ultrasound-triggerable perfluorocarbon double emulsion that prevents ICG from binding with plasma proteins. Photoacoustic spectral measurements on point target as well as 2-D photoacoustic images of blood vessels revealed that the photoacoustic spectrum changes significantly in blood when the ICG-loaded emulsion undergoes acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV), which is the conversion of liquid droplets into gas bubbles using ultrasound. We propose that these changes in the photoacoustic spectrum of the ICG emulsion in blood, coupled with photoacoustic tomography, could be used to spatially and quantitatively monitor ultrasound initiated drug delivery. In addition, we suggest that the photoacoustic spectral change induced by ultrasound exposure could also be used as contrast in photoacoustic imaging to obtain a background free image.

  17. Molecular targeted PDT with selective delivery of ICG Photo-Immunoconjugates (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sijia; Hüttmann, Gereon; Hasan, Tayyaba; Rahmanzadeh, Ramtin

    2016-03-01

    Light-induced inhibition of intracellular molecules holds great promise for a selective treatment of cancer and other diseases. Challenges for the targeting of intracellular proteins are the synthesis of effective photoimmuno-conjugates and their functional delivery inside living cells. In earlier studies we have shown, that photodynamic inactivation of the nuclear Ki-67 protein leads to an effective elimination of proliferating tumor cells. Here we show a selective treatment for EGFR and Ki-67 positive cancer cells after light-controlled delivery of indocyanine green (ICG) photo-immunoconjugates. The Ki-67 antibody TuBB-9, which recognizes an active state of the protein, was labeled with different ratios of ICG and encapsulated into immuno-liposomes that selectively deliver the conjugates to EGFR overexpressing cells. To overcome endosomal entrapment of the delivered agents, ovarian carcinoma cells were treated with the photosensitizer benzoporphyrin monoacid derivative (BPD) and irradiated first for endosomal escape of the TuBB-9-ICG constructs. 24 h after irradiation TuBB-9-ICG antibodies showed a relocalization from spots in the cytoplasm to the cell nucleus. A second irradiation of the delivered TuBB-9-ICG led to a significant elimination of cells after Ki-67 inactivation.

  18. Indocyanine Green-001 (ICG-001) Attenuates Wnt/β-catenin-induces Myocardial Injury Following Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Yousif, Nasser Ghaly; Hadi, Najah R.; Hassan, Alaa Manea

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the mechanistic pathway of both indocyanine green (ICG)-001 in attenuated endotoxemia-induced cardiac depression through downregulation cardiac Wnt/ β-catenin cell signaling. Materials and Methods: Adult (4–6 months) male Albino-Webster mice, their weights ranged from 25 to 30 g, were pretreated with ICG-001 i.p., following cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Left ventricle (LV) function was assessed using a microcatheter system. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and cytokines mediators in plasma and myocardium were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Further, the cardiac Wnt protein measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction while β-catenin analysis through Western blotting procedure. The pathological changes and cells injury in the myocardium were examined using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results: CLP mice displayed worse LV function. The exaggerated cardiac depression in CLP mice was associated with higher levels of MCP-1 and cytokines in plasma and myocardium together with greater cardiac levels of cardiac troponin-I and Wnt/β-catenin. Neutralization of sepsis by either ICG-001resulted in improved LV function and reductions in inflammatory mediators. Conclusion: Taken together, these data showed that ICG-001 improved LV function following sepsis through downregulation of Wnt/β-catenin and serve as a potential mechanistic pathway ICG-001 in therapeutic cardiac endotoxemia in animal model.

  19. Simultaneous OCT/confocal-OCT/ICG system for imaging the eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podoleanu, Adrian G.; Rosen, Richard B.; Dobre, George; Rogers, John A.; Garcia, Patricia; Pedro, Justin; Dunne, Shane; Jackson, David A.; Weitz, Rishard

    2004-10-01

    En-face OCT acquired simultaneously with paired confocal ophthalmoscopic (CO) images provides unprecedented point-to-point correlation between surface and subsurface anatomy of the retina. An advanced prototype of a dual channel OCT/CO instrument was developed in terms of signal to noise ratio and image size. The system can operate in A, B and C-scan regimes. The design is such that there is a strict pixel to pixel correspondence between the OCT and confocal images. An extensive array of clinic pathologies were studied including macular degeneration, central serous retinopathy (CSR), macular hole, macular pucker, cystoid macular edema (CME), diabetic maculopathy, and macular trauma. We report observation of reoccurring patterns in the en-face OCT images which could be identified with different diseases. The system can also simultaneously produce en-face OCT and indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence images where the same source is used to produce the OCT image and excite the ICG. The system is compact and assembled on a chin rest and it enables the clinician to visualise the same area of the eye fundus in terms of both en face OCT slices and ICG angiograms, displayed side by side. The images are collected by fast en-face scanning (T-scan) followed by slower scanning along a transverse direction and depth scanning. The system is capable of providing chosen OCT B-scans at selected points from the ICG image.

  20. Variations in burn perfusion over time as measured by portable ICG fluorescence: A case series.

    PubMed

    Dissanaike, Sharmila; Abdul-Hamed, Senan; Griswold, John A

    2014-01-01

    The early determination of healing potential in indeterminate thickness burns may be difficult to establish by visual inspection alone, even for experienced burn practitioners. This case series explores the use of indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence using portable bedside assessment as a potential tool for early determination of burn depth. Three subjects with indeterminate thickness burns had daily perfusion assessment using ICG fluorescence assessment using the SPY machine (SPY®, Lifecell Corp., NJ, USA) in addition to standard burn care. The fluorescence was quantified as a percentage of the perfusion of intact skin, and areas of hypo- and hyper-perfusion were indicated. The study was concluded when the burn surgeon, blinded to the ICG results, made a clinical determination of the need for skin grafting or discharge. The perfusion in areas of differing depth of burn were compared over the entire study period to determine both the magnitude of difference, and the point in the time course of healing when these changes became evident. Significant differences in perfusion were noted between burned areas of varying depth. These differences were evident as early as the first post-burn day, and persisted till the completion of the study. ICG fluorescence represents a potential adjunct in burn assessment in this first longitudinal study of its use; however much more systematic research will be required to judge the feasibility of clinical implementation.

  1. Individual and large-group identity: parallels in development and characteristics in stability and crisis.

    PubMed

    Volkan, V D

    1999-12-01

    A comprehensive understanding of international and interethnic conflict must include a psychological dimension. This paper explores concepts of individual and large-group identity, their inherent connection, and some essential large-group rituals that aim to repair and maintain them. Human psychological development not only involves dynamics associated with one's parents, family, and intimate environment, but also those of one's ethic, religious or national group. Although this may simply be called "acculturation", the evolution of large-group identity involves specific psychological processes. When a large group perceives that its identity is threatened, the group and its individual members typically experience anxiety which is then expressed in certain ritualistic behaviors that can range from benign to highly malignant. Social scientists, diplomats and others who seek to analyze social and political phenomena and formulate policies related to them could benefit from a better understanding of these aspects of human interaction.

  2. Predicting psychological ripple effects: the role of cultural identity, in-group/out-group identification, and attributions of blame in crisis communication.

    PubMed

    Anagondahalli, Deepa; Turner, Monique Mitchell

    2012-04-01

    Incidents of intentional food contamination can produce ripple effects in consumers such as reduced trust and increased anxiety. In their postcrisis communication, food companies often direct the blame at the perpetrator in an effort to mitigate potential losses and regain consumer trust. The attempt to placate consumers may, in itself, potentially create psychological ripple effects in message readers. This study examined the interacting influence of two message characteristics: identity of the perpetrator of the crime (in-group/out-group membership), and the attribution of blame (reason why the perpetrator committed the crime), with message receiver characteristic (cultural identity) on psychological ripple effects such as blame, trust, anxiety, and future purchase intention. Results indicated that although group membership of the perpetrator was not significant in predicting outcomes for the organization, the attribution communicated in the message was. American message receivers blamed the organization more and trusted it less when personal dispositional attributions were made about the perpetrator. Asian message receivers blamed the organization more and trusted it less when situational attributions were made about the perpetrator. Lowered trust in the company and increased anxiety correlated with lower purchase intent for both American and Asian message receivers. Implications for crisis message design are discussed.

  3. Contrast enhanced high-resolution diffuse optical tomography of the human brain using ICG

    PubMed Central

    Habermehl, Christina; Schmitz, Christoph H.; Steinbrink, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Non-invasive diffuse optical tomography (DOT) of the adult brain has recently been shown to improve the spatial resolution for functional brain imaging applications. Here we show that high-resolution (HR) DOT is also advantageous for clinical perfusion imaging using an optical contrast agent. We present the first HR-DOT results with a continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy setup using a dense grid of optical fibers and indocyanine green (ICG) as an exogenic contrast agent. We find an early arrival of the ICG bolus in the intracerebral tissue and a delayed arrival of the bolus in the extracerebral tissue, achieving the separation of both layers. This demonstrates the method’s potential for brain perfusion monitoring in neurointensive care patients. PMID:21935232

  4. ICG videoangiography at very low light level of choroidal neovascularization and of central serous choroidopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longobardi, Giuseppe; Ciamberlini, Claudio; Guarnieri, Vittorio; Panzardi, G.; Donati, M. C.

    1996-01-01

    ICG videoangiography has widely demonstrated its importance as an investigation method in several ocular pathologies. By means of an optoelectronic system developed by the authors, many cases of age related macular degeneration and central serous coroidopathy affecting patients of different ages have been investigated. The analysis of the eye fundus infrared-light images obtained allows the clinician to draw medical conclusions otherwise not obtainable with traditional visible-light techniques. A comprehensive survey and discussion of the most significant cases are presented.

  5. Promoting Group Work at Key Stage 3: Solving an Attitudinal Crisis among Young Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pell, Tony; Galton, Maurice; Steward, Susan; Page, Charlotte; Hargreaves, Linda

    2007-01-01

    The attitudes and behaviour of 1040 pupils aged 12-14 years have been measured at the beginning and end of the school year with a battery of attitude, motivation and personality tests in an investigation of the differential effects of group work compared to whole-class learning. A total of 44 secondary teachers of English, mathematics and science…

  6. The Role of Community and School Groups in School Desegregation: Strategies for Crisis and Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Richard H.; Laue, James H.

    This manual was designed for community and school groups to aid them in clarifying their goals and selecting strategies for resolving issues related to school desegregation. After a brief review of the law, Part 1 reviews the major issues involved in the school desegregation process: quality education, white flight, middle-class minority flight,…

  7. Effect of capsid proteins to ICG mass ratio on fluorescent quantum yield of virus-resembling optical nano-materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Sharad; Ico, Gerardo; Matsumura, Paul; Rao, A. L. N.; Vullev, Valentine; Anvari, Bahman

    2012-03-01

    We recently reported construction of a new type of optical nano-construct composed of genome-depleted plant infecting brome mosaic virus (BMV) doped with Indocyanine green (ICG), an FDA-approved chromophore. We refer to these constructs as optical viral ghosts (OVGs) since only the capsid protein (CP) subunits of BMV remain to encapsulate ICG. To utilize OVGs as effective nano-probes in fluorescence imaging applications, their fluorescence quantum yield needs to be maximized. In this study, we investigate the effect of altering the CP to ICG mass ratio on the fluorescent quantum yield of OVGs. Results of this study provide the basis for construction of OVGs with optimal amounts of CP and ICG to yield maximal fluorescence quantum yield.

  8. Crisis behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Grinspoon, L.

    1984-04-01

    The Department of Defense has rules and procedures to minimize the opportunity for error and improper behavior among those with access to strategic weapons, but no psychiatric screening system can predict with assurance who will or will not behave rationally during a crisis. Personal problems and institutional decision-making pressures may destroy nuclear deterrence. Certain features of military life, including drug and alcohol abuse, heavy responsibility, tension, and group decision making, can destreoy rationality. 12 references.

  9. In vivo laser assisted end-to-end anastomosis with ICG-infused chitosan patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Francesca; Matteini, Paolo; Esposito, Giuseppe; Scerrati, Alba; Albanese, Alessio; Puca, Alfredo; Maira, Giulio; Rossi, Giacomo; Pini, Roberto

    2011-07-01

    Laser assisted vascular repair is a new optimized technique based on the use of ICG-infused chitosan patch to close a vessel wound, with or even without few supporting single stitches. We present an in vivo experimental study on an innovative end-to-end laser assisted vascular anastomotic (LAVA) technique, performed with the application of ICGinfused chitosan patches. The photostability and the mechanical properties of ICG-infused chitosan films were preliminary measured. The in vivo study was performed in 10 New Zealand rabbits. After anesthesia, a 3-cm segment of the right common carotid artery was exposed, thus clamped proximally and distally. The artery was then interrupted by means of a full thickness cut. Three single microsutures were used to approximate the two vessel edges. The ICG-infused chitosan patch was rolled all over the anastomotic site and welded by the use of a diode laser emitting at 810 nm and equipped with a 300 μm diameter optical fiber. Welding was obtained by delivering single laser spots to induce local patch/tissue adhesion. The result was an immediate closure of the anastomosis, with no bleeding at clamps release. Thus animals underwent different follow-up periods, in order to evaluate the welded vessels over time. At follow-up examinations, all the anastomoses were patent and no bleeding signs were documented. Samples of welded vessels underwent histological examinations. Results showed that this technique offer several advantages over conventional suturing methods: simplification of the surgical procedure, shortening of the operative time, better re-endothelization and optimal vascular healing process.

  10. Crisis Management Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    In this column, Crisis Management in the Schools Interest Group members summarize recent crisis management publications. The first article summarized was a meta-analysis of the risk factors associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among adults. The second study looked at the presence of life stressors among students who were expelled…

  11. Immunohistochemical analysis of intratumoral heterogeneity of [131I]cG250 antibody uptake in primary renal cell carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Steffens, M. G.; Oosterwijk, E.; Zegwaart-Hagemeier, N. E.; van't Hof, M. A.; Debruyne, F. M.; Corstens, F. H.; Boerman, O. C.

    1998-01-01

    In previous studies, highly heterogeneous uptake of 131I-labelled chimeric monoclonal antibody G250 ([131I]cG250) in primary renal cell carcinomas has been observed (intratumoral differences > factor 100). In this study, we investigated a possible correlation between intratumoral antibody uptake and four immunohistochemically determined parameters: G250 antigen expression, blood vessel density, neovascularization and percentage of viable tumour cells. Whole tumour slices of four different tumours were cut into 1-cm3 cubes, and in each cube the [131I]cG250 uptake was determined. The correlation between [131I]cG250 uptake and each individual parameter was determined in a multiple regression analysis. Additionally, the data were reanalysed after introducing arbitrary cut-off values for each parameter. If a sample showed expression of a parameter above the introduced threshold value, this sample fulfilled one condition. Subsequently, the Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated from [131I]cG250 uptake and the number of fulfilled conditions (0-3). All tumour samples with high [131I]cG250 uptake [> 0.1% of the injected dose per gram (ID g(-1))] showed high antigen expression (> 50%). However, not all samples with high antigen expression displayed high uptake. A statistically significant correlation between [131I]cG250 uptake and antigen expression was found (beta = 0.44, 0.69 and 0.74) in three out of four tumours analysed. Of the other determined parameters, no consistent correlation with [131I]cG250 uptake was found; only the percentage of viable tumour cells correlated significantly in two out of four tumours (beta = 0.80 and 0.26). Calculation of the Pearson correlation coefficients showed a statistically significant correlation between [131I]cG250 uptake and an increased number of fulfilled conditions in all tumours, indicating that each of the individual parameters contribute to the uptake of [131I]cG250. These observations indicate that high antigen

  12. Targeted imaging of urothelium carcinoma in human bladders by an ICG pHLIP peptide ex vivo

    PubMed Central

    Golijanin, Jovana; Amin, Ali; Moshnikova, Anna; Brito, Joseph M.; Tran, Timothy Y.; Adochite, Ramona-Cosmina; Andreev, Gregory O.; Crawford, Troy; Engelman, Donald M.; Andreev, Oleg A.; Reshetnyak, Yana K.; Golijanin, Dragan

    2016-01-01

    Bladder cancer is the fifth most common in incidence and one of the most expensive cancers to treat. Early detection greatly improves the chances of survival and bladder preservation. The pH low insertion peptide (pHLIP) conjugated with a near-infrared fluorescent dye [indocyanine green (ICG)] targets low extracellular pH, allowing visualization of malignant lesions in human bladder carcinoma ex vivo. Cystectomy specimens obtained after radical surgery were immediately irrigated with nonbuffered saline and instilled with a solution of the ICG pHLIP construct, incubated, and rinsed. Bladders were subsequently opened and imaged, the fluorescent spots were marked, and a standard pathological analysis was carried out to establish the correlation between ICG pHLIP imaging and white light pathological assessment. Accurate targeting of bladder lesions was achieved with a sensitivity of 97%. Specificity is 100%, but reduced to 80% if targeting of necrotic tissue from previous transurethral resections or chemotherapy are considered as false positives. The ICG pHLIP imaging agent marked high-grade urothelial carcinomas, both muscle invasive and nonmuscle invasive. Carcinoma in situ was accurately diagnosed in 11 cases, whereas only four cases were seen using white light, so imaging with the ICG pHLIP peptide offers improved early diagnosis of bladder cancers and may also enable new treatment alternatives. PMID:27688767

  13. ICG angiography predicts burn scarring within 48 h of injury in a porcine vertical progression burn model.

    PubMed

    Fourman, Mitchell S; McKenna, Peter; Phillips, Brett T; Crawford, Laurie; Romanelli, Filippo; Lin, Fubao; McClain, Steve A; Khan, Sami U; Dagum, Alexander B; Singer, Adam J; Clark, Richard A F

    2015-08-01

    The current standard of care in determining the need to excise and graft a burn remains with the burn surgeon, whose clinical judgment is often variable. Prior work suggests that minimally invasive perfusion technologies are useful in burn prognostication. Here we test the predictive capabilities of Laser Doppler Imaging (LDI) and indocyanine green dye (ICG) angiography in the prediction of burn scarring 28 days after injury using a previously validated porcine burn model that shows vertical progression injury. Twelve female Yorkshire swine were burned using a 2.5 × 2.5 cm metal bar at variable temperature and application times to create distinct burn depths. Six animals (48 injuries total) each were analyzed with LDI or ICG angiography at 1, 24, 48, and 72 h following injury. A linear regression was then performed correlating perfusion measurements against wound contraction at 28 days after injury. ICG angiography showed a peak linear correlate (r(2)) of .63 (95% CI .34 to .92) at 48 h after burn. This was significantly different from the LDI linear regression (p < .05), which was measured at r(2) of .20 (95% CI .02 to .39). ICG angiography linear regression was superior to LDI at all timepoints. Findings suggest that ICG angiography may have significant potential in the prediction of long-term burn outcomes.

  14. Peptide-Based Optical uPAR Imaging for Surgery: In Vivo Testing of ICG-Glu-Glu-AE105

    PubMed Central

    Juhl, Karina; Christensen, Anders; Persson, Morten; Ploug, Michael; Kjaer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Near infrared intra-operative optical imaging is an emerging technique with clear implications for improved cancer surgery by enabling a more distinct delineation of the tumor margins during resection. This modality has the potential to increase the number of patients having a curative radical tumor resection. In the present study, a new uPAR-targeted fluorescent probe was developed and the in vivo applicability was evaluated in a human xenograft mouse model. Most human carcinomas express high level of uPAR in the tumor-stromal interface of invasive lesions and uPAR is therefore considered an ideal target for intra-operative imaging. Conjugation of the flourophor indocyanine green (ICG) to the uPAR agonist (AE105) provides an optical imaging ligand with sufficiently high receptor affinity to allow for a specific receptor targeting in vivo. For in vivo testing, human glioblastoma xenograft mice were subjected to optical imaging after i.v. injection of ICG-AE105, which provided an optimal contrast in the time window 6–24 h post injection. Specificity of the uPAR-targeting probe ICG-AE105 was demonstrated in vivo by 1) no uptake of unconjugated ICG after 15 hours, 2) inhibition of ICG-AE105 tumor uptake by a bolus injection of the natural uPAR ligand pro-uPA, and finally 3) the histological colocalization of ICG-AE105 fluorescence and immunohistochemical detected human uPAR on resected tumor slides. Taken together, our data supports the potential use of this probe for intra-operative optical guidance in cancer surgery to ensure complete removal of tumors while preserving adjacent, healthy tissue. PMID:26828431

  15. International Centre for Geohazards (ICG) Established at the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute in Oslo, Norway.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solheim, A.; Nadim, F.

    2003-12-01

    As one of 13 new `Centres of Excellence' awarded by the Norwegian Research Council with a 10-year funding schedule, the International Centre for Geohazards (ICG) was established at the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), in January 2003. The Centre is formed through a co-operation between several institutions, which in addition to NGI are the Gelogical Survey of Norway (NGU), Norwegian Seismic Array (NORSAR), University of Oslo (UiO) and the Norwegian University for Science and Technology (NTNU). The Centre is located in the NGI building in Oslo, Norway. Funding is for 10 years, and the centre is staffed by researchers from the partner institutions, visiting scientists, post-doctoral fellows and Ph.D. students. With the ultimate goal of geohazard mitigation and preventing the loss of lives and damage to infrastructure and environment, key research topics of the Centre are: Unsaturated soils and mechanisms for precipitation-induced slides in steep slopes; Risk and vulnerability analysis for geohazards; Earthquake hazard, vulnerability and risk evaluation; Rock slope failures - models and risks; Landslides in soft clay slopes (quick clay), fjord margins and coastal zones; GIS applications to geohazards; SAR applications to geohazards; Slide dynamics and mechanics of disintegration; Tsunami modelling and prediction; and Offshore Geohazards. As prospecting for hydrocarbons move into increasingly deeper waters of the world's continental margins, research on offshore geohazard forms an important activity of the new centre. Main offshore geohazards include slope instability, effects of shallow gas and gas hydrates on the behaviour of seafloor sediments, mud volcanism and diapirism. Of these, slope instability is considered to be the major hazard, because of the potentially serious third party impact. The current offshore geohazards project within ICG consists of three main themes: Assessment of offshore geohazards (site surveys); Geophysical methods for offshore

  16. ICG enhanced co-registered diffuse optical tomography and photoacoustic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chen; Kumavor, Patrick D.; Xu, Yan; Zhu, Quing

    2013-03-01

    To overcome the intensive light scattering in the biological tissue, diffuse optical tomography (DOT) in the near infrared range for breast lesion detection usually is combined with other imaging modalities such as ultrasound, X-ray, and MRI, to provide guidance. However, the guided imaging modalities may depend on different contrast mechanics compared to the optical contrast in the DOT. As a result, they can't provide reliable guidance for diffuse optical tomography because some lesions may not be detectable by a non-optical modality but yet have high optical contrast. An imaging modality which can provide the guidance from optical contrast is desirable for DOT. In this paper, we present a system that combines diffuse optical tomography and photoacoustic tomography (PAT), to detect and characterize the deeply-seated targets embedded in a turbid medium. Photoacoustic tomography utilizes a short-pulsed laser beam to penetrate into tissue diffusively. Upon absorption of the light by the target, photoacoustic waves are generated and used to reconstruct, at ultrasound resolution, the optical absorption distribution that reveals optical contrast. The combined system used in the experiment combines a 64-channel photoacoustic system with a frequency-domain diffused optical system. To further improve the contrast, the exogenous contrast agent, indocyanine green (ICG) is used. Our experiment results show that the combined system can detect a tumormimicking phantom up to 2.5 cm in depth and 10 μM in concentration. Mice experiments also confirmed that the combined system can detect the tumor region and monitor the ICG uptake and washout in the tumor region. This method can potentially improve the accuracy to detect the small breast lesions or any lesions which are sensitive to the reference change, such as the lesions located on the chest wall.

  17. [Crisis intervention].

    PubMed

    Stein, Claudius

    2012-01-01

    The Austrian Program for Suicide Prevention defines as Point 2: "Support and treatment". The suicide-preventive outcome of the development of psychotherapeutic-psychosocial care in Austria has been proved. This means, that the further development of institutions with focus on crisis intervention is a central agenda of Suicide prevention Austria (SUPRA). First, in this article are defined the terms crisis and crisis intervention, also the close connection to programs of suicide prevention is pointed out. Furthermore general aims and standards for crisis intervention are defined and the current situation of crisis intervention in Austria is described. Finally recommendations for practical aims and their implementation in the context of SUPRA are made.

  18. A novel photoacoustic nanoprobe of ICG@PEG-Ag2S for atherosclerosis targeting and imaging in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chenxin; Zhang, Yejun; Li, Zhen; Li, Chunyan; Wang, Qiangbin

    2016-06-01

    Atherosclerosis is a major cause of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases that have high mortality and disability rates. Because of its unclear pathogenic mechanism and heterogeneous distribution feature, it is still a big challenge to achieve precise diagnosis and therapy of atherosclerosis at its early stage in vivo. Herein, we fabricated a new ICG@PEG-Ag2S nanoprobe by a simple self-assembly of DT-Ag2S QDs, amphipathic C18/PEG polymer molecules and ICG. The ICG@PEG-Ag2S nanoprobe showed relatively long blood retention and was selectively accumulated in the region of atherosclerotic plaque due to the lipophilicity of the C18 chain to the atherosclerosis microenvironment, and thus the atherosclerosis was real-time monitored by high contrast-enhanced photoacoustic (PA) imaging of ICG. Combining the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and high spatial resolution fluorescence imaging of Ag2S QDs in the second near-infrared window (NIR-II) and related histological assessment in vitro, the feasibility of this new nanoprobe for atherosclerosis targeting in an Apoe-/- mouse model was verified. Additionally, hemolysis and coagulation assays of the ICG@PEG-Ag2S revealed its decent hemocompatibility and no histological changes were observed in the main organs of the mouse. Such a simple, multifunctional nanoprobe for targeting and PA imaging of atherosclerosis will have a great potential for future clinical applications.Atherosclerosis is a major cause of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases that have high mortality and disability rates. Because of its unclear pathogenic mechanism and heterogeneous distribution feature, it is still a big challenge to achieve precise diagnosis and therapy of atherosclerosis at its early stage in vivo. Herein, we fabricated a new ICG@PEG-Ag2S nanoprobe by a simple self-assembly of DT-Ag2S QDs, amphipathic C18/PEG polymer molecules and ICG. The ICG@PEG-Ag2S nanoprobe showed relatively long blood retention and was selectively

  19. Indocyanine green (ICG) as a new adjuvant for the antimicrobial photo-dynamic therapy (aPDT) in dentistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meister, Joerg; Hopp, Michael; Schäfers, Johannes; Verbeek, Jonas; Kraus, Dominik; Frentzen, Matthias

    2014-02-01

    Clinical surveys show a continuous increase of antimicrobial resistance related to the frequency of the administrated medication. The antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is an effective adjuvant to reduce the need of antibiotics in dentistry, especially in periodontics. The antimicrobial effect of lightactivated photosensitizers in periodontics is demonstrated in clinical studies and case reports. Indocyanine green (ICG) as a new adjuvant shows the high potential of antiphlogistic and antimicrobial effects in combination with laser-light activation. In trying to answer the question of just how far the influence of temperature is acting on bacteria, this study was carried out. The influences of ICG at different concentrations (0.01 up to 1 mg/ml) in combination with a culture medium (brain-heart-infusion) and a bacteria culture (Streptococcus salivarius) at different optical densities (OD600 0.5 and 0.1) were investigated under laser-light activation. Laser activation was carried out with diode laser at 810 nm and two different power settings (100 mW/300 mW). The pulse repetition rate was 2 kHz. Taking account of the fiber diameter, distance and spot size on the sample surface, the applicated intensities were 6.2 and 18.7 W/cm2. Total irradiation time was 20 s for all meaurements. Transmitted laser power and temperature increase in the culture medium as well as in the bacteria culture were determined. Additionally the influence of ICG regarding bacterial growth and bactericidal effect was investigated in the bacteria culture without laser irradiation. Without laser, no bactericidal effect of ICG was observed. Only a bacteriostatic effect could be proved. In dependence of the ICG concentration and the applied intensities a temperature increase of ΔT up to 80°C was measured.

  20. The Course and Duration of Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Marc S.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Psychological tests were administered to a crisis group undergoing surgery for cancer and to a comparison group on the night before surgery and thereafter at three-week intervals. Results indicated significant psychological changes only in the crisis group. Duration of crisis was greater than six weeks but less than seven months. (Author)

  1. From success to persistence: Identifying an evolutionary regime shift in the diverse Paleozoic aquatic arthropod group Eurypterida, driven by the Devonian biotic crisis.

    PubMed

    Lamsdell, James C; Selden, Paul A

    2017-01-01

    Mass extinctions have altered the trajectory of evolution a number of times over the Phanerozoic. During these periods of biotic upheaval a different selective regime appears to operate, although it is still unclear whether consistent survivorship rules apply across different extinction events. We compare variations in diversity and disparity across the evolutionary history of a major Paleozoic arthropod group, the Eurypterida. Using these data, we explore the group's transition from a successful, dynamic clade to a stagnant persistent lineage, pinpointing the Devonian as the period during which this evolutionary regime shift occurred. The late Devonian biotic crisis is potentially unique among the "Big Five" mass extinctions in exhibiting a drop in speciation rates rather than an increase in extinction. Our study reveals eurypterids show depressed speciation rates throughout the Devonian but no abnormal peaks in extinction. Loss of morphospace occupation is random across all Paleozoic extinction events; however, differential origination during the Devonian results in a migration and subsequent stagnation of occupied morphospace. This shift appears linked to an ecological transition from euryhaline taxa to freshwater species with low morphological diversity alongside a decrease in endemism. These results demonstrate the importance of the Devonian biotic crisis in reshaping Paleozoic ecosystems.

  2. [Crisis intervention with elderly people].

    PubMed

    Etzersdorfer, E

    2008-02-01

    This paper gives an overview about the most important aspects of crisis intervention, with special emphasis on crisis intervention with elderly people. First a review of the development of crisis intervention is given, including of some of the major concepts, with particular emphasis on psychoanalytic aspects of crisis intervention. Then a clinical case example of a crisis intervention with an elderly woman following a suicide attempt is given and discussed. The focus lies on the description of the transference-countertransference relationship, with attempts of pressing the therapist to comply with superficial, denying and minimizing fantasies. Peculiarities of crisis intervention with elderly people are highlighted: it is necessary to emphasize that elderly people are underrepresented in most crisis services, whereby they represent the group with the highest suicide risk. Peculiarities of elderly people still are not sufficiently met and they are created by a particularly wide range of aspects.

  3. The Imaging and Cognition Genetics Conference 2011, ICG 2011: A Meeting of Minds

    PubMed Central

    Le Hellard, Stéphanie; Hanson, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    In June 2011, 70 researchers from the disciplines of cognitive science, genetics, psychology, psychiatry, neurobiology, and computer science gathered in Os, Norway, for the first Imaging and Cognition Genetics meeting. The aim of the conference was to discuss progress, enhance collaboration, and maximize the sharing of resources within this new field. In this Perspective, we summarize the major themes that emerged from ICG 2011. The first is the importance of defining cognitive and imaging phenotypes and endophenotypes suitable for genetic analysis. These can come from differential psychology, cognitive science, structural MRI, tractography, and functional imaging. The second theme is the emergence of new methods for the analysis of complex traits. These include advanced computational and statistical techniques for analyzing complex datasets, and new ways of interpreting data from genome-wide association studies, such as jointly evaluating the contribution of SNPs in specific genes and pathways rather than considering single SNPs in isolation. The final theme is the importance of establishing functional correlates of newly identified genetic variants. PMID:22654732

  4. The Imaging and Cognition Genetics Conference 2011, ICG 2011: A Meeting of Minds.

    PubMed

    Le Hellard, Stéphanie; Hanson, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    In June 2011, 70 researchers from the disciplines of cognitive science, genetics, psychology, psychiatry, neurobiology, and computer science gathered in Os, Norway, for the first Imaging and Cognition Genetics meeting. The aim of the conference was to discuss progress, enhance collaboration, and maximize the sharing of resources within this new field. In this Perspective, we summarize the major themes that emerged from ICG 2011. The first is the importance of defining cognitive and imaging phenotypes and endophenotypes suitable for genetic analysis. These can come from differential psychology, cognitive science, structural MRI, tractography, and functional imaging. The second theme is the emergence of new methods for the analysis of complex traits. These include advanced computational and statistical techniques for analyzing complex datasets, and new ways of interpreting data from genome-wide association studies, such as jointly evaluating the contribution of SNPs in specific genes and pathways rather than considering single SNPs in isolation. The final theme is the importance of establishing functional correlates of newly identified genetic variants.

  5. Portable widefield imaging device for ICG-detection of the sentinel lymph node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govone, Angelo Biasi; Gómez-García, Pablo Aurelio; Carvalho, André Lopes; Capuzzo, Renato de Castro; Magalhães, Daniel Varela; Kurachi, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Metastasis is one of the major cancer complications, since the malignant cells detach from the primary tumor and reaches other organs or tissues. The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is the first lymphatic structure to be affected by the malignant cells, but its location is still a great challenge for the medical team. This occurs due to the fact that the lymph nodes are located between the muscle fibers, making it visualization difficult. Seeking to aid the surgeon in the detection of the SLN, the present study aims to develop a widefield fluorescence imaging device using the indocyanine green as fluorescence marker. The system is basically composed of a 780nm illumination unit, optical components for 810nm fluorescence detection, two CCD cameras, a laptop, and dedicated software. The illumination unit has 16 diode lasers. A dichroic mirror and bandpass filters select and deliver the excitation light to the interrogated tissue, and select and deliver the fluorescence light to the camera. One camera is responsible for the acquisition of visible light and the other one for the acquisition of the ICG fluorescence. The software developed at the LabVIEW® platform generates a real time merged image where it is possible to observe the fluorescence spots, related to the lymph nodes, superimposed at the image under white light. The system was tested in a mice model, and a first patient with tongue cancer was imaged. Both results showed the potential use of the presented fluorescence imaging system assembled for sentinel lymph node detection.

  6. Bridging the Gap from Bench to Bedside--An Informatics Infrastructure for Integrating Clinical, Genomics and Environmental Data (ICGED).

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    The abundance of heterogeneous biomedical data from a variety of sources demands the development of strategies to address data integration and management issues, so that the data can be used effectively in clinical practices and biomedical research. This research presents an Informatics Infrastructure for Integrating Clinical, Genomics and Environmental Data (ICGED) and provides a roadmap that envisions utilizing the clinical and biomedical resources in our case study. This work describes a data integration approach, proposed by ICGED, with a two-fold purpose: personalized medicine and biomedical data storage and sharing platform. It describes our experiences integrating disease specific clinical and genomics datasets with Data Integration and Analysis Tools (DIAT)--using Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside, and discusses work in progress and future work for extending DIAT, and the development of Risk Assessment and Prediction Tools, Clinical Decision Support Systems and a Bioinformatics Data Warehouse.

  7. The usefulness of ICG video angiography in the surgical treatment of superior cluneal nerve entrapment neuropathy: technical note.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyongsong; Isu, Toyohiko; Chiba, Yasuhiro; Morimoto, Daijiro; Ohtsubo, Seiji; Kusano, Mitsuo; Kobayashi, Shiro; Morita, Akio

    2013-11-01

    Superior cluneal nerve (SCN) entrapment neuropathy is a known cause of low back pain. Although surgical release at the entrapment point of the osteofibrous orifice is effective, intraoperative identification of the thin SCN in thick fat tissue and confirmation of sufficient decompression are difficult. Intraoperative indocyanine green video angiography (ICG-VA) is simple, clearly demonstrates the vascular flow dynamics, and provides real-time information on vascular patency and flow. The peripheral nerve is supplied from epineurial vessels around the nerve (vasa nervorum), and the authors now present the first ICG-VA documentation of the technique and usefulness of peripheral nerve neurolysis surgery to treat SCN entrapment neuropathy in 16 locally anesthetized patients. Clinical outcomes were assessed with the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire before surgery and at the latest follow-up after surgery. Indocyanine green video angiography was useful for identifying the SCN in fat tissue. It showed that the SCN penetrated and was entrapped by the thoracolumbar fascia through the orifice just before crossing over the iliac crest in all patients. The SCN was decompressed by dissection of the fascia from the orifice. Indocyanine green video angiography visualized the SCN and its termination at the entrapment point. After sufficient decompression, the SCN was clearly visualized on ICG-VA images. Low back pain improved significantly, from a preoperative Roland-Morris Questionnaire score of 13.8 to a postoperative score of 1.3 at the last follow-up visit (p < 0.05). The authors suggest that ICG-VA is useful for the inspection of peripheral nerves such as the SCN and helps to identify the SCN and to confirm sufficient decompression at surgery for SCN entrapment.

  8. Characterization of intracellular growth regulator icgR by utilizing transcriptomics to identify mediators of pathogenesis in Shigella flexneri.

    PubMed

    Morris, Carolyn R; Grassel, Christen L; Redman, Julia C; Sahl, Jason W; Barry, Eileen M; Rasko, David A

    2013-09-01

    Shigella species Gram-negative bacteria which cause a diarrheal disease, known as shigellosis, by invading and destroying the colonic mucosa and inducing a robust inflammatory response. With no vaccine available, shigellosis annually kills over 600,000 children in developing countries. This study demonstrates the utility of combining high-throughput bioinformatic methods with in vitro and in vivo assays to provide new insights into pathogenesis. Comparisons of in vivo and in vitro gene expression identified genes associated with intracellular growth. Additional bioinformatics analyses identified genes that are present in S. flexneri isolates but not in the three other Shigella species. Comparison of these two analyses revealed nine genes that are differentially expressed during invasion and that are specific to S. flexneri. One gene, a DeoR family transcriptional regulator with decreased expression during invasion, was further characterized and is now designated icgR, for intracellular growth regulator. Deletion of icgR caused no difference in growth in vitro but resulted in increased intracellular replication in HCT-8 cells. Further in vitro and in vivo studies using high-throughput sequencing of RNA transcripts (RNA-seq) of an isogenic ΔicgR mutant identified 34 genes that were upregulated under both growth conditions. This combined informatics and functional approach has allowed the characterization of a gene and pathway previously unknown in Shigella pathogenesis and provides a framework for further identification of novel virulence factors and regulatory pathways.

  9. Midlife Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow, Mary Lynn

    1987-01-01

    Indicates that women experiencing a midlife crisis pass through five recognizable stages: (1) feeling trapped, (2) the first change, (3) multiple changes, (4) rational planning, and (5) implementing the plan. (NKA)

  10. "Regional Crisis": A Simplified Teaching Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, B. David

    A simulation designed for an introductory college-level international politics and comparative foreign policy course is described. Regional Crisis requires student decision-maker diplomats, grouped in teams, to respond to a Middle Eastern crisis that has substantial potential for escalation. In response to an initial crisis scenario, student teams…

  11. Preparing for a crisis: crisis team development.

    PubMed

    Calarco, C

    1999-02-01

    Emergency preparedness in the school setting necessitates the formation and development of a Crisis Team that will be prepared to assume critical roles in the event of a crisis. This paper discusses the school Crisis Team, including member identification and responsibilities, and the relationship of the Crisis Team to the school crisis plan and policies.

  12. Experiences with TRIDEC's Crisis Management Demonstrator in the Turkish NEAMWave12 exercise tsunami scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammitzsch, Martin; Necmioglu, Ocal; Lendholt, Matthias; Reißland, Sven; Schulz, Jana; Aksari, Dogan; Koseoglu, Aysegul; Ozer, Ceren; Comoglu, Mustafa; Meral Ozel, Nurcan; Wächter, Joachim

    2013-04-01

    On November 27-28, 2012, the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) joined other countries in the North-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and Connected Seas (NEAM) region as participants in an international tsunami response exercise. The exercise, titled NEAMWave12, simulated widespread Tsunami Watch situations throughout the NEAM region. It is the first international exercise as such, in this region, where the UNESCO-IOC ICG/NEAMTWS tsunami warning chain has been tested to a full scale for the first time with different systems. One of the systems is developed in the project Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC) and has been validated in this exercise among others by KOERI. KOERI, representing the Tsunami National Contact (TNC) and Tsunami Warning Focal Point (TWFP) for Turkey, is one of the key partners in TRIDEC. KOERI is responsible for the operation of a National Tsunami Warning Centre (NTWC) for Turkey and establishes candidate Tsunami Watch Provider (TWP) responsibilities for the Eastern Mediterranean, Aegean, Marmara and Black Seas. Based on this profound experience KOERI is contributing valuable requirements to the overall TRIDEC system and is responsible for the definition and development of feasible tsunami-related scenarios in the context of UNESCO-IOC ICG/NEAMTWS activities. However, KOERI's, most important input focuses on testing and evaluating the TRIDEC system according to specified evaluation and validation criteria in order to meet ICG/NEAMTWS requirements. The TRIDEC system will be implemented in three phases, each with a demonstrator. Successively, the demonstrators are addressing related challenges. The first and second phase system demonstrator, deployed at KOERI's crisis management room has been designed and implemented, firstly, to support plausible scenarios for the Turkish NTWC to demonstrate the treatment of simulated tsunami threats with an essential subset of a NTWC

  13. Regional Centres for Space Science and Technology Education and ICG Information Centres affiliated to the United Nations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadimova, S.; Haubold, H. J.

    2009-06-01

    Based on resolutions of the United Nations General Assembly, Regional Centres for Space Science and Technology Education were established in India, Morocco, Nigeria, Brazil and Mexico. Simultaneously, education curricula were developed for the core disciplines of remote sensing, satellite communications, satellite meteorology, and space and atmospheric science. This paper provides a brief summary on the status of the operation of the regional centres with a view to use them as information centres of the International Committee on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (ICG), and draws attention to their educational activities.

  14. Crisis Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents summaries of four articles relevant to school crisis response. The first article, "Peritraumatic Dissociation Predicts Posttraumatic Stress in Youth Following Accidents" summarized by Jim Matthews, suggests that peritraumatic dissociation is a powerful predictor of PTSD symptoms among youth who have been in a car…

  15. Does a quarterlife crisis exist?

    PubMed

    Rossi, Nicole E; Mebert, Carolyn J

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined quarterlife crisis, defined in the popular press as an identity crisis that leaves recent college graduates depressed, anxious, and full of doubt. To determine if a unique crisis exists, 4 groups of young adults (recent high school [n = 23] and college [n = 117] graduates in the workforce, present undergraduate [n = 75], and graduate [n = 57] students) completed self-report measures assessing identity development, future time perspective, social support, coping, depression, anxiety, and job and life satisfaction. No support was found for a quarterlife crisis among these 4 groups. Working high school graduates displayed the highest anxiety, followed by present undergraduates. Depression was predicted by family support and identity commitment. Job satisfaction was associated with income and support from friends. Life satisfaction was associated with income, social support from friends and family, and identity commitment.

  16. Crisis Inventory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-08-01

    involved Egypt and Israel on opposing sides, as well as other opposing pairs such as Syria and Israel . The advantage of organ- izing the cases in...West municipalities. An agreement to end the blockade was reached in May 1949. Crisis: Costa Rica- Nicaragua Dates: 12/3/48-1/30/49 Country Pair...Costa Rica- Nicaragua In the midst of domestic political turmoil in Costa Rica, Rafael Calderon - previously a Presidential candidate in Costa Rica

  17. Caller Characteristics, Call Contents, and Types of Assistance Provided by Caller Sex and Age Group in a Canadian Inuit Crisis Line in Nunavut, 1991-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Josephine C. H.; Maranzan, Kathryn Amanda; Boone, Margaret; Vander Velde, John; Levy, Sheila

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of calls made to a northern Canadian Inuit crisis line in the territory of Nunavut between 1991 and 2001 revealed that the majority of users were adult females who called to discuss problems primarily related to relationships and loneliness/boredom. Younger callers tended to make prank calls. The volunteer staff used mostly empathetic…

  18. Simulation of 'pathologic' changes in ICG waveforms resulting from superposition of the 'preejection' and ejection waves induced by left ventricular contraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermishkin, V. V.; Kolesnikov, V. A.; Lukoshkova, E. V.; Sonina, R. S.

    2013-04-01

    The impedance cardiography (ICG) is widely used for beat-to-beat noninvasive evaluation of the left ventricular stroke volume and contractility. It implies the correct determination of the ejection start and end points and the amplitudes of certain peaks in the differentiated impedance cardiogram. An accurate identification of ejection onset by ICG is often problematic, especially in the cardiologic patients, due to peculiar waveforms. Using a simple theoretical model, we tested the hypothesis that two major processes are responsible for the formation of impedance systolic wave: (1) the changes in the heart geometry and surrounding vessels produced by ventricular contraction, which occur during the isovolumic phase and precede ejection, and (2) expansion of aorta and adjacent arteries during the ejection phase. The former process initiates the preejection wave WpE and the latter triggers the ejection wave WEj. The model predicts a potential mechanism of generating the abnormal shapes of dZ/dt due to the presence of preejection waves and explains the related errors in ICG time and amplitude parameters. An appropriate decomposition method is a promising way to avoid the masking effects of these waves and a further step to correct determination of the onset of ejection and the corresponding peak amplitudes from 'pathologically shaped' ICG signals.

  19. Adolescents in Crisis: Children's Perception of Parental Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nihira, Kazuo; And Others

    Parents' behavior as perceived by an adolescent population admitted to the adolescent crisis Ward at USC Medical Center is analyzed. The sample consisted of 86 patients who were admitted to the adolescent crisis ward during 1969 and 1970. The population could be divided according to four distinct crisis groups: (1) the suicidal group; (2) the…

  20. Crisis Paper No. 33. The Energy Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atlantic Information Centre for Teachers, London (England).

    This Crisis Paper is thirty-third in a series which expands the analysis of the crisis under discussion to provide a multi-national view of the issue by quoting comment from a selection of newspapers and journals of several countries. A brief introduction outlines the history and background of the energy crisis, emphasizing the underestimated…

  1. Lunar phases and crisis center telephone calls.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J E; Tobacyk, J J

    1990-02-01

    The lunar hypothesis, that is, the notion that lunar phases can directly affect human behavior, was tested by time-series analysis of 4,575 crisis center telephone calls (all calls recorded for a 6-month interval). As expected, the lunar hypothesis was not supported. The 28-day lunar cycle accounted for less than 1% of the variance of the frequency of crisis center calls. Also, as hypothesized from an attribution theory framework, crisis center workers reported significantly greater belief in lunar effects than a non-crisis-center-worker comparison group.

  2. Three-dimensional dynamics of temperature fields in phantoms and biotissue under IR laser photothermal therapy using gold nanoparticles and ICG dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akchurin, Georgy G.; Garif, Akchurin G.; Maksimova, Irina L.; Skaptsov, Alexander A.; Terentyuk, Georgy S.; Khlebtsov, Boris N.; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2010-02-01

    We describe applications of silica (core)/gold (shell) nanoparticles and ICG dye to photothermal treatment of phantoms, biotissue and spontaneous tumor of cats and dogs. The laser irradiation parameters were optimized by preliminary experiments with laboratory rats. Three dimensional dynamics of temperature fields in tissue and solution samples was measured with a thermal imaging system. It is shown that the temperature in the volume region of nanoparticles localization can substantially exceed the surface temperature recorded by the thermal imaging system. We have demonstrated effective optical destruction of cancer cells by local injection of plasmon-resonant gold nanoshells and ICG dye followed by continuous wave (CW) diode laser irradiation at wavelength 808 nm.

  3. Usage of invisible near infrared light (NIR) fluorescence with indocyanine green (ICG) and methylene blue (MB) in urological oncology. Part 1

    PubMed Central

    Markuszewski, Marcin; Rho, Young Soo; Matuszewski, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Near infrared (NIR) technology has recently garnered much interest as a tool for intraoperative image–guided surgery in various surgical sub–disciplines. In urology, although nascent, NIR technology is also fostering much enthusiasm. This review discusses the two major fluorophores, indocyanine green (ICG) and methlyene blue (MB), with NIR guidance in experimental and clinical urology. The authors aim to illustrate and analyze the currently available initial studies to better understand the potential and practicability of NIR–guided imaging in the diagnosis and surgical outcome improvement. In the first part of the study we analyzed problems associated with sentinel lymph node biopsy, NIR–guided detection and imaging of tumors. Material and methods PubMed and Medline databases were searched for ICG and MB use in urological settings, along with data published in abstracts of urological conferences. Results Although NIR–guided ICG and MB are still in their initial phases, there have been significant developments in major domains of urology, including uro–oncological surgery: 1) sentinel lymph node biopsy, 2) detection and imaging of tumors Conclusions Much like in other fields of surgical medicine, the application of NIR technology in urology is at its early stages. Therefore, more studies are needed to assess the true potential and limitations of the technology. However, initial developments hint towards a pioneering tool that may influence various aspects of urology. PMID:25140227

  4. Sickle Cell Crisis (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Sickle Cell Crisis (Pain Crisis) KidsHealth > For Teens > Sickle Cell ... drepanocíticas (Crisis de dolor) What Is a Sickle Cell Crisis? Sickle cell disease changes the shape of ...

  5. The Organization's Role in Managing Midlife Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Philip I.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describing some of the causes of midlife crisis and reasons why organizations should offer help to their employees, the authors suggest these actions: continuing education, retraining, mentoring, autonomy, support groups, counseling, and sabbaticals. (SK)

  6. Crisis Management: Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.; Dorman, Sally; Anderson, Luke; McNair, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This article presents summaries of three studies relevant to school crisis response. The first report, "A Framework for International Crisis Intervention" (Sally Dorman), is a review of how existing crisis intervention models (including the NASP PREPaRE model) have been adapted for international use. The second article, "Responding…

  7. Teaching Crisis Creatively.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regan, JoAnne Howland

    1982-01-01

    Describes a creative approach to teaching the application of crisis theory to nursing students. Students experience crisis themselves, evaluate their own and others' coping mechanisms, and learn to recognize the various physical and psychological symptoms of people in crisis. (Author/CT)

  8. Learning Crisis Unit through Post-Crisis: Characteristics and Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chebbi, Hela; Pündrich, Aline Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to identify the characteristics that a crisis unit should have to achieve effective learning after crisis. Literature has identified many relations between learning organizations and crisis; yet, there is a dearth of research on specific studies about crisis units and their post-crisis learning features. Thus, this paper…

  9. When Crisis Strikes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudle, Melissa

    1994-01-01

    School crises may be categorized as emergency situations, human-made crises, natural events, medical emergencies, and mechanical crises. Central to any successful crisis-management plan are onsite and district-level crisis response teams. Plans should specify staff responsibilities; provide for communication codes, devices, and procedures;…

  10. Creativity in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roff, Glenn

    This paper suggests that educational resources and opportunities currently in operation in rural Australia are brought forward during times of crisis. The paper discusses five aspects of education in rural Australia that are a response to the perceived sense of crisis and that have improved the general and comparative quality of rural education,…

  11. Crisis, grief and loss.

    PubMed

    Evans, J V

    1993-09-01

    At one time or another, many of us experience a life-threatening crisis that proves to be a turning point in our lives. I had such a crisis while working as a medic on the oil-rig Vinland, offshore of Nova Scotia, in 1984.

  12. Maintenance Crisis vs Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggard, Susie

    Industrial maintenance in Northeast Georgia is facing an acute crisis. Contributing factors are economic development that is depleting the work force, aging of the population, downsizing of the military, and lack of technical school graduates. Solutions to the crisis fall into three categories: short-term, mid-term, and long-term. For short-term…

  13. When a Crisis Strikes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keebler, Barbara A.

    1989-01-01

    Urges Catholic educators to develop a crisis communication plan to ensure that all communication with the press and public is handled promptly and thoroughly by a designated spokesperson. Describes workshops which simulate real-life challenges as a means of testing crisis management plans. Offers guidelines for the development of a crisis…

  14. Educational Technology in Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fainholc, Beatriz

    2008-01-01

    The presentation of the historical epistemological path is needed to understand and reconsider the discipline of Educational Technology in articulation to contributions of rupturistic theorists in order to reach to a critical proposal and a revision of its field. This field is facing a deep crisis within a time of world crisis, specially in the…

  15. Knowledge communication: a key to successful crisis management.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Anders; Härenstam, Malin

    2013-09-01

    A winning concept of crisis management can be summarized in 2 words: knowledge communication. If decision makers, communicators, experts, and the public understand what the crisis is about and share their knowledge, the process of handling it will be optimized. Effective crisis communication implies the necessity of an unhindered but purposeful exchange of information within and between authorities, organizations, media, involved individuals, and groups before, during, and after a crisis. This article focuses on the importance of the before, or prevention, part of a crisis since it holds a rich possibility to enhance the chances for successful crisis management of a bioterrorism incident. An extended perspective on crisis communication efficiently links to a more thorough understanding of risk perception with various stakeholders and the public, which also will be helpful for situational awareness. Furthermore, the grounded baseline for the dialogue type of crisis communication suitable in modern society and to modern social media is achieved by linking to those risk communication efforts that are made. The link between risk and crisis should be afforded more attention since, especially in biosecurity, there would be no crisis without risk negligence and poor or malfunctioning preventive efforts.

  16. Crisis Communication and Management: Surviving a Public Relations Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eramo, Eric M.

    2009-01-01

    Crisis management, or crisis communication, is never a good thing for a business to experience. It is, however, a public relations' professional moment to shine and put their honed skills to good use. A good crisis management plan is not only action during the crisis but preparation and reflection. Hiring a PR firm that deals with crisis…

  17. Husserl's Crisis as a crisis of psychology.

    PubMed

    Feest, Uljana

    2012-06-01

    This paper places Husserl's mature work, The Crisis of the European Sciences, in the context of his engagement with--and critique of--experimental psychology at the time. I begin by showing (a) that Husserl accorded psychology a crucial role in his philosophy, i.e., that of providing a scientific analysis of subjectivity, and (b) that he viewed contemporary psychology--due to its naturalism--as having failed to pursue this goal in the appropriate manner. I then provide an analysis of Husserl's views about naturalism and scientific philosophy. Some central themes of the Crisis are traced back to Husserl's earlier work and to his relationship with his teacher, Franz Brentano, with whom he disagreed about the status of "inner perception" as the proper scientific method for a phenomenological analysis. The paper then shows that Husserl was well aware of at least one publication about the crisis of psychology (Bühler's 1927 book), and it teases out some aspects of the complicated relationship between Husserl and members of the Würzburg School of thought psychology: The latter had drawn on Husserl's writings, but Husserl felt that they had misunderstood his central thesis. I conclude by placing Husserl's work in the wider context of scientific, cultural, and political crisis-discourses at the time.

  18. Vermont School Crisis Guide, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermont Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The 2004 Vermont School Crisis Guide has been revised to improve its use by School Crisis Teams and Public Safety Committees. The Guide is now organized by roles so users can quickly locate their responsibilities in a crisis. The Crisis Guide pages can be used to document pertinent information (time, witnesses) immediately after an emergency…

  19. Crisis intervention for nurses.

    PubMed

    Chase, Emily

    2013-06-01

    Cancer diagnoses and treatments can be crisis-causing events that overwhelm the usual coping abilities of patients and their families. Oncology nurses constantly are observing and attending to patients' diverse needs, ranging from biomedical to emotional, social, and psychological. Nurses have the chance to be first responders in times of patient crises, as they are in the position to recognize the crisis, respond effectively, and transform the crisis into a pivotal learning experience. This article discusses a way to think about patient and family crises that empowers nurses to respond in a manner appropriate to the cultural context and respectful of the individual space of the patient.

  20. Crisis intervention: program evaluation.

    PubMed

    Simington, J A; Cargill, L; Hill, W

    1996-11-01

    Crisis intervention is based upon crisis theory and is defined as a short-term active mode of therapy that focuses on solving the client's immediate problem and reestablishing psychological equilibrium. The crisis intervention program was the first phase in the development of a broader mental health program with advancement decisions being based upon evaluation results of this initial phase. An evaluation methodology using the Stufflebeam Goal-Stakeholder Model (1980) was designed and implemented. A satisfaction survey was conducted to develop a database relative to the program's process. The Mental Health Category Measure, and the Crisis Call Outcome Rating Scale were used to capture outcome data. Analysis of the qualitative and quantitative data indicate that stakeholders are satisfied with the program. outcome data demonstrates that the program produces the intended outcomes. Triangulation, a method of comparing the qualitative and quantitative findings revealed consistency, and thus provides confidence in the accuracy of the findings.

  1. The Literature of Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Mark S.

    1971-01-01

    Examines current books and articles on educational problems, which the author refers to as literature of crisis," and concludes that these works should be read along with other genres of literature which examine human problems of communication and commitment. (VJ)

  2. Midlife crisis: a debate.

    PubMed

    Freund, Alexandra M; Ritter, Johannes O

    2009-01-01

    Without doubt, the midlife crisis is the most popular concept describing middle adulthood. Facing the limitation of the time until death, men in particular are believed to pause from actively pursuing their goals and review their achievements, take stock of what they have and have not yet accomplished, at times taking drastic measures to fulfill their dreams. This paper critically discusses the concept of a midlife crisis and the relevant empirical evidence, presenting arguments for and against a strict, a moderate, and a lenient conceptualization of the midlife crisis. Although a strict and even moderate definition of the midlife crisis does not seem tenable on empirical and theoretical grounds, a lenient conceptualization has the potential to stimulate new research directions exemplifying processes of the interaction of social expectations on the one hand and personal goals on the other, and their importance for developmental regulation.

  3. Crisis -- A Leadership Opportunity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    true. Crisis develops as an organization’s values, beliefs, culture, or behavior becomes incongruent with its operating environment. A leader, who is...an organization’s values, beliefs, culture, and behaviors ; while the other reflects its changing environment. In the beginning, as the plates...a random, cataclysmic event that can strike without warning. However, crisis occurs when an organization’s values, beliefs, culture, or behaviors

  4. Crisis management strategies.

    PubMed

    Koster, Maria C; Politis-Norton, Helen

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the different facets of crisis as experienced within the pharmaceutical industry but which are also prevalent throughout other industries. It highlights the importance of early identification and management of crises and issues, which in return are strongly intertwined with a fundamental positive internal corporate climate. A corporate philosophy should always embrace crisis management with the attitude of 'when' and not 'if'; therefore, a company should act today and not tomorrow once a crisis is on its doorstep. Preparation is of utmost importance and there are several items that can be addressed even before a crisis has arisen. Further, this paper also provides guidance on how to deal with the media, what to do and what not to do, and how to appoint the appropriate spokesperson. In this era of fast exchange of information, crisis, which previously may have stayed behind corporate doors, may not do so any longer. Image is very important and should therefore not be risked. Crisis and issue management should therefore be integrated in every company's philosophy and standard operating procedures.

  5. Causes and Consequences of the Urban Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., St. Louis. Extension Div.

    A cooperative presentation of the University of Missouri, St. Louis, Extension Division and the Missouri Department of Community Affairs, this project was designed as a reference for discussion groups of all types, to give perspective and direction in the search for an understanding of the complex situations which contribute to the crisis in…

  6. Family Crisis: A Broad Spectrum Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodine, George E.

    This bibliography of research on family crises includes theoretical and clinical material as well as research devoted to substantive crisis areas. Over 400 entries are grouped under 15 separate categories: theoretical and clinical, alcoholism, death and dying, divorce, exceptional children, illness, mental illness, widowhood, other situational…

  7. [Midlife crisis: crisis in the middle of life].

    PubMed

    Laemmel, K

    1991-12-17

    Since ancient times man tried to understand the roots of his obviously often irrational behaviour. According to the prevailing "Zeitgeist", hypotheses for it ranged from demonical possession, psychological schools of thought to the role of transmitter substances at the synaptic level. For ages it has been observed and described, that men goes in his development through typical and predictable phases with their typical crises. Poets knew and wrote about it since the dawn of culture but science got interested in it only in this century. Elliot coined the term "midlife crisis" in 1965, turning attention to an age-group which was before practically ignored by psychology. He pointed out that due to a collision between developmental factors and a static identity a crisis occurred in human beings, characterized by a feeling of despair, goallessness, fatigue and consciousness of significant basic anxiety. In response to such pressures a change of comportment takes place which puzzles the people closest to the stricken. Established patterns of behaviour seem to dissipate in favour of unusual, unexpected, adolescent or even crazy actions. Many examples from history, ranging from Dante to Gauguin seem to prove the point. Realizing the presence of the crisis and its origin and interpreting it as a call for change, reorientation and new definition of priorities present a great chance to adjust one's life at this important turn. It is of great importance to recognize, that changes must take place in one's inner values and that trying to escape into frenzied activities leads nowhere.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. When Crisis Strikes on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Wendy Ann, Ed.

    This handbook aids in planning for effective crisis communication at institutions of higher education. The book opens with a behind-the-scenes look at a particular crisis--the 1990 murders of five students at the University of Florida. This first section offers tested advice from a campus communicator, an account of the crisis and the…

  9. Coping with Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akenhead, James; Andreani, Alan

    2002-01-01

    School officials put a crisis communications plan into action after two Ohio students died and a third became critically ill from meningitis in May 2001. A mass immunization program prevented a major outbreak, and rumor control helped calm the public's fears. Recounts things learned from the experience. (MLF)

  10. Crisis Management Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.; Zhe, Elizabeth; Torem, Chris; Comeaux, Natashia; Dempsey, Allison

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a summary of recent crisis management publications. The first research report summarized, "Predictors of PTSD," was a study of predictor variables for responses to the World Trade Center attack. The second paper, "Effective Mental Health Response to Catastrophic Events," looked at effective responses following Hurricane…

  11. Crisis, Meaning and Consciousness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amini, Bijan

    This paper suggests that all life is polar because polarity is the underlying context of life. The idea of polarity is based on two halves that originally belonged together to form a whole. These two halves are constantly trying to come together to regain their wholeness. The philosophical view of crisis presented in this paper is that the…

  12. Ghosts of Crisis Past.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopfer, Leopold E.; Champagne, Audrey B.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is the history of school science curriculum reform from the Sputnik era to 1990. The relationship between the crisis in the 1950s and 1990 is addressed. A list of curriculum development programs for all levels and special needs students is included. (KR)

  13. The Phony Funding Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, James W.; Peng, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    If one relies on newspaper headlines for education funding information, one might conclude that America's schools suffer from a perpetual fiscal crisis, every year perched precariously on the brink of financial ruin, never knowing whether there will be sufficient funding to continue operating. Budgetary shortfalls, school district bankruptcies,…

  14. Nursing in Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulcher, Roxanne

    2007-01-01

    Both the nation's health-care and nursing education systems are in crisis. While the care provided by registered nurses (RNs) is essential to patients' recovery from acute illness and to the effective management of their chronic conditions, the United States is experiencing a nursing shortage that is anticipated to increase as baby boomers age and…

  15. Crisis in the Cafeteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Patrick

    1998-01-01

    Because schools are entrusted with children's safety, any crisis (particularly food poisoning) affecting that inviolable trust is fodder for a ravenous media. Proactive school business officials and food-service personnel work together to publicize the school nutrition department's good work. Communicating clearly and assigning a food-service…

  16. Wanted: Crisis President

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Paul

    2007-01-01

    As the events of Virginia Tech tragedy recede in time, leaders of other colleges and universities are sure to look at Virginia Tech president Charles W. Steger's performance and question the readiness of presidents to act like corporate executives, take visible control of a campus in crisis, manage the onslaught of cameras and microphones, and…

  17. Managing a Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Planning ahead, practicing your response for various scenarios, being open and honest, showing empathy and respect for other peoples' perspectives and assuring stakeholders that you have the situation covered are the foundations of communicating successfully during a crisis, experts say. This article provides strategies for Community College…

  18. Crisis Counseling: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoval, Jonathan; Scott, Amy Nicole; Padilla, Irene

    2009-01-01

    Psychologists working in schools are often the first contacts for children experiencing a potentially traumatizing event or change in status. This article reviews basic concepts in crisis counseling and describes the components of psychological first aid. This form of counseling must be developmentally and culturally appropriate as well as…

  19. The Coming Accounting Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Tim V.

    2007-01-01

    The accounting profession is facing a potential crisis not only from the overall shortage of accounting faculty driven by smaller numbers of new faculty entering the profession as many existing faculty retire but also from changes that have been less well documented. This includes: (1) changes in attitude towards the roles of teaching, service and…

  20. Communications and Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilliard, Robert L.

    At a time of urban crisis, it becomes essential for people to learn about the special problems and needs of other people in the same community. If not actual experience, then visual experience through television can provide a good view into the perspective of other cultures. Television has an obligation to provide education of this sort,…

  1. Memories of Crisis: Bohr, Kuhn, and the Quantum Mechanical ``Revolution''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seth, Suman

    2013-04-01

    ``The history of science, to my knowledge,'' wrote Thomas Kuhn, describing the years just prior to the development of matrix and wave mechanics, ``offers no equally clear, detailed, and cogent example of the creative functions of normal science and crisis.'' By 1924, most quantum theorists shared a sense that there was much wrong with all extant atomic models. Yet not all shared equally in the sense that the failure was either terribly surprising or particularly demoralizing. Not all agreed, that is, that a crisis for Bohr-like models was a crisis for quantum theory. This paper attempts to answer four questions: two about history, two about memory. First, which sub-groups of the quantum theoretical community saw themselves and their field in a state of crisis in the early 1920s? Second, why did they do so, and how was a sense of crisis related to their theoretical practices in physics? Third, do we regard the years before 1925 as a crisis because they were followed by the quantum mechanical revolution? And fourth, to reverse the last question, were we to call into the question the existence of a crisis (for some at least) does that make a subsequent revolution less revolutionary?

  2. Crisis plans facilitated by patient advocates are better than those drawn up by clinicians: results from an RCT.

    PubMed

    Ruchlewska, A; Mulder, C L; Van der Waal, R; Kamperman, A; Van der Gaag, M

    2014-03-01

    This study compared quality aspects of crisis plans made with the help of a patient advocate (PACP) with those of plans made with the patient's clinician (clinician crisis plan, CCP). Patients were randomized into PACP and CCP conditions. The quality of crisis plan checklist was used to compare quality aspects of PACP and CCP crisis plans. The quality scores were significantly higher in the PACP group than in the CCP group (Cohen's d = 0.78 for the quality checklist total score). Patient advocates may be important to the successful development of crisis plans.

  3. [Suicidal crisis in oncology: assessment and care].

    PubMed

    Lefetz, Christelle; Reich, Michel

    2006-07-01

    Patients with advanced cancer often experience with physical impairment and loss of autonomy sometimes preceding inexorable death. It is that can emerge Suicidal ideation occasionally associated with suicidal attempt can arise in this particular context but also following the initial diagnostic talk and during all the stages of the disease. The risk is often considered twice higher in this patients'group compared to the general population and increases with advanced stages of the disease. Among patients with cancer, suicidal crisis can be expressed as part of a request for euthanasia, physician-assisted suicide and para suicide behaviors. Clues can help the clinician to identify early these vulnerable patients. Therefore, suicidal situations can emerge in the particular context of physical impairment, poor quality of life and poor control of physical symptoms (such as pain, tumoral localization in particular lung, head and neck, pancreas). The association of hopelessness and helplessness and a loss of control of the situation are strongly correlated with the expression of suicidal ideations. The presence of a confusional or psychomotor disinhibition with hallucinations, irrational thoughts and the absence of a libidinal object of investment have also to be taken into account. This suicidal crisis can be considered as a way for the patient to escape an intolerable situation (uncontrolled pain or other symptoms) and maintain self-control and decisional autonomy. Management of suicidal crisis in patients with cancer includes careful attention and legitimization of the patient's distress without inducing any guilt. Appropriate control of physical symptoms is warranted including screening and treating any mood disorder or any organic mental disorder. Treating associated anxiety and making sure that the patient's safety is under control are essential. Last but not the least, involving the whole treatment team is key in preventing transformation of the suicidal crisis

  4. Risk perception and the economic crisis: a longitudinal study of the trajectory of perceived risk.

    PubMed

    Burns, William J; Peters, Ellen; Slovic, Paul

    2012-04-01

    We conducted a longitudinal survey of public response to the economic crisis to understand the trajectory of risk perception amidst an ongoing crisis. A nation-wide panel responded to seven surveys beginning in late September 2008 at the peak of the crisis and concluded in October 2009. At least 600 respondents participated in each survey, with 413 completing all seven surveys. Our online survey focused on perceptions of risk (savings, investments, retirement, job), negative emotions toward the financial crisis (sadness, anxiety, fear, anger, worry, stress), confidence in national leaders to manage the crisis (President Obama, Congress, Treasury Secretary, business leaders), and belief in one's ability to realize personal objectives despite the crisis. We employed latent growth curve modeling to analyze change in risk perception throughout the crisis. Our results suggest that, in general, people's perceptions of risk appear to decrease most rapidly during the initial phase of a crisis and then begin to level off. Negative emotion about the crisis was the most predictive of increased risk perception, supporting the notion of risk as feelings. Belief in one's ability to realize personal objectives was also predictive. Confidence in national leaders, however, was not predictive of perceived risk. Finally, our results demonstrate that groups may experience a crisis differently depending on a combination of personal characteristics such as gender, income, numeracy, and political attitude. Risk management and communication should work in sync with these mechanisms and differences across groups.

  5. Before Crisis Hits: Building a Strategic Crisis Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Larry L.; Millar, Dan P.

    This guide offers suggestions to college administrators for dealing with a variety of emergency or crisis situations that could affect a community college's effectiveness. The authors used the Institute for Crisis Management's (ICM) four types of crises in higher education as the framework for the guide. The four types of crises are: (1) sudden;…

  6. [Crisis in medical ethics].

    PubMed

    Stellamor, K

    1996-01-01

    There is a disproportion between diagnostic and therapeutic medical achievements and the doctor/patient relationship. Are we allowed to do everything we are able to do in medicine? People are concerned and worried (genetic technology, invasive medicine, embryos in test tubes etc.). The crisis of ethics in medicine is evident. The analysis of the situation shows one of the causes in the shift of the paradigma-modern times to postmodern following scientific positivism-but also a loss of ethics in medicine due to an extreme secularism and to modern philosophical trends (Hans Jonas and the responsibility for the future and on the other hand modern utilitarism).

  7. Organizational Learning and Crisis Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jia

    2007-01-01

    The impact of crises on organizations has been stronger than ever. This article explores the role of organizational learning in crisis management, an area that has received little attention from HRD community. Recognizing the dynamics and interconnectedness of crisis management, organizational learning, and organizational change, the article…

  8. A Crisis of Legendary Proportions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    Describes the activities of Indiana University's crisis communications team during the Bob Knight controversy. Discusses how the school's response was based on four crisis communications principles: create a plan, appoint a single spokesperson, respond with open and continuous communications, and expect the unexpected. (EV)

  9. School Buildings in Today's Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyth, Alastair

    2009-01-01

    To get a picture of the impact of the current economic and financial crisis on educational building programmes so far, the OECD Centre for Effective Learning Environments (CELE) has been conducting a survey of member countries and regions. The survey focuses on three main issues: the impact of the crisis on publicly funded projects, the impact on…

  10. The Mediterranean salinity crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Hsue, K.J.

    1988-08-01

    That the Mediterranean Sea underwent a salinity crisis during the Miocene (Messinian) is proven by the 1970 JOIDES deep sea drilling expedition. Subsequent work by ocean drilling and by studies on land have recorded the history of this crisis. Based upon the deep desiccated-basin model, the use of event-stratigraphy, calibrated by strontium-isotope dating and magnetostratigraphy, has enabled them to decipher the following events between 6.0 and 5.1 Ma: (1) deposition of marine diatom-rich sediments in a partially restricted basin, (2) first desiccation of the Mediterranean when Calcare di base was deposited at a time of isolation from the Atlantic because of a glacial eustatic drop of sea level, (3) influx of marine waters through southern Spanish basins to furnish brines for the deposition of the main salt, (4) Intra-Messinian desiccation, as evidenced by the erosional unconformity above the lower evaporite, (5) Intra-Messinian denudation, when reefs grew on Cyprus and marine sediments were deposited in basins, (6) frequency isolations due to oscillating sea level, when the upper evaporite was deposited, (7) Lago mare, formation of freshwater and brackish lakes due to influx of Paratethys water, (8) opening of the Gibraltar and Pliocene inundation of the Mediterranean.

  11. The UN in crisis?

    PubMed

    Anstee, M J

    2001-01-01

    The United Nations (UN), the principal role of which is dealing with crises, has been in almost perpetual crisis since its foundation. The situation has become worse in the 1990s, a time when the need for an effective UN has been greater than ever, to cope with issues such as climate-change, pollution and the consequences of globalization. The current crisis has various aspects. Politically there have been widely publicized failures in peacekeeping, largely due to the Security Council being a body of compromise, while successes in peacekeeping have been largely ignored. In the economic and social field, influence has passed to the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank. Development aid has plummeted, despite its key role in peace and security, and so an integrated approach to development and security is urgently needed. The UN has been constantly under-funded, with the failure of the United States (US) to pay its dues a key factor. Reform of the UN is vital, but the vested interests of member states make root-and-branch reform virtually impossible. Public pressure for reform can come from non-governmental organizations, perhaps coordinated through the Internet.

  12. [Reforms and demographic crisis].

    PubMed

    Velichkovskiĭ, B T

    2002-01-01

    During reformation years all basic medical and demographic indices have undergone negative changes in Russia. Since 1992 there has been a steady-state decrease in the population due to the fact that mortality rates are extremely greater than birth ones. In 2001, the Russian population reduced in number by nearly a million. The birth rates are twice less than that requires for a simple reproduction of generations. Extremely high death rates remain among the population, in able-bodied males. The main reasons for the demographic crisis are the negative consequences of the implemented reforms rather than the transition from traditional to the new present-day reproduction of the population. It is problematic now to correct the situation via active migration of Russian-speaking persons. This requires enormous funds to provide comers with jobs and dwelling. It is unreal to diminish annual departure of 100 thousand persons, mainly young educated professionals from the country, though it is joust not only a demographic, but a strategic problem. In 2001 there was a some rise in birth rates. But this is the most illusive way of solving the demographic crisis. Just in the USSR, the high educational level of the population, the socioeconomic emancipation of females and progress in medicine gave rise to the transition to the present-day reproduction of the population, which is characterized by low birth and death rates. So the population is unlikely to be replenished by high birth rates. The main way of overcoming the demographic crisis is to reduce mortality and not to allow young people to die prematurely. For this it is necessary to know the biological mechanisms responsible for extremely high mortality. It is most likely to be due to breakdown in the dynamic stereotype of higher nervous performance, as stated by I. P. Pavlov. Today it is insufficient to control alcoholism, traumatism, and smoking by healthy lifestyle propaganda in order to reduce death rates in Russian. All

  13. Impact of the Syrian Crisis on the Hospitalization of Syrians in a Psychiatric Setting.

    PubMed

    Lama, Souaiby; François, Kazour; Marwan, Zoghbi; Sami, Richa

    2016-01-01

    Determine the impact of the Syrian crisis on the hospitalization of Syrians in a psychiatric setting. All Syrians admitted to a psychiatric hospital in Lebanon between the 1st of January 2009 and the 31st of December 2013 were included. Number of admissions, psychiatric disorders and demographic and clinical data relative to patients were compared between those admitted before and after the crisis. 44 patients were admitted before the crisis and 106 after it. The distribution of diagnosis varied significantly after the crisis (p = 0.056) with the majority of patients being admitted for schizophrenia (37.7 %). The prevalence of suicidal ideation was higher after the crisis (p = 0.03) but suicidal attempts, need for electroconvulsive therapy and length of hospitalization did not differ significantly between both groups. Clinicians should be aware of the possible burden of mental illness in Syrians after the beginning of the Syrian crisis.

  14. Worldwide spreading of economic crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garas, Antonios; Argyrakis, Panos; Rozenblat, Céline; Tomassini, Marco; Havlin, Shlomo

    2010-11-01

    We model the spreading of a crisis by constructing a global economic network and applying the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) epidemic model with a variable probability of infection. The probability of infection depends on the strength of economic relations between a given pair of countries and the strength of the target country. It is expected that a crisis that originates in a large country, such as the USA, has the potential to spread globally, such as the recent crisis. Surprisingly, we also show that countries with a much lower GDP, such as Belgium, are able to initiate a global crisis. Using the k-shell decomposition method to quantify the spreading power (of a node), we obtain a measure of 'centrality' as a spreader of each country in the economic network. We thus rank the different countries according to the shell they belong to, and find the 12 most central ones. These countries are the most likely to spread a crisis globally. Of these 12, only six are large economies, while the other six are medium/small ones, a result that could not have been otherwise anticipated. Furthermore, we use our model to predict the crisis spreading potential of countries belonging to different shells according to the crisis magnitude.

  15. School Crisis Management: A Model of Dynamic Responsiveness to Crisis Life Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liou, Yi-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to analyze a school's crisis management and explore emerging aspects of its response to a school crisis. Traditional linear modes of analysis often fail to address complex crisis situations. The present study applied a dynamic crisis life cycle model that draws on chaos and complexity theory to a crisis management case,…

  16. The Impending Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Raymond L.; Burgess, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    When you are ill and consult a physician for his or her expertise, many times laboratory testing is part of the clinical workup. This testing is critical to the physician’s ability to diagnose the patient’s condition. What if testing was not available … because there was no one to do the testing? Although seemingly far-fetched, this scenario could play itself out in the next ten years due to an impending manpower crisis in laboratory medicine. The profession of Medical Technology, also known as Clinical Laboratory Science, is experiencing a shortage of qualified individuals for a variety of reasons – not the least of which is the closure of almost 70% of the schools teaching this critical profession. Health care workers (HCW) rely on accurate and timely clinical laboratory results in order to make decisions for their patients. Because ∼ 70% of patient care decisions are based on clinical laboratory results, it is important to have a well-trained supply of laboratory professionals. This article will give an overview of the situation and the possible causes of this shortage, and pose challenges to our profession as to how this crisis can be averted. Visibility of this profession must be a prime focus of this effort in order for the population in general to be aware of the role Clinical Laboratory Scientists play in the health care consortium. This effort should begin early in the educational process, potentially as early as Middle School (junior high school), bringing awareness of the profession not only to students but to educators as well. PMID:23653714

  17. The Role of Social Media in Crisis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    Past Crisis • The Role of ICT in Crisis • The iSAR + Way: an Approach for Social Media in Crisis – The THEO Methodological Approach – iSAR ...The Role of Social Media in Crisis Agenda • Contributors List • Definitions • Lessons From Past Crisis • The Role of ICT in Crisis • The iSAR + Way...an Approach for Social Media in Crisis – The THEO Methodological Approach – iSAR + Platform and Services • Conclusions Best Paper Award Paper

  18. Unresolved crisis in medical education.

    PubMed

    Monif, G R; Severin, M J

    1994-01-01

    A crisis exists in medical education. Changes in methodology have diverted attention from synthesis to mass accumulation of factual data. The response to this crisis has been largely focused on a shell game involving new pathways and curriculum changes without addressing the critical issue of what constitutes education. The ultimate problem in medical education is a crisis of leadership. Until education is given a priority status and the obligations to teach on the part of medical educators and to learn on the part of students are translated into a creative policy by those who can lead, the wheels of learning will continue to spin without significant progress.

  19. School Response to Violence: A Case Study in Developing Crisis Response Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Ronald J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to evaluate the perceptions of participants regarding their effectiveness in responding to defiant student violence as a crisis response team, following crisis response team training. The participants were a group of 10 volunteer PK-6 public school educators from western Wisconsin. The study took place during the…

  20. The Roman Empire - The Third Century Crisis and Crisis Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-04

    Ferrill, Arther. The Fall of the Oman Empire: the Military Explanation. London: Thames & Hudson , 1986. Gibbon, Edward. The History of the Decline and...Rankov, Boris. The Praetorian Guard. Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 1994. Scarre, Chris. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. London: Thames And Hudson , 1995...of the Roman Emperors (London: Thames And Hudson , 1995), 149, 197. 8. Srdan Milasinovic and Zelimir Kesetovic, "Crisis And Crisis Management - A

  1. Crisis Intervention in an Earthquake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaufarb, Herbert; Levine, Jules

    1972-01-01

    This article describes the crisis intervention techniques used by the San Fernanco Valley Child Guidance Clinic to help families deal with the traumatic events experienced in the 1971 earthquake in California. (Author)

  2. Technology Education Tackles Energy Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutshall, Sandy

    2002-01-01

    Describes the solar-hydrogen technologies at the East Valley Institute of Technology, the only technology center in the nations that offers this class. Describes its focus on solving the energy crisis. (JOW)

  3. Leadership in a (permanent) crisis.

    PubMed

    Heifetz, Ronald; Grashow, Alexander; Linsky, Marty

    2009-01-01

    The current economic crisis is not just another rough spell. Today's mix of urgency, high stakes, and uncertainty will continue even after the recession ends. The immediate crisis--which we will get through with policy makers' expert technical adjustments--sets the stage for a sustained, or even permanent, crisis, a relentless series of challenges no one has encountered before. Instead of hunkering down and relying on their familiar expertise to deal with the sustained crisis, people in positions of authority--whether they are CEOs or managers heading up a company initiative--must practice what the authors call adaptive leadership. They must, of course, tackle the underlying causes of the crisis, but they must also simultaneously make the changes that will allow their organizations to thrive in turbulent environments. Adaptive leadership is an improvisational and experimental art, requiring some new practices. Like Julie Gilbert, who overcame internal resistance to reorient Best Buy toward female purchasers, adaptive leaders get things done to meet today's challenges and then modify those things to thrive in tomorrow's world. They also embrace disequilibrium, using turbulence as an opportunity to build crucial new capacities, as Paul Levy did to rescue Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center from a profound financial crisis. Finally, adaptive leaders, such as Egon Zehnder, the founder of an executive search firm, draw out the leadership skills that reside deep in the organization, recognizing the interdependence of all employees and mobilizing everyone to generate solutions.

  4. Thyroid crisis in the maxillofacial trauma patient.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, Robert J; Lewis, Tashorn; Miller, Jared; Clarkson, Earl I

    2014-11-01

    Thyroid crisis, also known as thyroid storm, is a rare complication of thyrotoxicosis that results in a hypermetabolic and hyperadrenergic state. This condition requires prompt recognition and treatment because the mortality from thyroid crisis approaches 30%. Thyrotoxicosis alone will usually not progress to thyroid crisis. Thyroid crisis will typically be precipitated by some concomitant event such as infection, iodine-containing contrast agents, medications such as amiodarone, pregnancy, or surgery. Trauma is a rare precipitator of thyroid crisis. Several published studies have reported thyroid crisis resulting from blunt or penetrating neck trauma. Significant systemic trauma, such as motor vehicle accidents, has also been reported to precipitate thyroid crisis. It is very unusual for minor trauma to precipitate thyroid crisis. In the present study, we report the case of a patient who had incurred relatively minor maxillofacial trauma and developed thyroid crisis 2 weeks after the initial trauma.

  5. Coasts in Crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Hinrichsen, D.

    1996-11-01

    Coastal areas are staggering under an onslaught of human activity. We are presently in the process of destroying 70 percent of the world`s 600,000 square kilometers of coral reefs, an ecosystem containing some 200,000 different species and rivaling tropical rain forests in biodiversity. A combination of pollution, habitat destruction, and gross overfishing has led to the collapse of major fisheries and paved the way for malnutrition and disease in regions where people fish for subsistence. Globally, little is being done to manage the crisis of our coasts. Management strategies, if they exist at all, often deal with economic development along a wafer-thin strip of coastal land. Resource degradation is ignored, and watershed management is mostly rhetoric. Although some 55 countries have drawn up coastal management plans, only a handful have been properly implemented. Coasts must be managed in an integrated manner that takes into account the full range of human activities. Initiating this process is costly, time-consuming, and difficult. Yet we have more than three decades of accumulated experience to draw on.

  6. Leaders Urge Colleges to Think Globally Despite Economic Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurtrie, Beth; Wheeler, David

    2008-01-01

    The global economic crisis has accelerated the fear that the United States' international power is fading. It has also made clear the need for American higher education to engage more deeply with the rest of the world, not run from it. That was the consensus among a group of presidents and provosts who met in New York this month as part of…

  7. [Economic crisis and communicable diseases. SESPAS report 2014].

    PubMed

    Llácer, Alicia; Fernández-Cuenca, Rafael; Martínez-Navarro, Ferrán

    2014-06-01

    Past economic crises have increased the impact of communicable diseases especially on groups particularly vulnerable to the social and health consequences of the recession. However, it has been shown that the impact of these crises largely depends on the response of governments and the inhabitants of affected countries. We describe the consequences of the current crisis in the causal chain of infectious disease, including the response of the health system, and explore whether there is evidence of its impact in Spain. It is assumed that the possible effect of the crisis on living and working conditions is due to individual and social debt coupled with high unemployment as defining features of the crisis. We highlight the potential negative consequences of healthcare cuts on vulnerable populations, which have been partly excluded with the recent reform of health coverage. We compare mortality and morbidity data between two periods: before and after 2008, integrating, where possible, observed trends and institutional reports. Overall, no effect on infectious disease has been detected so far, although some signs of worsening, which could be compatible with the effects of the crisis, have been observed and need to be monitored and confirmed. We review the limitations of data sources that may not be sufficiently sensitive or up-to-date to detect changes that may require a latency period to become manifest. Instead of cutting resources, surveillance of these diseases should be improved, and an equitable social health response, which targets the population most affected by the crisis, should be guaranteed.

  8. Financial crisis and criminality in Greece: 2008 vs 2011.

    PubMed

    Tsouvelas, G; Kontaxakis, V; Giotakos, O; Konstantakopoulos, G; Kontaxaki, M-I; Papaslanis, Th

    2016-01-01

    Α number of previous articles have dealt with the negative impact of the Greek Economic crisis on public health, including significant increases in major depression prevalence and suicide and homicide rates. The mentally ill seem to represent a vulnerable social group, with particular difficulties in this context. The number of compulsory assessments and involuntary admissions was recorded by reviewing patient records in the Department of Psychiatry of the University Hospital of Patras, through years 2006-2013. Compulsory assessments increased from 176 in 2006 to 262 in 2009 and 354 in 2013, representing a 48.86% and 101.13% increase in the first and the fifth year of economic crisis, respectively. The assessments resulted in 160 involuntary admissions in 2006, which escalated to 262 admissions (63.75% rise) in 2013. Even though a rise in involuntary placements could be attributed to other factors as well, it may also partly represent a not so evident side of the Greek economic crisis.

  9. [Crisis and future of humanity].

    PubMed

    Bellver Capella, Vicente

    2012-09-01

    We live in troubling times. The economic crisis fills us with anxiety. Young, unemployed and throes to finish living worse fear that their parents are not able to take charge of the situation. What has happened to that Spain and Europe, less than four years ago seemed to land of opportunities for native and foreign, have become hostile territories? The economic crisis does not explain everything; It is only a symptom that the basis on which we were building the future were not as firm. It is true that the crisis has brought to bare the obscenity of speculative financial capitalism. It is also true that this crisis can be the great opportunity to build the world on a human and sustainable economic basis, i.e.,just the opposite of the current submission to the dictatorship of the financial markets. But the contemporary crisis has deep and extensive roots. I will refer to other crises, as important or more than the economic one, because to glimpse the future it is essential to carefully track the present and discover the "weak signals" the latent opportunities that await we become them realities.

  10. Using Crisis Simulations in Public Relations Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veil, Shari R.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Students will demonstrate research, decision making, team building, and public speaking skills, while applying issues management and crisis communication concepts in a realistic setting. Courses: Introduction to Public Relations, Public Relations Cases, Crisis Communication.

  11. Crisis stability and nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The authors summarize their viewpoint on and recommendations for strategic command and forces, and arms control and crisis stability. They pressent a study of the paths which might lead the superpowers from a crisis to nuclear war. This book examines the various arenas in which superpower crises may occur. The authors describe the strategies, command structures, and forces of NATO and the Warsaw Pact, paying particular attention to the ladder of alert postures and operations that their forces might mount as a crisis intensifies. They address the Middle East, with special emphasis on the confrontation between Syria and Israel, and the dangers posed by locally-owned chemical and nuclear weapons. The authors also consider the oceans and space.

  12. New approaches to crisis intervention.

    PubMed

    Motto, J A

    1979-01-01

    Constant efforts to improve crisis services have led to many innovative programs. Some have proven their feasibility and become established procedures. Others are now in a developing stage and still others represent new approaches. A survey of 50 suicide prevention and crisis services around the world provides evidence of a trend toward a broadening range of services, a more active case-finding approach, greater visibility, increased integration into the community care system, and creative leadership by newer and smaller centers as well as the well-established ones. This is being accomplished without relinquishing the traditional respect for anonymity, ever-present availability, and a nonjudgmental regard for each person's need.

  13. The Latino Education Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandara, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Latinos now constitute the largest minority group in the United States and the fastest growing segment of its school-age population. Yet they are the least educated of all major ethnic groups. Poverty, lack of access to high-quality preschool, low levels of parental education attainment, and hypersegregated schools all play a crucial role. The…

  14. Campus Crisis Response at Viberg College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaker, Rachel; Viars, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    This fictional case study examines crisis response in higher education settings. Information about current crisis response procedures, plans, and trends was gathered from informational interviews, current crisis management literature, and multiple college and university websites. The information was synthesized into a fictional case study using…

  15. Crisis and Employment: The Case of Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Dongchul; Shin, Sukha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines Korea's employment dynamics and analyzes how adverse impacts could be mitigated during the recent economic crisis in comparison with the 1997 to 1998 Asian crisis. A clear lesson is that policies to mitigate adverse impacts of financial crisis on the macroeconomic level should be given priority for preserving employment. In…

  16. Psychological Health Before, During, and After an Economic Crisis: Results from Indonesia, 1993 - 2000.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Jed; Thomas, Duncan

    The 1997 Indonesian financial crisis resulted in severe economic dislocation and political upheaval, and the detrimental consequences for economic welfare, physical health, and child education have been established in several studies. The crisis also adversely impacted the psychological well-being of the Indonesian population. Comparing responses of the same individuals interviewed before and after the crisis, we document substantial increases in several different dimensions of psychological distress among male and female adults across the entire age distribution. In addition, the imprint of the crisis can be seen in the differential impacts of the crisis on low education groups, the rural landless, and residents in those provinces that were most affected by the crisis. Elevated levels of psychological distress persist even after indicators of economic well-being such as household consumption had returned to pre-crisis levels, suggesting the deleterious effects of the crisis on the psychological well-being of the Indonesian population may be longer lasting than the impacts on economic well-being.

  17. Education for Today's Ecological Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, S. Fred

    1970-01-01

    Describes the university's role in providing education for the ecological crisis, and divides environmental sciences into two major areas: basic and applied. Proposes a curriculum leading to a B.S. degree in physics consisting of a two-year honor physics program followed by specialization in environmental and planetary sciences (EPS). (PR)

  18. The Crisis in Extramural Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Joel

    2011-01-01

    When "crisis" and "extramural funding" are mentioned, most academics think about problems such as the low percentage of proposals funded by federal agencies (now approaching single digits in many fields) or inadequate indirect-cost recovery rates that fail to reimburse universities for all costs of research. These are great problems draining…

  19. Vygotsky's Crisis: Argument, context, relevance.

    PubMed

    Hyman, Ludmila

    2012-06-01

    Vygotsky's The Historical Significance of the Crisis in Psychology (1926-1927) is an important text in the history and philosophy of psychology that has only become available to scholars in 1982 in Russian, and in 1997 in English. The goal of this paper is to introduce Vygotsky's conception of psychology to a wider audience. I argue that Vygotsky's argument about the "crisis" in psychology and its resolution can be fully understood only in the context of his social and political thinking. Vygotsky shared the enthusiasm, widespread among Russian leftist intelligentsia in the 1920s, that Soviet society had launched an unprecedented social experiment: The socialist revolution opened the way for establishing social conditions that would let the individual flourish. For Vygotsky, this meant that "a new man" of the future would become "the first and only species in biology that would create itself." He envisioned psychology as a science that would serve this humanist teleology. I propose that The Crisis is relevant today insofar as it helps us define a fundamental problem: How can we systematically account for the development of knowledge in psychology? I evaluate how Vygotsky addresses this problem as a historian of the crisis.

  20. Technology Use in Campus Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastrodicasa, Jeanna

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on technology use related to campus crisis and shows the impact that newer technologies have on making the world seem much smaller and united. When crises occur, such as at Virginia Tech shootings or Hurricane Katrina, students across the United States and even the world reach out to one another through new…

  1. Energy Crisis vs. Extension Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liles, Harold R.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses what steps were taken by the Cooperative Extension Service in Oklahoma, after the energy crisis began, to help landowners make better decisions regarding oil and gas leases. Oklahoma's Extension educational efforts in mineral rights management have been successful because they met the needs of the people. (EM)

  2. The Crisis of the Professoriate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    1980-01-01

    The status of the academic profession is discussed: its ambivalent situation of having benefitted from postwar expansion of higher education, but of having been content to maintain the status quo. The worldwide nature of the crisis is noted. Available from AAPSS, 3937 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, PA 19104. (MSE)

  3. Addressing the world water crisis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The world is facing an impinging crisis on water as population growth continues, energy use increases, and affluence (standard of living) increases all requiring more water. Agriculture must find ways to use water more productively while improving the impact of agriculture on the environment. Agri...

  4. Folk Heritage Collections in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Library and Information Resources, Washington, DC.

    The American Folklore Society and the American Folklife Center at the Library of Congress collaborated on a conference, "Folk Heritage Collections in Crisis," held on December 1-2, 2000, and gathered experts to formulate recommendations for the preservation and access of America's folk heritage sound collections. To facilitate informed…

  5. A Crisis in Civic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council of Trustees and Alumni, 2016

    2016-01-01

    There is a crisis in American civic education. Survey after survey shows that recent college graduates are alarmingly ignorant of America's history and heritage. They cannot identify the term lengths of members of Congress, the substance of the First Amendment, or the origin of the separation of powers. They do not know the Father of the…

  6. Owl Pellets and Crisis Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Describes a press conference that was used as a "teachable moment" when owl pellets being used for instructional purposes were found to be contaminated with Salmonella. The incident highlighted the need for safe handling of owl pellets, having a crisis management plan, and the importance of conveying accurate information to concerned parents.…

  7. Hungry Kids: The Solvable Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felling, Christy

    2013-01-01

    The numbers speak for themselves in terms of the crisis of hunger among kids in the United States: More than 16 million children--one in five--live in households that struggle to put food on the table. Nearly half of all food stamp recipients are children. But, argues Felling, the battle against childhood hunger can be won; the United States has…

  8. Malaysia urges ASEAN to tackle AIDS crisis.

    PubMed

    2000-08-07

    Urgent action is needed to fight the alarming spread of HIV/AIDS that infected 1.3 million people in Southeast Asia last year alone, Malaysia's foreign minister said July 24, 2000. Syed Hamid said the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) should tackle at regional and national level an epidemic that was taking its most drastic toll among the region's youth. "HIV/AIDS not only represents a major public health and social problem but is a serious challenge to development as well," Syed Hamid told the opening ceremony of ASEAN's 33rd annual foreign ministers' meeting. The crisis requires commitment at the "highest political level," he said, warning that HIV/AIDS could become a transnational problem within the 10-member group. Foreign ministers have recommended their leaders discuss the crisis later this year at an informal summit in Singapore and hold a summit on HIV/AIDS in conjunction with the 7th ASEAN Summit in Brunei next year. "I think people recognized the importance and the adverse impacts on our social development," Syed Hamid told reporters later. "I think it is a real issue that we cannot run away from." Among ASEAN members, Thailand, Cambodia, and Myanmar have some of the highest infection rates in Asia of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.

  9. Stakeholder involvement in nuclear crisis management in Greece.

    PubMed

    Ioannides, K G; Tzialla, C E; Papachristodoulou, C A; Papanikolaou, C; Apostolopoulos, C

    2005-01-01

    The setting up of the Greek Stakeholders Group in the framework of the EC Food and Agriculture Restoration Management Involving Networked Groups (FARMING) project is described. The Group included members from more than 20 governmental and non-governmental organisations, having interest and/or responsibilities in the management of a crisis following a nuclear accident. The stakeholders, during their meetings in 2002, discussed the agricultural countermeasures and rural waste disposal options which have been compiled by the EC Sustainable Restoration and Long-Term Management of Contaminated Rural, Urban and Industrial Ecosystems (STRATEGY) project. All stakeholders agreed that the most preferable were those options that ensure public acceptance, minimise environmental impact and maintain farming practices and acceptable living and working conditions. Their views are synoptically presented along with the major conclusions from the stakeholders meetings regarding nuclear crisis management.

  10. Crisis of Youth or Youth in Crisis? Education, Employment and Legitimation Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Robin; Smyth, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses the Habermasian concept of legitimation crisis to critique the relationship between post-compulsory education and training and the chronic levels of youth unemployment and under-employment which now characterise post-industrial Western economies, such as the UK. It draws on data from an ethnographic study of the lives of young…

  11. The Relationship Trauma Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Scott

    2008-01-01

    When the Commission on Children At Risk--a group of 33 children's doctors, research scientists, mental health and youth service professionals--presented to the Nation its report on the crises of deteriorating mental and behavioral health of children in the US, the 83-page report was entitled "Hardwired to Connect: The New Scientific Case for…

  12. India's Cities in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryjak, George J.

    1984-01-01

    Indian cities are growing rapidly due to natural increase and migration from rural areas. This has caused huge pollution problems and has resulted in overcrowded schools and hospitals. Conflict between religious groups has increased; so has crime. India is modernizing, but not fast enough. (CS)

  13. [The crisis of medicine or the antimedicine crisis].

    PubMed

    Foucault, M

    1976-01-01

    In this lecture, Professor Michel Foucault makes an in-depth study of the problems currently afflicting medical institutions and the medical practice. He deals with the thesis set forth by Ivan Illich in his book Medical Nemesis--The expropriation of Health, as well as the 1942 Beveridge Plan, but goes even further back in history to discover the origin of the medical crisis common throughout the world--back to the XVIII century roots of the social practice of medicine. He also describes the phases through which medical activity has passed from then until now and deals with what he calls the political economy of medicine. Finally, he reaches the conclusion that what matters is not so much the present crisis of medicine, which he considers to be a false concept, but the discipline's historical model dating from the XVIII century and serving to determine to what extent it can be modified.

  14. The financial crisis in Italy: implications for the healthcare sector.

    PubMed

    de Belvis, Antonio Giulio; Ferrè, Francesca; Specchia, Maria Lucia; Valerio, Luca; Fattore, Giovanni; Ricciardi, Walter

    2012-06-01

    The global economic and financial crisis is having and impact on the Italian healthcare system which is undergoing a devolution process from the central government to regions and where about one third of the regional governments (mainly in the central and southern part of the country) are facing large financial deficits. The paper briefly describes the current macro scenario and the main responses taken to face the crisis and highlights the downside risks of introducing "linear" cuts in the allocation of resources. While justified by the risk of a national debt default, present fiscal policies might increase inequalities in access to care, deteriorate overall health indicators and population wellbeing, and sharpen existing difference in the quality of care between regions. Preliminary evidence shows that the crisis is affecting the quality of nutrition and the incidence of psychiatric disorders. During this difficult financial situation Italy is also facing the risk of a major reduction in investments for preventive medicine, Evidence Based Medicine infrastructures, health information systems and physical capital renewal. This cost-cutting strategy may have negative long term consequences Also, important achievement in terms of limiting waiting lists, improving continuity of care and patients' centeredness, and promoting integration between social and health care may be negatively affected by unprecedented resources' cuts. It is essential that in such a period of public funding constraints health authorities monitor incidence of diseases and access to care of the most vulnerable groups and specifically target interventions to those who may be disproportionally hit by the crisis.

  15. THREE DAY CRISIS RESOLUTION UNIT

    PubMed Central

    Dubin, Stephen E.; Ananth, Jambur; Bajwa-Goldsmith, Balbir; Stuller, Sue; Lewis, Cathy; Miller, Milton; Hoel, Noreen; Fernandez, Louise

    1985-01-01

    SUMMARY This paper describes a three day crisis resolution unit within the confines of the psychiatric emergency service of a general hospital. It utilizes a crisis model of acute intervention, time limited psychotherapeutic approach combined with family therapy, and psychotropic medications when indicated. 136 consecutive admissions were reviewed, 49% were discharged within 72 hours, and 51 % required further hospitalization. 77% of the patient's discharged had involved families (significant others) in the treatment process,-in comparison with only 28 % family involvement with those patients who needed further hospitalization. This may be even more significant for psychotic patients who were discharged (14/18 family involvement) versus those who needed long hospitalization (13/50 Family involvement). PMID:21927122

  16. Analytic optimizations in crisis stability

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1991-03-01

    Second strikes are dominated by submarine launched missiles in the absence of defenses, but shift to aircraft at modest levels of defense. Defenses protect some retaliatory missiles, but not enough to retaliate strongly. With defenses, missiles should be vestigial and could be eliminated without penalty. Then aircraft could also be significantly reduced without impacting stability. The combination of parameters that maximizes cost effectiveness also maximizes midcourse effectiveness and crisis stability. 15 refs., 20 figs.

  17. Trauma surgery: discipline in crisis.

    PubMed

    Green, Steven M

    2009-02-01

    Throughout the past quarter century, there have been slow but dramatic changes in the nature and practice of trauma surgery, and this field increasingly faces potent economic, logistic, political, and workforce challenges. Patients and emergency physicians have much to lose by this budding crisis in our partner discipline. This article reviews the specific issues confronting trauma surgery, their historical context, and the potential directions available to this discipline. Implications of these issues for emergency physicians and for trauma care overall are discussed.

  18. Migration, crisis and theoretical conflict.

    PubMed

    Bach, R L; Schraml, L A

    1982-01-01

    The nature of the distinction between the equilibrium and historical-structuralist positions on migration is examined. Theoretical and political differences in the two positions are considered both historically and in the context of the current global economic crisis. The proposal of Wood to focus on households as a strategy for integrating the two perspectives and for achieving a better understanding of migration and social change is discussed.

  19. A crisis recovery model for adolescents with severe mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Tony; Racussen, Lisa

    2013-04-01

    A model of intervention at the interface and for the in-patient phase for adolescents with severe mental health crises was developed to reduce length of stay while maintaining quality of service consonant with the 'recovery model'. The model is described, and discussed in the context of the limited literature on both crisis intervention with adolescents and families, and 'recovery' in this age-group. The model may be suitable also for use by community teams dealing with adolescents in crisis.

  20. Hyperthyroidism-associated hypercalcemic crisis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ke; Xie, Yanhong; Zhao, Liling; Mo, Zhaohui

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Hyperthyroidism is one of the major clinical causes of hypercalcaemia, however, hyperthyroidism-related hypercalcemic crisis is rare, only 1 case have been reported. The potential mechanisms are still not too clear. It may be related that thyroid hormone stimulate bone turnover, elevate serum calcium, increase urinary and fecal calcium excretion. Patient concerns: A 58-year-old female patient was found to have Graves’ disease, a marked elevated serum calcium level (adjusted serum calcium: 3.74 mmol/L), and reduced parathyroid hormone level. Diagnoses: She was diagnosed as hyperthyroidism-associated hypercalcemic crisis. Interventions: Treatment with methimazole to correct the hyperthyroidism and treatment of the patient's hypercalcaemia was achieved by physiological saline, salmon calcitonin and furosemide. Outcomes: After treatment for hypercalcaemia and hyperthyroidism, her symptoms and serum calcium levels quickly returned to normal. Lessons: hyperthyroid-associated hypercalcaemia crisis is rare, however, the diagnosis should pay attention to screening for other diseases caused by hypercalcemia. Timely treatment of hypercalcaemia is a critical step for rapidly control of symptoms, and treatment of hyperthyroidism is beneficial to relief the symptoms and maintain the blood calcium level. PMID:28121960

  1. Capsaicin and arterial hypertensive crisis.

    PubMed

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; La Rosa, Felice Carmelo; La Rocca, Roberto

    2010-10-08

    Chili peppers are rich in capsaicin. The potent vasodilator calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is stored in a population of C-fiber afferents that are sensitive to capsaicin. CGRP and peptides released from cardiac C fibers have a beneficial effect in myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. It has been reported that capsaicin pretreatment can deplete cardiac C-fiber peptide stores. Furthermore, it has also been reported that capsaicin-treated pigs have significantly increased mean arterial blood pressure compared with controls, and that the decrease in CGRP synthesis and release contributes to the elevated blood pressure. A case has also been reported of an arterial hypertensive crisis in a patient with a large ingestion of peppers and chili peppers the day before. We present a case of an arterial hypertensive crisis in a 19-year-old Italian man with an abundant ingestion of peppers and of chili peppers the preceding day. This case describes an unusual pattern of arterial hypertensive crisis due to capsaicin.

  2. [Attempted suicide during the financial crisis in Athens].

    PubMed

    Stavrianakos, K; Kontaxakis, V; Moussas, G; Paplos, K; Papaslanis, T; Havaki-Kontaxaki, B; Papadimitriou, Gn

    2014-01-01

    ) and 95 in 2011, during the financial crisis (mean age 41.0 years, women 65%). There is an increase of suicide attempts by 35.71%. There were no statistically significant differences between the two periods regarding the gender and age of attempters. There was a statistically significant increase of unemployed (p=0.004), as well as of married/widowed/divorced (p=0.02) suicide attempters during the crisis. There was not statistically significant difference in the severity of suicide attempts before and during the economic crisis or the severity of psychopathology of the attempters. The financial crisis is probably associated with upward trend in attempted suicide of the Athens population. Most affected are those who are unemployed, married, widowed, divorced. Suicide prevention programs are essential for the accurate and timely identification and the immediate and effective management of this special high risk group of attempters during the financial crisis.

  3. An Evaluation of Crisis Hotline Outcomes. Part 1: Nonsuicidal Crisis Callers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalafat, John; Gould, Madelyn S.; Munfakh, Jimmie Lou Harris; Kleinman, Marjorie

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of telephone crisis services/hotlines, examining proximal outcomes as measured by changes in callers' crisis state from the beginning to the end of their calls to eight centers in the U.S. and intermediate outcomes within 3 weeks of their calls, was evaluated. Between March 2003 and July 2004, 1,617 crisis callers were assessed…

  4. School-Based Crisis Intervention: Its Effectiveness and Role in Broader Crisis Intervention Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Julie; Russo, Charles J.; Ilg, Timothy J.

    2006-01-01

    Crisis in the context of a school has many unique features related to the social structure and sense of community within schools. A school crisis exposes children and staff to threat, loss, and trauma that undermine the safety and stability of the entire school. Crisis intervention has as its explicit aim the goal of providing immediate support to…

  5. Supervision Experiences of Professional Counselors Providing Crisis Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupre, Madeleine; Echterling, Lennis G.; Meixner, Cara; Anderson, Robin; Kielty, Michele

    2014-01-01

    In this phenomenological study, the authors explored supervision experiences of 13 licensed professional counselors in situations requiring crisis counseling. Five themes concerning crisis and supervision were identified from individual interviews. Findings support intensive, immediate crisis supervision and postlicensure clinical supervision.

  6. The financial crisis and the expected effects on vaccinations in Europe: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Maltezou, Helena C; Lionis, Christos

    2015-07-01

    Starting in 2008 several European countries experienced a financial crisis. Historically, diseases whose prevention and treatment depend highly on the continuity of healthcare re-emerge during political and financial crises. Evidence suggests that the current financial crisis has had an impact on the health and welfare of Europeans and that population health status and morbidity as well as mortality patterns may change in the coming years. At the same time decisions about expenditure for health services may impact the ability of public health providers to respond. It is expected that the current crisis will further exacerbate socioeconomic and health inequalities and novel vulnerable groups will emerge in addition to existing ones. We review the available evidence and discuss how the current crisis may have an impact on vaccine-preventable diseases and influence vaccination coverage rates in Europe.

  7. Implementing NOVA's Group Crisis Intervention Model in Multicultural School Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tramonte, Michael R.

    With the increasing diversity of the United States population, there is a growing awareness of the need for culturally specific responses to help survivors of disasters and violence. When school psychologists are called upon to intervene, they need to be able to link survivors to support systems. In order to provide services to survivors of…

  8. Out of the healthcare crisis.

    PubMed

    Siriwardena, A Niroshan

    2011-01-01

    W Edwards Deming's Out of the Crisis, was first published almost three decades ago.(1) It was a bestseller and remains a classic text written by one of the foremost quality improvement experts of the 20th century. It is a book which certainly warrants re-examination in light of today's challenges for health care. This discussion paper reviews what Deming can teach us about causes of failure in management, including health care, what can be done to remedy them and how to avert problems in future.

  9. Crisis Management- Operational Logistics & Asset Visibility Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    greatly increase the effectiveness of future crisis response operations. The proposed logistics framework serves as a viable solution for common...increase the effectiveness of future crisis response operations. The proposed logistics framework serves as a viable solution for common logistical...FRAMEWORK............................................................29 A. INTEGRATED COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK MODEL ................29 B. INTEGRATED

  10. Neo-Liberalism in Crisis? Educational Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, David

    2011-01-01

    Until the global financial crisis, neo-liberalism had appeared invincible. This article examines the global rise of neo-liberalism and its impact on education, particularly its treatment of the social democratic ideal of equality. Drawing on examples from education and other socio-political factors, it considers whether the financial crisis is…

  11. Electronic Gaming and the Obesity Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Sandra L.; Staiano, Amanda E.; Bond, Bradley J.

    2013-01-01

    Children and adolescents in the United States and in many countries are projected to have shorter life spans than their parents, partly because of the obesity crisis engulfing the developed world. Exposure to electronic media is often implicated in this crisis because media use, including electronic game play, may promote sedentary behavior and…

  12. Crisis Intervention: A Review of Outcome Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Stephen M.; Kilmann, Peter R.

    1977-01-01

    Crisis intervention studies conducted in suicide prevention/crisis intervention programs, in psychiatric settings, and with surgical patients are critically evaluated, and the methodological shortcomings of studies in each of these settings are discussed. Available from: Order Department, American Psychological Association, Inc., 1200 Seventeenth…

  13. The Financial Crisis in the Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, John

    The author examines the financial crisis in community colleges on a national scale in this first paper in a projected long-range study of this crucial topic. Economic causes contributing to the crisis include inflation, rising enrollments, and such labor-intensive aspects as spiraling labor and security costs, and increasing demands for funds by…

  14. Crisis Communications in a Digital World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trump, Kenneth S.

    2015-01-01

    Kenneth Trump, a school safety expert who consults with districts on how to respond to school safety crises, explains how the new prevalence of threats of violence being delivered over digital and social media creates for administrators a "communication crisis" that unfolds alongside the real or perceived crisis of school safety being…

  15. The Philadelphia School District's Ongoing Financial Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caskey, John; Kuperberg, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the budget crisis that the School District of Philadelphia has faced for the past few years. Three specific events triggered the 2012 crisis: an abrupt reduction in federal and state funding, the inability of the district to cut many of its costs, and political pressures on the district to spend available revenues in a given…

  16. A Human Rights Crisis in Indian Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigil, Chris

    2015-01-01

    There is a human rights crisis in Indian Country. This crisis--one of many--is the result of an almost universal lack of legal representation of Native people when they appear as defendants in tribal courts. The lack of lay advocates and attorneys representing Native defendants creates tremendous problems for tribal members who find themselves in…

  17. Do You Have a Crisis Management Plan?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pleviak, Walter; Milkevitch, Frank

    2001-01-01

    Although certain crises cannot be prevented, reactions to many can be planned. A crisis-management team should be organized for each building. Critical crisis-plan elements include telephone trees, forms, reference articles, sample letters, and processes for dealing with local media. Spokespersons should have facts straight before speaking. (MLH)

  18. Crisis and Loss: Information for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canter, Andrea, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Crisis intervention is a vital component of any comprehensive approach to maintaining psychological well being. An active school-based crisis intervention team can make a powerful contribution to a school's sense of community and commitment to taking care of each other. This special edition presents promising practices that may be helpful to…

  19. Crisis and Loss: Information for Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canter, Andrea, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    During a crisis, parents can do a great deal to help their child deal with grief and anxiety. This special issue provides information and promising practices that might be helpful in dealing with various crisis situations. Provides the following articles: (1) "Children Killing Children" (Kevin Dwyer); (2) "Disaster: Helping Children…

  20. School Crisis Aftermath: Care for the Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paine, Cathy Kennedy

    2009-01-01

    "Professional" crisis caregivers (e.g., emergency responders, mental health providers, medical professionals, victim assistance counselors, and faith leaders) are trained to handle exposure to images of destruction and loss and to help victims or survivors cope with the impact of a crisis. They try to help individuals, schools, and communities…

  1. The Cuban Missile Crisis: Evolving Historical Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medland, William J.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a synthesis of the views of participants and counterviews of scholars concerning the Cuban missile crisis of 1962. Reviews historical and analytical accounts of the crisis. Describes critical areas of conflicting interpretations by historians and participants. Includes an annotated bibliography of teaching resources. (NL)

  2. The Leading Edge: Enduring a Campus Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeser, James

    2003-01-01

    On June 2003, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC) faced a frightening crisis when an employee was diagnosed with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). In this article, the author looks back and identifies four factors that enabled the university to navigate this crisis. These factors were: (1) leadership at every level; (2)…

  3. Content Knowledge--The Real Reading Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Tsuguhiko; Manning, Maryann

    2007-01-01

    The perceived crisis in reading achievement may be misplaced--the real crisis may be what is ignored in the curriculum. People are alarmed at the lack of emphasis being placed on teaching content knowledge in many of today's classrooms. They laugh when Jay Leno takes to the street, interviewing teenagers and young adults who do not have the…

  4. Recognizing and Responding to a Suicide Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendin, Herbert; Maltsberger, John T.; Lipschitz, Alan; Haas, Ann Pollinger; Kyle, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    Data from therapists who were treating 26 patients when they committed suicide were utilized to identify warning signs. Problems in communication between patient and therapist were identified as factors interfering with crisis recognition. Evaluation of the identified affects and behaviors may help therapists recognize a suicide crisis. (BF)

  5. The Midlife Crisis and Educational Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Leon

    Following a brief summary of research relating to midlife crisis, a theory of the midlife crisis is presented that is based on the philosophical insights of Plato and Heidegger: The emotional pain at midlife is associated with a collapse of a person's ontic field (relationships with others, to things, and to institutions) or a stagnation of a…

  6. Pakistan's Education Crisis: The Real Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naviwala, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Pakistan suffers from an extensive education crisis. Millions of Pakistani children do not attend school, and those that do must deal with absent teachers and poor learning environments, among other challenges. While this crisis is frequently discussed in Pakistan and beyond, it is often misunderstood. This new Wilson Center report, based on…

  7. Organisational socialisation in a crisis context.

    PubMed

    Lalonde, Carole

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to highlight the dimensions characterising the socialisation process in a crisis context. Based on the definition of organisational socialisation advanced by Van Maanen and Schein (1979) and employed later by Jones (1986), a crisis is presented as a passage from a 'normal' situation to an 'exceptional' situation. A crisis represents a socialisation context in the sense that it is a novel state in which actors must develop a different way of mobilising their knowledge, utilising their skills, and practicing their trade or profession. The paper discusses certain findings that have emerged from the literature on organisational socialisation, as well as from the testimony of actors who participated in efforts to manage the Quebec ice-storm crisis of early 1998. It is hoped that this exploratory study's data will give rise to fruitful interaction between the field of organisational socialisation and that of crisis management.

  8. The Midcareer Crisis: A Description of the Psychological Dynamics of Transition and Adaptation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perosa, Sandra L.; Perosa, Linda M.

    1983-01-01

    Compared three groups of people (N=134) facing midcareer crisis using a structured interview. Suggested that Hopson and Adams' (1977) model can provide a framework for understanding emotional factors in voluntary career transitions. Janis and Mann's (1977) conflict model describes where in the decision-making process the groups chose alternative…

  9. Enhancing crisis leadership in public health emergencies.

    PubMed

    Deitchman, Scott

    2013-10-01

    Reviews of public health emergency responses have identified a need for crisis leadership skills in health leaders, but these skills are not routinely taught in public health curricula. To develop criteria for crisis leadership in public health, published sources were reviewed to identify attributes of successful crisis leadership in aviation, public safety, military operations, and mining. These sources were abstracted to identify crisis leadership attributes associated with those disciplines and compare those attributes with crisis leadership challenges in public health. Based on this review, the following attributes are proposed for crisis leadership in public health: competence in public health science; decisiveness with flexibility; ability to maintain situational awareness and provide situational assessment; ability to coordinate diverse participants across very different disciplines; communication skills; and the ability to inspire trust. Of these attributes, only competence in public health science is currently a goal of public health education. Strategies to teach the other proposed attributes of crisis leadership will better prepare public health leaders to meet the challenges of public health crises.

  10. Managing up in times of financial crisis.

    PubMed

    Demers, R F

    2001-10-01

    The use of managing up in an institution's time of financial crisis is described. The goals of crisis management include survival, maintaining quality and service, learning issues and impacts, supporting the team, and preparing for the aftermath as the crisis subsides. Survival calls for a commitment by leaders to remain focused, and to maintain and support the management team. Pharmacy directors must be able to adapt to chaos and to the limited information disseminated by senior leadership. Identifying the underlying cause of the crisis, which may not be directly related to the measures taken to resolve it, is also critical to survival. Among the keys to maintaining quality and service are keeping the staff focused on patient care and maintaining credibility by sharing all information that is available. Pharmacy directors need to maintain the confidence of their staff members and to encourage them to do the best they can with the resources available. Taking the initiative to acquire appropriate data, to translate that data into relevant information, and to seek benchmarks for comparison is also important. Once the crisis has passed, attention must be given to updating and maintaining databases, supporting the staff, and improving morale. Scenario planning can help identify measures that might be taken if another crisis should develop. Using principles of managing up can prepare pharmacy directors for optimal response to an institutional financial crisis.

  11. Towards a psychological model of midlife crisis.

    PubMed

    Oles, P K

    1999-06-01

    Midlife crisis in men is seen as a process of intensive and subjectively difficult transition of the self dealing with a reinterpretation of time perspective, the confrontation with death as a future personal event, the re-evaluation of life values and goals, and planning the second half of life. Midlife crisis arises on the relationships between the changing sociopsychological situation and internal predispositions. This study was conducted in Poland, using a sample of 144 men (aged 35-45 years). Measures were the Midlife Crisis Questionnaire, the Time Orientation Scale, the Adjective Check List, the modified version of the Ways of Coping Checklist, and the Value crisis Questionnaire. The findings indicated that the midlife crisis consists of three relatively independent dimensions, extracted by factor analysis, namely, (i) intensity of symptoms focused on changes in the self-concept, (ii) psychological maturity, and (iii) acceptance of time passing and death. Necessary and sufficient conditions of the crisis appeared to be (1) value crisis, understood as difficulties in hierarchization, integration, and realization of values, (2) emotion-focused coping versus problem-focused coping, (3) past versus future time orientation and lack of goals for the future, (4) sense of time pressure, (5) some conscientiousness, introversion, and openness to experience.

  12. 40 CFR 166.45 - Duration of crisis exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duration of crisis exemption. 166.45... EXEMPTION OF FEDERAL AND STATE AGENCIES FOR USE OF PESTICIDES UNDER EMERGENCY CONDITIONS Crisis Exemptions § 166.45 Duration of crisis exemption. A crisis exemption may be authorized for: (a) Only as long as...

  13. Agrofuels, Food Sovereignty, and the Contemporary Food Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosset, Peter

    2009-01-01

    In this article, agrofuels are examined in the context of the world food price crisis and the "food sovereignty" proposal for addressing the crisis. Both short- and long-term causes of the crisis are examined, and while agrofuels are presently not a prime causal factor they are clearly contraindicated by the crisis. Food sovereignty,…

  14. Impending United States energy crisis.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, R L

    1987-03-20

    The U.S. oil and gas industry has been dramatically weakened by the recent oil price collapse. Domestic drilling activity reached a new post-World War II low during the summer of 1986. Given a weak, unstable oil price outlook, U.S. capability will continue to deteriorate. In the last year U.S. imports of foreign oil have risen significantly, and if market forces alone dominate, U.S. dependence is expected to rise from 32% in 1983 to the 50 to 70% level in the not-too-distant future. The 1973 oil embargo and the subsequent attempts to improve U.S. energy security vividly demonstrated the huge costs and long periods of time required to change our energy system. These facts, coupled with the nation's generally short-term orientation, suggest a strong likelihood of a new U.S. energy crisis in the early to middle 1990s.

  15. [Cardiovascular complications of hypertensive crisis].

    PubMed

    Rosas-Peralta, Martín; Borrayo-Sánchez, Gabriela; Madrid-Miller, Alejandra; Ramírez-Arias, Erick; Pérez-Rodríguez, Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    It is inexorable that a proportion of patients with systemic arterial hypertension will develop a hypertensive crisis at some point in their lives. The hypertensive crises can be divided in hypertensive patients with emergency or hypertensive emergency, according to the presence or absence of acute end-organ damage. In this review, we discuss the cardiovascular hypertensive emergencies, including acute coronary syndrome, congestive heart failure, aortic dissection and sympathomimetic hypertensive crises (those caused by cocaine use included). Each is presented in a unique way, although some patients with hypertensive emergency report non-specific symptoms. Treatment includes multiple medications for quick and effective action with security to reduce blood pressure, protect the function of organs remaining, relieve symptoms, minimize the risk of complications and improve patient outcomes.

  16. Partnerships for effective campus crisis responses.

    PubMed

    Ingemann, Mira; Jackson, LaTrelle; Pittman, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Violence on college campuses has spurred administrators and campus safety officials to devise effective crisis management and threat assessment strategies. The college community lends itself to a systematic multi-component model of crisis intervention primarily due to its self-contained and widespread interconnected social networks. The CISM model for a crisis response is an empirically supported program that would inform practice prior to, during, and following university-based crises. Ultimately, best practices in the world of academia should rest on a foundation of detailed preparation, interdepartmental collaboration and coordination, extensive specialized training, and periodic review of campus protocols to assess for systemic changes.

  17. Electronic Gaming and the Obesity Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Calvert, Sandra L.; Staiano, Amanda E.; Bond, Bradley J.

    2014-01-01

    Children and adolescents in the United States and in many countries are projected to have shorter life spans than their parents, partly because of the obesity crisis engulfing the developed world. Exposure to electronic media is often implicated in this crisis because media use, including electronic game play, may promote sedentary behavior and increase consumption of high-calorie foods and beverages that are low in nutritional value. Electronic games, however, may increase children’s physical activity and expose them to healthier foods. We examine the role of electronic games in the pediatric obesity crisis and their contribution to more favorable health outcomes. PMID:23483693

  18. Electronic gaming and the obesity crisis.

    PubMed

    Calvert, Sandra L; Staiano, Amanda E; Bond, Bradley J

    2013-01-01

    Children and adolescents in the United States and in many countries are projected to have shorter life spans than their parents, partly because of the obesity crisis engulfing the developed world. Exposure to electronic media is often implicated in this crisis because media use, including electronic game play, may promote sedentary behavior and increase consumption of high-calorie foods and beverages that are low in nutritional value. Electronic games, however, may increase children's physical activity and expose them to healthier foods. We examine the role of electronic games in the pediatric obesity crisis and their contribution to more favorable health outcomes.

  19. [Suicide crisis, psychological suffering and advanced age].

    PubMed

    Hazif-Thomas, Cyril; Bordage, Catherine; Cornec, Gwenole; Berrouiguet, Sofian; Walter, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Bound to the idea of a crisis and the brutal intrusion of psychological suffering, the suicide drama rarely lends itself to a direct analysis which can highlight the different stages of its process. Taking into account increasing quantities of scientific data from current research and the spirit of crisis interventions is fundamental for allowing hopes of effective prevention. Speaking the same language by using the same conceptual basis, that of the suicide crisis, is a prerequisite in pedagogical terms for the current care management of suicidal patients.

  20. [Pediatric emergency: adrenal insufficiency and adrenal crisis].

    PubMed

    Martínez, Alicia; Pasqualini, Titania; Stivel, Mirta; Heinrich, Juan Jorge

    2010-04-01

    Adrenal insufficiency is defined by impaired secretion of adrenocortical hormones. It is classified upon the etiology in primary and secondary. Rapid recognition and therapy of adrenocortical crisis are critical to survival. Patients often have nonspecific symptoms: anorexia, vomiting, weakness, fatigue and lethargy. They are followed by hypotension, shock, hypoglicemia, hyponatremia and hyperkalemia. All patients with adrenal insufficiency require urgent fluid reposition, correction of hypoglycemia and glucocorticoid replacement, in order to avoid serious consequences of adrenal crisis. After initial crisis treatment, maintenance dose of corticoids should be indicated. Mineralocorticoids replacement, if necessary, should also be initiated.

  1. The Energy Crisis and Solar Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockris, J. O'M.

    1974-01-01

    Examines the status of the energy crisis in Australia. Outlines energy alternatives for the 1990's and describes the present status of solar energy research and the economics of solar energy systems. (GS)

  2. What kind of crisis for capitalism?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-09-01

    This week's meeting of the International Monetary Fund at Toronto will avoid an immediate crisis. But more international credit will not allow rich and poor to behave as if they live on different planets.

  3. Energy Crisis Spurs Congress Into Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses legislation recently passed by Congress in response to the energy crisis, and the Nixon Administration's proposal for creating a new Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and a Nuclear Energy Commission (NEC). (JR)

  4. The Energy Crisis: A Continuing Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, David

    1976-01-01

    To school business managers, the energy crisis is a continuing economic disaster as energy costs continue to climb and schools are without money to make necessary renovations to reduce energy consumption. (Author/IRT)

  5. The Energy Crisis: What Physicists Can Contribute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Tay Yong

    1976-01-01

    Divides the components of the energy crisis into those which demand immediate, moderate term, and long term research efforts. Delineates specific topics in each category and solicits physicists' efforts in these areas. (CP)

  6. Energy crisis: Unresolved issues and enduring legacies

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, D.L.

    1996-12-31

    The energy crisis of 1973--1974 was a pivotal event in twentieth-century American history. In the wake of the Vietnam War, it exposed the nation`s economic vulnerability to foreign powers and precipitated an awareness of limits to the exploitation of natural resources. Further, it forced Americans and the American government in particular to think about the future of energy production and consumption in novel ways and made such thinking more imperative than ever. Twenty years later, questions about the energy crisis persist. What were the underlying causes of the crisis. What has been learned from it. How has it affected current energy policies. Will another energy crisis occur in the future. In the book, David Lewis Feldman brings together a wide range of energy policy experts to address these questions and explore the appropriate role of governments and markets in ensuring a stable, economical, and sustainable energy supply.

  7. Cross-National Crisis Indicators Project.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-01

    between interstate and intrastate crises. The final chapter emphasizes the importance of ’crossing’ levels of analysis and attempting to anchor crisis theory within a more general international relations theoretical edifice.

  8. Student Unrest and Crisis Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridges, Edwin M.

    1969-01-01

    How the administrator might anticipate student-initiated reform is examined by observing present school practices, crisis condition influence on the decision process, and implications of alternative administrative action. (LN)

  9. Analyzing Crisis in Global Financial Indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sunil; Deo, Nivedita

    We apply the Random Matrix Theory and complex network techniques to 20 global financial indices and study the correlation and network properties before and during the financial crisis of 2008 respectively. We find that the largest eigenvalue deviate significantly from the upper bound which shows a strong correlation between financial indices. By using a sliding window of 25 days we find that largest eigenvalue represent the collective information about the correlation between global financial indices and its trend indicate the market conditions. It is confirmed that eigenvectors corresponding to second largest eigenvalue gives useful information about the sector formation in the global financial indices. We find that these clusters are formed on the basis of the geographical location. The correlation network is constructed using threshold method for different values of threshold θ in the range 0 to 0.9, at θ=0.2 the network is fully connected. At θ=0.6, the Americas, Europe and Asia/Pacific form different clusters before the crisis but during the crisis Americas and Europe are strongly linked. If we further increase the threshold to 0.9 we find that European countries France, Germany and UK consistently constitute the most tightly linked markets before and during the crisis. We find that the structure of Minimum Spanning Tree before the crisis is more star like whereas during the crisis it changes to be more chain like. Using the multifractal analysis, we find that Hurst exponents of financial indices increases during the period of crisis as compared to the period before the crisis. The empirical results verify the validity of measures, and this has led to a better understanding of complex financial markets.

  10. Urbanization eases water crisis in China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shu-Guang; Ji, Chen

    2012-01-01

    Socioeconomic development in China has resulted in rapid urbanization, which includes a large amount of people making the transition from rural areas to cities. Many have speculated that this mass migration may have worsened the water crisis in many parts of the country. However, this study shows that the water crisis would be more severe if the rural-to-urban migration did not occur.

  11. Screaming Trees: The Nigerian Deforestation Crisis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-02

    FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Screaming Trees: The Nigerian Deforestation Crisis (U) 5a...Department of the Navy. 14. ABSTRACT Nigeria has the highest rate of deforestation in the world and the Government of Nigeria (GON) has failed to...implement an effective response to this worsening crisis. Deforestation degrades land quality and agricultural output, resulting in forced migration

  12. Thyrotoxic crisis presenting as status epilepticus.

    PubMed Central

    Safe, A. F.; Griffiths, K. D.; Maxwell, R. T.

    1990-01-01

    A 30 year old male patient with thyrotoxic crisis presenting as status epilepticus is reported. The aetiology, manifestations and management of this medical emergency are discussed. The importance of prompt, vigorous and comprehensive treatment of thyrotoxic crisis is emphasized. Rapid control of hyperthyroidism as well as other supportive measures are essential if the high fatality rate is to be reduced. Comprehensive management reduces mortality from 90% to 20%. PMID:2349191

  13. Crisis management during anaesthesia: recovering from a crisis

    PubMed Central

    Bacon, A; Morris, R; Runciman, W; Currie, M

    2005-01-01

    Preventing harm to the patient is the priority during a crisis. After a major incident, and especially when a patient has been harmed, there are a number of matters to be addressed: the ongoing care of the patient; documentation of the incident; investigation of the root causes; completion of reports; interviews with the patient and/or the next of kin, together with apologies and expression of regret; updates and ongoing support for friends and relatives; a word of thanks to the staff involved for their assistance; formal debriefing of staff for quality assurance and possibly ongoing support and a separate debriefing for psychological purposes; ensuring that the recommendations of the root cause analysis are carried out; or, failing that, that the issues are logged on a risk register. The extent and depth of the follow up protocol depends on what, if any, harm may have been done. This may constitute completion of an incident report; notification of an equipment failure to a federal regulatory authority; arranging consultations with a mental health professional to manage psychological sequelae (especially following an awareness episode); follow up during weeks of intensive care treatment; or, when a death has occurred, a full medico-legal and/or coronial set of procedures. A précis is appended in an action card format. PMID:15933299

  14. Timing crisis information release via television.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jiuchang; Zhao, Dingtao; Yang, Feng; Du, Shaofu; Marinova, Dora

    2010-10-01

    When and how often to release information on television are important issues in crisis and emergency risk communication. There is a lot of crisis information, including warnings and news, to which people should have access, but most of it is not significantly urgent to interrupt the broadcasting of television programmes. Hence, the right timing for the release of crisis information should be selected based on the importance of the crisis and any associated communication requirements. Using recursive methods, this paper builds an audience coverage model of crisis information release. Based on 2007 Household Using TV (HUT) data for Hefei City, China, the optimal combination of broadcasting sequence (with frequencies between one and eight times) is obtained using the implicit enumeration method. The developed model is applicable to effective transmission of crisis information, with the aim of reducing interference with the normal television transmission process and decreasing the psychological effect on audiences. The same model can be employed for other purposes, such as news coverage and weather and road information.

  15. Evaluation of the 113Online Suicide Prevention Crisis Chat Service: Outcomes, Helper Behaviors and Comparison to Telephone Hotlines.

    PubMed

    Mokkenstorm, Jan K; Eikelenboom, Merijn; Huisman, Annemiek; Wiebenga, Jasper; Gilissen, Renske; Kerkhof, Ad J F M; Smit, Johannes H

    2016-08-19

    Recognizing the importance of digital communication, major suicide prevention helplines have started offering crisis intervention by chat. To date there is little evidence supporting the effectiveness of crisis chat services. To evaluate the reach and outcomes of the 113Online volunteer-operated crisis chat service, 526 crisis chat logs were studied, replicating the use of measures that were developed to study telephone crisis calls. Reaching a relatively young population of predominantly females with severe suicidality and (mental) health problems, chat outcomes for this group were found to be comparable to those found for crisis calls to U.S. Lifeline Centers in 2003-2004, with similar but not identical associations with specific helpers' styles and attitudes. Our findings support a positive effect of the 113Online chat service, to be enhanced by practice standards addressing an apparent lack of focus on the central issue of suicidality during chats, as well as by the development of best practices specific for online crisis intervention.

  16. The Impending Oral Health Crisis.

    PubMed

    Tegtmeier, Carl H; Miller, David J; Shub, Judith L

    2016-04-01

    Last May, the New York State Dental Association and the New York State Dental Foundation convened the first "Oral Health Stakeholders' Summit on the Future of Special Needs Dentistry, Hospital Dentistry and Dental Education." The summit was chaired by David J. Miller, then NYSDA President Elect, and Carl H. Tegtmeier, then chair of the NYSDA Council on Dental Health Planning and Hospital Dentistry. It brought together experts, called to frame the issues and provide information necessary for a reasoned response. And it sought input from attendees to develop recommendations to ensure that patients with intellectual and developmental disabilities, as well as an aging population with Alzheimer's disease and dementia, have access to appropriate oral health care in the years ahead. Over 100 participants, representing dentistry, hospital training programs, third-party payers, state government offices and related patient support associations, attended the two-day event in Albany. They focused on the impact of reductions in funding, the transition of Medicaid services into a managed care model, a loss of service providers and the need for expanded training programs. They heard from speakers epresenting a broad spectrum of those involved in he oral health care of patients with intellectual and evelopmental disabilities, the Alzheimer's Association, dental educators and researchers, hospital dentistry and the benefits industry, whose presentations focused on a looming oral health crisis threatening access to dental care for patients with disabilities.

  17. Chaos and Crisis: Propositions for a General Theory of Crisis Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeger, Matthew W.

    2002-01-01

    Presents key concepts of chaos theory (CT) as a general framework for describing organizational crisis and crisis communication. Discusses principles of predictability, sensitive dependence on initial conditions, bifurcation as system breakdown, emergent self-organization, and fractals and strange attractors as principles of organization. Explores…

  18. Crisis in the Curriculum? New Counselors' Crisis Preparation, Experiences, and Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Carrie A. Wachter; Minton, Casey A. Barrio

    2012-01-01

    Professional counselors are responsible for providing crisis assessment, referral, and intervention (Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs, 2009); however, little is known about their preparation and experiences in these areas. This study examined new professional counselors' (N= 193) crisis intervention…

  19. [The economic-financial crisis and health in Spain. Evidence and viewpoints. SESPAS report 2014].

    PubMed

    Cortès-Franch, Imma; González López-Valcárcel, Beatriz

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of the SESPAS 2014 Report are as follows: a) to analyze the impact of the economic crisis on health and health-related behaviors, on health inequalities, and on the determinants of health in Spain; b) to describe the changes in the Spanish health system following measures to address the crisis and assess its potential impact on health; c) to review the evidence on the health impact of economic crises in other countries, as well as policy responses; and d) to suggest policy interventions alternative to those carried out to date with a population health perspective and scientific evidence in order to help mitigate the impact of the economic downturn on health and health inequalities. The report is organized in five sections: 1) the economic, financial and health crisis: causes, consequences, and contexts; 2) the impact on structural determinants of health and health inequalities; 3) the impact on health and health-related behaviors, and indicators for monitoring; 4) the impact on health systems; and 5) the impact on specific populations: children, seniors, and immigrants. There is some evidence on the relationship between the crisis and the health of the Spanish population, health inequalities, some changes in lifestyle, and variations in access to health services. The crisis has impacted many structural determinants of health, particularly among the most vulnerable population groups. Generally, policy responses on how to manage the crisis have not taken the evidence into account. The crisis may contribute to making public policy vulnerable to corporate action, thus jeopardizing the implementation of healthy policies.

  20. Health outcomes during the 2008 financial crisis in Europe: systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Parmar, Divya; Ioannidis, John P A

    2016-01-01

    Objective To systematically identify, critically appraise, and synthesise empirical studies about the impact of the 2008 financial crisis in Europe on health outcomes. Design Systematic literature review. Data sources Structural searches of key databases, healthcare journals, and organisation based websites. Review methods Empirical studies reporting on the impact of the financial crisis on health outcomes in Europe, published from January 2008 to December 2015, were included. All selected studies were assessed for risk of bias. Owing to the heterogeneity of studies in terms of study design and analysis and the use of overlapping datasets across studies, studies were analysed thematically per outcome, and the evidence was synthesised on different health outcomes without formal meta-analysis. Results 41 studies met the inclusion criteria, and focused on suicide, mental health, self rated health, mortality, and other health outcomes. Of those studies, 30 (73%) were deemed to be at high risk of bias, nine (22%) at moderate risk of bias, and only two (5%) at low risk of bias, limiting the conclusions that can be drawn. Although there were differences across countries and groups, there was some indication that suicides increased and mental health deteriorated during the crisis. The crisis did not seem to reverse the trend of decreasing overall mortality. Evidence on self rated health and other indicators was mixed. Conclusions Most published studies on the impact of financial crisis on health in Europe had a substantial risk of bias; therefore, results need to be cautiously interpreted. Overall, the financial crisis in Europe seemed to have had heterogeneous effects on health outcomes, with the evidence being most consistent for suicides and mental health. There is a need for better empirical studies, especially those focused on identifying mechanisms that can mitigate the adverse effects of the crisis. PMID:27601477

  1. Effects of Supervision in the Training of Nonprofessional Crisis-Intervention Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, William W., Jr.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This study evaluated three major models currently used by crisis-intervention centers to train and supervise nonprofessional counselors. Training groups included preservice training only (PSO), preservice training and delayed supervision (PSD), and preservice training and immediate supervision (PSI). Findings indicate most learning by…

  2. Osage Avenue Is Burning: The Influence of Race upon Crisis Public Relations in Philadelphia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Robert L.; Boles, Wendy Gotchel

    A study examined public relations aspects of the police confrontation and bombing of the revolutionary Black group, MOVE, in Philadelphia, in which 11 persons were killed, 250 were left homeless, and 61 homes were destroyed. It explored if and how race affected the crisis and whether Black media and general media were treated differently. City…

  3. Open Distance Learning for Development: Lessons from Strengthening Research Capacity on Gender, Crisis Prevention, and Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babu, Suresh Chandra; Ferguson, Jenna; Parsai, Nilam; Almoguera, Rose

    2013-01-01

    This paper documents the experience and lessons from implementing an e-learning program aimed at creating research capacity for gender, crisis prevention, and recovery. It presents a case study of bringing together a multidisciplinary group of women professionals through both online and face-to-face interactions to learn the skills needed to be a…

  4. HRD Challenges Faced in the Post-Global Financial Crisis Period--Insights from the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeble-Ramsay, Diane Rose; Armitage, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to report initial empirical research that examines UK employees' perceptions of the changing nature of work since the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) to consider how the financial context may have constrained HRD practice and more sustainable approaches. Design/methodology/approach: Focus group research was facilitated…

  5. Accelerating and Braking in Times of Economic Crisis: Organisational Learning in a Top Management Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallo, Andreas; Kock, Henrik; Nilsson, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to present the results of a study of an industrial company's top management team (TMT) that fought to survive an economic crisis. Specifically, the article seeks to focus on describing the TMT's composition, group processes, and work during a period of high external pressure; analysing the TMT's work in…

  6. 'You're Not Able to Breathe': Conceptualizing the Intersectionality of Early Career, Gender and Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misiaszek, Lauren Ila

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on data from nine focus groups in four countries, I argue for the need to develop a research agenda around the intersectionality of early career, gender and crisis. I first give a brief explanation of the background, methodology and limitations of the study. Second, I lay out some key conceptualizations and their own limitations and then…

  7. Effects of the financial crisis on the wealth distribution of Korea's companies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Kyuseong; Kim, Soo Yong; Swanson, Todd; Kim, Jooyun

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the distribution functions of Korea's top-rated companies during two financial crises. A power-law scaling for rank distribution, as well as cumulative probability distribution, was found and observed as a general pattern. Similar distributions can be shown in other studies of wealth and income distributions. In our study, the Pareto exponents designating the distribution differed before and after the crisis. The companies covered in this research are divided into two subgroups during a period when the subprime mortgage crisis occurred. Various industrial sectors of Korea's companies were found to respond differently during the two financial crises, especially the construction sector, financial sectors, and insurance groups.

  8. The Puerto Rico Healthcare Crisis.

    PubMed

    Roman, Jesse

    2015-12-01

    The Commonwealth of Puerto Rico is an organized nonincorporated territory of the United States with a population of more than 3.5 million U.S. citizens. The island has been the focus of much recent attention due to the recent default on its debt (estimated at more than $70 billion), high poverty rates, and increasing unemployment. Less attention, however, has been given to the island's healthcare system, which many believe is on the verge of collapsing. Healthcare makes up 20% of the Puerto Rican economy, and this crisis affects reimbursement rates for physicians while promoting the disintegration of the island's healthcare infrastructure. A major contributor relates to a disparity in federal funding provided to support the island's healthcare system when compared with that provided to the states in the mainland and Hawaii. Puerto Rico receives less federal funding for healthcare than the other 50 states and the District of Columbia even though it pays its share of social security and Medicare taxes. To make matters worse, the U.S. Center for Medicaid and Medicare Services is planning soon to implement another 11% cut in Medical Advantage reimbursements. This disparity in support for healthcare is considered responsible for ∼$25 billion of Puerto Rico's total debt. The impact of these events on the health of Puerto Ricans in the island cannot be entirely predicted, but the loss of healthcare providers and diminished access to care are a certainty, and quality care will suffer, leading to serious implications for those with chronic medical disorders including respiratory disease.

  9. [Impact of the economic crisis on the right to a healthy diet. SESPAS report 2014].

    PubMed

    Antentas, Josep Maria; Vivas, Esther

    2014-06-01

    The present article analyzes the impact of the economic crisis on food consumption in Spain, the most affected social profiles, and the consequences of changing patterns of food consumption on health. This article is based on official reports and previous empirical studies. The crisis has affected diet and food consumption. Families are attempting to spend less money on food. Food insecurity is rising and the most affected groups are those spending a higher proportion of their income on food. Cuts in food spending run parallel with unhealthy eating habits that encourage obesity. Consequently, the crisis contributes to undermining the right to a healthy diet, recognized by the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights of the United Nations.

  10. "We belong to them": the costs of funding for rape crisis centers.

    PubMed

    Maier, Shana L

    2011-11-01

    This research explores the transformation of rape crisis centers and whether directors, staff, interns, and volunteers see changes as beneficial or detrimental to rape crisis centers and the victims they serve. Data from 63 interviews with directors, staff, interns, and volunteers from six rape crisis centers located in four East Coast states indicate that although centers may have been formed for different reasons depending on when they opened, all have become more professional, rely less on volunteers, engage in more collaboration with other agencies, and have largely abandoned their traditional activism agenda. Traditional activism through political protests and membership in consciousness raising groups has been replaced by community education and outreach. Some of these changes are viewed as positive whereas others are viewed as negative.

  11. Financial crisis, austerity, and health in Europe.

    PubMed

    Karanikolos, Marina; Mladovsky, Philipa; Cylus, Jonathan; Thomson, Sarah; Basu, Sanjay; Stuckler, David; Mackenbach, Johan P; McKee, Martin

    2013-04-13

    The financial crisis in Europe has posed major threats and opportunities to health. We trace the origins of the economic crisis in Europe and the responses of governments, examine the effect on health systems, and review the effects of previous economic downturns on health to predict the likely consequences for the present. We then compare our predictions with available evidence for the effects of the crisis on health. Whereas immediate rises in suicides and falls in road traffic deaths were anticipated, other consequences, such as HIV outbreaks, were not, and are better understood as products of state retrenchment. Greece, Spain, and Portugal adopted strict fiscal austerity; their economies continue to recede and strain on their health-care systems is growing. Suicides and outbreaks of infectious diseases are becoming more common in these countries, and budget cuts have restricted access to health care. By contrast, Iceland rejected austerity through a popular vote, and the financial crisis seems to have had few or no discernible effects on health. Although there are many potentially confounding differences between countries, our analysis suggests that, although recessions pose risks to health, the interaction of fiscal austerity with economic shocks and weak social protection is what ultimately seems to escalate health and social crises in Europe. Policy decisions about how to respond to economic crises have pronounced and unintended effects on public health, yet public health voices have remained largely silent during the economic crisis.

  12. Group Psychotherapy in Italy.

    PubMed

    Giannone, Francesca; Giordano, Cecilia; Di Blasi, Maria

    2015-10-01

    This article describes the history and the prevailing orientations of group psychotherapy in Italy (psychoanalytically oriented, psychodrama, CBT groups) and particularly group analysis. Provided free of charge by the Italian health system, group psychotherapy is growing, but its expansion is patchy. The main pathways of Italian training in the different group psychotherapy orientations are also presented. Clinical-theoretical elaboration on self development, psychopathology related to group experiences, and the methodological attention paid to objectives and methods in different clinical groups are issues related to group therapy in Italy. Difficulties in the relationship between research and clinical practice are discussed, as well as the empirical research network that tries to bridge the gap between research and clinical work in group psychotherapy. The economic crisis in Italy has led to massive cuts in health care and to an increasing demand for some forms of psychological treatment. For these reasons, and because of its positive cost-benefit ratio, group psychotherapy is now considered an important tool in the national health care system to expand the clinical response to different forms of psychological distress.

  13. Role of Committed Minorities in Times of Crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turalska, Malgorzata; Grigolini, Paolo; West, Bruce J.

    2013-03-01

    The surprising social phenomena of the Arab Spring and the Occupy Wall Street movement posit the question of whether the active role of committed groups may produce political changes of significant importance. Under what conditions are the convictions of a minority going to dominate the future direction of a society? We use a Cooperative Decision Making (CDM) model to study the effect of committed minorities on group behavior in time of crisis. The CDM model has been shown to generate consensus through a phase-transition process that at criticality establishes long-range correlations among the individuals within a model society. In a condition of high consensus, the correlation function vanishes, thereby making the network recover the ordinary locality condition. However, this state is not permanent and times of crisis occur when there is an ambiguity concerning a given social issue. The correlation function within the cooperative system becomes similarly extended as it is observed at criticality. This combination of independence (free will) and long-range correlation makes it possible for very small but committed minorities to produce substantial changes in social consensus.

  14. An evaluation of crisis hotline outcomes. Part 1: Nonsuicidal crisis callers.

    PubMed

    Kalafat, John; Gould, Madelyn S; Munfakh, Jimmie Lou Harris; Kleinman, Marjorie

    2007-06-01

    The effectiveness of telephone crisis services/hotlines, examining proximal outcomes as measured by changes in callers' crisis state from the beginning to the end of their calls to eight centers in the U.S. and intermediate outcomes within 3 weeks of their calls, was evaluated. Between March 2003 and July 2004, 1,617 crisis callers were assessed during their calls and 801 (49.5%) participated in the followup assessment. Significant decreases in callers' crisis states and hopelessness were found during the course of the telephone session, with continuing decreases in crisis states and hopelessness in the following weeks. A majority of callers were provided with referrals and/or plans of actions for their concerns and approximately one third of those provided with mental health referrals had followed up with the referral by the time of the follow-up assessment. While crisis service staff coded these callers as nonsuicidal, at follow-up nearly 12% of them reported having suicidal thoughts either during or since their call to the center. The need to conduct suicide risk assessments with crisis callers and to identify strategies to improve referral follow-up is highlighted.

  15. Consumer experience of formal crisis-response services and preferred methods of crisis intervention.

    PubMed

    Boscarato, Kara; Lee, Stuart; Kroschel, Jon; Hollander, Yitzchak; Brennan, Alice; Warren, Narelle

    2014-08-01

    The manner in which people with mental illness are supported in a crisis is crucial to their recovery. The current study explored mental health consumers' experiences with formal crisis services (i.e. police and crisis assessment and treatment (CAT) teams), preferred crisis supports, and opinions of four collaborative interagency response models. Eleven consumers completed one-on-one, semistructured interviews. The results revealed that the perceived quality of previous formal crisis interventions varied greatly. Most participants preferred family members or friends to intervene. However, where a formal response was required, general practitioners and mental health case managers were preferred; no participant wanted a police response, and only one indicated a preference for CAT team assistance. Most participants welcomed collaborative crisis interventions. Of four collaborative interagency response models currently being trialled internationally, participants most strongly supported the Ride-Along Model, which enables a police officer and a mental health clinician to jointly respond to distressed consumers in the community. The findings highlight the potential for an interagency response model to deliver a crisis response aligned with consumers' preferences.

  16. Crisis Communication: The Business Communicator's Strategies for Communicating under Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vielhaber, Mary E.

    1990-01-01

    Uses the 1979 Three Mile Island nuclear plant accident to illustrate the communication problems embedded in a crisis. Describes the reactions created by the stress related to crisis. Suggests business communication strategies for improving communication to the public. (SR)

  17. Veterans Crisis Line: Videos About Reaching out for Help

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Involved Crisis Centers About Be There Show You Care Find Resources Graphic Generator Toolkit Signs of Crisis ... out for help. Bittersweet More Videos from Veterans Health Administration Watch additional videos about getting help. Be ...

  18. Utilization of medical care following the Three Mile Island crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Houts, P.S.; Hu, T.W.; Henderson, R.A.; Cleary, P.D.; Tokuhata, G.

    1984-02-01

    Four studies are reported on how utilization of primary health care was affected by the Three Mile Island (TMI) crisis and subsequent distress experienced by persons living in the vicinity of the plant. The studies concerned: Blue Cross-Blue Shield records of claims by primary care physicians in the vicinity of TMI; utilization rates in a family practice located near the facility; interviews with persons living within five miles of TMI following the crisis; and responses to a questionnaire by primary care physicians practicing within 25 miles of TMI. All four studies indicated only slight increases in utilization rates during the year following the crisis. One study found that persons who were upset during the crisis tended to be high practice utilizers both before and after the crisis. These results suggest that, while patterns of physician utilization prior to the TMI crisis predicted emotional response during the crisis, the impact of the TMI crisis on subsequent physician utilization was small.

  19. On the Epistemological Crisis in Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Edward R

    2008-01-01

    There is an epistemological crisis in genomics. At issue is what constitutes scientific knowledge in genomic science, or systems biology in general. Does this crisis require a new perspective on knowledge heretofore absent from science or is it merely a matter of interpreting new scientific developments in an existing epistemological framework? This paper discusses the manner in which the experimental method, as developed and understood over recent centuries, leads naturally to a scientific epistemology grounded in an experimental-mathematical duality. It places genomics into this epistemological framework and examines the current situation in genomics. Meaning and the constitution of scientific knowledge are key concerns for genomics, and the nature of the epistemological crisis in genomics depends on how these are understood. PMID:19440447

  20. Crisis bifurcations in plane Poiseuille flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zammert, Stefan; Eckhardt, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Many shear flows follow a route to turbulence that has striking similarities to bifurcation scenarios in low-dimensional dynamical systems. Among the bifurcations that appear, crisis bifurcations are important because they cause global transitions between open and closed attractors, or indicate drastic increases in the range of the state space that is covered by the dynamics. We here study exterior and interior crisis bifurcations in direct numerical simulations of transitional plane Poiseuille flow in a mirror-symmetric subspace. We trace the state space dynamics from the appearance of the first three-dimensional exact coherent structures to the transition from an attractor to a chaotic saddle in an exterior crisis. For intermediate Reynolds numbers, the attractor undergoes several interior crises, in which new states appear and intermittent behavior can be observed. The bifurcations contribute to increasing the complexity of the dynamics and to a more dense coverage of state space.

  1. Commercial speech in crisis: Crisis Pregnancy Center regulations and definitions of commercial speech.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Kathryn E

    2013-02-01

    Recent attempts to regulate Crisis Pregnancy Centers, pseudoclinics that surreptitiously aim to dissuade pregnant women from choosing abortion, have confronted the thorny problem of how to define commercial speech. The Supreme Court has offered three potential answers to this definitional quandary. This Note uses the Crisis Pregnancy Center cases to demonstrate that courts should use one of these solutions, the factor-based approach of Bolger v. Youngs Drugs Products Corp., to define commercial speech in the Crisis Pregnancy Center cases and elsewhere. In principle and in application, the Bolger factor-based approach succeeds in structuring commercial speech analysis at the margins of the doctrine.

  2. Vapor layers reduce drag without the crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakarelski, Ivan; Berry, Joseph; Chan, Derek; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur

    2016-11-01

    The drag of a solid sphere moving in fluid is known to be only a function of the Reynolds number, Re and diminishes rapidly at the drag crisis around Re 3 ×105. A Leidenfrost vapor layer on a hot sphere surface can trigger the onset of the drag crisis at lower Re. By using a range of high viscosity perfluorocarbon liquids, we show that the drag reduction effect, can occur over a wide range of Re, from as low as 600. The Navier slip model with a viscosity dependent slip length captures the observed drag reduction and wake shape.

  3. Caring for adolescents and families in crisis.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Cindy

    2003-03-01

    Nurses are likely to see adolescents and their families in a variety of practice settings. Recognizing the youth and family at risk is significant in helping them resolve a stressful situation by mobilizing resources and strengthening coping and problem-solving skills. This article has focused on several areas, including suicide and depression, sex-related issues, substance abuse, and poor academic performance. Helping the youth and family in crisis challenges the nurse to use astute assessment skills that support a patient-centered crisis intervention model. During a time when cost-effective mental health care is a necessity, this model offers nurses an opportunity to provide quality health care.

  4. Greece's health crisis: from austerity to denialism.

    PubMed

    Kentikelenis, Alexander; Karanikolos, Marina; Reeves, Aaron; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2014-02-22

    Greece's economic crisis has deepened since it was bailed out by the international community in 2010. The country underwent the sixth consecutive year of economic contraction in 2013, with its economy shrinking by 20% between 2008 and 2012, and anaemic or no growth projected for 2014. Unemployment has more than tripled, from 7·7% in 2008 to 24·3% in 2012, and long-term unemployment reached 14·4%. We review the background to the crisis, assess how austerity measures have affected the health of the Greek population and their access to public health services, and examine the political response to the mounting evidence of a Greek public health tragedy.

  5. Facing the Crisis: Third World Agriculture in the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Ajit; Tabatabai, Hamid

    1990-01-01

    Examines how developing nations' agrarian economy fared in the 1980s in the wake of the world economic crisis. Discusses how the economic crisis affected agricultural development and whether the performance of the agrarian economy was responsible for the economic crisis. (JOW)

  6. Responding to the Unthinkable: School Crisis Response and Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Katherine C.; Rossen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The mental health implications of crisis exposure have emerged as a critical and challenging facet of school safety and crisis response, expanding our focus to encompass both psychological and physical safety, as well as prevention and recovery. Best practice reflects this evolution in our understanding and encompasses the continuum of crisis and…

  7. Write the Plan before You Have the Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirth, Eileen

    2002-01-01

    Outlines the development process and essential elements of a crisis communication strategy. Key steps include: (1) selecting a spokesperson; (2) publicizing the spokesperson's identity; (3) preparing a crisis notebook; (4) providing cell phones; (5) choosing a news conference location; (6) rehearsing crisis scenarios; and (7) obtaining interview…

  8. Common Errors in School Crisis Response: Learning from Our Mistakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell, Dewey G.; Sheras, Peter L.

    1998-01-01

    Describes five school crises. In each case example, errors in crisis management by school staff exacerbated the crisis and resulted in deleterious consequences for the school, its students, and the surrounding community. Identifies common themes of leadership, teamwork, and responsibility that are critical to successful crisis management.…

  9. Being PREPaREd for Crisis in Northern Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Kathy; Malvey, Michelle; Rastatter, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The Thompson School District recognized after the Columbine incident in the spring of 1999 that it was lacking an adequate plan for crisis response. Colorado legislation led to a mandate for having a crisis response plan so the district purchased a "canned" crisis response plan that served the needs of response in a very immediate but…

  10. Governing during an Institutional Crisis: 10 Fundamental Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    In today's world, managing a campus crisis poses special challenges for an institution's governing board, which may operate some distance removed from the immediate events giving rise to the crisis. In its most challenging form, a campus crisis--a shooting, a natural disaster, a fraternity hazing death, the arrest of a prominent campus…

  11. The Alpha Crisis Game. Origins of World War I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbitt, William A.

    The Alpha Crisis Game, a simulation for secondary students about the outbreak of World War I, is intended as an introduction to a case study of the July 1917 crisis. Playing in teams while deciding among the action choices to solve the crisis situation, students act as heads of state and ministers of five mythical European countries, when an…

  12. The limits of technology in nuclear crisis management

    SciTech Connect

    White, P.C.

    1986-01-01

    For some purposes, one may consider the roles of technology in nuclear crisis management to fall into four categories. Certain technologies, such as signals intelligence, may assist in monitoring for the emergence of crisis precursors. Other kinds of surveillance, such as that by certain satellites, are intended to detect phenomena, such as missile launches, which clearly signal the transition from pre-crisis to mid-crisis. During this phase, communications and surveillance technologies may be called upon to aid in managing the crisis. Finally, communications technologies will play a vital role in crisis resolution, preferably during the pre-crisis phase, but in mid-crisis if necessary. It has long been recognized that a large fraction of these technical means are vulnerable, both to selective, direct attack, and to the unintended, collateral effects of conflict itself. Systematic efforts are underway to make these systems more robust and survivable in crisis environments, but one must clearly recognize the limits of technology. In particular, one must weigh very seriously the implications and possible consequences of intentional, direct attack, including decapitation, on just those means which may permit timely crisis resolution. In the end, these technologies may prove so vulnerable, that nations may be forced to rely on pre-crisis planning, including force structuring, clearly defined options planning, and clear statements of intent, in order to permit any sort of mid-crisis resolution and conflict termination.

  13. How Should the Financial Crisis Change How We Teach Economics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiller, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Student dissatisfaction with teaching of economics--particularly with macroeconomics--during the current financial crisis mirrors dissatisfaction that was expressed during the last big crisis, the Great Depression. Then and now, a good number of students have felt that their lectures bear little relation to the economic crisis raging outside the…

  14. Crisis GIS: Preparing for the Next Volcanic Crisis in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, D. W.; Robinson, J. E.; Schilling, S. P.; Schaefer, J. R.; Kimberly, P.; Trusdell, F. A.; Guffanti, M. C.; Mayberry, G. C.; Cameron, C. E.; Smith, J. G.; McIntire, J. A.; Snedigar, S.; Ewert, J. W.

    2004-12-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) specialists from the Volcano Hazards Program (VHP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), including personnel at Menlo Park, California, the Cascades Volcano Observatory in Vancouver, Washington, the Alaska Volcano Observatory in Anchorage and Fairbanks, Alaska, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory in Hawaii National Park, Hawaii, and the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program in Washington, DC, are developing a GIS response plan in the event of a volcano crisis. This plan, referred to as "Crisis GIS", outlines how VHP can ensure rapid, reliable delivery of spatial and ancillary information for data analysis and visualization at any required location during a volcanic crisis or event within the United States. An effective Crisis GIS needs the capacity to store multiple, large datasets, including: base layer data, elevation data, geologic maps, hazard assessment maps, satellite data, and aerial photography for volcanoes around the U.S. It must be readily accessible by VHP GIS specialists stationed around the Nation. Such a GIS should also support installations of monitoring instruments and telemetry equipment that relay monitoring signals, and provision of updates to public officials, the media, and the public during a crisis. GIS technology has proven to be an invaluable tool for crisis response. Recently, GIS was applied as part of the response efforts to two large-scale crises: the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the Southern California wildfires of Fall 2003. In each case, GIS was used to organize large quantities of spatial data and to produce electronic and paper maps that illustrated hazards, supported decision making, and communicated developing situations to responsible emergency-management authorities and to the populace affected (Kant, 2002, and Pratt, 2003). VHP GIS specialists are currently testing the software and hardware employed in recent major crisis response efforts and are learning to adapt

  15. The importance of eating rice: changing food habits among pregnant Indonesian women during the economic crisis.

    PubMed

    Hartini, T Ninuk S; Padmawati, R Siwi; Lindholm, Lars; Surjono, Achmad; Winkvist, Anna

    2005-07-01

    This article presents qualitative and quantitative research findings on food habits of pregnant Indonesian women in relation to the economic crisis that arose in 1997. Between 1996 and 1998, dietary intakes were estimated for 450 pregnant women in Central Java. Between January and June 1999, four focus group discussions, 16 in-depth interviews and four non-participant observations were held with women, two in-depth interviews were held with traditional birth attendants, and four with midwives. Women were categorized as urban or rural, rich or poor, and according to rice field ownership. The women reported that before the crisis they bought more foods and cooked more meals and snacks. During the crisis, cooking methods became simpler and cooking tasty foods was more important than cooking nutritious foods. This involved using plenty of spices and cooking oil, but reducing the use of expensive nutritious foods. The herbal drink jamu was drunk by 15% of pregnant women; its consumption was lower during than before the economic crisis. Twenty-six percent of the women avoided certain foods due to food taboos, and most of these women avoided beneficial foods; this phenomenon decreased during the crisis among the rich and the rural, poor, landless women. In spite of increased prices for rice, women did not decrease their rice consumption during the crisis because rice was believed to have the highest value for survival, to provide strength during pregnancy and delivery, and to be easier to store and cook. Finally, children and husbands had highest priority in being served food, and women were the last to eat.

  16. Why the Economic Crisis Was Not Anticipated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    An article in the October 11 "New York Times" attributed the almost universal failure to anticipate the current economic crisis to "insanity"--more precisely, to a psychological inability to give proper weight to past events, so that if there is prosperity today people assume that it will last forever, even though they know that in the past booms…

  17. Crisis/Opportunity: 2011 WICHE Workplan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Public higher education has faced a crisis of massive proportions in the first decade of this millennium. Nevertheless, for higher education, this year represents a turning point and, yes, an opportunity. The opportunity, then, for the West is one that generations of Americans are familiar with: to do more with less. Dealing with scarcity--whether…

  18. The Public Library as Community Crisis Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Will, Barbara H.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the role of public libraries in helping their communities deal with crisis situations, especially after the September 11 terrorist attacks. Highlights include the need to be proactive and not wait to be asked to participate in planning; status of emergency planning; providing reliable information; and asking users about their information…

  19. Recasting perceptions of a water crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Knopman, D.S.

    1994-12-31

    The state of water resources is discussed from a historical and policy perspective. The author presents the different views of water conditions in the nation and the changes in institutional arrangements that are in progress now. In addition, she evaluates the fundamental qualities of water that make the notion of a crisis a hard sell in the US.

  20. Chromothripsis and kataegis induced by telomere crisis

    PubMed Central

    Maciejowski, John; Li, Yilong; Bosco, Nazario; Campbell, Peter J.; de Lange, Titia

    2015-01-01

    Telomere crisis occurs during tumorigenesis when depletion of the telomere reserve leads to frequent telomere fusions. The resulting dicentric chromosomes have been proposed to drive genome instability. Here we examine the fate of dicentric human chromosomes in telomere crisis. We observed that dicentric chromosomes invariably persisted through mitosis and developed into 50-200 μm chromatin bridges connecting the daughter cells. Before their resolution at 3-20 h after anaphase, the chromatin bridges induced nuclear envelope rupture in interphase, accumulated the cytoplasmic 3' nuclease TREX1, and developed RPA-coated single stranded (ss) DNA. CRISPR knockouts showed that TREX1 contributed to the generation of the ssDNA and the resolution of the chromatin bridges. Post-crisis clones showed chromothripsis and kataegis, presumably resulting from DNA repair and APOBEC editing of the fragmented chromatin bridge DNA. We propose that chromothripsis in human cancer may arise through TREX1-mediated fragmentation of dicentric chromosomes formed in telomere crisis. PMID:26687355

  1. Mental health in the foreclosure crisis.

    PubMed

    Houle, Jason N

    2014-10-01

    Current evidence suggests that the rise in home foreclosures that began in 2007 created feelings of stress, vulnerability, and sapped communities of social and economic resources. Minority and low SES communities were more likely to be exposed to predatory lending and hold subprime mortgages, and were the hardest hit by the foreclosure crisis. Little research has examined whether and how the foreclosure crisis has undermined population mental health. I use data from 2245 counties in 50 U.S. states to examine whether living in high foreclosure areas is associated with residents' mental health and whether the foreclosure crisis has the potential to exacerbate existing disparities in mental health during the recessionary period. I use county-level data from RealtyTrac and other data sources, and individual-level data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey from 2006 to 2011. I find that - net of time invariant unobserved between-county differences, national time trends, and observed confounders - a rise in a county's foreclosure rate is associated with a decline in residents' mental health. This association is especially pronounced in counties with a high concentration of low SES and minority residents, which supports the perspective that the foreclosure crisis has the potential to exacerbate existing social disparities in mental health.

  2. The Impact of Economic Crisis on Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudmundsdottir, Dora Gudrun

    2013-01-01

    There is a common belief that economic crisis will lead to a decrease in subjective wellbeing. Previous studies indicate that income is correlated with happiness and unemployment with unhappiness. The relationship between increased income and happiness is well documented while the impact of decreased income has been less explored. The aim of this…

  3. Arab-Americans and the Gulf Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noor Al-Deen, Hana S.

    A study examined the sentiment and impact of different types, channels, and forms of aggression against the Arab-American community during the Gulf Crisis. Data were selected from entries in the 1990 Anti-Arab Discrimination and Hate Crimes Log of the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination (ADC) National Office. Results show that there were 129 acts of…

  4. Crisis/Opportunity: 2011 Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    If there's one quality that WICHE's home region, the West, is famous for, it's endurance in the face of crisis. And if there's another, it's the ability to find--and make--opportunities even in tough times. Over the last fiscal year, WICHE has done just that. The organization has been highly successful in terms of developing new projects and…

  5. SAAB Tackling the Black, Brown Male Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluviose, David

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, dropping out of high school is a one-way ticket to prison for Black men. Recent research conducted by sociologists Becky Pettit and Bruce Western indicates that 3 percent of Whites and 20 percent of Blacks born between 1965 and 1969 had served time in prison by their early thirties. The crisis among Black and Hispanic men mobilized…

  6. Androgyny, Ego Development and Psychosocial Crisis Resolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prager, Karen J.; Bailey, John M.

    The present study examined the relationship of psychological androgyny with ego development in the context of Loevinger's theory, and with psychosocial crisis resolution from the perspective of Erikson's theory. A sample of 30 male and 30 female adults completed the Bem Sex Role Inventory, the Washington University Sentence Completion Test and the…

  7. The African Orphan Crisis and International Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roby, Jini L.; Shaw, Stacey A.

    2006-01-01

    The plight of Africa's AIDS orphans has reached crisis proportions, and the international community is beginning to mobilize at the family, community, national, and international levels. Despite these encouraging efforts, the response is inadequate, and increased attention and action are needed. The authors suggest that international adoption,…

  8. EDUCATION AND THE CRISIS OF OUR TIME.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MAYER, FREDERICK

    THE OPINIONS OF SEVERAL EXISTENTIAL THINKERS AND OTHER PHILOSOPHERS PROVIDE A FRAMEWORK FOR THIS DISCUSSION OF THE CRISIS OF MODERN CIVILIZATION. IT IS FELT THAT EDUCATION BOTH REFLECTS AND IS A FORCE IN THE STANDARDIZATION, MECHANIZATION, AND DEHUMANIZATION OF CONTEMPORARY LIFE. HOWEVER, EDUCATION CAN PLAY A CONSTRUCTIVE ROLE AS AN INSTRUMENT OF…

  9. Threat Assessment Teams Target School Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Del

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the creation of a threat-assessment team to be utilized in order to analyze each threat and the usage of threat-assessment protocols for the purpose of guiding school administrators through a crisis. These are actually developed with the advice from the US Department of Education and the Secret Service. When a…

  10. The Crisis in Air Pollution Manpower Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeller, Dade W.

    1974-01-01

    Three studies conducted by the National Air Pollution Manpower Development Advisory Committee concluded there is a crisis in air pollution manpower development within the United States today. The studies investigated the existing federal manpower program, air pollution educational requirements and the quality of graduate level university programs.…

  11. Building Map Skills: The Other Energy Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branson, Margaret S.

    1980-01-01

    As a means of helping students build map skills, the article presents information on how the energy crisis affects poor people in developing nations (lack of firewood, disappearing forests, erosion due to removal of ground cover). Presents a global map showing the extension of desert conditions and includes questions to help students analyze the…

  12. Characteristics of the Biopsychosocial Crisis of Infertility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Ellen Piel

    1987-01-01

    Presents a framework for understanding the crisis of infertility which is characterized by extensive anxiety, damaged self-esteem, grief, uncertainty about the future, and estranged relationships with each other and with family and friends. Proposes some interventions appropriate to helpers from a variety of disciplines. (ABB)

  13. Infertility: A Crisis with No Resolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Robert R.; Koraleski, Stephanie

    1990-01-01

    Discusses helpful ways for mental health counselors to work with infertile clients, explaining nature of infertility, psychological crisis it provokes, common reactions of infertile clients, and strategies to help clients cope. Discusses specific strategies for assessing clients' potential for suicide or self-destructive acts and improving their…

  14. Infertility: An Unanticipated and Prolonged Life Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrest, Linda; Gilbert, Mary S.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews literature on infertility with a focus on myths and misunderstandings about the causes of infertility; a description of the crisis of infertility including common psychological responses; the additional psychological complexity introduced by medical procedures and reproductive technology; and suggestions for mental health counselors.…

  15. Managing a Crisis with Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, T. Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Thanks to the proliferation of handheld devices and social media such as Facebook and Twitter, people can share information instantly and succinctly. The December 8, 2011, shooting on the Virginia Tech campus underscores how important it is for information to go out quickly but accurately to help school administrators effectively manage a crisis.…

  16. Death and Dying Training for Crisis Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Theresa D.; Scherman, Avraham

    This document presents a program for training volunteers to assist individuals and families who are going through a crisis related to terminal illness and death. The training is described as being both didactic and experiential. A discussion of the didactic portion of the program includes descriptions of: (1) the stages of preparatory grief as…

  17. The crisis of 'identity' in high modernity.

    PubMed

    Bendle, Mervyn F

    2002-03-01

    The concept of 'identity' is central to much contemporary sociology, reflecting a crisis that manifests itself in two ways. Firstly, there is a view that identity is both vital and problematic in this period of high modernity. Secondly, while this awareness is reflected in sociology, its accounts of identity are inconsistent, under-theorized and incapable of bearing the analytical load required. As a result, there is an inherent contradiction between a valuing of identity as so fundamental as to be crucial to personal well-being, and a theorization of 'identity' that sees it as something constructed, fluid, multiple, impermanent and fragmentary. The contemporary crisis of identity thus expresses itself as both a crisis of society, and a crisis of theory. This paper explores the diverse ways in which 'identity' is deployed before turning to case-studies of its use by Anthony Giddens and Manuel Castells. This strategy demonstrates the widespread and diverse concern with identity before exploring how problematic it has become, even in the work of two of the world's leading sociologists.

  18. [Intraoperative crisis and surgical Apgar score].

    PubMed

    Oshiro, Masakatsu; Sugahara, Kazuhiro

    2014-03-01

    Intraoperative crisis is an inevitable event to anesthesiologists. The crisis requires effective and coordinated management once it happened but it is difficult to manage the crises properly under extreme stressful situation. Recently, it is reported that the use of surgical crisis checklists is associated with significant improvement in the management of operating-room crises in a high-fidelity simulation study. Careful preoperative evaluation, proper intraoperative management and using intraoperative crisis checklists will be needed for safer perioperative care in the future. Postoperative complication is a serious public health problem. It reduces the quality of life of patients and raises medical cost. Careful management of surgical patients is required according to their postoperative condition for preventing postoperative complications. A 10-point surgical Apgar score, calculated from intraoperative estimated blood loss, lowest mean arterial pressure, and lowest heart rate, is a simple and available scoring system for predicting postoperative complications. It undoubtedly predicts higher than average risk of postoperative complications and death within 30 days of surgery. Surgical Apgar score is a bridge between proper intraoperative and postoperative care. Anesthesiologists should make effort to reduce the postoperative complication and this score is a tool for it.

  19. In a Crisis, Count to 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koplik, Stanley Z.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    In a campus crisis, while administrators address immediate needs, trustees must find a balance between involvement and oversight. Trustees should respond by developing a worst-case strategy; establishing early warning systems; defining "due diligence"; emphasizing candor and honesty; picking one spokesperson; protecting institutional privacy;…

  20. Community Health Crisis: Solving the Nurse Shortage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitiello, Erie

    2003-01-01

    Describes how Los Rios Community College District (LRCCD), California, the major provider of nursing graduates to the Sacramento area, addressed the issue of the nursing shortage crisis. LRCCD faced the dual issues of student/faculty ratio restrictions of 10/1 and funding that accommodated a 40/1 ratio. Describes LRCCD's new off-campus,…

  1. Chromothripsis and Kataegis Induced by Telomere Crisis.

    PubMed

    Maciejowski, John; Li, Yilong; Bosco, Nazario; Campbell, Peter J; de Lange, Titia

    2015-12-17

    Telomere crisis occurs during tumorigenesis when depletion of the telomere reserve leads to frequent telomere fusions. The resulting dicentric chromosomes have been proposed to drive genome instability. Here, we examine the fate of dicentric human chromosomes in telomere crisis. We observed that dicentric chromosomes invariably persisted through mitosis and developed into 50-200 μm chromatin bridges connecting the daughter cells. Before their resolution at 3-20 hr after anaphase, the chromatin bridges induced nuclear envelope rupture in interphase, accumulated the cytoplasmic 3' nuclease TREX1, and developed RPA-coated single stranded (ss) DNA. CRISPR knockouts showed that TREX1 contributed to the generation of the ssDNA and the resolution of the chromatin bridges. Post-crisis clones showed chromothripsis and kataegis, presumably resulting from DNA repair and APOBEC editing of the fragmented chromatin bridge DNA. We propose that chromothripsis in human cancer may arise through TREX1-mediated fragmentation of dicentric chromosomes formed in telomere crisis.

  2. The Racial Crisis in American Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G., Ed.; Lomotey, Kofi, Ed.

    This collection of essays addresses the need for continued research in race-related issues on college campuses. The book examines the causes and the impact of campus racial tensions by studying some key university case studies and by investigating some of the underlying elements of the crisis. Essays and their authors are as follows: "The Racial…

  3. Crisis Paper Number 38. World Food Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atlantic Information Centre for Teachers, London (England).

    This paper is thirty-eighth in a series which expands the analysis of the crisis under discussion to provide a multinational view by quoting comment from a selection of newspapers of several countries. The issue presented here is the problem of world food shortages, which is briefly introduced in relation to the attemps at the Rome Conference to…

  4. Camp Crisis Management: Responding to New Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Will

    2002-01-01

    Camps should have crisis management plans. Steps to formulating a plan include involving appropriate off-site agencies, identifying potential threats, gathering resources, crafting an appropriate response, training via role-playing, managing incoming and outgoing information, and writing it down. Sidebars present resources, successful response…

  5. School Crisis Management Manual: Guidelines for Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Judie

    A disturbing escalation in campus emergencies compels school districts to draft effective crisis-management action plans. Effective plans can be devised that relieve burdens on principals and other school personnel, by diminishing chaos and panic, disseminating accurate information, attending to emotional strain on staff and students, and…

  6. The Cuban Missile Crisis. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Linda K.; McAuliffe, Mary

    1994-01-01

    Presents a secondary lesson plan based on primary sources recently released by the Central Intelligence Agency on the Cuban Missile Crisis. Provides a background essay on the event. Includes five maps and three documents, all of which have been declassified from top secret or secret status. (CFR)

  7. Effective Crisis Management at the Smaller Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Robert C.

    Pennsylvania State University Beaver Campus developed crisis guidelines and a formal working relationship with a local community mental health center in order to be able to deal with on-campus crises and their followup. The guidelines provide each employee with a single, easy-to-follow document that outlines the decision making process to be…

  8. Confidentiality in Crisis Counseling: A Philosophical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, David J.

    1984-01-01

    Crisis interventionists frequently confront a moral dilemma when violating client trust seems necessary if self-destructive behavior is to be prevented. Concern for client welfare and respect for client rights and autonomy which are grounded in Utilitarianism and Kantian Formalism, respectively, conflict in such cases. These theories are examined,…

  9. School Leadership in Times of Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Larry; Riley, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The leadership attributes and skills required of school leaders in times of crisis are fundamentally different from those generally required as part of the "normal" school environment. Strong school leadership generally is about positioning the school for the future, and about supporting and empowering staff and students in the pursuit of teaching…

  10. Family Crisis Intervention Program. Clark County, Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Patricia S.; And Others

    This guide documents cost effective methods of providing community-based alternative court intervention services to youth. The service program was designed to assist adolescent status offenders and their families in resolving the underlying problems which bring the youths to the attention of the juvenile system. A Family Crisis Intervention Center…

  11. Curriculum Reform: The Crisis in Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyton, Edith

    1984-01-01

    Education currently faces a crisis in curriculum reform which presents a danger to pedagogical programs. Changes in teacher education programs should be based on research and should be accomplished by a reflective and rational process. Methods of reform are explored. (DF)

  12. Crisis Management in a Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, Colette

    2004-01-01

    Dunblane Primary School, Scotland, and Columbine High School, USA. Two headline tragedies that have led to trauma for their pupils and staff. Trauma that could be devastating because of the psychological impact and the practical requirements a crisis brings. Children's social and personal development can be negatively affected, their academic…

  13. Simulating a Volcanic Crisis in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harpp, Karen S.; Sweeney, William J.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on the design of a multi-week cooperative learning activity for an undergraduate introductory volcanology class which culminates in the simulation of a volcanic monitoring crisis. Suggests that this activity creates an effective and exciting learning environment in which students have the opportunity to apply theoretical concepts to a more…

  14. Preparing to Help Students after a Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E.; Cowan, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    Generally, when a student or a staff member coped with the psychological aftermath of a tragedy, they did so without the involvement-or responsibility-of school personnel. But educators have come to recognize that schools play a critical role in any crisis response and care system serving children and youth. This is true whether teachers are…

  15. From Crisis to Renewal: One School's Journey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelcher, Ann M.

    2011-01-01

    This case study describes a time period of 6 years in the history of a school, a period marked by crisis recovery and organizational response to a mandated large-scale reform. Despite its challenges, when speaking of this period a number of the staff reflected on it as a kind of magical moment in time. Twenty years later, I began to wonder what…

  16. The Child Care and Housing Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewlett, Sylvia Ann

    1990-01-01

    Describes family support programs implemented by major corporations and labor organizations such as the International Brotherhood of the Teamsters and Corning Glass. Relates the effects of child neglect and the housing crisis on a nine-year-old boy in New York. (FMW)

  17. Forgotten Fundamentals of the Energy Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Albert A.

    1992-01-01

    Applies exponential growth and the speed of doubling times to the energy crises. Increases comprehension of this mathematical law and the significance of findings made through its use. Examines statements from authoritative sources on energy to illustrate the lack of understanding of arithmetic's relationship to the energy crisis. Suggests ways to…

  18. Adolescent Literacy: Putting the Crisis in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Vicki A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Vicki Jacobs argues that as the nation strives to improve the literacy achievement of U.S. adolescents, educators must reframe the current "crisis" as a critical point on a continuum of historical efforts to address the particular challenges of postprimary-grade reading. Specifically, Jacobs examines the definition of adolescent…

  19. Persuasion, Probity, and Paltering: The Prudential Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Betsy

    1999-01-01

    Examines Prudential's actions regarding misleading sales practices, its response to the ethical crisis, and the ways in which the organization communicated its response to stakeholders. Concludes that Prudential is making amends to its customers who were harmed by egregious sales practices, but considers how it may take the organization a long…

  20. Male Midlife Crisis and Career Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminski-daRoza, Victoria

    1984-01-01

    The author examines various aspects of male midlife crisis and its effects on the man's career, including the following: What are the implications for an organization, if behavioral changes or dissatisfaction with past patterns extends into the employee's job and leads this same individual to become a dissatisfied employee, to consider a career…

  1. Fortysomething: Helping Employees through the Midlife Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickle, Blair Warman; Maddox, Robert C.

    1988-01-01

    Although midlife transition is an emotional crisis for an individual, it means expensive turnover for the organization. There are three approaches an organization can take in dealing with midlife transitions: education, counseling, and restructuring jobs and tasks. Education is necessary before counseling and restructuring can begin. (JOW)

  2. In a Crisis, Focus on the People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Paul M.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author recalls a situation he encountered when a 4-year old boy inexplicably collapsed unconscious to the ground in the middle of his preschool classroom. She describes how the school had a detailed emergency and crisis plan in effect and how they utilized it while dealing with this situation. Sections include: (1) A Working…

  3. Television and the Crisis in the Humanities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Gary

    It is indeed a problem, perhaps even a crisis, that many Americans are ignorant of "The Tempest," the Civil War, the location of the Persian Gulf, the Constitution, or the chief justice of the Supreme Court. However, if conservative humanists continue to ostracize, scorn, and ignore both media studies and the media themselves, the result will not…

  4. America's Energy Crisis: Reality or Hysteria?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinrad, Bernard I.

    1971-01-01

    The American energy crisis is real in that our supplies of fuel which can meet standards imposed on utility emissions are short, and their price is high. It is artificial in that many of the standards could be partially relaxed, and cheaper fuel used by utilities without significant public insult. ...Nuclear power from fission is our best bet."…

  5. Juxtaposed Integration Matrix: A Crisis Communication Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    104 J-2 Qualitative interview response comparisons with regard to crisis communicaton .107 J-3 Levels of operation defined...Variables most supported by research in this category include: “ corporate business exposure; public relations access to the dominant coalition...dominant coalition’s decision power and enlightenment; corporation’s size; and individual characteristics of involved persons” corporate culture

  6. Assessing Cultural Competency in School Crisis Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annandale, Neil O.; Heath, Melissa Allen; Dean, Brenda; Kemple, Ana; Takino, Yozo

    2011-01-01

    This study reviewed school-based crisis planning resources and guidelines provided by 40 state departments of education and offices of safe and drug-free schools. Content was examined for indications of cultural competency. The most frequently reported topics included: (a) assisting students with mental and physical disabilities, (b) tapping into…

  7. Police Crisis Intervention. A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketterman, Thomas, Comp.; Kravitz, Marjorie, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography focuses attention on the techniques and training methods used by police during family crisis intervention. The introduction emphasizes the importance of this special aspect of police training, and mentions the different possible target audiences such programs may have: they may be directed to all recruits, to all…

  8. Counselors as Consultants during a National Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Leslie S.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes how counselors served as consultants to school division that had large student population of military dependents during Persian Gulf War. Examines impact of Persian Gulf War on the school division and its students and presents model for counselors who serve as consultants during crisis. Discusses counselors working as team with teachers,…

  9. Africa's New Crisis: A Dearth of Professors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindow, Megan

    2009-01-01

    With many professors approaching retirement. a shortage of qualified academics has reached crisis proportions at a number of African universities. The shortfall is a consequence of decades of neglect of African higher education, as donors and governments concentrated limited resources on primary and secondary schools, and young scholars who manage…

  10. Stop Rape Crisis Center: An Exemplary Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitcomb, Debra; And Others

    An exemplary project, the Stop Rape Crisis Center in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, which was initially funded by the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA), is described. Issues addressed include the following: (1) initlal start-up and continuing program assessment; (2) staffing and the use of volunteers; (3) coordination with law enforcement…

  11. [Clinical picture and differential diagnosis of the nephrotic crisis].

    PubMed

    Poliantseva, L P

    1985-01-01

    The nephrotic crisis, a grave complication of the nephrotic syndrome (NS) with a possible progress to the hypovolemic shock, was observed in 62 (6.2%) out of 1000 patients with the NS of different etiology (chronic glomerulonephritis, lupus nephritis, amyloidosis and other nephropathies). The main clinical symptoms of different stages of the nephrotic crisis are described, namely of the abdominal painful crisis, migrating erysipelas-like erythemas and the hypovolemic shock (collapse). The spectrum of diseases requiring the differential diagnosis with the nephrotic crisis is established. The complex of measures for the prophylaxis and treatment of the nephrotic crisis is proposed.

  12. The future of the welfare state: crisis myths and crisis realities.

    PubMed

    Castles, Francis G

    2002-01-01

    Accounts of the future of the welfare state are often presented in crisis terms. Some commentators identify globalization as a force that has already led to a major retreat by the state and is likely to lead to further downsizing of the public sector. Others see the future burden of an aging population as creating huge public expenditure pressures that can be countered only by increased parsimony in most areas of spending. Although both crisis scenarios contain elements of truth, analysis of recent public expenditure trends shows that both are substantially exaggerated as general representations of likely developments over the next two or three decades. However, unnoticed by most commentators, a real, longer-term crisis is beginning to make itself felt. This crisis arises, in part, from the demographic impact of a cultural transformation in the labor market, in progress for several decades. Extreme scenarios of possible consequences over the next 50 to 100 years include population implosion, mass migration, increasingly dangerous eruptions of right-wing populism, and, possibly, territorial conflict between developed and underdeveloped nations. This is not a crisis of the welfare state but rather a crisis for which the welfare state may be an essential part of the answer. The only way Western societies can lessen the future impact of the ongoing cultural transformation of the labor market is through the redesign of welfare state institutions to confront these new challenges.

  13. Understanding the importance of an energy crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mechtenberg, Abigail Reid

    Human development and energy, in general, and electrical energy, specifically, co-exist seamlessly in high HDI countries where reliability and availability is greater than 99%. In numerous low HDI countries, there is 2-50% electric grid availability with reliability at or below 50% due to load shedding and faults. In Africa, solar, wind, biomass and hydroelectric energy production are cited to meet growing demand and increase reliability and availability; however, the capital costs are greater than the ability-to-pay for wide scale implementation. Since the 1970s, the United States has continued to argue over the new sustainable energy infrastructure solution(s); thus resulting in no new infrastructure being built for wide scale implementation. Together the world is facing the daunting task of averting an energy crisis in developed countries and facing energy crises in developing countries. This thesis explores the importance of energy crises: from the past, current, and future. The first part entails arguing that the United States is not on a pathway to prevent an energy crisis based on an analysis of 1986 and 2004 niche and status-quo manufacturing of light-duty vehicles. The second part answers the question of what an energy crisis looks like by exploring and investigating current electrical energy crises in Fort Portal, Uganda. This part used both anthropological and physics education empowerment research to co-design and build for various energy crisis situations in hospitals, schools, and businesses all from locally available materials and expertise. Finally, looking into the US light-duty vehicle's future, I design a new hybrid vehicle powertrain (called transition mode hybrid). This third part describes my new patent as a way to avert an energy crisis in the light-duty transportation sector.

  14. A Crisis in the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Judith

    2003-01-01

    Violence in a mid-sized Midwestern city became the focus of national headlines recently, when a group of youth were charged in a fatal beating. The author reflects on how this tragic incident reminds us of the critical importance of community, and how community bonds can become fractured. (Author)

  15. Confronting the coral reef crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellwood, D. R.; Hughes, T. P.; Folke, C.; Nyström, M.

    2004-06-01

    The worldwide decline of coral reefs calls for an urgent reassessment of current management practices. Confronting large-scale crises requires a major scaling-up of management efforts based on an improved understanding of the ecological processes that underlie reef resilience. Managing for improved resilience, incorporating the role of human activity in shaping ecosystems, provides a basis for coping with uncertainty, future changes and ecological surprises. Here we review the ecological roles of critical functional groups (for both corals and reef fishes) that are fundamental to understanding resilience and avoiding phase shifts from coral dominance to less desirable, degraded ecosystems. We identify striking biogeographic differences in the species richness and composition of functional groups, which highlight the vulnerability of Caribbean reef ecosystems. These findings have profound implications for restoration of degraded reefs, management of fisheries, and the focus on marine protected areas and biodiversity hotspots as priorities for conservation.

  16. Beyond policy networks: policy framing and the politics of expertise in the 2001 Foot and Mouth Disease crisis.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Katy; Lowe, Philip; Donaldson, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    For the past decade, the policy community/issue network typology of pressure group interaction has been used to explain policy outcomes and the policy-making process. To re-examine the validity of this typology, the paper focuses on the UK government's response to the 2001 Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) crisis, and in particular the decision to pursue contiguous culling rather than vaccination to overcome the epidemic. Rather than illustrating the emergence of an issue network in agricultural policy, the decision-making process of the FMD outbreak demonstrates continuity with prior crises. In addition, the politicization of scientific expertise is identified as an emerging trend in crisis management. Policy framing is used to explain the impetus behind the contiguous cull decision, concluding that the legacy of previous policy choices conditioned the crisis response to a far greater degree than contemporaneous pressure group action.

  17. Comparison of Freshmen's Cognitive Frame about 'Crisis of the Earth' upon Taking the Earth Science 1 in High School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Duk Ho; Park, Seon Ok

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate if freshmen's cognitive frame about 'Crisis of the Earth' upon taking the Earth science 1I in high school reflects the school curriculum. The data was collected from 67 freshmen who'd graduated high school in formal education. They expressed 'Crisis of the Earth' as a painting with explanation and then we extracted units of meaning from paintings, respectively. We analyzed the words and frame using the Semantic Network Analysis. The result is as follows; First, as every participant forms the cognitive frame for the crisis of the Earth, it is shown that they connect each part which that composes the global environment and realize it as the changing relation with interaction. Secondly, forming a cognitive frame regarding crisis of the Earth, both groups connect it with human endeavor. Especially, it seems that the group of participants who finished Earth Science 1 fully reflects the course of the formal education. It is necessary to make the students recognize it from a universal point of view, not only from the Earth. Also, much effort is required in order to enlighten about the appropriateness regarding problem-solving of the Earth and expand their mind as time changes. Keywords : Earth Science 1, cognitive frame, crisis of the earth, semantic network analysis

  18. The effect of the subprime crisis on the credit risk in global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangwook; Kim, Min Jae; Lee, Sun Young; Kim, Soo Yong; Ban, Joon Hwa

    2013-05-01

    Credit default swap (CDS) has become one of the most actively traded credit derivatives, and its importance in finance markets has increased after the subprime crisis. In this study, we analyzed the correlation structure of credit risks embedded in CDS and the influence of the subprime crisis on this topological space. We found that the correlation was stronger in the cluster constructed according to the location of the CDS reference companies than in the one constructed according to their industries. The correlation both within a given cluster and between different clusters became significantly stronger after the subprime crisis. The causality test shows that the lead lag effect between the portfolios (into which reference companies are grouped by the continent where each of them is located) is reversed in direction because the portion of non-investable and investable reference companies in each portfolio has changed since then. The effect of a single impulse has increased and the response time relaxation has become prolonged after the crisis as well.

  19. Mistaken identity: normotensive scleroderma renal crisis

    PubMed Central

    Aburizik, Arwa; Singh, Siddharth; Al-Rabadi, Laith; Blosser, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    A patient presented with neuromuscular, respiratory and cardiac symptoms and was initially diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), myocardial ischaemia and pneumonia. He developed unexplained progressive kidney failure over the ensuing week, and his kidney biopsy showed thrombotic microangiopathy that led to the correct diagnosis of normotensive scleroderma renal crisis. His clinical presentation and course were consistent with systemic sclerosis and normotensive scleroderma renal crisis. He was treated with an ACE inhibitor (ACEi) and haemodialysis with significant functional improvement over the next 3 months to his prior baseline with the exception of kidney failure. This case highlights a diagnostic challenge requiring astute history and physical examination skills, and the value of a kidney biopsy in providing the final diagnosis. PMID:24876209

  20. Vanishing farmland: do we need a crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffords, J.M.

    1980-07-01

    Legislators should be able to balance conflicting demands enough to avoid a farmland crisis, but appropriate action has been as slow to address the problem of vanishing farmland as it has in developing national energy goals. The US responded to its vast land and energy resources in the same way, unable to comprehend a future of scarcity. The present food-supply situation is optimistic, but statistics show that 7% of prime US farmland is lost every year. Neither the reconversion of land nor the conversion of marginal land to productivity lend themselves to quick technological fixes. Besides food production, farmland is an area for recharging ground water and recycling wastes. To avoid a national crisis requiring national policies, local and state governments should be encouraged, through Federal legislation if necessary, to protect their land resources. (DCK)

  1. Crisis communication. Lessons from 9/11.

    PubMed

    Argenti, Paul

    2002-12-01

    The sheer enormity of last year's terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon gave new meaning to the term "crisis management." Suddenly, companies near Ground Zero, as well as those more than a thousand miles away, needed a plan. Because the disasters disrupted established channels not only between businesses and customers but between businesses and employees, internal crisis-communications strategies that could be quickly implemented became a key responsibility of top management. Without these strategies, employees' trauma and confusion might have immobilized their firms and set their customers adrift. In this article, executives from a range of industries talk about how their companies, including Morgan Stanley, Oppenheimer Funds, American Airlines, Verizon, the New York Times, Dell, and Starbucks, went about restoring operations and morale. From his interviews with these individuals, author and management professor Paul Argenti was able to distill a number of lessons, each of which, he says, may "serve as guideposts for any company facing a crisis that undermines its employees' composure, confidence, or concentration." His advice to senior executives includes: Maintain high levels of visibility, so that employees are certain of top management's command of the situation and concern; establish contingency communication channels and work sites; strive to keep employees focused on the business itself, because a sense of usefulness enhances morale and good morale enhances usefulness; and ensure that employees have absorbed the firm's values, which will guide them as they cope with the unpredictable. The most forward-thinking leaders realize that managing a crisis-communications program requires the same dedication and resources they give to other dimensions of their business. More important, they realize that their employees always come first.

  2. Implications of Organizational Planning for Crisis Relocation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    AD-A 23 956 IMPLICATIONS OF ORGANIZATIDNAL PLANNING FOR CRISIS RELOCATION(U) NORTH CAROLINA DEPT OF CRIME CONTROL AND PUBLIC SAFETY RALEIG.. M A...policies of the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Division of Emergency Management North Carolina Department of Crime Control and Public Safety...North Carolina Department of Crime Control and Work Unit 0 4412 1 Public Safety, 116 W.Jones St. ,Raleigh, NC 27611 II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND

  3. Fiscal Reality After the 2008 Financial Crisis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-24

    laid off millions of employees , driving the unemployment rate to a high of 10.2% in late 2008. Those jobless Americans and many more worried about...and Financial Instruments The US financial industry is the most efficient at allocating capital and has led the world in developing innovative ways ...mortgages that were based on lower lending standards. 8 8 Mortgage securitization contributed to the financial crisis in several ways . First, the

  4. Strategic Materials: A Crisis Waiting to Happen.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    A CRISIS WAITING TO HAPPEN10 THESIS F Terrence P. Long Tommy> J. Mc^lamr Captain, USAF Captain. USAF AFlIT/GLM/LSM/84S-40 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE...and do not necessarily * reflect the views of the School of Systems and Logistics, the- Air University, the United States Air Force, or the Department ...following U.S. Government Agencies: Bureau of Mines, Department of Commerce, Defense Intelligence Agency, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Central

  5. Bringing Space Crisis Stability Down to Earth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    the armed instruments of power brought to bear would operate in close proximity to the territory in question. China’s unilateral expansion of its...political situation or, in the case of nuclear- armed powers, abstracted from nuclear or strategic stability. Just as the expansion of the ADIZ must...massing forces in threatening ways, while also providing technical insights that helped to verify arms control regimes. During crisis and wartime

  6. Water crisis: ending the policy drought

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, T.L.

    1983-01-01

    When competition developed for water, property rights were overturned as water users turned to the government for guaranteed access. The costs and benefits of water use were separated, and demand increased faster than supply. Today these problems are growing more severe, and political conflict over water is increasing. Anderson explains how a new set of market-oriented institutions could head off the water crisis and reduce political conflicts. 180 references, 4 figures, 9 tables.

  7. Health care in Costa Rica: boom and crisis.

    PubMed

    Mesa-Lago, C

    1985-01-01

    In 1960-1980 Costa Rica experienced a health boom, achieving significant improvements which moved that country into the number two position in Latin America for indicators such as population coverage, infant mortality, life expectancy and health services. In addition, there was a gradual process of integration of health services. But in the same period, the cost of health care as a percentage of GNP increased almost 5-fold and in 1980 was the fourth highest in the region. The economic crisis of the 1980s aggravated the financial difficulties; to cope with them, the government introduced an austere program to reduce costs and plans to transform the current model of health care into a more efficient one capable of maintaining Costa Rica's high health standards in the future. The paper is divided into five sections: summary of the historical development of health care, and description of its current organization and of its gradual process of integration; estimation of population coverage and its trends, evaluation of inequalities in coverage, and identification of the non-covered group; analysis of health-care financing and its sources, as well of the recent financial desequilibrium, its causes and measures to restore the equilibrium; description of health care benefits and their differences among groups and regions, analysis of the country's advances in health-care facilities and standards, and measurement of the impact of the health care system in income distribution; and description of the rising cost of health care and the current crisis, analysis of the causes of both phenomena, and review of the measures that have been and should be implemented to solve these problems.

  8. SARS: Key factors in crisis management.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Hsin-Chao; Chen, Thai-Form; Chou, Shieu-Ming

    2005-03-01

    This study was conducted at a single hospital selected in Taipei during the SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) outbreak from March to July, 2003 in Taiwan. During this period of time, 104 SARS patients were admitted to the hospital. There were no negative reports related to the selected hospital despite its being located right in the center of an area struck by the epidemic. The purpose of this study was to identify the key factors enabling the hospital to survive SARS unscathed. Data were collected from in-depth interviews with the nursing directors and nursing managers of the SARS units, along with a review of relevant hospital documents. The five key elements identified as survival factors during this SARS crisis are as follows: 1. good control of timing for crisis management, 2. careful decision-making, 3. thorough implementation, 4. effective communication, and 5. trust between management and employees. The results of this study reconfirmed the selected hospital as a model for good crisis management during the SARS epidemic.

  9. [Thyroid storm--thyrotoxic crisis: an update].

    PubMed

    Karger, S; Führer, D

    2008-03-01

    Thyroid storm or thyrotoxic crisis is a rare but life-threatening condition requiring immediate treatment, preferably in an intensive care unit. Its incidence is about 1-2% among patients with overt hyperthyroidism. A thyrotoxic crisis occurs predominantly in the elderly and is three to five times more common in women than in men. The overall mortality is 10-20%. Even though the pathogenesis is still not fully understood, an increased sensitivity to catecholamines appears to be an important mechanism, and a number of endogenous and exogenous stress factors that can provoke the onset of a thyrotoxic storm have been identified. The diagnosis of a thyrotoxic crisis is made entirely on the clinical findings. Most importantly, there is no difference in thyroid hormone levels between patients with "uncomplicated" thyrotoxicosis and those undergoing a thyroid storm. Any delay in therapy, e.g. by awaiting additional laboratory results, must be strictly avoided, because the mortality rate may rise to 75%. Thus early thyroidectomy should be considered as the treatment of choice, if medical treatment fails to result in clinical improvement. Medical treatment is based on three principles: 1) counteracting the peripheral effects of thyroid hormones; 2) inhibition of thyroid hormone synthesis; and 3) treatment of systemic complications. These measures should bring about clinical improvement within 12-24 hours. If death occurs it is most likely to be cardiopulmonary failure, particularly in the elderly.

  10. Germany and America: Crisis of confidence

    SciTech Connect

    Asmus, R.D.

    1991-02-01

    The paper examines the deterioration in German-American relations. The reasons for this downturn in German-American relations are quite simple. Washington views the Persian Gulf crisis as a defining moment in European-American relations and in the creation of a new world order. It is also the first diplomatic test of a unified Germany and a new German-American relationship. It is a test that Germany is thus far seen as having failed for three reasons. First, from the outset many Americans sensed that Germans did not comprehend what this crisis meant for the United States. A second and, in many ways, more worrying factor was the growing sense that the Germans were not being good Europeans. The third and most serious American concern, however, was the unsettling appearance of a very selective German definition of collective defense and common security. The result has been a crisis of confidence in the performance of the German political elite that goes beyond the problems in German-American relations during the early 1980s and the INF debate.

  11. Impact of the economic crisis on the health of older persons in Spain: research clues based on an analysis of mortality. SESPAS report 2014.

    PubMed

    Benmarhnia, Tarik; Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria; Llácer, Alicia; Béland, Francois

    2014-06-01

    Older adults are seldom considered in studies on the health impact of economic recessions or crises. However, they constitute a population group that is highly vulnerable to decreases in investment in health and social services and social security. Our aim is to examine the relationship between the economic crisis starting in 2008 and the health status of older adults in Spain. More specifically, we analyze changes in trends of mortality in relation to the crisis, the specific impact of winter on mortality and gender differences in the crisis' impact on mortality. Using data from the National Institute of Statistics of Spain on people over 60 years of age, the number of monthly deaths by age and sex from January 2005 to December 2012 was analyzed. Interrupted time series analyses and the "difference in differences" method were used. During the crisis, for adults 60 years and older: 1) the observed mortality seems to be decreasing at a slower rate than what would have been expected in the absence of the crisis; 2) there has been an increase in winter mortality; 3) the impact of the crisis has been greater for female than for male mortality. These results suggest sizable effects of the economic crisis on the mortality of older adults and argue for research done using more detailed analyses integrating economic indicators.

  12. Defining crisis in families of individuals with autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wingsiong, Aranda; Lunsky, Yona

    2014-01-01

    Parents of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder often report higher levels of depression, anxiety, and mental health–related issues. The combination of stressors and family adjustment difficulties can cause distress which may develop into a crisis. Understanding crisis in the family is important to mental health practice since it can serve as a guide in delivering service to at-risk families. This study investigated the subjective experience of crisis in 155 mothers of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Thematic analysis revealed that crisis is characterized by factors influencing four major areas: demands, internal capabilities, external resources, and subjective appraisal. Understanding what crisis means to families of individuals with autism spectrum disorder can help inform effective preventative and crisis services. PMID:24254639

  13. Defining crisis in families of individuals with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jonathan A; Wingsiong, Aranda; Lunsky, Yona

    2014-11-01

    Parents of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder often report higher levels of depression, anxiety, and mental health-related issues. The combination of stressors and family adjustment difficulties can cause distress which may develop into a crisis. Understanding crisis in the family is important to mental health practice since it can serve as a guide in delivering service to at-risk families. This study investigated the subjective experience of crisis in 155 mothers of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Thematic analysis revealed that crisis is characterized by factors influencing four major areas: demands, internal capabilities, external resources, and subjective appraisal. Understanding what crisis means to families of individuals with autism spectrum disorder can help inform effective preventative and crisis services.

  14. The Measurement of International Military Commitments for Crisis Early Warning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-01

    MEASUREMENT OF INTERNATIONAL MILITARY COMMITMENTS FOR CRISIS EARLY WARNING TR&A Technical Report #33 Threat Recognition and Analysis Project "Approved for...INTERNATIONAL MILITARY COMMITMENTS FOR CRISIS EARLY WARNING Wayne R. Martin California State College, Dominguez Hills International Relations Research...Institute August 1976 The scope of the crisis analysis problem is both wide and complex. It ranges from early - warning --which is concerned primarily with the

  15. Celiac Crisis Associated with Herpes Simplex Virus Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Linz, Christopher M.; Tsay, Julie L.; Jin, Ming; El-Dika, Samer S.

    2016-01-01

    Celiac crisis is a rare presentation of celiac disease that is characterized by life-threatening electrolyte abnormalities, vitamin and mineral deficiencies, and diarrhea. Triggers for celiac crisis include major surgeries, pancreatitis, and infections of cytomegalovirus, and salmonella. A 24-year-old woman presented with celiac crisis associated with severe herpes simplex virus (HSV) esophagitis. This case demonstrates that nutritional deficiencies seen in celiac disease can result in a relative immunodeficiency, which may lead to other infectious complications. Additionally, early recognition of celiac crisis is imperative as the metabolic derangements may be life-threatening, and therapy with gluten restriction and nutritional repletion is effective. PMID:27921058

  16. [Provincial public center for crisis intervention and psycho-social rehabilitation. A path towards communitary suicidology].

    PubMed

    Martínez, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This work on the systematic comprehensive approach towards the Prevention and Postvencion of Suicide started to develop back in mid 2011 in Río Gallegos, capital of Santa Cruz Province. The first step on this development was a Pilot Plan for the Training of Professionals and also field intervention. The Center for Crisis Intervention and Psycho-social Rehabilitation was founded eight months later. The case-client in crisis plus family group- undergoes quantitative and qualitative evaluation by means of a triage system, all of which allows starting intensive face-to-face and also phone follow up according to the Crisis Intervention Model. Such intervention is developed by means of the participation in the "Grupo Sostén", the Adolescents Group if the client fits into that age, and also family relationship interviews as well as Multi-family meetings open to the Community. There is also a Community Team in the Center which performs collective assessment in schools, in conjunction with the "Equidad en Redes" Educational Specialty Team, belonging to the Provincial Education Council. The approach takes place on the field, and works as a screening step for the early detection of risk. Such risk is dealt with by means of short term intervention group programs involving the whole of the educational community. When facing situations of committed suicide there are interventions in communities to the interior of the province, fundamentally through the Hospital Team which works as the cluster convener for the social intersectoral frame-work.

  17. Management of refugee crisis in Albania during the 1999 Kosovo conflict.

    PubMed

    Kondaj, Ruki

    2002-04-01

    The report presents key data on Kosovo refugees in Albania during the 1999 crisis in Kosovo. In a three-month period, from March through May 1999, Albania received, accommodated, and cared for 479,223 officially registered refugees from Kosovo (FR Yugoslavia). Many foreign governmental and non-governmental organizations helped the Albanian government during the crisis. The Government cooperated with the organizations through Government Commission, which appointed a Special Coordinator to the Emergency Management Group that coordinated factors and actions in the field. A Health Desk was established by the Emergency Management Group to provide an overview of the health impact of the crisis upon refugees and domestic Albanian population. There were no serious outbreaks of infectious diseases, but the Health Desk registered 2,165 cases of diarrhea without and 14 cases of diarrhea with blood in the stool. Scabies and lice affected around 4% of the refugees. After the refugees returned to Kosovo, Emergency Management Group continued to coordinate the work on the rehabilitation of the refugee-affected areas. In this phase, humanitarian emergency work served as a bridge between emergency activities and normal development.

  18. Legislating better access. States and national organizations ready their own proposals as solving the national uninsured crisis takes center stage.

    PubMed

    Romano, Michael

    2007-01-15

    With little action from Congress, increasingly states and national groups are addressing the uninsured crisis. Last week California became the latest to join the cause, with a bold plan from Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger. "It's very clear that substantial movement on healthcare insurance is in the air and in the news," says Richard Cauchi, left, of the National Conference of State Legislatures.

  19. Emotional first aid for a suicide crisis: comparison between Telephonic hotline and internet.

    PubMed

    Gilat, Itzhak; Shahar, Golan

    2007-01-01

    The telephone and the internet have become popular sources of psychological help in various types of distress, including a suicide crisis. To gain more insight into the unique features of these media, we compared characteristics of calls to three technologically mediated sources of help that are part of the volunteer-based Israeli Association for Emotional First Aid (ERAN): Telephonic hotline (n = 4426), personal chat (n = 373) and an asynchronous online support group (n = 954). Threats of suicide were much more frequent among participants in the asynchronous support group than the telephone and personal chat. These findings encourage further research into suicide-related interpersonal exchanges in asynchronous online support groups.

  20. Health Alert: Adrenal Crisis Causes Death in Some People Who Were Treated with hGH

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Resource List Health Alert: Adrenal Crisis Causes Death in Some People Who Were Treated with hGH ... People lacking this hormone are at risk of death from adrenal crisis, but adrenal crisis can be ...

  1. The Impact of the 2008 Economic Crisis on Substance Use Patterns in the Countries of the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Dom, Geert; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Van Hal, Guido; McDaid, David

    2016-01-01

    Background: From 2008 on, a severe economic crisis (EC) has characterized the European Union (E.U.). However, changes in substance use behavioral patterns as a result of the economic crisis in Europe, have been poorly reflected upon, and underlying mechanisms remain to be identified; Methods: In this review we explore and systematize the available data on the effect of the 2008 economic crisis on patterns of substance use and related disorders, within the E.U. countries; Results: The results show that effects of the recession need to be differentiated. A number of studies point to reductions in population’s overall substance use. In contrast, an increase in harmful use and negative effects is found within specific subgroups within the society. Risk factors include job-loss and long-term unemployment, and pre-existing vulnerabilities. Finally, our findings point to differences between types of substances in their response on economic crisis periods; Conclusions: the effects of the 2008 economic crisis on substance use patterns within countries of the European Union are two-sided. Next to a reduction in a population’s overall substance use, a number of vulnerable subgroups experience serious negative effects. These groups are in need of specific attention and support, given that there is a real risk that they will continue to suffer negative health effects long after the economic downfall has formally been ended. PMID:26771628

  2. Efficacy of treatment for hyperglycemic crisis in elderly diabetic patients in a day hospital

    PubMed Central

    Benaiges, D; Chillarón, JJ; Carrera, MJ; Cots, F; Puig de Dou, J; Corominas, E; Pedro-Botet, J; Flores-Le Roux, JA; Claret, C; Goday, A; Cano, JF

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to compare the costs of day hospital (DH) care for hyperglycemic crisis in elderly diabetic patients with those of conventional hospitalization (CH). Secondary objectives were to compare these two clinical scenarios in terms of glycemic control, number of emergency and outpatient visits, readmissions, hypoglycemic episodes, and nosocomial morbidity. Methods The study population comprised diabetic patients aged >74 years consecutively admitted to a tertiary teaching hospital in Spain for hyperglycemic crisis (sustained hyperglycemia [>300 mg/dL] for at least 3 days with or without ketosis). The patients were assigned to DH or CH care according to time of admission and were followed for 6 months after discharge. Exclusion criteria were ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar crisis, hemodynamic instability, severe intercurrent illness, social deprivation, or Katz index >D. Results Sixty-four diabetic patients on DH care and 36 on CH care were included, with no differences in baseline characteristics. The average cost per patient was 1,345.1±793.6 € in the DH group and 2,212.4±982.5 € in the CH group (P<0.001). There were no differences in number of subjects with mild hypoglycemia during follow-up (45.3% DH versus 33.3% CH, P=0.24), nor in the percentage of patients achieving a glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) <8% (67.2% DH versus 58.3% CH, P=0.375). Readmissions for hyperglycemic crisis and pressure ulcer rates were significantly higher in the CH group. Conclusion DH care for hyperglycemic crises is more cost-effective than CH care, with a net saving of 1,418.4 € per case, lower number of readmissions and pressure ulcer rates, and similar short-term glycemic control and hypoglycemia rates. PMID:24868152

  3. Strategic and Collaborative Crisis Management: A Partnership Approach to Large-Scale Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    Large-scale crisis such as natural disasters and acts of terrorism can have a paralyzing effect on the campus community and business continuity. Campus officials in these situations face significant challenges that go beyond the immediate response including re-building the physical plant, restoring campus infrastructure, retaining displaced…

  4. Development and Content Validation of Crisis Response Training Package Red Cape: Crisis Action Planning and Execution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    backcasting : A proposed method of policy analysis. Energy Policy 10 (4), 337-344. 22 Rohrbaugh, C. C., & Shanteau, J. (1999). Context, process...concern. Military and crisis strategy experts are stressing that the approach to terrorism needs to change from inefficient global policies to more...environmental scanning, technological forecasting, and backcasting . Environmental scanning is a systematic method of understanding the future

  5. Global Crisis: Local Reality?--An International Analysis of "Crisis" in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, E. Jayne; Pramling-Samuelsson, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    In a recent keynote speech Paul Standish noted "there is agreement in judgments. But how the response to those judgments is realised is always cultural" (paper presented to PESA Conference, Taiwan, 2012, p. 2). Making judgments about what constitutes "crisis" for children is not necessarily agreed universally, though clearly…

  6. Schooling the Crisis? Education in the Aftermath of the Global Financial Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, John

    2014-01-01

    Five years on from the onset of the global financial crisis, there has been little sustained discussion of its implications for schooling. This is surprising when we consider that for the past three decades education has been shaped by assumptions about the need to prepare students for life in global capitalist economies. The consensus seems to be…

  7. [Particulars of crisis intervention in seropositive persons or the existential crisis of HIV].

    PubMed

    Ritchot, P; Sauriol, P

    1992-01-01

    This article presents a vision of crisis intervention for seropositive persons following an approach inspired by existential psychology. Persons who intervene must view crisis intervention for HIV-positive persons as an exploration of the close relation that exists between life and death. They must investigate the interrelations with the dimensions who intervene must view crisis intervention for HIV-positive persons as an exploration of the close relation that exists between life and death. They must investigate the interrelations with the dimensions of time, space, world and body. They must also examine the characteristics of the seropositive experience that are specific to the different infected clienteles. The welcoming process, the urgency of the situation and the therapeutic complementarity must be considered as the main guidelines for this type of crisis intervention which, in addition, must take into account the various life experiences that are particular to each of the HIV-positive persons. This approach requires that the person who intervenes and plays a supporting role must put into question their own attitudes toward the phenomenon at hand. Finally, life with the infection can also bring certain intervenors and clients to discover and profit from a number of unsuspected benefits.

  8. Organ shortage crisis: problems and possible solutions.

    PubMed

    Abouna, G M

    2008-01-01

    The demand for organ transplantation has rapidly increased all over the world during the past decade due to the increased incidence of vital organ failure, the rising success and greater improvement in posttransplant outcome. However, the unavailability of adequate organs for transplantation to meet the existing demand has resulted in major organ shortage crises. As a result there has been a major increase in the number of patients on transplant waiting lists as well as in the number of patients dying while on the waiting list. In the United States, for example, the number of patients on the waiting list in the year 2006 had risen to over 95,000, while the number of patient deaths was over 6,300. This organ shortage crisis has deprived thousands of patients of a new and better quality of life and has caused a substantial increase in the cost of alternative medical care such as dialysis. There are several procedures and pathways which have been shown to provide practical and effective solutions to this crisis. These include implementation of appropriate educational programs for the public and hospital staff regarding the need and benefits of organ donation, the appropriate utilization of marginal (extended criteria donors), acceptance of paired organ donation, the acceptance of the concept of "presumed consent," implementation of a system of "rewarded gifting" for the family of the diseased donor and also for the living donor, developing an altruistic system of donation from a living donor to an unknown recipient, and accepting the concept of a controlled system of financial payment for the donor. As is outlined in this presentation, we strongly believe that the implementation of these pathways for obtaining organs from the living and the dead donors, with appropriate consideration of the ethical, religious and social criteria of the society, the organ shortage crisis will be eliminated and many lives will be saved through the process of organ donation and

  9. Location of geographical objects in crisis situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybansky, M.; Kratochvil, V.

    2014-02-01

    This article summarizes the various expressions of object positioning using different coordinate data and different methods, such as use of maps, exploiting the properties of digital Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) networks, Global Navigational Satellite Systems (GNSS), Inertial Navigation Systems (INS), Inertial Measurement Systems (IMS), hybrid methods and non-contact (remote sensing) methods; all with varying level of accuracy. Furthermore, the article describes some geographical identifiers and verbal means to describe location of geographical objects such as settlements, rivers, forest, roads, etc. All of the location methods have some advantages and disadvantages, especially in emergency situations, when usually the crisis management has a lack of time in a decision process.

  10. HIV/AIDS and Africa's orphan crisis.

    PubMed

    Leyenaar, Joanna K

    2005-05-01

    The number of children orphaned by HIV/AIDS in the developing world has reached crisis proportions. In Sub-Saharan Africa, HIV/AIDS has exacerbated poverty in many communities and has weakened the capacity of many countries to care for their orphaned children. The present article discusses orphanage care and its alternatives in Sub-Saharan Africa. The physical and mental health effects of parental loss are discussed and the psychosocial impacts of institutional care are reviewed. Foster care is discussed as a potential long-term strategy to help communities cope with the rising numbers of HIV/AIDS orphans. The importance of community-based care is highlighted.

  11. The Carbon Crisis: An Evolutionary Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, K.

    2013-12-01

    By the 'carbon crisis' I mean the coupled crises of the depletion of the highest-EROI sources of fossil fuels and the global warming caused by our use of those fossil fuels. (EROI means 'energy return on energy investment'; Hall 2011.) While global warming is arguably more urgent, either of these factors would sooner or later be sufficient by itself to call a halt to our global-scale, energy-intensive, high technology economy. In lethal combination, they threaten to drastically reduce the capacity of the planet to support 7+ billion talking hominids. I will pull the camera back for a very long view and characterize the carbon crisis and our possible responses to it from an evolutionary and ecological perspective. It remains unclear why sapiens emerged rather suddenly as the most successful member of the family Homo about 50 to 60 kya; some argue that this neurological explosion could be due to our ancestors having survived the rigors of the Toba population bottleneck, which presumably would have favoured high adaptability (Ambrose 1998). Whatever the cause, Paleolithic humans deployed an unprecedented combination of technological and social ingenuity (the capacity for adaptive social organization; Homer-Dixon 2001). Aided by the relatively benign climate of the Holocene and ultimately by our increasing ability to tap into the resources of the 'found' ecology, especially the vast stores of hydrocarbons bequeathed by the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras, our population has grown exponentially to its present unsteady pinnacle of (possibly) temporary reproductive success. The question now is what happens next. It was human ingenuity that got us through the ice age, put footprints on the Moon, and brought us to this crisis point; now, only human ingenuity (both social and technical) can get us past it. Our species will finally achieve a sustainable mode of existence on this planet when (in E. Odum's words; 1973) 'the present-day concept of ';unlimited exploitation of

  12. Anger provocation as a crisis intervention technique.

    PubMed

    Brodsky, L

    1977-07-01

    The author describes the use of anger provocation, a technique that encourages patients to express their repressed anger to a therapist who makes himself the target for their anger. He presents five case examples to illustrate the positive effects of the technique in crisis and emergency situations. Three of the patients were depressed and withdrawn, one was suffering from conversion hysteria, and one was a paranoid schizophrenic. The author cautions that the technique must be used with discretion only in those cases where the repression of anger is producing major incapacitating symptomatology, but where the anger is not the major source of disorganization.

  13. Managing a volcanic crisis using Exupery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hort, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    Despite ever increasing efforts to monitor historically active volcanoes many of those are still very poorly or unmonitored, even in highly populated areas. In case of volcanic unrest or even a volcanic crisis quickly assessing the situation is therefore often very difficult due to the little information that is available for that specific volcano. With vastly increasing possibilities in communication technology and managing huge data volumes mobile systems become more and more an option to be used as a crisis management tool in volcanology. This is going to supplement different programs that have supported volcanic crisis management efforts in third world countries in the past that includes sending experts and improving or even installing new instruments around the volcano. One of the main problems especially when quickly upgrading the monitoring system during a crisis is that each instrument usually comes with its own acquisition and processing system. This makes it very difficult to manage the monitoring network and provide an interdisciplinary interpretation of the data with respect to the activity status of the volcano. Here we present a newly developed volcano fast response system which overcomes several of these shortcomings. The core of the system is a novel database (SEISHUB) that allows for the collection of data of various kinds, i.e. simple time series data like seismic data, gas measurements, GPS measurements, as well as satellite data (SO2 flux, thermal anomaly, ground deformation). Part of the collected data may also come from an already existing network. Data from new field instruments are transmitted through a wireless network that has been specifically designed for the volcano fast response system. One of the main difficulties with such a multidisciplinary data set is an easy access to the data. This is provided through a common Web based GIS interface which allows various datalayers being simultaneously accessed through a Web Browser. The

  14. Impending conservation crisis for Southeast Asian amphibians

    PubMed Central

    Rowley, Jodi; Brown, Rafe; Bain, Raoul; Kusrini, Mirza; Inger, Robert; Stuart, Bryan; Wogan, Guin; Thy, Neang; Chan-ard, Tanya; Trung, Cao Tien; Diesmos, Arvin; Iskandar, Djoko T.; Lau, Michael; Ming, Leong Tzi; Makchai, Sunchai; Truong, Nguyen Quang; Phimmachak, Somphouthone

    2010-01-01

    With an understudied amphibian fauna, the highest deforestation rate on the planet and high harvesting pressures, Southeast Asian amphibians are facing a conservation crisis. Owing to the overriding threat of habitat loss, the most critical conservation action required is the identification and strict protection of habitat assessed as having high amphibian species diversity and/or representing distinctive regional amphibian faunas. Long-term population monitoring, enhanced survey efforts, collection of basic biological and ecological information, continued taxonomic research and evaluation of the impact of commercial trade for food, medicine and pets are also needed. Strong involvement of regional stakeholders, students and professionals is essential to accomplish these actions. PMID:20007165

  15. Crisis management can leave residual effects.

    PubMed

    Margolis, G L; DeMuro, P R

    1991-10-01

    A healthcare organization that once suffered from poor financial performance may fail to correct recovery methods that can cause lingering legal and accounting problems. A crisis management style is prone to creating problems with an organization's debt structure, Medicare and Medicaid payment, tax issues, labor relations, licensing and accreditation, compliance with fraud and abuse rules, and accounting for charity care. After stabilizing a worrisome financial situation, a healthcare organization should conduct an internal audit to ensure that its legal and accounting practices remain above board.

  16. Dark Energy: A Crisis for Fundamental Physics

    ScienceCinema

    Stubbs, Christopher [Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA

    2016-07-12

    Astrophysical observations provide robust evidence that our current picture of fundamental physics is incomplete. The discovery in 1998 that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating (apparently due to gravitational repulsion between regions of empty space!) presents us with a profound challenge, at the interface between gravity and quantum mechanics. This "Dark Energy" problem is arguably the most pressing open question in modern fundamental physics. The first talk will describe why the Dark Energy problem constitutes a crisis, with wide-reaching ramifications. One consequence is that we should probe our understanding of gravity at all accessible scales, and the second talk will present experiments and observations that are exploring this issue.

  17. Crisis in Amplitude Control Hides in Multistability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunbiao; Sprott, Julien Clinton; Xing, Hongyan

    2016-12-01

    A crisis of amplitude control can occur when a system is multistable. This paper proposes a new chaotic system with a line of equilibria to demonstrate the threat to amplitude control from multistability. The new symmetric system has two coefficients for amplitude control, one of which is a partial amplitude controller, while the other is a total amplitude controller that simultaneously controls the frequency. The amplitude parameter rescales the basins of attraction and triggers a state switch among different states resulting in a failure of amplitude control to the desired state.

  18. EDITORIAL: Crisis management - and creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson Honorary Editor, Ken

    1996-11-01

    At the time of writing an ad hoc group set up by a governmental quango - the Schools Curriculum and Assessment Authority - is rewriting the subject cores for AS and A-level physics. The current version was introduced to general disapprobation from informed users, and especially from the Institute of Physics, and was examined for the first time in 1996. The main points of criticism of the current subject core were that it is too prescriptive, too large (especially at AS) and preserves an old-fashioned view of physics. It was seen as essentially all rather boring and quite unlikely to make it easier for teachers to attract more students into A-level physics courses. The core will, presumably, form the bulk of the new-style AS levels, an intriguingly innovative feature of the Dearing 16 - 19 proposals that, in principle, provides an opportunity to revitalize post-16 physics for a wide variety of potential users. But the other predicted consequence of a nationally (legally) prescribed core was a kind of instant fossilization of curriculum development and innovation. Creativity is effectively banned. Taking risks becomes unthinkable. Taken in conjunction with the less well known (except to examiners) increasingly close bureaucratic supervision of the examining process itself, the aim seems to be consistent mediocrity rather than the adventurous exploration of physics at what must be one of the most exciting (and rapidly changing) times in its history. The September issue of this journal dealt with some aspects of the new thinking about an education in (and through) physics, in the context of the IoP initiative to produce a modern physics curriculum for the year 2000. It is foreseeably improbable that the new subject core will be such as to encourage creative initiatives, other than by a third-law reaction effect. I am told that the ad hoc committee (membership unknown) will work for at least three whole days to produce the core; it will then be submitted for approval by

  19. Toward Successful School Crisis Intervention: 9 Key Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaksec, Charles M., III

    2007-01-01

    Despite their best and frequently heroic efforts, school crisis intervention teams often find themselves unprepared for the many types of tragedies they face. This timely text prompts crisis intervention team members to reevaluate their beliefs and practices and consider a new approach to dealing with school crises. The author, a longtime school…

  20. Defining Crisis in Families of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Jonathan A.; Wingsiong, Aranda; Lunsky, Yona

    2014-01-01

    Parents of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder often report higher levels of depression, anxiety, and mental health-related issues. The combination of stressors and family adjustment difficulties can cause distress which may develop into a crisis. Understanding crisis in the family is important to mental health practice since it can…

  1. Benefits and Challenges of School-Based Crisis Response Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Marsha; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Offers a rationale for the importance of school-based intervention in crisis and emergency situations, outlining a model for crisis response policies and procedures. Discusses benefits to schools of developing a team to implement the model, obstacles that can impede full implementation, and strategies for minimizing identified obstacles. (SM)

  2. Strengthening Rural Schools: Training Paraprofessionals in Crisis Prevention and Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Melissa; Ashbaker, Betty Y.; Stott, Kathryn A.

    The long-term effects of crisis and tragedy can be improved significantly by immediate intervention and emergency mental health services. Providing crisis intervention in rural schools poses challenges related to lack of financial resources, community resources, and trained personnel; isolation of rural schools; and long distances between school…

  3. A Self-Insured Health Program: From Crisis to Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffes, Gary D.

    2008-01-01

    Moberly Area Community College faced a crisis in healthcare coverage that eventually lead to enhanced benefits, greater control, plan stability, and increased flexibility through a self-insured program. Presented here is how Moberly Area Community College overcame the health care coverage crisis and how other institutions can benefit from the…

  4. Mapping a Crisis, One Text Message at a Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauduy, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    An interactive mapping project is revolutionizing the way crises are reported and managed, and is spotlighting the value of citizen journalism. The project, called Ushahidi, which means testimony in Swahili, uses crowdsourcing (gathering information from a large number of people) to map crisis information. This crisis mapping tool has since been…

  5. Squeezed from All Sides: The CSU Crisis and California's Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civil Rights Project / Proyecto Derechos Civiles, 2011

    2011-01-01

    California long enjoyed rapid growth, abundant jobs, and expanding college opportunity--key elements of the California dream. Now the state is struggling to recover from its worst economic crisis in generations, a demographic slowdown, a devastating collapse of the wealth of the state' families from the housing crisis, and severe cutbacks in…

  6. Effectiveness of Blog Response Strategies to Minimize Crisis Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomsic, Louis P.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of four post-crisis responses on five different variables using a blog tool. The four post-crisis responses are information only, compensation, apology, and sympathy. The five dependent variables are reputation, anger (negative emotion), negative word-of-mouth, account acceptance and state of the publics based on…

  7. Crisis Intervention: Facilitating Parental Acceptance of a Child's Handicap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormerod, Judith J.; Huebner, E. Scott

    1988-01-01

    Discusses various adjustment reactions displayed by some parents in the process of crisis resolution when they are informed by school psychologists that their child is handicapped. Presents implications for the school psychologist's role with parents of exceptional children within a crisis intervention framework. (Author/ABL)

  8. Crisis Begets Change: Hurricane Recovery at Gulf Coast Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Mahauganee Dawn

    2012-01-01

    Despite a growing body of literature on campus crisis management and the breadth of research on organizational change, little is known about organizational changes prompted by campus crisis. The purpose of this study is to examine the changes made to the operational profiles of Gulf Coast institutions during the process of recovering from major…

  9. Child and Family Policies in a Time of Economic Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    At the beginning of 2008, a number of the world's major economies began to experience the effects of the biggest economic financial crisis in history. By the end of that year, the financial crisis was a global recession, and governments responded with changes to a suite of social and economic policies. Two broad stages of government response are…

  10. Utilization of medical care following the Three Mile Island crisis.

    PubMed

    Houts, P S; Hu, T W; Henderson, R A; Cleary, P D; Tokuhata, G

    1984-02-01

    Four studies are reported on how utilization of primary health care was affected by the Three Mile Island (TMI) crisis and subsequent distress experienced by persons living in the vicinity of the plant. The studies concerned: 1) Blue Cross-Blue Shield records of claims by primary care physicians in the vicinity of TMI; 2) utilization rates in a family practice located near the facility; 3) interviews with persons living within five miles of TMI following the crisis; and 4) responses to a questionnaire by primary care physicians practicing within 25 miles of TMI. All four studies indicated only slight increases in utilization rates during the year following the crisis. One study found that persons who were upset during the crisis tended to be high practice utilizers both before and after the crisis. These results suggest that, while patterns of physician utilization prior to the TMI crisis predicted emotional response during the crisis, the impact of the TMI crisis on subsequent physician utilization was small.

  11. Avoiding School Management Conflicts and Crisis through Formal Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwogbaga, David M. E.; Nwankwo, Oliver U.; Onwa, Doris O.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examined how conflicts and crisis can be avoided through formal communication. It was necessitated by the observation that most of the conflicts and crisis which tend to mar school management today are functions of the inconsistencies arising from "grapevines, rumours, and gossips" generated through informal communication…

  12. Crisis: Urban Education. Viewer's Guide to the PBS Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thirteen WNET, New York, NY.

    This guide provides a description of "Crisis: Urban Education," a series of four half-hour documentaries, aired on public television stations and produced by Thirteen-WNET, that explore the human side of the educational crisis. The series described in this guide presents the latest thinking of school reform experts, and highlights bold and…

  13. Is There an Identity Crisis in Medical School Pharmacology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csaky, T. Z.

    1976-01-01

    Rudolf Buchheim's thesis on why and how to teach pharmacology to medical students is reexamined in view of the so-called identity crisis. It is suggested that the crisis is not one of identity but one of acceptance of medical school pharmacology by clinical colleagues and professional educators. (LBH)

  14. The Greek Financial Crisis: Discourses of Difference or Solidarity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickes, Hans; Otten, Tina; Weymann, Laura Chelsea

    2014-01-01

    The so-called Greek Financial Crisis, which has been the object of close attention in the German media since the end of 2009, has caused a public debate on who should be held responsible for the decline of crisis-hit Greece, the common currency and the Eurozone. The media's enduring and controversial public discussion has lately been referred to…

  15. Scientific Argument in Organizational Crisis Communication: The Case of Exxon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellnow, Timothy L.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the context of the Valdez disaster in terms of an organizational crisis. Discusses the nature of scientific argument and the norms of scientific ethos as they represent an appropriate standard for measuring the ethics of profit-seeking organizations during times of crisis. (NH)

  16. Simulations for Crisis Communication: The Use of Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Siyoung

    2016-01-01

    Simulations have been widely used in crisis and emergency communication for practitioners but have not reached classrooms in higher education. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects that simulations using social media have on the learning of crisis communication among college students. To explore the effects, a real-time crisis…

  17. Classroom Crisis Counseling in the Aftermath of School Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paris, Norma Jean

    Numerous counseling needs are generated in the aftermath of school crises, particularly crises involving school violence. Meeting these needs can be assisted when school psychologists involve classroom teachers in the planning and implementation of crisis counseling. This paper provides information about a crisis counseling intervention model…

  18. Crisis Intervention and Counseling by Telephone. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David, Ed.

    This extensively revised second edition provides a practical framework for offering immediate problem-solving assistance by telephone to persons in crisis. The text offers specific techniques to deal with out-of-control situations with the highly important initial steps to protect the caller, the crisis worker, and the community. The scope of the…

  19. Normal sublingual microcirculation during painful crisis in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    van Beers, Eduard J; Goedhart, Peter T; Unger, Michiel; Biemond, Bart J; Ince, Can

    2008-05-01

    Obstruction of the microcirculation is the most important cause of painful crisis in sickle cell disease (SCD). Extensive microvascular obstruction has been observed in mouse models of SCD. A technique to determine the extent of the microcirculatory obstructions in humans may be helpful in the clinical setting and for research purposes. Therefore, we measured sublingual microcirculation longitudinally in patients with SCD admitted with painful crisis. Sublingual microcirculation was recorded with side-stream darkfield (SDF) imaging and semi-quantified with a microvascular flow index (MFI) on a range from 0 to 4 (arbitrary units; from 0 (no flow) to 4 (hyperdynamic flow)). Thirteen consecutive adult sickle cell patients admitted with painful crises were included and provided 47 measurements of MFI in 14 episodes of painful crisis. Seven patients provided baseline measurements and seven healthy controls were studied. The mean (+/-standard error of the mean) MFI during painful crisis was 2.6+/-0.1 and did not change during the painful crisis. The mean MFI of patients with SCD during steady state (2.7+/-0.1) and the mean MFI of the controls (2.7+/-0.1) were not different from the mean MFI during painful crisis. During painful crisis irregular microvascular perfusion, expressed by the distribution width of the microvascular blood flow velocity, correlated negatively (r=-0.484; P=0.002) with hemoglobin concentration. We conclude that sublingual microcirculatory blood flow velocity is not disturbed in sickle cell patients during painful crisis.

  20. World Hunger Crisis Kit. Hope for the Hungry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woito, Robert, Ed.

    This booklet introduces the problem of world hunger and provides information, facts, and perspectives about the crisis. Section one presents the reader with the basic facts of the hunger crisis through a self-survey, a statistical study of the developed Oil Producing Export Countries (OPEC), and a one-page indication of what one would have to give…

  1. Development and Reliability of the Comprehensive Crisis Plan Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspiranti, Kathleen B.; Pelchar, Taylor K.; McCLeary, Daniel F.; Bain, Sherry K.; Foster, Lisa N.

    2011-01-01

    It is of vital importance that children are educated in a safe environment. Every school needs to have a well-developed crisis management document containing plans for prevention, intervention, and postvention. We developed the Comprehensive Crisis Plan Checklist (CCPC) to serve as a valuable tool that can be used to assist practitioners with…

  2. America's Next Crisis. The Shortfall in Technical Manpower.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FCB Associates, Washington, DC.

    The United States is facing a great crisis: skills gaps in the work force imperil the nation's future. The crisis is elementary: the United States is not educating and training its citizens to be productive and competent members of the work force. Consequently, its people are not qualified enough to meet the demands of the high-technology economy…

  3. Age, and Midcareer Crisis: An Empirical Study of Academics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Entrekin, L.V.; Everett, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the midlife career/crisis transition period of academic staff surveyed in four Australian Universities. Supports a generalized career stage model and a specific career stage model of academic staff, who are shown to be particularly susceptible to the midlife crisis/transition phenomenon. (Author/JAC)

  4. School Crisis Teams within an Incident Command System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Amanda B.; Brock, Stephen E.; Reeves, Melissa A.

    2006-01-01

    Despite the increasing attention given to the need for schools to be prepared to respond in a variety of crisis situations, there is a lack of information about how to coordinate with multiple agencies following a crisis. This article describes the U. S. Department of Homeland Security's (2004) National Incident Management System and its Incident…

  5. Anoxia/high temperature double whammy during the Permian-Triassic marine crisis and its aftermath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Haijun; Wignall, Paul B.; Chu, Daoliang; Tong, Jinnan; Sun, Yadong; Song, Huyue; He, Weihong; Tian, Li

    2014-02-01

    The Permian-Triassic mass extinction was the most severe biotic crisis in the past 500 million years. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain the crisis, but few account for the spectrum of extinction selectivity and subsequent recovery. Here we show that selective losses are best accounted for by a combination of lethally warm, shallow waters and anoxic deep waters that acted to severely restrict the habitable area to a narrow mid-water refuge zone. The relative tolerance of groups to this double whammy provides the first clear explanation for the selective extinction losses during this double-pulsed crisis and also the fitful recovery. Thus, high temperature intolerant shallow-water dwellers, such as corals, large foraminifers and radiolarians were eliminated first whilst high temperature tolerant ostracods thrived except in anoxic deeper-waters. In contrast, hypoxia tolerant but temperature intolerant small foraminifers were driven from shallow-waters but thrived on dysoxic slopes margins. Only those mollusc groups, which are tolerant of both hypoxia and high temperatures, were able to thrive in the immediate aftermath of the extinction. Limited Early Triassic benthic recovery was restricted to mid-water depths and coincided with intervals of cooling and deepening of water column anoxia that expanded the habitable mid-water refuge zone.

  6. Anoxia/high temperature double whammy during the Permian-Triassic marine crisis and its aftermath.

    PubMed

    Song, Haijun; Wignall, Paul B; Chu, Daoliang; Tong, Jinnan; Sun, Yadong; Song, Huyue; He, Weihong; Tian, Li

    2014-02-19

    The Permian-Triassic mass extinction was the most severe biotic crisis in the past 500 million years. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain the crisis, but few account for the spectrum of extinction selectivity and subsequent recovery. Here we show that selective losses are best accounted for by a combination of lethally warm, shallow waters and anoxic deep waters that acted to severely restrict the habitable area to a narrow mid-water refuge zone. The relative tolerance of groups to this double whammy provides the first clear explanation for the selective extinction losses during this double-pulsed crisis and also the fitful recovery. Thus, high temperature intolerant shallow-water dwellers, such as corals, large foraminifers and radiolarians were eliminated first whilst high temperature tolerant ostracods thrived except in anoxic deeper-waters. In contrast, hypoxia tolerant but temperature intolerant small foraminifers were driven from shallow-waters but thrived on dysoxic slopes margins. Only those mollusc groups, which are tolerant of both hypoxia and high temperatures, were able to thrive in the immediate aftermath of the extinction. Limited Early Triassic benthic recovery was restricted to mid-water depths and coincided with intervals of cooling and deepening of water column anoxia that expanded the habitable mid-water refuge zone.

  7. Anoxia/high temperature double whammy during the Permian-Triassic marine crisis and its aftermath

    PubMed Central

    Song, Haijun; Wignall, Paul B.; Chu, Daoliang; Tong, Jinnan; Sun, Yadong; Song, Huyue; He, Weihong; Tian, Li

    2014-01-01

    The Permian-Triassic mass extinction was the most severe biotic crisis in the past 500 million years. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain the crisis, but few account for the spectrum of extinction selectivity and subsequent recovery. Here we show that selective losses are best accounted for by a combination of lethally warm, shallow waters and anoxic deep waters that acted to severely restrict the habitable area to a narrow mid-water refuge zone. The relative tolerance of groups to this double whammy provides the first clear explanation for the selective extinction losses during this double-pulsed crisis and also the fitful recovery. Thus, high temperature intolerant shallow-water dwellers, such as corals, large foraminifers and radiolarians were eliminated first whilst high temperature tolerant ostracods thrived except in anoxic deeper-waters. In contrast, hypoxia tolerant but temperature intolerant small foraminifers were driven from shallow-waters but thrived on dysoxic slopes margins. Only those mollusc groups, which are tolerant of both hypoxia and high temperatures, were able to thrive in the immediate aftermath of the extinction. Limited Early Triassic benthic recovery was restricted to mid-water depths and coincided with intervals of cooling and deepening of water column anoxia that expanded the habitable mid-water refuge zone. PMID:24549265

  8. Midlife crisis perceptions, experiences, help-seeking, and needs among multi-ethnic malaysian women.

    PubMed

    Wong, Li Ping; Awang, Halimah; Jani, Rohana

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, researchers explored attitudes toward midlife crises, experience with midlife crises, help-seeking, and needs among multi-ethnic Malaysian women. A total of 14 focus group discussions were conducted with 89 Malaysian women of different ages and socioeconomic backgrounds. Women expressed concern over physical aging and decline in their physical functional health. Having a midlife crisis was frequently reported. Issues that were frequently reported to trigger a midlife crisis, such as empty nest syndrome, impact of aging on sexual and reproductive function, extended parenthood, caring for aging or ill parents, and career challenges were noted by the study participants (listed here in order of most to least frequently reporting of these themes across the group discussions). Overall, these issues were associated with attitudes about aging. A comparatively less open attitude toward sexual attitudes and help-seeking for sexual problems were found among the Malay and Indian women. This may imply that intervention to increase positive attitudes concerning both sexuality and help-seeking intentions should be culturally specific. The use of religious coping for comfort and consolation was frequently reported; therefore, those providing midlife crisis prevention and intervention programs should consider involving faith-based interventions in the Malaysian setting.

  9. Household vulnerability to food crisis and mortality in the drought-prone areas of northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ezra, M; Kiros, G E

    2000-07-01

    This study examines the association between a household's degree of vulnerability to food crisis and the incidence of deaths using primary survey data carried out to look at the demographic consequences of drought and famine in the drought-prone areas of northern Ethiopia. Retrospective data on the occurrences of deaths within a household were collected for the period 1984 to 1994. Consistent with previous studies, the findings confirm that mortality was clustered among the age groups 1-4 and 5-9 and varied considerably by famine and non-famine years. Enormous variation in incidence of deaths was also observed by region, ethnicity and religion. Most importantly, the analysis provides substantial evidence that the level of household vulnerability to food crisis is strongly related to the number of hunger-related deaths reported in a household.

  10. Crisis intervention for people with severe mental illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Suzanne; Irving, Claire B; Adams, Clive E; Driver, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Background A particularly difficult challenge for community treatment of people with serious mental illnesses is the delivery of an acceptable level of care during the acute phases of severe mental illness. Crisis intervention models of care were developed as a possible solution. Objectives To review the effects of crisis intervention models for anyone with serious mental illness experiencing an acute episode, compared with ‘standard care’. Search methods We updated the 1998, 2003 and 2006 searches with a search of the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group’s Register of trials (2010) which is based on regular searches of CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO. Selection criteria We included all randomised controlled trials of crisis intervention models versus standard care for people with severe mental illnesses. Data collection and analysis We independently extracted data from these trials and we estimated risk ratios (RR) or mean differences (MD), with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We assumed that people who left early from a trial had no improvement. Main results Three new studies have been found since the last review in 2006 to add to the five studies already included in this review. None of the previously included studies investigated crisis intervention alone; all used a form of home care for acutely ill people, which included elements of crisis intervention. However, one of the new studies focuses purely on crisis intervention as provided by Crisis Resolution Home Teams within the UK; the two other new studies investigated crisis houses i.e. residential alternatives to hospitalisation providing home-like environments. Crisis intervention appears to reduce repeat admissions to hospital after the initial ‘index’ crises investigated in the included studies, this was particularly so for mobile crisis teams supporting patients in their own homes. Crisis intervention reduces the number of people leaving the study early, reduces family burden, is a more

  11. Improving resistance and resiliency through crisis intervention training.

    PubMed

    Chan, Angelina O M; Chan, Yiong Huak; Kee, Jass P C

    2012-01-01

    To our knowledge no research has been done on the impact of crisis intervention training programs on resistance and resiliency. This paper describes the use of a localized crisis intervention course and its impact on resistance and resiliency in the participants after 2 days of training. Participants attending the localized version of ICISF Individual Crisis Intervention and Peer Support courses participated in a pre-course quiz and a post-course quiz. The overall resistance and resiliency scores improved at the end of the localized 2-Day Individual Crisis Intervention and Peer Support course. Organizations should view the training of employees in mental health and crisis intervention as contributing to the overall resiliency of the organization, in addition to providing services that facilitate the resilience and recovery of employees affected by personal or workplace stress or critical incidents.

  12. Might Astrobiological Findings Evoke a Religious Crisis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, T.; Froehlig, J. L.

    2009-12-01

    What might be the likely impact of confirmed discovery of extraterrestrial life—microbial or intelligent life—on terrestrial religion? Many have speculated that the anthropo-centrism and earth-centrism which allegedly have characterized our religious traditions would be confronted with a crisis. Would new knowledge that we are not alone in the universe lead to a collapse of traditional religious belief? This presentation will summarize the results of the Peters Religious Crisis Survey of 1325 respondents. This survey shows that the majority of adherents to Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and Buddhism demonstrate little or no anxiety regarding the prospect of contact with extraterrestrial life, even if they express some doubts regarding their respective religious tradition and the traditions of others. This presentation will also show that theological speculation regarding other worlds has sparked lively debate beginning as far back as the middle ages and continuing into our present era. Ted Peters is a research and teaching scholar with the Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences at the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley, California. He is co-editor of the journal, Theology and Science, and author of the books, The Evolution of Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Life (Pandora 2008) and Playing God? Genetic Determinism and Human Freedom (Routledge, rev. ed., 2003).

  13. [Antipsychiatry and identity crisis in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Kick, H

    1990-10-01

    Whereas at the turn of the century in Germany antipsychiatry left intact the medical concept of disease and comprehension of the role of the physician and medical institutions, this sector was initially questioned vehemently in the conception of "psychotherapie institutionelle" in France and later in the reform efforts in Britain and North-America. This disclosure of the questionability of an argumentation in terms of pure exact science promoted by the tendencies of the theory of science (Frankfurt School) in the 1950s and 1960s encouraged these reform efforts and questioned the objectivism which had been dominant up to that time. However, for the clinical domain it also led to a profound crisis of legitimation and thus to a crisis of the self-conception of the physician, which is linked fundamentally to diagnosis, indication and responsibly justified medical intervention. It was especially difficult to react appropriately to the challenges of antipsychiatry for those psychiatrists who had clearly recognized the deficiencies or the nonfeasibility of an approach based exclusively on exact science as a source of legitimation for medical action. These psychiatrists had gone along with the subjectivistic trend change with the criticism of traditional associated with this, asymmetric, dyadic doctor-patient relationship. In this context, they had rejected objectivizing diagnostics and the apersonal disease model ("therapeutic community") in the hope that this would bring about humanization.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Community Disasters, Psychological Trauma, and Crisis Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Boscarino, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    The current issue of International Journal of Emergency Mental Health and Human Resilience is focused on community disasters, the impact of trauma exposure, and crisis intervention. The articles incorporated include studies ranging from the World Trade Center disaster to Hurricane Sandy. These studies are related to public attitudes and beliefs about disease outbreaks, the impact of volunteerism following the World Trade Center attacks, alcohol misuse among police officers after Hurricane Katrina, posttraumatic stress disorder after Hurricane Sandy among those exposed to the Trade Center disaster, compassion fatigue and burnout among trauma workers, crisis interventions in Eastern Europe, and police officers' use of stress intervention services. While this scope is broad, it reflects the knowledge that has emerged since the Buffalo Creek and Chernobyl catastrophes, to the more recent Hurricane Katrina and Sandy disasters. Given the current threat environment, psychologists, social workers, and other providers need to be aware of these developments and be prepared to mitigate the impact of psychological trauma following community disasters, whether natural or man-made. PMID:25983663

  15. Philippine migration policy: dilemmas of a crisis.

    PubMed

    Battistella, G

    1999-04-01

    Philippine migration policy is traced from the early 1970s to the present. The main migration trends in the 1990s are described. An assessment is made of the efficacy and appropriateness of present migration policy in light of the economic crisis. A regional approach to migration policy is necessary in order to encourage placing migration as a greater priority on national agendas and in bilateral agreements. In the Philippines, migrants are considered better paid workers, which diminishes their importance as a legislative or program priority. Santo Tomas (1998) conducted an empirical assessment of migration policies in the Philippines, but refinement is needed. Although migration is a transnational experience, there is little dialogue and cooperation among countries. Philippine migration policy defines its role as an information resource for migrants. Policy shifted from labor export to migrant management in the public and private sectors. Predeparture information program studies are recommending a multi-stage process that would involve all appropriate parties. There is talk of including migration information in the education curriculum. There are a variety of agendas, competing interests, and information resources between migration networks and officiating agencies. The Asian financial crisis may have a mild impact, but there are still issues of reintegration, protection, and employment conditions

  16. Crisis relocation and nuclear deterrence. Student essay

    SciTech Connect

    Kiser, J.L.

    1986-04-07

    The difficulty of providing adequate protection to the civilian population with some kind of civil defense program is magnified by the technology available in the nuclear age. The United States expanded its civil defense program in the 1950's to include a measure of protection in the event of the explosion of nuclear devices. However, the history of the United States civil defense program has been generally characterized by inadequate funding and little interest at all levels of government. Most recently, the civil defense program has been associated and considered a component of nuclear deterrence. Under the direction of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the government will rely on crisis relocation as the primary means of protecting the population in the event of a nuclear attack or detonation. This plan envisions that evacuation of the population from high-risk areas to safer host areas. Does crisis relocation provide the country with a credible component to our nuclear deterrence. Do the leaders and citizens have confidence in the nation's ability to protect the civilian population. Have the leaders been completely forthright in preparing the population for the possibility of a nuclear war. These and related issues are discussed in this essay.

  17. Community Disasters, Psychological Trauma, and Crisis Intervention.

    PubMed

    Boscarino, Joseph A

    The current issue of International Journal of Emergency Mental Health and Human Resilience is focused on community disasters, the impact of trauma exposure, and crisis intervention. The articles incorporated include studies ranging from the World Trade Center disaster to Hurricane Sandy. These studies are related to public attitudes and beliefs about disease outbreaks, the impact of volunteerism following the World Trade Center attacks, alcohol misuse among police officers after Hurricane Katrina, posttraumatic stress disorder after Hurricane Sandy among those exposed to the Trade Center disaster, compassion fatigue and burnout among trauma workers, crisis interventions in Eastern Europe, and police officers' use of stress intervention services. While this scope is broad, it reflects the knowledge that has emerged since the Buffalo Creek and Chernobyl catastrophes, to the more recent Hurricane Katrina and Sandy disasters. Given the current threat environment, psychologists, social workers, and other providers need to be aware of these developments and be prepared to mitigate the impact of psychological trauma following community disasters, whether natural or man-made.

  18. How do frequent users of crisis helplines differ from other users regarding their reasons for calling? Results from a survey with callers to Lifeline, Australia's national crisis helpline service.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Aves; Woodward, Alan; Gunn, Jane; Bassilios, Bridget; Pirkis, Jane

    2017-05-01

    Crisis helplines are designed to provide short-term support to people in an immediate crisis. However, there is a group of users who call crisis helplines frequently over an extended period of time. The reasons for their ongoing use remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in the reasons for calling between frequent and other users of crisis helplines. This was achieved by examining the findings from a brief survey completed by callers to Lifeline Australia at the end of their call between February and July 2015. In the survey, callers reported on their socio-demographics, reasons for their current call and number of calls made in the past month. Survey respondents were categorised as frequent, episodic and one-off users, and analyses were conducted using ordered logistic regression. Three hundred and fifteen callers completed the survey, which represented 57% of eligible callers. Twenty-two per cent reported calling 20 times or more in the past month (frequent users), 51% reported calling between 2 and 19 times (episodic users) and 25% reported calling once (one-off users). Two per cent were unable to recall the number of calls they made in the past month. Frequent users reported similar reasons for calling as other users but they were more likely to call regularly to talk about their feelings [OR = 6.0; 95% CI: 3.7-9.8]. This pattern of service use is at odds with the current model of care offered by crisis helplines which is designed to provide one-off support. There is a need to investigate further the factors that drive frequent users to call crisis helplines regularly.

  19. Efficacy of tramadol vs meperidine in vasoocclusive sickle cell crisis.

    PubMed

    Uzun, Belkan; Kekec, Zeynep; Gurkan, Emel

    2010-05-01

    Despite progress in management, patients with sickle cell disease who are experiencing acute painful episode are often incompletely treated. We compared meperidine and tramadol with respect to their effects on the hemodynamics and pain relief in patients with sickle cell disease who were admitted to the emergency department with painful crisis. A total of 68 patients with sickle cell disease were randomly assigned to receive either tramadol 1.5 mg/kg (n = 34) or meperidine 1 mg/kg (n = 34). Hemodynamic parameters were recorded at regular intervals after analgesic infusions. Pain intensity and relief were documented by visual analog and pain relief scale, respectively. Sedation level was defined according to Ramsay sedation scale. Both meperidine and tramadol administration resulted in a significant reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure after 2 hours (P < .05). Efficacy in pain relief between the analgesics was more rapid and better in the meperidine group, although the degree of relief were significantly improved compared to baseline levels in both groups (P < .05). Sedation was more commonly seen in the meperidine arm. None of the patients had experienced neurotoxicity. In summary, both agents had proven safe and effective for emergent use in patients with sickle cell disease. Avoiding meperidine injections as recommended with previous guidelines needs to be carefully reconsidered especially when low doses are mentioned.

  20. The differential impact of the financial crisis on Health in Ireland and Greece: A quasi-experimental approach

    PubMed Central

    Hessel, P; Vandoros, S; Avendano, M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Greece and Ireland suffered an economic recession of similar magnitude, but whether their health has deteriorated as a result has not yet been well established. Study design Based on five waves (2006-2010) of the European Union Statistics of Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) survey we implemented a difference-in-differences (DID) approach that compared trends in self-rated health in Greece and Ireland before and after the crisis with trends in a control population (Poland) that did not experience a recession and had health trends comparable to both countries before the crisis. Methods Logistic regression using a difference-in-differences (DID) approach. Results A simple examination of trends suggests that there was no significant change in health in Greece or Ireland following the onset of the financial crisis. However, DID estimates that incorporated a control population suggest an increase in the prevalence of poor-self rated health in Greece (OR=1.216; CI=1.11 - 1.32). Effects were most pronounced for older individuals and those living in high-density areas, but effects in Greece were overwhelmingly consistent in different population sub-groups. In contrast, DID estimates revealed no effect of the financial crisis in Ireland (OR=0.97; CI=0.81-1.16). Conclusions Contradicting results from a simple comparison of single-country trends, DID estimates suggest that the financial crisis has led to deterioration of population health trends in Greece but not in Ireland, where policies may have prevented a worsening of health as a result of the recent economic crisis. PMID:25369355

  1. Effects of the Global Financial Crisis on Health in High-Income Oecd Countries: A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Karanikolos, Marina; Heino, Pia; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David; Legido-Quigley, Helena

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence documents how economic crises impact aspects of health across countries and over time. We performed a systematic narrative review of the health effects of the latest economic crisis based on studies of high-income countries. Papers published between January 2009 and July 2015 were selected based on review of titles and abstracts, followed by a full text review conducted by two independent reviewers. Ultimately, 122 studies were selected and their findings summarized. The review finds that the 2008 financial crisis had negative effects on mental health, including suicide, and to a varying extent on some non-communicable and communicable diseases and access to care. Although unhealthy behaviors such as hazardous drinking and tobacco use appeared to decline during the crisis, there have been increases in some groups, typically those already at greatest risk. The health impact was greatest in countries that suffered the largest economic impact of the crisis or prolonged austerity. The Great Recessions in high-income countries have had mixed impacts on health. They tend to be worse when economic impacts are more severe, prolonged austerity measures are implemented, and there are pre-existing problems of substance use among vulnerable groups.

  2. Genetic Relationships among Tall Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera L.) Accessions of the International Coconut Genebank for Latin America and the Caribbean (ICG-LAC), Evaluated Using Microsatellite Markers (SSRs)

    PubMed Central

    Loiola, Carina Mendes; Azevedo, Alinne Oliveira Nunes; Diniz, Leandro E. C.; Aragão, Wilson Menezes; Azevedo, Carlos Diego de O.; Santos, Pedro Henrique A. D.; Ramos, Helaine Christine C.; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga; Ramos, Semíramis R. Ramalho

    2016-01-01

    The diversity and genetic relationships among two accessions of tall coconut palms collected in Brazil and seven accessions introduced from different geographic regions of the world were analyzed using 25 microsatellite primers, 19 of which were polymorphic and detected between 4 and 10 alleles per locus, with an average of 6.57. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.25 and 0.40 in the Rennell Islands Tall (RIT) accession to 0.54 and 0.62 in the Polynesian Tall (PYT) accession. The analysis of genetic structure resulted in the formation of five distinct groups. The first group was formed by the accessions Brazilian Tall—Praia do Forte (BRTPF), Brazilian Tall—Merepe (BRTMe) and West African Tall (WAT); the second group consisted of Malaysian Tall (MLT); the third group of RIT; the fourth group of Vanuatu Tall (VTT); and the fifth group of Rotuman Tall (RTMT), Tonga Tall (TONT) and PYT. The dendrogram based on the nearest-neighbor method detected the formation of two main groups and five subgroups, indicating that the genetic relationships of the accessions are based on their geographic regions of origin. The analyses revealed genetic relationships between the accessions collected in Brazil and the accession from Africa, and among palms from South East Asia and the South Pacific, confirming the common origin of these accessions. The information obtained in this study can guide decisions on germplasm conservation activities and the efficient selection of genetically divergent parents for use in coconut breeding programs in Brazil, which are attempting to select for disease resistance, mainly to lethal yellowing, among other characteristics. PMID:26974540

  3. Genetic Relationships among Tall Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera L.) Accessions of the International Coconut Genebank for Latin America and the Caribbean (ICG-LAC), Evaluated Using Microsatellite Markers (SSRs).

    PubMed

    Loiola, Carina Mendes; Azevedo, Alinne Oliveira Nunes; Diniz, Leandro E C; Aragão, Wilson Menezes; Azevedo, Carlos Diego de O; Santos, Pedro Henrique A D; Ramos, Helaine Christine C; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga; Ramos, Semíramis R Ramalho

    2016-01-01

    The diversity and genetic relationships among two accessions of tall coconut palms collected in Brazil and seven accessions introduced from different geographic regions of the world were analyzed using 25 microsatellite primers, 19 of which were polymorphic and detected between 4 and 10 alleles per locus, with an average of 6.57. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.25 and 0.40 in the Rennell Islands Tall (RIT) accession to 0.54 and 0.62 in the Polynesian Tall (PYT) accession. The analysis of genetic structure resulted in the formation of five distinct groups. The first group was formed by the accessions Brazilian Tall-Praia do Forte (BRTPF), Brazilian Tall-Merepe (BRTMe) and West African Tall (WAT); the second group consisted of Malaysian Tall (MLT); the third group of RIT; the fourth group of Vanuatu Tall (VTT); and the fifth group of Rotuman Tall (RTMT), Tonga Tall (TONT) and PYT. The dendrogram based on the nearest-neighbor method detected the formation of two main groups and five subgroups, indicating that the genetic relationships of the accessions are based on their geographic regions of origin. The analyses revealed genetic relationships between the accessions collected in Brazil and the accession from Africa, and among palms from South East Asia and the South Pacific, confirming the common origin of these accessions. The information obtained in this study can guide decisions on germplasm conservation activities and the efficient selection of genetically divergent parents for use in coconut breeding programs in Brazil, which are attempting to select for disease resistance, mainly to lethal yellowing, among other characteristics.

  4. Crisis discussions in psychology--New historical and philosophical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Thomas; Mülberger, Annette

    2012-06-01

    In this introductory article, we provide a historical and philosophical framework for studying crisis discussions in psychology. We first trace the various meanings of crisis talk outside and inside of the sciences. We then turn to Kuhn's concept of crisis, which is mainly an analyst's category referring to severe clashes between theory and data. His view has also dominated many discussions on the status of psychology: Can it be considered a "mature" science, or are we dealing here with a pre- or multi-paradigmatic discipline? Against these Kuhnian perspectives, we point out that especially, but not only in psychology distinctive crisis declarations and debates have taken place since at least the late 19th century. In these, quite different usages of crisis talk have emerged, which can be determined by looking at (a) the content and (b) the dimensions of the declarations, as well as (c) the functions these declarations had for their authors. Thus, in psychology at least, 'crisis' has been a vigorous actor's category, occasionally having actual effects on the future course of research. While such crisis declarations need not be taken at face value, they nevertheless help to break the spell of Kuhnian analyses of psychology's history. They should inform ways in which the history and philosophy of psychology is studied further.

  5. Food and nutrition security and the economic crisis in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Soekirman

    2001-01-01

    Indonesia has been afflicted by an economic crisis since July 1997. The economic crisis was preceded by a long drought associated with El Nino. The result has been a decline in food production, especially rice. In the eastern part of the country, especially in Irian Jaya, there was food insecurity during the early stages of the economic crisis. When the crisis escalated to become an economic, social and political crisis in 1998, food insecurity spread to other provinces, especially to urban areas in Java. The crisis led to increasingly high inflation. unemployment, poverty, food insecurity and malnutrition. The official figures indicate that poverty in Indonesia increased from 22.5 million (11.3%) in 1996 to 36.5 million (17.9%) in 1998. Food production decreased by 20-30% in some parts of the country. Compared with prices in January 1998, food prices had escalated 1.5- to threefold by August/November 1998 when acute food shortages occurred, especially in urban Java. Coupled with a drop in purchasing power, the higher food prices worsened health, nutritional status and education of children of urban poor and unemployed families. Despite social and political uncertainties, the Indonesian Government has taken prompt action to prevent a worsening of the situation by massive imports of rice, instituting food price subsidies for the poor and launching social safety net programmes to cope with food shortages and malnutrition. The present paper attempts to highlight the impact of the economic crisis on food insecurity and malnutrition in Indonesia.

  6. 40 CFR 166.50 - Reporting and recordkeeping requirements for crisis exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for crisis exemption. 166.50 Section 166.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... EMERGENCY CONDITIONS Crisis Exemptions § 166.50 Reporting and recordkeeping requirements for crisis... a crisis exemption must be immediately reported to the Agency. (b) Final reports. (1) A...

  7. 40 CFR 166.53 - EPA review of crisis exemption and revocation of authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... such unreasonable health or environmental risks that the crisis authority should not be exercised or... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA review of crisis exemption and... CONDITIONS Crisis Exemptions § 166.53 EPA review of crisis exemption and revocation of authority. (a)...

  8. Reclaiming the Idea of the University as a Possible Solution to Today's Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlenko, Sonia; Bojan, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Higher education has always been associated in one way or another with crisis. One could even argue that the university has always faced one type of crisis or another. The one debated the most is the economic crisis; however, there are many debates focusing on other types of crisis. Furthermore, all major reforms in the history of higher education…

  9. Inflammation markers in individuals with history of mental health crisis.

    PubMed

    Justo, Dan; Arbel, Yaron; Altberg, Gal; Kinori, Michael; Shirom, Arie; Melamed, Samuel; Shapira, Itzhak; Rogowski, Ori

    2008-08-01

    The association between temporary emotional states and systemic inflammation has never been studied. We measured the levels of systemic inflammation markers in the peripheral blood of individuals with history of mental health crisis. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), fibrinogen plasma level, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) serum level, and white blood cell count (WBCC) were measured for each individual during routine screening examinations. History of mental health crisis was self-reported. Individuals taking psychotropic agents were excluded. A total of 4,669 males and 2,576 females were included. One hundred forty-eight (2.0%) individuals (77 males and 71 females) reported a history of mental health crisis, and 7,097 (98.0%) individuals (4,592 males and 2,505 females) did not report a history of mental health crisis. After adjustment for multiple confounders which had been associated with elevated systemic inflammation markers, the levels of systemic inflammation markers were significantly higher among males with history of mental health crisis compared with males with no history of mental health crisis, including fibrinogen plasma levels (294+/-6.1 vs. 279+/-1.9 mg/dl, p=0.010), and WBCC (7.2+/-0.2 vs. 6.8+/-0.1 x 10(3) cells/dl, p=0.039). The levels of systemic inflammation markers were not significantly higher among females with history of mental health crisis compared with females with no history of mental health crisis. History of mental health crisis might be associated with systemic inflammation in males. This finding may be relevant to the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease in males.

  10. Exploring Crisis Management in U.S. Small Businesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Jon

    As a critical infrastructure, the US electricity grid supplies electricity to 340 million people within eight separate regions. The power infrastructure is vulnerable to many types of disasters capable of severing supplies of electricity. The impact on the employees and communities when small- and medium-size enterprises are shut down due to disasters can be severe. The purpose of the quantitative comparative study was to explore small- and medium-size enterprises crisis management strategies in the case of power infrastructure vulnerabilities. Perceptions of small business leaders were probed about crisis management planning relevant to three secondary factors: prior experience of crises, threat perceptions, and planning self-efficacy. Participants completed an adapted questionnaire instrument based on a five-point Likert scale for six sub-factors including resilience through planning, financial impact, operational crisis management, the perfect storm, the aftermath of survival, and atrophy. The instrument also measured three additional factors to include, prior experience of crises, threat perceptions, and planning self-efficacy, across seven types of crises. The results of this study indicated that of the 276 respondents, 104 had no crisis plans, but 172 did have crisis plans. Of those who had implemented crisis plans, 19% had specific provisions to address power outages or attacks on the electrical grid. Of the respondents who had not planned for power outages nor experienced significant losses of power, a statistically significant number acknowledged an external threat to their business. The majority of respondents indicated that long-term planning was related to resilience; however, the migration of crisis understanding into the planning process or implementation was not implemented. This heightened awareness of potential crises without the corresponding development and implementation of mitigation crisis plans requires additional research to understand

  11. Group X

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, Susannah

    2007-08-16

    This project is currently under contract for research through the Department of Homeland Security until 2011. The group I was responsible for studying has to remain confidential so as not to affect the current project. All dates, reference links and authors, and other distinguishing characteristics of the original group have been removed from this report. All references to the name of this group or the individual splinter groups has been changed to 'Group X'. I have been collecting texts from a variety of sources intended for the use of recruiting and radicalizing members for Group X splinter groups for the purpose of researching the motivation and intent of leaders of those groups and their influence over the likelihood of group radicalization. This work included visiting many Group X websites to find information on splinter group leaders and finding their statements to new and old members. This proved difficult because the splinter groups of Group X are united in beliefs, but differ in public opinion. They are eager to tear each other down, prove their superiority, and yet remain anonymous. After a few weeks of intense searching, a list of eight recruiting texts and eight radicalizing texts from a variety of Group X leaders were compiled.

  12. Stock network stability in times of crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiberger, Raphael H.

    2014-01-01

    Despite many efforts crises on financial markets are in large part still scientific black-boxes. In this paper, we use a winner-take-all approach to construct a longitudinal network of S&P 500 companies and their correlations between 2000 and 2012. A comparison to complex ecosystems is drawn, especially whether the May-Wigner theorem can describe real-world economic phenomena. The results confirm the utility of the May-Wigner theorem as a stability indicator for the US stock market, since its development matches with the two major crises of this period, the dot-com bubble and, particularly, the financial crisis. In those times of financial turmoil, the stock network changes its composition, but unlike ecological systems it tightens and the disassortative structure of prosperous markets transforms into a more centralized topology.

  13. Understanding communication in counterterrorism crisis management.

    SciTech Connect

    Djordjevich, Donna D.; Barr, Pamela K.; Arnold, Jason Darrel; Johnson, Michael M.; Sa, Timothy J.; Hawley, Marilyn F.; Davis, Midge L.; Wright, Aliseya; Bernard, Michael Lewis; Wilcox, William B.; Tam, Ricky; Ammerlahn, Heidi R.

    2004-10-01

    This report describes the purpose and results of the two-year, Sandia-sponsored Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project entitled Understanding Communication in Counterterrorism Crisis Management The purpose of this project was to facilitate the capture of key communications among team members in simulated training exercises, and to learn how to improve communication in that domain. The first section of this document details the scenario development aspects of the simulation. The second section covers the new communication technologies that were developed and incorporated into the Weapons of Mass Destruction Decision Analysis Center (WMD-DAC) suite of decision support tools. The third section provides an overview of the features of the simulation and highlights its communication aspects. The fourth section describes the Team Communication Study processes and methodologies. The fifth section discusses future directions and areas in which to apply the new technologies and study results obtained as a result of this LDRD.

  14. Science education crisis: Problems, solutions discussed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolcott, John

    Public concern about the state of science education in America at the pre-college and college levels is widespread, triggered largely by the perception that we are losing ground in the global economy. Science, and particularly technology, are seen as our most likely sources of recovery. For those who recall the public reaction to the launching of Sputnik by Russia in 1957, the present mood is similar, if somewhat less intense.AGU members are in a unique position to influence debate about the science education crisis. Many of us, either as experts in some subset of physical science issues, as teachers at the college level, or even as parents observing our children's experiences in elementary or secondary school classrooms, may offer insight to this debate.

  15. Oculogyric crisis masquerading as ventriculoperitoneal shunt dysfunction.

    PubMed

    AlAzwary, Nail H; Muayqil, Taim; Siddiqi, Zaeem A; Ahmed, S Nizam

    2008-11-01

    Oculogyric crisis (OGC) is an underrecognized oculodystonic reaction associated with several medications including carbamazepine. The authors present a patient who had presented to the emergency department on multiple occasions with a questionable ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt dysfunction. Symptoms included nausea, vomiting, altered level of consciousness, ataxia, and vertical eye deviation. The patient underwent multiple revisions of the VP shunt with transient and questionable improvement. During her visit to the neurology clinic, OGC from carbamazepine was suspected, and the dose was reduced. The patient has been completely asymptomatic for the past 18 months. The authors report this case to increase the awareness of carbamazepine-induced OGC as one of the differential diagnoses for VP shunt dysfunction.

  16. Fertility Regulation in an Economic Crisis

    PubMed Central

    McKelvey, Christopher; Thomas, Duncan; Frankenberg, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Substantial international aid is spent reducing the cost of contraception in developing countries, as part of a larger effort to reduce global fertility and increase investment per child worldwide. The importance for fertility behaviors of keeping contraceptive prices low, however, remains unclear. Targeting of subsidies and insufficient price variation have hindered prior attempts to estimate the effect of monetary and non-monetary contraceptive costs on fertility behavior. Using longitudinal survey data from the Indonesia Family Life Survey, we exploit dramatic variation in prices and incomes that was induced by the economic crisis in the late 1990s to pin down the effect of contraceptive availability and costs as well as household resources on contraceptive use and method choice. The results are unambiguous: monetary costs of contraceptives and levels of family economic resources have a very small (and well-determined) impact on contraceptive use and choice of method. PMID:25843969

  17. International dimensions of the environmental crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, R.N.

    1982-01-01

    Emphasizing that the environmental crisis is global in scope, manifest in almost every region, culture, and political and economic system, this book examines the environmental problems confronted by countries throughout the world (e.g., desertification, deforestation, soil erosion, weather modification, energy and resource shortages, and air and water pollution). It also traces the relationships between these problems and such diverse factors as economic constraints, nationalism, cultural values, international relations, and access to new technology. The authors of the 17 individual papers grapple with the practical and philosophical dilemmas attendant upon environmental degradation and preservation. They then discuss the specific concerns of Latin America, Europe, Asia, and Africa and address the roles of such processes as agricultural development, population growth and migration, and the international export of environmental degradation. 620 references, 20 figures.

  18. Rate shock crisis faces completed nukes

    SciTech Connect

    Utroska, D.

    1982-05-01

    Political reluctance on the part of regulators to grant utilities a full rate base for large generating plants is a new crisis facing utilities with newly completed nuclear plants. Zero- or partial-rate treatment for large new plants will increase the financial strains of electric companies if they cannot recover their investment. Such rate decisions will affect the commitment to uncompleted and planned nuclear plants as the economic advantage is removed. Economists warn that consumer resistance to large rate increases to cover construction periods could lead to an overhaul of regulatory practices. Alternatives to sudden rate shocks could be moderated with phased-in increases or rate trending. Analysts disagree on whether consumer opposition is the beginning of a national movement or a regional response, but if other states follow Alabama's example of turning rate decisions over to the courts, it may confirm their assessment that the trending approach is unworkable. (DCK)

  19. Lessons of the North Korean crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Mazarr, M.J.

    1993-07-01

    The crisis involving North Korea`s suspected nuclear weapon program is over, at least for now. Pyongyang has agreed to suspend its decision to withdraw from the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and to assume its obligations allowing continued International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspections of its nuclear facilities, although it has yet to accept IAEA {open_quotes}special{close_quotes} inspections of suspect nuclear sites. In exchange, North Korea obtained a few specific commitments from the United States - nuclear non-aggression, for example - as well as hints of longer-term benefits such as high-level US-North Korean talks extending to other topics, the cancellation of the US-South Korean {open_quotes}Team Spirit{close_quotes} military exercise, the right to reciprocal inspections in South Korea and an influx of South Korean and Japanese investment, provided North Korea meets its obligations under the NPT.

  20. Armageddon, oil, and the Middle East crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Walvoord, J.F.; Walvoord, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    This book relates the intricate subject of biblical prophecy to the current crisis in the Middle East. With the development of oil politics, Dr. Walvoord believes a new world government will emerge, centered in the Middle East, which will eclipse the United States and Russia as world powers. The world government will be subjected to catastrophic, divine judgments which precipitate a gigantic world war culminating in Armageddon. Each chapter is devoted to the scriptural explanations of events leading to the second coming of Christ. The result is a prophetic calendar summing up to the countdown to Armageddon. Some of the chapter titles include: the Arab oil blackmail; watch Jerusalen; the rising tide of world religion; the coming Middle East peace; the coming world dictator; and Armageddon: the world's death struggle.

  1. Kesterson crisis: Sorting out the facts

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, S.M. ); Delamore, M.; Hoffman, S. . Mid-Pacific Region)

    1990-07-01

    The Kesterson Reservoir was planned as a regulating facility to control drainage water discharges into the San Joaquin-Scaramento River Delta from the San Luis Drain'' which was to dispose of salt-ladin agricultural water. Anticipated environmental impacts of the Kesterson operations focused almost exclusively on problems related to seepage and water-logging of nearby lands. Reuse of drainage water for wetlands focused on excessive salinity. Drainage water entered the reservoir in 1978. By 1983 elevated levels of selenium were found with selenium poisoning causing deformed embryos of water birds, adult bird mortality and their poor reproductive success. An estimated 9000 kg of selenium was delivered to Kesterson between 1981 to 1986. This paper details the chronology of the Kesterson crisis and environmental remediation. 20 refs., 1 fig. (BJN)

  2. The Asian financial crisis and women.

    PubMed

    1998-05-01

    This paper reports on the "Women's Roundtable Discussion on the Economic, Social, and Political Impacts of the Southeast Asian Financial Crisis" by the Gender Development Programme and Development Alternatives with Women for a New Era (DAWN), which was held in Manila, Philippines, on April 12-14, 1998. The purpose of the Women's Roundtable was to provide a forum for regional analysis of women workers, labor migration and trade policies, women's livelihoods, food security and social development, globalization, and adverse impacts of economic recession and inflation. Among the recommendations of the forum were that the impact of globalization on women should be monitored and that the analyses and concerns raised during the roundtable discussions should be disseminated through other regional and international platforms.

  3. Human resources for health: overcoming the crisis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lincoln; Evans, Timothy; Anand, Sudhir; Boufford, Jo Ivey; Brown, Hilary; Chowdhury, Mushtaque; Cueto, Marcos; Dare, Lola; Dussault, Gilles; Elzinga, Gijs; Fee, Elizabeth; Habte, Demissie; Hanvoravongchai, Piya; Jacobs, Marian; Kurowski, Christoph; Michael, Sarah; Pablos-Mendez, Ariel; Sewankambo, Nelson; Solimano, Giorgio; Stilwell, Barbara; de Waal, Alex; Wibulpolprasert, Suwit

    In this analysis of the global workforce, the Joint Learning Initiative-a consortium of more than 100 health leaders-proposes that mobilisation and strengthening of human resources for health, neglected yet critical, is central to combating health crises in some of the world's poorest countries and for building sustainable health systems in all countries. Nearly all countries are challenged by worker shortage, skill mix imbalance, maldistribution, negative work environment, and weak knowledge base. Especially in the poorest countries, the workforce is under assault by HIV/AIDS, out-migration, and inadequate investment. Effective country strategies should be backed by international reinforcement. Ultimately, the crisis in human resources is a shared problem requiring shared responsibility for cooperative action. Alliances for action are recommended to strengthen the performance of all existing actors while expanding space and energy for fresh actors.

  4. Predictability crisis in early universe cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smeenk, Chris

    2014-05-01

    Inflationary cosmology has been widely accepted due to its successful predictions: for a "generic" initial state, inflation produces a homogeneous, flat, bubble with an appropriate spectrum of density perturbations. However, the discovery that inflation is "generically eternal," leading to a vast multiverse of inflationary bubbles with different low-energy physics, threatens to undermine this account. There is a "predictability crisis" in eternal inflation, because extracting predictions apparently requires a well-defined measure over the multiverse. This has led to discussions of anthropic predictions based on a measure over the multiverse, and an assumption that we are typical observers. I will give a pessimistic assessment of attempts to make predictions in this sense, emphasizing in particular problems that arise even if a unique measure can be found.

  5. Occupy the Financial Niche: Saturation and Crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purica, Ionut

    The model presented is one theoretical approach within a broader research program that could verify the nonlinear conjectures made, such that to quantify and predict potential discontinuous behaviour. In this case, the crisis behaviour associated with financial funds reallocation among various credit instruments, described as memes with the sense of Dawkins, is shown to be of discontinuous nature stemming from a logistic penetration in the behaviour niche. Actually the logistic penetration is typical in creating cyclic behaviour of economic structures as shown by Marchetti and others from IIASA. A Fokker-Planck equation description results in a stationary solution having a bifurcation like solution with evolution trajectories on a `cusp' type catastrophe that may describe discontinuous decision behaviour.

  6. Update on the antibiotic resistance crisis.

    PubMed

    Rossolini, Gian Maria; Arena, Fabio; Pecile, Patrizia; Pollini, Simona

    2014-10-01

    Antibiotics tend to lose their efficacy over time due to the emergence and dissemination of resistance among bacterial pathogens. Strains with resistance to multiple antibiotic classes have emerged among major Gram-positive and Gram-negative species including Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp. Enterobacteriaceae, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. With some Gram-negatives, resistance may involve most or even all the available antimicrobial options, resulting in extremely drug-resistant or totally drug-resistant phenotypes. This so-called 'antibiotic resistance crisis' has been compounded by the lagging in antibiotic discovery and development programs occurred in recent years, and is jeopardizing the essential role played by antibiotics in current medical practices.

  7. [Trends in environmental risks in the context of the economic crisis. SESPAS report 2014].

    PubMed

    Ballester, Ferran; Llop, Sabrina; Querol, Xavier; Esplugues, Ana

    2014-06-01

    This article aims to analyze the impact of the economic and financial crisis on environmental determinants of health. The World Health Organization estimates that between 13% and 27% of the disease burden in countries could be prevented by improving the environment. These effects are larger in vulnerable populations, especially among the poorest. In the last decade, outdoor air pollution (the most significant environmental health risk in most European countries) has declined, mostly due to the European policy of reducing emissions and to the decrease in activity following the economic crisis. During the last few years, this improvement in air quality has occurred simultaneously with a reduction in investment in environmental protection and could therefore be offset in the medium-term. The economic crisis has not reduced the trend for higher temperatures in Spain and Europe because climate change is a global phenomenon that is not directly related to local emissions. To reduce the risk of an increase in the health impact of environmental factors, certain key aspects should be considered, such as the need to maintain or develop adequate monitoring and control systems and the opportunity to implement policies that help improve the quality of the environment and reduce the vulnerability of different population groups in a cross-disciplinary framework of transparency and citizen participation.

  8. Impact of the 2008 Economic and Financial Crisis on Child Health: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Rajmil, Luis; Fernandez de Sanmamed, María-José; Choonara, Imti; Faresjö, Tomas; Hjern, Anders; Kozyrskyj, Anita L.; Lucas, Patricia J.; Raat, Hein; Séguin, Louise; Spencer, Nick; Taylor-Robinson, David

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an overview of studies in which the impact of the 2008 economic crisis on child health was reported. Structured searches of PubMed, and ISI Web of Knowledge, were conducted. Quantitative and qualitative studies reporting health outcomes on children, published since 2007 and related to the 2008 economic crisis were included. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion. Data were synthesised as a narrative review. Five hundred and six titles and abstracts were reviewed, from which 22 studies were included. The risk of bias for quantitative studies was mixed while qualitative studies showed low risk of bias. An excess of 28,000–50,000 infant deaths in 2009 was estimated in sub-Saharan African countries, and increased infant mortality in Greece was reported. Increased price of foods was related to worsening nutrition habits in disadvantaged families worldwide. An increase in violence against children was reported in the U.S., and inequalities in health-related quality of life appeared in some countries. Most studies suggest that the economic crisis has harmed children’s health, and disproportionately affected the most vulnerable groups. There is an urgent need for further studies to monitor the child health effects of the global recession and to inform appropriate public policy responses. PMID:25019121

  9. Impact of the 2008 economic and financial crisis on child health: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rajmil, Luis; Fernandez de Sanmamed, María-José; Choonara, Imti; Faresjö, Tomas; Hjern, Anders; Kozyrskyj, Anita L; Lucas, Patricia J; Raat, Hein; Séguin, Louise; Spencer, Nick; Taylor-Robinson, David

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an overview of studies in which the impact of the 2008 economic crisis on child health was reported. Structured searches of PubMed, and ISI Web of Knowledge, were conducted. Quantitative and qualitative studies reporting health outcomes on children, published since 2007 and related to the 2008 economic crisis were included. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion. Data were synthesised as a narrative review. Five hundred and six titles and abstracts were reviewed, from which 22 studies were included. The risk of bias for quantitative studies was mixed while qualitative studies showed low risk of bias. An excess of 28,000-50,000 infant deaths in 2009 was estimated in sub-Saharan African countries, and increased infant mortality in Greece was reported. Increased price of foods was related to worsening nutrition habits in disadvantaged families worldwide. An increase in violence against children was reported in the U.S., and inequalities in health-related quality of life appeared in some countries. Most studies suggest that the economic crisis has harmed children's health, and disproportionately affected the most vulnerable groups. There is an urgent need for further studies to monitor the child health effects of the global recession and to inform appropriate public policy responses.

  10. Crisis management during anaesthesia: awareness and anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, G; Bacon, A; Runciman, W; Helps, S

    2005-01-01

    Background: Patient awareness during general anaesthesia has considerable potential for severe emotional distress in the patient as well as professional, personal, and financial consequences for the anaesthetist. Objectives: To examine the role of a previously described core algorithm "COVER ABCD–A SWIFT CHECK", supplemented by a specific sub-algorithm for awareness, in the detection and management of potential awareness in association with general anaesthesia. Method: The potential performance of this structured approach for each of the relevant incidents among the first 4000 reported to the Australian Incident Monitoring Study (AIMS) was compared with the actual management as reported by the anaesthetists involved. Results: Of the first 4000 reports received by AIMS, there were 21 incidents of patient awareness under general anaesthesia, and 20 of patients being paralysed while awake from "syringe swaps" before induction of anaesthesia. In 12 of the 21 reports there was an obvious cause, most commonly a low concentration of volatile agent (8 of 12 reports). The AIMS "core" crisis management algorithm would have detected the cause of awareness in all of these cases. In nine reports the course of anaesthesia appeared unremarkable, and in these the algorithm would not have been expected to detect or prevent awareness. Volatile agent monitoring would have prevented some cases of awareness, as would bispectral index electroencephalographic (BIS) monitoring. The role of BIS monitoring is still contentious, but it should be considered for high risk patients. Conclusion: Awareness should be minimised by thorough checking of equipment, particularly vaporisers, and frequent application of a structured scanning routine. Awareness may occur during crisis management and aftermath protocols should include patient follow up to detect and manage awareness when it occurs. PMID:15933289

  11. Paratethys forcing of the Messinian Salinity Crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krijgsman, Wout; Van Baak, Christiaan; Flecker, Rachel; Grothe, Arjen; Marzocchi, Alice; Stoica, Marius; Vasiliev, Iuliana

    2016-04-01

    During the Messinian Salinity Crisis (5.97-5.33 Ma), there is increasing evidence for the presence of fresh water input, not only during the final Lago-mare stage but even during times of evaporite formation. Here we present new strontium isotopic data from two well-dated Messinian sections in the Black and Caspian seas, which show remarkably similar Sr-values as the ones recorded in the Mediterranean during the final phase of the salinity crisis. This strongly suggests that a major fresh water pulse in the Mediterranean originated from the Paratethys. It highlights the importance of a Mediterranean-Black Sea connection during the entire MSC, adding an enormous drainage basin to the Mediterranean water balance. The presence of Paratethyan fauna in the Mediterranean Lago-Mare deposits has fuelled long-lasting controversies over the connectivity between the Mediterranean and Paratethys and contemporary sea level drops in both basins. We furthermore use results of sub-precessional climate simulations to calculate the freshwater budget of the Mediterranean and Paratethys in the Messinian. Using these numerical constraints, we propose a Mediterranean outflow pump as an alternative scenario for the most dramatic hydrological changes in the MSC. This "pump" mechanism significantly enhanced Paratethyan inflow to the Mediterranean, creating 1) suitable conditions for gypsum to form and 2) Lago-mare fauna to migrate and thrive. When the Mediterranean sea level finally reached the height of the Gibraltar sill, Mediterranean outflow restarted there and enhanced exchange with the Atlantic. During this reorganisation of the circulation, brackish and hypersaline waters were pumped out of the Mediterranean, and open marine conditions were re-established without major flooding at the Mio-Pliocene boundary.

  12. Crisis management during anaesthesia: water intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Kluger, M; Szekely, S; Singleton, R; Helps, S

    2005-01-01

    Background: Irrigation of closed body spaces may lead to substantial perioperative fluid and electrolyte shifts. A syndrome occurring during transurethral resection of prostate (TURP), and a similar syndrome described in women undergoing transcervical endometrial ablation (TCEA) are both characterised by a spectrum of symptoms which may range from asymptomatic hyponatraemia to convulsions, coma, and death. Such potentially serious consequences require prompt recognition and appropriate management of this "water intoxication" syndrome. Objectives: To examine the role of a previously described core algorithm "COVER ABCD–A SWIFT CHECK", supplemented by a specific sub-algorithm for water intoxication, in the management of this syndrome occurring in association with anaesthesia. Methods: The potential performance of this structured approach for each of the relevant incidents among the first 4000 reported to the Australian Incident Monitoring Study (AIMS) was compared with the actual management as reported by the anaesthetists involved. Results: From the first 4000 incidents reported to AIMS, 10 reports of water intoxication were identified, two from endometrial ablations under general anaesthesia and eight from male urological procedures under spinal anaesthesia. The "core" crisis management algorithm detected a problem in seven cases; however, it was deficient in dealing with neurological presentations. Diagnosis of the cause of the incident would have required a specific water intoxication sub-algorithm in eight cases and a hypotension algorithm in a further two cases. Corrective strategies also required a specific sub-algorithm in eight cases, while the hypotension and cardiac arrest sub-algorithms were required in conjunction with the water intoxication sub-algorithm in the remaining two. Conclusion: This relatively uncommon problem is managed poorly using the "core" crisis management sub-algorithm and requires a simple specific sub-algorithm for water

  13. Group Flow and Group Genius

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Keith Sawyer views the spontaneous collaboration of group creativity and improvisation actions as "group flow," which organizations can use to function at optimum levels. Sawyer establishes ideal conditions for group flow: group goals, close listening, complete concentration, being in control, blending egos, equal participation, knowing…

  14. Crisis and emergency risk communication as an integrative model.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Barbara; W Seeger, Matthew

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a model of communication known as crisis and emergency risk communication (CERC). The model is outlined as a merger of many traditional notions of health and risk communication with work in crisis and disaster communication. The specific kinds of communication activities that should be called for at various stages of disaster or crisis development are outlined. Although crises are by definition uncertain, equivocal, and often chaotic situations, the CERC model is presented as a tool health communicators can use to help manage these complex events.

  15. Crisis as opportunity: international health work during the economic depression.

    PubMed

    Borowy, Iris

    2008-01-01

    The economic depression of the 1930s represented the most important economic and social crisis of its time. Surprisingly, its effect on health did not show in available morbidity and mortality rates. In 1932, the League of Nations Health Organisation embarked on a six-point program addressing statistical methods of measuring the effect and its influence on mental health and nutrition and establishing ways to safeguard public health through more efficient health systems. Some of these studies resulted in considerations of general relevance beyond crisis management. Unexpectedly, the crisis offered an opportunity to reconsider key concepts of individual and public health.

  16. Economic Crisis, Austerity Policies, Health and Fairness: Lessons Learned in Spain.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Valcarcel, Beatriz G; Barber, Patricia

    2017-02-01

    This paper reviews economic and medical research publications to determine the extent to which the measures applied in Spain to control public health spending following the economic and financial crisis that began in 2008 have affected healthcare utilization, health and fairness within the public healthcare system. The majority of the studies examined focus on the most controversial cutbacks that came into force in mid-2012. The conclusions drawn, in general, are inconclusive. The consequences of this new policy of healthcare austerity are apparent in terms of access to the system, but no systematic effects on the health of the general population are reported. Studies based on indicators of premature mortality, avoidable mortality or self-perceived health have not found clear negative effects of the crisis on public health. The increased demands for co-payment provoked a short-term cutback in the consumption of medicines, but this effect faded after 12-18 months. No deterioration in the health of immigrants after the onset of the crisis was unambiguously detected. The impact of the recession on the general population in terms of diseases associated with mental health is well documented; however, the high levels of unemployment are identified as direct causes. Therefore, social policies rather than measures affecting the healthcare system would be primarily responsible. In addition, some health problems have a clear social dimension, which seems to have become more acute during the crisis, affecting in particular the most vulnerable population groups and the most disadvantaged social classes, thus widening the inequality gap.

  17. Impact of 2008 global economic crisis on suicide: time trend study in 54 countries

    PubMed Central

    Stuckler, David; Yip, Paul; Gunnell, David

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of the 2008 global economic crisis on international trends in suicide and to identify sex/age groups and countries most affected. Design Time trend analysis comparing the actual number of suicides in 2009 with the number that would be expected based on trends before the crisis (2000-07). Setting Suicide data from 54 countries; for 53 data were available in the World Health Organization mortality database and for one (the United States) data came the CDC online database. Population People aged 15 or above. Main outcome measures Suicide rate and number of excess suicides in 2009. Results There were an estimated 4884 (95% confidence interval 3907 to 5860) excess suicides in 2009 compared with the number expected based on previous trends (2000-07). The increases in suicide mainly occurred in men in the 27 European and 18 American countries; the suicide rates were 4.2% (3.4% to 5.1%) and 6.4% (5.4% to 7.5%) higher, respectively, in 2009 than expected if earlier trends had continued. For women, there was no change in European countries and the increase in the Americas was smaller than in men (2.3%). Rises in European men were highest in those aged 15-24 (11.7%), while in American countries men aged 45-64 showed the largest increase (5.2%). Rises in national suicide rates in men seemed to be associated with the magnitude of increases in unemployment, particularly in countries with low levels of unemployment before the crisis (Spearman’s rs=0.48). Conclusions After the 2008 economic crisis, rates of suicide increased in the European and American countries studied, particularly in men and in countries with higher levels of job loss. PMID:24046155

  18. Civil unrest and birthweight: an exploratory analysis of the 2007/2008 Kenyan Crisis.

    PubMed

    Bell, Suzanne; Prata, Ndola; Lahiff, Maureen; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2012-05-01

    For decades, Africa has been plagued by political and ethnic conflict, the health ramifications of which are often not investigated. A crisis occurred recently in Kenya following the 2007 presidential election. Ethnic violence ensued, targeting the incumbent President Kibaki's Kikuyu people. The violence occurred primarily in Nairobi and the Rift Valley of Kenya. We sought to examine the association between exposure to the 2007/2008 Kenyan Crisis and birthweight. Using the 2008/2009 Kenyan Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS), we compared birthweights of infants in utero or not yet conceived during the 15 months after the political turmoil following the 2007 presidential election (exposed) to those who were born before the crisis (unexposed). There were 663 "exposed" and 687 "unexposed" infants. Multivariate regression was used. We examined the possibility of two-way and three-way interactions between exposure status, ethnicity (Kikuyu versus non-Kikuyu), and region (violent region versus not). Overall, exposure to the Kenyan Crisis was associated with lower birthweight. Kikuyu women living in a violent region who were exposed during their 2nd trimester had the greatest difference in birthweight in comparison to all unexposed infants: 564.4g lower (95% CI 285.1, 843.6). Infants of Kikuyu exposed during the 2nd trimester and living in a violent region weighed 603.6g less (95% CI 333.6, 873.6) than Kikuyu infants born during the unexposed period. Political unrest may have implications for the birthweight of infants, particularly among targeted populations. Given the adverse sequelae associated with lowered birthweight, these results suggest that particular attention should be paid to pregnant women and targeted ethnic groups following such events.

  19. Framework See-Think as a Tool for Crowdsourcing Support - Case Study on Crisis Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netek, R.; Panek, J.

    2016-06-01

    See-Think-Do is a framework originally used as an approach focused on a service and product marketing on the Internet. Customers can be classified into three groups according to their involvement from potential users to real customers. The article presents an idea of public involvement in community mapping in three levels: "See"—almost any user; "Think"—potential contributors; and "Do"—interested users. The case study implements the See-Think-Do framework as an awareness-based approach used for The Crisis Map of the Czech Republic. It is an Ushahidi-based crowdsourcing platform for sharing spatial and multimedia information during crisis situations, e.g. disaster floods in 2013. While the current crisis projects use public mapping just at the onset of the disaster, according to See-Think-Do any user can be considered as a potential contributor even during the dormant period. The focus is put on the "See" and "Think" groups of contributors, which are currently ignored. The objective of this paper is to summarize approaches (social networks, mass-media, emailing, gamification, …) and tools (GIT/GIS, ICT, multimedia) for increasing the awareness about the project within the resting phase. That recruits a higher number of both active and passive users during the disaster. It allows the training in ICT, cartographical, spatial and GIS skills in a non-stressful way and the targeting on specific operators. Volunteers from the "Think" group may be used for data processing or rectification, GIS professionals from the "Do" group for data verification. The results refer that contributors with already established skills and required literacy (interface, data uploading) provide data faster and more accurate, the usability of the project increases based on users' comments.

  20. Isopermutation group

    SciTech Connect

    Muktibodh, A. S.

    2015-03-10

    The concept of ‘Isotopy’ as formulated by Ruggero Maria Santilli [1, 2, 3] plays a vital role in the development of Iso mathematics. Santilli defined iso-fields of characteristic zero. In this paper we extend this definition to define Iso-Galois fields [4] which are essentially of non-zero characteristic. Isotopically isomorphic realizations of a group define isopermutation group which gives a clear cut distinction between automorphic groups and isotopic groups.

  1. Home Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahler, Theresa M.

    All students enrolled in the entry level foundations course in the College of Education of Kutztown University (Pennsylvania) participate in home groups, a cooperative learning strategy. Each student is assigned to a five- or six-person home group on the first day of class. Although group placements are made on the basis of class lists, every…

  2. Exploiting social media for Army operations: Syrian crisis use case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kase, Sue E.; Bowman, Elizabeth K.; Al Amin, Tanvir; Abdelzaher, Tarek

    2014-05-01

    Millions of people exchange user-generated information through online social media (SM) services. The prevalence of SM use globally and its growing significance to the evolution of events has attracted the attention of the Army and other agencies charged with protecting national security interests. The information exchanged in SM sites and the networks of people who interact with these online communities can provide value to Army intelligence efforts. SM could facilitate the Military Decision Making Process by providing ongoing assessment of military actions from a local citizen perspective. Despite potential value, there are significant technological barriers to leveraging SM. SM collection and analysis are difficult in the dynamic SM environment and deception is a real concern. This paper introduces a credibility analysis approach and prototype fact-finding technology called the "Apollo Fact-finder" that mitigates the problem of inaccurate or falsified SM data. Apollo groups data into sets (or claims), corroborating specific observations, then iteratively assesses both claim and source credibility resulting in a ranking of claims by likelihood of occurrence. These credibility analysis approaches are discussed in the context of a conflict event, the Syrian civil war, and applied to tweets collected in the aftermath of the Syrian chemical weapons crisis.

  3. Galaxy groups

    SciTech Connect

    Brent Tully, R.

    2015-02-01

    Galaxy groups can be characterized by the radius of decoupling from cosmic expansion, the radius of the caustic of second turnaround, and the velocity dispersion of galaxies within this latter radius. These parameters can be a challenge to measure, especially for small groups with few members. In this study, results are gathered pertaining to particularly well-studied groups over four decades in group mass. Scaling relations anticipated from theory are demonstrated and coefficients of the relationships are specified. There is an update of the relationship between light and mass for groups, confirming that groups with mass of a few times 10{sup 12}M{sub ⊙} are the most lit up while groups with more and less mass are darker. It is demonstrated that there is an interesting one-to-one correlation between the number of dwarf satellites in a group and the group mass. There is the suggestion that small variations in the slope of the luminosity function in groups are caused by the degree of depletion of intermediate luminosity systems rather than variations in the number per unit mass of dwarfs. Finally, returning to the characteristic radii of groups, the ratio of first to second turnaround depends on the dark matter and dark energy content of the universe and a crude estimate can be made from the current observations of Ω{sub matter}∼0.15 in a flat topology, with a 68% probability of being less than 0.44.

  4. Would the Discovery of ETI Provoke a Religious Crisis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Ted

    Noting how some prophets of crisis forecast that traditional religious traditions are vulnerable to challenge if not collapse upon confirmation of the existence of extraterrestrial intelligent beings, this chapter subjects this claim to examination. Citing findings from the Peters ETI Religious Crisis Survey, we find evidence that those who affirm religious belief have no difficulty affirming the existence of ETI and incorporating ETI into their respective worldviews. This applies to Orthodox Christians, Roman Catholics, mainline Protestants, Evangelical Protestants, Jews, Mormons, Buddhists, and to those who self-identify as non-religious. Surprisingly, the self-identified non-religious respondents are the only ones who fear a religious crisis precipitated by contact with extraterrestrials, a crisis expected to happen to others but not to themselves. Turning to the new field of Astrotheology, the question of de-centering both geocentrism and anthropocentrism is raised in light of the prospect of discovering intelligent celestial neighbors.

  5. Temperament types: midlife death concerns, demographics, and intensity of crisis.

    PubMed

    Waskel, S A

    1995-03-01

    Individuals (N = 331) between the ages 35 and 55 completed a death concern scale and a temperament type sorter and provided information relative to the intensity of and their ability to identify a midlife crisis event. Participants were classified within temperament types by gender, education level, crisis intensity, and ability to identify the crisis event. Five temperament types (ESTJ [extrovert, sensing, thinking, judging], ESFJ [extrovert, sensing, feeling, judging], ISFJ [introvert, sensing, feeling, judging], ISTJ [introvert, sensing, thinking, judging], and ENFP [extrovert, intuitive, feeling, perceiving]) significantly correlated with thinking about and anxiety about death. Gender and education level, as well as crisis intensity, also correlated significantly with death concerns. Temperament type characteristics that may have relevancy to the findings are discussed.

  6. Public health crisis preparedness and response in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Young; Oh, Mi-Na; Park, Yong-Shik; Chu, Chaeshin; Son, Tae-Jong

    2013-10-01

    Since the 2006 Pandemic Influenza Preparedness and Response Plan according to the World Health Organization's recommendation, the Republic of Korea has prepared and periodically evaluated the plan to respond to various public health crises including pandemic influenza. Korea has stockpiled 13,000,000 doses of antiviral drugs covering 26% of the Korean population and runs 519 isolated beds in 16 medical institutions. The division of public health crisis response in Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are in charge of responding to public health crises caused by emerging infectious diseases including severe acute respiratory syndrome, avian influenza human infection, and pandemic influenza. Its job description includes preparing for emerging infectious diseases, securing medical resources during a crisis, activating the emergency response during the crisis, and fortification of capabilities of public health personnel. It could evolve into a comprehensive national agency to deal with public health crisis based on the experience of previous national emerging infectious diseases.

  7. The antimicrobial resistance crisis: management through gene monitoring

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an acknowledged crisis for humanity. Its genetic origins and dire potential outcomes are increasingly well understood. However, diagnostic techniques for monitoring the crisis are currently largely limited to enumerating the increasing incidence of resistant pathogens. Being the end-stage of the evolutionary process that produces antimicrobial resistant pathogens, these measurements, while diagnostic, are not prognostic, and so are not optimal in managing this crisis. A better test is required. Here, using insights from an understanding of evolutionary processes ruling the changing abundance of genes under selective pressure, we suggest a predictive framework for the AMR crisis. We then discuss the likely progression of resistance for both existing and prospective antimicrobial therapies. Finally, we suggest that by the environmental monitoring of resistance gene frequency, resistance may be detected and tracked presumptively, and how this tool may be used to guide decision-making in the local and global use of antimicrobials. PMID:27831476

  8. Crisis in Confidence: The Public and Its Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, James E., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    By recognizing the expanding dimensions of education's responsibility and by designing appropriate patterns of finance and structure, the educational system can weather its crisis and achieve flexibility. (Author/SP)

  9. Whose crisis is it? A relational psychoanalytic perspective.

    PubMed

    Yerushalmi, Hanoch

    2010-01-01

    Life crises are severe psychological states that may elicit either growth and positive change or harm and limited development in those experiencing them. This article examines various intersubjective elements of crisis states in light of some of the significant theoretical and clinical developments in psychoanalytic thinking. Amongst these is the mutual influence believed to exist between those experiencing a crisis and those in close relational surroundings. It is proposed herein that some of the actions and reactions of those experiencing a crisis are, in fact, enactments expressing the wishes, fantasies, and needs of others around them. An appropriate interpretation of these enactments can relieve the anxiety accompanying the sense of loneliness, strangeness, and exceptionality that so often characterize crisis states.

  10. Farm Crisis and Suicide: Dying on the Vine?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragland, John D.; Berman, Alan L.

    1991-01-01

    Examined relationship between farm economic crisis and farmer suicide rates using data from 15 states from 1980 to 1985. Found suicide rates for farmers were greater than truck drivers but no different from forestry workers. (Author/ABL)

  11. Middle east crisis has varied effect on wastewater utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, A.B.

    1990-10-01

    The jump in oil prices that followed Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in early August of 1990 was felt throughout the US economy. The authors particularly discuss the impact of the Middle East Crisis as it relates to wastewater utilities.

  12. [A proposal to combine Roy's conceptual framework with crisis theory].

    PubMed

    Luis, M V

    1990-04-01

    It is reported the crisis theory framework's and is proposed its linkage with the Callista Roy conceptual Model. The aim is to provide the nurse with an instrumental and theoretical framework of the knowledge of the person in crisis intervention. In this proposition is still suggested, a guide to nursing care. It is derived of both theories and exemplified by the author trough practice application.

  13. The Causes and Implications of the 2008 Financial Crisis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    world, few nations escaped the consequences of the crisis. This huge financial crisis diminished the economic strength of our nation, with...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 CSL-2 balance sheets so they faced liquidity crises when asset prices fell. The risk of...the creation of 27 million subprime and other risky loans—half of all mortgages in the United States—which were ready to default as soon as the

  14. [Psychological containment put to the test by a crisis].

    PubMed

    Grison-Curinier, Juliete; Limongi, Marc; Bocoum, Amadou

    2014-01-01

    In the first-time admission unit, psychological containment is based essentially on receivingthe patient in crisis. While the management of the crisis is inseparable from containment, the drawing up of the patient's history, centred on observation, transfer and the clinical aspect, is a key stage in the patient's care. In an institution, the nursing team will, through its creativity, invent the care, seeking a possible alliance.

  15. Social Networks in Crisis Response: Trust is Vital

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    tsunami response, highlighting the effects of the DARTs and CATs on increased tactical awareness. The red arrows show the direction of information...Red Cross C2 Command and Control CAPT Naval Captain CAT Crisis Action Team CCC Combined Coordination Center CMOC Civil-Military Operations...USAID  OFDA/DARTs  UN/OCHA  Interagency Standing Council (IASC)  Navy maneuver units (e.g., the CSGs)  Crisis action teams ( CATs )  More

  16. GROUP INEQUALITY

    PubMed Central

    Bowles, Samuel; Loury, Glenn C.; Sethi, Rajiv

    2014-01-01

    We explore the combined effect of segregation in social networks, peer effects, and the relative size of a historically disadvantaged group on the incentives to invest in market-rewarded skills and the dynamics of inequality between social groups. We identify conditions under which group inequality will persist in the absence of differences in ability, credit constraints, or labor market discrimination. Under these conditions, group inequality may be amplified even if initial group differences are negligible. Increases in social integration may destabilize an unequal state and make group equality possible, but the distributional and human capital effects of this depend on the demographic composition of the population. When the size of the initially disadvantaged group is sufficiently small, integration can lower the long-run costs of human capital investment in both groups and result in an increase the aggregate skill share. In contrast, when the initially disadvantaged group is large, integration can induce a fall in the aggregate skill share as the costs of human capital investment rise in both groups. We consider applications to concrete cases and policy implications. PMID:25554727

  17. Whitehead Groups of Spinor Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monastyrnyĭ, A. P.; Yanchevskiĭ, V. I.

    1991-02-01

    The Whitehead groups of spinor groups are studied. The known Kneser-Tits conjecture for spinor groups is reduced to a spinor analogue of the Tannaka-Artin problem, namely, to the question of whether the group K1Spin(D), where D is a division ring of exponent 2 , is trivial. A counterexample to the Kneser-Tits problem is constructed in the class of spinor groups. The group K1Spin(D) is computed. The stability of the Whitehead groups of spinor groups under purely transcendental extensions of the ground field is established. The R-equivalence on the k-points of spinor groups and the weak approximation problem are considered. The study of spinor group completes the study of the Whitehead groups of algebraic groups of classical type, that was started in studying reduced K-theory (V.P. Platonov) and was continued for reduced unitary K-theory (V.I. Yanchevskiĭ) and Hermitian K-theory (Platonov and Yanchevskiĭ). Bibliography: 50 titles.

  18. [Indicators to monitor the evolution of the economic crisis and its effects on health and health inequalities. SESPAS report 2014].

    PubMed

    Pérez, Glòria; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Domínguez-Berjón, Felicitas; Cabeza, Elena; Borrell, Carme

    2014-06-01

    The economic crisis has adverse effects on determinants of health and health inequalities. The aim of this article was to present a set of indicators of health and its determinants to monitor the effects of the crisis in Spain. On the basis of the conceptual framework proposed by the Commission for the Reduction of Social Health Inequalities in Spain, we searched for indicators of social, economic, and political (structural and intermediate) determinants of health, as well as for health indicators, bearing in mind the axes of social inequality (gender, age, socioeconomic status, and country of origin). The indicators were mainly obtained from official data sources published on the internet. The selected indicators are periodically updated and are comparable over time and among territories (among autonomous communities and in some cases among European Union countries), and are available for age groups, gender, socio-economic status, and country of origin. However, many of these indicators are not sufficiently reactive to rapid change, which occurs in the economic crisis, and consequently require monitoring over time. Another limitation is the lack of availability of indicators for the various axes of social inequality. In conclusion, the proposed indicators allow for progress in monitoring the effects of the economic crisis on health and health inequalities in Spain.

  19. The correlation between stress and economic crisis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mucci, Nicola; Giorgi, Gabriele; Roncaioli, Mattia; Fiz Perez, Javier; Arcangeli, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    In 2008 a deep economic crisis started in the US and rapidly spread around the world. The crisis severely affected the labor market and employees' well-being. Hence, the aim of this work is to implement a systematic review of the principal studies that analyze the impact of the economic crisis on the health of workers. We conducted our search on the PubMed database, and a total of 19 articles were selected for review. All studies showed that the economic crisis was an important stressor that had a negative impact on workers' mental health. Most of the studies documented that a rise in unemployment, increased workload, staff reduction, and wages reduction were linked to an increased rate of mood disorders, anxiety, depression, dysthymia, and suicide. Some studies showed that problems related to the crisis may have also affected the general health of workers by increasing the risk of such health problems as cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Finally, some studies looked at the impact of the crisis on health care services. These studies demonstrated that the reduction in public expenditure on health care services, and the reduction of public hospital budgets due to the recession, led to organizational problems (eg, medical supply shortages).

  20. Trust, confidence, and the 2008 global financial crisis.

    PubMed

    Earle, Timothy C

    2009-06-01

    The 2008 global financial crisis has been compared to a "once-in-a-century credit tsunami," a disaster in which the loss of trust and confidence played key precipitating roles and the recovery from which will require the restoration of these crucial factors. Drawing on the analogy between the financial crisis and environmental and technological hazards, recent research on the role of trust and confidence in the latter is used to provide a perspective on the former. Whereas "trust" and "confidence" are used interchangeably and without explicit definition in most discussions of the financial crisis, this perspective uses the TCC model of cooperation to clearly distinguish between the two and to demonstrate how this distinction can lead to an improved understanding of the crisis. The roles of trust and confidence-both in precipitation and in possible recovery-are discussed for each of the three major sets of actors in the crisis, the regulators, the banks, and the public. The roles of trust and confidence in the larger context of risk management are also examined; trust being associated with political approaches, confidence with technical. Finally, the various stances that government can take with regard to trust-such as supportive or skeptical-are considered. Overall, it is argued that a clear understanding of trust and confidence and a close examination of the specific, concrete circumstances of a crisis-revealing when either trust or confidence is appropriate-can lead to useful insights for both recovery and prevention of future occurrences.

  1. Wundt contested: The first crisis declaration in psychology.

    PubMed

    Mülberger, Annette

    2012-06-01

    When reflecting on the history and the present situation of their field, psychologists have often seen their discipline as being in a critical state. The first author to warn of a crisis was, in 1897, the now scarcely known philosopher Rudolf Willy. He saw a crisis in psychology resulting, firstly, from a profuse branching out of psychology. Adopting a radical empiriocriticist point of view, he, secondly, made the metaphysical stance of scholars like Wilhelm Wundt responsible for the crisis. Meanwhile, the priest Constantin Gutberlet responded to the claim of crisis arguing, on the contrary, that the crisis resulted from research that was empirical only. Throughout the discipline psychologists felt troubled by a widespread sense of fragmentation in the field. I will argue that this is due to psychology's early social success and popularization in modern society. Moreover the paper shows that the first declaration of crisis emerged at a time when a discussion of fundamentals was already underway between Wundt and the empiriocriticist Richard Avenarius. The present historical research reveals the depth of the confrontation between Wundt and Willy, entailing a clash of two worldviews that embrace psychological, epistemological, and political aspects.

  2. Effects of deliberate practice on crisis decision performance.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Earl H; Davis, Kevin J

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the impact of deliberate practice on pilot decision making in once-in-a-career crisis decision scenarios. First we explored the impact of deliberate practice on pilot decision-making performance for crisis flying scenarios that had been practiced in their entirety. Then we looked at the impact of deliberate practice in which one aspect of the crisis scenario--the particular malfunction--was unpracticed. We analyzed pilot decision-making performance in response to 160 airborne mechanical malfunctions. We initially found that deliberate practice significantly improves decision-making performance for wholly practiced crises but does not improve decision-making performance when the specific malfunction has not been practiced. We then split decision making for each crisis into two phases: assessment and action selection. For wholly practiced crisis scenarios, additional deliberate practice positively impacts each decision-making phase. However, for part-practiced scenarios, deliberate practice appears to differentially affect phase of error. Specifically, pilots with more deliberate practice erred in action selection, whereas less-practiced pilots erred in assessment. Actual or potential applications of this research include training proscriptions for crisis decision making.

  3. The correlation between stress and economic crisis: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Mucci, Nicola; Giorgi, Gabriele; Roncaioli, Mattia; Fiz Perez, Javier; Arcangeli, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    In 2008 a deep economic crisis started in the US and rapidly spread around the world. The crisis severely affected the labor market and employees’ well-being. Hence, the aim of this work is to implement a systematic review of the principal studies that analyze the impact of the economic crisis on the health of workers. We conducted our search on the PubMed database, and a total of 19 articles were selected for review. All studies showed that the economic crisis was an important stressor that had a negative impact on workers’ mental health. Most of the studies documented that a rise in unemployment, increased workload, staff reduction, and wages reduction were linked to an increased rate of mood disorders, anxiety, depression, dysthymia, and suicide. Some studies showed that problems related to the crisis may have also affected the general health of workers by increasing the risk of such health problems as cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Finally, some studies looked at the impact of the crisis on health care services. These studies demonstrated that the reduction in public expenditure on health care services, and the reduction of public hospital budgets due to the recession, led to organizational problems (eg, medical supply shortages). PMID:27143898

  4. School-Based Support Groups for Traumatized Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Linda Leek

    2011-01-01

    After students experience a traumatic event, group counseling is an effective tool to offset the effects of grief and distress. Following a school crisis, successful school-based intervention requires interdisciplinary coordination between school psychologists, counselors, school social workers, teachers, and administrative staff. Within a short…

  5. Residential Group Care Quarterly. Volume 5, Number 3, Winter 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Jennifer, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This issue of "Residential Group Care Quarterly" contains the following articles: (1) "Promising Practices for Adequately Funding and Reimbursing Residential Services" (Lloyd Bullard); (2) "Closing the Gender Gap" (Erin Andersen); (3) "Residential Child Care: Guidelines for Physical Techniques, Crisis Prevention, and Management" (Kurk Lalemand);…

  6. Summary of the June 2009 Educationtoday Crisis Survey: Initial Reflections on the Impact of the Economic Crisis on Education. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 43

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karkkainen, Kiira

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides initial reflections on the impact of the economic crisis on education across the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) area by analysing the OECD educationtoday crisis survey responses of June 2009. It first looks at the impact of the crisis on education demand and participation, after which the focus…

  7. A comparison of the effects of prejob training and job experience on nonprofessional telephone crisis counselors.

    PubMed

    Elkins, R L; Cohen, C R

    1982-01-01

    This study, carried out in a telephone crisis intervention program in which nonprofessional volunteer counselors received 55 hours of prejob training, isolates the effects of prejob training and on-the-job experience. Participants in the study were evaluated on several parameters including knowledge, counseling skills, acceptance of others, and dogmatism. Three groups of volunteers were measured: group 1--measured immediately before and after prejob training, group 2--measured just after prejob training, and group 3--measured after five months of telephone counseling experience. Results indicate that counselor skills and knowledge significantly increased with prejob training, but did not show further improvement as a result of five months of experience. Attitudes such as acceptance of others and dogmatism did not change either as a result of training or experience. Dogmatism was found to be inversely related to both counselor skill and knowledge.

  8. Effect of pregnancy during TMI crisis on mothers' mental health and their child's development.

    PubMed

    Houts, P S; Tokuhata, G K; Bratz, J; Bartholomew, M J; Sheffer, K W

    1991-03-01

    Five years after the Three Mile Island nuclear accident, the mental health of women who had been pregnant and living within 10 miles of Three Mile Island at the time of the accident was similar to that of women from the same area who became pregnant after the accident. Ratings of the development of the two groups of children when they were 5 years old were also similar. However, women who were pregnant during the crisis and had been "extremely disturbed" about their pregnancies rated their children's health as poorer than did the women who were pregnant later.

  9. Crisis intervention program: an alternative to inpatient psychiatric treatment for children.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, Samuel H

    2002-03-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a Crisis Intervention program as an alternative to use of psychiatric treatment beds for young children. A multidisciplinary community-based intervention was utilized, including family therapy, psychiatric intervention, and school consultations. The impact of the service was evaluated in relation to the use of psychiatric treatment beds by the population of children eligible for Medicaid or uninsured. In comparison to an historical control group, the program resulted in a 23% reduction in the use of psychiatric treatment beds. A cost-minimization analysis indicated that in addition to the program reducing the use of psychiatric treatment beds, the cost of treatment was also slightly reduced.

  10. Group Theatre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Brian

    The group interpretation approach to theatre production is defined as a method that will lead to production of plays that will appeal to "all the layers of the conscious and unconscious mind." In practice, it means that the group will develop and use resources of the theatre that orthodox companies too often ignore. The first two chapters of this…

  11. Climate change and the ash dieback crisis

    PubMed Central

    Goberville, Eric; Hautekèete, Nina-Coralie; Kirby, Richard R.; Piquot, Yves; Luczak, Christophe; Beaugrand, Grégory

    2016-01-01

    Beyond the direct influence of climate change on species distribution and phenology, indirect effects may also arise from perturbations in species interactions. Infectious diseases are strong biotic forces that can precipitate population declines and lead to biodiversity loss. It has been shown in forest ecosystems worldwide that at least 10% of trees are vulnerable to extinction and pathogens are increasingly implicated. In Europe, the emerging ash dieback disease caused by the fungus Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, commonly called Chalara fraxinea, is causing a severe mortality of common ash trees (Fraxinus excelsior); this is raising concerns for the persistence of this widespread tree, which is both a key component of forest ecosystems and economically important for timber production. Here, we show how the pathogen and climate change may interact to affect the future spatial distribution of the common ash. Using two presence-only models, seven General Circulation Models and four emission scenarios, we show that climate change, by affecting the host and the pathogen separately, may uncouple their spatial distribution to create a mismatch in species interaction and so a lowering of disease transmission. Consequently, as climate change expands the ranges of both species polewards it may alleviate the ash dieback crisis in southern and occidental regions at the same time. PMID:27739483

  12. Doctors and the global population crisis.

    PubMed

    Carr, C J

    1977-10-01

    I read Dr. John A. Loraine's Edward Holme lecture on the global population crisis (September 10, p. 691) with a growing sense of amazement that any man of his standing could be so certain that his views were completely right and those opposed to him so completely wrong. He regrets that when a "liberal" abortion law was introduced in India the number of terminations was "disappointingly small" - he does not seem to consider the possibility that perhaps the Indian people are wiser than he. He condemns the Society for the Unborn Child as "emotive," yet his own views seem dehumanized and amoral. The only surprise is that when he mentions the increasing proportion of elderly people in the population he does not continue to the "logical" conclusion of recommending compulsory euthanasia at a fixed age - perhaps, however, this would be coming too close to home. It was because of the very attitudes that such an article expresses that I, who had been born and educated in Britain, left the country, and I would seriously question whether history will not look back in horror on the "liberal" attitude adopted by the British medical profession, among others, in the 2nd half of the twentieth century.

  13. [Hypertensive crisis: urgency and hypertensive emergency].

    PubMed

    Sobrino Martínez, Javier; Doménech Feria-Carot, Mónica; Morales Salinas, Alberto; Coca Payeras, Antonia

    2016-11-18

    Hypertensive crises lumped several clinical situations with different seriousness and prognosis. The differences between hypertensive urgency and hypertensive emergency depends on if this situation involves a vital risk for the patient. This risk is defined more by the severity of the organ damage than for the higher values of blood pressure. The hypertensive urgency not involves an immediately risk for the patient, for these reason, the treatment can be completed after discharged. Otherwise, the hypertensive emergency is a critical clinical condition that requires hospital assistance. Faced with a patient, with severe hypertension, asymptomatic or with unspecific symptoms we must be careful. First, we need to confirm the values of blood pressure, with several measures of blood pressure and investigate and treat factors, which triggered this situation. The objective of medical treatment for hypertensive urgency is to reduce blood pressure values (at least 20% of baseline values) but to avoid sudden reduction of these values. In hypertensive urgencies rapid acting drug should not be used because of the risk of ischemic stroke and use drugs with longer half-life. The cardiovascular risk of these patients is higher than that do not suffer hypertensive crisis. The treatment must be personalized in each hypertensive emergency and intravenous it’s the best route to treat these patients.

  14. Racial Segregation and the American Foreclosure Crisis.

    PubMed

    Rugh, Jacob S; Massey, Douglas S

    2010-10-01

    Although the rise in subprime lending and the ensuing wave of foreclosures was partly a result of market forces that have been well-identified in the literature, in the United States it was also a highly racialized process. We argue that residential segregation created a unique niche of poor minority clients who were differentially marketed risky subprime loans that were in great demand for use in mortgage-backed securities that could be sold on secondary markets. We test this argument by regressing foreclosure actions in the top 100 U.S. metropolitan areas on measures of black, Hispanic, and Asian segregation while controlling for a variety of housing market conditions, including average creditworthiness, the extent of coverage under the Community Reinvestment Act, the degree of zoning regulation, and the overall rate of subprime lending. We find that black residential dissimilarity and spatial isolation are powerful predictors of foreclosures across U.S. metropolitan areas. In order to isolate subprime lending as the causal mechanism whereby segregation influences foreclosures, we estimate a two-stage least squares model that confirms the causal effect of black segregation on the number and rate of foreclosures across metropolitan areas. In the United States segregation was an important contributing cause of the foreclosure crisis, along with overbuilding, risky lending practices, lax regulation, and the bursting of the housing price bubble.

  15. Climate change and the ash dieback crisis.

    PubMed

    Goberville, Eric; Hautekèete, Nina-Coralie; Kirby, Richard R; Piquot, Yves; Luczak, Christophe; Beaugrand, Grégory

    2016-10-14

    Beyond the direct influence of climate change on species distribution and phenology, indirect effects may also arise from perturbations in species interactions. Infectious diseases are strong biotic forces that can precipitate population declines and lead to biodiversity loss. It has been shown in forest ecosystems worldwide that at least 10% of trees are vulnerable to extinction and pathogens are increasingly implicated. In Europe, the emerging ash dieback disease caused by the fungus Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, commonly called Chalara fraxinea, is causing a severe mortality of common ash trees (Fraxinus excelsior); this is raising concerns for the persistence of this widespread tree, which is both a key component of forest ecosystems and economically important for timber production. Here, we show how the pathogen and climate change may interact to affect the future spatial distribution of the common ash. Using two presence-only models, seven General Circulation Models and four emission scenarios, we show that climate change, by affecting the host and the pathogen separately, may uncouple their spatial distribution to create a mismatch in species interaction and so a lowering of disease transmission. Consequently, as climate change expands the ranges of both species polewards it may alleviate the ash dieback crisis in southern and occidental regions at the same time.

  16. Aquaculture and food crisis: opportunities and constraints.

    PubMed

    Liao, I Chiu; Chao, Nai-Hsien

    2009-01-01

    Fish farming, now well known as aquaculture, has been well recognized since the ancient era. The first written document on fish culture was published in China in 475 BC, and the first koi pond was constructed at the Japanese Imperial Palace grounds during 71-130 AD. In recent years, aquaculture has progressively played an important role in the provision of: animal protein and gourmet cuisines, job opportunities, and foreign currency for developing countries. Asian countries produce around 91 percent of the world's total aquaculture production. Among the top ten aquaculture-producing countries, nine are from Asia. The current global population consist of more than 6.5 billion individuals; over one billion of which face hunger problem. In the highly populated Asia-Pacific region with moderately high-productivity, 642 million people are still facing hunger. Being a proficient and potential source of animal protein, aquaculture will play an increasing and important role in solving the world food problem in the future. This paper discusses both the opportunities and constraints in the aquaculture industry, specifically in the Asia-Pacific region, and its possible role in solving the current global food crisis. Strategies including promotion and adoption of traceability and HACCP systems for food safety, and marketing management for aquaculture products are also suggested. It is hoped that traditional administration of aquaculture management for survival, profit, as well as food safety will successfully match sustainability management to meet the urgent global need for food.

  17. Racial Segregation and the American Foreclosure Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Rugh, Jacob S.; Massey, Douglas S.

    2013-01-01

    Although the rise in subprime lending and the ensuing wave of foreclosures was partly a result of market forces that have been well-identified in the literature, in the United States it was also a highly racialized process. We argue that residential segregation created a unique niche of poor minority clients who were differentially marketed risky subprime loans that were in great demand for use in mortgage-backed securities that could be sold on secondary markets. We test this argument by regressing foreclosure actions in the top 100 U.S. metropolitan areas on measures of black, Hispanic, and Asian segregation while controlling for a variety of housing market conditions, including average creditworthiness, the extent of coverage under the Community Reinvestment Act, the degree of zoning regulation, and the overall rate of subprime lending. We find that black residential dissimilarity and spatial isolation are powerful predictors of foreclosures across U.S. metropolitan areas. In order to isolate subprime lending as the causal mechanism whereby segregation influences foreclosures, we estimate a two-stage least squares model that confirms the causal effect of black segregation on the number and rate of foreclosures across metropolitan areas. In the United States segregation was an important contributing cause of the foreclosure crisis, along with overbuilding, risky lending practices, lax regulation, and the bursting of the housing price bubble. PMID:25308973

  18. Emergency room coverage: an evolving crisis.

    PubMed

    Davison, Steven P

    2004-08-01

    Historically, a newly graduated plastic surgeon in the United States could build a practice from his or her emergency room coverage. The historical cliche was for the surgeon to be affable, able, and available, and from that basis one's practice would grow. Emergency room exposure was an avenue for starting a practice, developing recognition, and, after that, building a referral pattern. Recently, the cross-shifting influence of management care, rising malpractice insurance costs, and risk ratio are changing this cliche to a crisis. An evaluation of a 2 1/2-year exposure to emergency room coverage has revealed a completely different profile. A total of 300 patient visits resulting in 69 surgical operations were evaluated for insurance and remuneration history. The findings indicated a significant remuneration dilemma for emergency room coverage. Interestingly, a remuneration problem exists in a market different from what one would expect. In this study, a sample from a suburban hospital, rather than an inner-city university hospital, is the greater problem.

  19. Health Disparities by Income in Spain Before and After the Economic Crisis.

    PubMed

    Coveney, Max; García-Gómez, Pilar; Van Doorslaer, Eddy; Van Ourti, Tom

    2016-11-01

    Little is known about how health disparities by income change during times of economic crisis. We apply a decomposition method to unravel the contributions of income growth, income inequality and differential income mobility across socio-demographic groups to changes in health disparities by income in Spain using longitudinal data from the Survey of Income and Living Conditions for the period 2004-2012. We find a modest rise in health inequality by income in Spain in the 5 years of economic growth prior to the start of the crisis in 2008, but a sharp fall after 2008. The drop mainly derives from the fact that loss of employment and earnings has disproportionately affected the incomes of the younger and healthier groups rather than the (mainly stable pension) incomes of the groups over 65 years. This suggests that unequal distribution of income protection by age may reduce health inequality in the short run after an economic recession. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Cognitive Aids for Role Definition (CARD) to improve interprofessional team crisis resource management: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Renna, Tania Di; Crooks, Simone; Pigford, Ashlee-Ann; Clarkin, Chantalle; Fraser, Amy B; Bunting, Alexandra C; Bould, M Dylan; Boet, Sylvain

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to assess the perceived value of the Cognitive Aids for Role Definition (CARD) protocol for simulated intraoperative cardiac arrests. Sixteen interprofessional operating room teams completed three consecutive simulated intraoperative cardiac arrest scenarios: current standard, no CARD; CARD, no CARD teaching; and CARD, didactic teaching. Each team participated in a focus group interview immediately following the third scenario; data were transcribed verbatim and qualitatively analysed. After 6 months, participants formed eight new teams randomised to two groups (CARD or no CARD) and completed a retention intraoperative cardiac arrest simulation scenario. All simulation sessions were video recorded and expert raters assessed team performance. Qualitative analysis of the 16 focus group interviews revealed 3 thematic dimensions: role definition in crisis management; logistical issues; and the "real life" applicability of CARD. Members of the interprofessional team perceived CARD very positively. Exploratory quantitative analysis found no significant differences in team performance with or without CARD (p > 0.05). In conclusion, qualitative data suggest that the CARD protocol clarifies roles and team coordination during interprofessional crisis management and has the potential to improve the team performance. The concept of a self-organising team with defined roles is promising for patient safety.

  1. Nucleosomes and neutrophil activation in sickle cell disease painful crisis.

    PubMed

    Schimmel, Marein; Nur, Erfan; Biemond, Bart J; van Mierlo, Gerard J; Solati, Shabnam; Brandjes, Dees P; Otten, Hans-Martin; Schnog, John-John; Zeerleder, Sacha

    2013-11-01

    Activated polymorphonuclear neutrophils play an important role in the pathogenesis of vaso-occlusive painful sickle cell crisis. Upon activation, polymorphonuclear neutrophils can form neutrophil extracellular traps. Neutrophil extracellular traps consist of a meshwork of extracellular DNA, nucleosomes, histones and neutrophil proteases. Neutrophil extracellular traps have been demonstrated to be toxic to endothelial and parenchymal cells. This prospective cohort study was conducted to determine neutrophil extracellular trap formation in sickle cell patients during steady state and painful crisis. As a measure of neutrophil extracellular traps, plasma nucleosomes levels were determined and polymorphonuclear neutrophil activation was assessed measuring plasma levels of elastase-α1-antitrypsin complexes in 74 patients in steady state, 70 patients during painful crisis, and 24 race-matched controls using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Nucleosome levels in steady state sickle cell patients were significantly higher than levels in controls. During painful crisis levels of both nucleosomes and elastase-α1-antitrypsin complexes increased significantly. Levels of nucleosomes correlated significantly to elastase-α1-antitrypsin complex levels during painful crisis, (Sr = 0.654, P<0.001). This was seen in both HbSS/HbSβ(0)-thalassemia (Sr=0.55, P<0.001) and HbSC/HbSβ(+-)thalassemia patients (Sr=0.90, P<0.001) during painful crisis. Levels of nucleosomes showed a correlation with length of hospital stay and were highest in patients with acute chest syndrome. These data support the concept that neutrophil extracellular trap formation and neutrophil activation may play a role in the pathogenesis of painful sickle cell crisis and acute chest syndrome.

  2. 3D modelling of the Carnian Crisis in a new FWF Project (P22109-B17) - Ammonite mass mortality (200 000 000 !!! specimens) as proxy for the Carnian Crisis (Taurus, Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayrhofer, Susanne; Lukeneder, Alexander

    2010-05-01

    different sciences as the Structural Processes Group at the Departments of Geodynamic and Sedimentology (University of Vienna) and the Geometric Modelling and Industrial Geometry group (3D technology at the Vienna University of Technology). Interdisciplinary collaboration with other scientists is essential in modern times. Statistical analysis of the orientation and relative position (e.g. imbrication) of the ammonoid shells can hint to current or transport directions. 3D modelling of calcite-cement distribution (representing geopedal structures) and post-diagenetic calcite-veins displacing several ammonoids will complete the geometrical reconstruction and shed light on the biostratinomic and additional diagentic processes. The combination in analysing different fossil groups with additional analysis of istotopic, magnetostratigraphic, cyclostratigraphic and geochemical features will help to extract details of the Upper Triassic history around one of the most severe crisis in the Mesozoic time, the Carnian Crisis. Investigations, undertaken at sections (e.g. Asagiyaylabel) possessing this time interval, can work as proxy for the major Upper Triassic Tethyan crisis. Environmental changes as displayed by the sea level and climate can become more obvious and the ‘motor' behind the demise better understood.

  3. Group Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article Karen Adams demonstrates how to incorporate group grammar techniques into a classroom activity. In the activity, students practice using the target grammar to do something they naturally enjoy: learning about each other.

  4. Education Facing the Crisis of Values: Strategies for Strengthening Humanistic, Cultural, and International Values in Formal and Non-Formal Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This document was prepared on the basis of discussions at a workshop organized by UNESCO and other groups on the subject of education facing the crisis of values from the point of view of: (1) cultural identity and cultural diversity in education; (2) humanistic, ethical, and aesthetic values in education; and (3) education facing the ethical…

  5. Civil protection preparedness and response to the 2007 eruptive crisis of Stromboli volcano, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolaso, G.; De Bernardinis, B.; Bosi, V.; Cardaci, C.; Ciolli, S.; Colozza, R.; Cristiani, C.; Mangione, D.; Ricciardi, A.; Rosi, M.; Scalzo, A.; Soddu, P.

    2009-05-01

    explosive activity outside the main craters and the occurrence of a small landslide down slope of the active craters were detected in real time on the screens of the CFCRV and by monitoring centres of the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology (INGV) and University of Florence (UNIFI). This enabled the DPC to immediately activate emergency crisis procedures and start a coordinated management of the crisis between civil protection personnel in Rome and COA. As accelerating slope movements were detected by ground deformation monitoring of UNIFI, a tsunami warning was launched shortly afterward. Warnings were also declared on 8th March and 15th March when slope movements resumed and a large explosion at the central craters occurred, respectively. From the end of February to May 2007 a scientific committee named "Scientific Synthesis Group" (SSG), appointed by the DPC, made daily evaluations of impending hazards in cooperation with CFCRV. During the crisis the DPC coordinated information activities with the media and island residents. The successful managing of the crisis consisted in minimizing risk for people and meanwhile facilitating normal activities and regular access to island.

  6. Grid-based Meteorological and Crisis Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hluchy, Ladislav; Bartok, Juraj; Tran, Viet; Lucny, Andrej; Gazak, Martin

    2010-05-01

    We present several applications from domain of meteorology and crisis management we developed and/or plan to develop. Particularly, we present IMS Model Suite - a complex software system designed to address the needs of accurate forecast of weather and hazardous weather phenomena, environmental pollution assessment, prediction of consequences of nuclear accident and radiological emergency. We discuss requirements on computational means and our experiences how to meet them by grid computing. The process of a pollution assessment and prediction of the consequences in case of radiological emergence results in complex data-flows and work-flows among databases, models and simulation tools (geographical databases, meteorological and dispersion models, etc.). A pollution assessment and prediction requires running of 3D meteorological model (4 nests with resolution from 50 km to 1.8 km centered on nuclear power plant site, 38 vertical levels) as well as running of the dispersion model performing the simulation of the release transport and deposition of the pollutant with respect to the numeric weather prediction data, released material description, topography, land use description and user defined simulation scenario. Several post-processing options can be selected according to particular situation (e.g. doses calculation). Another example is a forecasting of fog as one of the meteorological phenomena hazardous to the aviation as well as road traffic. It requires complicated physical model and high resolution meteorological modeling due to its dependence on local conditions (precise topography, shorelines and land use classes). An installed fog modeling system requires a 4 time nested parallelized 3D meteorological model with 1.8 km horizontal resolution and 42 levels vertically (approx. 1 million points in 3D space) to be run four times daily. The 3D model outputs and multitude of local measurements are utilized by SPMD-parallelized 1D fog model run every hour. The fog

  7. Drag Crisis of Gyro-Balls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Yoshiyuki; Miyazaki, Takeshi; Himeno, Ryutaro

    2007-11-01

    Using a high-speed video camera, we measured the trajectory and the rotation of a hard baseball thrown by a pitching machine which can launch Gyro-Balls (rifle spinning balls). We determined the drag- and lift- coefficients by analyzing the video images. The measurements were performed in the range of 0.6x10^5crisis for Gyro-Balls. The different Re-dependencies are due to the different seam patterns.

  8. Psychoanalysis in Crisis: The Danger of Ideology.

    PubMed

    Richards, Arnold

    2015-06-01

    Psychoanalysis is in crisis. Its prestige with the public has plummeted, as well as its economic viability and even its population. There are fewer analytic candidates and fewer patients, less insurance coverage, less presence in departments of psychiatry, and less prestige among the traditional academic disciplines. Analysts are getting older, and there are fewer and fewer young ones to replace us. A once-fascinated public now distrusts analysts as unscientific, deluded, authoritarian, reactionary, arrogant, sexist, and/or passé. This paper examines some causes of this decline within psychoanalysis itself as well as possibilities for reform. The status of psychoanalysis as a science is in question, although Freud considered it as an empirical science, and modified his theories to fit new facts. In reality, however, transmission of psychoanalytic knowledge in the training analyst system has led to its perpetuation as an ideology, rather than a science, and to the formation of oligarchies in the structure of psychoanalytic organizations and some institutes. Psychoanalysis is nothing if not an exploratory endeavor, and it thrives in an open environment. Psychoanalytic theory becomes ideology when exploration, testing, and challenge are suppressed. There are many analysts for whom psychoanalysis is neither ideology or theology, but an intellectually stimulating and emotionally rewarding human and humane endeavor, where convention is enlivened by creative challenge, and innovation is disciplined by tradition. In that form, it is too valuable to lose. It is time for us to step back and reclaim our citizenship in the larger intellectual world of curiosity, creativity, and freedom.

  9. Genome chaos: survival strategy during crisis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo; Stevens, Joshua B; Horne, Steven D; Abdallah, Batoul Y; Ye, Karen J; Bremer, Steven W; Ye, Christine J; Chen, David J; Heng, Henry H

    2014-01-01

    Genome chaos, a process of complex, rapid genome re-organization, results in the formation of chaotic genomes, which is followed by the potential to establish stable genomes. It was initially detected through cytogenetic analyses, and recently confirmed by whole-genome sequencing efforts which identified multiple subtypes including "chromothripsis", "chromoplexy", "chromoanasynthesis", and "chromoanagenesis". Although genome chaos occurs commonly in tumors, both the mechanism and detailed aspects of the process are unknown due to the inability of observing its evolution over time in clinical samples. Here, an experimental system to monitor the evolutionary process of genome chaos was developed to elucidate its mechanisms. Genome chaos occurs following exposure to chemotherapeutics with different mechanisms, which act collectively as stressors. Characterization of the karyotype and its dynamic changes prior to, during, and after induction of genome chaos demonstrates that chromosome fragmentation (C-Frag) occurs just prior to chaotic genome formation. Chaotic genomes seem to form by random rejoining of chromosomal fragments, in part through non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Stress induced genome chaos results in increased karyotypic heterogeneity. Such increased evolutionary potential is demonstrated by the identification of increased transcriptome dynamics associated with high levels of karyotypic variance. In contrast to impacting on a limited number of cancer genes, re-organized genomes lead to new system dynamics essential for cancer evolution. Genome chaos acts as a mechanism of rapid, adaptive, genome-based evolution that plays an essential role in promoting rapid macroevolution of new genome-defined systems during crisis, which may explain some unwanted consequences of cancer treatment.

  10. [Development of a Crisis Management Manual for Occupational Health Experts].

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Juri; Tateishi, Seiichiro; Igarashi, Yu; Ide, Hiroshi; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Hara, Tatsuhiko; Kobashi, Masaki; Inoue, Megumi; Kawashima, Megumi; Okada, Takeo; Mori, Koji

    2015-12-01

    When crises such as natural disasters or industrial accidents occur in workplaces, not only the workers who are injured, but also those who engage in emergency or recovery work may be exposed to various health hazards. We developed a manual to enable occupational health (OH) experts to prevent health hazards. The manual includes detailed explanations of the characteristics and necessary actions for each need in the list of "OH Needs During Crisis Management" developed after an analysis of eight cases in our previous research. We changed the endings of explanatory sentences so that users could learn how often each need occurred in these eight cases. We evaluated the validity of the manual using two processes: 1) Providing the manual to OH physicians during an industrial accident; 2) Asking crisis management experts to review the manual. We made improvements based on their feedback and completed the manual. The manual includes explanations about 99 OH needs, and users can learn how and what to do for each need during various crisis cases. Because additional OH needs may occur in other crises, it is necessary to collect information about new cases and to improve the comprehensiveness of the manual continuously. It is critical that this crisis management manual be available when a crisis occurs. We need to inform potential users of the manual through various media, as well as by posting it on our website.

  11. Crisis Management Aspects of Bam Catastrophic Earthquake: Review Article

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Kazemi, Abdolhassan; Ziapour, Behrad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bam earthquake was the most catastrophic natural disasters in recent years. The aim of this study was to review different aspects of crisis management during and after the catastrophic earthquake in Bam City, Iran. Methods: Data needed for this systematic review were collected through searching PubMed, EMBASE and SID databases, for the period from 2003 to 2011. Keywords included earthquake, Iran and Bam earthquake. The data were summarized and were analyzed using Content Analysis. Results: Out of 422 articles, 25 articles were included in the study. Crisis Management aspects and existing pitfalls were classified into seven categories including planning and organization, human resource management, management of logistics, international humanitarian aids, field performance of the military and security forces, health and medical service provision, and information management. Positive aspects and major pitfalls of crisis management have been introduced in all the mentioned categories. Conclusion: The available evidence indicated poor crisis management during Bam earthquake that resulted in aggravating the losses as well as diminishing the effect of interventions. Thus, concerning the importance of different aspects of the crisis management and the high prevalence of disasters in Iran, the observed vulnerability in disaster management process should be addressed. PMID:26000241

  12. [Heinrich von Kleist--crisis and creative overcoming].

    PubMed

    Schlimme, J

    2001-07-01

    Heinrich von Kleist's life was shaken repeatedly by negative life-events, finally he committed suicide in his last life-crisis (1811). His work was mostly understood as descriptions of negative life-events and failed-being. In this article it will be shown that in at least two "crises" Kleist's work can be understood as a creative overcome of those. Kleist shows in his "Essay to Find a Sure Way to Happiness" (1799) his way of solving his "Soldier-Crisis" (1798), a depressive episode. In "The Broken Jug" (1802 - 1805) he shows the implications of a philosophical problem experienced in his "Kant-Crisis" (1801) and offers chances to overcome this particular crisis, which still seems to be an actual problem of ourselves. Though his crises must be understood as depressive episodes, at least the "Kant-Crisis" with its connections to philosophical and artistical matters seems to be more complicated than a simple depressive syndrome. Kleist formulates his basic life-experience, to be repeatedly shaken by "crises" respectively depressive episodes and the necessity to overcome each in a new way of living.

  13. International labor migration and financial crisis in Korea.

    PubMed

    Hyunho, S

    1999-06-01

    Although the Korean economy became severely depressed because of the financial crisis in November 1997, most foreign migrant workers in the country opted to stay rather than return to their home countries. This study examined the causes of their relative immobility at both the macro- and microlevel through the use of government statistics and survey data. The first section of this study explored in- and outflows of migrant workers in relation to labor market conditions and government interventions before and after the crisis. The second section looked into the effects of the crisis on the companies employing migrant workers, while the final section investigated the effects of the crisis on migrant workers. The findings of this study indicated that the amnesty measure, which was a major government policy to reduce the number of illegal sojourners, exerted some positive effect in the first months after the crisis. Employment and income opportunities at origin countries are important factors determining mobility. Moreover, manufacturing companies still prefer to hire migrant workers before native workers because of cheaper wages for the former. Overall, most migrant workers, regardless of their sojourn status, desire to stay in Korea because of two main reasons: 1) their total earnings are less than their migration costs; 2) they cannot get a job in their home country.

  14. Group Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    1992-01-01

    Research suggests that cooperative learning works best when students are first taught group-processing skills, such as leadership, decision making, communication, trust building, and conflict management. Inadequate teacher training and boring assignments can torpedo cooperative learning efforts. Administrators should reassure teachers with…

  15. 77 FR 66834 - Pesticide Emergency Exemptions; Agency Decisions and State and Federal Agency Crisis Declarations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... and Federal agencies. The emergency exemptions may take the following form: Crisis, public health... AGENCY Pesticide Emergency Exemptions; Agency Decisions and State and Federal Agency Crisis Declarations.... ``Quarantine'' and ``public health'' exemptions are emergency exemptions issued for quarantine or public...

  16. Prolonged oculogyric crisis on addition of nifedipine to neuroleptic medication regime.

    PubMed

    Singh, I

    1987-01-01

    Extrapyramidal symptoms, including oculogyric crisis, are well recognised side-effects of clopenthixol medication, but precipitation of prolonged oculogyric crisis on addition of nifedipine to an ongoing clopenthixol regime has not so far been reported.

  17. The fifth national conference proceedings. Water: Our next crisis?

    SciTech Connect

    Durdu, S.; Patrick, R.

    1994-12-31

    This conference was held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania January 11--12, 1994. The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the water supply. A water supply of quality and quantity necessary for the people of the US is a very important problem facing the country in the next 10 to 20 years. In many sections of the country, water is presently of inadequate supply and of poor quality. Attention was focused on preventing a water crisis from a technical standpoint and evaluating what management and institutional changes are necessary to prevent a crisis and the cost of preventing a crisis. Water quality considerations are included. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  18. [Public health in major socio-economic crisis].

    PubMed

    Cosmacini, G

    2014-01-01

    The term "crisis" in different cultures (such as ancient Greece or China) can have a positive meaning, since it indicates a time of growth, change and opportunity. Over the centuries there have been times of severe economic and social crisis that led to the implementation of major reforms and improved population health. Nowadays, despite the new economic crisis which has also affected health care for its rising costs, health economics does not hesitate to affirm the importance of key objectives such as prevention and medical assistance. Prevention is not prediction. Prevention means "going upstream" and fixing a problem at the source; the goal is to reduce diseases' effects, causes and risk factors, thereby reducing the prevalence of costly medical conditions.

  19. [Economic crisis and mental health. SESPAS report 2014].

    PubMed

    Gili, Margalida; García Campayo, Javier; Roca, Miquel

    2014-06-01

    Studies published before the financial crisis of 2008 suggest that economic difficulties contribute to poorer mental health. The IMPACT study conducted in primary health care centers in Spain found a significant increase in common mental disorders. Between 2006 and 2010, mood disorders increased by 19%, anxiety disorders by 8% and alcohol abuse disorders by 5%. There were also gender differences, with increased alcohol dependence in women during the crisis period. The most important risk factor for this increase was unemployment. In parallel, antidepressant consumption has increased in recent years, although there has not been a significant inrease in the number of suicides. Finally, the study offers some proposals to reduce the impact of the crisis on mental health: increased community services, employment activation measures, and active policies to reduce alcohol consumption and prevent suicidal behavior, particularly among young people.

  20. Macro shocks and micro outcomes: child nutrition during Indonesia's crisis.

    PubMed

    Block, Steven A; Kiess, Lynnda; Webb, Patrick; Kosen, Soewarta; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Bloem, Martin W; Timmer, C Peter

    2004-03-01

    A survey of households in rural Java is used to assess the nutritional impact of Indonesia's drought and financial crisis of 1997/1998. A time-age-cohort decomposition reveals significant nutritional impacts. However, child weight-for-age (WAZ) remained constant throughout the crisis, despite rapid increases in food prices and the consequent household consumption shock. The evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that within households, mothers buffered children's caloric intake, resulting in increased maternal wasting. However, reductions in the consumption of high-quality foods further resulted in increased prevalence of anemia for both mothers and children. The combined effects were particularly severe for cohorts conceived and weaned during the crisis.