Science.gov

Sample records for critical level position

  1. Critical level statistics for weakly disordered graphene.

    PubMed

    Amanatidis, E; Kleftogiannis, I; Katsanos, D E; Evangelou, S N

    2014-04-16

    In two dimensions chaotic level statistics with the Wigner spacing distribution P(S) is expected for massless fermions in the Dirac region. The obtained P(S) for weakly disordered finite graphene samples with zigzag edges turns out, however, to be neither chaotic (Wigner) nor localized (Poisson). It is similar to the intermediate statistics at the critical point of the Anderson metal-insulator transition. The quantum transport of finite graphene for weak disorder, with critical level statistics can occur via edge states as in topological insulators, and for strong disorder, graphene behaves as an ordinary Anderson insulator with Poisson statistics.

  2. Drawing Near and Pushing Away: Critical Positioning in Multimodal Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerr-Stevens, Candance

    2016-01-01

    As the tools and modes of literate practice continually emerge, so too must our critical approaches to understanding their expression. While media production has been praised for its potential to provide youth a voice to challenge dominant narratives, various questions remain as to what happens at the multimodal levels of composition in terms of…

  3. Critical pollution levels in Umguza River, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinyama, A.; Ncube, R.; Ela, W.

    2016-06-01

    In most countries worldwide regulatory bodies set effluent discharge limits into rivers and other natural water bodies. These limits specify the maximum permissible concentration of defined pollutants that may be discharged into the water body. This limit is conceptually based on the self-purification (assimilative) capacity of the receiving water. However, this self-purification constant is itself a function of the water's pollutant loading. Umguza River situated south west of Zimbabwe, is fed by tributaries that drain an urban catchment and as such is prone to pollution due to human activities in the catchment. This study investigated the levels of pollution in Umguza River that would affect its self-purification capacity. This was achieved by characterising the spatial distribution of a selected range of water quality parameters as well as determining the self-purification capacity of a stretch of the river. Critical pollutant concentrations were determined for some of the parameters that showed high values along the stretch. The selected parameters of interest were dissolved oxygen, suspended solids, phosphates, nitrates, COD, turbidity, ammonia, pH, alkalinity and temperature. The study was carried out from January 2014 to April 2014. The self-purification capacity was determined using a formula that compares the mass flux of a pollutant upstream and downstream of the selected stretch of the river. Statistical analysis was used to establish relationships between the pollutants and the self-purification capacity of the river. The study found that the levels of ammonia and phosphates were very high compared to the regulated limits (2 mg/l vs 0.5 mg/l; and 8 mg/l vs 0.5 mg/l respectively). It was also found that the self-purification capacity varied significantly across pollutants. It was therefore concluded that a critical pollutant concentration exists above which the river completely loses its natural ability to assimilate and decrease its pollutant load over

  4. FGF-23 levels in patients with critical carotid artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Del Porto, Flavia; Proietta, Maria; di Gioia, Cira; Cifani, Noemi; Dito, Raffaele; Fantozzi, Cristiano; Ferri, Livia; Fabriani, Lucrezia; Rossi, Michele; Tritapepe, Luigi; Taurino, Maurizio

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23 serum levels and its tissue expression in patients with critical carotid artery stenosis (CAS). We selected 35 patients with critical CAS undergoing carotid thromboendoarterectomy. In each patient, FGF-23 serum levels were evaluated just prior to the surgery (t0) and 30 min (t1) thereafter. Moreover, macrophage cytokines were measured at baselines. Carotid artery specimens were used for immune histochemistry. On the basis of the histology, the patients were divided into 2 groups: A with complicated plaque and B with uncomplicated plaque. Twenty complicated plaques (57.14%, group A,) and 15 uncomplicated (42.86%, group B) were evaluated: calcifications were present in 16/20 (80%) complicated plaques and in 6/15 (40%) uncomplicated plaques. An inflammatory infiltrate was observed in 26/35 carotid samples: 18/26 (69.23%) complicated and 8/26 (30.76%) uncomplicated. FGF-23(+) cells were present in 17/20 complicated (85%) and in 8 uncomplicated (53%) plaques. The double-staining immunofluorescence confirmed that macrophage cells (CD68(+)) were also positive for FGF-23 staining. Serum levels of FGF-23 were significantly higher in group A versus group B at t0 (p < 0.05) and t1 (p 0.0047). Moreover, in group A patients a significant increase of FGF-23 serum levels was observed at t1 in comparison with t0 (p 0.0011). Our results suggest that FGF-23 acts in the late phases of atherosclerotic disease and may potentially represent a marker of complications in critical CAS.

  5. Developing a Critical Consciousness: Positionality, Pedagogy, and Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamudio, Margaret; Bridgeman, Jacquelyn; Russell, Caskey; Rios, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    This article relies on Critical Race Theory (CRT) to examine the development of a critical consciousness necessary to understand the contradictions between the post-civil rights notion of abstract equality and the reality of structurally entrenched inequality. The authors' ground their analysis in narratives on the development of their own…

  6. 5 CFR 535.104 - Requests for and granting critical position pay authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... position has been vacant; (9) A written evaluation of the need to designate the position as critical. Such an evaluation must include— (i) The kinds of work required by the position and the context...

  7. 5 CFR 319.102 - Senior-level positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Senior-level positions. 319.102 Section 319.102 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT IN SENIOR-LEVEL AND SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS General § 319.102 Senior-level...

  8. 'Right' way to 'do' illness? Thinking critically about positive thinking.

    PubMed

    McGrath, C; Jordens, C F C; Montgomery, K; Kerridge, I H

    2006-10-01

    Exhortations to 'be positive' accompany many situations in life, either as a general injunction or in difficult situations where people are facing pressure or adversity. It is particularly evident in health care, where positive thinking has become an aspect of the way people are expected to 'do' illness in developed society. Positive thinking is framed both as a moral injunction and as a central belief system. It is thought to help patients cope emotionally with illness and to provide a biological benefit. Yet, the meanings, expectations and outcomes of positive thinking are infrequently questioned and the risks of positive thinking are rarely examined. We outline some of the latter and suggest that health professionals should exercise caution in both 'prescribing' positive thinking and in responding to patients and carers whose belief systems and feelings of obligation rest on it.

  9. Critical Role of Positive Incentives for Reducing Insider Threat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    Practice Target Old-School HR Domain Traditional IT Security Measures Our Focus Modern HR Domain, Positive Psychology , Employee Engagement Studies...productivity, perfor- mance, and retention, including relatively recent focus in an area called “positive psychology ” [Seligman 2012]. While much of the...is the one associated with Self Determination Theory (SDT), in particular the relatedness as- pects of the Basic Psychological Needs at Work Scale

  10. "College Level" and "Critical Thinking": Public Policy and Educational Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glock, Nancy Clover

    Designed to assist California community college personnel in implementing 1986 regulations concerning associate degree requirements, this paper analyzes the key terms in the new policy, "college level" and "critical thinking," and discusses practical implications for assessment, curriculum, and instruction. First, the paper…

  11. Paths to Upper Level Positions in Public Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    Preparation for a career in the field of public relations (PR) is based on a set of unique core competencies typically found in liberal arts. Though PR professionals rarely gain business degrees, they acquire knowledge, skills, perspectives, and strategies well-suited to executive-level positions in business. Additionally, managerial positions in…

  12. Critical loads of nitrogen deposition and critical levels of atmospheric ammonia for mediterranean evergreen woodlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinho, P.; Theobald, M. R.; Dias, T.; Tang, Y. S.; Cruz, C.; Martins-Loução, M. A.; Máguas, C.; Sutton, M.; Branquinho, C.

    2011-11-01

    Nitrogen (N) has emerged in recent years as a key factor associated with global changes, with impacts on biodiversity, ecosystems functioning and human health. In order to ameliorate the effects of excessive N, safety thresholds have been established, such as critical loads (deposition fluxes) and levels (concentrations). For Mediterranean ecosystems, few studies have been carried out to assess these parameters. Our objective was therefore to determine the critical loads of N deposition and long-term critical levels of atmospheric ammonia for Mediterranean evergreen woodlands. For that we have considered changes in epiphytic lichen communities, which have been shown to be one of the most sensitive to excessive N. Based on a classification of lichen species according to their tolerance to N we grouped species into response functional groups, which we used as a tool to determine the critical loads and levels. This was done under Mediterranean climate, in evergreen cork-oak woodlands, by sampling lichen functional diversity and annual atmospheric ammonia concentrations and modelling N deposition downwind from a reduced N source (a cattle barn). By modelling the highly significant relationship between lichen functional groups and N deposition, the critical load was estimated to be below 26 kg (N) ha-1 yr-1, which is within the upper range established for other semi-natural ecosystems. By modelling the highly significant relationship of lichen functional groups with annual atmospheric ammonia concentration, the critical level was estimated to be below 1.9 μg m-3, in agreement with recent studies for other ecosystems. Taking into account the high sensitivity of lichen communities to excessive N, these values should be taken into account in policies that aim at protecting Mediterranean woodlands from the initial effects of excessive N.

  13. Stable superconducting magnet. [high current levels below critical temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boom, R. W. (Inventor)

    1967-01-01

    Operation of a superconducting magnet is considered. A method is described for; (1) obtaining a relatively high current in a superconducting magnet positioned in a bath of a gas refrigerant; (2) operating a superconducting magnet at a relatively high current level without training; and (3) operating a superconducting magnet containing a plurality of turns of a niobium zirconium wire at a relatively high current level without training.

  14. Leadership: Industry Needs for Entry-Level Engineering Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartmann, Beth Lin; Jahren, Charles T.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study that sought to identify what companies mean by the word "leadership" when used a job descriptions for entry-level, full-time engineering positions. Seven years of job posting data was analyzed to first understand the frequency and use of the word "leadership" in job descriptions. Using…

  15. Maximum force levels in different positions of shoulder and elbow.

    PubMed

    Castro, C; De la Vega, E; Báez, G; Carrasco, F

    2012-01-01

    The number of occupational diseases in Mexico is alarming and clearly it is important to do studies with the purpose of improving the design of workstations. The objective of this research is to determine the maximum force levels in different positions of shoulder and elbow. An experiment was conducted with 16 subjects between 18 and 28 years old: 8 male and 8 female. We considered 16 different positions, working with the right and left arm to perform the tasks of pull and push. The tasks consisted of pushing or pulling a dynamometer for a period of 3 seconds as hard as possible. The results were presented in tables. The tables show the mean, standard deviation and range of force levels in different positions.

  16. Hepcidin levels in chronic hemodialysis patients: a critical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Valenti, Luca; Messa, Piergiorgio; Pelusi, Serena; Campostrini, Natascia; Girelli, Domenico

    2014-05-01

    Altered systemic iron metabolism is a key element of uremia, and functional iron deficiency mainly related to subclinical inflammation makes it difficult to maintain proper control of anemia in chronic hemodialysis patients (CHD). In the last decade, the hepatic hormone hepcidin has been progressively recognized as the master regulator of circulating iron levels through the modulation of cellular iron fluxes in response to iron stores, as well as to erythroid and inflammatory stimuli. Hepcidin is cleared by the kidney and progression of renal disease has been associated to increased serum hepcidin levels. This, in turn, reduces iron availability for erythropoiesis, suggesting anti-hepcidin strategies for improving anemia control. Moreover, hepcidin has been recently implicated in the pathogenesis of long-term complications of dialysis, like accelerated atherosclerosis. Initial studies almost invariably reported a sustained increase of serum hepcidin in chronic hemodialysis patients. Noteworthy, such studies included relatively few patients and controls that were poorly matched for major determinants of serum hepcidin at population level, i.e., age and gender. More recent data based on accurately matched larger series challenge the view that hepcidin is intrinsically increased in hemodialysis patients, showing a marked inter- and intra-individual variability of hormone levels. Here we take a critical look to the data published so far on hepcidin levels in CHD, analyze the reasons underlying the discrepancies in available studies and the hepcidin variability in CHD, and point out the need for further studies in large series of well-characterized CHD patients and controls.

  17. Positioning positivism, critical realism and social constructionism in the health sciences: a philosophical orientation.

    PubMed

    Cruickshank, Justin

    2012-03-01

    Positioning positivism, critical realism and social constructionism in the health sciences: a philosophical orientation This article starts by considering the differences within the positivist tradition and then it moves on to compare two of the most prominent schools of postpositivism, namely critical realism and social constructionism. Critical realists hold, with positivism, that knowledge should be positively applied, but reject the positivist method for doing this, arguing that causal explanations have to be based not on empirical regularities but on references to unobservable structures. Social constructionists take a different approach to postpositivism and endorse a relativist rejection of truth and hold that the task of research is to foster a scepticism that undermines any positive truth claim made. It is argued that social constructionism is a contradictory position.

  18. 5 CFR 535.104 - Requests for and granting critical position pay authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... authority for any incumbent); (3) Pay plan and grade/level; (4) Occupational series of the position; (5... availability of individuals who possess the qualifications to do the work required by the position;...

  19. Evidence for changing the critical level for ammonia.

    PubMed

    Cape, J N; van der Eerden, L J; Sheppard, L J; Leith, I D; Sutton, M A

    2009-03-01

    The current critical level for ammonia (CLE(NH3)) in Europe is set at 8mug NH(3) m(-3) as an annual average concentration. Recent evidence has shown specific effects of ammonia (NH(3)) on plant community composition (a true ecological effect) at much smaller concentrations. The methods used in setting a CLE(NH3) are reviewed, and the available evidence collated, in proposing a new CLE(NH3) for different types of vegetation. For lichens and bryophytes, we propose a new CLE(NH3) of 1 microg NH(3) m(-3) as a long-term (several year) average concentration; for higher plants, there is less evidence, but we propose a CLE(NH3) of 3+/-1 microg NH(3) m(-3) for herbaceous species. There is insufficient evidence to provide a separate CLE(NH3) for forest trees, but the value of 3+/-1 microg NH(3) m(-3) is likely to exceed the empirical critical load for N deposition for most forest ecosystems.

  20. FEATURES, EVENTS, AND PROCESSES: SYSTEM-LEVEL AND CRITICALITY

    SciTech Connect

    D.L. McGregor

    2000-12-20

    The primary purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to identify and document the screening analyses for the features, events, and processes (FEPs) that do not easily fit into the existing Process Model Report (PMR) structure. These FEPs include the 3 1 FEPs designated as System-Level Primary FEPs and the 22 FEPs designated as Criticality Primary FEPs. A list of these FEPs is provided in Section 1.1. This AMR (AN-WIS-MD-000019) documents the Screening Decision and Regulatory Basis, Screening Argument, and Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Disposition for each of the subject Primary FEPs. This AMR provides screening information and decisions for the TSPA-SR report and provides the same information for incorporation into a project-specific FEPs database. This AMR may also assist reviewers during the licensing-review process.

  1. Support vector machines for learning to identify the critical positions of a protein.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Anshul; Realff, Matthew J; Lee, Jay H; Bommarius, Andreas S

    2005-06-07

    A method for identifying the positions in the amino acid sequence, which are critical for the catalytic activity of a protein using support vector machines (SVMs) is introduced and analysed. SVMs are supported by an efficient learning algorithm and can utilize some prior knowledge about the structure of the problem. The amino acid sequences of the variants of a protein, created by inducing mutations, along with their fitness are required as input data by the method to predict its critical positions. To investigate the performance of this algorithm, variants of the beta-lactamase enzyme were created in silico using simulations of both mutagenesis and recombination protocols. Results from literature on beta-lactamase were used to test the accuracy of this method. It was also compared with the results from a simple search algorithm. The algorithm was also shown to be able to predict critical positions that can tolerate two different amino acids and retain function.

  2. Precise mean sea level measurements using the Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelecy, Thomas M.; Born, George H.; Parke, Michael E.; Rocken, Christian

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a sea level measurement test conducted off La Jolla, California, in November of 1991. The purpose of this test was to determine accurate sea level measurements using a Global Positioning System (GPS) equipped buoy. These measurements were intended to be used as the sea level component for calibration of the ERS 1 satellite altimeter. Measurements were collected on November 25 and 28 when the ERS 1 satellite overflew the calibration area. Two different types of buoys were used. A waverider design was used on November 25 and a spar design on November 28. This provided the opportunity to examine how dynamic effects of the measurement platform might affect the sea level accuracy. The two buoys were deployed at locations approximately 1.2 km apart and about 15 km west of a reference GPS receiver located on the rooftop of the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics at the Scripps Institute of Oceanography. GPS solutions were computed for 45 minutes on each day and used to produce two sea level time series. An estimate of the mean sea level at both locations was computed by subtracting tide gage data collected at the Scripps Pier from the GPS-determined sea level measurements and then filtering out the high-frequency components due to waves and buoy dynamics. In both cases the GPS estimate differed from Rapp's mean altimetric surface by 0.06 m. Thus, the gradient in the GPS measurements matched the gradient in Rapp's surface. These results suggest that accurate sea level can be determined using GPS on widely differing platforms as long as care is taken to determine the height of the GPS antenna phase center above water level. Application areas include measurement of absolute sea level, of temporal variations in sea level, and of sea level gradients (dominantly the geoid). Specific applications would include ocean altimeter calibration, monitoring of sea level in remote regions, and regional experiments requiring spatial and

  3. Critical Design Decisions of The Planck LFI Level 1 Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morisset, N.; Rohlfs, R.; Türler, M.; Meharga, M.; Binko, P.; Beck, M.; Frailis, M.; Zacchei, A.

    2010-12-01

    The PLANCK satellite with two on-board instruments, a Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) and a High Frequency Instrument (HFI) has been launched on May 14th with Ariane 5. The ISDC Data Centre for Astrophysics in Versoix, Switzerland has developed and maintains the Planck LFI Level 1 software for the Data Processing Centre (DPC) in Trieste, Italy. The main tasks of the Level 1 processing are to retrieve the daily available scientific and housekeeping (HK) data of the LFI instrument, the Sorption Cooler and the 4k Cooler data from Mission Operation Centre (MOC) in Darmstadt; to sort them by time and by type (detector, observing mode, etc...); to extract the spacecraft attitude information from auxiliary files; to flag the data according to several criteria; and to archive the resulting Time Ordered Information (TOI), which will then be used to produce maps of the sky in different spectral bands. The output of the Level 1 software are the TOI files in FITS format, later ingested into the Data Management Component (DMC) database. This software has been used during different phases of the LFI instrument development. We started to reuse some ISDC components for the LFI Qualification Model (QM) and we completely rework the software for the Flight Model (FM). This was motivated by critical design decisions taken jointly with the DPC. The main questions were: a) the choice of the data format: FITS or DMC? b) the design of the pipelines: use of the Planck Process Coordinator (ProC) or a simple Perl script? c) do we adapt the existing QM software or do we restart from scratch? The timeline and available manpower are also important issues to be taken into account. We present here the orientation of our choices and discuss their pertinence based on the experience of the final pre-launch tests and the start of real Planck LFI operations.

  4. Critical Features Predicting Sustained Implementation of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Susanna; McIntosh, Kent; Frank, Jennifer L.; May, Seth L.

    2014-01-01

    The current study explored the extent to which a common measure of perceived implementation of critical features of Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) predicted fidelity of implementation 3 years later. Respondents included school personnel from 261 schools across the United States implementing PBIS. School teams completed the…

  5. Critical Features Predicting Sustained Implementation of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Susanna; McIntosh, Kent; Frank, Jennifer; May, Seth

    2014-01-01

    The current study explored the extent to which a common measure of perceived implementation of critical features of School-wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) predicted fidelity of implementation 3 years later. Respondents included school personnel from 261 schools across the United States implementing SWPBS. School teams completed the…

  6. Criticisms of Educational Research: Key Topics and Levels of Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oancea, Alis

    2005-01-01

    The article is an exploration of the meanings and worthiness of criticism as a significant phenomenon in the evolution of educational research during the 1990s. While drawing on an overview of the vast amount of documents expressing criticisms of educational research in the UK, western and eastern continental Europe and the USA, it summarises the…

  7. Adapting Entry-Level Engineering Courses to Emphasize Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagerty, D. Joseph; Rockaway, Thomas D.

    2012-01-01

    The University of Louisville recently developed a Quality Enhancement Plan (QEP) to improve undergraduate instruction across all disciplines as part of its ongoing accreditation requirements. Central elements of the plan are emphasis on critical thinking; integration of critical thinking throughout the curriculum; service learning for…

  8. Mobile subjectivities: positioning the nonunitary self in critical feminist and postmodern research.

    PubMed

    Ogle, Kaye Robyn; Glass, Nel

    2006-01-01

    Most scholarly work is written from the perspective of the author being a unitary subject occupying a sole, rational, and unified position. This article argues that scholarship may be enhanced by the author adopting multiple subject positions as a methodological framework. Such an adoption is advantageous in working against the romance of the notion of a single truth while also maintaining teleological values congruent with critical and feminist agendas. This article outlines the conceptual development of this methodological framework, the rationale for its development, an explication of the concept of multiple subjectivity, and an exemplar of its application within nursing research.

  9. Existence and concentration of positive ground states for a Kirchhoff equation involving critical Sobolev exponent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhisu; Guo, Shangjiang

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we consider the following semilinear Kirchhoff type equation where is a small parameter, , a, b are positive constants, μ > 0 is a parameter, and the nonlinear growth of | u|4 u reaches the Sobolev critical exponent since 2* = 6 for three spatial dimensions. We prove the existence of a positive ground state solution with exponential decay at infinity for μ > 0 and sufficiently small under some suitable conditions on the nonnegative functions V, K and Q. Moreover, concentrates around a global minimum point of V as . The methods used here are based on the concentration-compactness principle of Lions.

  10. Gasp, a Grb2-associating protein, is critical for positive selection of thymocytes

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Michael S.; Oda, Hiroyo; Hayakawa, Kunihiro; Sato, Yoshinori; Eshima, Koji; Kirikae, Teruo; Iemura, Shun-ichiro; Shirai, Mutsunori; Abe, Takaya; Natsume, Tohru; Sasazuki, Takehiko; Suzuki, Harumi

    2009-01-01

    T cells develop in the thymus through positive and negative selection, which are responsible for shaping the T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in selection remains an area of intense interest. Here, we identified and characterized a gene product Gasp (Grb2-associating protein, also called Themis) that is critically required for positive selection. Gasp is a cytosolic protein with no known functional motifs that is expressed only in T cells, especially immature CD4/CD8 double positive (DP) thymocytes. In the absence of Gasp, differentiation of both CD4 and CD8 single positive cells in the thymus was severely inhibited, whereas all other TCR-induced events such as β-selection, negative selection, peripheral activation, and homeostatic proliferation were unaffected. We found that Gasp constitutively associates with Grb2 via its N-terminal Src homology 3 domain, suggesting that Gasp acts as a thymocyte-specific adaptor for Grb2 or regulates Ras signaling in DP thymocytes. Collectively, we have described a gene called Gasp that is critical for positive selection. PMID:19805304

  11. High-level fluorescence labeling of gram-positive pathogens.

    PubMed

    Aymanns, Simone; Mauerer, Stefanie; van Zandbergen, Ger; Wolz, Christiane; Spellerberg, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Fluorescence labeling of bacterial pathogens has a broad range of interesting applications including the observation of living bacteria within host cells. We constructed a novel vector based on the E. coli streptococcal shuttle plasmid pAT28 that can propagate in numerous bacterial species from different genera. The plasmid harbors a promoterless copy of the green fluorescent variant gene egfp under the control of the CAMP-factor gene (cfb) promoter of Streptococcus agalactiae and was designated pBSU101. Upon transfer of the plasmid into streptococci, the bacteria show a distinct and easily detectable fluorescence using a standard fluorescence microscope and quantification by FACS-analysis demonstrated values that were 10-50 times increased over the respective controls. To assess the suitability of the construct for high efficiency fluorescence labeling in different gram-positive pathogens, numerous species were transformed. We successfully labeled Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus anginosus and Staphylococcus aureus strains utilizing the EGFP reporter plasmid pBSU101. In all of these species the presence of the cfb promoter construct resulted in high-level EGFP expression that could be further increased by growing the streptococcal and enterococcal cultures under high oxygen conditions through continuous aeration.

  12. Creating a Positive School Climate at the Junior High Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Licata, Vincent F.

    One of the seven correlates of an effective school, as identified by the Effective Schools Research, is a positive school climate: a positive attitude on the part of the entire staff and student body exhibited through overt behavior that creates a warm, orderly learning environment. Development of such an environment depends upon: (1) strong…

  13. Positive-overlap transition and critical exponents in mean field spin glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostini, Alessandra; Barra, Adriano; DeSanctis, Luca

    2006-11-01

    In this paper we obtain two results for the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick (SK) model, and we show that they both emerge from a single approach. First, we prove that the average of the overlap takes positive values when it is non-zero. More specifically, the average of the overlap, which is naively expected to take values in the whole interval [-1,+1], becomes positive if we 'first' apply an external field, so as to destroy the gauge invariance of the model, and 'then' remove it in the thermodynamic limit. This phenomenon emerges at the critical point. This first result is weaker than the one obtained by Talagrand (not limited to the average of the overlap), but we show here that, at least on average, the overlap is proven to be non-negative with no use of the Ghirlanda-Guerra identities. The latter are instead needed to obtain the second result, which is to control the behaviour of the overlap at the critical point: we find the critical exponents of all the overlap correlation functions.

  14. Critical loads of nitrogen deposition and critical levels of atmospheric ammonia for semi-natural Mediterranean evergreen woodlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinho, P.; Theobald, M. R.; Dias, T.; Tang, Y. S.; Cruz, C.; Martins-Loução, M. A.; Máguas, C.; Sutton, M.; Branquinho, C.

    2012-03-01

    Nitrogen (N) has emerged in recent years as a key factor associated with global changes, with impacts on biodiversity, ecosystems functioning and human health. In order to ameliorate the effects of excessive N, safety thresholds such as critical loads (deposition fluxes) and levels (concentrations) can be established. Few studies have assessed these thresholds for semi-natural Mediterranean ecosystems. Our objective was therefore to determine the critical loads of N deposition and long-term critical levels of atmospheric ammonia for semi-natural Mediterranean evergreen woodlands. We have considered changes in epiphytic lichen communities, one of the most sensitive comunity indicators of excessive N in the atmosphere. Based on a classification of lichen species according to their tolerance to N we grouped species into response functional groups, which we used as a tool to determine the critical loads and levels. This was done for a Mediterranean climate in evergreen cork-oak woodlands, based on the relation between lichen functional diversity and modelled N deposition for critical loads and measured annual atmospheric ammonia concentrations for critical levels, evaluated downwind from a reduced N source (a cattle barn). Modelling the highly significant relationship between lichen functional groups and annual atmospheric ammonia concentration showed the critical level to be below 1.9 μg m-3, in agreement with recent studies for other ecosystems. Modelling the highly significant relationship between lichen functional groups and N deposition showed that the critical load was lower than 26 kg (N) ha-1 yr-1, which is within the upper range established for other semi-natural ecosystems. Taking into account the high sensitivity of lichen communities to excessive N, these values should aid development of policies to protect Mediterranean woodlands from the initial effects of excessive N.

  15. Critical width of tidal flats triggers marsh collapse in the absence of sea-level rise.

    PubMed

    Mariotti, Giulio; Fagherazzi, Sergio

    2013-04-02

    High rates of wave-induced erosion along salt marsh boundaries challenge the idea that marsh survival is dictated by the competition between vertical sediment accretion and relative sea-level rise. Because waves pounding marshes are often locally generated in enclosed basins, the depth and width of surrounding tidal flats have a pivoting control on marsh erosion. Here, we show the existence of a threshold width for tidal flats bordering salt marshes. Once this threshold is exceeded, irreversible marsh erosion takes place even in the absence of sea-level rise. This catastrophic collapse occurs because of the positive feedbacks among tidal flat widening by wave-induced marsh erosion, tidal flat deepening driven by wave bed shear stress, and local wind wave generation. The threshold width is determined by analyzing the 50-y evolution of 54 marsh basins along the US Atlantic Coast. The presence of a critical basin width is predicted by a dynamic model that accounts for both horizontal marsh migration and vertical adjustment of marshes and tidal flats. Variability in sediment supply, rather than in relative sea-level rise or wind regime, explains the different critical width, and hence erosion vulnerability, found at different sites. We conclude that sediment starvation of coastlines produced by river dredging and damming is a major anthropogenic driver of marsh loss at the study sites and generates effects at least comparable to the accelerating sea-level rise due to global warming.

  16. Critical Skills for U.S. Marine Corps Call for Fire Positions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-06

    analysts. Agreement within and between ratings sources was high . Among the SAOs that emerged as most important for call for fire positions were several... high . Among the SAOs that emerged as most important for call for fire positions were several related to attention, planning, and problem solving...level SAO taxonomy consisting of 78 cognitive , non- cognitive , physiological, sensory and physical SAOs was culled to 57 based on preliminary ratings

  17. Critical cell wall hole size for lysis in Gram-positive bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Gabriel; Wiesenfeld, Kurt; Nelson, Daniel; Weitz, Joshua

    2013-03-01

    Gram-positive bacteria transport molecules necessary for their survival through holes in their cell wall. The holes in cell walls need to be large enough to let critical nutrients pass through. However, the cell wall must also function to prevent the bacteria's membrane from protruding through a large hole into the environment and lysing the cell. As such, we hypothesize that there exists a range of cell wall hole sizes that allow for molecule transport but prevent membrane protrusion. Here we develop and analyze a biophysical theory of the response of a Gram-positive cell's membrane to the formation of a hole in the cell wall. We predict a critical hole size in the range 15-24nm beyond which lysis occurs. To test our theory, we measured hole sizes in Streptococcus pyogenes cells undergoing enzymatic lysis via transmission electron microscopy. The measured hole sizes are in strong agreement with our theoretical prediction. Together, the theory and experiments provide a means to quantify the mechanisms of death of Gram-positive cells via enzymatically mediated lysis and provides insight into the range of cell wall hole sizes compatible with bacterial homeostasis.

  18. 5 CFR 319.401 - Senior-level positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... recruit and examine applicants for SL positions in the competitive service, establish competitor...; or (ii) Identifiable merit system abuses. (b) Recruitment. (1) A recruiting plan, with appropriate... requirement. (c) Evaluation and selection. Examination and selection procedures, and rights of applicants,...

  19. Multiple positive solutions for Kirchhoff-type problems in R^3 involving critical Sobolev exponents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Haining

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we study the following nonlinear problem of Kirchhoff type with critical Sobolev exponent -(a+bintlimits_{R^3}|nabla u|^2dx)Δ u+u=λ f(x)u^{q-1}+g(x)u^5,quad xin R^3, uin H^1(R^3), where a, b > 0, 4 < q < 6, and {λ} is a positive parameter. Under certain assumptions on f( x) and g( x) and {λ} is small enough, we obtain a relationship between the number of positive solutions and the topology of the global maximum set of g. The Nehari manifold and Ljusternik-Schnirelmann category are the main tools in our study. Moreover, using the Mountain Pass Theorem, we give an existence result about {λ} large.

  20. Building District-Level Capacity for Positive Behavior Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Heather Peshak; Kincaid, Don K.

    2008-01-01

    As more and more schools adopt school-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) as a model for school improvement and the success of initial demonstration sites becomes evident, districts are faced with expansion and sustainability issues. Careful planning of these implementation efforts requires district personnel to be familiar with the resources…

  1. Following Alice: Theories of Critical Thinking and Reflective Practice in Action at Postgraduate Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanwick, Ruth; Kitchen, Ruth; Jarvis, Joy; McCracken, Wendy; O'Neil, Rachel; Powers, Steve

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a flexible framework of principles for teaching critical thinking and reflective practice skills at the postgraduate level. It reports on a collaborative project between four UK institutions providing postgraduate programmes in deaf education. Through a critical review of current theories of critical thinking and reflective…

  2. How social position of origin relates to intelligence and level of education when adjusting for attained social position.

    PubMed

    Sorjonen, Kimmo; Hemmingsson, Tomas; Lundin, Andreas; Melin, Bo

    2011-06-01

    Intelligence and its relationship to achievement is a classical question within psychology. In accordance with earlier British studies, the present study, based on conscription data and follow-ups for Swedish men born 1949-51 (N = 36,156), found that when adjusting for attained social position, people with a high social position of origin tend to have higher intelligence and level of education than people with a lower social position of origin. These results could be seen to contradict the claim that more merit, at least when operationalized as intelligence or education, is required from people with a low social position of origin in order to attain a certain social level.

  3. Modeling and Simulation in the Army Intermediate Level Education Critical Thinking Curriculum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-12

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The United States Army recognizes that critical thinking is a vital skill for United States Army Officers to master...CRITICAL THINKING CURRICULUM, by MAJ Kyle M. Yanowski, 75 pages. The United States Army recognizes that critical thinking is a vital skill for United...without borders, commanders will continue to demand that their subordinate leaders at all levels have the critical thinking skills required to frame

  4. Construction of the Mid-Level Management Position

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyrell, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The role of the mid-level manager as an organizer, communicator, and problem-solver in student affairs has been examined within the literature, but current discussion generally excludes the perspective of managers at community colleges. This chapter focuses on the importance of managerial identity and roles, particularly as it is enacted within a…

  5. Delineation of plant caleosin residues critical for functional divergence, positive selection and coevolution

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The caleosin genes encode proteins with a single conserved EF hand calcium-binding domain and comprise small gene families found in a wide range of plant species. These proteins may be involved in many cellular and biological processes coupled closely to the synthesis, degradation, or stability of oil bodies. Although previous studies of this protein family have been reported for Arabidopsis and other species, understanding of the evolution of the caleosin gene family in plants remains inadequate. Results In this study, comparative genomic analysis was performed to investigate the phylogenetic relationships, evolutionary history, functional divergence, positive selection, and coevolution of caleosins. First, 84 caleosin genes were identified from five main lineages that included 15 species. Phylogenetic analysis placed these caleosins into five distinct subfamilies (sub I–V), including two subfamilies that have not been previously identified. Among these subfamilies, sub II coincided with the distinct P-caleosin isoform recently identified in the pollen oil bodies of lily; caleosin genes from the same lineage tended to be clustered together in the phylogenetic tree. A special motif was determined to be related with the classification of caleosins, which may have resulted from a deletion in sub I and sub III occurring after the evolutionary divergence of monocot and dicot species. Additionally, several segmentally and tandem-duplicated gene pairs were identified from seven species, and further analysis revealed that caleosins of different species did not share a common expansion model. The ages of each pair of duplications were calculated, and most were consistent with the time of genome-wide duplication events in each species. Functional divergence analysis showed that changes in functional constraints have occurred between subfamilies I/IV, II/IV, and II/V, and some critical amino acid sites were identified during the functional divergence. Additional

  6. Detector positioning for the initial subcriticality level determination in accelerator-driven systems

    SciTech Connect

    Uyttenhove, W.; Van Den Eynde, G.; Baeten, P.; Kochetkov, A.; Vittiglio, G.; Wagemans, J.; Lathouwers, D.; Kloosterman, J. L.; Van Der Hagen, T. J. H. H.; Wols, F.; Billebaud, A.; Chabod, S.; Thybault, H. E.

    2012-07-01

    Within the GUINEVERE project (Generation of Uninterrupted Intense Neutrons at the lead Venus Reactor) carried out at SCK-CEN in Mol, the continuous deuteron accelerator GENEPI-3C was coupled to the VENUS-F fast simulated lead-cooled reactor. Today the FREYA project (Fast Reactor Experiments for hYbrid Applications) is ongoing to study the neutronic behavior of this Accelerator Driven System (ADS) during different phases of operation. In particular the set-up of a monitoring system for the subcriticality of an ADS is envisaged to guarantee safe operation of the installation. The methodology for subcriticality monitoring in ADS takes into account the determination of the initial subcriticality level, the monitoring of reactivity variations, and interim cross-checking. At start-up, the Pulsed Neutron Source (PNS) technique is envisaged to determine the initial subcriticality level. Thanks to its reference critical state, the PNS technique can be validated on the VENUS-F core. A detector positioning methodology for the PNS technique is set up in this paper for the subcritical VENUS-F core, based on the reduction of higher harmonics in a static evaluation of the Sjoestrand area method. A first case study is provided on the VENUS-F core. This method can be generalised in order to create general rules for detector positions and types for full-scale ADS. (authors)

  7. Criticality Safety Evaluation of Hanford Site High Level Waste Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    ROGERS, C.A.

    2000-02-17

    This criticality safety evaluation covers operations for waste in underground storage tanks at the high-level waste tank farms on the Hanford site. This evaluation provides the bases for criticality safety limits and controls to govern receipt, transfer, and long-term storage of tank waste. Justification is provided that a nuclear criticality accident cannot occur for tank farms operations, based on current fissile material and operating conditions.

  8. Instructors' Positive Emotions: Effects on Student Engagement and Critical Thinking in U.S. and Chinese Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Jibiao

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we used the broaden-and-build theory and emotional response theory as the framework to examine the effects of instructors' positive emotions on student engagement and critical thinking in U.S. and Chinese classrooms, as well as the mediating role of students' positive emotions in their relationships. MANOVA results revealed no…

  9. Integrating Levels of Critical Thinking into Writing Assignments for Introductory Psychology Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, A. Sandra

    Short analytical writing exercises were designed to develop critical thinking and writing skills; stimulate creative thinking and writing; promote learning of psychological concepts; and to assess student knowledge. Design of these assignments was based on Bloom's taxonomy of multiple levels of critical thinking: recall, comprehension,…

  10. Utilization of critical periods during development to study the effects of low levels of environmental agents

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, L. B.

    1980-01-01

    Careful definition of critical periods in the development of selected characters can result in experimental systems that may be highly useful in studying risk at low levels of exposure. Three examples are presented. Epidemiological investigations can lose much of their value unless critical periods are known for the end points being studied.

  11. Retrieved waste properties and high-level waste critical component ratios for privatization waste feed delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, B.B.

    1998-03-04

    The purpose for this document is to provide the basis for the retrieved waste properties and high-level waste critical component ratios specified in the System Specification for the Double-Shell Tank System.

  12. Family presence during resuscitation: A Canadian Critical Care Society position paper

    PubMed Central

    Oczkowski, Simon JW; Mazzetti, Ian; Cupido, Cynthia; Fox-Robichaud, Alison E

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that patient outcomes are not affected by the offering of family presence during resuscitation (FPDR), and that psychological outcomes are neutral or improved in family members of adult patients. The exclusion of family members from the resuscitation area should, therefore, be reassessed. OBJECTIVE: The present Canadian Critical Care Society position paper is designed to help clinicians and institutions decide whether to incorporate FPDR as part of their routine clinical practice, and to offer strategies to implement FPDR successfully. METHODS: The authors conducted a literature search of the perspectives of health care providers, patients and families on the topic of FPDR, and considered the relevant ethical values of beneficence, nonmaleficence, autonomy and justice in light of the clinical evidence for FPDR. They reviewed randomized controlled trials and observational studies of FPDR to determine strategies that have been used to screen family members, select appropriate chaperones and educate staff. RESULTS: FPDR is an ethically sound practice in Canada, and may be considered for the families of adult and pediatric patients in the hospital setting. Hospitals that choose to implement FPDR should develop transparent policies regarding which family members are to be offered the opportunity to be present during the resuscitation. Experienced chaperones should accompany and support family members in the resuscitation area. Intensive educational interventions and increasing experience with FPDR are associated with increased support for the practice from health care providers. CONCLUSIONS: FPDR should be considered to be an important component of patient and family-centred care. PMID:26083541

  13. New stomatal flux-based critical levels for ozone effects on vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Gina; Pleijel, Håkan; Braun, Sabine; Büker, Patrick; Bermejo, Victoria; Calvo, Esperanza; Danielsson, Helena; Emberson, Lisa; Fernández, Ignacio González; Grünhage, Ludger; Harmens, Harry; Hayes, Felicity; Karlsson, Per-Erik; Simpson, David

    2011-09-01

    The critical levels for ozone effects on vegetation have been reviewed and revised by the LRTAP Convention. Eight new or revised critical levels based on the accumulated stomatal flux of ozone (POD Y, the Phytotoxic Ozone Dose above a threshold flux of Y nmol m -2 PLA s -1, where PLA is the projected leaf area) have been agreed. For each receptor, data were combined from experiments conducted under naturally fluctuating environmental conditions in 2-4 countries, resulting in linear dose-response relationships with response variables specific to each receptor ( r2 = 0.49-0.87, p < 0.001 for all). For crops, critical levels were derived for effects on wheat (grain yield, grain mass, and protein yield), potato (tuber yield) and tomato (fruit yield). For forest trees, critical levels were derived for effects on changes in annual increment in whole tree biomass for beech and birch, and Norway spruce. For (semi-)natural vegetation, the critical level for effects on productive and high conservation value perennial grasslands was based on effects on important component species of the genus Trifolium (clover species). These critical levels can be used to assess protection against the damaging effects of ozone on food security, important ecosystem services provided by forest trees (roundwood production, C sequestration, soil stability and flood prevention) and the vitality of pasture.

  14. Treatment de-escalation in HPV-positive oropharyngeal carcinoma: ongoing trials, critical issues and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mirghani, H; Amen, F; Blanchard, P; Moreau, F; Guigay, J; Hartl, D M; Lacau St Guily, J

    2015-04-01

    Due to the generally poor prognosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), treatment has been intensified, these last decades, leading to an increase of serious side effects. High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection has been recently etiologically linked to a subset of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), which is on the increase. These tumors are different, at the clinical and molecular level, when compared to tumors caused by traditional risk factors. Additionally, their prognosis is much more favorable which has led the medical community to consider new treatment strategies. Indeed, it is possible that less intensive treatment regimens could achieve similar efficacy with less toxicity and improved quality of life. Several clinical trials, investigating different ways to de-escalate treatment, are currently ongoing. In this article, we review these main approaches, discuss the rationale behind them and the issues raised by treatment de-escalation in HPV-positive OPSCC.

  15. DDE in birds' eggs: Comparisons of two methods for estimating critical levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    The sample egg technique and eggshell thickness-residue regression analysis were comparatively evaluated as tools in estimating critical levels of DDE in birds? eggs that seriously affect reproductive successa nd population starts....In comparing critical values of DDE that were derived from the two methods, the estimates were lower using the sample egg technique for both the Brown Pelican (3 ?g/g vs 8 ?g/g) and the Black-crowned Night-Heron (12?g/g/ vs 54 ?g/g) assuming a critical value of eggshell thinning at 20%....Extension of the regression line beyond the eggshell thickness-DDE residue data base is likely to result in spurious critical values of DDE. When sufficient thickness and residue data are available for estimating critical values of DDE from the regression equation, the estimates are meaningful but are likely to be inflated because adverse effects unrelated to eggshell thinning such as parental behavior and embryotoxicity unrelated to eggshell deficiencies are not taken into account.....Establishing critical levels of pollutants in eggs and tissues is a necessary procedure in assessing effects of these chemicals on individuals and populations of sensitive species. There are inherent difficulties in quantifying the effects of any pollutant on population trends and declines in productivity. The sample egg technique is apparently a more sensitive method for estimating critical levels of DDE, but some subjective interpretation is required for results obtained by both methods.

  16. Urine levels of drugs for which Triage DOA screening was positive.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Fumio

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between urine levels of target drugs of abuse for which Triage DOA gave positive results, as well as the cut-off levels for these drugs. Thirty-eight forensic urine samples positive for commonly abused drugs were involved. Of these samples, 12 were positive for barbiturates (BAR), 11 for benzodiazepines (BZO), 8 for opiates (OPI), 7 for amphetamines (AMP), and 4 for tricyclic antidepressants (TCA). In the BAR-positive urine samples, phenobarbital, amobarbital or barbital was detected at concentrations higher than cut-off levels. In the BZO-positive samples, diazepam, nordiazepam, triazolam, nitrazepam and/or midazolam was detected at concentrations lower than cut-off levels; in the triazolam-involved urine, alpha-hydroxytriazolam, a metabolite of triazolam, showed concentrations higher than cut-off level. In the AMP-positive samples, methamphetamine was detected at concentrations higher than cut-off level. Urine samples positive for OPI contained total dihydrocodeine, codeine or morphine at concentrations higher than cut-off levels. In TCA-positive samples, amitriptyline was detected at concentrations higher or lower than cut-off level, and clomipramine was detected at a concentration much lower than cut-off level. Metabolites of BZO and TCA, which are not typically analyzed by instrumental procedures, may cross-react to varying degrees with the antibodies used for Triage DOA.

  17. Critical exposure level of cadmium for elevated urinary metallothionein-An occupational population study in China

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Liang; Jin Taiyi . E-mail: tyjin@shmu.edu.cn; Huang, Bo; Nordberg, Gunnar; Nordberg, Monica

    2006-08-15

    Cadmium is a well-known nephrotoxic agent with extremely long biological half-time of 15-30 years in humans. To prevent nephrotoxicity induced by cadmium, it is necessary to identify specific and sensitive biomarkers of cadmium exposure and renal damage, and to define critical exposure levels related to minimal nephrotoxicity in humans. In this study, urinary cadmium (UCd) and blood cadmium (BCd) were used as cadmium exposure indicators, urinary {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin (UB2M), N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucosaminidase (UNAG) and albumin (UALB) were applied as the effect biomarkers of tubular and glomerular dysfunction. The relationship between urinary metallothionein (UMT) and cadmium exposure biomarkers as well as effect biomarkers was examined. Significant correlations were found between the UMT and BCd, and UCd. At the same time, UB2M, UALB and UNAG showed positive correlation with UMT as well. According to this result, cadmium-exposed individuals with renal dysfunction excreted more metallothionein than those without. Dose-response relationships between UCd and urinary indicators of renal dysfunction were studied. The critical concentration of UCd was quantitatively estimated by the benchmark dose (BMD) method. The lower confidence limit of the BMD-10 (BMDL) of UCd (3.1 {mu}g/g Cr) related to increased excretion of urinary metallothionein was slightly higher than that for UNAG (2.7 {mu}g/g Cr), but lower than those of UB2M (3.4 {mu}g/g Cr) and UALB (4.2 {mu}g/g Cr). The results demonstrate that UMT may be used as a sensitive biomarker of renal tubular dysfunction in cadmium-exposed populations.

  18. Students' Critical Thinking Ability: Description Based on Academic Level and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zetriuslita, Hj.; Ariawan, Rezi; Nufus, Hayatun

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to describe students' critical thinking ability based on the level academic and gender. The populations of this study were 132 students participating in five classes of Calculus course. The research data obtained through technical tests and interview techniques. This study found that the high level of capability, both male…

  19. Positioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conone, Ruth M.

    The key to positioning is the creation of a clear benefit image in the consumer's mind. One positioning strategy is creating in the prospect's mind a position that takes into consideration the company's or agency's strengths and weaknesses as well as those of its competitors. Another strategy is to gain entry into a position ladder owned by…

  20. Positional role and competitive-level differences in elite-level men's basketball players.

    PubMed

    Ben Abdelkrim, Nidhal; Chaouachi, Anis; Chamari, Karim; Chtara, Mokhtar; Castagna, Carlo

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the physical attributes of elite men's basketball players according to age and specific individual positional roles. Forty-five players from 3 national basketball teams (Under-18 years, Under-20 years, and Senior) were measured for anthropometry (height, body mass, percentage body fat), explosive power (5 jumps and vertical jump), speed (5-m, 10-m, and 30-m sprint), agility (T-test), strength (bench press and squat 1 repetition maximum [1RM]), and intermittent high-intensity endurance performance (Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test [Yo-Yo IR1]). Data on match frequency, training routines, and playing experience were also collected. Under-18 players were significantly (p < 0.05) shorter and lighter than both Senior and Under-20 players but showed higher (p < 0.05) percentage body fat. Under-20 and Senior players were faster and had better explosive-power and agility (p < 0.05) performances than Under-18 players. Bench press and squat 1RMs were higher in Senior players (p < 0.05) compared with the other groups. There were significant difference in the Yo-Yo IR1 performance among groups (Senior > Under-20 > Under-18, p < 0.05). Centers and power forwards were the tallest and the heaviest (p < 0.05). The Yo-Yo IR1 performance was higher (p < 0.01) in point guards than in centers. Point guards showed also better agility and 5- and 10-m performances. Power forwards and centers were stronger than the rest of players' positions in the bench press 1RM (p < 0.01). These results showed the existence of age and positional role differences in fitness performance in men's basketball. Differences were particularly evident in intermittent high-intensity endurance and agility performance. Sprint training possibly should be individualized when dealing with positional roles in elite men's basketball. Strength and conditioning coaches should use Yo-Yo IR1 to assess specific endurance in players of different age and positional role.

  1. Elevated Omentin Serum Levels Predict Long-Term Survival in Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Luedde, Mark; Benz, Fabian; Niedeggen, Jennifer; Vucur, Mihael; Hippe, Hans-Joerg; Spehlmann, Martina E.; Schueller, Florian; Loosen, Sven; Frey, Norbert; Trautwein, Christian; Koch, Alexander; Luedde, Tom; Tacke, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Omentin, a recently described adipokine, was shown to be involved in the pathophysiology of inflammatory and infectious diseases. However, its role in critical illness and sepsis is currently unknown. Materials and Methods. Omentin serum concentrations were measured in 117 ICU-patients (84 with septic and 33 with nonseptic disease etiology) admitted to the medical ICU. Results were compared with 50 healthy controls. Results. Omentin serum levels of critically ill patients at admission to the ICU or after 72 hours of ICU treatment were similar compared to healthy controls. Moreover, circulating omentin levels were independent of sepsis and etiology of critical illness. Notably, serum concentrations of omentin could not be linked to concentrations of inflammatory cytokines or routinely used sepsis markers. While serum levels of omentin were not predictive for short term survival during ICU treatment, low omentin concentrations were an independent predictor of patients' overall survival. Omentin levels strongly correlated with that of other adipokines (e.g., leptin receptor or adiponectin), which have also been identified as prognostic markers in critical illness. Conclusions. Although circulating omentin levels did not differ between ICU-patients and controls, elevated omentin levels were predictive for an impaired patients' long term survival. PMID:27867249

  2. Dose consequences from a postulated criticality occurring in a low-level waste disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Broadhead, B.L.; Childs, R.L.; Hopper, C.M.; Parks, C.V.

    1997-12-01

    Evaluations were done to determine conditions that could permit nuclear criticality with fissile uranium in low-level waste (LLW) facilities and to estimate potential radiation exposures to personnel if there were such an accident. Simultaneous hydrogeochemical and nuclear criticality studies were done (1) to identity realistic scenarios for uranium migration and concentration increase at LLW disposal facilities, (2) to model groundwater transport of uranium and subsequent concentration via sorption or precipitation, (3) to evaluate the potential for nuclear criticality resulting from potential increases in uranium concentration over disposal limits, and (4) to estimate potential radiation exposures to personnel resulting from criticality consequences. This paper presents the details of the radiation exposure calculations relying on the conditions as determined from the preceding studies detailed in a cited reference.

  3. A Critical Review of Self-Perceptions and the Positive Illusory Bias in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Julie Sarno; Goldfine, Matthew E.; Evangelista, Nicole M.; Hoza, Betsy; Kaiser, Nina M.

    2007-01-01

    Despite significant functional problems in multiple domains, children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) unexpectedly provide extremely positive reports of their own competence in comparison to other criteria reflecting actual competence. This counterintuitive phenomenon is known as the positive illusory bias (PIB). This article…

  4. Positioning Sex Educators: A Critical Ethnography of a Professional Development Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Brigitte C.

    2013-01-01

    In this ethnographic research, I offer an analysis of a state-sponsored professional development workshop for sex educators. Positioning theory is used to understand how the lived space of the workshop -- including texts, talk and silence -- positions sex education teachers as professionals and practitioners with certain (limited) speaking rights…

  5. The Politics of Publishing: Positioning Critical Voices in an ELT Journal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Brian

    1997-01-01

    Emphasizes that applied linguistics, especially within the context of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) instruction, faces a critical juncture and that publishing activities will influence the assessment of the discourses available to reconceptualize the field. Examines the process of editing an article about teaching the Gulf War to ESL students…

  6. Developing Critical Awareness at the Middle Level: Using Texts as Tools for Critique and Pleasure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Holly; Freedman, Lauren

    2005-01-01

    Young adolescents need and want more than a diet of worksheets and rote skills that asks them to think little and talk less. This book presents an instructional approach that mixes critique and pleasure, allowing middle-level students to read literature they enjoy while they develop critical awareness and address issues of social justice.…

  7. Leveling of Critical Thinking Abilities of Students of Mathematics Education in Mathematical Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasiman

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to determine the leveling of critical thinking abilities of students of mathematics education in mathematical problem solving. It includes qualitative-explorative study that was conducted at University of PGRI Semarang. The generated data in the form of information obtained problem solving question and interview guides. The…

  8. Expanding Opportunity through Critical Restorative Justice Portraits of Resilience at the Individual and School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, David; Wadhwa, Anita

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we tackle the disadvantaging conditions of zero tolerance policies in school settings and advocate using an alternative approach--critical restorative justice through peacemaking circles--to nurture resilience and open opportunity at the school level. In the process, this article builds on theory and qualitative research and…

  9. Measuring precise sea level from a buoy using the Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rocken, Christian; Kelecy, Thomas M.; Born, George H.; Young, Larry E.; Purcell, George H., Jr.; Wolf, Susan Kornreich

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of using the Global Positioning System (GPS) for accurate sea surface positioning was examined. An experiment was conducted on the Scripps pier at La Jolla, California from December 13-15, 1989. A GPS-equipped buoy was deployed about 100 m off the pier. Two fixed reference GPS receivers, located on the pier and about 80 km away on Monument Peak, were used to estimate the relative position of the floater. Kinematic GPS processing software, developed at the National Geodetic Survey, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's GPS Infrared Processing System software were used to determine the floater position relative to land-fixing receivers. Calculations were made of sea level and ocean wave spectra from GPS measurements. It is found that the GPS sea level for the short 100 m baseline agrees with the PPT sea level at the 1 cm level and has an rms variation of 5 mm over a period of 4 hours.

  10. Critical levels and loads and the regulation of industrial emissions in northwest British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williston, P.; Aherne, J.; Watmough, S.; Marmorek, D.; Hall, A.; de la Cueva Bueno, P.; Murray, C.; Henolson, A.; Laurence, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    Northwest British Columbia, Canada, a sparsely populated and largely pristine region, is targeted for rapid industrial growth owing to the modernization of an aluminum smelter and multiple proposed liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities. Consequently, air quality in this region is expected to undergo considerable changes within the next decade. In concert, the increase in LNG capacity driven by gas production from shale resources across North America has prompted environmental concerns and highlighted the need for science-based management decisions regarding the permitting of air emissions. In this study, an effects-based approach widely-used to support transboundary emissions policy negotiations was used to assess industrial air emissions in the Kitimat and Prince Rupert airsheds under permitted and future potential industrial emissions. Critical levels for vegetation of SO2 and NO2 and critical loads of acidity and nutrient nitrogen for terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems were estimated for both regions and compared with modelled concentration and deposition estimates to identify the potential extent and magnitude of ecosystem impacts. The critical level for SO2 was predicted to be exceeded in an area ranging from 81 to 251 km2 in the Kitimat airshed owing to emissions from an existing smelter, compared with <1 km2 in Prince Rupert under the lowest to highest emissions scenarios. In contrast, the NO2 critical level was not exceeded in Kitimat, and ranged from 4.5 to 6 km2 in Prince Rupert owing to proposed LNG related emissions. Predicted areal exceedance of the critical load of acidity for soil ranged from 1 to 28 km2 in Kitimat and 4-10 km2 in Prince Rupert, while the areal exceedance of empirical critical load for nutrient N was predicted to be greater in the Prince Rupert airshed (20-94 km2) than in the Kitimat airshed (1-31 km2). The number of lakes that exceeded the critical load of acidity did not vary greatly across emissions scenarios in the Kitimat (21

  11. A Critical Role of Lyst-Interacting Protein5, a Positive Regulator of Multivesicular Body Biogenesis, in Plant Responses to Heat and Salt Stresses1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Yang, Yan; Wang, Zhe; Zhou, Jie; Fan, Baofang; Chen, Zhixiang

    2015-01-01

    Multivesicular bodies (MVBs) are unique endosomes containing vesicles in the lumen and play critical roles in many cellular processes. We have recently shown that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Lyst-Interacting Protein5 (LIP5), a positive regulator of the Suppressor of K+ Transport Growth Defect1 (SKD1) AAA ATPase in MVB biogenesis, is a critical target of the mitogen-activated protein kinases MPK3 and MPK6 and plays an important role in the plant immune system. In this study, we report that the LIP5-regulated MVB pathway also plays a critical role in plant responses to abiotic stresses. Disruption of LIP5 causes compromised tolerance to both heat and salt stresses. The critical role of LIP5 in plant tolerance to abiotic stresses is dependent on its ability to interact with Suppressor of K+ Transport Growth Defect1. When compared with wild-type plants, lip5 mutants accumulate increased levels of ubiquitinated protein aggregates and NaCl under heat and salt stresses, respectively. Further analysis using fluorescent dye and MVB markers reveals that abiotic stress increases the formation of endocytic vesicles and MVBs in a largely LIP5-dependent manner. LIP5 is also required for the salt-induced increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species, which have been implicated in signaling of salt stress responses. Basal levels of LIP5 phosphorylation by MPKs and the stability of LIP5 are elevated by salt stress, and mutation of MPK phosphorylation sites in LIP5 reduces the stability and compromises the ability to complement the lip5 salt-sensitive mutant phenotype. These results collectively indicate that the MVB pathway is positively regulated by pathogen/stress-responsive MPK3/6 through LIP5 phosphorylation and plays a critical role in broad plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. PMID:26229051

  12. Restructuring support staff classification levels for academic health sciences library positions.

    PubMed Central

    McCann, J C; Davis, S E; Trainor, D J; Waller, D K; Greenblatt, R B

    1990-01-01

    Nonprofessional library support staff traditionally hold what are considered to be low-paying, nonchallenging positions. These negative factors make retaining creative and productive employees difficult. This article outlines the approach taken at the Medical College of Georgia's Robert B. Greenblatt, M.D. Library to devise a structure of library staff positions that becomes progressively more demanding. A new nine-level Library Staff Classification Plan resulted. This plan also enables and encourages employees to acquire more skills and to accept more responsibility in order to qualify for higher-level library positions or to advance their present position to receive comparable rewards. The plan expresses the level of responsibilities expected, the employee qualifications desired, and lists representative duties across the spectrum of typical library tasks. PMID:2393758

  13. Opt Out: Women with Children Leaving Mid-Level Student Affairs Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebreard, Dana

    2010-01-01

    This phenomenological study is about the decision-making process of women with young children at the mid-level student affairs position who decide to opt out of their career for a minimum of one year, and for some, return to higher education. The study is based on interviews with 17 mid-level college administrators and mothers of young children,…

  14. Critical Incidents in Sustaining School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreou, Theresa E.; McIntosh, Kent; Ross, Scott W.; Kahn, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify, categorize, and describe practitioners' perspectives regarding factors that help and hinder sustainability of Tier I (universal) systems within School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS). Seventeen participants involved in sustaining Tier I SWPBIS over several years within a…

  15. Critical Incidents in Sustaining School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreou, Theresa E.; McIntosh, Kent; Ross, Scott W.; Kahn, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify, categorize, and describe practitioners' perspectives regarding factors that help and hinder sustainability of Tier I (universal) systems within School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS). Seventeen participants involved in sustaining Tier I SWPBIS over several years…

  16. Confidentiality, Equity, and Silence: A Critical Look at School Policy for HIV Positive Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenreich, Megan

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the author questions whether confidentiality laws interfere with the effort to meet the educational needs of HIV positive children. Laws intended to provide children with equal access to education often function primarily to keep schools "safe" for dominant groups rather than to serve more marginalized children most effectively.…

  17. Air pollution critical levels in central México protected natural areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Suarez, L.; Andraca Ayala, G.; Mar Morales, B.; Garcia-reynoso, J.; Torres-JArdon, R.

    2013-05-01

    All the Natural Protected Areas (NPA) within the Central Mexico City Belt comprising five metropolitan areas including MCMA are under strong impact from air pollution. Ozone, nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide exceed critical levels for several types of vegetation. In this work we show the critical level maps for ozone, nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide for Sierra of Chichinautzin, the mountain that acts as the physical barrier to air pollution dispersion south of Mexico City Metropolitan Area, what makes of it a receptor area to MCMA pollution. Maps were made combining model outputs from WRF-Chem and passive samplers. We also describe a proposal to extend the observation network to all natural protected areas within the Central Mexico City Belt.

  18. Critical levels of brain atrophy associated with homocysteine and cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    de Jager, Celeste A

    2014-09-01

    Few B-vitamin trials to lower homocysteine (Hcy) have reported evidence of beneficial effects on cognition in older adults with cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's disease. This article reviews the role of Hcy in cognitive decline. It also considers some reasons why meta-analyses have failed to find effects of B-vitamin treatment. Findings from the successful VITACOG trial are examined from a new perspective of critical levels of Hcy and brain atrophy that may impact on the efficacy of B-vitamin treatment. It appears that there is a critical level of brain shrinkage, possibly mediated by elevated Hcy, which when reached, results in cognitive decline, especially in episodic memory performance. Supplements, food sources, and effects of folic acid fortification are discussed in relation to B12 deficiency.

  19. Critical boron-doping levels for generation of dislocations in synthetic diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Alegre, M. P. Araújo, D.; Pinero, J. C.; Lloret, F.; Villar, M. P.; Fiori, A.; Achatz, P.; Chicot, G.; Bustarret, E.; Jomard, F.

    2014-10-27

    Defects induced by boron doping in diamond layers were studied by transmission electron microscopy. The existence of a critical boron doping level above which defects are generated is reported. This level is found to be dependent on the CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} molar ratios and on growth directions. The critical boron concentration lied in the 6.5–17.0 × 10{sup 20}at/cm{sup 3} range in the 〈111〉 direction and at 3.2 × 10{sup 21 }at/cm{sup 3} for the 〈001〉 one. Strain related effects induced by the doping are shown not to be responsible. From the location of dislocations and their Burger vectors, a model is proposed, together with their generation mechanism.

  20. [Critical tidal level for Kandelia candel forestation in strong tidal range area].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jian-biao; Huang, Li; Chen, Shao-bo; Chi, Wei; Ding, Wen-yong; Zhou, Chao-sheng; Zheng, Chun-fang; Wang, Wen-qing

    2010-05-01

    Taking Ximen island of Yueqing bay, the biggest tidal range area among the coasts of China, as study site, an investigation was made on the survival rate, growth characteristics, and attached barnacles of 1- and 3-year-old Kandelia candel seedlings at the elevations 1.96, 1.66, 1.35, and 1.03 m above the zero tidal level of Yellow Sea. Significant differences were observed in the survival rate and growth situation of the seedlings among the elevations. There were two barnacle species, Balanus albicostatus and Balanus amphitrite amphitrite, and B. albicostatus was the major species which attached K. candel most seriously at elevation 1.35 m. The critical tidal level for K. candel in the site was 1.66 m above the zero tidal level, i.e., at least 1.29 m higher than the local mean sea level, and the flooding time per tide cycle being less than 3.65 h. Barnacle, strong tide, and extreme weather event were the main reasons for the higher critical tidal level.

  1. Anthropometric, Physical, and Age Differences by the Player Position and the Performance Level in Volleyball

    PubMed Central

    Palao, José M.; Manzanares, Policarpo; Valadés, David

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to study the ranges in height, weight, age, spike reach, and block reach of volleyball players in relation to the player position and the level of their respective teams in peak performance. The analysed sample included 1454 male and 1452 female players who participated in the volleyball competitions of the Olympic Games and World Championships in the 2000–2012 period. A descriptive, correlational, and longitudinal design was used. The variables studied were: the player position, body height, weight, body mass index, spike reach, block reach, age, and team level. The results show differences between body height, spike and block reaches, and the age of the players by their position. These differences are related to the needs of the different positions with regard to the actions they execute. Middle-blockers, outside-hitters, and opposites have the characteristics that are most suitable for blocking and spiking, and the setters and liberos appear to have characteristics conducive to setting and receiving as well as digging, respectively. The differences found in the studied variables with regard to the playing position are related to players’ needs regarding the actions they perform. Player’s age was a variable that differentiated first teams at this level of competition for males, and physical capacities (body height, weight, spike reach, and block reach) were variables that differentiated first teams at this level of competition for females. PMID:25713683

  2. Determination of vertical deflections using the global positioning system and geodetic leveling

    SciTech Connect

    Solar, T.; Carlson, A.E. Jr.; Evans, A.G.

    1989-07-01

    The capabilities of the Global Positioning System (GPS) for accurately determining geodetic quantities are well established. Nevertheless, no comparison between deflections of the vertical as determined through GPS with leveling and values conventionally computer by astrogeodetic methods has yet been published. This investigation demonstrates that the accurate deflections of the vertical components ({eta}, {xi}) can be obtained independently of classical astronomic observations by combining geodetic leveling with satellite GOS positioning. The approach uses a radial configuration of baselines to determine the best (in a least square sense) values of ({eta}, {xi}) at the central station.

  3. Increased total serum random cortisol levels predict mortality in critically ill trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Urmil; Polite, Nathan; Wood, Teresa; Lieber, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Dysfunction in the hypothalamopituitary adrenal axis is thought to exist; however, there continues to be controversy about what level of serum cortisol corresponds to adrenal insufficiency. Few studies have focused on the significance of serum random cortisol in the critically ill trauma patient. Trauma patients with total serum random cortisol levels drawn in the intensive care unit within the first seven days of hospitalization were retrospectively reviewed. The primary outcome measured was in-hospital mortality. Two hundred forty-two patients were analyzed. Nonsurvivors had significantly higher mean cortisol levels than survivors (28.7 ± 15.80 μg/dL vs 22.9 ± 12.35 μg/dL, P = 0.01). Patients with cortisol 30 μg/dL or greater were more likely to die with odds ratio of 2.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5 to 5). The odds ratio increased to 4.0 and 3.8 (95% CI, 1.4 to 11.4 and 1.3 to 10.9) when cortisol was drawn on hospital Day 2 and Days 3 through 7, respectively. Among nonsurvivors, patients with an injury severity score less than 25 had significantly higher cortisol levels than patients with an Injury Severity Score 25 or higher (35.3 ± 19.21 μg/dL vs 25.7 ± 13.21 μg/dL, P = 0.009). Patients with massive transfusion, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, or solid organ injury did not have significantly different cortisol levels. The covariate-adjusted area under the receiver operating characteristic curve indicated that cortisol level has a 77 per cent accuracy in differentiating survivors from nonsurvivors. Higher cortisol levels were predictive of mortality in critically ill trauma patients. Whether serum cortisol level is a marker that can be modified remains an area of interest for future study.

  4. [GEIPC-SEIMC and GTEI-SEMICYUC recommendations for antibiotic treatment of gram positive coccal infections in the critical patient].

    PubMed

    Olaechea Astigarraga, P M; Garnacho Montero, J; Grau Cerrato, S; Rodríguez Colomo, O; Palomar Martínez, M; Zaragoza Crespo, R; Muñoz García-Paredes, P; Cerdá Cerdá, E; Alvarez Lerma, F

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, an increment of infections caused by gram-positive cocci has been documented in nosocomial and hospital-acquired infections. In diverse countries, a rapid development of resistance to common antibiotics against gram-positive cocci has been observed. This situation is exceptional in Spain but our country might be affected in the near future. New antimicrobials active against these multi-drug resistant pathogens are nowadays available. It is essential to improve our current knowledge about pharmacokinetic properties of traditional and new antimicrobials to maximize its effectiveness and to minimize toxicity. These issues are even more important in critically ill patients because inadequate empirical therapy is associated with therapeutic failure and a poor outcome. Experts representing two scientific societies (Grupo de estudio de Infecciones en el Paciente Critico de la SEIMC and Grupo de trabajo de Enfermedades Infecciosas de la SEMICYUC) have elaborated a consensus document based on the current scientific evidence to summarize recommendations for the treatment of serious infections caused by gram-positive cocci in critically ill patients.

  5. Light is a positive regulator of strigolactone levels in tomato roots.

    PubMed

    Koltai, Hinanit; Cohen, Maja; Chesin, Ori; Mayzlish-Gati, Einav; Bécard, Guillaume; Puech, Virginie; Ben Dor, Bruria; Resnick, Natalie; Wininger, Smadar; Kapulnik, Yoram

    2011-11-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) or closely related molecules were recently identified as phytohormones, acting as long-distance branching factors that suppress growth of pre-formed axillary buds in the shoot. The SL signaling pathways and light appear to be connected, as SLs were shown to induce light-regulated pathways and to mimic light-adapted plant growth. However, it is not yet clear how light affects SL levels. Here, we examined the effect of different light intensities on SL levels in tomato roots. The results show that light intensity, above a certain threshold, is a positive regulator of SL levels and of Sl-CCD7 transcription; Sl-CCD7 is involved in SLs biosynthesis in tomato. Moreover, SL accumulation in plant roots is shown to be a time-dependent process. At least some of the similar effects of light and SLs on plant responses might result from a positive effect of light on SL levels.

  6. Simulated Microgravity: Critical Review on the Use of Random Positioning Machines for Mammalian Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Wuest, Simon L.; Richard, Stéphane; Kopp, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    Random Positioning Machines (RPMs) have been used since many years as a ground-based model to simulate microgravity. In this review we discuss several aspects of the RPM. Recent technological development has expanded the operative range of the RPM substantially. New possibilities of live cell imaging and partial gravity simulations, for example, are of particular interest. For obtaining valuable and reliable results from RPM experiments, the appropriate use of the RPM is of utmost importance. The simulation of microgravity requires that the RPM's rotation is faster than the biological process under study, but not so fast that undesired side effects appear. It remains a legitimate question, however, whether the RPM can accurately and reliably simulate microgravity conditions comparable to real microgravity in space. We attempt to answer this question by mathematically analyzing the forces working on the samples while they are mounted on the operating RPM and by comparing data obtained under real microgravity in space and simulated microgravity on the RPM. In conclusion and after taking the mentioned constraints into consideration, we are convinced that simulated microgravity experiments on the RPM are a valid alternative for conducting examinations on the influence of the force of gravity in a fast and straightforward approach. PMID:25649075

  7. The journey of positioning self as both mental health nurse and qualitative researcher: a critical reflection.

    PubMed

    Brunero, S J; Jeon, Y H; Foster, K

    2015-09-01

    This paper discusses the development of a mental health nurse clinician to a mental health nurse researcher. Understanding the theoretical and professional drives that shape mental health nurses clinical practice and how that links to becoming a researcher is discussed. Mental health nurses who conduct research have to often move between their clinical roles and that of the researcher, doing this safely using a reflective supervision approach enables the nurse to conduct the research from a stronger professional and ethical standpoint. The intention of the paper is to encourage mental health nurses to engage in research and development. Shifting between the positions of a mental health nurse clinician and a qualitative researcher has some parallels to the processes in the nurse-service user relationship. This paper addresses this development from practitioner to researcher in one mental health nurse's journey through a PhD study using constructivist grounded theory. The paper examines theoretical and professional drives that have shaped my clinical practice and the role of the researcher in constructivist grounded theory, the notion of the researcher shifting between insider and outsider status, and the importance of reflexivity in conducting research. These influences will be discussed in the context of the development of a constructivist grounded theory study of the delivery of health care to service users with a mental illness in general hospital wards.

  8. Implementation of CTRLPOS, a VENTURE module for control rod position criticality searches, control rod worth curve calculations, and general criticality searches

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.A.; Renier, J.P.

    1994-06-01

    A module in the VENTURE reactor analysis code system, CTRLPOS, is developed to position control rods and perform control rod position criticality searches. The module is variably dimensioned so that calculations can be performed with any number of control rod banks each having any number of control rods. CTRLPOS can also calculate control rod worth curves for a single control rod or a bank of control rods. Control rod depletion can be calculated to provide radiation source terms. These radiation source terms can be used to predict radiation doses to personnel and estimate the shielding and long-term storage requirements for spent control rods. All of these operations are completely automated. The numerous features of the module are discussed in detail. The necessary input data for the CTRLPOS module is explained. Several sample problems are presented to show the flexibility of the module. The results presented with the sample problems show that the CTRLPOS module is a powerful tool which allows a wide variety of calculations to be easily performed.

  9. Classroom-Level Positive Behavior Supports in Schools Implementing SW-PBIS: Identifying Areas for Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinke, Wendy M.; Herman, Keith C.; Stormont, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the use of classroom-level behavior management strategies that align with School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SW-PBIS). Direct observations of universal classroom management strategies were conducted across 33 elementary classrooms in elementary schools implementing SW-PBIS with high fidelity. Findings…

  10. Telemarketing. Curriculum Guides and Content Outlines for Telemarketing: Entry-Level Position.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Del

    This curriculum guide and content outline for the telemarketing entry-level position contains seven sections: (1) specialized telemarketing tasks; (2) telemarketing selling skills; (3) marketing tasks; (4) business-related tasks; (5) business-specific tasks; (6) personnel/human resources-related tasks; and (7) communications and minimum skill…

  11. Assessment of Positive Psychology Course According to Comments and Life Satisfaction Levels of Counselor Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bas, Asli Uz

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the "Positive Psychology" course according to comments and life satisfaction levels of counselor candidates. The course was offered in Guidance and Psychological Counseling undergraduate program as an elective course. The participants of the study were 56 senior undergraduate students attended…

  12. The Association of Levels of and Decline in Grip Strength in Old Age with Trajectories of Life Course Occupational Position

    PubMed Central

    Fritzell, Johan; Hoffmann, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    Background The study of the influence of life course occupational position (OP) on health in old age demands analysis of time patterns in both OP and health. We study associations between life course time patterns of OP and decline in grip strength in old age. Methods We analyze 5 waves from the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe (n = 5108, ages 65–90). We use a pattern-mixture latent growth model to predict the level and decline in grip strength in old age by trajectory of life course OP. We extend and generalize the structured regression approach to establish the explanatory power of different life course models for both the level and decline of grip strength. Results Grip strength declined linearly by 0.70 kg (95% CI -0.74;-0.66) for men and 0.42 kg (95% CI -0.45;-0.39) for women per year. The level of men’s grip strength can best be explained by a critical period during midlife, with those exposed to low OP during this period having 1.67 kg (95% CI -2.33;-1.00) less grip strength. These differences remain constant over age. For women, no association between OP and levels of or decline in grip strength was found. Conclusions Men’s OP in midlife seems to be a critical period for the level of grip strength in old age. Inequalities remain constant over age. The integration of the structured regression approach and latent growth modelling offers new possibilities for life course epidemiology. PMID:27232696

  13. Tentative critical levels of tropospheric ozone for agricultural crops in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonekura, T.

    2010-12-01

    Ground level ozone concentrations have increased year by year in Japan. High ozone concentrations have been known to affect growth and yield of agricultural crops. In the US and Europe, much effort has been directed to establish regulatory policies such as secondary air quality standard and critical levels to protect vegetation against ozone. On the contrary, in Japan, there is a few data of agricultural crops sensitivity to ozone. Furthermore, there is no information about the ozone risk of agricultural crop loss by based on ozone index (e.g. AOT40, SUM06, W126)-crop response relationship, yet. The objects of our research are: (1) to screen sensitivity of ozone on 10 crops cultivated in urban area in Japan. (2) to establish critical levels of ozone for protecting agricultural crops based on ozone index-crop response relationship. The 10 Japanese agricultural crops such as Japanese rice, Hanegi (Welsh onion), Shungiku (Crown daisy), Saradana (Lettus), Hatsukadaikon (Radish), Kokabu (Small Turnip), Santosai (Chinese cabbage), Tasai (Spinach mustard), Komatsuna (Japanese mustard spinach) and Chingensai (Bok Choy), were fumigated to three levels of ozone (clean air (< 5 ppbv), ambient level of ozone, 1.5 times ambient ozone) in open-top chambers during 30 to 120 days. Those experiments were repeated five times during two growing season. Throughout the experimental period, the growth or yield were measured, and the relationship between growth (or yield) and ozone index was examined. As a result, the influences of ozone on growth or yield were different among 10 crops. Relatively good correlations of coefficients of determination (r2) for linear regressions to growth or yield were obtained with “8h means” and “AOT40” rather than “SUM00”, “SUM06” and “W126”. Critical level for 10 crops in terms of an AOT40 were 1.1 to 2.1 ppm h per month. The ozone sensitive crop in our study was sound to be 1.0 ppm h per month in AOT40.

  14. Remarkably increased resistin levels in anti-AChR antibody-positive myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Da-Qi; Wang, Rong; Li, Ting; Li, Xin; Qi, Yuan; Wang, Jing; Yang, Li

    2015-06-15

    Resistin is a pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. To investigate serum resistin levels in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) and determine if there are associations between resistin levels and disease severity, we measured serum resistin levels in 102 patients with anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive MG (AChR-MG). We further analyzed associations between serum resistin levels and clinical variables in patients with MG. Our findings demonstrate that serum resistin levels are elevated in patients with AChR-generalized MG and AChR-MG with thymoma and are correlated with disease severity. Resistin has potential as a useful serum biomarker for inflammation in AChR-MG.

  15. Injured Fluoro-Jade-positive hippocampal neurons contain high levels of zinc after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Hellmich, Helen L; Eidson, Kristine A; Capra, Bridget A; Garcia, Jeanna M; Boone, Deborah R; Hawkins, Bridget E; Uchida, Tatsuo; Dewitt, Douglas S; Prough, Donald S

    2007-01-05

    Hippocampal damage contributes to cognitive dysfunction after traumatic brain injury (TBI). We previously showed that Fluoro-Jade, a fluorescent stain that labels injured, degenerating brain neurons, quantifies the extent of hippocampal injury after experimental fluid percussion TBI in rats. Coincidentally, we observed that injured neurons in the rat hippocampus also stained with Newport Green, a fluorescent dye specific for free ionic zinc. Here, we show that, regardless of injury severity or therapeutic intervention, the post-TBI population of injured neurons in rat hippocampal subfields CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus is indistinguishable, both in numbers and anatomical distribution, from the population of neurons containing high levels of zinc. Treatment with lamotrigine, which inhibits presynaptic release of glutamate and presumably zinc that is co-localized with glutamate, reduced numbers of Fluoro-Jade-positive and Newport Green-positive neurons equally as did treatment with nicardipine, which blocks voltage-gated calcium channels through which zinc enters neurons. To confirm using molecular techniques that Fluoro-Jade and Newport Green-positive neurons are equivalent populations, we isolated total RNA from 25 Fluoro-Jade-positive and 25 Newport Green-positive pyramidal neurons obtained by laser capture microdissection (LCM) from the CA3 subfield, linearly amplified the mRNA and used quantitative ribonuclease protection analysis to demonstrate similar expression of mRNA for selected TBI-induced genes. Our data suggest that therapeutic interventions aimed at reducing neurotoxic zinc levels after TBI may reduce hippocampal neuronal injury.

  16. Serum immunoglobulin levels in Australia antigen positive and Australia antigen negative hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Peters, C. J.; Johnson, K. M.

    1972-01-01

    Ig levels were determined by radial immunodiffusion in uncomplicated cases of acute hepatitis with or without Australia antigenaemia. Initial sera from Australia antigen negative cases showed a striking elevation in IgM levels when compared to Australia antigen positive cases (6·5 versus 1·9 mg/ml). None of twenty-four Australia antigen positive cases exceeded 3 mg/ml IgM, and only 3/58 Australia antigen negative cases exhibited values below 3 mg/ml. Intial sera from Australia antigen positive and Australia antigen negative subjects did not differ in concentration of IgG, IgA, or IgD. Serial determinations of IgG revealed a transient fall in patients with Australia antigen positive hepatitis, and a rise in Australia antigen negative cases. Asymptomatic, Australia antigen positive, Guaymi Indian subjects were compared to matched Australia antigen negative controls from the same indigenous group and no differences in the concentration of IgG, IgM, IgA or IgD were found, although elevations of IgG and IgM were common in both groups. No evidence of abnormal proteins was found when sera were tested by cellulose acetate electrophoresis or by immunoelectrophoresis versus immunoglobulin-specific antisera. Ultracentrifugal analysis failed to detect `7S' IgM. PMID:4625396

  17. Critical illness research involving collection of genomic data: the conundrum posed by low levels of genomic literacy among surrogate decision makers for critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Iverson, Ellen; Celious, Aaron; Shehane, Erica; Oerke, Mandy; Warren, Victoria; Eastman, Alexander; Kennedy, Carie R; Freeman, Bradley D

    2013-07-01

    Critical illness clinical trials that entail genomic data collection pose unique challenges. In this qualitative study, we found that surrogate decision makers (SDMs) for critically ill individuals, such as those who would be approached for study participation, appeared to have a limited grasp of genomic principles. We argue that low levels of genomic literacy should neither preclude nor be in conflict with the conduct of ethically rigorous clinical trials.

  18. Energized by love: thinking about romantic relationships increases positive affect and blood glucose levels.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Sarah C E; Campbell, Lorne; Loving, Timothy J

    2014-10-01

    We assessed the impact of thinking of a current romantic partner on acute blood glucose responses and positive affect over a short period of time. Participants in romantic relationships were randomly assigned to reflect on their partner, an opposite-sex friend, or their morning routine. Blood glucose levels were assessed prior to reflection, as well as at 10 and 25 min postreflection. Results revealed that individuals in the routine and friend conditions exhibited a decline in glucose over time, whereas individuals in the partner condition did not exhibit this decline (rather, a slight increase) in glucose over time. Reported positive affect following reflection was positively associated with increases in glucose, but only for individuals who reflected on their partner, suggesting this physiological response reflects eustress. These findings add to the literature on eustress in relationships and have implications for relationship processes.

  19. Psychological support based on positive suggestions in the treatment of a critically ill ICU patient – A case report

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Zsófia; Fritúz, Gábor

    2013-01-01

    This case report describes the way psychological support based on positive suggestions (PSBPS) was added to the traditional somatic treatment of an acute pancreatitis 36-year-old male patient. Psychological support based on positive suggestions (PSBPS) is a new adjunct therapeutic tool focused on applying suggestive techniques in medical settings. The suggestive techniques usually applied with critically ill patients are based on a number of pre-prepared scripts like future orientation, reframing, positivity, supporting autonomy, etc., and other, very unique and personalized interventions, which are exemplified with verbatim quotations. We describe the way several problems during treatment of intensive care unit (ICU) patients were solved using suggestive methods: uncooperativeness, difficulties of weaning, building up enteral nutrition, supporting recovery motivation, and so on, which permanently facilitated the patient’s medical state: the elimination of gastrointestinal bleeding, recovery of the skin on the abdomen, etc. Medical effects follow-up data at 10 months show that the patient recovered and soon returned to his original work following discharge. PMID:24381733

  20. Evaluation of intramitochondrial ATP levels identifies G0/G1 switch gene 2 as a positive regulator of oxidative phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Kioka, Hidetaka; Kato, Hisakazu; Fujikawa, Makoto; Tsukamoto, Osamu; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Imamura, Hiromi; Nakano, Atsushi; Higo, Shuichiro; Yamazaki, Satoru; Matsuzaki, Takashi; Takafuji, Kazuaki; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Asakura, Masanori; Minamino, Tetsuo; Shintani, Yasunori; Yoshida, Masasuke; Noji, Hiroyuki; Kitakaze, Masafumi; Komuro, Issei; Asano, Yoshihiro; Takashima, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    The oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system generates most of the ATP in respiring cells. ATP-depleting conditions, such as hypoxia, trigger responses that promote ATP production. However, how OXPHOS is regulated during hypoxia has yet to be elucidated. In this study, selective measurement of intramitochondrial ATP levels identified the hypoxia-inducible protein G0/G1 switch gene 2 (G0s2) as a positive regulator of OXPHOS. A mitochondria-targeted, FRET-based ATP biosensor enabled us to assess OXPHOS activity in living cells. Mitochondria-targeted, FRET-based ATP biosensor and ATP production assay in a semiintact cell system revealed that G0s2 increases mitochondrial ATP production. The expression of G0s2 was rapidly and transiently induced by hypoxic stimuli, and G0s2 interacts with OXPHOS complex V (FoF1-ATP synthase). Furthermore, physiological enhancement of G0s2 expression prevented cells from ATP depletion and induced a cellular tolerance for hypoxic stress. These results show that G0s2 positively regulates OXPHOS activity by interacting with FoF1-ATP synthase, which causes an increase in ATP production in response to hypoxic stress and protects cells from a critical energy crisis. These findings contribute to the understanding of a unique stress response to energy depletion. Additionally, this study shows the importance of assessing intramitochondrial ATP levels to evaluate OXPHOS activity in living cells. PMID:24344269

  1. Quantum cosmological Friedman models with a Yang-Mills field and positive energy levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhardt, Claus

    2010-02-01

    We prove the existence of a spectral resolution of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation when the matter field is provided by a Yang-Mills field, with or without mass term, if the spatial geometry of the underlying spacetime is homothetic to {\\bb R}^{3} . The energy levels of the resulting quantum model, i.e. the eigenvalues of the corresponding self-adjoint Hamiltonian with a pure point spectrum, are strictly positive. This work has been supported by the DFG.

  2. Low frequency critical current noise and two level system defects in Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugroho, Christopher Daniel

    The critical current in a Josephson junction is known to exhibit a 1/falpha low frequency noise. Implemented as a superconducting qubit, this low frequency noise can lead to decoherence. While the 1/f noise has been known to arise from an ensemble of two level systems connected to the tunnel barrier, the precise microscopic nature of these TLSs remain a mystery. In this thesis we will present measurements of the 1/f alpha low frequency noise in the critical current and tunneling resistance of Al-AlOx-Al Josephson junctions. Measurements in a wide range of resistively shunted and unshunted junctions confirm the equality of critical current and tunneling resistance noise. That is the critical current fluctuation corresponds to fluctuations of the tunneling resistance. In not too small Al-AlOx-Al junctions we have found that the fractional power spectral density scales linearly with temperature. We confirmed that the 1/falpha power spectrum is the result of a large number of two level systems modulating the tunneling resistance. At small junction areas and low temperatures, the number of thermally active TLSs is insufficient to integrate out a featureless 1/ f spectral shape. By analyzing the spectral variance in small junction areas, we have been able to deduce the TLS defect density, n ≈ 2.53 per micrometer squared per Kelvin spread in the TLS energy per factor e in the TLS lifetimes. This density is consistent with the density of tunneling TLSs found in glassy insulators, as well as the density deduced from coherent TLSs interacting at qubit frequencies. The deduced TLS density combined with the magnitude of the 1/f power spectral density in large area junctions, gives an average TLS effective area, A ˜ 0.3 nanometer squared. In ultra small tunnel junctions, we have studied the time-domain dynamics of isolated TLSs. We have found a TLS whose dynamics is described by the quantum tunneling between the two localized wells, and a one-phonon absorption

  3. Municipal-level responses to household food insecurity in Canada: a call for critical, evaluative research.

    PubMed

    Collins, Patricia A; Power, Elaine M; Little, Margaret H

    2014-04-09

    Household food insecurity (HFI) is a persistent public health problem affecting 3.8 million Canadians. While the causes of HFI are rooted in income insecurity, solutions to HFI have been primarily food-based, with the bulk of activity occurring at the municipal level across Canada. We conceptualize these municipal-level actions as falling within three models: "charitable", "household improvements and supports" and "community food systems". Many initiatives, especially non-charitable ones, generate widespread support, as they aim to increase participants' food security using an empowering and dignified approach. While these initiatives may offer some benefits to their participants, preliminary research suggests that any food-based solution to an income-based problem will have limited reach to food-insecure households and limited impact on participants' experience of HFI. We suspect that widespread support for the local-level food-based approach to HFI has impeded critical judgement of the true potential of these activities to reduce HFI. As these initiatives grow in number across Canada, we are in urgent need of comprehensive and comparative research to evaluate their impact on HFI and to ensure that municipal-level action on HFI is evidence-based.

  4. Dose critical in-vivo detection of anti-cancer drug levels in blood

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Holly H.; Hirschfeld, deceased, Tomas B.

    1991-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for the in vivo and in vitro detection and measurement of dose critical levels of DNA-binding anti-cancer drug levels in biological fluids. The apparatus comprises a laser based fiber optic sensor (optrode) which utilizes the secondary interactions between the drug and an intercalating fluorochrome bound to a probe DNA, which in turn is attached to the fiber tip at one end thereof. The other end of the optical fiber is attached to an illumination source, detector and recorder. The fluorescence intensity is measured as a function of the drug concentration and its binding constant to the probe DNA. Anticancer drugs which lend themselves to analysis by the use of the method and the optrode of the present invention include doxorubicin, daunorubicin, carminomycin, aclacinomycin, chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-uracil, arabinosyl cytosine, mitomycin, cis-platinum 11 diamine dichloride procarbazine, vinblastine vincristine and the like. The present method and device are suitable for the continuous monitoring of the levels of these and other anticancer drugs in biological fluids such as blood, serum, urine and the like. The optrode of the instant invention also enables the measurement of the levels of these drugs from a remote location and from multiple samples.

  5. Testing the Effect of Medical Positive Reinforcement Training on Salivary Cortisol Levels in Bonobos and Orangutans

    PubMed Central

    Behringer, Verena; Stevens, Jeroen M. G.; Hohmann, Gottfried; Möstl, Erich; Selzer, Dieter; Deschner, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The management of captive animals has been improved by the establishment of positive reinforcement training as a tool to facilitate interactions between caretakers and animals. In great apes, positive reinforcement training has also been used to train individuals to participate in simple medical procedures to monitor physical health. One aim of positive reinforcement training is to establish a relaxed atmosphere for situations that, without training, might be very stressful. This is especially true for simple medical procedures that can require animals to engage in behaviours that are unusual or use unfamiliar medical devices that can be upsetting. Therefore, one cannot exclude the possibility that the training itself is a source of stress. In this study, we explored the effects of medical positive reinforcement training on salivary cortisol in two groups of captive ape species, orangutans and bonobos, which were familiar to this procedure. Furthermore, we successfully biologically validated the salivary cortisol assay, which had already been validated for bonobos, for orangutans. For the biological validation, we found that cortisol levels in orangutan saliva collected during baseline conditions were lower than in samples collected during three periods that were potentially stressful for the animals. However, we did not find significant changes in salivary cortisol during medical positive reinforcement training for either bonobos or orangutans. Therefore, for bonobos and orangutans with previous exposure to medical PRT, the procedure is not stressful. Thus, medical PRT provides a helpful tool for the captive management of the two species. PMID:25250566

  6. Testing the effect of medical positive reinforcement training on salivary cortisol levels in bonobos and orangutans.

    PubMed

    Behringer, Verena; Stevens, Jeroen M G; Hohmann, Gottfried; Möstl, Erich; Selzer, Dieter; Deschner, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The management of captive animals has been improved by the establishment of positive reinforcement training as a tool to facilitate interactions between caretakers and animals. In great apes, positive reinforcement training has also been used to train individuals to participate in simple medical procedures to monitor physical health. One aim of positive reinforcement training is to establish a relaxed atmosphere for situations that, without training, might be very stressful. This is especially true for simple medical procedures that can require animals to engage in behaviours that are unusual or use unfamiliar medical devices that can be upsetting. Therefore, one cannot exclude the possibility that the training itself is a source of stress. In this study, we explored the effects of medical positive reinforcement training on salivary cortisol in two groups of captive ape species, orangutans and bonobos, which were familiar to this procedure. Furthermore, we successfully biologically validated the salivary cortisol assay, which had already been validated for bonobos, for orangutans. For the biological validation, we found that cortisol levels in orangutan saliva collected during baseline conditions were lower than in samples collected during three periods that were potentially stressful for the animals. However, we did not find significant changes in salivary cortisol during medical positive reinforcement training for either bonobos or orangutans. Therefore, for bonobos and orangutans with previous exposure to medical PRT, the procedure is not stressful. Thus, medical PRT provides a helpful tool for the captive management of the two species.

  7. Fibrinogen as a therapeutic target for bleeding: a review of critical levels and replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Levy, Jerrold H; Welsby, Ian; Goodnough, Lawrence T

    2014-05-01

    Fibrinogen plays a critical role in achieving and maintaining hemostasis and is fundamental to effective clot formation. There is increasing awareness of the important role of fibrinogen as a key target for the treatment and prevention of acquired bleeding. Fibrinogen is the first coagulation factor to fall to critically low levels (<1.0 g/L) during major hemorrhage (normal plasma fibrinogen levels range from 2.0 to 4.5 g/L), and current guidelines recommend maintaining the plasma fibrinogen level above 1.5 g/L. Fibrinogen supplementation can be achieved using plasma or cryoprecipitate; however, there are a number of safety concerns associated with these allogeneic blood products and there is a lack of high-quality evidence to support their use. Additionally, there is sometimes a long delay associated with the preparation of frozen products for infusion. Fibrinogen concentrate provides a promising alternative to allogeneic blood products and has a number of advantages: it allows a standardized dose of fibrinogen to be rapidly administered in a small volume, has a very good safety profile, and is virally inactivated as standard. Administration of fibrinogen concentrate, often guided by point-of-care viscoelastic testing to allow individualized dosing, has been successfully used as hemostatic therapy in a range of clinical settings, including cardiovascular surgery, postpartum hemorrhage, and trauma. Results show that fibrinogen concentrate is associated with a reduction or even total avoidance of allogeneic blood product transfusion. Fibrinogen concentrate represents an important option for the treatment of coagulopathic bleeding; further studies are needed to determine precise dosing strategies and thresholds for fibrinogen supplementation.

  8. A Critical Compilation of Energy Levels, Spectral Lines, and Transition Probabilities of Singly Ionized Silver, Ag II.

    PubMed

    Kramida, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    All available experimental measurements of the spectrum of the Ag(+) ion are critically reviewed. Systematic shifts are removed from the measured wavelengths. The compiled list of critically evaluated wavelengths is used to derive a comprehensive list of energy levels with well-defined uncertainties. Eigenvector compositions and level designations are found in two alternate coupling schemes. Some of the older work is found to be incorrect. A revised value of the ionization energy, 173283(7) cm(-1), equivalent to 21.4844(8) eV, is derived from the new energy levels. A set of critically evaluated transition probabilities is given.

  9. Investigating students' levels of engagement with mathematics: critical events, motivations, and influences on behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grehan, Martin; Bhaird, Ciarán Mac an; O'Shea, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Universities invest significant resources in the provision of mathematics tuition to first year students, through both traditional and non-traditional means. Research has shown that a significant minority of students do not engage with these resources appropriately. This paper presents findings from a study of two groups of students at Maynooth University. Both groups had similar mathematical backgrounds on entry to university. The first group consisted of seven students who had failed first year mathematics and had very low levels of engagement with available supports. The second group consisted of nine students who had passed first year mathematics and had engaged with the supports to a significant extent. It emerged that while both groups initially displayed similar tactics and encountered similar difficulties, their levels of reaction to a number of critical events in their mathematical education were key to their engagement levels and their subsequent progression. Further analysis revealed aspects of the students' behaviour which caused them to approach or avoid difficulties. The reasons behind the different student behaviours were investigated, and the main categories of influence on student behaviour which emerged from the interview data were fear, social factors, and motivation.

  10. A critical discussion of the benefits of e-health in population-level dental research.

    PubMed

    Lam, Raymond; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Population-level research is an essential area of health with the potential to affect quality of life and the broader economy. There are excellent epidemiological studies that have improved health services, but traditional research requires a considerable investment. Although electronic technology has changed the practice of many industries with improved efficiency, its application to health is relatively new. Termed 'e-health', this emerging area has been defined by the World Health Organization as the use of information technology to support many aspects of health such as in administration and scientific information. However, not all professionals are convinced of its use. This paper presents a novel application of this emerging area to describe the benefit in data collation and research to support one of the most pressing issues in public health: oral health and policy. Using the Chronic Disease Dental Scheme as an example, a critical discussion of its benefit to population-level research is presented. The Chronic Disease Dental Scheme method of electronic administration has been shown to enhance research and to complement existing progress in health data linkage. e-Health is an invaluable tool for population-level dental research.

  11. Cumulative experiences with life adversity: Identifying critical levels for targeting prevention efforts.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Tynes, Brendesha; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Williams, David

    2015-08-01

    This paper aims to assess the role of individual types and cumulative life adversity for understanding depressive symptomatology and aggressive behavior. Data were collected in 2011 as part of the Teen Life Online and in Schools Study from 916 ethnically-diverse students from 12 middle, K-8, 6-12 and high schools in the Midwest United States. Youth reported an average of 4.1 non-victimization adversities and chronic stressors in their lifetimes. There was a linear relationship between number of adversities and depression and aggression scores. Youth reporting the highest number of adversities (7 or more) had significantly higher depression and aggression scores than youth reporting any other number of adversities suggesting exposure at this level is a critical tipping point for mental health concerns. Findings underscore an urgent need to support youth as they attempt to negotiate, manage, and cope with adversity in their social worlds.

  12. Cumulative experiences with life adversity: Identifying critical levels for targeting prevention efforts

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Kimberly J.; Tynes, Brendesha; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Williams, David

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to assess the role of individual types and cumulative life adversity for understanding depressive symptomatology and aggressive behavior. Data were collected in 2011 as part of the Teen Life Online and in Schools Study from 916 ethnically-diverse students from 12 middle, K-8, 6-12 and high schools in the Midwest United States. Youth reported an average of 4.1 non-victimization adversities and chronic stressors in their lifetimes. There was a linear relationship between number of adversities and depression and aggression scores. Youth reporting the highest number of adversities (7 or more) had significantly higher depression and aggression scores than youth reporting any other number of adversities suggesting exposure at this level is a critical tipping point for mental health concerns. Findings underscore an urgent need to support youth as they attempt to negotiate, manage, and cope with adversity in their social worlds. PMID:26057876

  13. Cortisol levels are positively associated with pup-feeding rates in male meerkats.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Anne A; Manser, Marta B; Young, Andrew J; Russell, Andrew F; Jordan, Neil R; McNeilly, Alan S; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2006-03-07

    In societies of cooperative vertebrates, individual differences in contributions to offspring care are commonly substantial. Recent attempts to explain the causes of this variation have focused on correlations between contributions to care and the protein hormone prolactin, or the steroid hormone testosterone. However, such studies have seldom considered the importance of other hormones or controlled for non-hormonal factors that are correlative with both individual hormone levels and contributions to care. Using multivariate statistics, we show that hormone levels explain significant variation in contributions to pup-feeding by male meerkats, even after controlling for non-hormonal effects. However, long-term contributions to pup provisioning were significantly and positively correlated with plasma levels of cortisol rather than prolactin, while plasma levels of testosterone were not related to individual patterns of pup-feeding. Furthermore, a playback experiment that used pup begging calls to increase the feeding rates of male helpers gave rise to parallel increases in plasma cortisol levels, whilst prolactin and testosterone levels remained unchanged. Our findings confirm that hormones can explain significant amounts of variation in contributions to offspring feeding, and that cortisol, not prolactin, is the hormone most strongly associated with pup-feeding in cooperative male meerkats.

  14. A new analysis of hypoxia tolerance in fishes using a database of critical oxygen level (Pcrit)

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Nicholas J.; Urbina, Mauricio A.; Reardon, Erin E.; McKenzie, David J.; Wilson, Rod W.

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia is a common occurrence in aquatic habitats, and it is becoming an increasingly frequent and widespread environmental perturbation, primarily as the result of anthropogenic nutrient enrichment and climate change. An in-depth understanding of the hypoxia tolerance of fishes, and how this varies among individuals and species, is required to make accurate predictions of future ecological impacts and to provide better information for conservation and fisheries management. The critical oxygen level (Pcrit) has been widely used as a quantifiable trait of hypoxia tolerance. It is defined as the oxygen level below which the animal can no longer maintain a stable rate of oxygen uptake (oxyregulate) and uptake becomes dependent on ambient oxygen availability (the animal transitions to oxyconforming). A comprehensive database of Pcrit values, comprising 331 measurements from 96 published studies, covering 151 fish species from 58 families, provides the most extensive and up-to-date analysis of hypoxia tolerance in teleosts. Methodologies for determining Pcrit are critically examined to evaluate its usefulness as an indicator of hypoxia tolerance in fishes. Various abiotic and biotic factors that interact with hypoxia are analysed for their effect on Pcrit, including temperature, CO2, acidification, toxic metals and feeding. Salinity, temperature, body mass and routine metabolic rate were strongly correlated with Pcrit; 20% of variation in the Pcrit data set was explained by these four variables. An important methodological issue not previously considered is the inconsistent increase in partial pressure of CO2 within a closed respirometer during the measurement of Pcrit. Modelling suggests that the final partial pressure of CO2 reached can vary from 650 to 3500 µatm depending on the ambient pH and salinity, with potentially major effects on blood acid–base balance and Pcrit itself. This database will form part of a widely accessible repository of physiological

  15. Plasma zinc alpha2-glycoprotein levels correlate positively with frailty severity in female elders

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ya-Ping; Chang, Chin-Hao; Liu, Heng-Hsiu; Chen, Chin-Ying; Chen, Ching-Yu; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Chang, Ching-I; Lin, Yen-Ting; Lee, Chung-Sheng; Tsai, Jaw-Shiun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Frailty is a geriatric syndrome associated with adiposity. Zinc alpha2-glycoprotein (ZAG), a novel adipokine, is a modulator of body fat mass and positively correlates with age. This observational study aims to investigate the relationship between plasma ZAG levels and frailty in the elderly. We enrolled 189 elder participants from a hospital-based comprehensive geriatric assessment program in Taiwan from January 2007 to June 2008. The demographic data, body weight, body mass index, appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI), body fat mass percentage, metabolic and inflammatory parameters including plasma tumor-necrosis factor alpha, C-reactive protein and ZAG levels, were assessed. The frailty score was assessed by Fried Frailty Index. The mean age of all participants (91 [48.1%] men and 98 [51.9%] women) was 77.19 ± 6.12 years. Judged by the FFI score, 46 (24.34%) elders were robust, 106 (56.08%) were pre-frail, and 37 (19.58%) were frail. Older men showed greater ASMI and lower fat mass percentage in comparison to older women (P < 0.0001). The log-transformed mean plasma ZAG (μg/mL) level of overall was 1.82 ± 0.11, and it was higher in men than in women (1.85 ± 0.12 vs 1.79 ± 0.1, P = 0.0006). Plasma ZAG levels were different among the robust, pre-frail and frail subgroups (1.78 ± 0.09, 1.83 ± 0.12, 1.83 ± 1.10, respectively, P = 0.028), and the differences were more significant in woman elders (P = 0.005). Further multiple linear regression analysis showed plasma ZAG levels positively correlated with frailty severity in women (P for trend = 0.0435). Plasma ZAG levels positively correlated with frailty severity in woman elders. The difference between sexes suggests certain sex-specific mechanisms may exist to affect the association between plasma ZAG levels and frailty. PMID:27583927

  16. The phylogenetic position of the Critically Endangered Saint Croix ground lizard Ameiva polops: revisiting molecular systematics of West Indian Ameiva.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Luis A; Santamaria, Carlos A; Fitzgerald, Lee A

    2014-05-06

    The phylogenetic position of the critically endangered Saint Croix ground lizard Ameiva polops is presently unknown and several hypotheses have been proposed. We investigated the phylogenetic position of this species using molecular phylogenetic methods. We obtained sequences of DNA fragments of the mitochondrial ribosomal genes 12S rDNA and 16S rDNA for this species. We aligned these sequences with published sequences of other Ameiva species, which include most of the Ameiva species from the West Indies, three Ameiva species from Central America and South America, and one from the teiid lizard Tupinambis teguixin, which was used as outgroup. We conducted Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. The phylogenetic reconstructions among the different methods were very similar, supporting the monophyly of West Indian Ameiva and showing within this lineage, a basal polytomy of four clades that are separated geographically. Ameiva polops grouped in a cluster that included the other two Ameiva species found in the Puerto Rican Bank: A. wetmorei and A. exsul. A sister relationship between A. polops and A. wetmorei is suggested by our analyses. We compare our results with a previous study on molecular systematics of West Indian Ameiva. 

  17. Enhanced diffusion of oxygen depending on Fermi level position in heavily boron-doped silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Torigoe, Kazuhisa Fujise, Jun; Ono, Toshiaki; Nakamura, Kozo

    2014-11-21

    The enhanced diffusivity of oxygen in heavily boron doped silicon was obtained by analyzing oxygen out-diffusion profile changes found at the interface between a lightly boron-doped silicon epitaxial layer and a heavily boron-doped silicon substrate by secondary ion mass spectrometry. It was found that the diffusivity is proportional to the square root of boron concentration in the range of 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}–10{sup 19 }cm{sup −3} at temperatures from 750 °C to 950 °C. The model based on the diffusion of oxygen dimers in double positive charge state could explain the enhanced diffusion. We have concluded that oxygen diffusion enhanced in heavily boron-doped silicon is attributed to oxygen dimers ionized depending on Fermi level position.

  18. Morphological characteristics of adult male handball players considering five levels of performance and playing position.

    PubMed

    Massuça, Luís; Fragoso, Isabel

    2015-03-01

    This study aims 1--to describe and compare the anthropometric characteristics of male handball players from different levels of performance, and 2--to identify the morphological variables that allow differentiation of the level of performance for each individual playing position. A total of 212 male handball players (age, 23.6 ± 5.2 years) were included in this study, and divided into five levels of performance for comparison. The playing position of each player was recorded. All participants were tested during the 2008-2009 Portuguese handball season. Twenty-eight anthropometric measures were taken by a group of anthropometrics accredited by International Society of the Advance of Kinanthropometry. Body composition, fat mass and muscle mass were calculated from the equations proposed by Faulkner26, Yuhase28, Durnin and Womersley25, Jackson and Pollock29, Matiegka33, Heymsfield, McManus, Smith, Stevens and Nixon34, Martin, Spenst, Drinkwater and Clarys21, Doupe, Martin, Searle, Kriellaars and Giesbrecht35 and Lee, Wang, Heo, Ross, Janssen and Heymsfield36. The research findings showed that the morphological optimization is important to have success in handball.

  19. Benzo[a]pyrene in urban environments of eastern Moscow: pollution levels and critical loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasimov, Nikolay S.; Kosheleva, Natalia E.; Nikiforova, Elena M.; Vlasov, Dmitry V.

    2017-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), particularly benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), are toxic compounds emitted from various anthropogenic sources. Understanding the BaP concentrations, dynamics and decomposition in soil is required to assess the critical loads of BaP in urban environments. This study is the first attempt to evaluate all major input and output components of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) balance and to calculate the permissible load on the urban environment in different land-use zones in the Eastern district of Moscow. BaP contamination of the snow cover in the Eastern district of Moscow was related to daily BaP fallout from the atmosphere. In 2010, the mean content of the pollutant in the snow dust was 1942 ng g-1, whereas the average intensity of its fallout was 7.13 ng m-2 per day. Across the territory, BaP winter fallout intensities varied from 0.3 to 1100 ng m-2 per day. The average BaP content in the surface (0-10 cm) soil horizons was 409 ng g-1, which is 83 times higher than the local background value and 20 times higher than the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) accepted in Russia. The variations in soil and snow BaP concentrations among different land-use zones were examined. A significant contribution of BaP from the atmosphere to urban soils was identified. Based on the measurements of BaP atmospheric fallout and BaP reserves in the soils, the critical loads of BaP for the land-use zones in the Eastern district were calculated for different values of degradation intensity and different exposure times. It was established that at an annual degradation intensity of 1-10 %, ecologically safe BaP levels in the soils of all land-use zones, excluding the agricultural zone, will only be reached after many decades or centuries.

  20. Disparities in Children's Blood Lead and Mercury Levels According to Community and Individual Socioeconomic Positions.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sinye; Ha, Mina; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Son, Mia; Kwon, Ho-Jang

    2015-05-29

    We aimed to examine the associations between blood lead and mercury levels and individual and community level socioeconomic positions (SEPs) in school-aged children. A longitudinal cohort study was performed in 33 elementary schools in 10 cities in Korea. Among a total of 6094 children included at baseline, the final study population, 2281 children followed-up biennially, were analyzed. The geometric mean (GM) levels of blood lead were 1.73 μg/dL (range 0.02-9.26) and 1.56 μg/dL (range 0.02-6.83) for male and female children, respectively. The blood lead levels were significantly higher in males, children living in rural areas, and those with lower individual SEP. The GM levels of blood mercury were 2.07 μg/L (range 0.09-12.67) and 2.06 μg/L (range 0.03-11.74) for males and females, respectively. Increased blood mercury levels were significantly associated with urban areas, higher individual SEP, and more deprived communities. The risk of high blood lead level was significantly higher for the lower individual SEP (odds ratio (OR) 2.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.36-3.50 in the lowest educational attainment of the father), with a significant dose-response relationship observed after adjusting for the community SEP. The association between high blood lead levels and lower individual SEP was much stronger in the more deprived communities (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.27-6.53) than in the less deprived communities (OR 1.40, 95% CI 0.76-2.59), and showed a significant decreasing trend during the follow-up only in the less deprived communities. The risk of high blood mercury levels was higher in higher individual SEP (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.40-1.03 in the lowest educational attainment of the father), with a significant dose-response relationship noted. Significant decreasing trends were observed during the follow-up both in the less and more deprived communities. From a public health point-of-view, community level intervention with different approaches for different metals is

  1. Millimetre Level Accuracy GNSS Positioning with the Blind Adaptive Beamforming Method in Interference Environments.

    PubMed

    Daneshmand, Saeed; Marathe, Thyagaraja; Lachapelle, Gérard

    2016-10-31

    The use of antenna arrays in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) applications is gaining significant attention due to its superior capability to suppress both narrowband and wideband interference. However, the phase distortions resulting from array processing may limit the applicability of these methods for high precision applications using carrier phase based positioning techniques. This paper studies the phase distortions occurring with the adaptive blind beamforming method in which satellite angle of arrival (AoA) information is not employed in the optimization problem. To cater to non-stationary interference scenarios, the array weights of the adaptive beamformer are continuously updated. The effects of these continuous updates on the tracking parameters of a GNSS receiver are analyzed. The second part of this paper focuses on reducing the phase distortions during the blind beamforming process in order to allow the receiver to perform carrier phase based positioning by applying a constraint on the structure of the array configuration and by compensating the array uncertainties. Limitations of the previous methods are studied and a new method is proposed that keeps the simplicity of the blind beamformer structure and, at the same time, reduces tracking degradations while achieving millimetre level positioning accuracy in interference environments. To verify the applicability of the proposed method and analyze the degradations, array signals corresponding to the GPS L1 band are generated using a combination of hardware and software simulators. Furthermore, the amount of degradation and performance of the proposed method under different conditions are evaluated based on Monte Carlo simulations.

  2. Millimetre Level Accuracy GNSS Positioning with the Blind Adaptive Beamforming Method in Interference Environments

    PubMed Central

    Daneshmand, Saeed; Marathe, Thyagaraja; Lachapelle, Gérard

    2016-01-01

    The use of antenna arrays in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) applications is gaining significant attention due to its superior capability to suppress both narrowband and wideband interference. However, the phase distortions resulting from array processing may limit the applicability of these methods for high precision applications using carrier phase based positioning techniques. This paper studies the phase distortions occurring with the adaptive blind beamforming method in which satellite angle of arrival (AoA) information is not employed in the optimization problem. To cater to non-stationary interference scenarios, the array weights of the adaptive beamformer are continuously updated. The effects of these continuous updates on the tracking parameters of a GNSS receiver are analyzed. The second part of this paper focuses on reducing the phase distortions during the blind beamforming process in order to allow the receiver to perform carrier phase based positioning by applying a constraint on the structure of the array configuration and by compensating the array uncertainties. Limitations of the previous methods are studied and a new method is proposed that keeps the simplicity of the blind beamformer structure and, at the same time, reduces tracking degradations while achieving millimetre level positioning accuracy in interference environments. To verify the applicability of the proposed method and analyze the degradations, array signals corresponding to the GPS L1 band are generated using a combination of hardware and software simulators. Furthermore, the amount of degradation and performance of the proposed method under different conditions are evaluated based on Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:27809252

  3. Effective population size is positively correlated with levels of adaptive divergence among annual sunflowers.

    PubMed

    Strasburg, Jared L; Kane, Nolan C; Raduski, Andrew R; Bonin, Aurélie; Michelmore, Richard; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2011-05-01

    The role of adaptation in the divergence of lineages has long been a central question in evolutionary biology, and as multilocus sequence data sets have become available for a wide range of taxa, empirical estimates of levels of adaptive molecular evolution are increasingly common. Estimates vary widely among taxa, with high levels of adaptive evolution in Drosophila, bacteria, and viruses but very little evidence of widespread adaptive evolution in hominids. Although estimates in plants are more limited, some recent work has suggested that rates of adaptive evolution in a range of plant taxa are surprisingly low and that there is little association between adaptive evolution and effective population size in contrast to patterns seen in other taxa. Here, we analyze data from 35 loci for six sunflower species that vary dramatically in effective population size. We find that rates of adaptive evolution are positively correlated with effective population size in these species, with a significant fraction of amino acid substitutions driven by positive selection in the species with the largest effective population sizes but little or no evidence of adaptive evolution in species with smaller effective population sizes. Although other factors likely contribute as well, in sunflowers effective population size appears to be an important determinant of rates of adaptive evolution.

  4. ErbB4 in parvalbumin-positive interneurons is critical for neuregulin 1 regulation of long-term potentiation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong-Jun; Zhang, Meng; Yin, Dong-Min; Wen, Lei; Ting, Annie; Wang, Pu; Lu, Yi-Sheng; Zhu, Xin-Hong; Li, Shu-Ji; Wu, Cui-Ying; Wang, Xue-Ming; Lai, Cary; Xiong, Wen-Cheng; Mei, Lin; Gao, Tian-Ming

    2010-12-14

    Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) is a trophic factor that acts by stimulating ErbB receptor tyrosine kinases and has been implicated in neural development and synaptic plasticity. In this study, we investigated mechanisms of its suppression of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus. We found that NRG1 did not alter glutamatergic transmission at SC-CA1 synapses but increased the GABA(A) receptor-mediated synaptic currents in CA1 pyramidal cells via a presynaptic mechanism. Inhibition of GABA(A) receptors blocked the suppressing effect of NRG1 on LTP and prevented ecto-ErbB4 from enhancing LTP, implicating a role of GABAergic transmission. To test this hypothesis further, we generated parvalbumin (PV)-Cre;ErbB4(-/-) mice in which ErbB4, an NRG1 receptor in the brain, is ablated specifically in PV-positive interneurons. NRG1 was no longer able to increase inhibitory postsynaptic currents and to suppress LTP in PV-Cre;ErbB4(-/-) hippocampus. Accordingly, contextual fear conditioning, a hippocampus-dependent test, was impaired in PV-Cre;ErbB4(-/-) mice. In contrast, ablation of ErbB4 in pyramidal neurons had no effect on NRG1 regulation of hippocampal LTP or contextual fear conditioning. These results demonstrate a critical role of ErbB4 in PV-positive interneurons but not in pyramidal neurons in synaptic plasticity and support a working model that NRG1 suppresses LTP by enhancing GABA release. Considering that NRG1 and ErbB4 are susceptibility genes of schizophrenia, these observations contribute to a better understanding of how abnormal NRG1/ErbB4 signaling may be involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.

  5. Expansion of PD-1-positive effector CD4 T cells in an experimental model of SLE: contribution to the self-organized criticality theory.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Yumi; Tsumiyama, Ken; Yamane, Takashi; Ito, Mitsuhiro; Shiozawa, Shunichi

    2013-04-18

    We have developed a systems biology concept to explain the origin of systemic autoimmunity. From our studies of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) we have concluded that this disease is the inevitable consequence of over-stimulating the host's immune system by repeated exposure to antigen to levels that surpass a critical threshold, which we term the system's "self-organized criticality". We observed that overstimulation of CD4 T cells in mice led to the development of autoantibody-inducing CD4 T cells (aiCD4 T) capable of generating various autoantibodies and pathological lesions identical to those observed in SLE. We show here that this is accompanied by the significant expansion of a novel population of effector T cells characterized by expression of programmed death-1 (PD-1)-positive, CD27(low), CD127(low), CCR7(low) and CD44(high)CD62L(low) markers, as well as increased production of IL-2 and IL-6. In addition, repeated immunization caused the expansion of CD8 T cells into fully-matured cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) that express Ly6C(high)CD122(high) effector and memory markers. Thus, overstimulation with antigen leads to the expansion of a novel effector CD4 T cell population that expresses an unusual memory marker, PD-1, and that may contribute to the pathogenesis of SLE.

  6. Developing ozone critical levels for multi-species canopies of Mediterranean annual pastures.

    PubMed

    Calvete-Sogo, H; González-Fernández, I; García-Gómez, H; Alonso, R; Elvira, S; Sanz, J; Bermejo-Bermejo, V

    2017-01-01

    Ozone (O3) critical levels (CLe) are still poorly developed for herbaceous vegetation. They are currently based on single species responses which do not reflect the multi-species nature of semi-natural vegetation communities. Also, the potential effects of other factors like the nitrogen (N) input are not considered in their derivation, making their use uncertain under natural conditions. Exposure- and dose-response relationships were derived from two open-top chamber experiments exposing a mixture of 6 representative annual Mediterranean pasture species growing in natural soil to 4 O3 fumigation levels and 3 N inputs. The Deposition of O3 and Stomatal Exchange model (DO3SE) was modified to account for the multi-species nature of the canopy following a big-leaf approach. This new approach was used for estimating a multi-species phytotoxic O3 dose (PODy-MS). Response relationships were derived based on O3 exposure (AOT40) and flux (PODy-MS) indices. The treatment effects were similar in the two seasons: O3 reduced the aboveground biomass growth and N modulated this response. Gas exchange rates presented a high inter-specific variability and important inter-annual fluctuations as a result of varying growing conditions during the two years. The AOT40-based relationships were not statistically significant except when the highest N input was considered alone. In contrast, PODy-MS relationships were all significant but for the lowest N input level. The influence of the N input on the exposure- and dose-response relationships implies that N can modify the O3 CLe. However, this is an aspect that has not been considered so far in the methodologies for establishing O3 CLe. Averaging across N input levels, a multi-species O3 CLe (CLef-MS) is proposed POD1-MS = 7.9 mmol m(-2), accumulated over 1.5 month with a 95% confidence interval of (5.9, 9.8). Further efforts will be needed for comparing the CLef-MS with current O3 CLef based on single species responses.

  7. Setting ozone critical levels for protecting horticultural Mediterranean crops: case study of tomato.

    PubMed

    González-Fernández, I; Calvo, E; Gerosa, G; Bermejo, V; Marzuoli, R; Calatayud, V; Alonso, R

    2014-02-01

    Seven experiments carried out in Italy and Spain have been used to parameterising a stomatal conductance model and establishing exposure- and dose-response relationships for yield and quality of tomato with the main goal of setting O3 critical levels (CLe). CLe with confidence intervals, between brackets, were set at an accumulated hourly O3 exposure over 40 nl l(-1), AOT40 = 8.4 (1.2, 15.6) ppm h and a phytotoxic ozone dose above a threshold of 6 nmol m(-2) s(-1), POD6 = 2.7 (0.8, 4.6) mmol m(-2) for yield and AOT40 = 18.7 (8.5, 28.8) ppm h and POD6 = 4.1 (2.0, 6.2) mmol m(-2) for quality, both indices performing equally well. CLe confidence intervals provide information on the quality of the dataset and should be included in future calculations of O3 CLe for improving current methodologies. These CLe, derived for sensitive tomato cultivars, should not be applied for quantifying O3-induced losses at the risk of making important overestimations of the economical losses associated with O3 pollution.

  8. Landscape level assessment of critically endangered vegetation of Lakshadweep islands using geo-spatial techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, C. Sudhakar; Debnath, Bijan; Krishna, P. Hari; Jha, C. S.

    2013-04-01

    The conservation of biodiversity is essential for human survival and quality of the environment. Lakshadweep islands are vulnerable to global change and the representing remnant natural vegetation. Landscape fragmentation, disturbance regimes and biological richness have been studied using geo-spatial techniques. Littoral vegetation is the only natural vegetation type of Lakshadweep islands. Altogether 59 patches of the littoral vegetation occupying an area of 137.2 ha were identified. 58.06% of the littoral vegetation patches belongs to the patch-size class of <5 ha. The remnant natural vegetation surviving with patches of less than 20 ha size indicates severe anthropogenic pressure. The fragmentation of littoral vegetation habitat into smaller isolated patches poses one of the key threats to biodiversity and coastal environment. Phytosociological observations revealed distinct plant communities and presence of invasive species in littoral vegetation. The high disturbance areas accounted for 59.11% area of the total vegetation. The overall spatial distribution of biological richness (BR) in Lakshadweep shows maximum BR at low level (78%), followed by medium (19%), high (2%) and very high (1%). The study emphasises the importance of conserving the remnant natural vegetation, which is critically endangered.

  9. The Effect of Relaxation Interventions on Cortisol Levels in HIV-Sero-Positive Women

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Deborah; Owens, Mary; Kumar, Mahendra; Cook, Ryan; Weiss, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, assessed in terms of cortisol levels, may enhance the ability of HIV to infect lymphocytes and downregulate the immune system, accelerating disease progression. This study sought to determine the effects of relaxation techniques on cortisol levels in HIV-sero-positive women. Methods Women (n = 150) were randomized to a group cognitive–behavioral stress management (CBSM) condition or an individual information condition and underwent 3 types of relaxation training (progressive muscle relaxation, imagery, and autogenic training). Cortisol levels were obtained pre- and postrelaxation. Results Guided imagery was effective in reducing cortisol in the group condition (t = 3.90, P < .001), and muscle relaxation reduced cortisol in the individual condition (t = 3.11, P = .012). Among participants in the group condition attending all sessions, the magnitude of pre- to postsession reduction became greater over time. Conclusions Results suggest that specific relaxation techniques may be partially responsible for cortisol decreases associated with relaxation and CBSM. PMID:23715264

  10. Head Strap Double Fluid Level Device: An Innovative and User Friendly Design to Record Natural Head Position (NHP)

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Nidhin Philip; Shetty, Siddarth

    2015-01-01

    Head positions can be oriented in a standardized position when the patient stands upright and focusses his/her eyes into a point in infinity. This is the natural head position. This position offers the maximum reproducibility and correlates well with the clinical picture offered to the diagnostician. This article describes an innovative and user friendly method to record natural head position using the head strap double fluid level device, a design modified from the popular fluid level device by Showfety, Vig and Matteson. PMID:25738103

  11. Low baseline levels of NK cells may predict a positive response to ipilimumab in melanoma therapy.

    PubMed

    Tietze, Julia K; Angelova, Daniela; Heppt, Markus V; Ruzicka, Thomas; Berking, Carola

    2016-11-28

    The introduction of immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) has been a breakthrough in the therapy of metastatic melanoma. The influence of ICB on T-cell populations has been studied extensively, but little is known about the effect on NK cells. In this study, we analysed the relative and absolute amounts of NK cells and of the subpopulations of CD56(dim) and CD56(bright) NK cells among the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 32 patients with metastatic melanoma before and under treatment with ipilimumab or pembrolizumab by flow cytometry. In 15 (47%) patients, an abnormal low amount of NK cells was found at baseline. Analysis of the subpopulations showed also low or normal baseline levels for CD56(dim) NK cells, whereas the baseline levels of CD56(bright) NK cells were either normal or abnormally high. The relative and absolute amounts of NK cells and of CD56(dim) and CD56(bright) NK cell subpopulations in patients with a normal baseline did not change under treatment. However, patients with a low baseline of NK cells and CD56(dim) NK cells showed a significant increase in these immune cell subsets, but the amounts remained to be lower than the normal baseline. The amount of CD56(bright) NK cells was unaffected by treatment. The baseline levels of NK cells were correlated with the number of metastatic organs. Their proportion increased, whereas the expression of NKG2D decreased significantly when more than one organ was affected by metastases. Low baseline levels of NK cells and CD56(dim) NK cells as well as normal baseline levels of CD56(bright) NK cells correlated significantly with a positive response to ipilimumab but not to pembrolizumab. Survival curves of patients with low amounts of CD56(dim) NK cells treated with ipilimumab showed a trend to longer survival. Normal baseline levels of CD56(bright) NK cells were significantly correlated with longer survival as compared to patients with high baseline levels. In conclusion, analysis of the amounts of total

  12. Physiologic performance test differences in female volleyball athletes by competition level and player position.

    PubMed

    Schaal, Monique; Ransdell, Lynda B; Simonson, Shawn R; Gao, Yong

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine physiologic performance test differences by competition level (high school and Division-I collegiate athletes) and player position (hitter, setter, defensive specialist) in 4 volleyball-related tests. A secondary purpose was to establish whether a 150-yd shuttle could be used as a field test to assess anaerobic capacity. Female participants from 4 varsity high school volleyball teams (n = 27) and 2 Division-I collegiate volleyball teams (n = 26) were recruited for the study. Participants completed 4 performance-based field tests (vertical jump, agility T-test, and 150- and 300-yd shuttle runs) after completing a standardized dynamic warm-up. A 2-way multivariate analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc adjustments (when appropriate) and effect sizes were used for the analyses. The most important findings of this study were that (a) college volleyball athletes were older, heavier, and taller than high school athletes; (b) high school athletes had performance deficiencies in vertical jump/lower-body power, agility, and anaerobic fitness; (c) lower-body power was the only statistically significant difference in the performance test measures by player position; and (d) the correlation between the 150- and 300-yd shuttle was moderate (r = 0.488). Female high school volleyball players may enhance their ability to play collegiate volleyball by improving their vertical jump, lower-body power, agility, and anaerobic fitness. Furthermore, all player positions should emphasize lower-body power conditioning. These physical test scores provide baseline performance scores that should help strength and conditioning coaches create programs that will address deficits in female volleyball player performance, especially as they transition from high school to college.

  13. The Regression Level of Constructivist Learning Environment Characteristics on Classroom Environment Characteristics Supporting Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunca, Nihal

    2015-01-01

    Problem Statement: One of the main aims of constructivism is to improve critical thinking skills/tendencies via experiences. In this sense, it is believed that the more the constructivist-learning environment is improved, the more the appropriateness of supporting critical thinking is improved. However, no study has yet statistically tested this…

  14. An Analysis of the Critical Reading Levels of Pre-Service Turkish and Literature Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maltepe, Sadet

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Critical reading refers to individuals' thinking about what they read, assessing what they have read, and using their own judgment about what they have read. In order to teach critical reading skills to students, a teacher is expected to have knowledge about text selection, use of appropriate methods, preparation of functional…

  15. Prevalence and consequences of positive blood alcohol levels among patients injured at work

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Caitlin A.; Dissanaike, Sharmila D.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to characterize positive blood alcohol among patients injured at work, and to compare the severity of injury and outcome of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) positive and negative patients. Settings and Design: A retrospective cohort study was performed at a Level 1 academic trauma center. Patients injured at work between 01/01/07 and 01/01/12 and admitted with positive (BAC+) vs negative (BAC−) blood alcohol were compared using bivariate analysis. Results: Out of 823, 319 subjects were tested for BAC (38.8%), of whom 37 were BAC+ (mean 0.151 g/dL, range 0.015-0.371 g/dL). Age (41 years), sex (97.2% men), race, intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital length of stay (LOS), and mortality were similar between groups. Nearly half of BAC+ cases were farming injuries (18, 48.6%): Eight involved livestock, five involved all-terrain vehicles (ATVs), three involved heavy equipment, one fell, and one had a firearm injury. Eight (21.6%) were construction site injuries involving falls from a roof or scaffolding, five (13.5%) were semi-truck collisions, four (10.8%) involved falls from a vehicle in various settings, and two (5.4%) were crush injuries at an oilfield. BAC+ subjects were less likely to be injured in construction sites and oilfields, including vehicle-related falls (2.3 vs 33.9%, P < 0.0001). Over half of BAC+ (n = 20, 54%) subjects were alcohol dependent; three (8.1%) also tested positive for cocaine on admission. No BAC+ subjects were admitted to rehabilitation compared to 33 (11.7%) of BAC− subjects. Workers’ compensation covered a significantly smaller proportion of BAC+ patients (16.2 vs 61.0%, P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Alcohol use in the workplace is more prevalent than commonly suspected, especially in farming and other less regulated industries. BAC+ is associated with less insurance coverage, which probably affects resources available for post-discharge rehabilitation and hospital reimbursement. PMID:25400387

  16. DasR positively controls monensin production at two-level regulation in Streptomyces cinnamonensis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Lin, Chun-Yan; Li, Xiao-Mei; Tang, Zheng-Kun; Qiao, Jianjun; Zhao, Guang-Rong

    2016-12-01

    The polyether ionophore antibiotic monensin is produced by Streptomyces cinnamonensis and is used as a coccidiostat for chickens and growth-promoting agent for cattle. Monensin biosynthetic gene cluster has been cloned and partially characterized. The GntR-family transcription factor DasR regulates antibiotic production and morphological development in Streptomyces coelicolor and Saccharopolyspora erythraea. In this study, we identified and characterized the two-level regulatory cascade of DasR to monensin production in S. cinnamonensis. Forward and reverse genetics by overexpression and antisense RNA silence of dasR revealed that DasR positively controls monensin production under nutrient-rich condition. Electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that DasR protein specifically binds to the promoter regions of both pathway-specific regulatory gene monRII and biosynthetic genes monAIX, monE and monT. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR further confirmed that DasR upregulates the transcriptional levels of these genes during monensin fermentation. Subsequently, co-overexpressed dasR with pathway-specific regulatory genes monRI, monRII or monH greatly improved monensin production.

  17. Reef Fishes at All Trophic Levels Respond Positively to Effective Marine Protected Areas.

    PubMed

    Soler, German A; Edgar, Graham J; Thomson, Russell J; Kininmonth, Stuart; Campbell, Stuart J; Dawson, Terence P; Barrett, Neville S; Bernard, Anthony T F; Galván, David E; Willis, Trevor J; Alexander, Timothy J; Stuart-Smith, Rick D

    2015-01-01

    Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) offer a unique opportunity to test the assumption that fishing pressure affects some trophic groups more than others. Removal of larger predators through fishing is often suggested to have positive flow-on effects for some lower trophic groups, in which case protection from fishing should result in suppression of lower trophic groups as predator populations recover. We tested this by assessing differences in the trophic structure of reef fish communities associated with 79 MPAs and open-access sites worldwide, using a standardised quantitative dataset on reef fish community structure. The biomass of all major trophic groups (higher carnivores, benthic carnivores, planktivores and herbivores) was significantly greater (by 40% - 200%) in effective no-take MPAs relative to fished open-access areas. This effect was most pronounced for individuals in large size classes, but with no size class of any trophic group showing signs of depressed biomass in MPAs, as predicted from higher predator abundance. Thus, greater biomass in effective MPAs implies that exploitation on shallow rocky and coral reefs negatively affects biomass of all fish trophic groups and size classes. These direct effects of fishing on trophic structure appear stronger than any top down effects on lower trophic levels that would be imposed by intact predator populations. We propose that exploitation affects fish assemblages at all trophic levels, and that local ecosystem function is generally modified by fishing.

  18. The Australasian Radiation Protection Society's position statement on risks from low levels of ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Higson, Donald

    2007-09-30

    Controversy continues on whether or not ionizing radiation is harmful at low doses, with unresolved scientific uncertainty about effects below a few tens of millisieverts. To settle what regulatory controls should apply in this dose region, an assumption has to be made relating dose to the possibility of harm or benefit. The position of the Australasian Radiation Protection Society on this matter is set out in a statement adopted by the Society in 2005. Its salient features are: --There is insufficient evidence to establish a dose-effect relationship for doses that are less than a few tens of millisieverts in a year. A linear extrapolation from higher dose levels should be assumed only for the purpose of applying regulatory controls.--Estimates of collective dose arising from individual doses that are less than some tens of millisieverts in a year should not be used to predict numbers of fatal cancers. --The risk to an individual of doses significantly less than 100 microsieverts in a year is so small, if it exists at all, that regulatory requirements to control exposure at this level are not warranted.

  19. Reef Fishes at All Trophic Levels Respond Positively to Effective Marine Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Soler, German A.; Edgar, Graham J.; Thomson, Russell J.; Kininmonth, Stuart; Campbell, Stuart J.; Dawson, Terence P.; Barrett, Neville S.; Bernard, Anthony T. F.; Galván, David E.; Willis, Trevor J.; Alexander, Timothy J.; Stuart-Smith, Rick D.

    2015-01-01

    Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) offer a unique opportunity to test the assumption that fishing pressure affects some trophic groups more than others. Removal of larger predators through fishing is often suggested to have positive flow-on effects for some lower trophic groups, in which case protection from fishing should result in suppression of lower trophic groups as predator populations recover. We tested this by assessing differences in the trophic structure of reef fish communities associated with 79 MPAs and open-access sites worldwide, using a standardised quantitative dataset on reef fish community structure. The biomass of all major trophic groups (higher carnivores, benthic carnivores, planktivores and herbivores) was significantly greater (by 40% - 200%) in effective no-take MPAs relative to fished open-access areas. This effect was most pronounced for individuals in large size classes, but with no size class of any trophic group showing signs of depressed biomass in MPAs, as predicted from higher predator abundance. Thus, greater biomass in effective MPAs implies that exploitation on shallow rocky and coral reefs negatively affects biomass of all fish trophic groups and size classes. These direct effects of fishing on trophic structure appear stronger than any top down effects on lower trophic levels that would be imposed by intact predator populations. We propose that exploitation affects fish assemblages at all trophic levels, and that local ecosystem function is generally modified by fishing. PMID:26461104

  20. Positive reinforcement training moderates only high levels of abnormal behavior in singly housed rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Baker, Kate C; Bloomsmith, Mollie; Neu, Kimberly; Griffis, Caroline; Maloney, Margaret; Oettinger, Brooke; Schoof, Valerie A M; Martinez, Marni

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the application of positive reinforcement training (PRT) as an intervention for abnormal behaviors in singly housed laboratory rhesus macaques at 2 large primate facilities. Training involved basic control behaviors and body-part presentation. The study compared baseline behavioral data on 30 adult males and 33 adult females compared with 3 treatment phases presented in counterbalanced order: 6 min per week of PRT, 20 or 40 min per week of PRT, and 6 min per week of unstructured human interaction (HI). Within-subject parametric tests detected no main or interaction effects involving experimental phase. However, among a subset of subjects with levels of abnormal in the top quartile of the range (n = 15), abnormal behavior was reduced from 35% to 25% of samples with PRT but not with HI. These results suggest that short durations of PRT applied as enrichment for this species and in this context may not in itself be sufficient intervention for abnormal behavior because levels remained high. However, it may be appropriate as an adjunct to other interventions and may be best targeted to the most severely affected individuals.

  1. Positive Reinforcement Training Moderates Only High Levels of Abnormal Behavior in Singly Housed Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Kate C.; Bloomsmith, Mollie; Neu, Kimberly; Griffis, Caroline; Maloney, Margaret; Oettinger, Brooke; Schoof, Valérie A. M.; Martinez, Marni

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the application of positive reinforcement training (PRT) as an intervention for abnormal behaviors in singly housed laboratory rhesus macaques at 2 large primate facilities. Training involved basic control behaviors and body-part presentation. The study compared baseline behavioral data on 30 adult males and 33 adult females compared with 3 treatment phases presented in counterbalanced order: 6 min per week of PRT, 20 or 40 min per week of PRT, and 6 min per week of unstructured human interaction (HI). Within-subject parametric tests detected no main or interaction effects involving experimental phase. However, among a subset of subjects with levels of abnormal in the top quartile of the range (n = 15), abnormal behavior was reduced from 35% to 25% of samples with PRT but not with HI. These results suggest that short durations of PRT applied as enrichment for this species and in this context may not in itself be sufficient intervention for abnormal behavior because levels remained high. However, it may be appropriate as an adjunct to other interventions and may be best targeted to the most severely affected individuals. PMID:20183477

  2. Electrical Stimulation in Bone Healing: Critical Analysis by Evaluating Levels of Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Michelle; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Direct current, capacitive coupling, and inductive coupling are modes of electrical stimulation (ES) used to enhance bone healing. It is important to assess the effectiveness of ES for bone healing to ensure optimization for clinical practice. This review aims to examine the level of evidence (LOE) for the application of ES to enhance bone healing and investigate the proposed mechanism for its stimulatory effect. Methods: MEDLINE and EMBASE searches were conducted to identify clinical and in vitro studies utilizing ES for bone healing since 1959. A total of 105 clinical studies and 35 in vitro studies were evaluated. Clinical studies were assigned LOE according to Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine (LOE-1, highest; LOE-5, lowest). Results: Direct current was found to be effective in enhancing bone healing in spinal fusion but only LOE-4 supported its use for nonunions. Eleven studies were retrieved for capacitive coupling with LOE-1 demonstrating its effectiveness for treating nonunions. The majority of studies utilized inductive coupling with LOE-1 supporting its application for healing osteotomies and nonunions. In vitro studies demonstrate that ES enhances bone healing by changes in growth factors and transmembrane signaling although no clear mechanism has been defined. Conclusion: Overall, the studies, although in favor of ES application in bone repair, displayed variability in treatment regime, primary outcome measures, follow-up times, and study design, making critical evaluation and assessment difficult. Electrical stimulation shows promise in enhancement of bone healing; however, better-designed clinical studies will enable the optimization for clinical practice. PMID:21847434

  3. Neurofilaments form a Highly Stable Stationary Cytoskeleton After Reaching a Critical Level in Axons

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Aidong; Sasaki, Takahiro; Rao, Mala V.; Kumar, Asok; Kanumuri, Vivek; Dunlop, David S.; Liem, Ronald K.; Nixon, Ralph A.

    2009-01-01

    The ultrastructural view of the axonal cytoskeleton as an extensively crosslinked network of neurofilaments (NFs) and other cytoskeletal polymers contrasts with the dynamic view suggested by axonal transport studies on cytoskeletal elements. Here we reconcile these perspectives by showing that neurons form a large NF network along axons which is unequivocally stationary, metabolically stable, and maintained by NFs and non-filamentous subunit assemblies undergoing slow transport by intermittent rapid movements and pauses. In mouse primary cortical neurons transfected with EGFP-NFL, formation of this stationary NF network requires a critical level of NFs, which explains its absence in NF-poor developing neurons studied previously. Most NFs at proximal axon regions were in a stationary structure coexisting with a smaller pool of moving EGFP-NFL assemblies that were mainly non-filamentous. Distally along the same axon, EGFP-labeled NFL was much less abundant and we detected only short filaments moving bidirectionally by slow transport (rapid movements and pauses) as previously described. In living mice, >25% of radiolabeled newly synthesized NFs remained in optic axons after slowly transport NFs had exited. Retained NF remained fixed over several months in a non-uniform distribution and exhibited exceptionally slow turnover (t 1/2 > 2.5 months), implying that, at steady state, >90% of NFs in mature optic axons comprise the stationary cytoskeleton and <10% are undergoing slow transport. These findings reconcile in vitro and in vivo axonal transport observations, showing that slowly transport NFs or subunit oligomers are precursors to a highly stable stationary cytoskeletal network that supports mature axons. PMID:19741138

  4. Cord Blood Irisin Levels are Positively Correlated with Birth Weight in Newborn Infants

    PubMed Central

    Joung, Kyoung Eun; Park, Kyung-Hee; Filippiaos, Andreas; Dincer, Fadime; Christou, Helen; Mantzoros, Christos S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Irisin is a novel myokine, secreted from skeletal muscle after exercise. Irisin mediates exercise-related energy expenditure by turning white adipose tissue (WAT) into brown adipose tissue (BAT). Thus, irisin is considered as a potential biomarker for obesity and metabolic syndrome. Infants born small for gestational age (SGA) have increased risk for metabolic syndrome. However, the physiologic role of irisin in neonates remains to be studied. Objective To evaluate the association of umbilical cord blood irisin levels with gestational age and birth weight categories in neonates. Methods A cross-sectional study of 341 newborns, from 26 to 41 weeks' gestation. We collected umbilical cord blood and analyzed plasma for irisin by ELISA. Results Plasma irisin levels were positively correlated with gestational age (r=0.21, p<0.001), and birth weight Z-score (r=0.18, p<0.001). SGA infants had significantly lower irisin (median [interquartile range] 55.38 [46.56 - 65.72] ng/mL) compared to appropriate for gestational age infants (64.41 [53.87 - 76.76] ng/mL) and large for gestational age infants (68.70 [54.78 - 79.09] ng/mL, p<0.01). The association between SGA and lower irisin remained significant in multivariate analysis independent of gestational age, maternal age, maternal BMI, and gestational diabetes (p=0.03). In singleton infants, irisin was also significantly negatively associated with maternal preeclampsia (p=0.01). Conclusions Our results support the notion that irisin may have a physiologic role in neonates. We speculate that decreased levels of irisin in SGA infants may contribute to the development of catch up growth and metabolic syndrome later in life. PMID:26303870

  5. Enhanced critical currents in (Gd,Y)Ba2Cu3Ox superconducting tapes with high levels of Zr addition

    SciTech Connect

    Selvamanickam, V; Chen, Y; Shi, T; Liu, Y; Khatri, ND; Liu, J; Yao, Y; Xiong, X; Lei, C; Soloveichik, S; Galstyan, E; Majkic, G

    2013-01-21

    The critical current and structural properties of (Gd,Y)BaCuO tapes made by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) with Zr addition levels up to 30 at.% have been investigated. The reduction in critical current beyond the previously optimized Zr addition level of 7.5 at.% was found to be due to structural deterioration of the (Gd,Y)Ba2Cu3Ox film. By a modified MOCVD process,enhanced critical current densities have been achieved with high levels of Zr addition,including 3.83 MA cm(-2) in 15 at.% Zr- added 1.1 mu m thick film at 77 K in zero magnetic field. Critical currents as high as 1072 A/ 12 mm have been reached in (Gd,Y) BaCuO tapes with 15 at.% Zr addition at 30 K in a field of 3 T applied perpendicular to the tape,corresponding to a pinning force value of 268 GN m(-3). The enhanced critical currents achievable with a high density of nanoscale defects by employing high levels of second- phase additions enable the performance targets needed for the use of HTS tapes in coil applications involving high magnetic fields at temperatures below 50 K to be met.

  6. Enhanced critical currents in (Gd,Y)Ba2Cu3Ox superconducting tapes with high levels of Zr addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvamanickam, V.; Chen, Y.; Shi, T.; Liu, Y.; Khatri, N. D.; Liu, J.; Yao, Y.; Xiong, X.; Lei, C.; Soloveichik, S.; Galstyan, E.; Majkic, G.

    2013-03-01

    The critical current and structural properties of (Gd,Y)BaCuO tapes made by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) with Zr addition levels up to 30 at.% have been investigated. The reduction in critical current beyond the previously optimized Zr addition level of 7.5 at.% was found to be due to structural deterioration of the (Gd,Y)Ba2Cu3Ox film. By a modified MOCVD process, enhanced critical current densities have been achieved with high levels of Zr addition, including 3.83 MA cm-2 in 15 at.% Zr-added 1.1 μm thick film at 77 K in zero magnetic field. Critical currents as high as 1072 A/12 mm have been reached in (Gd,Y)BaCuO tapes with 15 at.% Zr addition at 30 K in a field of 3 T applied perpendicular to the tape, corresponding to a pinning force value of 268 GN m-3. The enhanced critical currents achievable with a high density of nanoscale defects by employing high levels of second-phase additions enable the performance targets needed for the use of HTS tapes in coil applications involving high magnetic fields at temperatures below 50 K to be met.

  7. Effect of different levels of localized muscle fatigue on knee position sense.

    PubMed

    Gear, William S

    2011-01-01

    There is little information available regarding how proprioceptive abilities decline as the amount of exertion increases during exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of different levels of fatigue on knee joint position sense. A repeated measures design was used to examine changes in active joint reposition sense (AJRS) prior to and following three levels of fatigue. Eighteen participants performed knee extension and flexion isokinetic exercise until torque output was 90%, 70%, or 50% of the peak hamstring torque for three consecutive repetitions. Active joint reposition sense at 15, 30, or 45 degrees was tested following the isokinetic exercise session. Following testing of the first independent measure, participants were given a 20 minute rest period. Testing procedures were repeated for two more exercise sessions following the other levels of fatigue. Testing of each AJRS test angle was conducted on three separate days with 48 hours between test days. Significant main effect for fatigue was indicated (p = 0.001). Pairwise comparisons indicated a significant difference between the pre-test and following 90% of peak hamstring torque (p = 0.02) and between the pre-test and following 50% of peak hamstring torque (p = 0.02). Fatigue has long been theorized to be a contributing factor in decreased proprioceptive acuity, and therefore a contributing factor to joint injury. The findings of the present study indicate that fatigue may have an effect on proprioception following mild and maximum fatigue. Key pointsA repeated measures design was used to examine the effect of different levels of fatigue on active joint reposition sense (AJRS) of the knee at joint angles of 15°, 30° and 45° of flexion.A statistically significant main effect for fatigue was found, specifically between no fatigue and mild fatigue and no fatigue and maximum fatigue.A statistically significant interaction effect between AJRS and fatigue was not found.Secondary analysis

  8. Caustic leaching of high-level radioactive tank sludge: A critical literature review

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, C.P.; Welch, T.D.; Hunt, R.D.

    1998-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) must treat and safely dispose of its radioactive tank contents, which can be separated into high-level waste (HLW) and low-level waste (LLW) fractions. Since the unit costs of treatment and disposal are much higher for HLW than for LLW, technologies to reduce the amount of HLW are being developed. A key process currently being studied to reduce the volume of HLW sludges is called enhanced sludge washing (ESW). This process removes, by water washes, soluble constituents such as sodium salts, and the washed sludge is then leached with 2--3 M NaOH at 60--100 C to remove nonradioactive metals such as aluminum. The remaining solids are considered to be HLW while the solutions are LLW after radionuclides such as {sup 137}Cs have been removed. Results of bench-scale tests have shown that the ESW will probably remove the required amounts of inert constituents. While both experimental and theoretical results have shown that leaching efficiency increases as the time and temperature of the leach are increased, increases in the caustic concentration above 2--3 M will only marginally improve the leach factors. However, these tests were not designed to validate the assumption that the caustic used in the ESW process will generate only a small increase (10 Mkg) in the amount of LLW; instead the test conditions were selected to maximize leaching in a short period and used more water and caustic than is planned during full-scale operations. Even though calculations indicate that the estimate for the amount of LLW generated by the ESW process appears to be reasonable, a detailed study of the amount of LLW from the ESW process is still required. If the LLW analysis indicates that sodium management is critical, then a more comprehensive evaluation of the clean salt process or caustic recycle would be needed. Finally, experimental and theoretical studies have clearly demonstrated the need for the control of solids formation during and after leaching.

  9. Caustic leaching of high-level radioactive tank sludge: A critical literature review

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, C.P.; Welch, T.D.; Hunt, R.D.

    1997-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) must treat and safely dispose of its radioactive tank contents, which can be separated into high-level waste (HLW) and low-level waste (LLW) fractions. Since the unit costs of treatment and disposal are much higher for HLW than for LLW, technologies to reduce the amount of HLW are being developed. A key process currently being studied to reduce the volume of HLW sludges is called enhanced sludge washing (ESW). This process removes, by water washes, soluble constituents such as sodium salts, and the washed sludge is then leached with 2--3 M NaOH at 60--100 C to remove nonradioactive metals such as aluminum. The remaining solids are considered to be HLW while the solutions are LLW after radionuclides such as {sup 137}Cs have been removed. Results of bench-scale tests have shown that the ESW will probably remove the required amounts of inert constituents. While both experimental and theoretical results have shown that leaching efficiency increases as the time and temperature of the leach are increased, increases in the caustic concentration above 2--3 M will only marginally improve the leach factors. However, these tests were not designed to validate the assumption that the caustic used in the ESW process will generate only a small increase (10 Mkg) in the amount of LLW; instead, the test conditions were selected to maximize leaching in a short period and used more water and caustic than is planned during full-scale operations. Even though calculations indicate that the estimate for the amount of LLW generated by the ESW process appears to be reasonable, a detailed study of the amount of LLW from the ESW process is still required. If the LLW analysis indicates that sodium management is critical, then a more comprehensive evaluation of the clean salt process or caustic recycle would be needed. Finally, experimental and theoretical studies have clearly demonstrated the need for the control of solids formation during and after leaching.

  10. The potential for criticality following disposal of uranium at low-level waste facilities: Uranium blended with soil

    SciTech Connect

    Toran, L.E.; Hopper, C.M.; Naney, M.T.

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether or not fissile uranium in low-level-waste (LLW) facilities can be concentrated by hydrogeochemical processes to permit nuclear criticality. A team of experts in hydrology, geology, geochemistry, soil chemistry, and criticality safety was formed to develop achievable scenarios for hydrogeochemical increases in concentration of special nuclear material (SNM), and to use these scenarios to aid in evaluating the potential for nuclear criticality. The team`s approach was to perform simultaneous hydrogeochemical and nuclear criticality studies to (1) identify some achievable scenarios for uranium migration and concentration increase at LLW disposal facilities, (2) model groundwater transport and subsequent concentration increase via sorption or precipitation of uranium, and (3) evaluate the potential for nuclear criticality resulting from potential increases in uranium concentration over disposal limits. The analysis of SNM was restricted to {sup 235}U in the present scope of work. The outcome of the work indicates that criticality is possible given established regulatory limits on SNM disposal. However, a review based on actual disposal records of an existing site operation indicates that the potential for criticality is not a concern under current burial practices.

  11. Leveling the Field: Negotiating Positions of Power as a Preservice Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vetter, Amy; Meacham, Mark; Schieble, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Set in an undergraduate Secondary English Education Program, this qualitative study draws on theories of power, positioning, and identity to explore how positions of power affect teacher identity construction. Drawn from a larger study, the authors examine how one preservice teacher negotiated positions of power with students in ways that enabled…

  12. Comparative analyses of rider position according to skill levels during walk and trot in Jeju horse.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ok-Deuk; Ryu, Youn-Chul; Ryew, Che-Cheong; Oh, Woon-Yong; Lee, Chong-Eon; Kang, Min-Soo

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rider position at walk and trot as a function of rider skill level by analyzing joint angles. Participants included three advanced riders and six beginners, and training was conducted for one hour, twice a week for 24 weeks. In the walk stage of the beginners' group, the elbows and shoulders sustained postures comparable to those of the advanced riders group; the trunk tilted forwards at first, but later it tilted slightly behind the vertical. The knee, ankle, and left-right angle kept stable postures after 12 weeks of training (p<.05). The front-rear (FR) angle of the beginners group improved during training, but it was still lower than the advanced riders group after 24 weeks of training (p<.05). At trot, while the knee angle measurement of the beginners' group was similar to the advanced riders, the ankle joint sustained a forward point posture. The ankle joint maintained dorsiflexion posture with 83.9°±5.3 in the advanced riders group, while the beginners group had plantar flexion posture with 98.7°±6.0. This study suggested that the correlation between the joint and body segment angles could be an important indicator in the evaluation of rider proficiency.

  13. Supervisory-level interruption recovery in time-critical control tasks.

    PubMed

    Sasangohar, Farzan; Scott, Stacey D; Cummings, M L

    2014-07-01

    This paper investigates the effectiveness of providing interruption recovery assistance in the form of an interactive visual timeline of historical events on a peripheral display in support of team supervision in time-critical settings. As interruptions can have detrimental effects on task performance, particularly in time-critical work environments, there is growing interest in the design of tools to assist people in resuming their pre-interruption activity. A user study was conducted to evaluate the use of an interactive event timeline that provides assistance to human supervisors in time-critical settings. The study was conducted in an experimental platform that emulated a team of operators and a mission commander performing a time-critical unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) mission. The study results showed that providing interruption assistance enabled people to recover from interruptions faster and more accurately. These results have implications for interface design that could be adopted in similar time-critical environments such as air-traffic control, process control, and first responders.

  14. Reactor Testing and Qualification: Prioritized High-level Criticality Testing Needs

    SciTech Connect

    S. Bragg-Sitton; J. Bess; J. Werner; G. Harms; S. Bailey

    2011-09-01

    Researchers at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) were tasked with reviewing possible criticality testing needs to support development of the fission surface power system reactor design. Reactor physics testing can provide significant information to aid in development of technologies associated with small, fast spectrum reactors that could be applied for non-terrestrial power systems, leading to eventual system qualification. Several studies have been conducted in recent years to assess the data and analyses required to design and build a space fission power system with high confidence that the system will perform as designed [Marcille, 2004a, 2004b; Weaver, 2007; Parry et al., 2008]. This report will provide a summary of previous critical tests and physics measurements that are potentially applicable to the current reactor design (both those that have been benchmarked and those not yet benchmarked), summarize recent studies of potential nuclear testing needs for space reactor development and their applicability to the current baseline fission surface power (FSP) system design, and provide an overview of a suite of tests (separate effects, sub-critical or critical) that could fill in the information database to improve the accuracy of physics modeling efforts as the FSP design is refined. Some recommendations for tasks that could be completed in the near term are also included. Specific recommendations on critical test configurations will be reserved until after the sensitivity analyses being conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are completed (due August 2011).

  15. The effect of variable arterial transducer level on the accuracy of pulse contour waveform-derived measurements in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    He, Huai-Wu; Liu, Da-Wei; Long, Yun; Wang, Xiao-Ting; Zhao, Mei-Ling; Lai, Xiao-Li

    2016-10-01

    We know that a 10 cm departure from the reference level of pressure transducer position is equal to a 7.5 mmHg change of invasive hemodynamic pressure monitoring in a fluid-filled system. However, the relationship between the site level of a variable arterial pressure transducer and the pulse contour-derived parameters has yet to be established in critically ill patients. Moreover, the related quantitative analysis has never been investigated. Forty-two critically ill patients requiring PiCCO-Plus cardiac output monitoring were prospectively studied. The phlebostatic axis was defined as the zero reference level; the arterial pressure transducer was then vertically adjusted to different positions (+5, +10, +15, +20, -20, -15, -10, -5 cm) of departure from the zero reference site. The pulse contour waveform-derived parameters were recorded at each position. Elevation of the pressure transducer caused significantly positive changes in the continuous cardiac index (+CCI), stroke volume index (+SVI), and stroke volume variation (+SVV), and negative changes in the rate of left ventricular pressure rise during systole (-dP/dtmax), the systemic vascular resistance index (-SVRI), and vice versa. At the 5 cm position, the SVRI changes reached statistical significance with error. At the 10 cm position, the changes in CCI and dP/dtmax reached statistical significance with error, while the change in SVV reached statistical significance at 15 cm. The change rate of CCI was more than 5 % at the 15 cm position and approximately 10 % at the 20 cm position. On average, for every centimeter change of the transducer, there was a corresponding 0.014 L/min/m(2) CCI change and 0.36 % change rate, a 1.41 mmHg/s dP/dtmax change and 0.13 % change rate, and a 25 dyne/s/cm(5) SVRI change and 1.2 % change rate. The variation of arterial transducer position can result in inaccurate measurement of pulse contour waveform-derived parameters, especially when the transducer

  16. Relationship between Critical Thinking Levels and Attitudes towards Reading Habits among Pre-Service Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulgurcuoglu, Ahmet Nusret

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present research is to define the critical thinking levels and reading habits of students studying at the department of physical education and sports teaching and analysing the relationship between these. The participants of the present research are 136 pre-service physical education teachers studying at Mugla Sitki Kocman…

  17. Examining a Financial Climate of Support: How Institutional-Level Financial Aid Relates to Teamwork, Leadership, and Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Julie J.; Denson, Nida; Johnson, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Financial aid plays a critical role in college access and student success. It plays an increasingly important role as the college-going population continues to diversify and the cost of college continues to rise at both public and private institutions. In this study, the authors examined whether institutional level financial aid has any direct…

  18. Studies on a Socio-Ecological Approach to Environmental Education: A Contribution to a Critical Position in the Education for Sustainable Development Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyburzgraber, Regula; Hofer, Kurt; Wolfensberger, Balz

    2006-01-01

    This article outlines a critical position in relation to education for sustainable development referring to a socio-ecological approach to environmental education. This approach was developed in a cooperative research process with pre-academic secondary schools over several years in Switzerland. For 13 years our research group has been the one in…

  19. Moving from technical to critical reflection in journalling: an investigation of students' ability to incorporate three levels of reflective writing.

    PubMed

    Usher, K; Tollefson, J; Francis, D

    2001-01-01

    This paper outlines a research project aimed at changing the levels of reflection of preregistration nursing students in a tertiary institution. Whilst reflection is widely espoused now in nursing, few studies have been found that identify whether the level of reflective writing can be identified or developed by students. Anecdotal and research evidence (Powell 1989; van Manen 1977) however indicates that most student reflective writing occurs at the technical level. A descriptive exploratory study using both qualitative and quantitative techniques was undertaken to apply van Manen's (1977) levels in a structured way in an attempt to facilitate the student's understanding and use of the levels in their reflective writing. The findings of the study indicate that student self evaluation and identification of the levels in their own writing can lead to change in the levels of critical reflective writing achieved by undergraduate students.

  20. Critical Friendship as a Contribution to Master's-Level Work in an International Programme of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Swet, Jacqueline; Smit, Ben H. J.; Corvers, Louise; van Dijk, Ineke

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on an action research project in which the value of critical friendship for students doing research and writing their dissertations within an international master's course has been explored. This course is run jointly by Roehampton University (London, UK), Charles University (Prague, Czech Republic) together with Fontys OSO…

  1. Proposed Interoperability Readiness Level Assessment for Mission Critical Interfaces During Navy Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Figure 27. Milestone Evaluation Criteria ...........................................................................87 Figure 28. Communications ... community . Furthermore, requirements that are critical to mission success are not being identified in the current SE process, and allocations or...sample system for the TTX because it has many internal and external interfaces used for communication . The audio and visual communication between

  2. Early life low-level cadmium exposure is positively associated with increased oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Kippler, Maria; Bakhtiar Hossain, Mohammad; Lindh, Christian; Moore, Sophie E.; Kabir, Iqbal; Vahter, Marie; Broberg, Karin

    2012-01-15

    Environmental exposure to cadmium (Cd) is known to induce oxidative stress, a state of imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the ability to detoxify them, in adults. However, data are lacking on potential effects in early-life. We evaluated urinary concentrations of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2 Prime -deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), a recognized marker of oxidative DNA damage, in relation to Cd exposure in 96 predominantly breast-fed infants (11-17 weeks of age) in rural Bangladesh. Urinary 8-oxodG was measured using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and Cd in urine and breast milk by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Median concentration of 8-oxodG was 3.9 nmol/L, urinary Cd 0.30 {mu}g/L, and breast-milk Cd 0.13 {mu}g/L. In linear regression analyses, urinary 8-oxodG was positively associated with Cd in both urine (p=0.00067) and breast milk (p=0.0021), and negatively associated with body weight (kg; p=0.0041). Adjustment for age, body weight, socio-economic status, urinary arsenic, as well as magnesium, calcium, and copper in breast milk did not change the association between Cd exposure and urinary 8-oxodG. These findings suggest that early-life low-level exposure to Cd via breast milk induces oxidative stress. Further studies are warranted to elucidate whether this oxidative stress is associated with impaired child health and development.

  3. Treating 'AIDS blindness': a critical pedagogical approach to HIV education at tertiary level.

    PubMed

    Wood, Lesley; Rens, Julialet

    2014-01-01

    HIV and AIDS affect all South Africans, irrespective of gender, race, age and economic status. Teachers should therefore be able to meaningfully integrate HIV content into the school curriculum. However, pre-service teacher education programmes still do not pay adequate attention to HIV education, particularly in institutions where students are being prepared to work in environments that are perceived to be unaffected by the consequences of the pandemic. This article advocates that HIV education should be integrated into contexts of privilege and presents evidence of the influence that a critical pedagogical approach can have on changing student perceptions of the need to address HIV in and through their teaching. We led 109 Post-graduate Certificate of Education students through a series of activities that required them to critically reflect on their feelings, attitudes and perceived skills with regard to HIV and AIDS education; to identify potential areas of personal change; and to begin to imagine alternative professional possibilities. We generated qualitative data through drawings, group discussions, individual written reflections, and a voluntary focus group. A content analysis of the data revealed that the participating students initially felt incompetent to incorporate HIV and related issues into their teaching, and felt hesitant and uncomfortable at the prospect. However, a critical reflection on their thinking, both individually and in a group setting, served to shift them towards a more holistic, critical and humanising understanding of the pandemic and the role they could play as future teachers in helping to mitigate its impact. The findings provide evidence that a critical pedagogical approach - particularly with groups who believe that HIV and AIDS is not something that concerns them - can provide an effective way to mediate the knowledge, skills and attitudes that competent teachers need in today's world.

  4. Effectiveness of flow inflating device in providing Continuous Positive Airway Pressure for critically ill children in limited-resource settings: A prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Anitha, G. Fatima Shirly; Velmurugan, Lakshmi; Sangareddi, Shanthi; Nedunchelian, Krishnamurthy; Selvaraj, Vinoth

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is an emerging popular concept, which includes bi-level positive airway pressure or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). In settings with scarce resources for NIV machines, CPAP can be provided through various indigenous means and one such mode is flow inflating device - Jackson-Rees circuit (JR)/Bain circuit. The study analyses the epidemiology, various clinical indications, predictors of CPAP failure, and stresses the usefulness of flow inflating device as an indigenous way of providing CPAP. Methods: A prospective observational study was undertaken in the critical care unit of a Government Tertiary Care Hospital, from November 2013 to September 2014. All children who required CPAP in the age group 1 month to 12 years of both sexes were included in this study. They were started on indigenous CPAP through flow inflating device on clinical grounds based on the pediatric assessment triangle, and the duration and outcome were analyzed. Results: This study population included 214 children. CPAP through flow inflating device was successful in 89.7% of cases, of which bronchiolitis accounted for 98.3%. A prolonged duration of CPAP support of >96 h was required in pneumonia. CPAP failure was noted in 10.3% of cases, the major risk factors being children <1 year and pneumonia with septic shock. Conclusion: We conclude that flow inflating devices - JR/Bain circuit are effective as an indigenous CPAP in limited resource settings. Despite its benefits, CPAP is not a substitute for invasive ventilation, as when the need for intubation arises timely intervention is needed. PMID:27630454

  5. Recognition for Positive Behavior as a Critical Youth Development Construct: Conceptual Bases and Implications on Youth Service Development

    PubMed Central

    Law, Ben M. F.; Siu, Andrew M. H.; Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2012-01-01

    Recognition for positive behavior is an appropriate response of the social environment to elicit desirable external behavior among the youth. Such positive responses, rendered from various social systems, include tangible and intangible reinforcements. The following theories are used to explain the importance of recognizing positive behavior: operational conditioning, observational learning, self-determination, and humanistic perspective. In the current work, culturally and socially desirable behaviors are discussed in detail with reference to Chinese adolescents. Positive behavior recognition is especially important to adolescent development because it promotes identity formation as well as cultivates moral reasoning and social perspective thinking from various social systems. The significance of recognizing positive behavior is illustrated through the support, tutorage, invitation, and subsidy provided by Hong Kong's social systems in recognition of adolescent volunteerism. The practical implications of positive behavior recognition on youth development programs are also discussed in this work. PMID:22666155

  6. External Ventricular Catheters: Is It Appropriate to Use an Open/Monitor Position to Adequately Trend Intracranial Pressure in a Neuroscience Critical Care Environment?

    PubMed

    Sunderland, Nicole E; Villanueva, Nancy E; Pazuchanics, Susan J

    2016-10-01

    Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring can be an important assessment tool in critically and acutely ill patients. An external ventricular drain offers a comprehensive way to monitor ICP and drain cerebrospinal fluid. The Monro-Kellie hypothesis, Pascal's principle, and fluid dynamics were used to formulate an assumption that an open/monitor position on the stopcock is an adequate trending measure for ICP monitoring while concurrently draining cerebrospinal fluid. Data were collected from 50 patients and totaled 1053 separate number sets. The open/monitor position was compared with the clamped position every hour. An order for "open to drain" was needed for appropriate measurement and nursing care. Results showed the absolute average differences between open/monitor and clamped positions at 1.6268 mm Hg. This finding suggests that it is appropriate to use an open/monitor position via an external ventricular drain for adequate trending of patients' ICP.

  7. Instantaneous Real-Time Kinematic Decimeter-Level Positioning with BeiDou Triple-Frequency Signals over Medium Baselines

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiyang; Zhang, Xiaohong; Tang, Long; Liu, Wanke

    2015-01-01

    Many applications, such as marine navigation, land vehicles location, etc., require real time precise positioning under medium or long baseline conditions. In this contribution, we develop a model of real-time kinematic decimeter-level positioning with BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) triple-frequency signals over medium distances. The ambiguities of two extra-wide-lane (EWL) combinations are fixed first, and then a wide lane (WL) combination is reformed based on the two EWL combinations for positioning. Theoretical analysis and empirical analysis is given of the ambiguity fixing rate and the positioning accuracy of the presented method. The results indicate that the ambiguity fixing rate can be up to more than 98% when using BDS medium baseline observations, which is much higher than that of dual-frequency Hatch-Melbourne-Wübbena (HMW) method. As for positioning accuracy, decimeter level accuracy can be achieved with this method, which is comparable to that of carrier-smoothed code differential positioning method. Signal interruption simulation experiment indicates that the proposed method can realize fast high-precision positioning whereas the carrier-smoothed code differential positioning method needs several hundreds of seconds for obtaining high precision results. We can conclude that a relatively high accuracy and high fixing rate can be achieved for triple-frequency WL method with single-epoch observations, displaying significant advantage comparing to traditional carrier-smoothed code differential positioning method. PMID:26703614

  8. Radar based Ground Level Reconstruction Utilizing a Hypocycloid Antenna Positioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, Christoph; Musch, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution we introduce a novel radar positioning system. It makes use of a mathematical curve, called hypocycloid, for a slanting movement of the radar antenna. By means of a planetary gear, a ball, and a universal joint as well as a stepping motor, a two dimensional positioning is provided by a uniaxial drive shaft exclusively. The fundamental position calculation and different signal processing algorithms are presented. By means of an 80 GHz FMCW radar system we performed several measurements on objects with discrete heights as well as on objects with continuous surfaces. The results of these investigations are essential part of this contribution and are discussed in detail.

  9. What's Our Position? A Critical Media Literacy Study of Popular Culture Websites with Eighth-Grade Special Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesler, Ted; Tinio, Pablo P. L.; Nolan, Brian T.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on an action research project with 9 eighth-grade special education students in a self-contained classroom in an urban public school. The 1st author, in collaboration with the classroom teacher (3rd author), taught the students a critical media literacy framework to explore popular culture websites. Students learned to analyze…

  10. Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma & Society of Trauma Nurses Advanced Practitioner Position Paper: Optimizing the integration of advanced practitioners in trauma and critical care.

    PubMed

    Messing, Jonathan; Garces-King, Jasmine; Taylor, Dennis; Van Horn, Jonathan; Sarani, Babak; Christmas, A Britton

    2017-03-21

    Nurse Practitioners and Physician Assistants, collectively known as advanced practitioners (APs), enhance the provision of care for the acutely injured patient. Despite their prevalence, institutions employ, train, and utilize these providers with significant variability. The Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma (EAST), the Society of Trauma Nurses (STN), and the American Association of Surgical Physicians Assistants (AASPA) acknowledge the value of APs and support their utilization in the management of injured and critically ill patients. This position paper offers insight into the history of, scope of practice for, and opportunities for optimal utilization of APs in trauma, critical care, and acute care surgery services.

  11. County-level effects of prehospital regionalization of critically ill patients: a simulation study

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, Christopher W.; Alotaik, Osama; Wallace, David J.; Elhabashy, Ahmed E.; Chhatwal, Jagpreet; Rea, Thomas D; Angus, Derek C.; Nichol, Graham; Kahn, Jeremy M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Regionalization may improve critical care delivery, yet stakeholders cite concerns about its feasibility. We sought to determine the operational effects of prehospital regionalization of non-trauma, non-arrest critical illness. Design Discrete event simulation study Patients and setting All 2006 hospital discharge data from King County, Washington, linked to all adult, eligible patients transported by county EMS agencies. Methods We simulated active triage of high-risk patients to designated referral centers using a validated prehospital risk score; we studied three regionalization scenarios: (1) up triage, (2) up & down triage, (3) up & down triage after reducing intensive care unit (ICU) beds by 25%. We determined the effect on patient routing, ICU occupancy at referral and non-referral hospitals, and EMS transport times. Measurements and Main Results 119,117 patients were hospitalized at 11 non-referral centers and 76,817 patients were hospitalized at three referral centers. Among 20,835 EMS patients, 7,817 (43%) patients were eligible for up triage and 10,242 (57%) patients were eligible for down triage. At baseline mean daily ICU bed occupancy was 61% referral and 47% at non-referral hospitals. Up-triage increased referral ICU occupancy to 68%, up and down triage to 64%, and up and down triage with bed reduction to 74%. Mean daily non-referral ICU occupancy did not exceed 60%. Total EMS transport time increased by less than 3% with up and down triage. Conclusions Regionalization based on prehospital triage of the critically ill can allocate high-risk patients to referral hospitals without adversely affecting ICU occupancy or prehospital travel time. PMID:26102251

  12. Shifting the Paradigm of Trauma Medicine to Positively Influence Critical Mortality Rates Following a Mass Casualty Event

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    ground zero, while another 300 sought care at the next hospital which was within one mile ( Pesola , Dujar, & Wilson, 2002, pp. 220-2). On March 11, 2004...another 300 sought care at the next hospital over which was within one mile ( Pesola , 2002, p. 220). It is prudent that the lessons of military...logistics, injuries, sustained and clinical management of casualties treated at the closets hospitals. Critical Care, 9, 104-111. Pesola , G.R

  13. High level runners are able to maintain a VO2 steady-state below VO2max in an all-out run over their critical velocity.

    PubMed

    Billat, V; Binsse, V; Petit, B; Koralsztein, J P

    1998-02-01

    During prolonged and intense running exercises beyond the critical power level, a VO2 slow component elevates VO2 above predicted VO2-work rates calculated from exercise performed at intensities below the lactate threshold. In such cases, the actual VO2 value will increase over time until it reaches VO2max. The aims of the present study were to examine whether the VO2 slow component is a major determinant of VO2 over time when running at a speed beyond critical velocity, and whether the exhaustion latency period at such intensity correlates with the magnitude of the VO2 slow component. Fourteen highly trained long-distance runners performed four exhaustive runs, each separated by one week of light training. VO2 and the velocity at VO2max (vVO2max) were determined for each by a graded treadmill exercise. The critical velocity (86.1 +/- 1.5% vVO2max) of each runner was calculated from exhaustive treadmill runs at 90, 100 and 105% of vVO2max. During supra-critical velocity runs at 90% of vVO2max, there was no significant rise in VO2max (20.9 +/- 2.1 ml min-1 kg-1 between the third and last min of tlim 90), such that the runners reached a VO2 steady-state, but did not reach their vVO2max level over time (69.5 +/- 5.0 vs 74.9 +/- 3.0 ml min-1 kg-1). Thus, subjects' time to exhaustion at 90% of vVO2max was not correlated with the VO2max slow component (r = 0.11, P = 0.69), but significantly correlated with the lactate threshold (r = 0.54, P = 0.04) and the critical velocity (% vVO2max; r = 0.65, P = 0.01). In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that for highly trained long-distance runners performing exhaustive, supra-critical velocity runs at 90% of vVO2max, there was not a VO2 slow component tardily completing the rise of VO2. Instead, runners will maintain a VO2 steady-state below VO2max, such that the time to exhaustion at 90% of vVO2max for these runners is positively correlated with the critical velocity expressed as % of vVO2max.

  14. Lethal and sublethal effects of cadmium on marine organisms--a critical discussion about "safety levels".

    PubMed

    Sperling, K R

    1983-12-01

    The applicability of terms such as "safety level" and "safety factor" for the purpose of risk assessment in the frame of the marine dumping conventions is discussed. In view of a series of experiments on sublethal effects of cadmium on marine organisms it is stated that the dose-response relationships cover a range of 10(4), and that there is no indication that the lowest level found so far is actually just above a no-effect threshold.

  15. Lethal and sublethal effects of cadmium on marine organisms: a critical discussion about ''safety levels''

    SciTech Connect

    Sperling, K.R.

    1983-12-01

    The applicability of terms such as ''safety level'' and ''safety factor'' for the purpose of risk assessment in the frame of the marine dumping conventions is discussed. In view of a series of experiments on sublethal effects of cadmium on marine organisms it is stated that the dose-response relationships cover a range of 10(4), and that there is no indication that the lowest level found so far is actually just above a no-effect threshold.

  16. Parental Education Level Positively Affects Self-Esteem of Turkish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Ertugrul; Barut, Yasar; Ersanli, Ercüment

    2013-01-01

    Although the literature on self-esteem has a long and prolific history in Turkey regarding which demographics may influence the self-esteem of adolescents. The research findings are intricate and undermine the need of further research in Turkey. This cross-sectional study re-examined the effects of age, grade level and education level of a mother…

  17. Metamodeling and the Critic-based approach to multi-level optimization.

    PubMed

    Werbos, Ludmilla; Kozma, Robert; Silva-Lugo, Rodrigo; Pazienza, Giovanni E; Werbos, Paul J

    2012-08-01

    Large-scale networks with hundreds of thousands of variables and constraints are becoming more and more common in logistics, communications, and distribution domains. Traditionally, the utility functions defined on such networks are optimized using some variation of Linear Programming, such as Mixed Integer Programming (MIP). Despite enormous progress both in hardware (multiprocessor systems and specialized processors) and software (Gurobi) we are reaching the limits of what these tools can handle in real time. Modern logistic problems, for example, call for expanding the problem both vertically (from one day up to several days) and horizontally (combining separate solution stages into an integrated model). The complexity of such integrated models calls for alternative methods of solution, such as Approximate Dynamic Programming (ADP), which provide a further increase in the performance necessary for the daily operation. In this paper, we present the theoretical basis and related experiments for solving the multistage decision problems based on the results obtained for shorter periods, as building blocks for the models and the solution, via Critic-Model-Action cycles, where various types of neural networks are combined with traditional MIP models in a unified optimization system. In this system architecture, fast and simple feed-forward networks are trained to reasonably initialize more complicated recurrent networks, which serve as approximators of the value function (Critic). The combination of interrelated neural networks and optimization modules allows for multiple queries for the same system, providing flexibility and optimizing performance for large-scale real-life problems. A MATLAB implementation of our solution procedure for a realistic set of data and constraints shows promising results, compared to the iterative MIP approach.

  18. Comparing the Level of Positive Tendency in a Life Satisfaction Evaluation between Chinese and Western People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shih-jung; Wu, Chia-huei

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate that people from Chinese cultural backgrounds have a smaller positive tendency in life evaluation compared to people in typical Western cultures. Participants first described their imagined best and worst life and then rated their current life on scale anchored by those imaginings (Mellor et al. "International Journal of Social…

  19. Positive Feedback in Pairwork and its Association with ESL Course Level Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reigel, David

    2008-01-01

    What is the role of positive feedback in the adult English language classroom? This study applies ideas from complexity theory to explore the relation between frequency of oral feedback received and student language proficiency. The researcher collected data from digital recordings of adult students (N = 41) who attended classes for 30 weeks at…

  20. Nickel cadmium cell designs negative to positive material ratio and precharge levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, S.

    1977-01-01

    A review is made of the factors affecting the choices of negative-to-positive materials ratio and negative precharge in nickel-cadmium cells. The effects of these variables on performance are given, and the different methods for setting precharge are evaluated. The effects of special operating requirements on the design are also discussed.

  1. Serum levels of copper, selenium and manganese in forestry workers testing IgG positive for Brucella, Borrelia, and Rickettsia.

    PubMed

    Abbate, Simona; Giorgianni, Concetto; D'Arrigo, Graziella; Brecciaroli, Renato; Catanoso, Rosaria; Alibrando, Carmela; Spatari, Giovanna; Gangemi, Silvia; Abbate, Carmelo

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study is to measure the alterations in the trace levels of serum copper (Cu), selenium (Se), and manganese (Mn) in forestry workers testing immunoglobulin G (IgG)-positive for Brucella, Borrelia, and Rickettsia. The study was conducted on a sample of 758 subjects (560 male and 198 female). All the subjects underwent medical examinations, which investigated particularly the presence of clinical signs compatible with zoonoses, and routine blood tests from venous blood sample, which tested previous immunisation versus cited microorganisms and serum concentration of Cu, Se, and Mn. The subjects were divided according to IgG positivity versus the cited microorganisms. The group of subjects with IgG positive versus Brucella showed statistically significant higher Cu levels than controls, while the Mn levels were not; the group of subjects with IgG positive versus Rickettsia showed higher levels of all three tested metals. The concentration of the examined metals did not show statistically significant difference between IgG-positive subjects versus subjects with Borrelia compared to controls. These data could confirm the role of both Cu and Se  in the regulation of immune response.

  2. The 'nightmare' of wrong level in spine surgery: a critical appraisal

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The recent article published in the Journal by Lindley and colleagues (Patient Saf. Surg. 2011, 5:33) reported the successful surgical treatment of a persistent thoracic pain following a T7-8 microdiscectomy, truly performed at the ‘level immediately above’. The wrong level in spine surgery is a multi-factorial matter and several strategies have been designed and adopted to try decreasing its occurrence. We think that three of these factors are crucial: global strategy, attention, precision in level identification; and the actors we identified are the surgeon, the assistant nurse and the (neuro)radiologist respectively. Basing upon our experience, the role of the radiologist pre- and intraoperatively and the importance of the assistant nurse are briefly described. PMID:22713236

  3. IUPAC critical evaluation of the rotational-vibrational spectra of water vapor, Part III: Energy levels and transition wavenumbers for H216O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennyson, Jonathan; Bernath, Peter F.; Brown, Linda R.; Campargue, Alain; Császár, Attila G.; Daumont, Ludovic; Gamache, Robert R.; Hodges, Joseph T.; Naumenko, Olga V.; Polyansky, Oleg L.; Rothman, Laurence S.; Vandaele, Ann Carine; Zobov, Nikolai F.; Al Derzi, Afaf R.; Fábri, Csaba; Fazliev, Alexander Z.; Furtenbacher, Tibor; Gordon, Iouli E.; Lodi, Lorenzo; Mizus, Irina I.

    2013-03-01

    This is the third of a series of articles reporting critically evaluated rotational-vibrational line positions, transition intensities, and energy levels, with associated critically reviewed labels and uncertainties, for all the main isotopologues of water. This paper presents experimental line positions, experimental-quality energy levels, and validated labels for rotational-vibrational transitions of the most abundant isotopologue of water, H216O. The latest version of the MARVEL (Measured Active Rotational-Vibrational Energy Levels) line-inversion procedure is used to determine the rovibrational energy levels of the electronic ground state of H216O from experimentally measured lines, together with their self-consistent uncertainties, for the spectral region up to the first dissociation limit. The spectroscopic network of H216O containstwo components, an ortho (o) and a para (p) one. For o-H216O and p-H216O, experimentally measured, assigned, and labeled transitions were analyzed from more than 100 sources. The measured lines come from one-photon spectra recorded at room temperature in absorption, from hot samples with temperatures up to 3000 K recorded in emission, and from multiresonance excitation spectra which sample levels up to dissociation. The total number of transitions considered is 184 667 of which 182 156 are validated: 68 027 between para states and 114 129 ortho ones. These transitions give rise to 18 486 validated energy levels, of which 10 446 and 8040 belong to o-H216O and p-H216O, respectively. The energy levels, including their labeling with approximate normal-mode and rigid-rotor quantum numbers, have been checked against ones determined from accurate variational nuclear motion computations employing exact kinetic energy operators as well as against previous compilations of energy levels. The extensive list of MARVEL lines and levels obtained are deposited in the supplementary data of this paper, as well as in a distributed information system

  4. Androgen and estradiol levels in plasma and amniotic fluid of late gestational male and female hamsters: uterine position effects.

    PubMed

    Vomachka, A J; Lisk, R D

    1986-06-01

    Using radioimmunoassay we have measured the plasma and amniotic fluid levels of androgen and estradiol in male and female hamster fetuses nearing parturition. On Days 14 and 15 of gestation (day of birth = Day 16), plasma levels of androgen are higher in males than females while estradiol levels are equal. Amniotic fluid levels of these hormones, while lower than plasma, reflect the difference in androgen and the similarity in estradiol between sexes. Uterine position analysis on Day 14 suggests that female siblings located caudally suppress amniotic fluid androgen and elevate estradiol levels of male siblings. Comparison of Day 18 gestation male and female rat amniotic fluid androgen to Day 14 hamsters reveals that male rats are bathed in high levels of androgen. Female rats have lower levels which are not different from those of male hamsters. Female hamsters are exposed to little androgen. Relevance to behavioral sexual differentiation and the display of adult behavior is discussed.

  5. Position 228 in Paenibacillus macerans cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase is critical for 2-O-d-glucopyranosyl-l-ascorbic acid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng; Xiong, Yanjun; Su, Lingqia; Wang, Lei; Wu, Jing

    2017-04-10

    The markedly stable l-ascorbic acid (L-AA) derivative 2-O-d-glucopyranosyl-l-ascorbic acid (AA-2G) has been widely used in the fields of food, medicine, cosmetics, and husbandry. Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) is considered suitable for the large-scale production of AA-2G. In this work, Paenibacillus macerans CGTase was used to produce AA-2G and the production was 13.5g/l. An amino-acid sequence alignment of α-, β-, and α⁄β-CGTase indicated that the Phe at position 228 of P. macerans CGTase was different from the amino acids at this position in other CGTases (Met, Val, or Ile). In addition, the CGTases from Anaerobranca gottschalkii and Bacillus circulans 251, which have Val and Met at position 228, were shown to produce 28.9 and 35.7g/l AA-2G, respectively, which verified the importance of this position for AA-2G synthesis. Subsequently, P. macerans CGTase mutants F228M and F228V were constructed and shown to produce 24.8g/l and 24.0g/l AA-2G, respectively, which are 84% and 78% higher than that of wild-type P. macerans CGTase, respectively. Kinetic analysis of AA-2G synthesis showed that affinities of the two mutants for L-AA and the catalytic efficiencies increased. Meanwhile, the mutants had lower cyclization activity but higher disproportionation activities, which is beneficial for AA-2G synthesis. All these results indicated that amino acid at position 228 of P. macerans CGTase is crucial to AA-2G synthesis.

  6. SU-E-T-346: Effect of Jaw Position On Dose to Critical Structures in 3-D Conformal Radiotherapy Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Paudel, N; Han, E; Liang, X; Morrill, S; Zhang, X; Hardee, M; Penagaricano, J; Ratanatharathorn, V

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Three-dimensional conformal therapy remains a valid and widely used modality for pancreatic radiotherapy treatment. It usually meets dose constraints on critical structures. However, careful positioning of collimation jaws can reduce dose to the critical structures. Here we investigate the dosimetric effect of jaw position in MLC-based 3-D conformal treatment planning on critical structures. Methods: We retrospectively selected seven pancreatic cancer patients treated with 3-D conformal radiotherapy. We started with treatment plans (Varian Truebeam LINAC, Eclipse TPS, AAA, 18MV) having both x and y jaws aligned with the farthest extent of the block outline (8mm around PTV). Then we subsequently moved either both x-jaws or all x and y jaws outwards upto 3 cm in 1 cm increments and investigated their effect on average and maximum dose to neighboring critical structures keeping the same coverage to treatment volume. Results: Lateral displacement of both x-jaws by 1cm each increased kidney and spleen mean dose by as much as 1.7% and 1.3% respectively and superior inferior displacement increased liver, right kidney, stomach and spleen dose by as much as 2.1%, 2%, 5.2% and 1.6% respectively. Displacement of all x and y-jaws away by 1cm increased the mean dose to liver, right kidney, left kidney, bowels, cord, stomach and spleen by as much as 4.9%, 5.9%, 2.1%, 2.8%, 7.4%, 10.4% and 4.2% respectively. Percentage increase in mean dose due to 2 and 3cm jaw displacement increased almost linearly with the displaced distance. Changes in maximum dose were much smaller (mostly negligible) than the changes in mean dose. Conclusion: Collimation jaw position affects dose mostly to critical structures adjacent to it. Though treatment plans with MLCs conforming the block margin usually meet dose constraints to critical structures, keeping jaws all the way in, to the edge of the block reduces dose to the critical structures during radiation treatment.

  7. The Use of Blended Learning to Facilitate Critical Thinking in Entry Level Occupational Therapy Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Eva L.

    2009-01-01

    The popularity of using online instruction (both in blended and complete distance learning) in higher education settings is increasing (Appana, 2008; Newton, 2006; Oh, 2006). Occupational therapy educators are using blended learning methods under the assumption that this learning platform will facilitate in their students the required level of…

  8. A Critical Analysis of Conventional Descriptions of Levels Employed in the Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Ian; McElwee, John; Ming, Siri

    2010-01-01

    The Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities (ABLA) is a tabletop-based protocol employing manipulables that is used to gauge whether individuals with severe developmental disabilities can learn to perform a series of discrimination tasks of varying levels of difficulty. Empirical research suggests that the ABLA is useful in terms of predicting…

  9. B-DNA structure is intrinsically polymorphic: even at the level of base pair positions

    SciTech Connect

    Maehigashi, Tatsuya; Hsiao, Chiaolong; Woods, Kristen Kruger; Moulaei, Tinoush; Hud, Nicholas V.; Williams, Loren Dean

    2012-10-23

    Increasingly exact measurement of single crystal X-ray diffraction data offers detailed characterization of DNA conformation, hydration and electrostatics. However, instead of providing a more clear and unambiguous image of DNA, highly accurate diffraction data reveal polymorphism of the DNA atomic positions and conformation and hydration. Here we describe an accurate X-ray structure of B-DNA, painstakingly fit to a multistate model that contains multiple competing positions of most of the backbone and of entire base pairs. Two of ten base-pairs of CCAGGCCTGG are in multiple states distinguished primarily by differences in slide. Similarly, all the surrounding ions are seen to fractionally occupy discrete competing and overlapping sites. And finally, the vast majority of water molecules show strong evidence of multiple competing sites. Conventional resolution appears to give a false sense of homogeneity in conformation and interactions of DNA. In addition, conventional resolution yields an average structure that is not accurate, in that it is different from any of the multiple discrete structures observed at high resolution. Because base pair positional heterogeneity has not always been incorporated into model-building, even some high and ultrahigh-resolution structures of DNA do not indicate the full extent of conformational polymorphism.

  10. ClC-7 expression levels critically regulate bone turnover, but not gastric acid secretion.

    PubMed

    Supanchart, C; Wartosch, L; Schlack, C; Kühnisch, J; Felsenberg, D; Fuhrmann, J C; de Vernejoul, M-C; Jentsch, T J; Kornak, U

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the 2Cl(-)/1H(+)-exchanger ClC-7 impair osteoclast function and cause different types of osteoclast-rich osteopetrosis. However, it is unknown to what extent ClC-7 function has to be reduced to become rate-limiting for bone resorption. In osteoclasts from osteopetrosis patients expression of the mutated ClC-7 protein did not correlate with disease severity and resorption impairment. Therefore, a series of transgenic mice expressing ClC-7 in osteoclasts at different levels was generated. Crossing of these mice with Clcn7(-/-) mutants rescued the osteopetrotic phenotype to variable degrees. One resulting double transgenic line mimicked human autosomal dominant osteopetrosis. The trabecular bone of these mice showed a reduction of osteoblast numbers, osteoid, and osteoblast marker gene expression indicative of reduced osteoblast function. In osteoclasts from these mutants ClC-7 expression levels were 20 to 30% of wildtype levels. These reduced levels not only impaired resorptive activity, but also increased numbers, size and nucleus numbers of osteoclasts differentiated in vitro. Although ClC-7 was expressed in the stomach and PTH levels were high in Clcn7(-/-) mutants loss of ClC-7 did not entail a relevant elevation of gastric pH. In conclusion, we show that in our model a reduction of ClC-7 function by approximately 70% is sufficient to increase bone mass, but does not necessarily enhance bone formation. ClC-7 does not appear to be crucially involved in gastric acid secretion, which explains the absence of an osteopetrorickets phenotype in CLCN7-related osteopetrosis.

  11. Position-Related Differences in Selected Morphological Body Characteristics of Top-Level Female Handball Players.

    PubMed

    Bon, Marta; Pori, Primoz; Sibila, Marko

    2015-09-01

    The study aimed to establish the main morphological characteristics of Slovenian junior and senior female national handball team players. Morphological characteristics of various player subgroups (goalkeepers, wings, back players and pivots) were also determined so as to establish whether they had distinct profiles. The subjects were 87 handball players who were members of the Slovenian junior and senior female national teams in the period from 2003 to 2009. A standardised anthropometric protocol was used to assess the subjects' morphological characteristics. The measurements included 23 different anthropometric measures. First, basic statistical characteristics of anthropometric measures were obtained for all subjects together and then for each group separately. Somatotypes were determined using Heath-Carter's method. Endomorphic, mesomorphic and ectomorphic components were calculated by computer on the basis of formulas. In order to determine differences in the body composition and anthropometric data of the subjects playing in different positions, a one-way analysis of variance was employed. The results show that, on average, the wings differed the most from the other player groups in terms of their morphological body characteristics. The wings differed most prominently from the other player groups in terms of their morphological body parameters as they were significantly smaller and had a statistically significantly lower body mass than the other groups. In terms of transversal measures of the skeleton and the circumferences, the wings significantly differed mainly from the pivots and goalkeepers and less from the backs. The goalkeepers were the tallest, with high values of body mass and low values of transversal measures compared to P. Their skin folds were the most pronounced among all the groups on average and their share of subcutaneous fat in total body mass was the highest. Consequently, their endomorphic component of the somatotype was pronounced

  12. Critical review of the analysis of brominated flame retardants and their environmental levels in Africa.

    PubMed

    Brits, Martin; de Vos, Jayne; Weiss, Jana M; Rohwer, Egmont R; de Boer, Jacob

    2016-12-01

    World-wide, the prevalence of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) is well documented for routine analysis of environmental and biological matrices. There is, however, limited information on these compounds in the African environment and insufficient information on the analytical approaches used to obtain data. This paper presents a review on BFR levels in the African environment and the various analytical methodologies specifically applied in Africa for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls and alternative-BFRs. The analyses include liquid sample preparation using liquid-liquid and solid phase extraction and solid sample preparation involving Soxhlet extraction, with ultrasound-assisted extraction increasingly being applied. Instrumental detection techniques were limited to gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detector and electron impact ionisation with single quadrupole mass spectrometers. Information on congener profile prevalence in indoor dust, soil, aquatic environment (water, sediment, and aquatic organisms), eggs, wastewater treatment plant compartments, landfills (leachate and sediment) and breast milk are presented. Although PBDEs were inconsistently detected, contamination was reported for all investigated matrices in the African environment. The manifestation in remote regions indicates the ubiquitous prevalence and long-range transport of these compounds. Levels in sediment, and breast milk from some African countries were higher than reported for Asia and Europe. Due to limited data or non-detection of alternative-BFRs, it is unclear whether banned formulations were replaced in Africa. Most of the data reported for BFR levels in Africa were obtained in non-African laboratories or in South Africa and formed the basis for our discussion of reported contamination levels and related methodologies.

  13. Kilohertz laser wakefield accelerator using near critical density plasmas and millijoule-level drive pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goers, Andy

    2016-10-01

    Laser wakefield accelerators operating in the so-called bubble or blowout regime are typically driven by Joule-class femtosecond laser systems driving plasma waves in highly underdense plasmas (1017 -1019cm-3). While these accelerators are very promising for accelerating GeV scale, low emittance electron beams, the large energy requirements of the laser systems have so far limited them to repetition rates below 10 Hz. However, there are a variety of applications, such as ultrafast electron diffraction or high repetition rate gamma ray sources for materials characterization or medical radiography, which would benefit from lower energy (1-10 MeV) but higher repetition rate ( 1 kHz) sources of relativistic electrons. This talk will describe relativistic wakefield acceleration of electron bunches in the range 1-10 MeV, driven by a 1 kHz, 30 fs, 1-12 mJ laser system. Our results are made possible by the use of very high density cryogenic H2 and He gas jet targets yielding electron densities >1021cm-3 in thin 100 μm gas flows. At these high densities the critical power for relativistic self-focusing and the plasma wave phase velocity are greatly reduced, leading to pulse collapse and self-injection even with 1 mJ drive laser pulses. Applications of this source to ultrafast electron diffraction and gamma ray radiography will be discussed. This research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Science Foundation, and Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  14. Serum Uric Acid Level in Relation to Severity of the Disease and Mortality of Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Aminiahidashti, Hamed; Bozorgi, Farzad; Mousavi, Seyed Jaber; Sedighi, Omid; Gorji, Ali Morad Heidari; Rashidian, Hale

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the validity of serum uric acid (UA) in prediction of mortality among patients in the emergency department. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective cohort study which was conducted during 2014. In this study, 120 critically ill patients who required Intensive Care Unit care services were included. For evaluation of severity of the disease, mortality in emergency department score (MEDS) in the first 24 h of admission, the requirement of using mechanical ventilation, taking vasopressor during the hospitalization time and severity of the disease based on MEDS score were measured. The patients were divided into two groups: Patients with serum UA level lower than 7.3 mg/dl and patients with serum UA level of equal or more than 7.3 mg/dl. For comparison of the mortality rate in groups, Chi-square and fisher exact tests were applied. Results: In patients, who needed mechanical ventilation, average of serum UA was 7.82 ± 2.82; however, in the patients who did not need mechanical ventilation this amount was 6.16 ± 2.7, a difference was statically significant. We found a statically meaningful difference between serum UA level with requiring mechanical ventilation and the predictive level of UA 6.95 ± 0.73 (F = 8.52; P ≤ 0.004). In the evaluation of MEDS, most patients with serum UA levels lower than 7.3 mg/dl had lower MEDS points (on average 4.6 ± 3.21) in compared to patients with serum UA level higher than 7.3 mg/dl (on average 12 ± 2.99). This difference was found to be statistically significant which indicates the patients whose serum UA was 7.3 mg/dl or higher, were at higher risk of mortality. Conclusion: The serum UA level in the 1st day of hospitalization of a critically ill patient is not an independent indicative factor in relation to mortality. High level of UA reveals critical status of the patient and requires mechanical ventilation. PMID:28042216

  15. Impact of fill-level in twin-screw granulation on critical quality attributes of granules and tablets.

    PubMed

    Meier, Robin; Moll, Klaus-Peter; Krumme, Markus; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2017-02-15

    In a previous study a change of the fill-level in the barrel exerted a huge influence on the twin-screw granulation (TSG) process of a high drug loaded, simplified formulation. The present work investigated this influence systematically. The specific feed load (SFL) indicating the mass per revolution as surrogate parameter for the fill-level was applied and the correlation to the real volumetric fill level of an extruder could be demonstrated by a newly developed method. A design of experiments was conducted to examine the combined influence of SFL and screw speed on the process and on critical quality attributes of granules and tablets. The same formulation was granulated at constant liquid level with the same screw configuration and led to distinctively different results by only changing the fill-level and the screw speed. The power consumption of the extruder increased at higher SFLs with hardly any influence of screw speed. At low SFL the median residence time was mainly fill-level dependent and at higher SFL mainly screw speed dependent. Optimal values for the product characteristics were found at medium values for the SFL. Granule size distributions shifted from mono-modal and narrow shape to broader and even bimodal distributions of larger median granule sizes, when exceeding or falling below a certain fill-level. Deviating from the optimum fill-level, tensile strength of tablets decreased by about 25 % and disintegration times of tablets increased for more than one third. At low fill-levels, material accumulation in front of the kneading zone was detected by pressure measurements and was assumed to be responsible for the unfavored product performance. At high fill-levels, granule consolidation due to higher propensity of contact with the result of higher material temperature was accounted for inferior product performance. The fill-level was found to be an important factor in assessment and development of twin-screw granulation processes as it impacted

  16. The Effect of the Position of Educational Organizations within the Social Network on Their Collaboration Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugurlu, Zeynep

    2016-01-01

    In this research, it has been aimed to determine the opinions of administrators serving in the public education organizations at the central districts of Sinop on inter-organizations collaboration (collaboration levels). The study, in the descriptive survey model, has been carried out by a mixed research approach where qualitative, quantitative…

  17. Positive Psychology and Positive Education: Old Wine in New Bottles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Kristjan

    2012-01-01

    The recently fashionable theories of positive psychology have educational ramifications at virtually every level of engagement, culminating in the model of positive education. In this critical review, I scrutinize positive education as a potential theory in educational psychology. Special attention is given to conceptual controversies and…

  18. RADIOACTIVE HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANK PITTING PREDICTIONS: AN INVESTIGATION INTO CRITICAL SOLUTION CONCENTRATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E.

    2012-11-08

    A series of cyclic potentiodynamic polarization tests was performed on samples of ASTM A537 carbon steel in support of a probability-based approach to evaluate the effect of chloride and sulfate on corrosion the steel's susceptibility to pitting corrosion. Testing solutions were chosen to systemically evaluate the influence of the secondary aggressive species, chloride, and sulfate, in the nitrate based, high-level wastes. The results suggest that evaluating the combined effect of all aggressive species, nitrate, chloride, and sulfate, provides a consistent response for determining corrosion susceptibility. The results of this work emphasize the importance for not only nitrate concentration limits, but also chloride and sulfate concentration limits.

  19. Splitting of the zero-energy Landau level and universal dissipative conductivity at critical points in disordered graphene.

    PubMed

    Ortmann, Frank; Roche, Stephan

    2013-02-22

    We report on robust features of the longitudinal conductivity (σ(xx)) of the graphene zero-energy Landau level in the presence of disorder and varying magnetic fields. By mixing an Anderson disorder potential with a low density of sublattice impurities, the transition from metallic to insulating states is theoretically explored as a function of Landau-level splitting, using highly efficient real-space methods to compute the Kubo conductivities (both σ(xx) and Hall σ(xy)). As long as valley degeneracy is maintained, the obtained critical conductivity σ(xx) =/~ 1.4e(2)/h is robust upon an increase in disorder (by almost 1 order of magnitude) and magnetic fields ranging from about 2 to 200 T. When the sublattice symmetry is broken, σ(xx) eventually vanishes at the Dirac point owing to localization effects, whereas the critical conductivities of pseudospin-split states (dictating the width of a σ(xy) = 0 plateau) change to σ(xx) =/~ e(2)/h, regardless of the splitting strength, superimposed disorder, or magnetic strength. These findings point towards the nondissipative nature of the quantum Hall effect in disordered graphene in the presence of Landau level splitting.

  20. A 3-SYNAPSE POSITIVE FEEDBACK LOOP REGULATES THE EXCITABILITY OF AN INTERNEURON CRITICAL FOR SENSITIZATION IN THE LEECH

    PubMed Central

    Crisp, Kevin M.; Muller, Kenneth J.

    2007-01-01

    Sensitization of reflexive shortening in the leech has been linked to serotonin (5-HT)-induced changes in the excitability of a single interneuron, the S cell. This neuron is necessary for sensitization and complete dishabituation of reflexive shortening, during which it contributes to the sensory-motor reflex. The S cell does not contain 5-HT, which is released primarily from the Retzius (R) cells, whose firing enhances S-cell excitability. Here we show that the S cell excites the R cells, mainly via a fast disynaptic pathway in which the first synapse is the electrical junction between the S cell and the coupling interneurons, and the second synapse is a glutamatergic synapse of the coupling interneurons onto the R cells. The S cell-triggered excitatory postsynaptic potential in the R cell diminishes and nearly disappears in elevated concentrations of divalent cations because the coupling interneurons become inexcitable under these conditions. Serotonin released from the R cells feeds back upon the S cell and increases its excitability by activating a 5-HT7-like receptor; 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MeOT; 10 μM) mimics the effects of 5-HT on S cell excitability, and effects of both 5-HT and 5-MeOT are blocked by pimozide (10 μM) and SB-269970 (5 μM). This feedback loop may be critical for the full expression of sensitization of reflexive shortening. PMID:16571760

  1. Critical thinking.

    PubMed

    Price, A; Price, B

    1996-05-01

    Critical thinking is a process applied to midwifery theory, research and experience. It is a positive activity, responsive to context, drawing on negative and positive triggers and emotions to suggest ways of acting in future. Practice-based and reflective midwifery assignments should reflect the midwifery goals of critical thinking. This may require adjustments in assessment criteria and a questioning of standard academic conventions.

  2. Generating Safety-Critical PLC Code From a High-Level Application Software Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The benefits of automatic-application code generation are widely accepted within the software engineering community. These benefits include raised abstraction level of application programming, shorter product development time, lower maintenance costs, and increased code quality and consistency. Surprisingly, code generation concepts have not yet found wide acceptance and use in the field of programmable logic controller (PLC) software development. Software engineers at Kennedy Space Center recognized the need for PLC code generation while developing the new ground checkout and launch processing system, called the Launch Control System (LCS). Engineers developed a process and a prototype software tool that automatically translates a high-level representation or specification of application software into ladder logic that executes on a PLC. All the computer hardware in the LCS is planned to be commercial off the shelf (COTS), including industrial controllers or PLCs that are connected to the sensors and end items out in the field. Most of the software in LCS is also planned to be COTS, with only small adapter software modules that must be developed in order to interface between the various COTS software products. A domain-specific language (DSL) is a programming language designed to perform tasks and to solve problems in a particular domain, such as ground processing of launch vehicles. The LCS engineers created a DSL for developing test sequences of ground checkout and launch operations of future launch vehicle and spacecraft elements, and they are developing a tabular specification format that uses the DSL keywords and functions familiar to the ground and flight system users. The tabular specification format, or tabular spec, allows most ground and flight system users to document how the application software is intended to function and requires little or no software programming knowledge or experience. A small sample from a prototype tabular spec application is

  3. Analysis of Speed Performance In Soccer by a Playing Position and a Sports Level Using a Laser System

    PubMed Central

    Ferro, Amelia; Villacieros, Jorge; Floría, Pablo; Graupera, Jose L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the kinematic variables that identify the quality of velocity in soccer players at different competitive levels and playing positions. This study had two independent variables: 1) a competitive level (competitive and non-competitive players); and 2) a playing position, with four levels (central defenders, wide defenders/midfielders, central midfielders and forwards). Forty-two soccer players took part in a 30 m sprint-test, which was measured using a laser sensor-type 1 (LDM301-Jenoptik) at 2000 Hz. Absolute and relative times, average velocities and absolute and relative maximum velocities over 10 m sections were analyzed at 200 Hz with BioLaserSport®. There were no significant differences in average velocity between competitive and non-competitive players; however, the former reached a greater maximum velocity in the 10–20 m section. Average velocity in the 0–10 m section identified specificity among playing positions in competitive players. The forwards were the fastest followed by the central midfielders, the wide defenders/midfielders and the central defenders. No differences were found among the non-competitive players. Average velocity over the 0–10 meter section may be an important indicator when assigning a playing position for competitive players. These results support the use of more accurate systems, such as a laser system, to identify soccer players’ speed qualities (including maximum velocity) during short sprints. PMID:25713675

  4. Analysis of speed performance in soccer by a playing position and a sports level using a laser system.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Amelia; Villacieros, Jorge; Floría, Pablo; Graupera, Jose L

    2014-12-09

    The purpose of this study was to determine the kinematic variables that identify the quality of velocity in soccer players at different competitive levels and playing positions. This study had two independent variables: 1) a competitive level (competitive and non-competitive players); and 2) a playing position, with four levels (central defenders, wide defenders/midfielders, central midfielders and forwards). Forty-two soccer players took part in a 30 m sprint-test, which was measured using a laser sensor-type 1 (LDM301-Jenoptik) at 2000 Hz. Absolute and relative times, average velocities and absolute and relative maximum velocities over 10 m sections were analyzed at 200 Hz with BioLaserSport(®). There were no significant differences in average velocity between competitive and non-competitive players; however, the former reached a greater maximum velocity in the 10-20 m section. Average velocity in the 0-10 m section identified specificity among playing positions in competitive players. The forwards were the fastest followed by the central midfielders, the wide defenders/midfielders and the central defenders. No differences were found among the non-competitive players. Average velocity over the 0-10 meter section may be an important indicator when assigning a playing position for competitive players. These results support the use of more accurate systems, such as a laser system, to identify soccer players' speed qualities (including maximum velocity) during short sprints.

  5. Anthropometric characteristics, physical fitness and technical performance of under-19 soccer players by competitive level and field position.

    PubMed

    Rebelo, A; Brito, J; Maia, J; Coelho-e-Silva, M J; Figueiredo, A J; Bangsbo, J; Malina, R M; Seabra, A

    2013-04-01

    Anthropometric characteristics, physical fitness and technical skills of under-19 (U19) soccer players were compared by competitive level (elite, n=95; non-elite, n=85) and playing position (goalkeeper, central defender, fullback, midfield, forward). Fitness tests included 5- and 30-m sprints, agility, squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ), strength and Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test level 2 (Yo-Yo IE2). Soccer-specific skills included ball control and dribbling. Independent of position, elite players presented more hours of training per year than non-elite players (d>1.2). Stature and body mass discriminated elite from non-elite players among goalkeepers and central defenders (d>0.6). Major differences were noted between elite and non-elite goalkeepers for SJ, CMJ, Yo-Yo IE2, and ball control (d>1.2). Elite central defenders performed better than their non-elite counterparts in SJ and ball control tests (d>1.2). Elite players presented better agility and Yo-Yo IE2 performances than non-elite players within all positional roles (d>0.6). In conclusion, U19 players differed in anthropometric characteristics, physical fitness and technical skills by competitive level within field positions.

  6. Serum vitamin D levels are positively associated with varicella zoster immunity in chronic dialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Chia-Ter; Lee, Szu-Ying; Yang, Wei-Shun; Yen, Chung-Jen; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Huang, Jenq-Wen; Hung, Kuan-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Uremia results in a relatively immunocompromised status, and patients under chronic dialysis have an elevated risk of developing herpes zoster (HZ). We sought to investigate the relationship between vitamin D status and immunity to varicella-zoster virus (VZV). A multicenter prevalent hemodialysis cohort was assembled between 2012 and 2013. We assayed the biochemical parameters, 25-hydroxy- (25-OH-D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, vitamin D-binding protein levels in the sera. VZV immunity was quantitated using VZV-specific glycoprotein IgG and IgM titers. Eighty-eight patients were enrolled and their sera were analyzed. Chronic hemodialysis patients with 25-OH-D < 30 ng/ml (insufficiency or deficiency) had significantly lower VZV-IgG than those with sufficient 25-OH-D (p = 0.04). This discrepancy became more prominent if active vitamin D users alone were analyzed (p = 0.01). Generalized additive modeling showed that those with 25-OH-D higher than 27.8 ng/ml or bioavailable 25-OH-D higher than 3.88 ng/ml had significantly higher VZV-IgG levels than those with lower values. Linear regression suggested that both total and bioavailable 25-OH-D were significantly associated with higher VZV-IgG levels (p = 0.003 [total] and 0.01 [bioavailable]), whereas patients with cancer had lower VZV-IgG. Vitamin D may therefore be a potentially useful choice for raising VZV immunity in chronic dialysis patients. PMID:25487609

  7. D-dimer levels in maintenance hemodialysis patients: High prevalence of positive values also in the group without predisposing diseases.

    PubMed

    Gubensek, Jakob; Lolic, Matea; Ponikvar, Rafael; Buturovic-Ponikvar, Jadranka

    2016-04-01

    We aimed to estimate the prevalence of elevated D-dimer levels in all chronic hemodialysis patients and those without additional disease, and to identify factors associated with increased D-dimer. In 167 chronic hemodialysis patients from our center, D-dimer was measured before dialysis. The effects of age, C-reactive protein (CRP), recent acute illness, vascular access, anticoagulation type, dialysis vintage, and chronic diseases, considered to predispose for increased D-dimer levels, were analyzed. The median D-dimer in the whole group was 966 (inter-quartile range [IQR] 524-1947) μg/L and was positive (>500 μg/L) in 75% of cases. D-dimer was positive in 91% of patients with acute illness, 76% of those with predisposing chronic diseases, but was still positive in 52% of patients without additional disease (i.e., acute illness or predisposing chronic diseases) - median D-dimer was 538.5 (IQR 359-966) μg/L. D-dimer was correlated to patients' age, but not dialysis vintage. In univariate analysis, the D-dimer levels were significantly higher in patients with atrial fibrillation, ischemic heart disease, recent acute illness, increased CRP, dialyzed over a catheter, and on citrate anticoagulation. Multivariate logistic regression showed that only age >65 years (odds ratio [OR] 2.93), catheter (OR 4.86), and positive CRP (OR 4.07) were independently associated with positive D-dimer at 500 μg/L cut-off, while the significance of age disappeared at 2000 μg/L cut-off. To conclude, the high prevalence of positive D-dimer values even in hemodialysis patients without additional disease limits the use of D-dimer for exclusion of thromboembolic diseases in hemodialysis patients.

  8. Exposure to air pollution in critical prenatal time windows and IgE levels in newborns.

    PubMed

    Herr, Caroline E W; Ghosh, Rakesh; Dostal, Miroslav; Skokanova, Venuse; Ashwood, Paul; Lipsett, Michael; Joad, Jesse P; Pinkerton, Kent E; Yap, Poh-Sin; Frost, Joshua D; Sram, Radim; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the mechanisms by which exposure to ambient air pollutants influences respiratory health may include altered prenatal immune development. To analyze associations between elevated cord serum Immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels and maternal air pollution exposure during each month of gestation. Total cord serum IgE was determined by the CAP system and mothers' total IgE levels by nephelometry for 459 births in the Czech Republic from May 1994 to mid-January 1997. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and particulate matter <2.5 microns in diameter (PM(2.5) ) were measured in ambient air, and arithmetic means were calculated for each gestational month. Log binomial regression models were used to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) for elevated cord serum IgE (≥0.9 IU/ml) adjusting for district of residence, year of birth, and in further models, for maternal IgE (a surrogate for atopy) and gestational season. Heterogeneity by maternal atopy status was evaluated for associations of air pollution and of cigarette smoke. In adjusted models, PAH and PM(2.5) exposures in the second month of gestation were each associated with a lower prevalence of elevated cord serum IgE. For an average increase of 100 ng/m(3) of PAHs, the PR was 0.69 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50, 0.95); for 25 μg/m(3) increase in PM(2.5) , the PR was 0.77 (95% CI: 0.55, 1.07). Conversely, exposures later in gestation were associated with a higher prevalence of elevated cord IgE: in the fifth month, the PR for PAH exposure was 1.64 (95% CI: 1.29, 2.08), while for PM(2.5) in the sixth month, it was 1.66 (95% CI: 1.30, 2.13). In analyses stratified by maternal atopy, air pollutants were associated with altered cord serum IgE only among neonates with non-atopic mothers. Similarly, an association of cigarette smoke with elevated cord serum IgE was found only in non-atopic mothers. PAHs and PM(2.5) , constituents of both ambient air pollution and

  9. Vitamin D Status: Current Opinion on Critical Levels for Plasma Calcium and Bone Mineral Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Currently there is an unprecedented level of interest regarding the purported wide-ranging beneficial effects of an adequate vitamin D status translating into marked increases in test requests for clinical laboratories. The well characterised endocrine pathway of vitamin D metabolism and action is solely responsible for vitamin D regulating plasma calcium and phosphate homeostasis. A large body of data confirm that vitamin D exerts activities within each of the major bone cells and that these same cells are capable of synthesising the active metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D from 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Such data arising from in vitro studies, animal models and clinical sources are consistent with a paradigm that local metabolism of vitamin D by bone cells to form 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and its consequent local actions within bone cells exerts an anabolic effect to increase bone mineral status. The data reviewed here provide plausible mechanisms for both catabolic and anabolic actions of vitamin D on bone depending on dietary calcium intake. PMID:27683393

  10. Balanced levels of Espin are critical for stereociliary growth and length maintenance.

    PubMed

    Rzadzinska, Agnieszka; Schneider, Mark; Noben-Trauth, Konrad; Bartles, James R; Kachar, Bechara

    2005-11-01

    Hearing and balance depend on microvilli-like actin-based projections of sensory hair cells called stereocilia. Their sensitivity to mechanical displacements on the nanometer scale requires a highly organized hair bundle in which the physical dimension of each stereocilium is tightly controlled. The length and diameter of each stereocilium are established during hair bundle maturation and maintained by life-long continuing dynamic regulation. Here, we studied the role of the actin-bundling protein Espin in stereociliary growth by examining the hair cell stereocilia of Espin-deficient jerker mice (Espn(je)), and the effects of transiently overexpressing Espin in the neuroepithelial cells of the organ of Corti cultures. Using fluorescence scanning confocal and electron microscopy, we found that a lack of Espin results in inhibition of stereociliary growth followed by progressive degeneration of the hair bundle. In contrast, overexpression of Espin induced lengthening of stereocilia and microvilli that mirrored the elongation of the actin filament bundle at their core. Interestingly, Espin deficiency also appeared to influence the localization of Myosin XVa, an unconventional myosin that is normally present at the stereocilia tip at levels proportional to stereocilia length. These results indicate that Espin is important for the growth and maintenance of the actin-based protrusions of inner ear neuroepithelial cells.

  11. Measurement of position-specific 13C isotopic composition of propane at the nanomole level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Alexis; Yamada, Keita; Suda, Konomi; Ueno, Yuichiro; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2016-03-01

    We have developed a novel method for analyzing intramolecular carbon isotopic distribution of propane as a potential new tracer of its origin. The method is based on on-line pyrolysis of propane followed by analysis of carbon isotope ratios of the pyrolytic products methane, ethylene and ethane. Using propane samples spiked with 13C at the terminal methyl carbon, we characterize the origin of the pyrolytic fragments. We show that the exchange between C-atoms during the pyrolytic process is negligible, and thus that relative intramolecular isotope composition can be calculated. Preliminary data from 3 samples show that site-preference (SP) values, defined as the difference of δ13C values between terminal and sub-terminal C-atom positions of propane, range from -1.8‰ to -12.9‰. In addition, SP value obtained using our method for a thermogenic natural gas sample is consistent with that expected from theoretical models of thermal cracking, suggesting that the isotope fractionation associated with propane pyrolysis is negligible. The method will provide novel insights into the characterization of the origin of propane and will help better understand the biogeochemistry of natural gas deposits.

  12. Positive attitude toward healthy eating predicts higher diet quality at all cost levels of supermarkets.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Anju; Monsivais, Pablo; Cook, Andrea J; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-02-01

    Shopping at low-cost supermarkets has been associated with higher obesity rates. This study examined whether attitudes toward healthy eating are independently associated with diet quality among shoppers at low-cost, medium-cost, and high-cost supermarkets. Data on socioeconomic status (SES), attitudes toward healthy eating, and supermarket choice were collected using a telephone survey of a representative sample of adult residents of King County, WA. Dietary intake data were based on a food frequency questionnaire. Thirteen supermarket chains were stratified into three categories: low, medium, and high cost, based on a market basket of 100 commonly eaten foods. Diet-quality measures were energy density, mean adequacy ratio, and total servings of fruits and vegetables. The analytical sample consisted of 963 adults. Multivariable regressions with robust standard error examined relations between diet quality, supermarket type, attitudes, and SES. Shopping at higher-cost supermarkets was associated with higher-quality diets. These associations persisted after adjusting for SES, but were eliminated after taking attitudinal measures into account. Supermarket shoppers with positive attitudes toward healthy eating had equally higher-quality diets, even if they shopped at low-, medium-, or high-cost supermarkets, independent of SES and other covariates. These findings imply that shopping at low-cost supermarkets does not prevent consumers from having high-quality diets, as long as they attach importance to good nutrition. Promoting nutrition-education strategies among supermarkets, particularly those catering to low-income groups, can help to improve diet quality.

  13. Potential for and consequences of criticality resulting from hydrogeochemically concentrated fissile uranium blended with soil in low-level waste disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, C.M.; Parks, C.V.

    1997-08-01

    Evaluations were done to determine conditions that could permit nuclear criticality with fissile uranium in low-level-waste (LLW) facilities and to estimate potential radiation exposures to personnel if there were such an accident. Simultaneous hydrogeochemical and nuclear criticality studies were done (1) to identify some realistic scenarios for uranium migration and concentration increase at LLW disposal facilities, (2) to model groundwater transport and subsequent concentration via sorption or precipitation of uranium, (3) to evaluate the potential for nuclear criticality resulting from potential increases in uranium concentration over disposal limits, and (4) to estimate potential radiation exposures to personnel resulting from criticality consequences. The scope of the referenced work was restricted to uranium at an assumed 100 wt% {sup 235}U enrichment. Three outcomes of uranium concentration are possible: uranium concentration is increased to levels that do pose a criticality safety concern; uranium concentration is increased, but levels do not pose a criticality safety concern; or uranium concentration does not increase.

  14. Evaluation of constructivist pedagogy: Influence on critical thinking skills, science fair participation and level of performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foxx, Robbie Evelyn

    Science education reform, driven by a rapidly advancing technological society, demands the attention of both elementary and middle school curriculum-developers. Science education training in current standards (National Research Council [NRC] Standards 1996) emphasize inquiry, which is reported to be a basic tenet of the theory known as constructivism (NAASP, 1996; Cohen, 1988; Conley, 1993; Friedman, 1999; Newman, Marks, & Gamoran, 1996; Smerdon & Burkam 1999; Sizer 1992; Talbert & McLaughlin 1993; Tobin & Gallagher, 1987; Yager, 1991, 2000). Pedagogy focusing on the tenets of constructivist theory, at the intermediate level, can address current science standards. Many science educators believe participation in science fairs helps students develop the attitudes, skills, and knowledge that will help them to be comfortable and successful in the scientific and technological society (Czerniak, 1996). Competing in science fairs is one vehicle which allows students to apply science to societal issues, solve problems and model those things scientists do. Moreover, constructing a science fair project is suggested as being an excellent means to foster the development of concepts necessary in promoting scientific literacy (Czerniak, 1996). Research further suggests that through science fairs or other inquiry activities, students construct their knowledge with fewer misconceptions as they explore and discover the nature of science (NRC 1996). Tohn 's study (as cited in Bellipanni, 1994) stated that science fairs are a major campaign to increase student skills and to allow students a chance to have fun with science. The purpose of this research was twofold: (1) to assess science problem solving skills of students instructed using constructivist pedagogy, and (2) to explore the effects of constructivist pedagogy's influence(s) on science fair participation/placement. Students' attitudes resulting from these experiences were examined as well.

  15. Plasma ω-3 fatty acid levels negatively and ω-6 fatty acid levels positively associated with other cardiovascular risk factors including homocysteine in severe obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Mehmetoglu, Idris; Yerlikaya, F Hümeyra; Kurban, Sevil; Polat, Hakkı

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and homocysteine (tHcy) are important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Plasma omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3 FAs) and omega-6 fatty acids (ω-6 FAs) are essential fatty acids with diverse biological effects in human health and disease. We have investigated the relation of plasma ω-3 FAs and ω-6 FAs levels with other cardiovascular risk factors including tHcy in severe obese subjects. This study was performed on 96 severe obese and 65 normal weight subjects. Plasma fatty acid composition was measured by GC/MS and serum tHcy level was measured by HPLC methods. There were no differences between groups in terms of concentrations of serum tHcy, plasma ω-3 FAs, ω-6 FAs and ω-3/ω-6 ratio, whereas serum vitamin B-12 (p<0.01) and folic acid (p<0.05) levels were lower than those of the normal weight subjects. Homocysteine positively correlated with ω-6 FAs and negatively correlated with ω-3 FAs in severe obese and normal weight subjects. Serum vitamin B-12 positively correlated with ω-3 FAs (p<0.01) and ω-3/ω-6 ratio (p<0.01) and negatively correlated with ω-6 FAs (p<0.05) in severe obese subjects. Serum folic acid positively correlated with ω-3 FAs (p<0.01) in severe obese subjects. Our results suggest an association between the plasma ω-3 FAs and ω-6 FAs and serum tHcy concentrations in severe obese and normal weight subjects. Low levels vitamin B-12 and folic acid may have been responsible for the elevated tHcy levels in severe obese subjects, increasing the risk for future development of cardiovascular diseases.

  16. The critical size is set at a single-cell level by growth rate to attain homeostasis and adaptation.

    PubMed

    Ferrezuelo, Francisco; Colomina, Neus; Palmisano, Alida; Garí, Eloi; Gallego, Carme; Csikász-Nagy, Attila; Aldea, Martí

    2012-01-01

    Budding yeast cells are assumed to trigger Start and enter the cell cycle only after they attain a critical size set by external conditions. However, arguing against deterministic models of cell size control, cell volume at Start displays great individual variability even under constant conditions. Here we show that cell size at Start is robustly set at a single-cell level by the volume growth rate in G1, which explains the observed variability. We find that this growth-rate-dependent sizer is intimately hardwired into the Start network and the Ydj1 chaperone is key for setting cell size as a function of the individual growth rate. Mathematical modelling and experimental data indicate that a growth-rate-dependent sizer is sufficient to ensure size homeostasis and, as a remarkable advantage over a rigid sizer mechanism, it reduces noise in G1 length and provides an immediate solution for size adaptation to external conditions at a population level.

  17. Towards population-level conservation in the critically endangered Antarctic blue whale: the number and distribution of their populations.

    PubMed

    Attard, Catherine R M; Beheregaray, Luciano B; Möller, Luciana M

    2016-03-08

    Population-level conservation is required to prevent biodiversity loss within a species, but it first necessitates determining the number and distribution of populations. Many whale populations are still depleted due to 20th century whaling. Whales are one of the most logistically difficult and expensive animals to study because of their mobility, pelagic lifestyle and often remote habitat. We tackle the question of population structure in the Antarctic blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus intermedia) - a critically endangered subspecies and the largest extant animal - by capitalizing on the largest genetic dataset to date for Antarctic blue whales. We found evidence of three populations that are sympatric in the Antarctic feeding grounds and likely occupy separate breeding grounds. Our study adds to knowledge of population structure in the Antarctic blue whale. Future research should invest in locating the breeding grounds and migratory routes of Antarctic blue whales through satellite telemetry to confirm their population structure and allow population-level conservation.

  18. Towards population-level conservation in the critically endangered Antarctic blue whale: the number and distribution of their populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attard, Catherine R. M.; Beheregaray, Luciano B.; Möller, Luciana M.

    2016-03-01

    Population-level conservation is required to prevent biodiversity loss within a species, but it first necessitates determining the number and distribution of populations. Many whale populations are still depleted due to 20th century whaling. Whales are one of the most logistically difficult and expensive animals to study because of their mobility, pelagic lifestyle and often remote habitat. We tackle the question of population structure in the Antarctic blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus intermedia) – a critically endangered subspecies and the largest extant animal – by capitalizing on the largest genetic dataset to date for Antarctic blue whales. We found evidence of three populations that are sympatric in the Antarctic feeding grounds and likely occupy separate breeding grounds. Our study adds to knowledge of population structure in the Antarctic blue whale. Future research should invest in locating the breeding grounds and migratory routes of Antarctic blue whales through satellite telemetry to confirm their population structure and allow population-level conservation.

  19. Towards population-level conservation in the critically endangered Antarctic blue whale: the number and distribution of their populations

    PubMed Central

    Attard, Catherine R. M.; Beheregaray, Luciano B.; Möller, Luciana M.

    2016-01-01

    Population-level conservation is required to prevent biodiversity loss within a species, but it first necessitates determining the number and distribution of populations. Many whale populations are still depleted due to 20th century whaling. Whales are one of the most logistically difficult and expensive animals to study because of their mobility, pelagic lifestyle and often remote habitat. We tackle the question of population structure in the Antarctic blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus intermedia) – a critically endangered subspecies and the largest extant animal – by capitalizing on the largest genetic dataset to date for Antarctic blue whales. We found evidence of three populations that are sympatric in the Antarctic feeding grounds and likely occupy separate breeding grounds. Our study adds to knowledge of population structure in the Antarctic blue whale. Future research should invest in locating the breeding grounds and migratory routes of Antarctic blue whales through satellite telemetry to confirm their population structure and allow population-level conservation. PMID:26951747

  20. Methionine and S-Adenosylmethionine levels are critical regulators of PP2A activity modulating lipophagy during steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Zubiete-Franco, Imanol; García-Rodríguez, Juan Luis; Martínez-Uña, Maite; Martínez-Lopez, Nuria; Woodhoo, Ashwin; Juan, Virginia Gutiérrez-De; Beraza, Naiara; Lage-Medina, Sergio; Andrade, Fernando; Fernandez, Marta Llarena; Aldámiz-Echevarría, Luis; Fernández-Ramos, David; Falcon-Perez, Juan Manuel; Lopitz-Otsoa, Fernando; Fernandez-Tussy, Pablo; Barbier-Torres, Lucía; Luka, Zigmund; Wagner, Conrad; García-Monzón, Carmelo; Lu, Shelly C.; Aspichueta, Patricia; Mato, José María; Martínez-Chantar, María Luz; Varela-Rey, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) expression is decreased in some patients with severe NAFLD. Gnmt deficiency in mice (Gnmt-KO) results in abnormally elevated serum levels of methionine and its metabolite S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), and this leads to rapid liver steatosis development. Autophagy plays a critical role in lipid catabolism (lipophagy), and defects in autophagy have been related to liver steatosis development. Since methionine and its metabolite SAMe are well known inactivators of autophagy, we aimed to examine whether high levels of both metabolites could block autophagy-mediated lipid catabolism. Methods We examined methionine levels in a cohort of 358 serum samples from steatotic patients. We used hepatocytes cultured with methionine and SAMe, and hepatocytes and livers from Gnmt-KO mice. Results We detected a significant increase in serum methionine levels in steatotic patients. We observed that autophagy and lipophagy were impaired in hepatocytes cultured with high methionine and SAMe, and that Gnmt-KO livers were characterized by an impairment in autophagy functionality, likely caused by defects at the lysosomal level. Elevated levels of methionine and SAMe activated PP2A by methylation, while blocking PP2A activity restored autophagy flux in Gnmt-KO hepatocytes, and in hepatocytes treated with SAMe and Methionine. Finally, normalization of methionine and SAMe levels in Gnmt-KO mice using a methionine deficient diet normalized the methylation capacity, PP2A methylation, autophagy, and ameloriated liver steatosis. Conclusions These data suggest that elevated levels of methionine and SAMe can inhibit autophagic catabolism of lipids contributing to liver steatosis. PMID:26394163

  1. Critical peripheral ischemia precipitated by severe episode of Raynaud's phenomenon in a patient with aPL-positive systemic lupus erythematosus, upon high titer anti-RNP seroconversion.

    PubMed

    Levy, O; Maslakov, I; Vosco, S; Markov, A; Amit-Vazina, M; Tishler, M

    2015-03-01

    A 35-year-old female with long standing aPL-positive lupus without history of thromboembolic events, who has developed critical peripheral ischemia (CPI) is described. An episode of severe Raynaud's phenomenon rapidly progressed to an extensive digit-threatening ischemia, involving bilateral hands and feet. She was successfully treated with corticosteroids, anticoagulation, iloprost, sildenafil, and nifedipine. Her serological studies were remarkable for the emergence of high titer anti-RNP seroconversion and an increase in aPL titer, suggesting that these autoantibodies played a role in the pathogenesis of CPI. It is important to note that such observation should herald this potentially devastating complication of systemic lupus erythematosus.

  2. Antigenicity of UV radiation-induced murine tumors correlates positively with the level of adenosine deaminase activity.

    PubMed

    Aukerman, S L; Fidler, I J

    1987-01-01

    The specific activities of adenosine deaminase (ADA) in 16 murine tumor cell lines derived from seven UV light-induced neoplasms (melanoma and fibrosarcoma) were determined. In each case, the specific activity of ADA correlated positively with the antigenicity of the tumor cells. Highly antigenic cell lines that regress upon introduction into syngeneic hosts had on average 4- to 6-fold higher ADA specific activities than cell lines of low antigenicity that grow progressively in syngeneic hosts. The antigenic differences are probably not related to intracellular cAMP levels, as the level of cAMP differed only 2-fold between the two groups of cell lines.

  3. Joint positioning sense, perceived force level and two-point discrimination tests of young and active elderly adults

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Priscila G.; Santos, Karini B.; Rodacki, André L. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Changes in the proprioceptive system are associated with aging. Proprioception is important to maintaining and/or recovering balance and to reducing the risk of falls. Objective: To compare the performance of young and active elderly adults in three proprioceptive tests. Method: Twenty-one active elderly participants (66.9±5.5 years) and 21 healthy young participants (24.6±3.9 years) were evaluated in the following tests: perception of position of the ankle and hip joints, perceived force level of the ankle joint, and two-point discrimination of the sole of the foot. Results: No differences (p>0.05) were found between groups for the joint position and perceived force level. On the other hand, the elderly participants showed lower sensitivity in the two-point discrimination (higher threshold) when compared to the young participants (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Except for the cutaneous plantar sensitivity, the active elderly participants had maintained proprioception. Their physical activity status may explain similarities between groups for the joint position sense and perceived force level, however it may not be sufficient to prevent sensory degeneration with aging. PMID:26443978

  4. A lane-level LBS system for vehicle network with high-precision BDS/GPS positioning.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chi; Guo, Wenfei; Cao, Guangyi; Dong, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, research on vehicle network location service has begun to focus on its intelligence and precision. The accuracy of space-time information has become a core factor for vehicle network systems in a mobile environment. However, difficulties persist in vehicle satellite positioning since deficiencies in the provision of high-quality space-time references greatly limit the development and application of vehicle networks. In this paper, we propose a high-precision-based vehicle network location service to solve this problem. The major components of this study include the following: (1) application of wide-area precise positioning technology to the vehicle network system. An adaptive correction message broadcast protocol is designed to satisfy the requirements for large-scale target precise positioning in the mobile Internet environment; (2) development of a concurrence service system with a flexible virtual expansion architecture to guarantee reliable data interaction between vehicles and the background; (3) verification of the positioning precision and service quality in the urban environment. Based on this high-precision positioning service platform, a lane-level location service is designed to solve a typical traffic safety problem.

  5. A Lane-Level LBS System for Vehicle Network with High-Precision BDS/GPS Positioning

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Chi; Guo, Wenfei; Cao, Guangyi; Dong, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, research on vehicle network location service has begun to focus on its intelligence and precision. The accuracy of space-time information has become a core factor for vehicle network systems in a mobile environment. However, difficulties persist in vehicle satellite positioning since deficiencies in the provision of high-quality space-time references greatly limit the development and application of vehicle networks. In this paper, we propose a high-precision-based vehicle network location service to solve this problem. The major components of this study include the following: (1) application of wide-area precise positioning technology to the vehicle network system. An adaptive correction message broadcast protocol is designed to satisfy the requirements for large-scale target precise positioning in the mobile Internet environment; (2) development of a concurrence service system with a flexible virtual expansion architecture to guarantee reliable data interaction between vehicles and the background; (3) verification of the positioning precision and service quality in the urban environment. Based on this high-precision positioning service platform, a lane-level location service is designed to solve a typical traffic safety problem. PMID:25755665

  6. Levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in the critically endangered Iberian lynx and other sympatric carnivores in Spain.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Rafael; Millán, Javier; Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime; Camarero, Pablo R; Palomares, Francisco; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E

    2012-02-01

    Accumulation of organochlorine compounds is well studied in aquatic food chains whereas little information is available from terrestrial food chains. This study presents data of organochlorine levels in tissue and plasma samples of 15 critically endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) and other 55 wild carnivores belonging to five species from three natural areas of Spain (Doñana National Park, Sierra Morena and Lozoya River) and explores their relationship with species diet. The Iberian lynx, with a diet based on the consumption of rabbit, had lower PCB levels (geometric means, plasma: <0.01 ng mL(-1), liver: 0.4ngg(-1) wet weight, fat: 87 ng g(-1)lipid weight) than other carnivores with more anthropic and opportunistic foraging behavior, such as the red fox (Vulpes vulpes; plasma: 1.11 ng mL(-1), liver: 459 ng g(-1), fat: 1984 ng g(-1)), or with diets including reptiles at higher proportion, such as the Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon; plasma: 7.15 ng mL(-1), liver: 216 ng g(-1), fat: 540 ng g(-1)), or the common genet (Genetta genetta; liver: 466 ng g(-1), fat: 3854 ng g(-1)). Chlorinated pesticides showed interspecific variations similar to PCBs. Organochlorine levels have declined since the 80s in carnivores from Doñana National Park, but PCB levels are still of concern in Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra; liver: 3873-5426 ng g(-1)) from the industrialized region of Madrid.

  7. Assessment of mangrove response to projected relative sea-level rise and recent historical reconstruction of shoreline position.

    PubMed

    Gilman, Eric; Ellison, Joanna; Coleman, Richard

    2007-01-01

    We predict the decadal change in position of three American Samoa mangroves from analysis of a time series of remotely sensed imagery, a geographic information system, tide gauge data, and projections for change in sea-level relative to the mangrove surface. Accurate predictions of changes to coastal ecosystem boundaries, including in response to projected relative sea-level rise, enable advanced planning to minimize and offset anticipated losses and minimize social disruption and cost of reducing threats to coastal development and human safety. The observed mean landward migration of three mangroves' seaward margins over four decades was 25, 64, and 72 mma(-1), 12 to 37 times the observed relative sea-level rise rate. Two of the sites had clear trends in reductions in mangrove area, where there was a highly significant correlation between the change in position of the seaward mangrove margin and change in relative sea-level. Here it can be inferred that the force of sea-level rise relative to the mangrove surface is causing landward migration. Shoreline movement was variable at a third site and not significantly correlated with changing sea-level, where it is likely that forces other than change in relative sea-level are predominant. Currently, 16.5%, 23.4%, and 68.0% of the three mangroves' landward margins are obstructed by coastal development from natural landward migration. The three mangroves could experience as high as a 50.0% reduction in area by the year 2100. A 12% reduction in mangrove area by the year 2100 is possible in the Pacific islands region.

  8. Hepatic Tissue Environment in NEMO-Deficient Mice Critically Regulates Positive Selection of Donor Cells after Hepatocyte Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kaldenbach, Michaela; Cubero, Francisco Javier; Erschfeld, Stephanie; Liedtke, Christian; Trautwein, Christian; Streetz, Konrad

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatocyte transplantation (HT) is a promising alternative treatment strategy for end-stage liver diseases compared with orthotopic liver transplantation. A limitation for this approach is the low engraftment of donor cells. The deletion of the I-kappa B kinase-regulatory subunit IKKγ/NEMO in hepatocytes prevents nuclear factor (NF)-kB activation and triggers spontaneous liver apoptosis, chronic hepatitis and the development of liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. We hypothesized that NEMOΔhepa mice may therefore serve as an experimental model to study HT. Methods Pre-conditioned NEMOΔhepa mice were transplanted with donor-hepatocytes from wildtype (WT) and mice deficient for the pro-apoptotic mediator Caspase-8 (Casp8Δhepa). Results Transplantation of isolated WT-hepatocytes into pre-conditioned NEMOΔhepa mice resulted in a 6-7 fold increase of donor cells 12 weeks after HT, while WT-recipients showed no liver repopulation. The use of apoptosis-resistant Casp8Δhepa-derived donor cells further enhanced the selection 3-fold after 12-weeks and up to 10-fold increase after 52 weeks compared with WT donors. While analysis of NEMOΔhepa mice revealed strong liver injury, HT-recipient NEMOΔhepa mice showed improved liver morphology and decrease in serum transaminases. Concomitant with these findings, the histological examination elicited an improved liver tissue architecture associated with significantly lower levels of apoptosis, decreased proliferation and a lesser amount of liver fibrogenesis. Altogether, our data clearly support the therapeutic benefit of the HT procedure into NEMOΔhepa mice. Conclusion This study demonstrates the feasibility of the NEMOΔhepa mouse as an in vivo tool to study liver repopulation after HT. The improvement of the characteristic phenotype of chronic liver injury in NEMOΔhepa mice after HT suggests the therapeutic potential of HT in liver diseases with a chronic inflammatory phenotype and opens a new door for

  9. Coupled sensor/platform control design for low-level chemical detection with position-adaptive micro-UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, Thomas; Carr, Ryan; Mitra, Atindra K.; Selmic, Rastko R.

    2009-05-01

    We discuss the development of Position-Adaptive Sensors [1] for purposes for detecting embedded chemical substances in challenging environments. This concept is a generalization of patented Position-Adaptive Radar Concepts developed at AFRL for challenging conditions such as urban environments. For purposes of investigating the detection of chemical substances using multiple MAV (Micro-UAV) platforms, we have designed and implemented an experimental testbed with sample structures such as wooden carts that contain controlled leakage points. Under this general concept, some of the members of a MAV swarm can serve as external position-adaptive "transmitters" by blowing air over the cart and some of the members of a MAV swarm can serve as external position-adaptive "receivers" that are equipped with chemical or biological (chem/bio) sensors that function as "electronic noses". The objective can be defined as improving the particle count of chem/bio concentrations that impinge on a MAV-based position-adaptive sensor that surrounds a chemical repository, such as a cart, via the development of intelligent position-adaptive control algorithms. The overall effect is to improve the detection and false-alarm statistics of the overall system. Within the major sections of this paper, we discuss a number of different aspects of developing our initial MAV-Based Sensor Testbed. This testbed includes blowers to simulate position-adaptive excitations and a MAV from Draganfly Innovations Inc. with stable design modifications to accommodate our chem/bio sensor boom design. We include details with respect to several critical phases of the development effort including development of the wireless sensor network and experimental apparatus, development of the stable sensor boom for the MAV, integration of chem/bio sensors and sensor node onto the MAV and boom, development of position-adaptive control algorithms and initial tests at IDCAST (Institute for the Development and

  10. Foraging rates of larval dragonfly colonists are positively related to habitat isolation: results from a landscape-level experiment.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Shannon J; Brodin, Tomas; Hammond, John

    2010-03-01

    There is increasing evidence of intraspecific variation in dispersal behavior. Individual differences in dispersal behavior may be correlated with other traits that determine the impact individuals have on patches they colonize. We established habitat patches-artificial pools-across a landscape, and these pools were naturally colonized by dragonfly larvae. Larvae were collected from pools at different levels of isolation and held under common lab conditions for 5 months. We then compared larval foraging rates. Foraging rate was positively related to habitat isolation, and colonists from the most isolated artificial pools had significantly higher foraging rates than individuals from the least isolated pools. Our results indicate that spatial patterns in colonist behavior can develop across a landscape independent of species-level dispersal limitation. This finding suggests that studies of community structure across space should include an assessment of the distribution of phenotypes as well as species-level dispersal limitation patterns.

  11. A novel piezoelectrically actuated 2-DoF compliant micro/nano-positioning stage with multi-level amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wu-Le; Zhu, Zhiwei; Shi, Yi; Chen, Xiangfan; He, Yu; Ehmann, Kornel F.; Ju, Bing-Feng

    2016-10-01

    This article presents a novel two-degrees-of-freedom (2-DoF) piezo-actuated parallel-kinematic micro/nano-positioning stage with multi-level amplification. The mirror symmetric stage consists of four leverage mechanisms, two Scott-Russell mechanisms, and a Z-shaped flexure hinge (ZFH) mechanism. Taking advantage of the ZFH mechanism, 2-DoF motions with final-level flexural amplification and decoupled motion guidance are achieved. Analytical models of the stage are developed and validated through finite element analysis to characterize its working performance. Practical testing of a prototype stage is conducted to demonstrate the design process and to quantify its response characteristics. Due to the utilized multi-level amplification, a practical amplification ratio of 13.0 is realized by the prototype. The decoupled output motion guidance feature of the stage makes it amenable for implementation in raster scanning type of measurements.

  12. On the positive correlation between education and fertility intentions in Europe: Individual- and country-level evidence.

    PubMed

    Testa, Maria Rita

    2014-09-01

    Increasing shares of European women are making large investments in their human capital. Whether and to what extent these investments are in conflict with reproductive behaviour are issues that have repercussions for fertility levels. Using two Eurobarometer survey data (2006 and 2011) on individuals clustered in the 27 EU countries, I investigate the relationship between women's education and lifetime fertility intentions. Results suggest that a positive association between women's level of education and lifetime fertility intentions exists at both the individual and country levels, as well as in a micro-macro integrated framework. The main explanation for these findings--which remains to be proven by future research--is that, in institutional contexts allowing highly educated women to have large families, women of reproductive ages are more prone to make investments in both human capital and family size, because these choices are not seen as incompatible alternatives.

  13. A novel piezoelectrically actuated 2-DoF compliant micro/nano-positioning stage with multi-level amplification.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wu-Le; Zhu, Zhiwei; Shi, Yi; Chen, Xiangfan; He, Yu; Ehmann, Kornel F; Ju, Bing-Feng

    2016-10-01

    This article presents a novel two-degrees-of-freedom (2-DoF) piezo-actuated parallel-kinematic micro/nano-positioning stage with multi-level amplification. The mirror symmetric stage consists of four leverage mechanisms, two Scott-Russell mechanisms, and a Z-shaped flexure hinge (ZFH) mechanism. Taking advantage of the ZFH mechanism, 2-DoF motions with final-level flexural amplification and decoupled motion guidance are achieved. Analytical models of the stage are developed and validated through finite element analysis to characterize its working performance. Practical testing of a prototype stage is conducted to demonstrate the design process and to quantify its response characteristics. Due to the utilized multi-level amplification, a practical amplification ratio of 13.0 is realized by the prototype. The decoupled output motion guidance feature of the stage makes it amenable for implementation in raster scanning type of measurements.

  14. On the positive correlation between education and fertility intentions in Europe: Individual- and country-level evidence☆

    PubMed Central

    Testa, Maria Rita

    2014-01-01

    Increasing shares of European women are making large investments in their human capital. Whether and to what extent these investments are in conflict with reproductive behaviour are issues that have repercussions for fertility levels. Using two Eurobarometer survey data (2006 and 2011) on individuals clustered in the 27 EU countries, I investigate the relationship between women's education and lifetime fertility intentions. Results suggest that a positive association between women's level of education and lifetime fertility intentions exists at both the individual and country levels, as well as in a micro–macro integrated framework. The main explanation for these findings—which remains to be proven by future research—is that, in institutional contexts allowing highly educated women to have large families, women of reproductive ages are more prone to make investments in both human capital and family size, because these choices are not seen as incompatible alternatives. PMID:26047540

  15. Chromosome aberration analysis in persons exposed to low-level radiation from the JCO criticality accident in Tokai-mura.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, M S; Hayata, I; Kamada, N; Kodama, Y; Kodama, S

    2001-09-01

    Chromosome aberrations were studied in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 43 persons who were exposed to low-level radiation of mixed neutrons and gamma-rays resulting from the JCO criticality accident. When the age-adjusted frequencies of dicentric and ring chromosomes were compared with the dose calibration curve established in vitro for 60Co gamma-rays as a reference radiation, a significant correlation was observed between the chromosomally estimated doses and the documented doses evaluated by physical means. The regression coefficient of the chromosomal doses against the documented doses, 1.47 +/- 0.33, indicates that the relative biological effectiveness of fission neutrons at low doses is considerably higher than that currently adopted in the radiation protection standard.

  16. Evidence for increased levels of positive and negative selection on the X chromosome versus autosomes in humans.

    PubMed

    Veeramah, Krishna R; Gutenkunst, Ryan N; Woerner, August E; Watkins, Joseph C; Hammer, Michael F

    2014-09-01

    Partially recessive variants under positive selection are expected to go to fixation more quickly on the X chromosome as a result of hemizygosity, an effect known as faster-X. Conversely, purifying selection is expected to reduce substitution rates more effectively on the X chromosome. Previous work in humans contrasted divergence on the autosomes and X chromosome, with results tending to support the faster-X effect. However, no study has yet incorporated both divergence and polymorphism to quantify the effects of both purifying and positive selection, which are opposing forces with respect to divergence. In this study, we develop a framework that integrates previously developed theory addressing differential rates of X and autosomal evolution with methods that jointly estimate the level of purifying and positive selection via modeling of the distribution of fitness effects (DFE). We then utilize this framework to estimate the proportion of nonsynonymous substitutions fixed by positive selection (α) using exome sequence data from a West African population. We find that varying the female to male breeding ratio (β) has minimal impact on the DFE for the X chromosome, especially when compared with the effect of varying the dominance coefficient of deleterious alleles (h). Estimates of α range from 46% to 51% and from 4% to 24% for the X chromosome and autosomes, respectively. While dependent on h, the magnitude of the difference between α values estimated for these two systems is highly statistically significant over a range of biologically realistic parameter values, suggesting faster-X has been operating in humans.

  17. Critical coupling layer thickness for positive or negative Goos-Hänchen shifts near the excitation of backward surface polaritons in Otto-ATR systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeller, Mariana A.; Cuevas, Mauro; Depine, Ricardo A.

    2015-05-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of the lateral displacement (Goos-Hänchen shift) of spatially limited beams reflected from attenuated total reflection (ATR) devices in the Otto configuration when backward surface plasmon polaritons are excited at the interface between a positive refractive index slab and a semi-infinite metamaterial with a negative refractive index. First, the stationary phase approximation and a phenomenological model based on the properties of the complex poles and zeroes of the reflection coefficient are used to demonstrate that: (i) the excitation of backward surface waves can lead to both negative and positive (and not exclusively negative) Goos-Hänchen shifts, and (ii) the sign of the shift depends on whether the value of the coupling layer thickness is higher or lower than a critical value characteristic of the ATR structure. Then, these findings are verified through rigorous calculations of the spatial structure of the reflected beam. For incident beams with a Gaussian profile, the lateral shift calculated as the first moment of the field distribution of the reflected beam agrees quite well with the predictions of approximate analysis. Near the resonant excitation of the backward surface plasmon polariton, large (negative or positive) Goos-Hänchen shifts are obtained, along with a splitting of the reflected beam.

  18. GRIK1 Genotype Moderates Topiramate's Effects on Daily Drinking Level, Expectations of Alcohol's Positive Effects, and Desire to Drink

    PubMed Central

    Kranzler, Henry R.; Armeli, Stephen; Feinn, Richard; Tennen, Howard; Gelernter, Joel; Covault, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    We (Kranzler et al. 2014) reported that topiramate 200 mg/day reduced heavy drinking days and increased abstinent days in 138 heavy drinkers whose treatment goal was to reduce drinking to safe levels. In that 12-week, placebo-controlled study, we measured drinking using the Timeline Follow-back method at each treatment visit. In addition to the intent-to-treat effects of topiramate, we found that a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs2832407) in GRIK1, encoding the GluK1 subunit of the kainate receptor, moderated the treatment effect in European Americans (EAs; n=122). Topiramate reduced heavy drinking only in rs2832407*C allele homozygotes. Here, we augment those analyses by using patients’ daily reports obtained using interactive voice response technology (a) to validate the interactive effects of GRIK1 and topiramate as predictors of drinking level and (b) to examine changes in expected positive effects of drinking (i.e., positive outcome expectancies) and desire to drink. We found that rs2832407*C allele homozygotes treated with topiramate drank less overall during treatment than those receiving placebo, validating our earlier findings for heavy drinking days (Kranzler et al. 2014). There was also a study day × medication group × genotype group interaction that predicted both positive alcohol expectancies and desire to drink, with rs2832407*C-allele homozygotes treated with topiramate showing the largest decreases in these outcomes during the study period. Changes in positive alcohol expectancies or desire to drink did not mediate the effects on drinking. These findings validate and extend our previous pharmacogenetic findings with topiramate. PMID:24786948

  19. Levels of heavy metals and metalloids in critically endangered Iberian lynx and other wild carnivores from Southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Millán, J; Mateo, R; Taggart, M A; López-Bao, J V; Viota, M; Monsalve, L; Camarero, P R; Blázquez, E; Jiménez, B

    2008-07-25

    The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is the most endangered felid in the world with a wild population which probably stands at less than 200 individuals inhabiting two areas in Southern Spain (Doñana and Sierra Morena) that are known to have been contaminated by heavy metals and metalloids due to a long history of mining activities. This contamination may pose a threat to long term conservation efforts and hence, the concentrations of seven elements (As, Se, Cd, Zn, Cu, Pb, Hg) were determined in the liver, muscle and bone of 9 lynx, as well as 17 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 11 Egyptian mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon), 4 common genets (Genetta genetta) and 1 Eurasian badger (Meles meles). The mean concentrations found were below the threshold levels indicative of chronic intoxication in all the species studied. In general, genet and red fox were species with the highest concentrations of several elements in Doñana, whilst Iberian lynx had the lowest levels of most of them. Lynx from Sierra Morena had significantly higher concentrations of bone Pb (2.05 microg/g d.w.) than those from Doñana (0.13 microg/g d.w.), probably due to the mineralised underlying geology and/or the abandoned mine workings in Sierra Morena. Egyptian mongoose presented liver concentrations of Hg up to 9.7 microg/g d.w. A strong relationship between Hg and Se levels was found in liver and muscle samples of all the studied species, especially in mongoose. In conclusion, levels of the studied elements do not appear to represent a significant threat for the lynx or for the other carnivores studied. However, given the critical status of the Iberian lynx, a continuous monitoring scheme remains necessary.

  20. Diacylglycerol kinase ζ (DGKζ) is a critical regulator of bone homeostasis via modulation of c-Fos levels in osteoclasts†

    PubMed Central

    Zamani, Ali; Decker, Corinne; Cremasco, Viviana; Hughes, Lindsey; Novack, Deborah V.; Faccio, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Increased diacylglycerol (DAG) levels are observed in numerous pathologies, including conditions associated with bone loss. However, the effects of DAG accumulation on the skeleton have never been directly examined. Because DAG is strictly controlled by tissue specific diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs), we sought to examine the biological consequences of DAG accumulation on bone homeostasis by genetic deletion of DGKζ, a highly expressed DGK isoform in osteoclasts (OCs). Strikingly, DGKζ−/− mice are osteoporotic due to a marked increase in OC numbers. In vitro, DGKζ−/− bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) form more numerous, larger and highly resorptive OCs. Surprisingly, while increased DAG levels do not alter RANK/RANKL osteoclastogenic pathway, DGKζ deficiency increases responsiveness to the proliferative and pro-survival cytokine M-CSF. We find that M-CSF is responsible for increased DGKζ−/− OC differentiation by promoting higher expression of the transcription factor c-Fos, and c-Fos knockdown in DGKζ−/− cultures dose-dependently reduces OC differentiation. Using a c-Fos luciferase reporter assay lacking the TRE responsive element, we also demonstrate that M-CSF induces optimal c-Fos expression through DAG production. Finally, to demonstrate the importance of the M-CSF/DGKζ/DAG axis on regulation of c-Fos during osteoclastogenesis, we turned to PLCγ2+/− BMMs, which have reduced DAG levels and form fewer OCs due to impaired expression of the master regulator of osteoclastogenesis NFATc1 and c-Fos. Strikingly, genetic deletion of DGKζ in PLCγ2+/− mice rescues OC formation and normalizes c-Fos levels without altering NFATc1 expression. To our knowledge, this is the first report implicating M-CSF/DGKζ/DAG axis as a critical regulator of bone homeostasis via its actions on OC differentiation and c-Fos expression. PMID:25891971

  1. Determination of land subsidence related to ground-water-level declines using Global Positioning System and leveling surveys in Antelope Valley, Los Angeles and Kern counties, California, 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ikehara, M.E.; Phillips, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    A large-scale, land-subsidence monitoring network for Antelope Valley, California, was established, and positions and elevations for 85 stations were measured using Global Positioning System geodetic surveying in spring 1992. The 95-percent confidence (2@) level of accuracy for the elevations calculated for a multiple-constraint adjustment generally ranged from +0.010 meter (0.032 foot) to +0.024 meter (0.078 foot). The magnitudes and rates of land subsidence as of 1992 were calculated for several periods for 218 bench marks throughout Antelope Valley. The maximum measured magnitude of land subsidence that occurred between 1926 and 1992 was 6.0 feet (1.83 meters) at BM 474 near Avenue I and Sierra Highway. Measured or estimated subsidence of 2-7 feet (.61-2.l3 meters) had occurred in a 210- square-mile (542-square-kilometer) area of Antelope Valley, generally bounded by Avenue K, Avenue A, 90th Street West, and 120th Street East, during the same period. Land subsidence in Antelope Valley is caused by aquifer-system compaction, which is related to ground-water-level declines and the presence of fine-grained, compressible sediments. Comparison of potentiomethric-surface, water-level decline, and subsidence-rate maps for several periods indicated a general correlation between water-level declines and the distribution and rate of subsidence in the Lancaster ground-water subbasin. A conservative estimate of the amount of the reduction in storage capacity of the aquifer system in the Lancaster subbasin is about 50,000 acre-feet in the area that has been affected by more than one foot (.30 meters) of subsidence as of 1992. Information on the history of ground-water levels and the distribution and thickness of fine-grained compressible sediments can be used to mitigate continued land subsidence. Future monitoring of ground-water levels and land-surface elevations in subsidence-sensitive regions of Antelope Valley may be an effective means to manage land subsidence.

  2. An epidemiological assessment of stomatal ozone flux-based critical levels for visible ozone injury in Southern European forests.

    PubMed

    Sicard, Pierre; De Marco, Alessandra; Dalstein-Richier, Laurence; Tagliaferro, Francesco; Renou, Camille; Paoletti, Elena

    2016-01-15

    Southern forests are at the highest ozone (O3) risk in Europe where ground-level O3 is a pressing sanitary problem for ecosystem health. Exposure-based standards for protecting vegetation are not representative of actual field conditions. A biologically-sound stomatal flux-based standard has been proposed, although critical levels for protection still need to be validated. This innovative epidemiological assessment of forest responses to O3 was carried out in 54 plots in Southeastern France and Northwestern Italy in 2012 and 2013. Three O3 indices, namely the accumulated exposure AOT40, and the accumulated stomatal flux with and without an hourly threshold of uptake (POD1 and POD0) were compared. Stomatal O3 fluxes were modeled (DO3SE) and correlated to measured forest-response indicators, i.e. crown defoliation, crown discoloration and visible foliar O3 injury. Soil water content, a key variable affecting the severity of visible foliar O3 injury, was included in DO3SE. Based on flux-effect relationships, we developed species-specific flux-based critical levels (CLef) for forest protection against visible O3 injury. For O3 sensitive conifers, CLef of 19 mmol m(-2) for Pinus cembra (high O3 sensitivity) and 32 mmol m(-2) for Pinus halepensis (moderate O3 sensitivity) were calculated. For broadleaved species, we obtained a CLef of 25 mmol m(-2) for Fagus sylvatica (moderate O3 sensitivity) and of 19 mmol m(-2) for Fraxinus excelsior (high O3 sensitivity). We showed that an assessment based on PODY and on real plant symptoms is more appropriated than the concentration-based method. Indeed, POD0 was better correlated with visible foliar O3 injury than AOT40, whereas AOT40 was better correlated with crown discoloration and defoliation (aspecific indicators). To avoid an underestimation of the real O3 uptake, we recommend the use of POD0 calculated for hours with a non-null global radiation over the 24-h O3 accumulation window.

  3. Raising the Level of Awareness of Nurse-to-Nurse Lateral Violence in a Critical Access Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Embree, Jennifer L.; Bruner, Deborah A.; White, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Background/Significance of Problem. Nurse-to-nurse lateral violence (NNLV) has been internationally reported for greater than two decades and results in new nurse turnover and serious negative outcomes. Clinical Question/Project Objective. Will NNLV and cognitive rehearsal (CR) education result in a decrease in perceived nurse-to-nurse lateral violence in a critical access hospital (CAH)? The scope of this project was to determine perceived extent and increase awareness of NNLV through an educational project about NNLV and CR. Clinical Appraisal of Literature/Best Evidence. Trends of NNLV were assessed through an extensive literature review from Health Source, CINAHL, ProQuest Health, and Medical Complete. An educational forum about NNLV with CR was advocated for newly licensed nurses and current nurses (potential perpetrators of NNLV) with the goal of liberation of oppressed individuals. Integration into Practice/Discussion of Results. An interventional study with one group and pre-/postintervention was used to determine NNLV and CR education on perceived levels of lateral violence. Evidence-based measurement occurred through use of the Nurse Workplace Scale and the Silencing the Self-Work Scale. Outcomes were analyzed quantitatively through independent t-tests. Awareness of NNLV was increased. Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practice/Implications. Organizations must learn to eliminate NNLV. With increased levels of awareness of NNLV, nurses requested additional assistance in dealing with inappropriate behavior. PMID:23991337

  4. The effectiveness of expatriate coping strategies: the moderating role of cultural distance, position level, and time on the international assignment.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Günter K; Caligiuri, Paula

    2005-07-01

    On the basis of the stress and coping literature, the authors examined the diverse coping strategies used by expatriate managers in response to the problems encountered while on international assignments. It was hypothesized that although problem-focused coping strategies may be more effective than are emotion-focused coping strategies in affecting cross-cultural adjustment and intention to remain on the international assignment, the relationship is moderated by contextual factors such as hierarchical level in the organization, time on the assignment, and cultural distance. Coded semistructured interview responses from 116 German expatriates on assignment in either Japan or the United States were analyzed with moderated regression analyses. The results suggest that the effectiveness of problem-focused coping strategies in predicting cross-cultural adjustment is moderated by cultural distance and position level but not by time on the assignment. The use of problem-focused coping strategies was not related to expatriates' intention to remain on the assignment.

  5. Salvianolic acid A positively regulates PTEN protein level and inhibits growth of A549 lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    BI, LEI; CHEN, JIANPING; YUAN, XIAOJING; JIANG, ZEQUN; CHEN, WEIPING

    2013-01-01

    Salvianolic acid A (Sal A) is an effective compound extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza which has been used in the treatment of various diseases. Preliminary data indicate that Sal A treatment has a specific anti-lung cancer effect. However, the manner in which Sal A regulates cancer growth remains unknown. In this study, the A549 lung cancer cell line and its response to Sal A treatment was examined. Results showed that Sal A treatment significantly decreased A549 cell growth, promoted partial apoptosis and increased mitochondrial membrane permeability. Western blot analysis showed that Sal A upregulated the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) protein level, while consistently downregulating Akt phosphorylation. These results indicate that Sal A negatively mediates A549 lung cancer cell line growth or apoptosis, most likely by positively regulating PTEN protein level. PMID:24648921

  6. Oxygen saturation/FiO2 ratio is a simple predictor of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation failure in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Spada, Carol; Gandhi, Rikesh; Patel, Sanjay R.; Nuccio, Paul; Weinhouse, Gerald L.; Lee, Po-Shun

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) can improve outcomes of critically ill patients. Early and simple predictors of NPPV outcome could improve clinical management of patients with respiratory failure. Materials and Methods A prospective observational study was conducted in a medical intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary medical center. Patients requiring NPPV were included and followed. Clinical data including respiratory mechanics at the time of NPPV initiation, and clinical outcomes were recorded. Data were analyzed to identify variables that distinguished NPPV success or failure. Results A total of 133 patients were included in the study. NPPV success rate was 41%. Patients diagnosed with malignancy had only 29% NPPV success rate. Among patients without malignancy, higher oxygen saturation, oxygen saturation/FiO2 (SF) ratios, and SF/minute ventilation (MV) ratios were associated with NPPV success. Receiver operating curve analyses identify SF < 98.5 to be a specific (89% specificity, P=0.013) predictor of NPPV failure. Furthermore, for patients requiring at least 24hr of NPPV support, tidal volume (TV)/predicted body weight (PBW) ratio inversely correlated with respiratory improvement. Conclusions For patients without malignancy, SF ratios at the time of NPPV initiation discriminated NPPV success and failure, and could be used to help guide the management of critically ill patients who require ventilatory support. PMID:21036535

  7. Plasma sE-selectin level is positively correlated with neutrophil count and diastolic blood pressure in Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Kazuki; Inoue, Seiya; Miyauchi, Rie; Misaki, Yasumi; Shimada, Masaya; Kasezawa, Nobuhiko; Tohyama, Kazushige; Goda, Toshinao

    2013-01-01

    Increased levels of circulating soluble type of E-selectin (sE-selectin), neutrophil counts and blood pressure are associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In this study, we conducted a cross-sectional study of men who participated in health check-ups, and selected those who were not diagnosed with or being treated for metabolic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and lipid abnormality according to the health check-ups. We measured their basic clinical parameters including blood pressure and neutrophil count, plasma sE-selectin concentration and lifestyle factors, and assessed their interrelations by multivariate linear regression (MLR) analysis. A total of 351 subjects aged 47.5±8.41 (range, 30-64) y were recruited. Significantly correlated with sE-selectin concentration were neutrophil count, diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (Pearson's correlation coefficient, 0.194, 0.220 and 0.175, respectively). MLR analysis showed that sE-selectin concentration was independently positively related with DBP and neutrophil count, whereas neutrophil count was positively associated with sE-selectin concentration but not DBP. DBP, but not SBP, was independently positively correlated with sE-selectin concentration but not neutrophil count. These results indicate that circulating sE-selectin concentration may be a biomarker for indicating subsequent development of metabolic diseases, in particular CVD, from a healthy state.

  8. ZIC1 LEVELS REGULATE MOSSY FIBER NEURON POSITION AND AXON LATERALITY CHOICE IN THE VENTRAL BRAIN STEM

    PubMed Central

    DiPietrantonio, Heather J.; Dymecki, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    Pontine gray neurons of the brain stem are a major source of mossy fiber (MF) afferents to granule cells of the cerebellum. Achieving this connectivity involves an early regionalization of pontine gray neuron cell bodies within the brainstem pontine nuclei, as well as establishing the proper ratio of crossed versus uncrossed MF projections to contralateral versus ipsilateral cerebellar territories. Here, we report expression of the transcription factor Zic1 in newly postmitotic pontine gray neurons and present functional experiments in embryonic and postnatal mice that implicate Zic1 levels as a key determinant of pontine neuron cell body position within the pons and axon laterality. Reducing Zic1 levels embryonically via in utero electroporation of short hairpin RNA interference (shRNAi) vectors shifted the postnatal distribution of pontine neurons from caudolateral to rostromedial territories; by contrast, increasing Zic1 levels resulted in the reciprocal shift, with electroporated cells redistributing caudolaterally. Associated with the latter was a change in axon laterality, with a greater proportion of marked projections now targeting the ipsilateral instead of contralateral cerebellum. Zic1 levels in pontine gray neurons, therefore, play an important role in the development of pontocerebellar circuitry. PMID:19303920

  9. Vertical jump performance of professional male and female volleyball players: effects of playing position and competition level.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Tine; Hadžić, Vedran; Dervišević, Edvin; Markovic, Goran

    2015-06-01

    Vertical jump (VJ) performance is an important element for successful volleyball practice. The aims of the study were (a) to explore the overall VJ performance of elite volleyball players of both sexes, (b) to explore the differences in VJ performance among different competition levels and different playing positions, and (c) to evaluate the sex-related differences in the role of the arm swing and 3-step approach with arm swing on the jump height. We assessed the VJ capacity in 253 volleyball players (113 males and 140 females) from Slovenian first and second Volleyball Division. The height of squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump, block jump, and attack jump was tested using an Optojump system. We observed significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in VJ height between different levels of play that were most pronounced in the SJ. Position-related differences in VJ performance were observed in male players between receivers and setters (p ≤ 0.05), whereas in females, VJ performance across different playing positions seems equal. Finally, we found that male players significantly better use the arm swing during VJ than females (p ≤ 0.05), whereas the use of eccentric part of the jump and approach before the spike to improve VJ performance seem to be equally mastered activity in both sexes. These results could assist coaches in the development of jumping performance in volleyball players. Furthermore, presented normative data for jump heights of elite male and female volleyball players could be useful in selection and profiling of young volleyball players.

  10. HIV infection duration, social support and the level of trauma symptoms in a sample of HIV-positive Polish individuals.

    PubMed

    Rzeszutek, Marcin; Oniszczenko, Włodzimierz; Żebrowska, Magdalena; Firląg-Burkacka, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the average HIV infection duration and the level of quantitatively rated post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and social support dimensions in a sample of 562 Polish HIV+ adults. Possible moderating effects of social support on the relationship between the average HIV infection duration and the level of PTSD symptoms were also analysed. The results of this study suggest that the average HIV infection duration may intensify PTSD symptoms and deteriorate the perceived availability of social support in HIV+ individuals. However, a positive relationship between HIV infection duration and the level of trauma symptoms was observed only in the group of HIV+ individuals with low perceived available social support, but not in the group of HIV-infected individuals with high perceived available social support. This research provided some new insight into the psychological and social aspects of living with HIV. In particular, our results suggest that although HIV infection duration may intensify trauma symptoms and deteriorate social support, perceived available social support may act as a buffer against HIV-related trauma symptoms.

  11. Oxygen Level and LFP in Task-Positive and Task-Negative Areas: Bridging BOLD fMRI and Electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Bentley, William J; Li, Jingfeng M; Snyder, Abraham Z; Raichle, Marcus E; Snyder, Lawrence H

    2016-01-01

    The human default mode network (DMN) shows decreased blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signals in response to a wide range of attention-demanding tasks. Our understanding of the specifics regarding the neural activity underlying these "task-negative" BOLD responses remains incomplete. We paired oxygen polarography, an electrode-based oxygen measurement technique, with standard electrophysiological recording to assess the relationship of oxygen and neural activity in task-negative posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), a hub of the DMN, and visually responsive task-positive area V3 in the awake macaque. In response to engaging visual stimulation, oxygen, LFP power, and multi-unit activity in PCC showed transient activation followed by sustained suppression. In V3, oxygen, LFP power, and multi-unit activity showed an initial phasic response to the stimulus followed by sustained activation. Oxygen responses were correlated with LFP power in both areas, although the apparent hemodynamic coupling between oxygen level and electrophysiology differed across areas. Our results suggest that oxygen responses reflect changes in LFP power and multi-unit activity and that either the coupling of neural activity to blood flow and metabolism differs between PCC and V3 or computing a linear transformation from a single LFP band to oxygen level does not capture the true physiological process.

  12. Determination of critical levels of residual oxygen to minimize discoloration of sliced packaged Norwegian salami under light display.

    PubMed

    Sørheim, Oddvin; Måge, Ingrid; Larsen, Hanne

    2017-02-21

    Discoloration of sliced packaged salami is contributing to rejection of the product, food waste and economical loss. A combination of residual O2 in the headspace of packages and light is causing photooxidation and deterioration of colour. The aim of this study was to establish maximum tolerable concentrations of residual O2 in packages of salami slices with 100% N2 under light display at 4 and 20°C. Salami sausages had variable inherent O2 consumption rate. Storage of salami in 1% O2 in darkness did not induce discoloration. The upper limits for O2 for avoiding discoloration under light were variable in the range 0.1-1.0%, depending on temperature and type of salami. Display at 20°C increased the rate of O2 depletion compared to 4°C. To minimize discoloration, sliced and packaged salami should be stored in darkness at approximately 20°C until the level of residual O2 is reduced below a critical limit.

  13. A synthesis of AOT40-based response functions and critical levels of ozone for agricultural and horticultural crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, G.; Buse, A.; Gimeno, B.; Bermejo, V.; Holland, M.; Emberson, L.; Pleijel, H.

    Crop-response data from over 700 published papers and conference proceedings have been analysed with the aim of establishing ozone dose-response functions for a wide range of European agricultural and horticultural crops. Data that met rigorous selection criteria (e.g. field-based, ozone concentrations within European range, full season exposure period) were used to derive AOT40-yield response functions for 19 crops by first converting the published ozone concentration data into AOT40 (AOT40 is the hourly mean ozone concentration accumulated over a threshold ozone concentration of 40 ppb during daylight hours, units ppm h). For any individual crop, there were no significant differences in the linear response functions derived for experiments conducted in the USA or Europe, or for individual cultivars. Three statistically independent groups were identified: ozone sensitive crops (wheat, water melon, pulses, cotton, turnip, tomato, onion, soybean and lettuce); moderately sensitive crops (sugar beet, potato, oilseed rape, tobacco, rice, maize, grape and broccoli) and ozone resistant (barley and fruit represented by plum and strawberry). Critical levels of a 3 month AOT40 of 3 ppm h and a 3.5 month AOT40 of 6 ppm h were derived from the functions for wheat and tomato, respectively.

  14. Homologous Recombination and Translesion DNA Synthesis Play Critical Roles on Tolerating DNA Damage Caused by Trace Levels of Hexavalent Chromium

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Youjun; Zhou, Yi-Hui; Neo, Dayna; Clement, Jean; Takata, Minoru; Takeda, Shunichi; Sale, Julian; Wright, Fred A.; Swenberg, James A.; Nakamura, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of potentially carcinogenic hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in the drinking water is a major public health concern worldwide. However, little information is available regarding the biological effects of a nanomoler amount of Cr(VI). Here, we investigated the genotoxic effects of Cr(VI) at nanomoler levels and their repair pathways. We found that DNA damage response analyzed based on differential toxicity of isogenic cells deficient in various DNA repair proteins is observed after a three-day incubation with K2CrO4 in REV1-deficient DT40 cells at 19.2 μg/L or higher as well as in TK6 cells deficient in polymerase delta subunit 3 (POLD3) at 9.8 μg/L or higher. The genotoxicity of Cr(VI) decreased ~3000 times when the incubation time was reduced from three days to ten minutes. TK mutation rate also significantly decreased from 6 day to 1 day exposure to Cr(VI). The DNA damage response analysis suggest that DNA repair pathways, including the homologous recombination and REV1- and POLD3-mediated error-prone translesion synthesis pathways, are critical for the cells to tolerate to DNA damage caused by trace amount of Cr(VI). PMID:27907204

  15. Forward operation of adenine nucleotide translocase during F0F1-ATPase reversal: critical role of matrix substrate-level phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Chinopoulos, Christos; Gerencser, Akos A.; Mandi, Miklos; Mathe, Katalin; Töröcsik, Beata; Doczi, Judit; Turiak, Lilla; Kiss, Gergely; Konràd, Csaba; Vajda, Szilvia; Vereczki, Viktoria; Oh, Richard J.; Adam-Vizi, Vera

    2010-01-01

    In pathological conditions, F0F1-ATPase hydrolyzes ATP in an attempt to maintain mitochondrial membrane potential. Using thermodynamic assumptions and computer modeling, we established that mitochondrial membrane potential can be more negative than the reversal potential of the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) but more positive than that of the F0F1-ATPase. Experiments on isolated mitochondria demonstrated that, when the electron transport chain is compromised, the F0F1-ATPase reverses, and the membrane potential is maintained as long as matrix substrate-level phosphorylation is functional, without a concomitant reversal of the ANT. Consistently, no cytosolic ATP consumption was observed using plasmalemmal KATP channels as cytosolic ATP biosensors in cultured neurons, in which their in situ mitochondria were compromised by respiratory chain inhibitors. This finding was further corroborated by quantitative measurements of mitochondrial membrane potential, oxygen consumption, and extracellular acidification rates, indicating nonreversal of ANT of compromised in situ neuronal and astrocytic mitochondria; and by bioluminescence ATP measurements in COS-7 cells transfected with cytosolic- or nuclear-targeted luciferases and treated with mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibitors in the presence of glycolytic plus mitochondrial vs. only mitochondrial substrates. Our findings imply the possibility of a rescue mechanism that is protecting against cytosolic/nuclear ATP depletion under pathological conditions involving impaired respiration. This mechanism comes into play when mitochondria respire on substrates that support matrix substrate-level phosphorylation.—Chinopoulos, C., Gerencser, A. A., Mandi, M., Mathe, K., Töröcsik, B., Doczi, J., Turiak, L., Kiss, G., Konràd, C., Vajda, S., Vereczki, V., Oh, R. J., Adam-Vizi, V. Forward operation of adenine nucleotide translocase during F0F1-ATPase reversal: critical role of matrix substrate-level phosphorylation. PMID

  16. Dynamic Characteristics of Mechanical Ventilation System of Double Lungs with Bi-Level Positive Airway Pressure Model

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Dongkai; Zhang, Qian

    2016-01-01

    In recent studies on the dynamic characteristics of ventilation system, it was considered that human had only one lung, and the coupling effect of double lungs on the air flow can not be illustrated, which has been in regard to be vital to life support of patients. In this article, to illustrate coupling effect of double lungs on flow dynamics of mechanical ventilation system, a mathematical model of a mechanical ventilation system, which consists of double lungs and a bi-level positive airway pressure (BIPAP) controlled ventilator, was proposed. To verify the mathematical model, a prototype of BIPAP system with a double-lung simulators and a BIPAP ventilator was set up for experimental study. Lastly, the study on the influences of key parameters of BIPAP system on dynamic characteristics was carried out. The study can be referred to in the development of research on BIPAP ventilation treatment and real respiratory diagnostics. PMID:27660646

  17. Childhood Socioeconomic Position and Objectively Measured Physical Capability Levels in Adulthood: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Richard M.; Kuh, Diana; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Alvarado, Beatriz E.; Bayer, Antony; Christensen, Kaare; Cho, Sung-il; Cooper, Cyrus; Corley, Janie; Craig, Leone; Deary, Ian J.; Demakakos, Panayotes; Ebrahim, Shah; Gallacher, John; Gow, Alan J.; Gunnell, David; Haas, Steven; Hemmingsson, Tomas; Inskip, Hazel; Jang, Soong-nang; Noronha, Kenya; Osler, Merete; Palloni, Alberto; Rasmussen, Finn; Santos-Eggimann, Brigitte; Spagnoli, Jacques; Starr, John; Steptoe, Andrew; Syddall, Holly; Tynelius, Per; Weir, David; Whalley, Lawrence J.; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Hardy, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Background Grip strength, walking speed, chair rising and standing balance time are objective measures of physical capability that characterise current health and predict survival in older populations. Socioeconomic position (SEP) in childhood may influence the peak level of physical capability achieved in early adulthood, thereby affecting levels in later adulthood. We have undertaken a systematic review with meta-analyses to test the hypothesis that adverse childhood SEP is associated with lower levels of objectively measured physical capability in adulthood. Methods and Findings Relevant studies published by May 2010 were identified through literature searches using EMBASE and MEDLINE. Unpublished results were obtained from study investigators. Results were provided by all study investigators in a standard format and pooled using random-effects meta-analyses. 19 studies were included in the review. Total sample sizes in meta-analyses ranged from N = 17,215 for chair rise time to N = 1,061,855 for grip strength. Although heterogeneity was detected, there was consistent evidence in age adjusted models that lower childhood SEP was associated with modest reductions in physical capability levels in adulthood: comparing the lowest with the highest childhood SEP there was a reduction in grip strength of 0.13 standard deviations (95% CI: 0.06, 0.21), a reduction in mean walking speed of 0.07 m/s (0.05, 0.10), an increase in mean chair rise time of 6% (4%, 8%) and an odds ratio of an inability to balance for 5s of 1.26 (1.02, 1.55). Adjustment for the potential mediating factors, adult SEP and body size attenuated associations greatly. However, despite this attenuation, for walking speed and chair rise time, there was still evidence of moderate associations. Conclusions Policies targeting socioeconomic inequalities in childhood may have additional benefits in promoting the maintenance of independence in later life. PMID:21297868

  18. The influence of aging on critical transformation stress levels and martensite start temperatures in NiTi. Part 1: Aged microstructure and micro-mechanical modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Gall, K.; Sehitoglu, H.; Chumlyakov, Y.I.; Kireeva, I.V.; Maier, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy is used to determine the microstructures of a Ti-50.8 at% Ni alloy given different aging treatments. Two different peak-aging treatments are shown to result in disk shaped semi-coherent Ti{sub 3}Ni{sub 4} precipitates with a diameter ranging from 50 nm to 200 nm depending on the aging temperature. In the peak-aged materials, strong strain fields are clearly visible on TEM micrographs. An Eshelby based model is used to predict the local stress fields due to the differences in the lattice parameters of the precipitates and surrounding matrix. The position dependent local stress fields are then resolved onto the 24 different martensite correspondence variant pairs (CVP`s). It is further demonstrated that due to the unique orientation relationship that exists between the precipitate variants and the martensite CVP`s, the local resolved shear stresses are extremely large on some CVP`s and negligible on others. When the Ni rich NiTi is over-aged, it is found that the precipitates coarsen to approximately 1000 nm, they become in-coherent, and the local stress fields disappear. It is also determined that after over-aging in the average composition of the matrix drops from 50.8 at% Ni to approximately 50.4 at% Ni. In a subsequent paper (part 2) the results here are used to explain the dependence of the critical transformation stress levels and martensite start temperatures on the aging treatment.

  19. Species-level view of population structure and gene flow for a critically endangered primate (Varecia variegata)

    PubMed Central

    Baden, Andrea L; Holmes, Sheila M; Johnson, Steig E; Engberg, Shannon E; Louis, Edward E; Bradley, Brenda J

    2014-01-01

    Lemurs are among the world's most threatened mammals. The critically endangered black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata), in particular, has recently experienced rapid population declines due to habitat loss, ecological sensitivities to habitat degradation, and extensive human hunting pressure. Despite this, a recent study indicates that ruffed lemurs retain among the highest levels of genetic diversity for primates. Identifying how this diversity is apportioned and whether gene flow is maintained among remnant populations will help to diagnose and target conservation priorities. We sampled 209 individuals from 19 sites throughout the remaining V. variegata range. We used 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci and ∼550 bp of mtDNA sequence data to evaluate genetic structure and population dynamics, including dispersal patterns and recent population declines. Bayesian cluster analyses identified two distinct genetic clusters, which optimally partitioned data into populations occurring on either side of the Mangoro River. Localities north of the Mangoro were characterized by greater genetic diversity, greater gene flow (lower genetic differentiation) and higher mtDNA haplotype and nucleotide diversity than those in the south. Despite this, genetic differentiation across all sites was high, as indicated by high average FST (0.247) and ΦST (0.544), and followed a pattern of isolation-by-distance. We use these results to suggest future conservation strategies that include an effort to maintain genetic diversity in the north and restore connectivity in the south. We also note the discordance between patterns of genetic differentiation and current subspecies taxonomy, and encourage a re-evaluation of conservation management units moving forward. PMID:25077019

  20. Forkhead transcription factor FOXO3a levels are increased in Huntington disease because of overactivated positive autofeedback loop.

    PubMed

    Kannike, Kaja; Sepp, Mari; Zuccato, Chiara; Cattaneo, Elena; Timmusk, Tõnis

    2014-11-21

    Huntington disease (HD) is a fatal autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by an increased number of CAG repeats in the HTT gene coding for huntingtin. Decreased neurotrophic support and increased mitochondrial and excitotoxic stress have been reported in HD striatal and cortical neurons. The members of the class O forkhead (FOXO) transcription factor family, including FOXO3a, act as sensor proteins that are activated upon decreased survival signals and/or increased cellular stress. Using immunocytochemical screening in mouse striatal Hdh(7/7) (wild type), Hdh(7/109) (heterozygous for HD mutation), and Hdh(109/109) (homozygous for HD mutation) cells, we identified FOXO3a as a differentially regulated transcription factor in HD. We report increased nuclear FOXO3a levels in mutant Hdh cells. Additionally, we show that treatment with mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionic acid results in enhanced nuclear localization of FOXO3a in wild type Hdh(7/7) cells and in rat primary cortical neurons. Furthermore, mRNA levels of Foxo3a are increased in mutant Hdh cells compared with wild type cells and in 3-nitropropionic acid-treated primary neurons compared with untreated neurons. A similar increase was observed in the cortex of R6/2 mice and HD patient post-mortem caudate tissue compared with controls. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation and reporter assays, we demonstrate that FOXO3a regulates its own transcription by binding to the conserved response element in Foxo3a promoter. Altogether, the findings of this study suggest that FOXO3a levels are increased in HD cells as a result of overactive positive feedback loop.

  1. Forkhead Transcription Factor FOXO3a Levels Are Increased in Huntington Disease Because of Overactivated Positive Autofeedback Loop*

    PubMed Central

    Kannike, Kaja; Sepp, Mari; Zuccato, Chiara; Cattaneo, Elena; Timmusk, Tõnis

    2014-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a fatal autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by an increased number of CAG repeats in the HTT gene coding for huntingtin. Decreased neurotrophic support and increased mitochondrial and excitotoxic stress have been reported in HD striatal and cortical neurons. The members of the class O forkhead (FOXO) transcription factor family, including FOXO3a, act as sensor proteins that are activated upon decreased survival signals and/or increased cellular stress. Using immunocytochemical screening in mouse striatal Hdh7/7 (wild type), Hdh7/109 (heterozygous for HD mutation), and Hdh109/109 (homozygous for HD mutation) cells, we identified FOXO3a as a differentially regulated transcription factor in HD. We report increased nuclear FOXO3a levels in mutant Hdh cells. Additionally, we show that treatment with mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionic acid results in enhanced nuclear localization of FOXO3a in wild type Hdh7/7 cells and in rat primary cortical neurons. Furthermore, mRNA levels of Foxo3a are increased in mutant Hdh cells compared with wild type cells and in 3-nitropropionic acid-treated primary neurons compared with untreated neurons. A similar increase was observed in the cortex of R6/2 mice and HD patient post-mortem caudate tissue compared with controls. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation and reporter assays, we demonstrate that FOXO3a regulates its own transcription by binding to the conserved response element in Foxo3a promoter. Altogether, the findings of this study suggest that FOXO3a levels are increased in HD cells as a result of overactive positive feedback loop. PMID:25271153

  2. Assessment of Critical Knowledge on Maternal and Newborn care Services among Primary Level Nurse Mid-wives in Kapilvastu District of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Acharya, D; Paudel, R

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite greater emphasis on maternal and neonatal health through policy and programming in Nepal, maternal and neonatal health is still not impressive. Health care providers' knowledge assessment on maternal and neonatal care has been well documented elsewhere, but it is very little understood in Nepal. Objective The primary objective of this study was to assess the critical knowledge of primary level nurse- midwives on maternal and newborn care in Kapilvastu District of Nepal. Method This was an Institution based cross-sectional study, conducted in Kapilvastu district, Nepal among sixty eight nurse-midwives. The participants were selected using simple random sampling technique. For collecting the data, health institutions were visited by enumerators for a month from 1st October to 1st November 2012. Data were entered into Microsoft Excel, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Result More than 3/4th of the nurse-midwives had 10-20 years of experience. Majority of them (89.7%) had poor knowledge in taking action to prevent mother to child transmission for HIV positive women. More than half of them (54.4%) had some knowledge in performing the active management of third stage of labor whereas almost half (51.5%) had poor knowledge to actions needed on post-partum haemorrhage (PPH). Similarly, more than two third (69.1%) had poor knowledge in newborn care. Conclusion Majority of the nurse-midwives were found to have either poor or some level of knowledge in most of the components of maternal and newborn care services. So, greater emphasis should be given to upgrade the knowledge of nurse mid-wives.

  3. Susceptibility of HPV16 and 18 to high level disinfectants indicated for semi‐critical ultrasound probes

    PubMed Central

    Ryndock, Eric; Robison, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound probes used in endocavitary procedures have been shown to be contaminated with high‐risk HPV after routine use and HPV is also known to be resistant to some high level disinfectants (HLDs). This study compared efficacy of two leading ultrasound probe HLD methods; liquid ortho‐phthalaldehyde (Cidex® OPA) and an automated device using sonicated hydrogen peroxide (trophon® EPR) against HPV16 and HPV18 in a hard‐surface carrier test. Native HPV16 and HPV18 virions were generated in organotypic epithelial raft cultures. Viral lysates were dried onto carriers with a 5% (v/v) protein soil. Efficacy tests were performed against the automated device at 35% and 31.5% H2O2 and 0.55% OPA in quadruplicate with matched input, neutralization, and cytotoxicity controls. Hypochlorite was included as a positive control. Infectivity was determined by the abundance (qRT‐PCR) of the spliced E1^E4 transcript in infected recipient cells. The automated HLD device showed excellent efficacy against HPV16 and HPV18 (>5 log10 reductions in infectivity) whereas OPA showed minimal efficacy (<0.6 log10 reductions). While HPV is highly resistant to OPA, sonicated hydrogen peroxide offers an effective disinfection solution for ultrasound probes. Disinfection methods that are effective against HPV should be adopted where possible. J. Med. Virol. 88:1076–1080, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Medical Virology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26519866

  4. Demographic and clinical factors correlating with high levels of psychological distress in HIV-positive women living in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Anita C; Light, Lucia; Burchell, Ann N; Gardner, Sandra; Rourke, Sean B; Wobeser, Wendy; Loutfy, Mona R

    2014-01-01

    The concept of psychological distress includes a range of emotional states with symptoms of depression and anxiety and has yet to be reported in HIV-positive women living in Ontario, Canada, who are known to live with contributing factors. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, severity, and correlates of psychological distress among women accessing HIV care participating in the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). The K10 is a 10-item, five-level response scale. K10 values range from 10 to 50 with values less than or equal to 19 categorized as not clinically significant, scores between 20 and 24 as moderate levels, 25-29 as high, and 30-50 as very high psychological distress. Correlates of psychological distress were assessed using the Pearson's chi-square test and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Moderate, high, and very high levels of psychological distress were experienced by 16.9, 10.4, and 15.1% of the 337 women in our cohort, respectively, with 57.6% reporting none. Psychological distress levels greater than 19, correlated with being unemployed (vs. employed/student/retired; AOR = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.13-0.83), living in a household without their child/children (AOR = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.33-4.52), CD4 counts < 200 cells/mm(3) (AOR = 2.07, 95% CI: 0.89-4.80), and to a lesser degree an education of some college or less (vs. completed college or higher; AOR=1.71, 95% CI: 0.99-2.95). Age and ethnicity, a priori variables of interest, did not correlate with psychological distress. Findings suggest that socioeconomic factors which shape the demography of women living with HIV in Ontario, low CD4 counts, and losing the opportunity to care for their child/children has a significant relationship with psychological distress. Approaches to manage psychological distress should address and make considerations for the lived experiences of women since they can act as potential barriers to

  5. Erectile Dysfunction and Sexual Hormone Levels in Men With Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Efficacy of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Bin; Lin, Qi-Chang; Zeng, Hui-Qing; Jiang, Xing-Tang; Chen, Bo; Chen, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) and serum sexual hormone levels were evaluated in men with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In these patients, the efficacy of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) was determined. The 207 men (mean age 44.0 ± 11.1 years) enrolled in the study were stratified within four groups based on their apnea-hypopnea index score: simple snoring (n = 32), mild OSA (n = 29), moderate OSA (n = 38), and severe OSA (n = 108). The International Index of Erectile Dysfunction-5 (IIEF-5) score was obtained from each patient, and blood samples for the analysis of sexual hormones (prolactin, luteotropin, follicle-stimulating hormone, estradiol, progestin, and testosterone) were drawn in the morning after polysomnography. The IIEF-5 test and serum sexual hormone measurements were repeated after 3 months of CPAP treatment in 53 men with severe OSA. The prevalence of ED was 60.6 % in OSA patients overall and 72.2 % in those with severe OSA. Compared with the simple snoring group, patients with severe OSA had significantly lower testosterone levels (14.06 ± 5.62 vs. 17.02 ± 4.68, p = .018) and lower IIEF-5 scores (16.33 ± 6.50 vs. 24.09 ± 1.94, p = .001). The differences in the other sexual hormones between groups were not significant. After 3 months of CPAP treatment, there were no significant changes in sexual hormone levels, but the IIEF-5 score had improved significantly (18.21 ± 4.05 vs. 19.21 ± 3.86, p = .001). Severe OSA patients have low testosterone concentration and high ED prevalence. IIEF-5 scores increased significantly after CPAP treatment, but there was no effect on serum testosterone levels.

  6. Low frequency of positive skin tests in asthmatic patients infected with Schistosoma mansoni exposed to high levels of mite allergens.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Manoel; Almeida, Maria C; Figueiredo, Joanemile P; Atta, Ajax M; Mendes, Carlos M C; Araújo, Maria I; Taketomi, Ernesto A; Terra, Silvia A; Silva, Deise A O; Carvalho, Edgar M

    2004-04-01

    Helminthic infections and allergic diseases are highly prevalent in many parts of the world. Although skin reactivity to indoor allergens is decreased in subjects from helminthic endemic areas, the degree of exposure to mite allergens has not yet been investigated in these areas. This study evaluated the association between exposure to dust mites and skin reactivity to mite allergens in subjects with a history of wheezing in the last 12 months selected from a rural endemic area for schistosomiasis (group I, n = 21), and two non-Schistosoma mansoni endemic locale, a rural area (group II, n = 21) and a urban slum area (group III, n = 21). All subjects were evaluated by skin prick tests with mite allergens, and for total and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) against dust mites, antibodies for S. mansoni, and for intestinal parasites. Dust samples from each subjects' home were quantified for mite allergen and species of the mite identification. Except for S. mansoni infection which was more prevalent in group I than in groups II and III (p < 0.0001), the prevalence of intestinal parasites, and total and specific IgE levels were similar for all groups. Despite the levels of mite allergens and specifically to Der p 1 detected in dust samples of subjects home from all three areas, the frequency of positive skin reactivity to mite antigens was significantly lower (19.0%) in subjects from group I relative to group II (76.2%) and group III (57.1%; p < 0.001). This result suggests that S. mansoni infection could modulate the immediate hypersensitivity skin response to mite allergens in highly exposed subjects.

  7. Impact of fire, landscape position, aspect, and soil depth on microbial extracellular enzyme activities in the Jemez River Basin Critical Zone Observatory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairbanks, D.; Murphy, M. A.; Frost, G.; Chorover, J.; Gallery, R. E.; Rich, V. I.

    2014-12-01

    Fire frequency and severity are increasing across the western US, and post-fire recovery and effects on critical zone structure are not fully understood. Resident microbiota (bacteria and fungi) transform the majority of carbon in ecosystems, and the structure of these communities influence seedling establishment and the trajectory of vegetative recovery as well as biogeochemical cycling. We surveyed changes in microbial composition and activity after wildfire to better understand soil microbial resilience and fire ecology. Specifically, we assessed potential extracellular enzyme activities in response to fire severity across landscape position and aspect. We sampled 18 days after containment of the June 2013 Thompson Ridge Fire in the Jemez River Basin Critical Zone Observatory, across a gradient of burn severities in a mixed-conifer zero order basin. We subsampled six depths through the surface soil profile and measured potential activities of seven hydrolytic enzymes using established fluorometric techniques. Four of these enzymes hydrolyze C-rich substrates (β-glucosidase [BG], β-D-cellubiosidase [CB], xylosidase [XYL], and α-glucosidase [AG], two hydrolyze N-rich substrates N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase [NAG] and leucine aminopeptidase [LAP]), and one hydrolyzes a P-rich substrate (acid phosphatase [PHOS]). Results showed decreased activities with depth for BG, CB, and LAP. Significantly higher potential enzyme activity was observed for convergent sites relative to planar or divergent sites across all depths sampled. Additionally, we looked at shifts in enzyme nutrient acquisition ratios that correspond with resource limitations relative to microbial stoichiometric demands. Higher acquisition potential is interpreted as greater resource allocation towards nutrient acquisition. Results showed a variance in resource acquisition potential with depth for C relative to N, with greater resources being allocated towards acquiring C at shallower depth. Conversely

  8. Fermented goat milk consumption improves melatonin levels and influences positively the antioxidant status during nutritional ferropenic anemia recovery.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Fernandez, Jorge; Diaz-Castro, Javier; Alférez, M José M; Nestares, Teresa; Ochoa, Julio J; Sánchez-Alcover, Ana; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess the influence of fermented goat or cow milk on melatonin levels and antioxidant status and during anemia recovery. Eighty male Wistar rats were placed on a pre-experimental period of 40 days and randomly divided into two groups, a control group receiving normal-Fe diet (45 mg kg(-1)) and the Fe-deficient group receiving low-Fe diet (5 mg kg(-1)). Then, the rats were fed with fermented goat or cow milk-based diets with a normal-Fe content or Fe-overload (450 mg kg(-1)) for 30 days. After 30 days of feeding the fermented milks, the total antioxidant status (TAS) was higher in both groups of animals fed fermented goat milk with the normal-Fe content. Plasma and urine 8-OHdG were lower in control and anemic rats fed fermented goat milk. Melatonin and corticosterone increased in the anemic groups during Fe replenishment with both fermented milks. Urine isoprostanes were lower in both groups fed fermented goat milk. Lipid and protein oxidative damage were higher in all tissues with fermented cow milk. During anemia instauration, an increase in melatonin was observed, a fact that would improve the energy metabolism and impaired inflammatory signaling, however, during anemia recovery, fermented goat milk had positive effects on melatonin and TAS, even in the case of Fe-overload, limiting the evoked oxidative damage.

  9. Changes in serum thyroglobulin antibody levels as a dynamic prognostic factor for early-phase recurrence of thyroglobulin antibody-positive papillary thyroid carcinoma after total thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Osamu; Miyauchi, Akira; Ito, Yasuhiro; Nakayama, Ayako; Yabuta, Tomonori; Masuoka, Hiroo; Fukushima, Mitsuhiro; Higashiyama, Takuya; Kihara, Minoru; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Miya, Akihiro

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrated previously that dynamic prognostic markers such as the thyroglobulin (Tg)-doubling time in thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb)-negative papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and changes in pre- and postoperative TgAb levels in TgAb-positive PTC patients more keenly reflect patients' prognosis than conventional static prognostic factors. Here we investigated periodic changes in TgAb levels in 513 TgAb-positive PTC patients who underwent total thyroidectomy. The TgAb levels at 1 year after surgery decreased to <50% of the preoperative values in 407 (79%) patients, and the remaining 106 (21%) patients showed no decrease in TgAb. In 426 patients, TgAb was also measured more than 1 year after surgery. Compared with their TgAb levels 1 year after surgery, 59 patients (14%) showed an increase in TgAb levels of >20% during the follow-up. The postoperative Tg levels at 1 year after surgery remained positive in 44 (9%) patients despite their TgAb positivity. To date (median follow-up period 35 months), 12 of the 426 patients (3%) showed PTC recurrence, and 11 of these patients showed either or both a TgAb elevation later than 1 year after surgery and postoperative Tg positivity. Although further studies with longer follow-ups are necessary, we can conclude that changes in postoperative TgAb levels may be usable as a surrogate tumor marker for TgAb-positive PTC patients after total thyroidectomy.

  10. [GEIPC-SEIMC (Study Group for Infections in the Critically Ill Patient of the Spanish Society for Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology) and GTEI-SEMICYUC ( Working Group on Infectious Diseases of the Spanish Society of Intensive Medicine, Critical Care, and Coronary Units) recommendations for antibiotic treatment of gram-positive cocci infections in the critical patient].

    PubMed

    Astigarraga, P M Olaechea; Montero, J Garnacho; Cerrato, S Grau; Colomo, O Rodríguez; Martínez, M Palomar; Crespo, R Zaragoza; García-Paredes, P Muñoz; Cerdá, E Cerdá; Lerma, F Alvarez

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, an increment of infections caused by gram-positive cocci has been documented in nosocomial and hospital-acquired-infections. In diverse countries, a rapid development of resistance to common antibiotics against gram-positive cocci has been observed. This situation is exceptional in Spain but our country might be affected in the near future. New antimicrobials active against these multi-drug resistant pathogens are nowadays available. It is essential to improve our current knowledge about pharmacokinetic properties of traditional and new antimicrobials to maximize its effectiveness and to minimize toxicity. These issues are even more important in critically ill patients because inadequate empirical therapy is associated with therapeutic failure and a poor outcome. Experts representing two scientific societies (Grupo de estudio de Infecciones en el Paciente Crítico de la SEIMC and Grupo de trabajo de Enfermedades Infecciosas de la SEMICYUC) have elaborated a consensus document based on the current scientific evidence to summarize recommendations for the treatment of serious infections caused by gram-positive cocci in critically ill patients.

  11. Engaging, Retaining, and Advancing African Americans in Executive-Level Positions: A Descriptive and Trend Analysis of Academic Administrators in Higher and Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Jerlando F. L.

    2004-01-01

    In spite of repeated considerations and positive action to engage, retain and advance African Americans in executive positions, there are only a few African Americans in executive level administration posts in colleges and universities. An analysis of the status of African Americans in higher and post secondary education shows that legislation…

  12. How Day of Posting Affects Level of Critical Discourse in Asynchronous Discussions and Computer-Supported Collaborative Argumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, Allan; Frazier, Sue

    2008-01-01

    In asynchronous threaded discussions, messages posted near the end of the week provide less time for students to critically examine and respond to ideas presented in the messages than messages posted early in the week. This study examined how the day in which messages are posted (early, midweek and weekend) in computer-supported collaborative…

  13. Critical Skill Sets of Entry-Level IT Professionals: An Empirical Examination of Perceptions from Field Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurtrey, Mark E.; Downey, James P.; Zeltmann, Steven M.; Friedman, William H.

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the skill sets required of IT personnel is a critical endeavor for both business organizations and academic or training institutions. Companies spend crucial resources training personnel, particularly new IT employees, and educational institutions must know what skills are essential in order to plan an effective curriculum. Rapid…

  14. Core-level positive-ion and negative-ion fragmentation of gaseous and condensed HCCl3 using synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, K. T.; Chen, J. M.; Lee, J. M.; Haw, S. C.; Liang, Y. C.; Deng, M. J.

    2011-07-01

    We investigated the dissociation dynamics of positive-ion and negative-ion fragments of gaseous and condensed HCCl3 following photoexcitation of Cl 2p electrons to various resonances. Based on ab initio calculations at levels HF/cc-pVTZ and QCISD/6-311G*, the first doublet structures in Cl L-edge x-ray absorption spectrum of HCCl3 are assigned to transitions from the Cl (2P3/2,1/2) initial states to the 10a1* orbitals. The Cl 2p → 10a1* excitation of HCCl3 induces a significant enhancement of the Cl+ desorption yield in the condensed phase and a small increase in the HCCl+ yield in the gaseous phase. Based on the resonant photoemission of condensed HCCl3, excitations of Cl 2p electrons to valence orbitals decay predominantly via spectator Auger transitions. The kinetic energy distributions of Cl+ ion via the Cl 2p → 10a1* excitation are shifted to higher energy ˜0.2 eV and ˜0.1 eV relative to those via the Cl 2p → 10e* excitation and Cl 2p → shape resonance excitation, respectively. The enhancement of the yields of ionic fragments at specific core-excited resonance states is assisted by a strongly repulsive surface that is directly related to the spectator electrons localized in the antibonding orbitals. The Cl- anion is significantly reinforced in the vicinity of Cl 2p ionization threshold of gaseous HCCl3, mediated by photoelectron recapture through post-collision interaction.

  15. EAP-based critical incident stress management: utilization of a practice-based assessment of incident severity level in responding to workplace trauma.

    PubMed

    DeFraia, Gary S

    2013-01-01

    Central to the field of trauma psychology is assessment of the impact of critical incidents on individuals, as measured by individual symptoms of stress. Accordingly, the trauma literature reflects a proliferation of clinical impact of event scales. Workplace incidents however, affect not only individual employees, but also work organizations, requiring a multi-level response. Critical incident stress management (CISM) is the most prevalent multi-level incident response strategy utilized by organizations, often through specialized CISM units operating within their employee assistance programs (EAPs). While EAP-based CISM units seeks to support both individuals and organizations, studies focused on individual stress dominate the literature, mirroring assessment scales that tend to emphasize clinical as opposed to organizational practice. This research contributes to less-prevalent studies exploring incident characteristics as disruptive to organizations, rather than clinical symptoms as disruptive to individuals. To measure incident disruption, an EAP-based CISM unit developed a critical incident severity scale. By analyzing this unit's extensive practice database, this exploratory study examines how critical incident severity level varies among various types of incidents. Employing the methodology of clinical data mining, this practice-based research generates evidence-informed practice recommendations in the areas of EAP-based CISM intake assessment, organizational consultation and incident response planning.

  16. Assessing positivity and circulating levels of NS1 in samples from a 2012 dengue outbreak in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Allonso, Diego; Meneses, Marcelo D F; Fernandes, Carlos A; Ferreira, Davis F; Mohana-Borges, Ronaldo

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) represents a major threat to public health worldwide. Early DENV diagnosis should not only detect the infection but also identify patients with a higher likelihood to develop severe cases. Previous studies have suggested the potential for NS1 to serve as a viral marker for dengue severity. However, further studies using different sera panels are required to confirm this hypothesis. In this context, we developed a lab-based ELISA to detect and quantitate NS1 protein from the four DENV serotypes and from primary and secondary cases. This approach was used to calculate the circulating NS1 concentration in positive samples. We also tested the NS1 positivity of DENV-positive samples according to the Platelia Dengue NS1 Ag assay. A total of 128 samples were positive for DENV infection and were classified according to the WHO guidelines. The overall NS1 positivity was 68% according to the Platelia assay, whereas all samples were NS1-positive when analyzed with our lab-based ELISA. Fifty-four samples were positive by PCR, revealing a co-circulation of DENV1 and DENV4, and the NS1 positivity for DENV4 samples was lower than that for DENV1. The circulating NS1 concentration ranged from 7 to 284 ng/mL. Our results support previous data indicating the low efficiency of the Platelia assay to detect DENV4 infection. Moreover, this work is the first to analyze NS1 antigenemia using retrospective samples from a Brazilian outbreak.

  17. Positive Experiences of Doctoral-Level Supervisors-in-Training Conducting Group-Format Supervision: A Qualitative Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazzola, Nicola; De Stefano, Jack; Thériault, Anne; Audet, Cristelle

    2014-01-01

    Experiential learning opportunities are powerful in shaping positive supervisor behaviours. We were interested in examining the positive experiences of supervisors-in-training during their first practice experience as supervisors. Our study was guided by two research questions: (a) what are the experiences that supervisors-in-training viewed as…

  18. Critical tissue residue approach linking accumulated metals in aquatic insects to population and community-level effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Travis S.; Clements, William H.; Zuellig, Robert E.; Mitchell, Katharine A.; Church, Stanley E.; Wanty, Richard B.; San Juan, Carma A.; Adams, Monique; Lamothe, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Whole body Zn concentrations in individuals (n = 825) from three aquatic insect taxa (mayflies Rhithrogena spp. and Drunella spp. and the caddisfly Arctopsyche grandis) were used to predict effects on populations and communities (n = 149 samples). Both mayflies accumulated significantly more Zn than the caddisfly. The presence/absence of Drunella spp. most reliably distinguished sites with low and high Zn concentrations; however, population densities of mayflies were more sensitive to increases in accumulated Zn. Critical tissue residues (634 (mu or u)g/g Zn for Drunella spp. and 267 (mu or u)g/g Zn for Rhithrogena spp.) caused a 20% reduction in maximum (90th quantile) mayfly densities. These critical tissue residues were associated with exposure to 7.0 and 3.9 (mu or u)g/L dissolved Zn for Drunella spp. and Rhithrogena spp., respectively. A threshold in a measure of taxonomic completeness (observed/expected) was observed at 5.4 (mu or u)g/L dissolved Zn. Dissolved Zn concentrations associated with critical tissue residues in mayflies were also associated with adverse effects in the aquatic community as a whole. These effects on populations and communities occurred at Zn concentrations below the U.S. EPA hardness-adjusted continuous chronic criterion.

  19. Ear manipulations reveal a critical period for survival and dendritic development at the single-cell level in Mauthner neurons.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Karen L; Houston, Douglas W; DeCook, Rhonda; Fritzsch, Bernd

    2015-12-01

    Second-order sensory neurons are dependent on afferents from the sense organs during a critical period in development for their survival and differentiation. Past research has mostly focused on whole populations of neurons, hampering progress in understanding the mechanisms underlying these critical phases. To move toward a better understanding of the molecular and cellular basis of afferent-dependent neuronal development, we developed a new model to study the effects of ear removal on a single identifiable cell in the hindbrain of a frog, the Mauthner cell. Ear extirpation at various stages of Xenopus laevis development defines a critical period of progressively-reduced dependency of Mauthner cell survival/differentiation on the ear afferents. Furthermore, ear removal results in a progressively decreased reduction in the number of dendritic branches. Conversely, addition of an ear results in an increase in the number of dendritic branches. These results suggest that the duration of innervation and the number of inner ear afferents play a quantitative role in Mauthner cell survival/differentiation, including dendritic development.

  20. The effect of different kick start positions on OMEGA OSB11 blocks on free swimming time to 15m in developmental level swimmers.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Heidi; Halaki, Mark; Stuelcken, Max; Greene, Andrew; Sinclair, Peter J

    2014-04-01

    The introduction of the OMEGA OSB11 starting blocks (Swiss Timing, Corgémont, Switzerland) which feature an adjustable inclined plate built into the rear of the platform, have led to the evolution of the "kick start" style of swimming start. Previous studies examining the effect of different starting positions using the OSB11 starting blocks have not examined swimming performance over distances beyond 7.5m. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to compare three starting positions (front, neutral and rear-weighted) using the kick start to determine whether a given position can improve swimming performance over a 15m distance. After undergoing four weeks of dive training using each of the three positions, ten developmental level swimmers completed three 20m sprint trials in each position. Results indicated that the neutral and rear-weighted positions produced faster times to 15m (p<.01) when compared to the front-weighted position. Starting position did not affect the swimmer's velocity between 4.5 and 5.5m or between 14.5 and 15.5m (p=.50). Developmental level swimmers should choose between a neutral-weighted or rear-weighted position on the new OSB11 starting blocks.

  1. Contactless electroreflectance studies of the Fermi level position at the air/GaN interface: Bistable nature of the Ga-polar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicki, Łukasz; Gładysiewicz, Marta; Misiewicz, Jan; Klosek, Kamil; Sobanska, Marta; Kempisty, Paweł; Zytkiewicz, Zbigniew R.; Kudrawiec, Robert

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we show that the surface Fermi level of Ga-polar GaN exhibits a bistable behavior allowing it to be located at two distinct energetic positions at the air/GaN interface which is unusual for other III-V semiconductors such as GaAs or GaSb. To determine the Fermi level position at the air/GaN interface we perform contactless electroreflectance measurements on specially designed UD+ structures [GaN(undoped)/GaN(highly doped)/substrate] doped by Si and Mg. Analyzing the period of Franz-Keldysh oscillation we determine the built-in electric field in the undoped (U) layer. These studies coupled with numerical solutions of the Poisson equation allowed us to determine the position of the Fermi level at the air/GaN interface. We observe a change in the band bending correlated to different Fermi level positions in the doped (D+) layer. We show that depending on the doping type in the D+ layer the Fermi level at the air/GaN interface is located in the upper or lower singularity of surface density of states (SDOS) for Si or Mg doping of D+ layer, respectively. We support our findings with the density functional theory calculations of the SDOS and the dependence of the Fermi level position on the doping concentration in the bulk of a GaN slab.

  2. An approach to define potential radon emission level maps using indoor radon concentration measurements and radiogeochemical data positive proportion relationships.

    PubMed

    Drolet, Jean-Philippe; Martel, Richard; Poulin, Patrick; Dessau, Jean-Claude; Lavoie, Denis; Parent, Michel; Lévesque, Benoît

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the first step of a new approach to make a map of radonprone areas showing different potential radon emission levels in the Quebec province. This map is a tool intended to assist the Quebec government in identifying populations with a higher risk of indoor radon gas exposure. This map of radon-prone areas used available radiogeochemical information for the province of Quebec: (1) Equivalent uranium (eU) concentration from airborne surface gamma-ray surveys; (2) uranium concentration measurements in sediments; and (3) bedrock and surficial geology. Positive proportion relationships (PPR) between each individual criterion and the 1417 available basement radon concentrations were demonstrated. It was also shown that those criteria were reliable indicators of radon-prone areas. The three criteria were discretized into 3, 2 and 2 statistically significant different classes respectively. For each class, statistical heterogeneity was validated by Kruskal-Wallis one way analyses of variance on ranks. Maps of radon-prone areas were traced down for each criterion. Based on this statistical study and on the maps of radon-prone areas in Quebec, 18% of the dwellings located in areas with an equivalent uranium (eU) concentration from airborne surface gamma-ray surveys under 0.75 ppm showed indoor radon concentrations above 150 Bq/m3. This percentage increases to 33% when eU concentrations are between 0.75 ppm and 1.25 ppm and exceeds 40% when eU concentrations are above 1.25 ppm. A uranium concentration in sediments above 20 ppm showed an indoor radon concentration geometric mean of 215 Bq/m3 with more than 69% of the dwellings exceeding 150 Bq/m3 or more than 50% of dwellings exceeding the Canadian radon guideline of 200 Bq/m3. It is also shown that the radon emission potential is higher where a uranium-rich bedrock unit is not covered by a low permeability (silt/clay) surficial deposit.

  3. IUPAC critical evaluation of the rotational-vibrational spectra of water vapor. Part IV. Energy levels and transition wavenumbers for D216O, D217O, and D218O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennyson, Jonathan; Bernath, Peter F.; Brown, Linda R.; Campargue, Alain; Császár, Attila G.; Daumont, Ludovic; Gamache, Robert R.; Hodges, Joseph T.; Naumenko, Olga V.; Polyansky, Oleg L.; Rothman, Laurence S.; Vandaele, Ann Carine; Zobov, Nikolai F.; Dénes, Nóra; Fazliev, Alexander Z.; Furtenbacher, Tibor; Gordon, Iouli E.; Hu, Shui-Ming; Szidarovszky, Tamás; Vasilenko, Irina A.

    2014-07-01

    This paper is the fourth of a series of papers reporting critically evaluated rotational-vibrational line positions, transition intensities, pressure dependences, and energy levels, with associated critically reviewed assignments and uncertainties, for all the main isotopologues of water. This paper presents energy level and transition data for the following doubly and triply substituted isotopologues of water: D216O, D217O, and D218O. The MARVEL (Measured Active Rotational-Vibrational Energy Levels) procedure is used to determine the levels, the lines, and their self-consistent uncertainties for the spectral regions 0-14 016, 0-7969, and 0-9108 cm-1 for D216O, D217O, and D218O, respectively. For D216O, D217O, and D218O, 53 534, 600, and 12 167 lines are considered, respectively, from spectra recorded in absorption at room temperature and in emission at elevated temperatures. The number of validated energy levels is 12 269, 338, and 3351 for D216O, D217O, and D218O, respectively. The energy levels have been checked against the ones determined, with an average accuracy of about 0.03 cm-1, from variational rovibrational computations employing exact kinetic energy operators and an accurate potential energy surface. Furthermore, the rovibrational labels of the energy levels have been validated by an analysis of the computed wavefunctions using the rigid-rotor decomposition (RRD) scheme. The extensive list of MARVEL lines and levels obtained is deposited in the Supplementary Material of this paper, in a distributed information system applied to water, W@DIS, and on the official MARVEL website, where they can easily be retrieved.

  4. The Effects of Positive and Negative Feedback on Maximal Voluntary Contraction Level of the Biceps Brachii Muscle: Moderating Roles of Gender and Conscientiousness.

    PubMed

    Sarıkabak, Murat; Yaman, Çetin; Tok, Serdar; Binboga, Erdal

    2016-11-02

    We investigated the effect of positive and negative feedback on maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the biceps brachii muscle and explored the mediating effects of gender and conscientiousness. During elbow flexion, MVCs were measured in positive, negative, and no-feedback conditions. Participants were divided into high- and low-conscientiousness groups based on the median split of their scores on Tatar's five-factor personality inventory. Considering all participants 46 college student athletes (21 female, 28 male), positive feedback led to a greater MVC percentage change (-5.76%) than did negative feedback (2.2%). MVC percentage change in the positive feedback condition differed significantly by gender, but the negative feedback condition did not. Thus, positive feedback increased female athletes' MVC level by 3.49%, but decreased male athletes' MVC level by 15.6%. For conscientiousness, MVC percentage change in the positive feedback condition did not differ according to high and low conscientiousness. However, conscientiousness interacted with gender in the positive feedback condition, increasing MVC in high-conscientiousness female athletes and decreasing MVC in low-conscientiousness female athletes. Positive feedback decreased MVC in both high- and low-conscientiousness male athletes.

  5. A critical compilation of experimental data on spectral lines and energy levels of hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramida, A. E.

    2010-11-01

    For more than 50 years, Charlotte Moore's compilation of atomic energy levels and its subsequent revisions have been the standard source of reference data for the spectra of hydrogen and its isotopes. In those publications, theoretical data based on quantum-electrodynamic calculations have been given. This reflects the fact that the theory of the hydrogen spectrum has been perfected to an extent far exceeding the capabilities of the best measurements. However, rapid advances in the techniques of laser spectroscopy and optical frequency metrology have recently put experiments on a par with theory in terms of precision. This calls for construction of new comprehensive data sets for H, D, and T that summarize the latest experimental work and can be directly compared with the modern theoretical reference data. The present work compiles several tens of recent measurements of the hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium fine and hyperfine structure intervals and presents sets of energy levels and Ritz wavelengths derived from those measurements. Data exist for the fine structure of energy levels of hydrogen and deuterium up to principal quantum number n = 12. For higher lying levels, there are many observed lines with unresolved fine structure. From those observations, level centers (centers of the fine structure) are derived by a least-squares optimization, and Ritz wavelengths of series with upper levels up to n = 40 are obtained. For tritium, the n = 2 and 3 energy level intervals are derived from experimental observations.

  6. A Qualitative Descriptive Case Study of the Requirements of the IT Industry for Entry-Level IT Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feuerherm, Todd Michael

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative descriptive case study explored the requirements of the IT industry for education, IT certification, and work experience for entry-level IT professionals. Research has shown a growing problem where IT graduates were not able to meet the requirements for entry-level IT jobs. IT enrollment has decreased considerably over the past…

  7. Acceptability of the Universal Level of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support among Elementary and High School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duvall, Corrina C.

    2009-01-01

    Concern about school safety has increased in recent years (Sprague et al., 1999), leading to a greater interest in methods such as Positive Behavior Support (PBS), which has been found to be successful at creating safe environments through use of preventive methods and the development of proactive systems for at-risk student populations (Horner,…

  8. Crossing the threshold: gene flow, dominance and the critical level of standing genetic variation required for adaptation to novel environments.

    PubMed

    Nuismer, S L; MacPherson, A; Rosenblum, E B

    2012-12-01

    Genetic architecture plays an important role in the process of adaptation to novel environments. One example is the role of allelic dominance, where advantageous recessive mutations have a lower probability of fixation than advantageous dominant mutations. This classic observation, termed 'Haldane's sieve', has been well explored theoretically for single isolated populations adapting to new selective regimes. However, the role of dominance is less well understood for peripheral populations adapting to novel environments in the face of recurrent and maladaptive gene flow. Here, we use a combination of analytical approximations and individual-based simulations to explore how dominance influences the likelihood of adaptation to novel peripheral environments. We demonstrate that in the face of recurrent maladaptive gene flow, recessive alleles can fuel adaptation only when their frequency exceeds a critical threshold within the ancestral range.

  9. Computer vision-based breast self-examination stroke position and palpation pressure level classification using artificial neural networks and wavelet transforms.

    PubMed

    Cabatuan, Melvin K; Dadios, Elmer P; Naguib, Raouf N G; Oikonomou, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on breast self-examination (BSE) stroke position and palpation level classification for the development of a computer vision-based BSE training and guidance system. In this study, image frames are extracted from a BSE video and processed considering the color information, shape, and texture by wavelet transform and first order color moment. The new approach using artificial neural network and wavelet transform can identify BSE stroke positions and palpation levels, i.e. light, medium, and deep, at 97.8 % and 87.5 % accuracy respectively.

  10. Leveling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1966-01-01

    Geodetic leveling by the U.S. Geological Survey provides a framework of accurate elevations for topographic mapping. Elevations are referred to the Sea Level Datum of 1929. Lines of leveling may be run either with automatic or with precise spirit levels, by either the center-wire or the three-wire method. For future use, the surveys are monumented with bench marks, using standard metal tablets or other marking devices. The elevations are adjusted by least squares or other suitable method and are published in lists of control.

  11. Positive Youth Development in Turkey: A Critical Review of Research on the Social and Emotional Learning Needs of Turkish Adolescents, 2000-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Robin Ann; Alacaci, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a critical and systematic review of 52 articles published from 2000 to 2012 about research conducted in Turkey concerning adolescents' social and emotional learning needs. In correspondence with international research, articles were examined across three categories in which adolescent needs could be addressed by educational…

  12. Lipoprotein apheresis for the treatment of elevated circulating levels of lipoprotein(a): a critical literature review

    PubMed Central

    Franchini, Massimo; Capuzzo, Enrico; Liumbruno, Giancarlo M.

    2016-01-01

    Lipoprotein(a), which consists of a low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle linked to an apolipoprotein(a) moiety, is currently considered an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease due to its atherogenic (LDL-like) and prothrombotic (plasminogen-like) properties. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the current and newer therapies for lowering increased lipoprotein(a) levels, focusing on lipoprotein apheresis. After a systematic literature search, we identified ten studies which, overall, documented that lipoprotein apheresis is effective in reducing increased lipoprotein(a) levels and cardiovascular events. PMID:26710351

  13. Comparison of the head and neck position of elite dressage horses during top-level competitions in 1992 versus 2008.

    PubMed

    Lashley, Morgan J J O; Nauwelaerts, Sandra; Vernooij, J C M; Back, W; Clayton, Hilary M

    2014-12-01

    Among veterinary surgeons, interest has recently increased in the role of the horse's neck as a causative factor in complex locomotor disturbances. Specifically, controversy surrounds the trend for the head to be carried behind the vertical (BHV) in contravention of Fédération Equestre Internationale (FEI) rules. The aim of this study was to determine whether the head angulation of elite dressage horses has changed over the last 25 years, and whether head angulation correlates with the competition score awarded. Head angle was measured from videos recorded during the Grand Prix test at the 1992 Olympic Games and the 2008 World Cup Final, during collected canter (CC), collected trot (CT), passage (Pa), and piaffe (Pi). Head angulations were BHV in CC and CT in both 1992 and 2008. The likelihood of being BHV during Pa or Pi was significantly greater in 2008 than in 1992 (P <0.05). Higher scores correlated significantly with head positions that were further BHV during Pi in 2008 (P <0.05). Head angulations were orientated BHV in all paces in 2008, whereas in 1992 this was only the case for CT and CC. These findings support the hypothesis that, in recent years, FEI dressage judges have not penalised horses for a head position BHV. The findings also support the need for further studies of the effects of head and neck position on the health of horses.

  14. Smart Device-Supported BDS/GNSS Real-Time Kinematic Positioning for Sub-Meter-Level Accuracy in Urban Location-Based Services

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liang; Li, Zishen; Zhao, Jiaojiao; Zhou, Kai; Wang, Zhiyu; Yuan, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Using mobile smart devices to provide urban location-based services (LBS) with sub-meter-level accuracy (around 0.5 m) is a major application field for future global navigation satellite system (GNSS) development. Real-time kinematic (RTK) positioning, which is a widely used GNSS-based positioning approach, can improve the accuracy from about 10–20 m (achieved by the standard positioning services) to about 3–5 cm based on the geodetic receivers. In using the smart devices to achieve positioning with sub-meter-level accuracy, a feasible solution of combining the low-cost GNSS module and the smart device is proposed in this work and a user-side GNSS RTK positioning software was developed from scratch based on the Android platform. Its real-time positioning performance was validated by BeiDou Navigation Satellite System/Global Positioning System (BDS/GPS) combined RTK positioning under the conditions of a static and kinematic (the velocity of the rover was 50–80 km/h) mode in a real urban environment with a SAMSUNG Galaxy A7 smartphone. The results show that the fixed-rates of ambiguity resolution (the proportion of epochs of ambiguities fixed) for BDS/GPS combined RTK in the static and kinematic tests were about 97% and 90%, respectively, and the average positioning accuracies (RMS) were better than 0.15 m (horizontal) and 0.25 m (vertical) for the static test, and 0.30 m (horizontal) and 0.45 m (vertical) for the kinematic test. PMID:28009835

  15. Smart Device-Supported BDS/GNSS Real-Time Kinematic Positioning for Sub-Meter-Level Accuracy in Urban Location-Based Services.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Li, Zishen; Zhao, Jiaojiao; Zhou, Kai; Wang, Zhiyu; Yuan, Hong

    2016-12-21

    Using mobile smart devices to provide urban location-based services (LBS) with sub-meter-level accuracy (around 0.5 m) is a major application field for future global navigation satellite system (GNSS) development. Real-time kinematic (RTK) positioning, which is a widely used GNSS-based positioning approach, can improve the accuracy from about 10-20 m (achieved by the standard positioning services) to about 3-5 cm based on the geodetic receivers. In using the smart devices to achieve positioning with sub-meter-level accuracy, a feasible solution of combining the low-cost GNSS module and the smart device is proposed in this work and a user-side GNSS RTK positioning software was developed from scratch based on the Android platform. Its real-time positioning performance was validated by BeiDou Navigation Satellite System/Global Positioning System (BDS/GPS) combined RTK positioning under the conditions of a static and kinematic (the velocity of the rover was 50-80 km/h) mode in a real urban environment with a SAMSUNG Galaxy A7 smartphone. The results show that the fixed-rates of ambiguity resolution (the proportion of epochs of ambiguities fixed) for BDS/GPS combined RTK in the static and kinematic tests were about 97% and 90%, respectively, and the average positioning accuracies (RMS) were better than 0.15 m (horizontal) and 0.25 m (vertical) for the static test, and 0.30 m (horizontal) and 0.45 m (vertical) for the kinematic test.

  16. Serum retinol levels are positively correlated with hemoglobin concentrations, independent of iron homeostasis: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Seyed Mojtaba; Heidari, Gholamreza; Nabipour, Iraj; Amirinejad, Roya; Assadi, Majid; Bargahi, Afshar; Akbarzadeh, Samad; Tahmasebi, Rahim; Sanjdideh, Zahra

    2013-04-01

    Micronutrient interactions give rise to complex issues that have an impact on preventive strategies when multiple micronutrient deficiencies coexist. The aim of this population-based study was to determine the prevalence of vitamins A and E and iron deficiencies among women 15 to 49 years of age in the northern Persian Gulf region. We hypothesized that serum retinol levels may show correlations with hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations, independent of iron status. A total of 1242 nonpregnant women of reproductive age were selected via a multistage stratified random cluster sampling technique. Serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor levels were measured using enzyme immunoassay techniques. Serum retinol (vitamin A) and α-tocopherol (vitamin E) were determined for 727 women by high-performance liquid chromatography. The prevalence of anemia (Hb <12 g/dL), iron deficiency (serum ferritin <15 μg/L), and iron deficiency anemia was 8.7%, 25.4%, and 4.6%, respectively. Vitamin A (<0.7 μmol/L) and vitamin E (<11.6 μmol/L) deficiencies were found in 1.2% and 5.9% of the studied population, respectively. Multiple regression analysis revealed that serum retinol levels exhibit a significant association with Hb concentrations after controlling for serum ferritin levels, anemia associated with chronic disease, and risk factors for anemia. Therefore, most nonpregnant women of reproductive age in the northern Persian Gulf were found to have adequate serum vitamin A and E levels. However, the status of anemia and iron deficiency anemia could be considered a mild public health problem in this region. On the basis of multivariate analyses, we conclude that low serum retinol levels may contribute to anemia, independent of iron homeostasis.

  17. Using Daily Plasma-Free Hemoglobin Levels for Diagnosis of Critical Pump Thrombus in Patients Undergoing ECMO or VAD Support

    PubMed Central

    Neal, James R.; Quintana, Eduard; Pike, Roxann B.; Hoyer, James D.; Joyce, Lyle D.; Schears, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Patients supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) or short-term centrifugal ventricular assist devices (VADs) are at risk for potential elevation of plasma-free hemoglobin (pfHb) during treatment. The use of pfHb testing allows detection of subclinical events with avoidance of propagating injury. Among 146 patients undergoing ECMO and VAD from 2009 to 2014, five patients experienced rapid increases in pfHb levels over 100 mg/dL. These patients were supported with CardioHelp, Centrimag, or Pedimag centrifugal pumps. Revolutions per minute of the pump head and flow in the circuit in three of the patients did not change, to maintain patient flow during the period that pfHb level spiked. Two patients had unusual vibrations originating from the pump head during the pfHb spike. Four patients had pump head replacement. Following intervention, trending pfHb levels demonstrated a rapid decline over the next 12 hours, returning to baseline within 48 hours. Two of the three patients who survived to discharge also experienced acute kidney injury, which was attributed to pfHb elevations. The kidney injury resolved over time. The architecture of centrifugal pumps may have indirectly contributed to red blood cell damage due to thrombus, originally from the venous line or venous cannula, being snared in the pump fins or pump head. PMID:26405358

  18. Using Daily Plasma-Free Hemoglobin Levels for Diagnosis of Critical Pump Thrombus in Patients Undergoing ECMO or VAD Support.

    PubMed

    Neal, James R; Quintana, Eduard; Pike, Roxann B; Hoyer, James D; Joyce, Lyle D; Schears, Gregory

    2015-06-01

    Patients supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) or short-term centrifugal ventricular assist devices (VADs) are at risk for potential elevation of plasma-free hemoglobin (pfHb) during treatment. The use of pfHb testing allows detection of subclinical events with avoidance of propagating injury. Among 146 patients undergoing ECMO and VAD from 2009 to 2014, five patients experienced rapid increases in pfHb levels over 100 mg/dL. These patients were supported with CardioHelp, Centrimag, or Pedimag centrifugal pumps. Revolutions per minute of the pump head and flow in the circuit in three of the patients did not change, to maintain patient flow during the period that pfHb level spiked. Two patients had unusual vibrations originating from the pump head during the pfHb spike. Four patients had pump head replacement. Following intervention, trending pfHb levels demonstrated a rapid decline over the next 12 hours, returning to baseline within 48 hours. Two of the three patients who survived to discharge also experienced acute kidney injury, which was attributed to pfHb elevations. The kidney injury resolved over time. The architecture of centrifugal pumps may have indirectly contributed to red blood cell damage due to thrombus, originally from the venous line or venous cannula, being snared in the pump fins or pump head.

  19. Elevated microRNA-125b levels predict a worse prognosis in HER2-positive breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yanwei; Wang, Xinye; Niu, Weihong; Wang, Heran; Wen, Qiuyuan; Fan, Songqing; Zhao, Ran; Li, Zheng; Xiong, Wei; Peng, Shuping; Zeng, Zhaoyang; Li, Xiaoling; Li, Guiyuan; Tan, Ming; Zhou, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer, the second most common cancer worldwide, is the leading cause of cancer-associated mortality in women, accounting for ~15% of all cancer-associated mortalities in women. The development, local invasion and metastasis of breast cancer are associated with the dysregulation and mutation of numerous genes and epigenetic mechanisms, including coding RNA and non-coding RNA, such as microRNAs (miRs/miRNAs). Previous studies have shown a dual-faced role of miR-125b in breast cancer. In the present study, a total of 221 paraffin-embedded breast cancer and 49 paraffin-embedded non-cancerous breast tissue samples were collected. In situ hybridization was used to analyze the expression of miR-125b in the breast cancer tissues. Spearman's rank correlation analysis was used to analyze the expression correlation between miR-125b and human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2). The overall survival estimates over time were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test. It was found that miR-125b expression was significantly increased in the breast cancer tissues compared with that in the non-cancerous tissues, and high miR-125b expression indicated a poor prognosis in the breast cancer patients. In addition, miR-125b expression was positively correlated with HER2, but not with progesterone receptor and estrogen receptor. Notably, high miR-125b expression was significantly correlated with tumor size and Tumor-Node-Metastasis stage in the HER2-positive breast cancer patients, along with a poor prognosis. The present study provides clinical data to confirm the oncogenic potential of miR-125b, particularly in HER2-positive human breast cancer. Thus, identification of miR-125b may be a potential molecular biomarker for the prediction of clinical outcomes in breast cancer patients, particularly HER2-positive cases that will receive paclitaxel-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:28356971

  20. The Impact of Item Position in Multiple-Choice Test on Student Performance at the Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE) Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollennu, Sam Nii Nmai; Etsey, Y. K. A.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the impact of item position in multiple-choice test on student performance at the Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE) level in Ghana. The sample consisted of 810 Junior Secondary School (JSS) Form 3 students selected from 12 different schools. A quasi-experimental design was used. The instrument for the project…

  1. The Relationship of Level of Positive Mental Health with Current Mental Disorders in Predicting Suicidal Behavior and Academic Impairment in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Corey L. M.; Eisenberg, Daniel; Perry, Geraldine S.; Dube, Shanta R.; Kroenke, Kurt; Dhingra, Satvinder S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether level of positive mental health complements mental illness in predicting students at risk for suicidal behavior and impaired academic performance. Participants: A sample of 5,689 college students participated in the 2007 Healthy Minds Study and completed an Internet survey that included the Mental Health…

  2. The Process of Adaptation of a Community-Level, Evidence-Based Intervention for HIV-Positive African American Men Who Have Sex with Men in Two Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Beatrice E.; Galbraith, Jennifer S.; Lund, Sharon M.; Hamilton, Autumn R.; Shankle, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the process of adapting a community-level, evidence-based behavioral intervention (EBI), Community PROMISE, for HIV-positive African American men who have sex with men (AAMSM). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Map of the Adaptation Process (MAP) guided the adaptation process for this new target population by two…

  3. Successes and challenges of measuring and modeling atmospheric mercury at the part per quadrillion level: a critical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sexauer Gustin, M.; Amos, H. M.; Huang, J.; Miller, M. B.; Heidecorn, K.

    2015-02-01

    Measurements of atmospheric mercury (Hg) are being increasingly incorporated into monitoring networks worldwide. These data are expected to support and inform regulatory decision making aimed at protecting human and wildlife health. Here we critically review current efforts to measure Hg concentrations in the atmosphere and interpret these data with Hg models. There are three operationally defined forms of atmospheric Hg: Gaseous Elemental (GEM), Gaseous Oxidized (GOM), and Particulate Bound (PBM). While there is relative confidence in GEM measurements, GOM and PBM are less well understood. Field and laboratory investigations suggest the methods to measure GOM and PBM are impacted by analytical interferences that vary with environmental setting (e.g., ozone, relative humidity) and GOM concentrations can be biased low by a factor of 1.6-12 times depending on the chemical compound. Importantly, efforts to understand the fundamental limitations of atmospheric Hg measurement methods have provided clear evidence that the composition of GOM (e.g., HgBr2, HgCl2, HgBrOH) varies across space and time. This has significant implications for refining existing measurement methods and developing new ones, model/measurement comparisons, model development, and assessing trends. In addition, unclear features of previously published data may now be re-examined and possibly explained, which we present as a case study. Lastly, we outline recommendations for needed research directions as the Hg field moves forward. Priorities include GOM and PBM calibration systems, identification of GOM compounds in ambient air, and identification of redox mechanisms and associated rate coefficients. Determination of a quantitative correction factor for biased GOM and PBM data is also needed to facilitate model-measurement comparisons.

  4. The Preparation of Master's-Level Professional Counselors for Positions in College and University Counseling Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Brian M.; Remley, Theodore P., Jr.; Ward, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated college and university counseling center directors' perceptions of the adequacy of the preparation of master's-level counselors for work in college and university counseling centers. Results indicated that counselors were rated on average as prepared; however, many directors had concerns about counselors'…

  5. Circadian rhythm in circulating CD16-positive natural killer (NK) cells in macaque monkeys, implication of plasma cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    Terao, Keiji; Suzuki, Juri; Ohkura, Satoshi

    2002-10-01

    The daily change in both percentage and absolute number of circulating major lymphocyte subset was determined with young Japanese monkeys and rhesus monkeys. The blood sample was collected at four hour-intervals beginning at 16:00 for 24 hours under the condition of applying tethering system by which blood samples could be collected without restraint. During the dark period (from 20:00 to 08:00), the number of peripheral lymphocytes increased and that of granulocytes decreased, resulting in no significant change in the number of total peripheral white blood cells. The absolute number of CD4+ T, CD8+ T, and CD20+ B cells showed the significant daily change similar to that in number of peripheral lymphocytes, indicating no proportional change in these subsets. The typical proportional change was observed in CD16+ natural killer (NK) cells and the percentage of CD16+ cells decreased during dark period (from 20:00 to 04:00) and increased in the morning (from 08:00 to 12:00). The NK activity determined by killing K562 target cells showed the same changing pattern as that of percentage in CD16+ NK cells. The changing pattern of both percentage and activity of NK cells was consistent with that of plasma cortisol levels. In addition, the intravenous injection of 300 g/kg of cortisol induced increase in plasma cortisol levels and decrease in percentage of CD16+ NK cells during the first 60 min after cortisol injection. These results strongly suggest that the levels of peripheral functional CD16+ NK cells might be directly regulated by plasma cortisol level in macaque monkeys.

  6. Splitting of the Low Landau Levels into a Set of Positive Lebesgue Measure under Small Periodic Perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinaburg, E. I.; Sinai, Ya. G.; Soshnikov, A. B.

    We study the spectral properties of a two-dimensional Schrödinger operator with a uniform magnetic field and a small external periodic field: where and , are small parameters. Representing as the direct integral of one-dimensional quasi-periodic difference operators with long-range potential and employing recent results of E.I.Dinaburg about Anderson localization for such operators (we assume to be typical irrational) we construct the full set of generalised eigenfunctions for the low Landau bands. We also show that the Lebesgue measure of the low bands is positive and proportional in the main order to .

  7. Dietary fish oil positively regulates plasma leptin and adiponectin levels in sucrose-fed, insulin-resistant rats.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Andrea S; Lombardo, Yolanda B; Lacorte, Jean-Marc; Chicco, Adriana G; Rouault, Christine; Slama, Gérard; Rizkalla, Salwa W

    2005-08-01

    Insulin resistance and adiposity induced by a long-term sucrose-rich diet (SRD) in rats could be reversed by fish oil (FO). Regulation of plasma leptin and adiponectin levels, as well as their gene expression, by FO might be implicated in these findings. This study was designed to evaluate the long-term regulation of leptin and adiponectin by dietary FO in a dietary model of insulin resistance induced by long-term SRD in rats and to determine their impact on adiposity and insulin sensitivity. Rats were randomized to consume a control diet (CD; n = 25) or an SRD (n = 50) for 7 mo. Subsequently, the SRD-fed rats were randomized to consume SRD+FO or to continue on SRD for an additional 2 mo. Long-term SRD induced overweight and decreased both plasma leptin and adiponectin levels without change in gene expression. Dyslipidemia, adiposity, and insulin resistance accompanied these modifications. Shifting the source of fat to FO for 2 mo increased plasma levels of both adipokines, reversed insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, and improved adiposity. These results were not associated with modifications in gene expression. These results suggest that increasing both adipokines by dietary FO might play an essential role in the normalization of insulin resistance and adiposity in dietary-induced, insulin-resistant models.

  8. Raised granzyme B levels are associated with erosions in patients with early rheumatoid factor positive rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Goldbach-Mansky, R; Suson, S; Wesley, R; Hack, C; El-Gabalawy, H; Tak, P

    2005-01-01

    Background: Raised granzyme B in serum and synovium of patients with rheumatoid arthritis suggests a role for cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells in the pathogenesis of this disease. Objective: To evaluate serum granzyme B in patients with early arthritis and correlate it with specific diagnosis and clinical indices of disease severity. Methods: 257 patients with inflammatory arthritis for less than one year (46% rheumatoid arthritis, 17% spondyloarthropathy, 37% undifferentiated arthritis) had a prospective clinical, serological, and radiographic evaluation. Granzyme B was measured in initial sera by ELISA. Patients were HLA typed for DR alleles using sequence specific primers. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate the potential prognostic value of serum granzyme B in predicting radiographic erosions after one year of follow up. Results: Granzyme B values were similar in rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthropathy, and undifferentiated arthritis. Concentrations were higher in rheumatoid factor (RF) positive patients than in RF negative patients (mean (SD): 3.15 (0.92) v 2.89 (0.71) pg/ml; p<0.05). After one year, erosions were present in 30% of patients in the overall cohort, and in 44% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In the entire cohort, serum granzyme B did not predict erosions independently. However, high granzyme B was an independent predictor of early erosions in patients with RF positive rheumatoid arthritis (odds ratio = 4.83 (95% confidence interval, 1.13 to 20.59)) (p<0.05). Conclusions: Granzyme B may be a useful prognostic marker in early rheumatoid arthritis and may provide important clues to the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:15471892

  9. Defining the Risk of Involvement for Each Neck Nodal Level in Patients With Early T-Stage Node-Positive Oropharyngeal Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Sanguineti, Giuseppe Califano, Joseph; Stafford, Edward; Fox, Jana; Koch, Wayne; Tufano, Ralph; Sormani, Maria Pia; Forastiere, Arlene

    2009-08-01

    Purpose: To assess the risk of ipsilateral subclinical neck nodal involvement for early T-stage/node-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Patients undergoing multilevel upfront neck dissection (ND) at Johns Hopkins Hospital within the last 10 years for early clinical T-stage (cT1-2) node-positive (cN+) oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma were identified. Pathologic involvement of Levels IB-V was determined. For each nodal level, the negative predictive value of imaging results was computed by using sensitivity/specificity data for computed tomography (CT). This was used to calculate 1 - negative predictive value, or the risk that a negative level on CT harbors subclinical disease. Results: One hundred three patients met the criteria. Radical ND was performed in 14.6%; modified radical ND, in 70.9%; and selective ND, in 14.6%. Pathologic positivity rates were 9.5%, 91.3%, 40.8%, 18.0%, and 3.3% for Levels IB-V, respectively. Risks of subclinical disease despite negative CT imaging results were calculated as 3.1%, 76.3%, 17.5%, 6.3%, and 1.0% for Levels IB-V, respectively. Conclusions: Levels IB and V are at very low (<5%) risk of involvement, even with ipsilateral to pathologically proven neck disease; this can guide radiation planning. Levels II and III should be included in high-risk volumes regardless of imaging results, and Level IV should be included within the lowest risk volume.

  10. Analysis of the Perceptions of CPM (Critical Path Method) as a Project Management Tool on Base Level Civil Engineering Projects.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    PATH 2/2 METHOD) AS A PROJECT MA (U) AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH SCHOOL OF SYST R 0 REAY UNCLASSIFIED SEP 86 AFIT/GEN/DEM/86S-2i F /O...OF SYST R D REAY UNLSIID SEP 86 AFIT/GEM/DEM/86S-2i F /G 15/5 N EEEEohmhEEEEEE smmhEmhEEEEEmh EEEEEEEEmhhEEE EEEEEEEEEEEmhE EEE10hEEEEEEEEI 1.0 Us 1o15...MANAGEMENT TOOL ON BASE LEVEL CIUIL ENGINEERING PROJECTS THESIS Roderick 0. Reag Captain, USAF AFIT/GEM/DEM/BS-21 DTIC r -c - ,’ r ,u ; . F DEPARTMENT OF THE

  11. Lin28a uses distinct mechanisms of binding to RNA and affects miRNA levels positively and negatively.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Jakub Stanislaw; Hobor, Fruzsina; Downie Ruiz Velasco, Angela; Choudhury, Nila Roy; Heikel, Gregory; Kerr, Alastair; Ramos, Andres; Michlewski, Gracjan

    2017-03-01

    Lin28a inhibits the biogenesis of let-7 miRNAs by triggering the polyuridylation and degradation of their precursors by terminal uridylyltransferases TUT4/7 and 3'-5' exoribonuclease Dis3l2, respectively. Previously, we showed that Lin28a also controls the production of neuro-specific miRNA-9 via a polyuridylation-independent mechanism. Here we reveal that the sequences and structural characteristics of pre-let-7 and pre-miRNA-9 are eliciting two distinct modes of binding to Lin28a. We present evidence that Dis3l2 controls miRNA-9 production. Finally, we show that the constitutive expression of untagged Lin28a during neuronal differentiation in vitro positively and negatively affects numerous other miRNAs. Our findings shed light on the role of Lin28a in differentiating cells and on the ways in which one RNA-binding protein can perform multiple roles in the regulation of RNA processing.

  12. Lin28a uses distinct mechanisms of binding to RNA and affects miRNA levels positively and negatively

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Jakub Stanislaw; Hobor, Fruzsina; Downie Ruiz Velasco, Angela; Choudhury, Nila Roy; Heikel, Gregory; Kerr, Alastair; Ramos, Andres; Michlewski, Gracjan

    2017-01-01

    Lin28a inhibits the biogenesis of let-7 miRNAs by triggering the polyuridylation and degradation of their precursors by terminal uridylyltransferases TUT4/7 and 3′-5′ exoribonuclease Dis3l2, respectively. Previously, we showed that Lin28a also controls the production of neuro-specific miRNA-9 via a polyuridylation-independent mechanism. Here we reveal that the sequences and structural characteristics of pre-let-7 and pre-miRNA-9 are eliciting two distinct modes of binding to Lin28a. We present evidence that Dis3l2 controls miRNA-9 production. Finally, we show that the constitutive expression of untagged Lin28a during neuronal differentiation in vitro positively and negatively affects numerous other miRNAs. Our findings shed light on the role of Lin28a in differentiating cells and on the ways in which one RNA-binding protein can perform multiple roles in the regulation of RNA processing. PMID:27881476

  13. Optimal level activity of matrix metalloproteinases is critical for adult visual plasticity in the healthy and stroke-affected brain.

    PubMed

    Pielecka-Fortuna, Justyna; Kalogeraki, Evgenia; Fortuna, Michal G; Löwel, Siegrid

    2015-11-26

    The ability of the adult brain to undergo plastic changes is of particular interest in medicine, especially regarding recovery from injuries or improving learning and cognition. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been associated with juvenile experience-dependent primary visual cortex (V1) plasticity, yet little is known about their role in this process in the adult V1. Activation of MMPs is a crucial step facilitating structural changes in a healthy brain; however, upon brain injury, upregulated MMPs promote the spread of a lesion and impair recovery. To clarify these seemingly opposing outcomes of MMP-activation, we examined the effects of MMP-inhibition on experience-induced plasticity in healthy and stoke-affected adult mice. In healthy animals, 7-day application of MMP-inhibitor prevented visual plasticity. Additionally, treatment with MMP-inhibitor once but not twice following stroke rescued plasticity, normally lost under these conditions. Our data imply that an optimal level of MMP-activity is crucial for adult visual plasticity to occur.

  14. Optimal level activity of matrix metalloproteinases is critical for adult visual plasticity in the healthy and stroke-affected brain

    PubMed Central

    Pielecka-Fortuna, Justyna; Kalogeraki, Evgenia; Fortuna, Michal G; Löwel, Siegrid

    2015-01-01

    The ability of the adult brain to undergo plastic changes is of particular interest in medicine, especially regarding recovery from injuries or improving learning and cognition. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been associated with juvenile experience-dependent primary visual cortex (V1) plasticity, yet little is known about their role in this process in the adult V1. Activation of MMPs is a crucial step facilitating structural changes in a healthy brain; however, upon brain injury, upregulated MMPs promote the spread of a lesion and impair recovery. To clarify these seemingly opposing outcomes of MMP-activation, we examined the effects of MMP-inhibition on experience-induced plasticity in healthy and stoke-affected adult mice. In healthy animals, 7-day application of MMP-inhibitor prevented visual plasticity. Additionally, treatment with MMP-inhibitor once but not twice following stroke rescued plasticity, normally lost under these conditions. Our data imply that an optimal level of MMP-activity is crucial for adult visual plasticity to occur. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11290.001 PMID:26609811

  15. Quantitative Hepatitis B Core Antibody Level Is a New Predictor for Treatment Response In HBeAg-positive Chronic Hepatitis B Patients Receiving Peginterferon

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Feng-Qin; Song, Liu-Wei; Yuan, Quan; Fang, Lin-Lin; Ge, Sheng-Xiang; Zhang, Jun; Sheng, Ji-Fang; Xie, Dong-Ying; Shang, Jia; Wu, Shu-Huan; Sun, Yong-Tao; Wei, Shao-Feng; Wang, Mao-Rong; Wan, Mo-Bin; Jia, Ji-Dong; Luo, Guang-Han; Tang, Hong; Li, Shu-Chen; Niu, Jun-Qi; Zhou, Wei-dong; Sun, Li; Xia, Ning-Shao; Wang, Gui-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    A recent study revealed that quantitative hepatitis B core antibody (qAnti-HBc) level could serve as a novel marker for predicting treatment response. In the present study, we further investigated the predictive value of qAnti-HBc level in HBeAg-positive patients undergoing PEG-IFN therapy. A total of 140 HBeAg-positive patients who underwent PEG-IFN therapy for 48 weeks and follow-up for 24 weeks were enrolled in this study. Serum samples were taken every 12 weeks post-treatment. The predictive value of the baseline qAnti-HBc level for treatment response was evaluated. Patients were further divided into 2 groups according to the baseline qAnti-HBc level, and the response rate was compared. Additionally, the kinetics of the virological and biochemical parameters were analyzed. Patients who achieved response had a significantly higher baseline qAnti-HBc level (serological response [SR], 4.52±0.36 vs. 4.19±0.58, p=0.001; virological response [VR], 4.53±0.35 vs. 4.22±0.57, p=0.005; combined response [CR], 4.50±0.36 vs. 4.22±0.58, p=0.009)). Baseline qAnti-HBc was the only parameter that was independently correlated with SR (p=0.008), VR (p=0.010) and CR(p=0.019). Patients with baseline qAnti-HBc levels ≥30,000 IU/mL had significantly higher response rates, more HBV DNA suppression, and better hepatitis control in PEG-IFN treatment. In conclusion, qAnti-HBc level may be a novel biomarker for predicting treatment response in HBeAg-positive patients receiving PEG-IFN therapy. PMID:25553110

  16. Serum lipocalin-2 levels are positively associated with not only total body fat but also visceral fat area in Chinese men

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yuqi; Ma, Xiaojing; Pan, Xiaoping; Xu, Yiting; Xiong, Qin; Xiao, Yunfeng; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Serum lipocalin-2 (LCN2) plays an important role in the regulation of the obesity-associated dysmetabolic state and cardiovascular disease. However, relatively little is known about the relationship between serum LCN2 levels and body fat content and distribution. We examined the associations of total body fat content and abdominal fat distribution with serum LCN2 levels in Chinese men. The study was based on a cross-sectional analysis of data for 1203 Chinese men aged 22 to 78 years from the Shanghai Obesity Study. Body fat percentage (fat%) was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis, and magnetic resonance imaging was adopted to quantify the visceral fat area (VFA) and subcutaneous fat area (SFA). Serum levels of LCN2 were measured with a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Subjects with a high fat% had higher serum LCN2 levels than those with a normal fat% regardless of their body mass index category (<25 and ≥25 kg/m2). The frequency of isolated high VFA was increased with increasing quintiles of serum LCN2 levels (P < 0.001), but the frequency of isolated high SFA did not differ between quintiles of serum LCN2 levels. A trend of increasing VFA was observed with increasing serum LCN2 levels (P < 0.001). Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that VFA was positively associated with serum LCN2 levels, independent of overall obesity and other confounding factors (standardized β = 0.082, P = 0.008). Serum LCN2 levels are positively correlated with body fat content and independently associated with VFA in Chinese men. PMID:27472678

  17. Temporal Variation and Association of Aflatoxin B₁ Albumin-Adduct Levels with Socio-Economic and Food Consumption Factors in HIV Positive Adults.

    PubMed

    Jolly, Pauline E; Akinyemiju, Tomi F; Jha, Megha; Aban, Inmaculada; Gonzalez-Falero, Andrea; Joseph, Dnika

    2015-11-30

    The association between aflatoxin exposure and alteration in immune responses observed in humans suggest that aflatoxin could suppress the immune system and work synergistically with HIV to increase disease severity and progression to AIDS. No longitudinal study has been conducted to assess exposure to aflatoxin (AF) among HIV positive individuals. We examined temporal variation in AFB₁ albumin adducts (AF-ALB) in HIV positive Ghanaians, and assessed the association with socioeconomic and food consumption factors. We collected socioeconomic and food consumption data for 307 HIV positive antiretroviral naive adults and examined AF-ALB levels at recruitment (baseline) and at six (follow-up 1) and 12 (follow-up 2) months post-recruitment, by age, gender, socioeconomic status (SES) and food consumption patterns. Generalized linear models were used to examine the influence of socioeconomic and food consumption factors on changes in AF-ALB levels over the study period, adjusting for other covariates. AF-ALB levels (pg/mg albumin) were lower at baseline (mean AF-ALB: 14.9, SD: 15.9), higher at six months (mean AF-ALB: 23.3, SD: 26.6), and lower at 12 months (mean AF-ALB: 15.3, SD: 15.4). Participants with the lowest SES had the highest AF-ALB levels at baseline and follow up-2 compared with those with higher SES. Participants who bought less than 20% of their food and who stored maize for less than two months had lower AF-ALB levels. In the adjusted models, there was a statistically significant association between follow up time and season (dry or rainy season) on AF-ALB levels over time (p = 0.04). Asymptomatic HIV-positive Ghanaians had high plasma AF-ALB levels that varied according to season, socioeconomic status, and food consumption patterns. Steps need to be taken to ensure the safety and security of the food supply for the population, but in particular for the most vulnerable groups such as HIV positive people.

  18. Temporal Variation and Association of Aflatoxin B1 Albumin-Adduct Levels with Socio-Economic and Food Consumption Factors in HIV Positive Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jolly, Pauline E.; Akinyemiju, Tomi F.; Jha, Megha; Aban, Inmaculada; Gonzalez-Falero, Andrea; Joseph, Dnika

    2015-01-01

    The association between aflatoxin exposure and alteration in immune responses observed in humans suggest that aflatoxin could suppress the immune system and work synergistically with HIV to increase disease severity and progression to AIDS. No longitudinal study has been conducted to assess exposure to aflatoxin (AF) among HIV positive individuals. We examined temporal variation in AFB1 albumin adducts (AF-ALB) in HIV positive Ghanaians, and assessed the association with socioeconomic and food consumption factors. We collected socioeconomic and food consumption data for 307 HIV positive antiretroviral naive adults and examined AF-ALB levels at recruitment (baseline) and at six (follow-up 1) and 12 (follow-up 2) months post-recruitment, by age, gender, socioeconomic status (SES) and food consumption patterns. Generalized linear models were used to examine the influence of socioeconomic and food consumption factors on changes in AF-ALB levels over the study period, adjusting for other covariates. AF-ALB levels (pg/mg albumin) were lower at baseline (mean AF-ALB: 14.9, SD: 15.9), higher at six months (mean AF-ALB: 23.3, SD: 26.6), and lower at 12 months (mean AF-ALB: 15.3, SD: 15.4). Participants with the lowest SES had the highest AF-ALB levels at baseline and follow up-2 compared with those with higher SES. Participants who bought less than 20% of their food and who stored maize for less than two months had lower AF-ALB levels. In the adjusted models, there was a statistically significant association between follow up time and season (dry or rainy season) on AF-ALB levels over time (p = 0.04). Asymptomatic HIV-positive Ghanaians had high plasma AF-ALB levels that varied according to season, socioeconomic status, and food consumption patterns. Steps need to be taken to ensure the safety and security of the food supply for the population, but in particular for the most vulnerable groups such as HIV positive people. PMID:26633502

  19. Role of serum levels of angiogenic cytokines in assessment of angiogenesis after stem cell therapy of diabetic patients with critical limb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Dubsky, Michal; Jirkovska, Alexandra; Bem, Robert; Fejfarova, Vladimira; Varga, Martin; Kolesar, Libor; Pagacova, Libuse; Sykova, Eva; Jude, Edward B

    2014-01-01

    The release of proangiogenic cytokines into the circulation after stem cell (SC) therapy and compensatory increase of angiogenesis inhibitors may reflect local vasculogenesis but also can increase the risk of side effects. The aim of our study was to evaluate serum levels of angiogenic cytokines with regard to the assessment of local and systemic vasculogenesis in diabetic patients with no-option critical limb ischemia (NO-CLI). Twenty-five diabetic patients with NO-CLI treated with SCs isolated from bone marrow or stimulated peripheral blood were included in the study. Serum levels of proangiogenic cytokines (VEGF, bFGF, Ang-1, PDGF-AA, and PDGF-BB) and an antiangiogenic cytokine (endostatin) were assessed 6 months after cell treatment, compared to baseline values, and correlated with the number of injected CD34(+) cells. The clinical effect of SC therapy (assessed by changes in TcPO2) and potential systemic vasculogenesis (assessed by eye fundus examination) were evaluated after 6 months. Serum levels of angiogenic inhibitor endostatin increased significantly after 1 and 3 months (p = 0.0003), but no significant increase in serum levels of proangiogenic cytokines was observed. A significant correlation between number of injected CD34(+) cells and serum levels of endostatin was observed (r = 0.41, p < 0.05); however, proangiogenic cytokines did not correlate with CD34(+) cells. No correlation between increase in TcPO2 after treatment and serum levels of any of the angiogenic cytokines were seen, and no signs of systemic vasculogenesis in the retina were observed after 6 months. Despite the significant increase in the levels of the angiogenic inhibitor endostatin following SC treatment, there was no risk of systemic vasculogenesis after SC therapy as documented by serum levels of proangiogenic cytokines or changes in the retina.

  20. Impact of implant–abutment connection and positioning of the machined collar/microgap on crestal bone level changes: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Frank; Hegewald, Andrea; Becker, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To address the following focused question: What is the impact of implant–abutment configuration and the positioning of the machined collar/microgap on crestal bone level changes? Material and methods Electronic databases of the PubMed and the Web of Knowledge were searched for animal and human studies reporting on histological/radiological crestal bone level changes (CBL) at nonsubmerged one-/two-piece implants (placed in healed ridges) exhibiting different abutment configurations, positioning of the machined collar/microgap (between 1992 and November 2012: n = 318 titles). Quality assessment of selected full-text articles was performed according to the ARRIVE and CONSORT statement guidelines. Results A total of 13 publications (risk of bias: high) were eligible for the review. The weighted mean difference (WMD) (95% CI) between machined collars placed either above or below the bone crest amounted to 0.835 mm favoring an epicrestal positioning of the rough/smooth border (P <  0.001) (P-value for heterogeneity: 0.885, I2: 0.000% = no heterogeneity). WMD (95% CI) between microgaps placed either at or below the bone crest amounted to −0.479 mm favoring a subcrestal position of the implant neck (P <  0.001) (P-value for heterogeneity: 0.333, I2: 12.404% = low heterogeneity). Only two studies compared different implant–abutment configurations. Due to a high heterogeneity, a meta-analysis was not feasible. Conclusions While the positioning of the machined neck and microgap may limit crestal bone level changes at nonsubmerged implants, the impact of the implant–abutment connection lacks documentation. PMID:23782338

  1. Recovery of Ground-Water Levels from 1988 to 2003 and Analysis of Effects of 2003 and Full-Allocation Withdrawals in Critical Area 2, Southern New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spitz, Frederick J.; dePaul, Vincent T.

    2008-01-01

    Water levels in the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system within Water Supply Critical Area 2 in the southern New Jersey Coastal Plain have recovered as a result of reductions in ground-water withdrawals initiated in the early 1990s. The Critical Area consists of the depleted zone and the threatened margin. The Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system consists of the Upper, Middle, and Lower aquifers. Generally, ground-water withdrawals from these aquifers declined 5 to 10 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) and water levels recovered 0 to 40 ft (foot) from 1988 to 2003. In order to reevaluate water-allocation restrictions in Critical Area 2 in response to changes in the ground-water-flow system and demands for additional water supply due to increased development, the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) needs information about the effects of changes in those allocations. Therefore, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the NJDEP, used an existing ground-water-flow model of the New Jersey Coastal Plain to evaluate the effects of withdrawal alternatives on hydraulic heads in the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system in Critical Area 2. The U.S. Geological Survey Regional Aquifer System Analysis model was used to simulate steady-state ground-water flow. Two withdrawal conditions were tested by using the model to evaluate hydraulic heads and differences in heads in these aquifers: 2003 withdrawals and full-allocation withdrawals (17.4 Mgal/d greater than 2003 withdrawals). Model results are presented using head maps and head-difference maps that compare 2003 to full-allocation withdrawals. Mandated hydrologic conditions for Critical Area protection are that the simulated -30-ft head contour not extend beyond the boundary of the depleted zone and (or) be at least 5 mi (miles) updip from the 250-mg/L (milligram per liter) isochlor in all three aquifers. Simulation results indicate that, for 2003 withdrawals, the simulated -30-ft head

  2. Treatment of sleep central apnea with non-invasive mechanical ventilation with 2 levels of positive pressure (bilevel) in a patient with myotonic dystrophy type 1

    PubMed Central

    Akamine, Ricardo Tera; Grossklauss, Luís Fernando; Moreira, Gustavo Antonio; Pradella-Hallinan, Marcia; Chiéia, Marco Antônio; Mesquita, Denis; Bulle Oliveira, Acary Souza; Tufik, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    We are reporting a case of a 29 year-old female with diagnosis of myotonic dystrophy type 1 (Steinert’s disease) with excessive daytime sleepiness, muscle fatigue, snoring, frequent arousals, non-restorative sleep, and witnessed apneas. Pulmonary function tests revealed a mild decrease of forced vital capacity. Nocturnal polysomnography showed an increase of apnea/hypopnea index (85.9 events/h), mainly of central type (236), minimal oxygen saturation of 72%, and end-tidal carbon dioxide values that varied from 45 to 53 mmHg. Bi-level positive airway pressure titration was initiated at an inspiratory pressure (IPAP) of 8 and an expiratory pressure (EPAP) of 4 cm H2O. IPAP was then gradually increased to eliminate respiratory events and improve oxygen saturation. An IPAP of 12cm H20 and an EPAP of 4cm H2O eliminated all respiratory events, and the oxygen saturation remained above 90%. Bi-level positive airway pressure treatment at spontaneous/timed mode showed an improvement in snoring, apneas, and Epworth sleepiness scale decreased from 20 to 10. This case illustrates the beneficial effects of Bi-level positive airway pressure support in central sleep apnea syndrome of a patient with myotonic dystrophy type 1. PMID:26483914

  3. Ultrasound measurement of deep abdominal muscle activity in sitting positions with different stability levels in subjects with and without chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Rasouli, Omid; Arab, Amir Massoud; Amiri, Mohsen; Jaberzadeh, Shapour

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in the thickness of the transversus abdominis (TrA) and internal oblique (IO) muscles in three sitting postures with different levels of stability. The technique of ultrasound imaging was used for individuals with and without chronic low back pain (LBP). A sample of 40 people participated in this study. Subjects were categorised into two groups: with LBP (N = 20) and without LBP (N = 20). Changes in the thickness of tested muscles were normalized under three different sitting postures to actual muscle thickness at rest in the supine lying position and were expressed as a percentage of thickness change. The percentage of thickness change in TrA and IO increased as the stability of the sitting position decreased in both groups. However, the percentages of thickness change in all positions were less in subjects with LBP. There was a significant difference in thickness change in TrA when sitting on a gym ball between subjects with and without LBP but no difference was found when sitting on a chair. There was no significant difference in thickness change in IO in all positions between the two groups. Our findings indicate that difference in the percentage of thickness change in TrA between subjects with and without LBP increases as the stability of sitting position decreases.

  4. The Zn2 Position in Metallo-beta-Lactamases is Critical for Activity: A Study on Chimeric Metal Sites on a Conserved Protein Scaffold

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez,J.; Medrano Martin, F.; Costello, A.; Tierney, D.; Vila, A.

    2007-01-01

    Metallo-?-lactamases (M?Ls) are bacterial Zn(II)-dependent hydrolases that confer broad-spectrum resistance to ?-lactam antibiotics. These enzymes can be subdivided into three subclasses (B1, B2 and B3) that differ in their metal binding sites and their characteristic tertiary structure. To date there are no clinically useful pan-M?L inhibitors available, mainly due to the unawareness of key catalytic features common to all M?L brands. Here we have designed, expressed and characterized two double mutants of BcII, a di-Zn(II) B1-M?L from Bacillus cereus, namely BcII-R121H/C221D (BcII-HD) and BcII-R121H/C221S (BcII-HS). These mutants display modified environments at the so-called Zn2 site or DCH site, reproducing the metal coordination environments of structurally related metallohydrolases. Through a combination of structural and functional studies, we found that BcII-HD is an impaired ?-lactamase even as a di-Zn(II) enzyme, whereas BcII-HS exhibits the ability to exist as mono or di-Zn(II) species in solution, with different catalytic performances. We show that these effects result from an altered position of Zn2, which is incapable of providing a productive interaction with the substrate ?-lactam ring. These results indicate that the position of Zn2 is essential for a productive substrate binding and hydrolysis.

  5. Anatomy of regret: a developmental view of the depressive position and a critical turn toward love and creativity in the transforming schizoid personality.

    PubMed

    Kavaler-Adler, Susan

    2004-03-01

    This article deals with critical psychic transformation in a schizoid personality disorder that evolves in an object relations psychoanalysis in which "developmental mourning" plays a central role. Within a mourning process that allows for the grieving of loss related to arrested separation-individuation development, the analysand confronts the existential grief of regret that had always unconsciously haunted her. The unconscious guilt related to the existential grief of regret had caused much dissociation of self-experience and affect states. The analysand acknowledges her own part in the destruction of primal and current relationships after the traumatic impact of her early life is understood. This allows her to repair current relationships, both within her internal and external worlds so that she can open to capacities for love and creativity. The analysand's courage to consciously grapple with her regret (loss and guilt combined) allows her to relinquish self-sabotaging character defenses such as contempt and emotional withdrawl. Consequently, a second marriage is salvaged and enriched, and the analysand's relationship with her two children is dramatically improved.

  6. HER2 amplification level is not a prognostic factor for HER2-positive breast cancer with trastuzumab-based adjuvant treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qian-Qian; Pan, Bo; Wang, Chang-Jun; Zhou, Yi-Dong; Mao, Feng; Lin, Yan; Guan, Jing-Hong; Shen, Song-Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Xu, Ya-Li; Zhong, Ying; Wang, Xue-Jing; Zhang, Yan-Na; Sun, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Background Trastuzumab-based therapy is a standard, targeted treatment for HER2-positive breast cancer in the adjuvant setting. However, patients do not benefit equally from it and the association between HER2 amplification level and patients' survival remains controversial. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted by incorporating all available evidence to evaluate the association between disease free survival (DFS) and HER2 amplification level. Results Three cohort studies involving 1360 HER2-positive breast cancer patients stratified by HER2 amplification magnitude were eligible for meta-analysis. The combined HRs for DFS were 1.05 (95% CI: 0.80−1.36, p = 0.74) and 0.97 (95% CI: 0.73−1.29, p = 0.83) for HER2 gene copy number (GCN) and HER2/CEP 17 ratio. No evidence of heterogeneity or public bias was found. Methods Databases including PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), were searched for eligible literature. HER2 amplification level was evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in terms of gene copy number (GCN) and HER2/CEP17 ratio. Hazard ratios (HRs) for DFS with 95% confidence interval (CI) according to the amplification level of HER2 were extracted. The outcomes were synthesized based on a fixed-effects model. Conclusions HER2 amplification level is not a prognostic factor for HER2-positive breast cancer with trastuzumab-based targeted therapy in the clinical adjuvant setting. PMID:27566580

  7. Elevated levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein correlate positively with C-reactive protein in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-chen; Wei, Jing-jing; Wang, Fei; Chen, Man-tian; Zhang, Mao-zhen

    2012-03-01

    The relationship between oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is unknown. We, therefore, measured serum levels of Ox-LDL and high-sensitivity (hs)-CRP in 90 ACS patients, 45 stable angina pectoris (SAP) patients, and 66 healthy controls using sandwich ELISA. ACS patients were subdivided into: (1) acute myocardial infarction (AMI; n = 45); (2) unstable angina pectoris (UAP; n = 45) groups. In AMI patients, Ox-LDL (177.5 mmol/l) and hs-CRP (25.40 mg/l) levels were significantly higher (P < 0.01) than in UAP (Ox-LDL:107.5 mmol/l, hs-CRP:10.7 mg/l) and SAP (Ox-LDL:82.3 mmol/l, hs-CRP:2.10 mg/l) patients as well as controls (Ox-LDL:41.4 mmol/l, hs-CRP:1.76 mg/l). Ox-LDL/hs-CRP levels in UAP patients were significantly higher (P < 0.01) than in SAP patients and controls. Importantly, a positive correlation was found between Ox-LDL and CRP (r = 0.622; P < 0.01) levels. Serum levels of total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol did not differ among these patient groups. In conclusion, our data show that Ox-LDL and hs-CRP levels correlate positively in ACS patients, supporting the hypothesis that Ox-LDL and CRP may play a direct role in promoting the inflammatory component of atherosclerosis in these individuals. We suggest that Ox-LDL/CRP elevated levels may serve as markers of the severity of the disease in evaluation and management of ACS patients.

  8. Reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor contribute to synaptic imbalance during the critical period of respiratory development in rats.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiu-Ping; Liu, Qiuli; Nair, Bindu; Wong-Riley, Margaret T T

    2014-07-01

    Previously, our electrophysiological studies revealed a transient imbalance between suppressed excitation and enhanced inhibition in hypoglossal motoneurons of rats on postnatal days (P) 12-13, a critical period when abrupt neurochemical, metabolic, ventilatory and physiological changes occur in the respiratory system. The mechanism underlying the imbalance is poorly understood. We hypothesised that the imbalance was contributed by a reduced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which normally enhances excitation and suppresses inhibition. We also hypothesised that exogenous BDNF would partially reverse this synaptic imbalance. Immunohistochemistry/single-neuron optical densitometry, real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were done on hypoglossal motoneurons in brainstem slices of rats during the first three postnatal weeks. Our results indicated that: (1) the levels of BDNF and its high-affinity tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) receptor mRNAs and proteins were relatively high during the first 1-1.5 postnatal weeks, but dropped precipitously at P12-13 before rising again afterwards; (2) exogenous BDNF significantly increased the normally lowered frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents but decreased the normally heightened amplitude and frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) during the critical period; (3) exogenous BDNF also decreased the normally heightened frequency of miniature IPSCs at P12-13; and (4) the effect of exogenous BDNF was partially blocked by K252a, a TrkB receptor antagonist. Thus, our results are consistent with our hypothesis that BDNF and TrkB play an important role in the synaptic imbalance during the critical period. This may have significant implications for the mechanism underlying sudden infant death syndrome.

  9. Positive correlation between patency and mRNA levels for cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E synthase in the uterine cervix of bitches with pyometra

    PubMed Central

    TAMADA, Hiromichi; ADACHI, Nahoko; KAWATE, Noritoshi; INABA, Toshio; HATOYA, Shingo; SAWADA, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    Factors involved in patency of uterine cervices in the bitch with pyometra remain to be clarified. This study examined relationship between patency and mRNA levels for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, COX-2 and prostaglandin E synthase (PGES) in the uterine cervix of bitches with pyometra. Cervical patency was measured by inserting the stainless steel rods with different diameter into cervical canals. Levels of mRNA expression were determined by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The cervical patency was positively correlated with mRNA levels for COX-2 and PGES, but not those for iNOS and COX-1. The results suggest that gene expression of COX-2 and PGES may be involved in the regulation of patency in the uterine cervix of bitches with pyometra. PMID:26596635

  10. Positive correlation between patency and mRNA levels for cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E synthase in the uterine cervix of bitches with pyometra.

    PubMed

    Tamada, Hiromichi; Adachi, Nahoko; Kawate, Noritoshi; Inaba, Toshio; Hatoya, Shingo; Sawada, Tsutomu

    2016-03-01

    Factors involved in patency of uterine cervices in the bitch with pyometra remain to be clarified. This study examined relationship between patency and mRNA levels for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, COX-2 and prostaglandin E synthase (PGES) in the uterine cervix of bitches with pyometra. Cervical patency was measured by inserting the stainless steel rods with different diameter into cervical canals. Levels of mRNA expression were determined by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The cervical patency was positively correlated with mRNA levels for COX-2 and PGES, but not those for iNOS and COX-1. The results suggest that gene expression of COX-2 and PGES may be involved in the regulation of patency in the uterine cervix of bitches with pyometra.

  11. Plasma Periostin Levels Are Increased in Chinese Subjects with Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes and Are Positively Correlated with Glucose and Lipid Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yuanyuan; Qu, Hua; Wang, Hang; Wei, Huili; Wu, Jing; Duan, Yang; Liu, Dan; Deng, Huacong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relations among plasma periostin, glucose and lipid metabolism, insulin resistance and inflammation in Chinese patients with obesity (OB), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Plasma periostin levels in the T2DM group were significantly higher than the NGT group (P < 0.01). Patients with both OB and T2DM had the highest periostin levels. Correlation analysis showed that plasma periostin levels were positively correlated with weight, waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h postchallenge plasma glucose (2 h PG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), fasting insulin (FINS), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), TNF-α, and IL-6 (P < 0.05 or 0.001) and negatively correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (P < 0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that TG, TNF-α, and HOMA-IR were independent related factors in influencing the levels of plasma periostin (P < 0.001). These results suggested that Chinese patients with obesity and T2DM had significantly higher plasma periostin levels. Plasma periostin levels were strongly associated with plasma TG, chronic inflammation, and insulin resistance. PMID:27313402

  12. The number of positively charged amino acids in the basic domain of Tat is critical for trans-activation and complex formation with TAR RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Delling, U; Roy, S; Sumner-Smith, M; Barnett, R; Reid, L; Rosen, C A; Sonenberg, N

    1991-01-01

    The basic domain of Tat is required for trans-activation of viral gene expression. We have performed scanning peptide studies to demonstrate that only this domain is capable of binding to the TAR RNA stem-loop. Strikingly, the basic domain of the other human immunodeficiency virus trans-acting factor, Rev, but no other region, is also capable of binding to TAR. Peptide derivatives of Tat do not require the highly conserved glutamine residue at position 54 for TAR binding, since it may be substituted or deleted. In addition, the two lysine residues may be replaced by arginines. Analysis of binding and trans-activation demonstrated that homopolymers of arginine can completely substitute for the basic domain. Such homopolymers have high affinity for wild-type TAR RNA and lower affinity for mutant TAR. Homopolymers of six to nine arginines substituting for the basic domain of Tat enable full trans-activation in vivo. Homopolymers of at least seven arginines are required for detectable in vitro complex formation, although approximately 30% trans-activation is achieved with a mutant Tat containing only five arginines. Images PMID:2068104

  13. Data link level interconnection of remote Fiber Distributed Data Interface Local Area Networks (FDDI LANs) through the Critical Data Link (CDL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karayakaylar, Selcuk

    1994-06-01

    This thesis deals with the features and performance of a network interface device to interconnect two remote Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) Local Area Networks (LAN's) through the Critical Data Link (CDL) which is a full-duplex, jam-resistant, point-to-point microwave communications system for use in imagery and signals intelligence collection systems. In particular, OPNET, a commercially available network engineering tool is used to model a medium access level remote bridge interface connecting two LAN's. The effectiveness of two different load balancing techniques used to distribute traffic over the multiple channels of the CDL has been studied. Also, the effect of different jamming patterns on the bit error rate seen by the users has been studied.

  14. Determination of 32P in urine for early estimation of the neutron exposure level for three victims of the JCO criticality accident.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Yoshikazu; Takeda, Hiroshi; Miyamoto, Kiriko; Watanabe, Yoshito; Kouno, Fuyuki; Kuroda, Noriko; Kim, Hee Sun; Yukawa, Masae

    2002-03-01

    In the criticality accident which occurred on 30 September 1999 at a uranium conversion facility in Tokai-mura, Japan, three workers were severely exposed to neutron and gamma-ray irradiation. Preliminary estimations of doses from blood properties and 24Na concentration in blood were 16-20, 6-10 and 1-4 gamma-ray gray-equivalent (gammaGyEq) respectively for the three workers. For apparent dose estimation, neutron-induced radionuclides in biological materials such as blood, hair and urine were measured. Accordingly, we detected 32p in urine samples. The concentration ratios of 32P in the urine for the three workers showed a similar tendency to those of 24Na in blood. This result indicated that the radioactivity of 32P in urine could be used to estimate the neutron exposure level.

  15. Nearest Neighbor Averaging and its Effect on the Critical Level and Minimum Detectable Concentration for Scanning Radiological Survey Instruments that Perform Facility Release Surveys.

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier, Sean Donovan; Beall, Patrick S; Miller, Mark L

    2014-08-01

    Through the SNL New Mexico Small Business Assistance (NMSBA) program, several Sandia engineers worked with the Environmental Restoration Group (ERG) Inc. to verify and validate a novel algorithm used to determine the scanning Critical Level (L c ) and Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) (or Minimum Detectable Areal Activity) for the 102F scanning system. Through the use of Monte Carlo statistical simulations the algorithm mathematically demonstrates accuracy in determining the L c and MDC when a nearest-neighbor averaging (NNA) technique was used. To empirically validate this approach, SNL prepared several spiked sources and ran a test with the ERG 102F instrument on a bare concrete floor known to have no radiological contamination other than background naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The tests conclude that the NNA technique increases the sensitivity (decreases the L c and MDC) for high-density data maps that are obtained by scanning radiological survey instruments.

  16. A critical discourse analysis of British national newspaper representations of the academic level of nurse education: too clever for our own good?

    PubMed

    Gillett, Karen

    2012-12-01

    This critical discourse analysis examines articles about the academic level of nurse education that appeared in British national newspapers between 1999 and 2009. British newspaper journalists regularly attribute problems with recruitment into nursing and nursing care to the increasing academic nature of nurse education. It is impossible to separate discourse about nurse education from the wider nursing discourse. Many journalists laud a traditional and stereotypical construct of nurse identity and suggest that increasing nurse education produces nurses who are 'too clever to care'. This article argues that whilst nurses lack a voice in the National press, they have little input into the construction of newspaper discourse about nurse education and subsequently, limited influence on resulting public opinion, government policy and the morale of nurses.

  17. Is venous blood drawn from femoral access adequate to estimate the central venous oxygen saturation and arterial lactate levels in critically ill patients?

    PubMed Central

    Marti, Yara Nishiyama; de Freitas, Flávio Geraldo Rezende; de Azevedo, Rodrigo Palácio; Leão, Milena; Bafi, Antônio Tonete; Machado, Flavia Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to test if venous blood drawn from femoral access can be used to estimate the central venous oxygen saturation and arterial lactate levels in critically ill patients. Methods Bland-Altman analysis and Spearman correlations were used to compare the femoral venous oxygen saturation and central venous oxygen saturation as well as arterial lactate levels and femoral lactate. A pre-specified subgroup analysis was conducted in patients with signs of hypoperfusion. In addition, the clinical agreement was also investigated. Results Blood samples were obtained in 26 patients. In 107 paired samples, there was a moderate correlation (r = 0.686, p < 0.0001) between the central venous oxygen saturation and femoral venous oxygen saturation with a bias of 8.24 ± 10.44 (95% limits of agreement: -12.23 to 28.70). In 102 paired samples, there was a strong correlation between the arterial lactate levels and femoral lactate levels (r = 0.972, p < 0.001) with a bias of -2.71 ± 9.86 (95% limits of agreement: -22.03 to 16.61). The presence of hypoperfusion did not significantly change these results. The clinical agreement for venous saturation was inadequate, with different therapeutic decisions in 22.4% of the situation; for lactate, this was the case only in 5.2% of the situations. Conclusion Femoral venous oxygen saturation should not be used as a surrogate of central venous oxygen saturation. However, femoral lactate levels can be used in clinical practice, albeit with caution. PMID:26761471

  18. Positive Effect of Large Birth Intervals on Early Childhood Hemoglobin Levels in Africa Is Limited to Girls: Cross-Sectional DHS Study

    PubMed Central

    Afeworki, Robel; Smits, Jeroen; Tolboom, Jules; van der Ven, Andre

    2015-01-01

    Background Short birth intervals are independently associated with increased risk of adverse maternal, perinatal, infant and child outcomes. Anemia in children, which is highly prevalent in Africa, is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Birth spacing is advocated as a tool to reduce anemia in preschool African children, but the role of gender differences and contextual factors has been neglected. The present study aims to determine to what extent the length of preceding birth interval influences the hemoglobin levels of African preschool children in general, as well as for boys and girls separately, and which contextual factors thereby play a crucial role. Methods and Findings This cross-sectional study uses data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted between 2003 and 2011 in 20 African countries. All preschool children aged 6–59 months with a valid hemoglobin measurement and a preceding birth interval of 7–72 months as well as their corresponding multigravida mothers aged 21–49 years were included in the study. Hemoglobin levels of children and mothers were measured in g/l, while birth intervals were calculated as months difference between consecutive births. Multivariate analyses were done to examine the relationship between length of preceding birth interval and child hemoglobin levels, adjusted for factors at the individual, household, community, district, and country level. A positive linear relationship was observed between birth interval and the 49,260 included children’s hemoglobin level, whereby age and sex of the child, hemoglobin level of the mother, household wealth, mother’s education and urbanization of place of residence also showed positive associations. In the interaction models, the effect of a month increase in birth interval is associated with an average increase of 0.025 g/l in hemoglobin level (P = 0.001) in girls, while for boys the effect was not significant. In addition, for girls, the effect

  19. Prospective controlled cohort study of Troponin I levels in patients undergoing elective spine surgery for degenerative conditions: Prone versus supine position.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, A I; Rudd, D; Knight, E; Marshman, L A G; Guazzo, E P; Anderson, D S

    2017-01-01

    Prior studies have suggested that elevated serum Troponin-I (TnI) levels immediately after non-cardiac surgical procedures (8-40%) represent subclinical cardiac stress which independently predicts increased 30-day mortality. Routine post-operative TnI monitoring has therefore been suggested as a standard of care. However, no prior studies have focussed on elective degenerative spine surgery, whilst few have measured pre-op TnI. Further, prolonged prone positioning could represent an additional, independent, cardiac stress. We planned a prospective controlled cohort study of consecutive TnI levels in routine elective spine surgery for degenerative spine conditions, incorporating 3 groups: 'prone<2h', 'prone>2h' and 'supine' positioning. TnI levels (>0.04μg/L) were recorded immediately pre-/post-surgery, and by 24h of surgery. N=120 patients were recruited. Complete results were obtained in 92 (39 supine, 53 prone). No significant between-groups differences were observed in demographic or cardiovascular risk factors. Validated TnI-elevation by 24h was not observed in any group. Spurious elevations were recorded in one 'prone<2h' and one 'prone>2h'. One non-ST segment myocardial infarction (STEMI) occurred on day 7 without TnI elevation by 24h (prone>2h). There was no 30-day mortality.

  20. Recovery of Ground-Water Levels From 1988 to 2003 and Analysis of Potential Water-Supply Management Options in Critical Area 1, East-Central New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spitz, Frederick J.; Watt, Martha K.; dePaul, Vincent T.

    2008-01-01

    Water levels in four confined aquifers in the New Jersey Coastal Plain within Water Supply Critical Area 1 have recovered as a result of reductions in ground-water withdrawals initiated by the State in the late 1980s. The aquifers are the Wenonah-Mount Laurel, the Upper and Middle Potomac-Raritan-Magothy, and Englishtown aquifer system. Because of increased water demand due to increased development in Monmouth, Ocean, and Middlesex Counties, five base and nine alternate management models were designed for the four aquifers to evaluate the effects resulting from potential reallocation of part of the Critical Area 1 reductions in withdrawals. The change in withdrawals and associated water-level changes in the aquifers for 1988-2003 are discussed. Generally, withdrawals decreased 25 to 30 Mgal/d (million gallons per day), and water levels increased 0 to 80 ft (feet). The Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) ground-water-flow model of the New Jersey Coastal Plain developed by the U.S. Geological Survey was used to simulate ground-water flow and optimize withdrawals using the Ground-Water Management Process (GWM) for MODFLOW. Results of the model were used to evaluate the effects of several possible water-supply management options in order to provide the information to water managers. The optimization method, which provides a means to set constraints that support mandated hydrologic conditions, then determine the maximum withdrawals that meet the constraints, is a more cost-effective approach than simulating a range of withdrawals to determine the effects on the aquifer system. The optimization method is particularly beneficial for a regional-scale study of this kind because of the large number of wells to be evaluated. Before the model was run, a buffer analysis was done to define an area with no additional withdrawals that minimizes changes in simulated streamflow in aquifer outcrop areas and simulated movement of ground water toward the wells from areas of

  1. Critical Thinking, Parenting, and the Dance of Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargant, Hope

    2002-01-01

    A parent of a gifted preteen discusses how parents can promote critical thinking in their gifted adolescents. Parents are urged to focus three levels of cognition where critical thinking is believed to take place: analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Examples of positive interactions and questioning techniques are provided. (Contains 1 reference.)…

  2. Achievement of practical level critical current densities in Ba1−xKxFe2As2/Ag tapes by conventional cold mechanical deformation

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhaoshun; Togano, Kazumasa; Matsumoto, Akiyoshi; Kumakura, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    The recently discovered iron-based superconductors are potential candidates for high-field magnet applications. However, the critical current densities (Jc) of iron-based superconducting wires remain far below the level needed for practical applications. Here, we show that the transport Jc of Ba1−xKxFe2As2/Ag tapes is significantly enhanced by the combination process of cold flat rolling and uniaxial pressing. At 4.2 K, Jc exceeds the practical level of 105 A/cm2 in magnetic fields up to 6 T. The Jc-H curve shows extremely small magnetic field dependence and maintains a high value of 8.6 × 104 A/cm2 in 10 T. These are the highest values reported so far for iron-based superconducting wires. Hardness measurements and microstructure investigations reveal that the superior Jc in our samples is due to the high core density, more textured grains, and a change in the microcrack structure. These results indicate that iron-based superconductors are very promising for high magnetic field applications. PMID:24513646

  3. Plasma Lactoferrin Levels Positively Correlate with Insulin Resistance despite an Inverse Association with Total Adiposity in Lean and Severely Obese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pouliot, Yves; Lamarche, Benoît; Beaulieu, Jean-François; Hould, Frédéric S.; Richard, Denis; Tchernof, André; Levy, Emile

    2016-01-01

    Context Lactoferrin (Lf) is an important protein found on mucosal surfaces, within neutrophils and various cells, and in biological fluids. It displays multiple functions, including iron-binding as well as antimicrobial, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activities. Although Lf ingestion has been suggested to cause adiposity reduction in murine models and humans, its relationship with insulin resistance (IR) has not been studied thoroughly. Objective To establish the association between circulating Lf levels, glucose status and blood lipid/lipoprotein profile. Methods Two independent cohorts were examined: lean to moderately obese women admitted for gynecological surgery (n = 53) and severely obese subjects undergoing biliopancreatic diversion (n = 62). Results Although body mass index (BMI) and total body fat mass were negatively associated with Lf, IR (assessed by the HOMA-IR index) was positively and independently associated with plasma Lf concentrations of the first cohort of lean to moderately obese women. These observations were validated in the second cohort in view of the positive correlation between plasma Lf concentrations and the HOMA-IR index, but without a significant association with the body mass index (BMI) of severely obese subjects. In subsamples of severely obese subjects matched for sex, age and BMI, but with either relatively low (1.89 ± 0.73) or high (13.77 ± 8.81) IR states (according to HOMA-IR), higher plasma Lf levels were noted in insulin-resistant vs insulin-sensitive subjects (P<0.05). Finally, Lf levels were significantly higher in lean to moderately obese women than in severely obese subjects (P<0.05). Conclusion Our findings revealed that plasma Lf levels are strongly associated with IR independently of total adiposity, which suggests an intriguing Lf regulation mechanism in conditions of obesity and IR. PMID:27902700

  4. RmtC introduces G1405 methylation in 16S rRNA and confers high-level aminoglycoside resistance on Gram-positive microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Wachino, Jun-Ichi; Shibayama, Keigo; Kimura, Kouji; Yamane, Kunikazu; Suzuki, Satowa; Arakawa, Yoshichika

    2010-10-01

    Seven plasmid-mediated 16S rRNA methyltransferases (MTases), RmtA, RmtB, RmtC, RmtD, RmtE, ArmA, and NpmA, conferring aminoglycoside resistance have so far been found in Gram-negative pathogenic microorganisms. In the present study, by performing an RNase protection assay, primer extension, and HPLC, we confirmed that RmtC indeed methylates at the N7 position of nucleotide G1405 in 16S rRNA as found in ArmA and RmtB. RmtC has an MTase activity specific for the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit consisting of 16S rRNA and several ribosomal proteins, but not for the naked 16S rRNA, as seen in ArmA, RmtB, and NpmA. All seven 16S rRNA MTases have been found exclusively in Gram-negative bacilli to date, and no plasmid-mediated 16S rRNA MTase has been reported in Gram-positive pathogenic microorganisms. Thus, we checked whether or not the RmtC could function in Gram-positive bacilli, and found that RmtC could indeed confer high-level resistance to gentamicin and kanamycin in Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. 16S rRNA MTases seemed to be functional to some extent in any bacterial species, regardless of the provenance of the 16S rRNA MTase gene responsible for aminoglycoside resistance.

  5. The Triple P-Positive Parenting Program: a systematic review and meta-analysis of a multi-level system of parenting support.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Matthew R; Kirby, James N; Tellegen, Cassandra L; Day, Jamin J

    2014-06-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the effects of the multilevel Triple P-Positive Parenting Program system on a broad range of child, parent and family outcomes. Multiple search strategies identified 116 eligible studies conducted over a 33-year period, with 101 studies comprising 16,099 families analyzed quantitatively. Moderator analyses were conducted using structural equation modeling. Risk of bias within and across studies was assessed. Significant short-term effects were found for: children's social, emotional and behavioral outcomes (d=0.473); parenting practices (d=0.578); parenting satisfaction and efficacy (d=0.519); parental adjustment (d=0.340); parental relationship (d=0.225) and child observational data (d=0.501). Significant effects were found for all outcomes at long-term including parent observational data (d=0.249). Moderator analyses found that study approach, study power, Triple P level, and severity of initial child problems produced significant effects in multiple moderator models when controlling for other significant moderators. Several putative moderators did not have significant effects after controlling for other significant moderators. The positive results for each level of the Triple P system provide empirical support for a blending of universal and targeted parenting interventions to promote child, parent and family wellbeing.

  6. Sensitivity of Fermi level position at Ga-polar, N-polar, and nonpolar m-plane GaN surfaces to vacuum and air ambient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicki, Łukasz; Ramírez-López, Manolo; Misiewicz, Jan; Cywiński, Grzegorz; Boćkowski, Michał; Muzioł, Grzegorz; Chèze, Caroline; Sawicka, Marta; Skierbiszewski, Czesław; Kudrawiec, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Ga-polar, N-polar, and nonpolar m-plane GaN UN+ structures have been examined in air and vacuum ambient by contactless electroreflectance (CER). This technique is very sensitive to the surface electric field that varies with the Fermi level position at the surface. For UN+ GaN structures [i.e., GaN (undoped)/GaN (n-type)/substrate], a homogeneous built-in electric field is expected in the undoped GaN layer that is manifested by Franz-Keldysh oscillation (FKO) in CER spectra. A clear change in FKO has been observed in CER spectra for N-polar and nonpolar m-plane structures when changing from air to vacuum ambient. This means that those surfaces are very sensitive to ambient atmosphere. In contrast to that, only a small change in FKO can be seen in the Ga-polar structure. This clearly shows that the ambient sensitivity of the Fermi level position at the GaN surface varies with the crystallographic orientation and is very high for N-polar and nonpolar m-plane surfaces. This feature of the N-polar and nonpolar m-plane surfaces can be very important for GaN-based devices grown on these crystallographic orientations and can be utilized in some of the devices, e.g., sensors.

  7. HIV-positive nigerian adults harbor significantly higher serum lumefantrine levels than HIV-negative individuals seven days after treatment for Plasmodium falciparum infection.

    PubMed

    Chijioke-Nwauche, Ifeyinwa; van Wyk, Albert; Nwauche, Chijioke; Beshir, Khalid B; Kaur, Harparkash; Sutherland, Colin J

    2013-09-01

    Management of coinfection with malaria and HIV is a major challenge to public health in developing countries, and yet potential drug-drug interactions between antimalarial and antiviral regimens have not been adequately investigated in people with both infections. Each of the constituent components of artemether-lumefantrine, the first-line regimen for malaria treatment in Nigeria, and nevirapine, a major component of highly active antiretroviral therapy, are drugs metabolized by the cytochrome P450 3A4 isoenzyme system, which is also known to be induced by nevirapine. We examined potential interactions between lumefantrine and nevirapine in 68 HIV-positive adults, all of whom were diagnosed with asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections by microscopy. Post hoc PCR analysis confirmed the presence of P. falciparum in only a minority of participants. Day 7 capillary blood levels of lumefantrine were significantly higher in HIV-positive participants than in 99 HIV-negative controls (P = 0.0011). Associations between day 7 levels of lumefantrine and risk of persistent parasitemia could not be evaluated due to inadequate power. Further investigations of the impact of nevirapine on in vivo malaria treatment outcomes in HIV-infected patients are thus needed.

  8. Hydrogen Sulfide Levels and Nuclear Factor-Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2 (NRF2) Activity Are Attenuated in the Setting of Critical Limb Ischemia (CLI)

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Kazi N; Polhemus, David J; Donnarumma, Erminia; Brewster, Luke P; Lefer, David J

    2015-01-01

    Background Cystathionine γ-lyase, cystathionine β-synthase, and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase are endogenous enzymatic sources of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Functions of H2S are mediated by several targets including ion channels and signaling proteins. Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 is responsible for the expression of antioxidant response element–regulated genes and is known to be upregulated by H2S. We examined the levels of H2S, H2S-producing enzymes, and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 activation status in skeletal muscle obtained from critical limb ischemia (CLI) patients. Methods and Results Gastrocnemius tissues were attained postamputation from human CLI and healthy control patients. We found mRNA and protein levels of cystathionine γ-lyase, cystathionine β-synthase, and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase were significantly decreased in skeletal muscle of CLI patients as compared to control. H2S and sulfane sulfur levels were significantly decreased in skeletal muscle of CLI patients. We also observed significant reductions in nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 activation as well as antioxidant proteins, such as Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in skeletal muscle of CLI patients. Biomarkers of oxidative stress, such as malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl formation, were significantly increased in skeletal muscle of CLI patients as compared to healthy controls. Conclusions The data demonstrate that H2S bioavailability and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 activation are both attenuated in CLI tissues concomitant with significantly increased oxidative stress. Reductions in the activity of H2S-producing enzymes may contribute to the pathogenesis of CLI. PMID:25977470

  9. Neopterin and Soluble CD14 Levels as Indicators of Immune Activation in Cases with Indeterminate Pattern and True Positive HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Uysal, Hayriye Kırkoyun; Sohrabi, Pari; Habip, Zafer; Saribas, Suat; Kocazeybek, Emre; Seyhan, Fatih; Calışkan, Reyhan; Bonabi, Esad; Yuksel, Pelin; Birinci, Ilhan; Uysal, Omer; Kocazeybek, Bekir

    2016-01-01

    Background We aimed to evaluate the roles of the plasma immune activation biomarkers neopterin and soluble CD14 (sCD14) in the indirect assessment of the immune activation status of patients with the indeterminate HIV-1 (IHIV-1) pattern and a true HIV-1-positive infection (PCG). Methods This cross-sectional and descriptive study included eighty-eight patients with the IHIV-1 pattern, 100 patients in the PCG, and 100 people in a healthy control group (HCG). Neopterin and sCD14 levels were determined by competitive and sandwich ELISA methods, respectively. Results Mean neopterin and sCD14 levels among those with the IHIV-1 pattern were significantly lower than among the PCG (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively), but they were similiar to those in the HCG (p = 0.57 and p = 0.66, respectively. Mean neopterin and sCD14 levels among the PCG were found to be significantly higher than among those with the IHIV-1 pattern (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively) and among those in the HCG (p = 0.001, p < 0.001, respectively). Neopterin did not have adequate predictive value for identifying those in the PCG (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.534; 95% CI, 0.463–0.605; p = 0.4256); sCD14 also had poor predictive value but high specificity (100%) for identifying those in the PCG (AUC = 0.627; 95% CI, 0.556–0.694; p = 0.0036). Conclusions While low levels of these two biomarkers were detected among those with the IHIV-1 pattern, they were found in high levels among those in the PCG. These two markers obviously cannot be used as a sceening test because they have low sensitivies. Taken together, we suggest that neopterin and sCD14 may be helpful because they both have high specificity (92%-100%) as indirect non-specific markers for predicting the immune activation status of individuals, whether or not they have true positive HIV-1. PMID:27031691

  10. A new positive relationship between pCO2 and stomatal frequency in Quercus guyavifolia (Fagaceae): a potential proxy for palaeo-CO2 levels

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jin-Jin; Xing, Yao-Wu; Turkington, Roy; Jacques, Frédéric M. B.; Su, Tao; Huang, Yong-Jiang; Zhou, Zhe-Kun

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The inverse relationship between atmospheric CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) and stomatal frequency in many species of plants has been widely used to estimate palaeoatmospheric CO2 (palaeo-CO2) levels; however, the results obtained have been quite variable. This study attempts to find a potential new proxy for palaeo-CO2 levels by analysing stomatal frequency in Quercus guyavifolia (Q. guajavifolia, Fagaceae), an extant dominant species of sclerophyllous forests in the Himalayas with abundant fossil relatives. Methods Stomatal frequency was analysed for extant samples of Q. guyavifolia collected from17 field sites at altitudes ranging between 2493 and 4497 m. Herbarium specimens collected between 1926 and 2011 were also examined. Correlations of pCO2–stomatal frequency were determined using samples from both sources, and these were then applied to Q. preguyavaefolia fossils in order to estimate palaeo-CO2 concentrations for two late-Pliocene floras in south-western China. Key Results In contrast to the negative correlations detected for most other species that have been studied, a positive correlation between pCO2 and stomatal frequency was determined in Q. guyavifolia sampled from both extant field collections and historical herbarium specimens. Palaeo-CO2 concentrations were estimated to be approx. 180–240 ppm in the late Pliocene, which is consistent with most other previous estimates. Conclusions A new positive relationship between pCO2 and stomatal frequency in Q. guyavifolia is presented, which can be applied to the fossils closely related to this species that are widely distributed in the late-Cenozoic strata in order to estimate palaeo-CO2 concentrations. The results show that it is valid to use a positive relationship to estimate palaeo-CO2 concentrations, and the study adds to the variety of stomatal density/index relationships that available for estimating pCO2. The physiological mechanisms underlying this positive response are

  11. A Positive Reply to Constructive Criticism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpinen, Erkki

    2005-01-01

    In this essay, Kilpinen responds to Terry Gates, Scott Goble, and Pentti Maattanen, who have provided reviews of his dissertation book "The Enormous Fly-Wheel of Society." As the reviewers noted, the book attempts to make two points simultaneously, and it may be that this made its argument hard to follow. The first point, that thorough knowledge…

  12. Perinatal undernutrition modifies cell proliferation and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels during critical time-windows for hypothalamic and hippocampal development in the male rat.

    PubMed

    Coupé, B; Dutriez-Casteloot, I; Breton, C; Lefèvre, F; Mairesse, J; Dickes-Coopman, A; Silhol, M; Tapia-Arancibia, L; Lesage, J; Vieau, D

    2009-01-01

    Maternal perinatal undernutrition (MPU) modifies the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sensitises to the development of metabolic and cognitive adult diseases. Because the hypothalamus and hippocampus are involved in the regulation of neuroendocrine activity, energy metabolism and cognition, we hypothesised that a maternal 50% food restriction (FR50) from day 14 of pregnancy (E14) until postnatal day 21 (P21) would affect the development of these structures in male rat offspring. Protein and mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cell proliferation [analysed by 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation] were compared in both control and FR50 rats from E21 to P22. Although the pattern of the evolution of BDNF concentration and cell proliferation throughout development was not strikingly different between groups, several disturbances at specific developmental stages were observed. FR50 rats exhibited a delayed increase of hippocampal BDNF content whereas, in the hypothalamus, BDNF level was augmented from E21 to P14 and associated, at this latter stage, with an increased mRNA expression of TRkB-T2. In both groups, a correlation between BDNF content and the number of BrdU positive cells was noted in the dentate gyrus, whereas opposite variations were observed in CA1, CA2 and CA3 layers, and in the arcuate and ventromedial nuclei. In the hippocampus, P15-FR50 rats showed an increased number of BrdU positive cells in all regions, whereas, at P22, a decrease was observed in the CA2. In the hypothalamus, between E21 and P8, MPU increases the number of BrdU positive cells in all regions analysed and, until P15, marked differences were noticed in the median eminence, the paraventricular nucleus and the arcuate nucleus. Taken together, the results obtained in the present study show that MPU changes the time course of production of BDNF and cell proliferation in specific hippocampal and hypothalamic areas during sensitive

  13. Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase from coconut endosperm mediates the insertion of laurate at the sn-2 position of triacylglycerols in lauric rapeseed oil and can increase total laurate levels

    PubMed

    Knutzon; Hayes; Wyrick; Xiong; Maelor Davies H; Voelker

    1999-07-01

    Expression of a California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica) 12:0-acyl-carrier protein thioesterase, bay thioesterase (BTE), in developing seeds of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) led to the production of oils containing up to 50% laurate. In these BTE oils, laurate is found almost exclusively at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions of the triacylglycerols (T.A. Voelker, T.R. Hayes, A.C. Cranmer, H.M. Davies [1996] Plant J 9: 229-241). Coexpression of a coconut (Cocos nucifera) 12:0-coenzyme A-preferring lysophosphatitic acid acyltransferase (D.S. Knutzon, K.D. Lardizabal, J.S. Nelsen, J.L. Bleibaum, H.M. Davies, J.G. Metz [1995] Plant Physiol 109: 999-1006) in BTE oilseed rape seeds facilitates efficient laurate deposition at the sn-2 position, resulting in the acccumulation of trilaurin. The introduction of the coconut protein into BTE oilseed rape lines with laurate above 50 mol % further increases total laurate levels.

  14. Impact of implant–abutment connection, positioning of the machined collar/microgap, and platform switching on crestal bone level changes. Camlog Foundation Consensus Report.

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Frank; Alcoforado, Gil; Nelson, Katja; Schaer, Alex; Taylor, Thomas; Beuer, Florian; Strietzel, Frank Peter

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this consensus meeting was to assess the impact of implant–abutment connection, positioning of the machined collar/microgap, and platform switching on crestal bone level changes. Materials and methods Two comprehensive systematic reviews were prepared in advance of the meeting. Consensus statements, practical recommendations, and implications for future research were based on within group as well as plenary scrutinization and discussions of these systematic reviews. Results Placing the smooth part of the implant below the alveolar crest may lead to bone loss. Despite a more pronounced bone remodeling, the subcrestal positioning of the microgap may help to retain the bony coverage of the rough surface. Crestal bone remodeling has been observed for either internal and external, or conical and butt–joint connections. There was a trend favoring the platform switching concept to prevent or minimize peri-implant marginal bone loss. Conclusions Future research should consider an uniform and comparable study design, either excluding or exactly documenting possible confounding factors. PMID:24147913

  15. A comparison of ballet dancers with different level of experience in performing single-leg stance on retiré position.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Wei; Lin, Cheng-Feng; Hsue, Bih-Jen; Su, Fong-Chin

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the postural stability of single-leg standing on the retiré position in ballet dancers having three different levels of skill. Nine superior experienced female ballet dancers, 9 experienced, and 12 novice dancers performed single-leg standing in the retiré position. The parameters of center of pressure (COP) in the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions and the maximum distance between COP and the center of mass (COM) were measured. The inclination angles of body segments (head, torso, and supporting leg) in the frontal plane were also calculated. The findings showed that the novice dancers had a trend of greater torso inclination angles than the experienced dancers but that the superior experienced dancers had greater maximum COM-COP distance in the anterior-posterior direction. Furthermore, both experienced and novice dancers had better balance when standing on the nondominant leg, whereas the superior experienced dancers had similar postural stability between legs. Based on the findings, ballet training should put equal focus on both legs and frontal plane control (medial-lateral direction) should be integrated to ballet training program.

  16. A functional ABCA1 gene variant is associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels and shows evidence of positive selection in Native Americans.

    PubMed

    Acuña-Alonzo, Víctor; Flores-Dorantes, Teresa; Kruit, Janine K; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Arellano-Campos, Olimpia; Hünemeier, Tábita; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Ortiz-López, Ma Guadalupe; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; León-Mimila, Paola; Villalobos-Comparan, Marisela; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Ramírez-Jiménez, Salvador; Sikora, Martin; Zhang, Lin-Hua; Pape, Terry D; Granados-Silvestre, Ma de Angeles; Montufar-Robles, Isela; Tito-Alvarez, Ana M; Zurita-Salinas, Camilo; Bustos-Arriaga, José; Cedillo-Barrón, Leticia; Gómez-Trejo, Celta; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; Vieira-Filho, Joao P; Granados, Julio; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Huertas-Vázquez, Adriana; González-Martín, Antonio; Gorostiza, Amaya; Bonatto, Sandro L; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Wang, Li; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Lisker, Ruben; Moises, Regina S; Menjivar, Marta; Salzano, Francisco M; Knowler, William C; Bortolini, M Cátira; Hayden, Michael R; Baier, Leslie J; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2010-07-15

    It has been suggested that the higher susceptibility of Hispanics to metabolic disease is related to their Native American heritage. A frequent cholesterol transporter ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) gene variant (R230C, rs9282541) apparently exclusive to Native American individuals was associated with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, obesity and type 2 diabetes in Mexican Mestizos. We performed a more extensive analysis of this variant in 4405 Native Americans and 863 individuals from other ethnic groups to investigate genetic evidence of positive selection, to assess its functional effect in vitro and to explore associations with HDL-C levels and other metabolic traits. The C230 allele was found in 29 of 36 Native American groups, but not in European, Asian or African individuals. C230 was observed on a single haplotype, and C230-bearing chromosomes showed longer relative haplotype extension compared with other haplotypes in the Americas. Additionally, single-nucleotide polymorphism data from the Human Genome Diversity Panel Native American populations were enriched in significant integrated haplotype score values in the region upstream of the ABCA1 gene. Cells expressing the C230 allele showed a 27% cholesterol efflux reduction (P< 0.001), confirming this variant has a functional effect in vitro. Moreover, the C230 allele was associated with lower HDL-C levels (P = 1.77 x 10(-11)) and with higher body mass index (P = 0.0001) in the combined analysis of Native American populations. This is the first report of a common functional variant exclusive to Native American and descent populations, which is a major determinant of HDL-C levels and may have contributed to the adaptive evolution of Native American populations.

  17. A functional ABCA1 gene variant is associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels and shows evidence of positive selection in Native Americans

    PubMed Central

    Acuña-Alonzo, Víctor; Flores-Dorantes, Teresa; Kruit, Janine K.; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Arellano-Campos, Olimpia; Hünemeier, Tábita; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Ortiz-López, Ma Guadalupe; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; León-Mimila, Paola; Villalobos-Comparan, Marisela; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Ramírez-Jiménez, Salvador; Sikora, Martin; Zhang, Lin-Hua; Pape, Terry D.; de Ángeles Granados-Silvestre, Ma; Montufar-Robles, Isela; Tito-Alvarez, Ana M.; Zurita-Salinas, Camilo; Bustos-Arriaga, José; Cedillo-Barrón, Leticia; Gómez-Trejo, Celta; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; Vieira-Filho, Joao P.; Granados, Julio; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Huertas-Vázquez, Adriana; González-Martín, Antonio; Gorostiza, Amaya; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Wang, Li; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Lisker, Ruben; Moises, Regina S.; Menjivar, Marta; Salzano, Francisco M.; Knowler, William C.; Bortolini, M. Cátira; Hayden, Michael R.; Baier, Leslie J.; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that the higher susceptibility of Hispanics to metabolic disease is related to their Native American heritage. A frequent cholesterol transporter ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) gene variant (R230C, rs9282541) apparently exclusive to Native American individuals was associated with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, obesity and type 2 diabetes in Mexican Mestizos. We performed a more extensive analysis of this variant in 4405 Native Americans and 863 individuals from other ethnic groups to investigate genetic evidence of positive selection, to assess its functional effect in vitro and to explore associations with HDL-C levels and other metabolic traits. The C230 allele was found in 29 of 36 Native American groups, but not in European, Asian or African individuals. C230 was observed on a single haplotype, and C230-bearing chromosomes showed longer relative haplotype extension compared with other haplotypes in the Americas. Additionally, single-nucleotide polymorphism data from the Human Genome Diversity Panel Native American populations were enriched in significant integrated haplotype score values in the region upstream of the ABCA1 gene. Cells expressing the C230 allele showed a 27% cholesterol efflux reduction (P< 0.001), confirming this variant has a functional effect in vitro. Moreover, the C230 allele was associated with lower HDL-C levels (P = 1.77 × 10−11) and with higher body mass index (P = 0.0001) in the combined analysis of Native American populations. This is the first report of a common functional variant exclusive to Native American and descent populations, which is a major determinant of HDL-C levels and may have contributed to the adaptive evolution of Native American populations. PMID:20418488

  18. Leaf and floral parts feeding by orange tip butterfly larvae depends on larval position but not on glucosinolate profile or nitrogen level.

    PubMed

    Agerbirk, Niels; Chew, Frances S; Olsen, Carl Erik; Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2010-12-01

    In an attempt to identify chemical signals governing the general flower and silique feeding behavior of larvae of the orange tip butterfly, Anthocharis cardamines (L.), we investigated feeding behavior and chemistry of two major host plants: Cardamine pratensis L. and Alliaria petiolata (Bieb.) Cavara & Grande (garlic mustard). Larvae reportedly feed mainly on flowers and siliques rather than leaves in nature, and did so when observed on the original host plants. Behavioral experiments, using detached A. petiolata branches, however, showed that larvae readily accepted leaves and only the final instar showed a tendency for directed movement towards floral parts. To search for semiochemicals that control plant part preference and to assess possible nutritional consequences of floral parts feeding, we determined glucosinolate profiles and total nitrogen levels of floral parts and leaves. There was only moderate difference between glucosinolate profiles of leaves and floral parts within each of two host plant species. In contrast, the profiles of floral parts differed significantly between them. A. petiolata was dominated by 2-propenyl glucosinolate, while C. pratensis was dominated by aromatic glucosinolates and branched aliphatic glucosinolates, with considerable variation among populations. Nitrogen levels tended to be higher in floral parts than in leaves in A. petiolata, but not in C. pratensis, so floral feeding could not generally be attributed to higher N content. With the exception of a tendency of last instar larvae (L5) to move to the apex and ingest flowers and upper stem, we did not find either a plant chemistry basis or larval acceptance/rejection behavior that could explain the usual feeding of floral parts by orange tip larvae of all instars. However, by artificial manipulation of vertical larval position on host plants, we found that the frequency of leaf vs. flower feeding during 24 hr depended significantly on the initial larval position. Hence, we

  19. Higher Adolescent Body Mass Index Is Associated with Lower Regional Gray and White Matter Volumes and Lower Levels of Positive Emotionality

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, James T.; Collins, Paul F.; Luciana, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent obesity is associated with an increased chance of developing serious health risks later in life. Identifying the neurobiological and personality factors related to increases in adiposity is important to understanding what drives maladaptive consummatory and exercise behaviors that result in obesity. Previous research has largely focused on adults with few findings published on interactions among adiposity, brain structure, and personality. In this study, Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM) was used to identify associations between gray and white matter volumes and increasing adiposity, as measured by Body Mass Index percentile (BMI%), in 137 adolescents (age range: 9–20 years, BMI% range: 5.16–99.56). Variations in gray and white matter volume and BMI% were then linked to individual differences in personality measures from the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). After controlling for age and other covariates, BMI% correlated negatively with gray matter volume in the bilateral caudate (right: partial r = −0.338, left: r = −0.404), medial prefrontal cortex (partial r = −0.339), anterior cingulate (partial r = −0.312), bilateral frontal pole (right: partial r = −0.368, left: r = −0.316), and uncus (partial r = −0.475) as well as white matter volume bilaterally in the anterior limb of the internal capsule (right: partial r = −0.34, left: r = −0.386), extending to the left middle frontal subgyral white matter. Agentic Positive Emotionality (PEM-AG) was correlated negatively with BMI% (partial r = −0.384). PEM-AG was correlated positively with gray matter volume in the right uncus (partial r = 0.329). These results suggest that higher levels of adiposity in adolescents are associated with lower trait levels in reward-related personality domains, as well as structural variations in brain regions associated with reward processing, control, and sensory integration. PMID:27660604

  20. Pollution of mycological surfaces in hospital emergency departments correlates positively with blood NKT CD3+ 16+ 56+ and negatively with CD4+ cell levels of their staff

    PubMed Central

    Suska, Milena; Kiepura, Anna; Winnicka, Izabela; Leszczyński, Paweł; Bielawska-Drózd, Agata; Cieślik, Piotr; Kubiak, Leszek; Depczyńska, Daria; Brewczyńska, Aleksandra; Skopińska-Różewska, Ewa; Kocik, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was the assessment of the putative influence of yeast and filamentous fungi in healthcare and control (office) workplaces (10 of each kind) on immune system competence measured by NK (natural killer), CD4+, and NKT (natural killer T lymphocyte) cell levels in the blood of the personnel employed at these workplaces. Imprints from floors and walls were collected in winter. The blood was taken in spring the following year, from 40 men, 26 to 53 years old, healthcare workers of hospital emergency departments (HED), who had been working for at least five years in their current positions, and from 36 corresponding controls, working in control offices. Evaluation of blood leukocyte subpopulations was done by flow cytometry. The qualitative analysis of the surface samples revealed a prevalence of strains belonging to Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. genus. There was no statistically significant difference between the level of NKT; however, the percentage of NK cells was lower in the blood of HED workers than in the blood of offices personnel. Spearman analysis revealed the existence of positive correlation (r = 0.4677, p = 0.002) between the total CFU/25 cm2 obtained by imprinting method from walls and floors of HED and the percentage of NKT (CD3+16+56+) lymphocytes collected from the blood of their personnel, and negative correlation (r = –0. 3688, p = 0.019) between this parameter of fungal pollution and the percentage of CD4+ lymphocytes in the blood of HED staff. No other correlations were found. PMID:27095925

  1. Positional scanning mutagenesis of α-conotoxin PeIA identifies critical residues that confer potency and selectivity for α6/α3β2β3 and α3β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Hone, Arik J; Ruiz, Miguel; Scadden, Mick'l; Christensen, Sean; Gajewiak, Joanna; Azam, Layla; McIntosh, J Michael

    2013-08-30

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtype α6β2* (the asterisk denotes the possible presence of additional subunits) has been identified as an important molecular target for the pharmacotherapy of Parkinson disease and nicotine dependence. The α6 subunit is closely related to the α3 subunit, and this presents a problem in designing ligands that discriminate between α6β2* and α3β2* nAChRs. We used positional scanning mutagenesis of α-conotoxin PeIA, which targets both α6β2* and α3β2*, in combination with mutagenesis of the α6 and α3 subunits, to gain molecular insights into the interaction of PeIA with heterologously expressed α6/α3β2β3 and α3β2 receptors. Mutagenesis of PeIA revealed that Asn(11) was located in an important position that interacts with the α6 and α3 subunits. Substitution of Asn(11) with a positively charged amino acid essentially abolished the activity of PeIA for α3β2 but not for α6/α3β2β3 receptors. These results were used to synthesize a PeIA analog that was >15,000-fold more potent on α6/α3β2β3 than α3β2 receptors. Analogs with an N11R substitution were then used to show a critical interaction between the 11th position of PeIA and Glu(152) of the α6 subunit and Lys(152) of the α3 subunit. The results of these studies provide molecular insights into designing ligands that selectively target α6β2* nAChRs.

  2. Lung cancer risk of low-level exposures to alpha emitters: critical reappraisal and experiments based on a new cytodynamic model

    SciTech Connect

    Bogen, Kenneth T.

    1999-02-20

    Ecologic U.S. county data suggest negative associations between residential radon exposure and lung cancer mortality (LCM)-inconsistent with clearly positive associations revealed by occupational data on individual miners, but perhaps explained by competing effects of cell killing vs. mutations in alpha-exposed bronchial epithelium. To assess the latter possibility, a biologically based "cytodynamic 2-stage" (CD2) cancer-risk model was fit to combined 1950-54 age- specific person-year data on lung cancer mortality (LCM) in white females of age 40+ y in 2,821 U.S. counties (-90% never-smokers), and in 5 cohorts of underground miners who never smoked. New estimates of household annual average radon exposure in U.S. counties were used, which were found to have a significant negative ecologic association with 1950-54 LCM in U.S. white females, adjusted for age and all subsets of two among 21 socioeconomic, climatic and other factors considered. A good CD2 fit was obtained to the combined residential/miner data, using biologically plausible parameter values. Without further optimization, the fit also predicted independent inverse dose-rate effects shown (for the first time) to occur in nonsmoking miners. Using the same U.S. county-level LCM data, a separate study revealed a positive ecologic association between LCM and bituminous coal use in the U.S., in agreement with epidemiological data on LCM in women in China. The modeling results obtained are consistent with the CD2-based hypothesis that residential radon exposure has a nonlinear U-shaped relation to LCM risk, and that current linear no-threshold extrapolation models substantially overestimate such risk. A U-shaped dose-response corresponds to a CD2-model prediction that alpha radiation kills more premalignant cells than it generates at low exposure levels, but not at higher levels. To test this hypothesis, groups of Japanese medaka (ricefish minnows) were exposed for 10 to 14 weeks to different concentrations of

  3. Critical Chain Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, John Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Critical Chains project management focuses on holding buffers at the project level vs. task level, and managing buffers as a project resource. A number of studies have shown that Critical Chain project management can significantly improve organizational schedule fidelity (i.e., improve the proportion of projects delivered on time) and reduce…

  4. Criticism and the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Paul; Foulke, Robert D.

    1964-01-01

    A revised English curriculum, based upon different kinds of literary criticism, is counseled in this two-part paper. Part 1 identifies four kinds of criticism--formalist, synoptic, extrinsic, and stylistic. A conventional English Curriculum is briefly outlined. Curricular theories are discussed and positive and negative attempts to define…

  5. Early Identification of Transformation in the Proficiency Level of Critical Thinking Skills (CTS) for the First Semester Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swing, Velmarie K.

    2014-01-01

    Critical thinking (CT) in the new nursing graduate continues to be a topic of concern in the academic and acute care settings. While research studies have analyzed critical thinking skills (CTS) at the beginning and end of nursing programs, few have focused on early program evaluation of CT. In this non-experimental, explanatory, quantitative…

  6. The onset of the progression of acute phase response mechanisms induced by extreme impacts can be followed by the decrease in blood levels of positive acute phase proteins.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larina, Olga; Bekker, Anna

    Studies performed at space flights and earth-based simulation models detected the plasma indices of acute phase reaction (APR), i.e. the increase of APR cytokine mediators and alterations in the production of blood acute phase proteins (APP) at the initial stages of adaptation to altered gravity conditions. Acute phase response is the principal constituent of the functional activity of innate immunity system. Changes in plasma APPs contents are considered to serve the restoration of homeostasis state. According to trends of their concentration shifts at the evolving of acute phase reaction APPs are denoted as positive, neutral, or negative. Plasma concentrations of positive acute phase proteins α1-acid glycoprotein (α1-AGP), α1-antitrypsin (α1-AT), and neutral α2-macroglobulin (α2-M) were measured in human study at 12-hour antiorthostatic position (AOP) with 15° head down tilt and hypoxia experiments at 14% oxygen in pressure chamber. Both of these impacts were shown to produce alterations in the APP levels indicative for acute phase response. Nevertheless, in AOP experiment noticeable decrease in α1-AGP concentration occurred by hour 12, and even more pronounced decline of α1-AGP and α1-AT were found on hypoxia hours 12 and 36. Acute phase proteins α1-AGP and α2-M possess the features of proteinase inhibitors. This function is implemented by the formation of complexes with the molecules of proteolytic enzymes which subsequently are removed from the blood flow. Transient decrease in plasma concentrations of protease inhibitors on early phases of APR development was reported to result from the growth of plasma protease activity due to cathepsin release from activated leukocytes, which had not yet been compensated by enhanced APP synthesis. Being a carrier protein for positively charged and neutral substances, α1-AGP shows pronounced elevation in its blood content during APR development. As assumed, it is required for the transportation of the increased

  7. An electro-thermally activated rotary micro-positioner for slider-level dual-stage positioning in hard disk drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keong Lau, Gih; Yang, Jiaping; Tan, Cheng Peng; Boon Chong, Nyok

    2016-03-01

    Slider-level micro-positioners are useful to assist a voice coil motor to perform fine head positioning over a Tb/in2 magnetic disk. Recently, a new kind of slider-level micro-positioner was developed using the thermal unimorph of the Si/SU8 composite. It has the advantages of a very small footprint and high mechanical resonant frequency, but its stroke generation is inadequate, with a 50 nm dynamic stroke at 1 kHz. There is a need for a larger thermally induced stroke. This paper presents a rotary design of an electrothermal micro-positioner to address the stroke requirements without consuming more power or decreasing the mechanical resonant frequency. Experimental studies show the present rotary design can produce a six-fold larger displacement, as compared to the previous lateral design, while possessing a 35 kHz resonant frequency. In addition, simple analytical models were developed to estimate: (i) the rotational stiffness and system’s natural frequency, (ii) thermal unimorph bending and stage rotation, and (iii) the system’s thermal time constant for this rotary electro-thermal micro-positioner. This study found that this rotary electro-thermal micro-positioner can meet the basic stroke requirement and high mechanical resonant frequency for a moving slider, but its thermal cut-off frequency needs to be increased further.

  8. Clover as a tool for bioindication of phytotoxic ozone--5 years of experience from southern Sweden--consequences for the short-term critical levels.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Gunilla Pihl; Karlsson, Per Erik; Danielsson, Helena; Pleijel, Håkan

    2003-01-01

    Critical levels (CLs) for ozone effects on plants in Europe have been defined within the UN-ECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution, CLRTAP. The purpose of the short-term CLs is to ensure protection of all crops to acute ozone injury. The currently used CLs are based on the ozone exposure of the plants during daylight hours expressed as AOT40 (Accumulated exposure Over the Threshold 40 nmol mol(-1) ozone). The aims of this study were: to test the performance of the current short-term CLs, to test alternative ozone exposure indices and to test if changes in the ozone cut-off concentration, the inclusion of a lag-period (LP) between exposure and identification of visible ozone injury or the duration of the ozone integration period improved the performance of the exposure index. The analysis was based on 38 different datasets from experiments with subterranean clover, Trifolium subterraneum in southern Sweden. AOT indices generally performed better than averaged ozone concentrations or SUM (Sum of ozone concentrations when a threshold is exceeded) indices. Regression analysis showed that the current short-term CL, AOT40 with a VPD (water vapour pressure deficit) threshold of 1.5 kPa, explained 56% of the variation in visible injury. A longer exposure period and the introduction of a LP, admitting visible ozone injury time to develop after exposure, improved the performance of the exposure index. AOT30 accumulated over 10 days before harvest, excluding a LP of 3 days before injury observation, performed best and explained 88% of the variation in visible injury. AOT40 indices left a rather large amount of visible injury unexplained indicating that a lower cut-off concentration for ozone is preferable. The results of the investigation indicated that a visible injury threshold of 10% improved the distinction between harmful and less harmful exposure.

  9. Toward critical bioethics.

    PubMed

    Árnason, Vilhjálmur

    2015-04-01

    This article deals with the question as to what makes bioethics a critical discipline. It considers different senses of criticism and evaluates their strengths and weaknesses. A primary method in bioethics as a philosophical discipline is critical thinking, which implies critical evaluation of concepts, positions, and arguments. It is argued that the type of analytical criticism that restricts its critical role to critical thinking of this type often suffers from other intellectual flaws. Three examples are taken to demonstrate this: premature criticism, uncritical self-understanding of theoretical assumptions, and narrow framing of bioethical issues. Such flaws can lead both to unfair treatment of authors and to uncritical discussion of topics. In this context, the article makes use of Häyry's analysis of different rationalities in bioethical approaches and argues for the need to recognize the importance of communicative rationality for critical bioethics. A radically different critical approach in bioethics, rooted in social theory, focuses on analyses of power relations neglected in mainstream critical thinking. It is argued that, although this kind of criticism provides an important alternative in bioethics, it suffers from other shortcomings that are rooted in a lack of normative dimensions. In order to complement these approaches and counter their shortcomings, there is a need for a bioethics enlightened by critical hermeneutics. Such hermeneutic bioethics is aware of its own assumptions, places the issues in a wide context, and reflects critically on the power relations that stand in the way of understanding them. Moreover, such an approach is dialogical, which provides both a critical exercise of speech and a normative dimension implied in the free exchange of reasons and arguments. This discussion is framed by Hedgecoe's argument that critical bioethics needs four elements: to be empirically rooted, theory challenging, reflexive, and politely skeptical.

  10. Thinking Critically about Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulnix, Jennifer Wilson

    2012-01-01

    As a philosophy professor, one of my central goals is to teach students to think critically. However, one difficulty with determining whether critical thinking can be taught, or even measured, is that there is widespread disagreement over what critical thinking actually is. Here, I reflect on several conceptions of critical thinking, subjecting…

  11. No Positive Association between Vitamin D Level and Immune Responses to Hepatitis B and Streptococcus pneumoniae Vaccination in HIV-Infected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Viard, Jean-Paul; Assuied, Alex; Lévy, Yves; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Thiébaut, Rodolphe; Carrat, Fabrice; Chêne, Geneviève; Launay, Odile

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess whether higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels are associated with subsequent better immune responses to hepatitis B and Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccination in HIV-infected patients. Methods 25OHD was measured on stored baseline plasma samples from two randomized vaccine trials in HIV-infected adults: the ANRS HB03 VIHVAC B trial and an immunological sub-study of the ANRS 114-PNEUMOVAC trial. In ANRS HB03 VIHVAC B, participants received three or four doses of recombinant HBV vaccine strategies. Anti-HBs IgG titers were measured four weeks after the last injection. Associations between baseline 25OHD levels and ordered IgG response categories were analyzed in multivariable proportional odds models. In the ANRS 114-PNEUMOVAC sub-study, two strategies of pneumococcal vaccination were tested, cellular immune responses were measured at repeated time points, and IgG responses four weeks after the last vaccine injection. Exploratory statistical analyses were performed on this sub-study data set. Results Three hundred and thirty-nine ANRS HB03 VIHVAC B and 25 ANRS 114-PNEUMOVAC sub-study participants were included in the analyses. Median age in each of the two studies was 43 years, 68% were male, and 77–92% on antiretroviral treatment. Median 25OHD level was 18 ng/mL (IQR: 12–25) and 24 ng/mL (IQR: 13–32) in the two trial populations, respectively. In the multivariable model, there was no significant association between baseline 25OHD level and vaccine responses in ANRS HB03 VIHVAC B (proportional odds ratio 0.83 per 10 ng/mL 25OHD increase; 95% confidence interval 0.65–1.07, p = 0.14). Exploratory analyses of ANRS 114-PNEUMOVAC showed consistent results. Conclusion This study does not support a positive association between 25OHD and immune responses to hepatitis B or pneumococcal vaccination in HIV-infected patients. PMID:27977797

  12. Positive psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Seligman, Martin E P; Rashid, Tayyab; Parks, Acacia C

    2006-11-01

    Positive psychotherapy (PPT) contrasts with standard interventions for depression by increasing positive emotion, engagement, and meaning rather than directly targeting depressive symptoms. The authors have tested the effects of these interventions in a variety of settings. In informal student and clinical settings, people not uncommonly reported them to be "life-changing." Delivered on the Web, positive psychology exercises relieved depressive symptoms for at least 6 months compared with placebo interventions, the effects of which lasted less than a week. In severe depression, the effects of these Web exercises were particularly striking. This address reports two preliminary studies: In the first, PPT delivered to groups significantly decreased levels of mild-to-moderate depression through 1-year follow-up. In the second, PPT delivered to individuals produced higher remission rates than did treatment as usual and treatment as usual plus medication among outpatients with major depressive disorder. Together, these studies suggest that treatments for depression may usefully be supplemented by exercises that explicitly increase positive emotion, engagement, and meaning. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Elevated serum levels of Wisteria floribunda agglutinin-positive human Mac-2 binding protein predict the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in hepatitis C patients

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, Kazumi; Tateyama, Masakuni; Abiru, Seigo; Komori, Atsumasa; Nagaoka, Shinya; Saeki, Akira; Hashimoto, Satoru; Sasaki, Ryu; Bekki, Shigemune; Kugiyama, Yuki; Miyazoe, Yuri; Kuno, Atsushi; Korenaga, Masaaki; Togayachi, Akira; Ocho, Makoto; Mizokami, Masashi; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Yatsuhashi, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The Wisteria floribunda agglutinin-positive human Mac-2-binding protein (WFA+-M2BP) was recently shown to be a liver fibrosis glycobiomarker with a unique fibrosis-related glycoalteration. We evaluated the ability of WFA+-M2BP to predict the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients who were infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). A total of 707 patients who had been admitted to our hospital with chronic HCV infection without other potential risk factors were evaluated to determine the ability of WFA+-M2BP to predict the development of HCC; factors evaluated included age, sex, viral load, genotypes, fibrosis stage, aspartate and alanine aminotransferase levels, bilirubin, albumin, platelet count, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), WFA+-M2BP, and the response to interferon (IFN) therapy. Serum WFA+-M2BP levels were significantly increased according to the progression of liver fibrosis stage (P < 0.001). In each distinctive stage of fibrosis (F0-F1, F2, F3, and F4), the risk of development of HCC was increased according to the elevation of WFA+-M2BP. Multivariate analysis identified age >57 years, F4, AFP >20 ng/mL, WFA+-M2BP ≥4, and WFA+-M2BP 1-4 as well as the response to IFN (no therapy vs. sustained virological response) as independent risk factors for the development of HCC. The time-dependent areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve demonstrated that the WFA+-M2BP assay predicted the development of HCC with higher diagnostic accuracy than AFP. Conclusion: WFA+-M2BP can be applied as a useful surrogate marker for the risk of HCC development, in addition to liver biopsy. (Hepatology 2014;60:1563–1570) PMID:25042054

  14. FOXO3 is a glucocorticoid receptor target and regulates LKB1 and its own expression based on cellular AMP levels via a positive autoregulatory loop.

    PubMed

    Lützner, Nicolas; Kalbacher, Hubert; Krones-Herzig, Anja; Rösl, Frank

    2012-01-01

    FOXO3 is a transcription factor involved in the regulation of multiple physiological processes including cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, oxidative stress-response and energy metabolism. Although much is known about its post-translational modification, the transcriptional regulation of FOXO3, as well as the cross-talk between transcription and post-translational events, is still poorly understood. In the present study, we show that FOXO3 is an immediate early glucocorticoid receptor (GR) target, whose transcription is even further enhanced by conditions that mimic metabolic stress. Induction of FOXO3 transcription by GR-binding steroids was reversed by concomitant treatment with the GR antagonist RU-486, but further enhanced by stimuli that activate the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Analysis of genomic DNA and chromatin immunoprecipitation, as well as luciferase reporter assays, revealed two functional glucocorticoid responsive elements within the FOXO3 promoter. Furthermore, we provide functional evidence for a phosphorylation switch that explains how glucocorticoids induce transcriptional activation of the gene but subsequently inactivate the corresponding protein by site-specific phosphorylation. Only when AMPK is stimulated, pre-existing FOXO3 becomes reverted toward an active form. Energy deprived conditions thus activate FOXO3 on two different levels, namely transcriptional and post-translational. In that way, FOXO3 acts as a metabolic stress sensor that coordinates expression of LKB1, the master upstream kinase involved in metabolic sensing, depending on the energy status of the cell. Additionally, we show that FOXO3 binds and activates its own promoter via a positive autoregulatory feedback loop. In conclusion, our data explain how catabolic glucocorticoid hormones and high intracellular AMP levels cooperate in inducing FOXO3 transcription and in activating the corresponding protein.

  15. Positive technology: using interactive technologies to promote positive functioning.

    PubMed

    Riva, Giuseppe; Baños, Rosa M; Botella, Cristina; Wiederhold, Brenda K; Gaggioli, Andrea

    2012-02-01

    It is generally assumed that technology assists individuals in improving the quality of their lives. However, the impact of new technologies and media on well-being and positive functioning is still somewhat controversial. In this paper, we contend that the quality of experience should become the guiding principle in the design and development of new technologies, as well as a primary metric for the evaluation of their applications. The emerging discipline of Positive Psychology provides a useful framework to address this challenge. Positive Psychology is the scientific study of optimal human functioning and flourishing. Instead of drawing on a "disease model" of human behavior, it focuses on factors that enable individuals and communities to thrive and build the best in life. In this paper, we propose the "Positive Technology" approach--the scientific and applied approach to the use of technology for improving the quality of our personal experience through its structuring, augmentation, and/or replacement--as a way of framing a suitable object of study in the field of cyberpsychology and human-computer interaction. Specifically, we suggest that it is possible to use technology to influence three specific features of our experience--affective quality, engagement/actualization, and connectedness--that serve to promote adaptive behaviors and positive functioning. In this framework, positive technologies are classified according to their effects on a specific feature of personal experience. Moreover, for each level, we have identified critical variables that can be manipulated to guide the design and development of positive technologies.

  16. Critical Care

    MedlinePlus

    Critical care helps people with life-threatening injuries and illnesses. It might treat problems such as complications from surgery, ... attention by a team of specially-trained health care providers. Critical care usually takes place in an ...

  17. Effect of Danshen aqueous extract on serum hs-CRP, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α levels, and IL-10 mRNA, TNF-α mRNA expression levels, cerebral TGF-β1 positive expression level and its neuroprotective mechanisms in CIR rats.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xue-Yun; Li, Hai-Ning; Yang, Xiao-Yan; Zhou, Wen-Yan; Niu, Jian-Guo; Chen, Ben-Dong

    2013-04-01

    To observe the effects of Danshen aqueous extract (DSAE) on the cerebral tissue and nerve stem cells in cerebral ischemia reperfusion (CIR) rats. The model rats were prepared by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery for 2 h and then by reperfusion. They were randomly divided into five groups: a control group, an CIR group and three DSAE-treated groups. As compared with the sham control group, there was significant increase (P < 0.05, P < 0.01) in the serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) levels, interleukin-10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels, and IL-10 mRNA, TNF-α mRNA expression levels, function score, Infarct size, TUNEL + cell counts, cerebral transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) positive expression and cerebral neuron specific enolase (NSE) levels, and decrease in fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD) and death-associated protein (Daxx) positive expression levels in the CIR group. Compared with CIR group, DSAE treatment dose-dependently significantly decreased serum hs-CRP, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α levels, and IL-10 mRNA, TNF-α mRNA expression levels, function score, Infarct size, TUNEL + cell counts, cerebral TGF-β1 positive expression and cerebral NSE levels, and increase FADD and Daxx positive expression levels in the CIR + DSAE groups. Taken together, these results suggest that DSAE has a neuroprotective role in the CIR rats, which may be related to improvement of immunity function, proteins and genes expression.

  18. Archetypal Criticism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesebro, James W.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Argues that archetypal criticism is a useful way of examining universal, historical, and cross-cultural symbols in classrooms. Identifies essential features of an archetype; outlines operational and critical procedures; illustrates archetypal criticism as applied to the cross as a symbol; and provides a synoptic placement for archetypal criticism…

  19. Application of positive ion chemical ionisation and tandem mass spectrometry combined with gas chromatography to the trace level analysis of ethyl carbamate in bread.

    PubMed

    Hamlet, Colin G; Jayaratne, Sanal M; Morrison, Carol

    2005-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive and selective method has been developed and validated for the analysis of the contaminant ethyl carbamate (EC) in bread products at the part-per-billion level. The new procedure uses positive ion chemical ionisation (PICI) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), combined with gas chromatography (GC), on a 'bench-top' triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer. Ammonia was the PICI reagent gas of choice because of its ability to produce abundant [M+H]+ and [M+NH4]+ ions from EC and deuterium-labelled EC (LEC) used as an internal standard. For identification and quantification, selected reaction monitoring (SRM) was used to follow the precursor-to-product ion transitions of m/z 107 --> 90, m/z 107 --> 62 and m/z 90 --> 62 for EC, as well as m/z 112 --> 63 for the LEC internal standard. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.6 and 1.2 microg kg(-1), respectively, and the recovery of the method was 101 +/- 10% at 10 microg kg(-1) and 98 +/- 5% at 100 microg kg(-1). The precision of the method, established under conditions of intermediate reproducibility, did not exceed a relative standard deviation of 7%. The quantitative performance of the new GC/PICI-SRM procedure compared favourably with that of a reference method based on GC/MS and selected ion monitoring (correlation coefficient, r = 0.997). However, the new method had the advantages of reduced sample preparation time, improved sensitivity and unambiguous identification of EC at all concentrations. Application of the new method to the analysis of 50 UK breads showed that levels of EC ranged from 0.6 to 2.3 microg kg(-1) in retail products and from 3.1 to 12.2 microg kg(-1) for breads prepared using domestic breadmaking machines (dry weight basis). Toasting bread in a domestic toaster led to increases of between two- and three-fold in mean EC concentrations.

  20. How Critical Is Critical Thinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Ryan D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent educational discourse is full of references to the value of critical thinking as a 21st-century skill. In music education, critical thinking has been discussed in relation to problem solving and music listening, and some researchers suggest that training in critical thinking can improve students' responses to music. But what exactly is…

  1. Critically Thinking about Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissberg, Robert

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author states that "critical thinking" has mesmerized academics across the political spectrum and that even high school students are now being called upon to "think critically." He furthers adds that it is no exaggeration to say that "critical thinking" has quickly evolved into a scholarly…

  2. Critical Thinking vs. Critical Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Howard A.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores four kinds of critical thinking. The first is found in Socratic dialogues, which employ critical thinking mainly to reveal logical fallacies in common opinions, thus cleansing superior minds of error and leaving philosophers free to contemplate universal verities. The second is critical interpretation (hermeneutics) which…

  3. An Examination of Postsecondary Faculty and the Extent of Critical Reading Taught in 100-Level Introductory Biology and American History Courses in Publicly Funded Two-Year and Four-Year Pennsylvania Institutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sand, Dianna

    This research examined the responses of postsecondary faculty on a critical reading inventory. The research is quantitative, non-experimental, and incorporates a multiple regression model in the analyses. Three research questions guided this study: (1) By institution type: To what degree does institution type predict the extent to which postsecondary faculty teach critical reading as measured by the Reading Goals Inventory (Jones, 1996)? (2) By faculty status: To what degree does faculty status predict the extent to which postsecondary faculty teach critical reading as measured by the Reading Goals Inventory (Jones, 1996)? (3) By disciplinary area: To what degree does disciplinary area predict the extent to which postsecondary faculty teach critical reading as measured by the Reading Goals Inventory (Jones, 1996)? Faculty from 28 Pennsylvania postsecondary institutions participated in this study. Faculty respondents taught 100-level introductory biology or American history courses either part-time or full-time at Pennsylvania community colleges or Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education (PASSHE) universities. Fifty-four faculty respondents completed the Reading Goals Inventory (Jones, 1996). The researcher conducted multiple regression analyses using a hierarchical method. Predictor variables included Institution Type, Faculty Status, and Disciplinary Area; criterion or outcome variables included seven sub-scales of the critical reading inventory. In this study, Institution Type and Faculty Status were not significant predictors. Disciplinary Area was a consistent significant predictor of the amount of critical reading taught as measured in the Interpretation, Analysis, Evaluation, and Reflection sub-scales of the Reading Goals Inventory (Jones, 1996).

  4. Investigation into the Prediction Level of Professional Values of Prospective Teachers within the Context of Critical Thinking, Metacognition and Epistemological Beliefs in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Özden; Doganay, Ahmet; Kaya, Halil Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    The general aim of the present study is to identify to what extent the professional values of prospective teachers are predicted by the variables of critical thinking, metacognition, epistemological beliefs. The study also aims to determine which variables provide a better prediction of the professional values of prospective teachers than the…

  5. Critical eigenvalue in LMFBRs: a physics assessment

    SciTech Connect

    McKnight, R.D.; Collins, P.J.; Olsen, D.N.

    1984-01-01

    This paper summarizes recent work to put the analysis of past critical eigenvalue measurements from the US critical experiments program on a consistent basis. The integral data base includes 53 configurations built in 11 ZPPR assemblies which simulate mixed oxide LMFBRs. Both conventional and heterogeneous designs representing 350, 700, and 900 MWe sizes and with and without simulated control rods and/or control rod positions have been studied. The review of the integral data base includes quantitative assessment of experimental uncertainties in the measured excess reactivity. Analyses have been done with design level and higher-order methods using ENDF/B-IV data. Comparisons of these analyses with the experiments are used to generate recommended bias factors for criticality predictions. Recommended methods for analysis of LMFBR fast critical assemblies and LMFBR design calculations are presented. Unresolved issues and areas which require additional experimental or analytical study are identified.

  6. Criticality Model

    SciTech Connect

    A. Alsaed

    2004-09-14

    The ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2003) presents the methodology for evaluating potential criticality situations in the monitored geologic repository. As stated in the referenced Topical Report, the detailed methodology for performing the disposal criticality analyses will be documented in model reports. Many of the models developed in support of the Topical Report differ from the definition of models as given in the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management procedure AP-SIII.10Q, ''Models'', in that they are procedural, rather than mathematical. These model reports document the detailed methodology necessary to implement the approach presented in the Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report and provide calculations utilizing the methodology. Thus, the governing procedure for this type of report is AP-3.12Q, ''Design Calculations and Analyses''. The ''Criticality Model'' is of this latter type, providing a process evaluating the criticality potential of in-package and external configurations. The purpose of this analysis is to layout the process for calculating the criticality potential for various in-package and external configurations and to calculate lower-bound tolerance limit (LBTL) values and determine range of applicability (ROA) parameters. The LBTL calculations and the ROA determinations are performed using selected benchmark experiments that are applicable to various waste forms and various in-package and external configurations. The waste forms considered in this calculation are pressurized water reactor (PWR), boiling water reactor (BWR), Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Training Research Isotope General Atomic (TRIGA), Enrico Fermi, Shippingport pressurized water reactor, Shippingport light water breeder reactor (LWBR), N-Reactor, Melt and Dilute, and Fort Saint Vrain Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The scope of this analysis is to document the criticality computational method. The criticality

  7. The iodide-transport-defect-causing mutation R124H: a δ-amino group at position 124 is critical for maturation and trafficking of the Na+/I- symporter.

    PubMed

    Paroder, Viktoriya; Nicola, Juan P; Ginter, Christopher S; Carrasco, Nancy

    2013-08-01

    Na(+)/I(-) symporter (NIS)-mediated active accumulation of I(-) in thyrocytes is a key step in the biosynthesis of the iodine-containing thyroid hormones T3 and T4. Several NIS mutants have been identified as a cause of congenital I(-) transport defect (ITD), and their investigation has yielded valuable mechanistic information on NIS. Here we report novel findings derived from the thorough characterization of the ITD-causing mutation R124H, located in the second intracellular loop (IL-2). R124H NIS is incompletely glycosylated and colocalizes with endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident protein markers. As a result, R124H NIS is not targeted to the plasma membrane and therefore does not mediate any I(-) transport in transfected COS-7 cells. Strikingly, however, the mutant is intrinsically active, as revealed by its ability to mediate I(-) transport in membrane vesicles. Of all the amino acid substitutions we carried out at position 124 (K, D, E, A, W, N and Q), only Gln restored targeting of NIS to the plasma membrane and NIS activity, suggesting a key structural role for the δ-amino group of R124 in the transporter's maturation and cell surface targeting. Using our NIS homology model based on the structure of the Vibrio parahaemolyticus Na(+)/galactose symporter, we propose an interaction between the δ-amino group of either R or Q124 and the thiol group of C440, located in IL-6. We conclude that the interaction between IL-2 and IL-6 is critical for the local folding required for NIS maturation and plasma membrane trafficking.

  8. Critical Muralism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosette, Arturo

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on the development and practices of Critical Muralists--community-educator-artist-leader-activists--and situates these specifically in relation to the Mexican mural tradition of los Tres Grandes and in relation to the history of public art more generally. The study examines how Critical Muralists address artistic and…

  9. Fasting and nutrient-stimulated plasma peptide-YY levels are elevated in critical illness and associated with feed intolerance: an observational, controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nam Q; Fraser, Robert JL; Chapman, Marianne; Bryant, Laura K; Wishart, Judith; Holloway, Richard H; Horowitz, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Delayed gastric emptying and feed intolerance occur frequently in the critically ill. In these patients, gastric motor responses to nutrients are disturbed. Peptide YY (PYY) slows gastric emptying. The aim of this study was to determine fasting and nutrient-stimulated plasma PYY concentrations and their relationship to cholecystokinin (CCK) in critically ill patients. Methods Studies were performed in 19 unselected mechanically ventilated critically ill patients (12 males; 48 ± 7 years old) in a randomised, single-blind fashion. Subjects received a 60-minute duodenal infusion of Ensure® at either 1 or 2 kcal/minute. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 20, 40, 60, and 180 minutes following commencement of the nutrient infusion for the measurement of plasma PYY and CCK concentrations (using radioimmunoassay). Patient data were compared to 24 healthy subjects (17 males; 43 ± 2 years old). Results Fasting PYY concentration was higher in patients (P < 0.05), particularly in those with feed intolerance (P < 0.05). Plasma PYY concentrations were higher in patients during nutrient infusion (area under the curve [AUC] at 1 kcal/minute: 2,265 ± 718 versus 1,125 ± 138 pmol/l.min, P < 0.05; at 2 kcal/minute: 2,276 ± 303 versus 1,378 ± 210 pmol/l.min, P = 0.01) compared to healthy subjects. The magnitude of PYY elevation was greater in patients during the 1 kcal/minute infusion (AUC: 441 ± 153 versus 186 ± 58 pmol/l.min, P < 0.05), but not the 2 kcal/minute infusion. Fasting and nutrient-stimulated plasma CCK concentrations were higher in patients (P < 0.05). There was a relationship between plasma PYY and CCK concentrations during fasting (r = 0.52, P < 0.05) and nutrient infusion (r = 0.98, P < 0.0001). Conclusion In critical illness, both fasting and nutrient-stimulated plasma PYY concentrations are elevated, particularly in patients with feed intolerance, in conjunction with increased CCK concentrations. PMID:17173662

  10. "Why All of a Sudden Do We Need to Teach Fundamental British Values?" A Critical Investigation of Religious Education Student Teacher Positioning within a Policy Discourse of Discipline and Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Francis

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a critical investigation of a group of 11 religious education (RE) student teachers' views of the promotion of fundamental British values (FBV) undertaken in 2015. Using qualitative methods, data were collected in two semi-structured group interviews. Drawing from the perspectives of Foucauldian methodology and critical theory,…

  11. Wound bed preparation 2014 update: management of critical colonization with a gentian violet and methylene blue absorbent antibacterial dressing and elevated levels of matrix metalloproteases with an ovine collagen extracellular matrix dressing.

    PubMed

    Sibbald, R Gary; Ovington, Liza G; Ayello, Elizabeth A; Goodman, Laurie; Elliott, James A

    2014-03-01

    Wound bed preparation (WBP) is a paradigm for holistic patient care that includes treatment of the cause along with patient-centered concerns before optimizing the components of local wound care (debridement, infection/inflammation, moisture balance, and, when required, the edge effect). This review incorporates a methylene blue and gentian violet bound foam dressing for critical colonization and an ovine collagen extracellular matrix dressing for reduction of elevated levels of matrix metalloproteases into the WBP paradigm.

  12. Critics and Criticism of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein, Allan C.

    1977-01-01

    Radical educational critics, such as Edgar Friedenberg, Paul Goodman, A. S. Neill, John Holt, Jonathan Kozol, Herbert Kohl, James Herndon, and Ivan Illich, have few constructive goals, no strategy for broad change, and a disdain for modernization and compromise. Additionally, these critics, says the author, fail to consider social factors related…

  13. Positive association of circulating levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) with pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) in a general population.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Sho-Ichi; Matsui, Takanori; Adachi, Hisashi; Takeuchi, Masayoshi

    2010-02-01

    We have recently found that serum levels of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a glycoprotein with anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties, are elevated in proportion to the accumulation of the number of the components of the metabolic syndrome. Since formation and accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) progress under the metabolic syndrome and that PEDF could inhibit the AGE-elicited tissue damage, it is conceivable that PEDF levels may be increased as a counter-system against AGEs in patients with the metabolic syndrome. However, correlation between circulating levels of AGEs and PEDF in humans remains to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the relationship between serum AGE and PEDF levels in a general population and examined the effects of AGEs on PEDF gene expression in vitro. One hundred ninety-six Japanese subjects in a general population underwent a complete history and physical examination, determination of blood chemistries, including serum levels of AGEs and PEDF. In multiple regression analyses, creatinine, body mass index, triglycerides, AGEs and insulin were independently correlated with serum PEDF levels. AGEs dose-dependently increased PEDF gene expression in cultured adipocytes and liver cells. Our present study demonstrated first that circulating AGEs were one of the independent correlates of serum levels of PEDF. Adipose tissue and liver may be target organs for the AGE-induced PEDF overexpression in humans. Serum PEDF levels may be elevated in response to circulating AGEs as a counter-system against the AGE-elicited tissue damage.

  14. Blood Amyloid Beta Levels in Healthy, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease Individuals: Replication of Diastolic Blood Pressure Correlations and Analysis of Critical Covariates

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Agustín; Pesini, Pedro; Espinosa, Ana; Pérez-Grijalba, Virginia; Valero, Sergi; Sotolongo-Grau, Oscar; Alegret, Montserrat; Monleón, Inmaculada; Lafuente, Asunción; Buendía, Mar; Ibarria, Marta; Ruiz, Susana; Hernández, Isabel; San José, Itziar; Tárraga, Lluís; Boada, Mercè; Sarasa, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Plasma amyloid beta (Aβ) levels are being investigated as potential biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease. In AB128 cross-sectional study, a number of medical relevant correlates of blood Aβ40 or Aβ42 were analyzed in 140 subjects (51 Alzheimer’s disease patients, 53 healthy controls and 36 individuals diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment). We determined the association between multiple variables with Aβ40 and Aβ42 levels measured in three different blood compartments called i) Aβ directly accessible (DA) in the plasma, ii) Aβ recovered from the plasma matrix (RP) after diluting the plasma sample in a formulated buffer, and iii) associated with the remaining cellular pellet (CP). We confirmed that diastolic blood pressure (DBP) is consistently correlated with blood DA Aβ40 levels (r=-0.19, P=0.032). These results were consistent in the three phenotypic groups studied. Importantly, the observation resisted covariation with age, gender or creatinine levels. Observed effect size and direction of Aβ40 levels/DBP correlation are in accordance with previous reports. Of note, DA Aβ40 and the RP Aβ40 were also strongly associated with creatinine levels (r=0.599, P<<0.001) and to a lesser extent to urea, age, hematocrit, uric acid and homocysteine (p<0.001). DBP and the rest of statistical significant correlates identified should be considered as potential confounder factors in studies investigating blood Aβ levels as potential AD biomarker. Remarkably, the factors affecting Aβ levels in plasma (DA, RP) and blood cell compartments (CP) seem completely different. PMID:24312290

  15. Immune Infertility Should Be Positively Diagnosed Using an Accurate Method by Monitoring the Level of Anti-ACTL7a Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jun; Yao, Rongyan; Luo, Yanyun; Yang, Dantong; Cao, Yang; Qiu, Yi; Song, Wei; Miao, Shiying; Gu, Yiqun; Wang, Linfang

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is currently a major public health problem. Anti-sperm antibodies (ASAs) markedly reduce sperm quality, which can subsequently lead to male and/or female infertility. The accurate detection of ASAs derived from specific spermatozoa is, therefore, clinically useful. We have focused on the spermatozoa-specific expression protein ACTL7a for many years and have developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect the concentration of anti-ACTL7a antibodies in fertile sera (n = 267) and infertile sera (n = 193). Infertile sera were collected from the positive sera of tray agglutination tests (TAT), which is a routine ASA screening methodology. We found that the concentration of anti-ACTL7a antibodies was significantly higher in the infertile sera (than in the fertile sera, P < 0.0001) and much higher in the TAT ≥ 16 infertile sera. The ELISA was much better for male sera detection (AUC = 0.9899). If we set the standard at a strongly positive value (calculated by ROC curve), the positive predictive value of the antibody detection reached 100 percent, with a false positive rate of zero. The developed ELISA method for anti-ACTL7a antibody detection is therefore sensitive, accurate, and easy to perform, making it an excellent potential tool for future clinical use. PMID:26957350

  16. Superintendents' Perceptions about Social Distance, Succession, and "Sunset" Provisions for Asian, Latino, and Native American Candidates Seeking Building-Level Administrator Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, I. Phillip; De La Torre, Guadalupe Xavier

    2006-01-01

    Research addressing the attraction and selection of individuals for administrator positions is encapsulated in a structural model that depicts different phases of the employee procurement process. Within the present study, attention is devoted to the prescreening stage of the selection process, and screening decisions of superintendents are…

  17. Measuring Cultural Responsiveness in the Classroom Component of a School-Wide Model of Positive Behavior Support at the Elementary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utley, Cheryl A.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to measure teachers' self-assessment of elements across 4 domains and compliance in implementing a school-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) features in an urban elementary school. Within the classroom domain, teachers' perceptions of cultural responsiveness (CR) were assessed. The participants were 14 teachers and 335…

  18. Critical Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, Roger A.

    2001-01-01

    Reports the critical shortage of qualified equipment technicians, especially in biomedical equipment. Cites the importance of encouraging careers in this field and describes a source of occupational information. (SK)

  19. A critical Sp1 element in the rhesus rhadinovirus (RRV) Rta promoter confers high-level activity that correlates with cellular permissivity for viral replication.

    PubMed

    DeMaster, Laura K; Rose, Timothy M

    2014-01-05

    KSHV establishes characteristic latent infections in vitro, while RRV, a related macaque rhadinovirus, establishes characteristic permissive infections with virus replication. We identified cells that are not permissive for RRV replication and recapitulate the latent KSHV infection and reactivation processes. The RRV replication and transactivator (Rta) promoter was characterized in permissive and non-permissive cells and compared to the KSHV Rta promoter. Both promoters contained a critical Sp1 element, had equivalent activities in different cell types, and were inhibited by LANA. RRV and KSHV infections were non-permissive in cells with low Rta promoter activity. While RRV infections were permissive in cells with high basal promoter activity, KSHV infections remained non-permissive. Our studies suggest that RRV lacks the Rta-inducible LANA promoter that is responsible for LANA inhibition of the KSHV Rta promoter and induction of latency during KSHV infection. Instead, the outcome of RRV infection is determined by host factors, such as Sp1.

  20. Level of Granzyme B-positive T-regulatory cells is a strong predictor biomarker of acute Graft-versus-host disease after day +30 after allo-HSCT.

    PubMed

    Drokov, Mikhail Y; Davydova, Julia O; Kuzmina, Larisa A; Galtseva, Irina V; Kapranov, Nikolay M; Vasilyeva, Vera A; Dubnyak, Darya S; Koroleva, Olga M; Mikhalcova, Ekaterina D; Popova, Natalia N; Parovichnikova, Elena N; Savchenko, Valery G

    2017-03-01

    Acute Graft-versus-host-disease (aGVHD), the major complication and one of the main causes of poor outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Nowadays there are no widely accepted cell, plasma or another biomarker that can be used for aGVHD prediction. We hypothesized that a level of Granzyme B-positive T regulatory (GZMB-positive Treg) cells on day+30 after allo-HSCT could be the measure of immune response suppression and could predict aGVHD development after day +30. We applied a widespread and easy-to-perform method of multicolor flow cytometry to measure level of GZMB-positive Treg cells. Levels of GZMB-positive Tregs on day +30 after allo-HSCT were significantly higher in those patients who never developed aGVHD in comparison with the other group of patient with aGVHD after day +30 (p=0.0229). We conclude that the level of GZMB-positive Treg cells is a strong predictor of acute Graft-versus-host disease after day +30 after allo-HSCT.

  1. Ionospheric corrections estimation in a local GNSS permanent stations network: improvement of Code Point Positioning at sub-metric accuracy level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, C.; Crespi, M.; Mazzoni, A.

    2008-12-01

    It is well know that GNSS permanent networks for real-time positioning were mainly designed to generate and transmit products for RTK (or Network-RTK) positioning. In this context, RTK products are restricted to users equipped with geodetic-class receivers. This work is a first step toward using a local network of permanent GNSS stations to generate and transmit real time products that could remarkably improve positioning accuracy for C/A receiver users. A simple experiment was carried out based on 3 consecutive days of data from 3 permanent stations that belong to the RESNAP-GPS network (w3.uniroma1.it/resnap-gps), located at the Lazio Region (Central Italy) and managed by DITS-Area di Geodesia e Geomatica, Sapienza University of Rome. In the first step the RINEX files were corrected for the differential code biases according to IGS recommendations and then processed with Bernese 5.0 CODSPP module (single point positioning using code measurements), using IGS precise ephemeris and clocks. One position per epoch (every 30 seconds) was estimated for P1 and for the ionosphere free combination (P3). The accuracy obtained with the P3 combination for the vertical component, which ranged from -1 to +1 m, was taken as the reference for the following discussion. For P1 observations, the vertical coordinate errors showed a typical signature due to the ionospheric activity: higher errors for day-time (up to 5 m) and smaller ones for night-time (around 1.5 m). In order to improve the accuracy of the P1 solution, ionospheric corrections were estimated using the La Plata Ionospheric Model, based on the dual-frequency observations from the RESNAP-GPS network. Those corrections were applied to the RINEX files of a probing station located within the reference network. With this procedure, the vertical coordinate errors were reduced to the range from -0.8 to 0.8 m. This methodological approach shows the possibility to remarkably improve the real time positioning based on Code

  2. Ionospheric corrections estimation in a local GNSS permanent stations network: improvement of Code Point Positioning at sub-metric accuracy level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, C.; Crespi, M.; Mazzoni, A.

    2009-04-01

    It is well know that GNSS permanent networks for real-time positioning were mainly designed to generate and transmit products for RTK (or Network-RTK) positioning. In this context, RTK products are restricted to users equipped with geodetic-class receivers. This work is a first step toward using a local network of permanent GNSS stations to generate and transmit real time products that could remarkably improve positioning accuracy for C/A receiver users. A simple experiment was carried out based on 3 consecutive days of data from 3 permanent stations that belong to the RESNAP-GPS network (w3.uniroma1.it/resnap-gps), located at the Lazio Region (Central Italy) and managed by DITS-Area di Geodesia e Geomatica, Sapienza University of Rome. In the first step the RINEX files were corrected for the differential code biases according to IGS recommendations and then processed with Bernese 5.0 CODSPP module (single point positioning using code measurements), using IGS precise ephemeris and clocks. One position per epoch (every 30 seconds) was estimated for P1 and for the ionosphere free combination (P3). The accuracy obtained with the P3• combination for the vertical component, which ranged from -1 to +1 m, was taken as the reference for the following discussion. For P1 observations, the vertical coordinate errors showed a typical signature due to the ionospheric activity: higher errors for day-time (up to 5 m) and smaller ones for night-time (around 1.5 m). In order to improve the accuracy of the P1 solution, ionospheric corrections were estimated using the La Plata Ionospheric Model, based on the dual-frequency observations from the RESNAP-GPS network. Those corrections were applied to the RINEX files of a probing station located within the reference network. With this procedure, the vertical coordinate errors were reduced to the range from -0.8 to 0.8 m. This methodological approach shows the possibility to remarkably improve the real time positioning based on Code

  3. Observational clinical study on the effects of different dosing regimens on vancomycin target levels in critically ill patients: Continuous versus intermittent application.

    PubMed

    Tafelski, S; Nachtigall, I; Troeger, Uwe; Deja, Maria; Krannich, Alexander; Günzel, Karsten; Spies, C

    2015-01-01

    Different dosing regimens for vancomycin are in clinical use: intermittent infusion and continuous administration. The intention of using these different dosing regimens is to reduce toxicity, to achieve target levels faster and to avoid treatment failure. The aim of this phase IV study was to compare safety and effectiveness in both administration regimens. The study was conducted in 2010 and 2011 in three postoperative intensive care units (ICUs) in a tertiary care university hospital in Berlin, Germany. Adult patients with vancomycin therapy and therapeutic drug monitoring were included. Out of 675 patients screened, 125 received vancomycin therapy, 39% with intermittent and 61% with continuous administration. Patients with continuous administration achieved target serum levels significantly earlier (median day 3 versus 4, p=0.022) and showed fewer sub-therapeutic serum levels (41% versus 11%, p<0.001). ICU mortality rate, duration of ICU stay and duration of ventilation did not differ between groups. Acute renal failure during the ICU stay occurred in 35% of patients with intermittent infusion versus 26% of patients with continuous application (p=0.324). In conclusion, continuous administration of vancomycin allowed more rapid achievement of targeted drug levels with fewer sub-therapeutic vancomycin levels observed. This might indicate that patients with more severe infections or higher variability in renal function could benefit from this form of administration.

  4. The Prevention of Positioning Injuries during Gynecologic Operations. Guideline of DGGG (S1-Level, AWMF Registry No. 015/077, February 2015)

    PubMed Central

    Fleisch, M. C.; Bremerich, D.; Schulte-Mattler, W.; Tannen, A.; Teichmann, A. T.; Bader, W.; Balzer, K.; Renner, S. P.; Römer, T.; Roth, S.; Schütz, F.; Thill, M.; Tinneberg, H.; Zarras, K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Official guideline published and coordinated by the German Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics (DGGG). Positioning injuries after lengthy gynecological procedures are rare, but the associated complications can be potentially serious for patients. Moreover, such injuries often lead to claims of malpractice and negligence requiring detailed medical investigation. To date, there are no binding evidence-based recommendations for the prevention of such injuries. Methods: This S1-guideline is the work of an interdisciplinary group of experts from a range of different professions who were commissioned by DGGG to carry out a systematic literature search of positioning injuries. Members of the participating scientific societies develop a consensus in an informal procedure. Afterwards the directorate of the scientific society approves the consensus. The recommendations cover: PMID:26365999

  5. Nursing Positions

    MedlinePlus

    ... breast with your other hand. The Clutch or Football Hold This is also a good position for ... same time may also choose this position. The football hold allows babies to take milk more easily — ...

  6. Reaction-space analysis of homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion with varying levels of fuel stratification under positive and negative valve overlap conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kodavasal, Janardhan; Lavoie, George A.; Assanis, Dennis N.; Martz, Jason B.

    2015-10-26

    Full-cycle computational fluid dynamics simulations with gasoline chemical kinetics were performed to determine the impact of breathing and fuel injection strategies on thermal and compositional stratification, combustion and emissions during homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion. The simulations examined positive valve overlap and negative valve overlap strategies, along with fueling by port fuel injection and direct injection. The resulting charge mass distributions were analyzed prior to ignition using ignition delay as a reactivity metric. The reactivity stratification arising from differences in the distributions of fuel–oxygen equivalence ratio (ΦFO), oxygen molar fraction (χO2) and temperature (T) was determined for three parametric studies. In the first study, the reactivity stratification and burn duration for positive valve overlap valve events with port fuel injection and early direct injection were nearly identical and were dominated by wall-driven thermal stratification. nitrogen oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were negligible for both injection strategies. In the second study, which examined negative valve overlap valve events with direct injection and port fuel injection, reactivity stratification increased for direct injection as the ΦFO and T distributions associated with direct fuel injection into the hot residual gas were positively correlated; however, the latent heat absorbed from the hot residual gas by the evaporating direct injection fuel jet reduced the overall thermal and reactivity stratification. These stratification effects were offsetting, resulting in similar reactivity stratification and burn durations for the two injection strategies. The higher local burned gas temperatures with direct injection resulted in an order of magnitude increase in NO, while incomplete combustion of locally over-lean regions led to a sevenfold increase in CO emissions compared to port fuel

  7. Reaction-space analysis of homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion with varying levels of fuel stratification under positive and negative valve overlap conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Kodavasal, Janardhan; Lavoie, George A.; Assanis, Dennis N.; ...

    2015-10-26

    Full-cycle computational fluid dynamics simulations with gasoline chemical kinetics were performed to determine the impact of breathing and fuel injection strategies on thermal and compositional stratification, combustion and emissions during homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion. The simulations examined positive valve overlap and negative valve overlap strategies, along with fueling by port fuel injection and direct injection. The resulting charge mass distributions were analyzed prior to ignition using ignition delay as a reactivity metric. The reactivity stratification arising from differences in the distributions of fuel–oxygen equivalence ratio (ΦFO), oxygen molar fraction (χO2) and temperature (T) was determined for three parametric studies.more » In the first study, the reactivity stratification and burn duration for positive valve overlap valve events with port fuel injection and early direct injection were nearly identical and were dominated by wall-driven thermal stratification. nitrogen oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were negligible for both injection strategies. In the second study, which examined negative valve overlap valve events with direct injection and port fuel injection, reactivity stratification increased for direct injection as the ΦFO and T distributions associated with direct fuel injection into the hot residual gas were positively correlated; however, the latent heat absorbed from the hot residual gas by the evaporating direct injection fuel jet reduced the overall thermal and reactivity stratification. These stratification effects were offsetting, resulting in similar reactivity stratification and burn durations for the two injection strategies. The higher local burned gas temperatures with direct injection resulted in an order of magnitude increase in NO, while incomplete combustion of locally over-lean regions led to a sevenfold increase in CO emissions compared to port fuel injection. The final study

  8. The Performance Levels and Associated Cut Scores on the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment Mathematics and Reading Tests: A Critical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwerling, Harris L.

    In the context of controversy over the use of high stakes testing, the Pennsylvania State Education Association (PSEA) asked for an evaluation of the performance levels and cut score of the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) mathematics and reading tests. While awaiting technical documentation from the Pennsylvania Department of…

  9. Positive criminology in practice.

    PubMed

    Ronel, Natti; Segev, Dana

    2014-11-01

    The discourse regarding offender rehabilitation has been criticized by various scholars who have claimed that reducing negative causes and managing risk will not automatically prompt positive human development and elements that are associated with desistance. Positive criminology is an innovative concept that challenges the common preoccupation with negative elements, by placing emphasis on human encounters and forces of inclusion that are experienced positively by target individuals and that can promote crime desistance. However, as the concept is relatively new, there are still no guiding principles for the practice of positive criminology that could direct research and the criminal justice system. This article attempts to fill that gap by providing principles that could be practiced by criminal justice personnel and examples of different interventions that reflect positive criminology. The article also provides ideological explanations for adopting the concept of positive criminology in practice.

  10. Potential of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase as a Therapeutic Target for Allergen-Induced Airway Hyperresponsiveness: A Critical Connection to Nitric Oxide Levels and PARP Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ghonim, Mohamed A.; Pyakurel, Kusma; Mishra, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Although expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in the lungs of asthmatics and associated nitrosative damage are established, iNOS failed as a therapeutic target for blocking airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and inflammation in asthmatics. This dichotomy calls for better strategies with which the enzyme is adequately targeted. Here, we confirm iNOS expression in the asthmatic lung with concomitant protein nitration and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation. We show, for the first time, that iNOS is highly expressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of asthmatics with uncontrolled disease, which did not correspond to protein nitration. Selective iNOS inhibition with L-NIL protected against AHR upon acute, but not chronic, exposure to ovalbumin or house dust mite (HDM) in mice. Supplementation of NO by nitrite administration significantly blocked AHR in chronically HDM-exposed mice that were treated with L-NIL. Protection against chronic HDM exposure-induced AHR by olaparib-mediated PARP inhibition may be associated with the partial but not the complete blockade of iNOS expression. Indeed, L-NIL administration prevented olaparib-mediated protection against AHR in chronically HDM-exposed mice. Our study suggests that the amount of iNOS and NO are critical determinants in the modulation of AHR by selective iNOS inhibitors and renews the potential of iNOS as a therapeutic target for asthma. PMID:27524861

  11. Critical Analysis of Primary Literature in a Master’s-Level Class: Effects on Self-Efficacy and Science-Process Skills

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Christopher; Parris, Julian; Lie, Richard; Guzdar, Amy; Tour, Ella

    2015-01-01

    The ability to think analytically and creatively is crucial for success in the modern workforce, particularly for graduate students, who often aim to become physicians or researchers. Analysis of the primary literature provides an excellent opportunity to practice these skills. We describe a course that includes a structured analysis of four research papers from diverse fields of biology and group exercises in proposing experiments that would follow up on these papers. To facilitate a critical approach to primary literature, we included a paper with questionable data interpretation and two papers investigating the same biological question yet reaching opposite conclusions. We report a significant increase in students’ self-efficacy in analyzing data from research papers, evaluating authors’ conclusions, and designing experiments. Using our science-process skills test, we observe a statistically significant increase in students’ ability to propose an experiment that matches the goal of investigation. We also detect gains in interpretation of controls and quantitative analysis of data. No statistically significant changes were observed in questions that tested the skills of interpretation, inference, and evaluation. PMID:26250564

  12. Critical Analysis of Primary Literature in a Master's-Level Class: Effects on Self-Efficacy and Science-Process Skills.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Christopher; Parris, Julian; Lie, Richard; Guzdar, Amy; Tour, Ella

    2015-01-01

    The ability to think analytically and creatively is crucial for success in the modern workforce, particularly for graduate students, who often aim to become physicians or researchers. Analysis of the primary literature provides an excellent opportunity to practice these skills. We describe a course that includes a structured analysis of four research papers from diverse fields of biology and group exercises in proposing experiments that would follow up on these papers. To facilitate a critical approach to primary literature, we included a paper with questionable data interpretation and two papers investigating the same biological question yet reaching opposite conclusions. We report a significant increase in students' self-efficacy in analyzing data from research papers, evaluating authors' conclusions, and designing experiments. Using our science-process skills test, we observe a statistically significant increase in students' ability to propose an experiment that matches the goal of investigation. We also detect gains in interpretation of controls and quantitative analysis of data. No statistically significant changes were observed in questions that tested the skills of interpretation, inference, and evaluation.

  13. Positive Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  14. Positive reinforcement for viruses.

    PubMed

    Vigant, Frederic; Jung, Michael; Lee, Benhur

    2010-10-29

    Virus-cell membrane fusion requires a critical transition from positive to negative membrane curvature. St. Vincent et al. (2010), in PNAS, designed a class of antivirals that targets this transition. These rigid amphipathic fusion inhibitors are active against an array of enveloped viruses.

  15. Positive correlation of airway resistance and serum asymmetric dimethylarginine level in COPD patients with systemic markers of low-grade inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Tajti, Gabor; Gesztelyi, Rudolf; Pak, Krisztian; Papp, Csaba; Keki, Sandor; Szilasi, Magdolna Emma; Mikaczo, Angela; Fodor, Andrea; Szilasi, Maria; Zsuga, Judit

    2017-01-01

    The major feature of COPD is a progressive airflow limitation caused by chronic airway inflammation and consequent airway remodeling. Modified arginase and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) pathways are presumed to contribute to the inflammation and fibrosis. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) may shunt L-arginine from the NOS pathway to the arginase one by uncoupling and competitive inhibition of NOS and by enhancing arginase activity. To attest the interplay of these pathways, the relationship between ADMA and airflow limitation, described by airway resistance (Raw), was investigated in a cohort of COPD patients. Every COPD patient willing to give consent to participate (n=74) was included. Case history, laboratory parameters, serum arginine and ADMA, pulmonary function (whole-body plethysmography), and disease-specific quality of life (St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire) were determined. Multiple linear regression was used to identify independent determinants of Raw. The final multiple model was stratified based on symptom control. The log Raw showed significant positive correlation with log ADMA in the whole sample (Pearson’s correlation coefficient: 0.25, P=0.03). This association remained significant after adjusting for confounders in the whole data set (β: 0.42; confidence interval [CI]: 0.06, 0.77; P=0.022) and in the worse-controlled stratum (β: 0.84; CI: 0.25, 1.43; P=0.007). Percent predicted value of forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of forced vital capacity showed that significant negative, elevated C-reactive protein exhibited significant positive relationship with Raw in the final model. Positive correlation of Raw with ADMA in COPD patients showing evidence of a systemic low-grade inflammation implies that ADMA contributes to the progression of COPD, probably by shunting L-arginine from the NOS pathway to the arginase one. PMID:28352168

  16. Increasing Induction-Level Teachers' Positive-to-Negative Communication Ratio and Use of Behavior-Specific Praise through E-Mailed Performance Feedback and Its Effect on Students' Task Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathel, Jeanna M.; Drasgow, Erik; Brown, William H.; Marshall, Kathleen J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of e-mailed specific performance feedback that included progress monitoring graphs on induction-level teachers' ratios of positive-to-negative communication behaviors and their use of behavior-specific praise in classrooms for students with emotional and behavioral disorders, mild intellectual…

  17. Analyzing the Relationship of Geographic Mobility and Institutional Prestige to Career Advancement of Women in Academic Medicine Pursuing Midcareer-, Senior-, or Executive-Level Administrative Positions: Implications for Career Advancement Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Marsha Renee

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of geographic mobility and institutional prestige to career advancement defined as administrative promotions of women seeking midcareer-, senior-, or executive-level positions at academic health centers (AHCs) and their medical schools or in non-AHC related medical schools in the United…

  18. Positive and negative early life experiences differentially modulate long term survival and amyloid protein levels in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Lesuis, Sylvie L.; Maurin, Herve; Borghgraef, Peter; Lucassen, Paul J.; Leuven, Fred Van; Krugers, Harm J.

    2016-01-01

    Stress has been implicated as a risk factor for the severity and progression of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Early life experiences determine stress responsivity in later life, and modulate age-dependent cognitive decline. Therefore, we examined whether early life experiences influence AD outcome in a bigenic mouse model which progressively develops combined tau and amyloid pathology (biAT mice). Mice were subjected to either early life stress (ELS) or to ‘positive’ early handling (EH) postnatally (from day 2 to 9). In biAT mice, ELS significantly compromised long term survival, in contrast to EH which increased life expectancy. In 4 month old mice, ELS-reared biAT mice displayed increased hippocampal Aβ levels, while these levels were reduced in EH-reared biAT mice. No effects of ELS or EH were observed on the brain levels of APP, protein tau, or PSD-95. Dendritic morphology was moderately affected after ELS and EH in the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex, while object recognition memory and open field performance were not affected. We conclude that despite the strong transgenic background, early life experiences significantly modulate the life expectancy of biAT mice. Parallel changes in hippocampal Aβ levels were evident, without affecting cognition of young adult biAT mice. PMID:27259247

  19. Using Coaching to Support Classroom-Level Adoption and Use of Interventions within School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Support Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stormont, M.; Reinke, W. M.

    2012-01-01

    Many schools today have a prevention-based focus for working with academic and social behavior problems through the use of tiered approaches (Bohanon, McIntosh, & Goodman, 2011; Horner & Sugai, 2005). Through the use of levels of support, including a continuum of increasingly intensive support based on responsiveness to evidence-based core…

  20. Glutaminase expression is a poor prognostic factor in node-positive triple-negative breast cancer patients with a high level of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo Young; Heo, Sun-Hee; Choi, Seul Ki; Song, In Hye; Park, In Ah; Kim, Young-Ae; Park, Hye Seon; Park, Suk Young; Bang, Won Seon; Gong, Gyungyub; Lee, Hee Jin

    2017-04-01

    Glutamine metabolism is emerging as one aspect of dysregulated metabolism of tumors. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells are glutamine dependent, whereas luminal-type cells tend to be glutamine independent. Therefore, TNBC patients might benefit from therapies targeting glutamine metabolism. To investigate the clinical significance of glutamine metabolism, we examined expression and prognostic significance of glutaminase in tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in TNBC. We retrieved 658 surgically resected TNBCs and analyzed glutaminase expression in tumor cells and TILs by immunohistochemical staining. Glutaminase expression was observed in 237 cases (36.0%) in tumor cells and 104 cases (15.5%) in TILs. Although glutaminase expression in tumor cells was significantly associated with a low level of TILs (p = 0.018), glutaminase expression in TILs was significantly higher in cases with a high level of TILs (p = 0.031). Glutaminase expression in tumor cells was significantly associated with poor disease-free survival in patients with lymph node metastasis and high levels of TILs (p = 0.020). In addition, it was an independent poor prognostic factor (hazard ratio = 10.643, 95% confidence interval = 1.999-56.668; p = 0.006). Glutaminase expression in tumor cells was observed in a subset of TNBC patients. It was significantly associated with a low level of TILs and poor disease-free survival in TNBCs presenting with lymph node metastasis and high levels of TILs.

  1. Critical review of the human data on short-term nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposures: evidence for NO2 no-effect levels.

    PubMed

    Hesterberg, Thomas W; Bunn, William B; McClellan, Roger O; Hamade, Ali K; Long, Christopher M; Valberg, Peter A

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a ubiquitous atmospheric pollutant due to the widespread prevalence of both natural and anthropogenic sources, and it can be a respiratory irritant when inhaled at elevated concentrations. Evidence for health effects of ambient NO2 derives from three types of studies: observational epidemiology, human clinical exposures, and animal toxicology. Our review focuses on the human clinical studies of adverse health effects of short-term NO2 exposures, given the substantial uncertainties and limitations in interpretation of the other lines of evidence. We examined more than 50 experimental studies of humans inhaling NO2, finding notably that the reporting of statistically significant changes in lung function and bronchial sensitivity did not show a consistent trend with increasing NO2 concentrations. Functional changes were generally mild and transient, the reported effects were not uniformly adverse, and they were not usually accompanied by NO2-dependent increases in symptoms. The available human clinical results do not establish a mechanistic pathway leading to adverse health impacts for short-term NO2 exposures at levels typical of maximum 1-h concentrations in the present-day ambient environment (i.e., below 0.2 ppm). Our review of these data indicates that a health-protective, short-term NO2 guideline level for susceptible (and healthy) populations would reflect a policy choice between 0.2 and 0.6 ppm. EXTENDED ABSTRACT: Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a ubiquitous atmospheric pollutant due to the widespread prevalence of both natural and anthropogenic sources, and it can be a respiratory irritant when inhaled at elevated concentrations. Natural NO2 sources include volcanic action, forest fires, lightning, and the stratosphere; man-made NO2 emissions derive from fossil fuel combustion and incineration. The current National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for NO2, initially established in 1971, is 0.053 ppm (annual average). Ambient

  2. Activation of Nrf2 attenuates carbonyl stress induced by methylglyoxal in human neuroblastoma cells: Increase in GSH levels is a critical event for the detoxification mechanism.

    PubMed

    Nishimoto, Shoichi; Koike, Shin; Inoue, Naho; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Ogasawara, Yuki

    2017-02-05

    The present study focused on the methylglyoxal (MG) detoxification mechanism in neuroblastoma cells. The involvement of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) pathway as a defense response against the formation of MG-modified proteins, which is well-known evidence of carbonyl stress, was also examined. We found that MG treatment resulted in accumulation of modified proteins bearing the structure of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) derived from MG in SH-SY5Y cells. This accumulation was suppressed by activation of the Nrf2 pathway prior to MG exposure via pre-treatment with an Nrf2 activator, carnosic acid and CDDO-Im, confirming the involvement of the Nrf2 pathway in MG detoxification. Although pre-treatment with the Nrf2 activator did not affect mRNA levels of GLO1, AKR1B1, and AKR7A2, the expressions of GCL and xCT mRNA, involved in GSH synthesis, were induced prior to increase in GSH levels. Furthermore, we demonstrated that a GSH synthesis inhibitor eliminated the MG detoxification effect derived from pretreatment with the Nrf2 activator. These results indicated that increase in GSH levels, induced by pre-treatment with carnosic acid, promoted the formation of the GLO1 substrate, hemithioacetal, thereby accelerating MG metabolism via the glyoxalase system and suppressing its toxicity. It was, therefore, determined that promotion of GSH synthesis via the Nrf2/Keap1pathway is important in the MG detoxification mechanism against neuronal MG-induced carbonyl stress, and Nrf2 activators contribute to reduction in the accumulation and toxic expression of carbonyl proteins.

  3. Evaluation of multiple muscle loads through multi-objective optimization with prediction of subjective satisfaction level: illustration by an application to handrail position for standing.

    PubMed

    Chihara, Takanori; Seo, Akihiko

    2014-03-01

    Proposed here is an evaluation of multiple muscle loads and a procedure for determining optimum solutions to ergonomic design problems. The simultaneous muscle load evaluation is formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem, and optimum solutions are obtained for each participant. In addition, one optimum solution for all participants, which is defined as the compromise solution, is also obtained. Moreover, the proposed method provides both objective and subjective information to support the decision making of designers. The proposed method was applied to the problem of designing the handrail position for the sit-to-stand movement. The height and distance of the handrails were the design variables, and surface electromyograms of four muscles were measured. The optimization results suggest that the proposed evaluation represents the impressions of participants more completely than an independent use of muscle loads. In addition, the compromise solution is determined, and the benefits of the proposed method are examined.

  4. Problem-Based Learning in Entry-Level Athletic Training Professional-Education Programs: A Model for Developing Critical-Thinking and Decision-Making Skills

    PubMed Central

    Heinrichs, Kristinn I.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To establish the underlying theory and benefits and describe the implementation of a problem-based learning curriculum. Data Sources: I searched MEDLINE, SPORT Discus, and nursing, evidence-based medicine, and educational psychology databases from 1987 through 2002 using the terms problem-based learning, physical therapy, nursing, and medicine. Data Synthesis: In the problem-based learning process, students encounter a problem, bring to it their preconceived understanding (accurate or not), learn to identify what they need to learn to better understand the problem, engage in self-directed study, and begin to resolve the problem. Problem-based learning has its origins in medical education but is widely used in K–12 education, social sciences, health professions education, law, business administration, engineering, and aviation. An entry-level master of science degree program in athletic training based on problem-based learning and integrated clinical education is described. Conclusions/Recommendations: Problem-based learning curricula, if implemented correctly, can facilitate the entry-level athletic training student's professional development into that of a life-long learner who bases clinical decisions and procedures on the best available evidence. PMID:12937544

  5. Geometries and Vertical Excitation Energies in Retinal Analogues Resolved at the CASPT2 Level of Theory: Critical Assessment of the Performance of CASSCF, CC2, and DFT Methods.

    PubMed

    Walczak, Elżbieta; Szefczyk, Borys; Andruniów, Tadeusz

    2013-11-12

    A systematic investigation of structural properties and vertical excitation energies of a series of structurally modified 11-cis-retinal chromophores in vacuo was performed by means of multiconfigurational second-order perturbation theory (CASPT2). CASPT2-based geometries agree reasonably well with Møller-Plesset second-order perturbation theory (MP2), local second-order approximate coupled cluster singles and doubles (LCC2), and density functional theory (DFT) geometries, while the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) method exaggerates dramatically the bond length pattern in the polyene chain. The quality of the resulting vertical excitation energies obtained by employing CASSCF, second-order approximate coupled cluster singles and doubles (CC2), LCC2, and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) approaches is assessed with respect to the CASPT2 data. We show that the commonly used CASSCF/CASPT2 approach works reasonably well in the case of vertical excitation energies of planar structures, but lack of dynamic correlation leads to large errors in energetics for strongly strained structures. For example, the highly twisted conformers of 9,10-dimethyl and 9,10,13-trimethyl species are found as global minima at the CASSCF level, whereas they turn almost planar at the CASPT2, MP2, LCC2, and DFT levels of theory. The CC2 method has shown a remarkable performance, manifested by a maximum deviation of 0.05 eV from the reference CASPT2 results, whereas the local version of CC2 seems to fail to describe the charge-transfer character of the S0 → S1 transitions correctly. We believe that our CASPT2 benchmark set will provide a reference that can be utilized for validation and development studies on 11-cis-retinal protonated Schiff base chromophore analogues.

  6. Characterization of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Glycoside Hydrolase PslG Reveals That Its Levels Are Critical for Psl Polysaccharide Biosynthesis and Biofilm Formation*

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Perrin; Whitfield, Gregory B.; Hill, Preston J.; Little, Dustin J.; Pestrak, Matthew J.; Robinson, Howard; Wozniak, Daniel J.; Howell, P. Lynne

    2015-01-01

    A key component of colonization, biofilm formation, and protection of the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the biosynthesis of the exopolysaccharide Psl. Composed of a pentameric repeating unit of mannose, glucose, and rhamnose, the biosynthesis of Psl is proposed to occur via a Wzx/Wzy-dependent mechanism. Previous genetic studies have shown that the putative glycoside hydrolase PslG is essential for Psl biosynthesis. To understand the function of this protein, the apo-structure of the periplasmic domain of PslG (PslG(31–442)) and its complex with mannose were determined to 2.0 and 1.9 Å resolution, respectively. Despite a domain architecture and positioning of catalytic residues similar to those of other family 39 glycoside hydrolases, PslG(31–442) exhibits a unique 32-Å-long active site groove that is distinct from other structurally characterized family members. PslG formed a complex with two mannose monosaccharides in this groove, consistent with binding data obtained from intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence. PslG was able to catalyze the hydrolysis of surface-associated Psl, and this activity was abolished in a E165Q/E276Q double catalytic variant. Surprisingly, P. aeruginosa variants with these chromosomal mutations as well as a pslG deletion mutant were still capable of forming Psl biofilms. However, overexpression of PslG in a pslG deletion background impaired biofilm formation and resulted in less surface-associated Psl, suggesting that regulation of this enzyme is important during polysaccharide biosynthesis. PMID:26424791

  7. Ferritin Level Is Positively Associated with Chronic Kidney Disease in Korean Men, Based on the 2010–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hee-Taik; Linton, John A.; Kwon, Soon Kil; Park, Byoung-Jin; Lee, Jong Hun

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: Oxidative stress and inflammation are associated with higher risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Serum ferritin concentrations correlate with total iron levels and systemic inflammation. (2) Methods: This study was cross-sectionally designed, based on the 2010–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). According to ferritin values, 13,462 participants (6082 men and 7380 women) were categorized into the normal- and high-ferritin groups (cut-off points: 200 ng/mL in men, 150 ng/mL in women). (3) Results: The mean ages of men and women were 44.5 and 48.4 years, respectively. The percentage of participants categorized into the high-ferritin group was 15.1% for men and 3.6% for women. The estimated glomerular filtration rate levels in the normal- and high-ferritin groups were 93.2 and 93.8 mL/min/1.73 m2 for men and 97.1 and 87.7 mL/min/1.73 m2 for women, respectively. The prevalence of CKD in the normal- and high-ferritin groups was 2.6% and 3.9% for men and 3.2% and 8.1% for women, respectively. Compared with the normal-ferritin group, the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for CKD of the high-ferritin group were 1.573 (1.014–2.441) in men and 1.061 (0.381–2.955) in women, after adjustments for age and other covariates. (4) Conclusions: High ferritin levels were associated with a higher risk of CKD in men but not in women. PMID:27801876

  8. Adsorption of gallium on GaN(0001) surface in ammonia-rich conditions: A new effect associated with the Fermi level position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempisty, Paweł; Strak, Paweł; Sakowski, Konrad; Krukowski, Stanisław

    2014-09-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to study GaN(0001) surface covered with NH3 admolecules and NH2 radicals, corresponding to physical conditions during GaN growth by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) and metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). Using larger representation of the surface i.e. slabs of lateral size 4×4, the effect of the doping was examined. It is shown that for specific surface coverage the electron counting (EC) rule is fulfilled so that the pinning of the Fermi level by surface states and band bending disappears. In this case, according to Krukowski et al. (2013) [14], the doping of the semiconductor (n- or p-type) and the related Fermi level are extremely important for stability of the surface and the adsorption/desorption processes. The difference in adsorption energies of gallium atoms at n- and p-type GaN(0001) surface exceeds the energy gap. This effect is observed in a narrow range of surface coverage, therefore cannot be detected in the calculations using small systems i.e. 2×2 slabs. This new phenomenon may be crucial for the growth of GaN and the incorporation of dopants and impurities into semiconductor crystals.

  9. Consumption patterns and levels among households with HIV positive members and economic impoverishment due to medical spending in Pune city, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Varun; Krishnaswamy, Divya; Mulay, Sanjeevanee

    2015-01-01

    HIV infection poses a serious threat to the economy of a household. Out of pocket (OOP) health spending can be prohibitive and can drag households below poverty level. Based on the data collected from a cross-sectional survey of 401 households with HIV+ members in Pune city, India, this paper examines the consumption levels and patterns among households, and comments on the economic impoverishment resulting from OOP medical spending. Analysis reveals that households with HIV members spend a major portion of their monthly consumption expenditure on food items. Medical expenditure constitutes a large portion of their total consumption spending. Expenditure on children's education constitutes a minor proportion of total monthly spending. A high proportion of medical expenditure has a bearing on the economic condition of households with HIV members. Poverty increases by 20% among the studied HIV households when OOP health spending is adjusted. It increases 18% among male-headed households and 26% among female-headed households. The results reiterate the need of greater support from the government in terms of accessibility and affordability of health care to save households with HIV members from economic catastrophe.

  10. Measuring positive and negative affect in older adults over 56 days: comparing trait level scoring methods using the partial credit model.

    PubMed

    Erbacher, Monica K; Schmidt, Karen M; Boker, Steven M; Bergeman, Cindy S

    2012-01-01

    Positive (PA) and negative affect (NA) are important constructs in health and well-being research. Good longitudinal measurement is crucial to conducting meaningful research on relationships between affect, health, and well-being across the lifespan. One common affect measure, the PANAS, has been evaluated thoroughly with factor analysis, but not with Racsh-based latent trait models (RLTMs) such as the Partial Credit Model (PCM), and not longitudinally. Current longitudinal RLTMs can computationally handle few occasions of data. The present study compares four methods of anchoring PCMs across 56 occasions to longitudinally evaluate the psychometric properties of the PANAS plus additional items. Anchoring item parameters on mean parameter values across occasions produced more desirable results than using no anchor, using first occasion parameters as anchors, or allowing anchor values to vary across occasions. Results indicated problems with NA items, including poor category utilization, gaps in the item distribution, and a lack of easy-to-endorse items. PA items had much more desirable psychometric qualities.

  11. Excess VO2 during ramp exercise is positively correlated to intercostal muscles deoxyhemoglobin levels above the gas exchange threshold in young trained cyclists.

    PubMed

    Oueslati, Ferid; Girard, Olivier; Tabka, Zouhair; Ahmaidi, Said

    2016-07-01

    We assessed respiratory muscles oxygenation responses during a ramp exercise to exhaustion and further explored their relationship with the non-linear increase of VO2 (VO2 excess) observed above the gas-exchange threshold. Ten male cyclists completed a ramp exercise to exhaustion on an electromagnetically braked cycle-ergometer with a rate of increment of 30Wmin(-1) with continuous monitoring of expired gases (breath-by-breath) and oxygenation status of intercostal muscles. Maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure measurements were taken at rest and at exhaustion. The VO2 excess represents the difference between VO2max observed and VO2max expected using linear equation between the VO2 and the intensity before gas-exchange threshold. The deoxyhemoglobin remained unchanged until 60% of maximal aerobic power (MAP) and thereafter increased significantly by 37±18% and 40±22% at 80% and 100% of MAP, respectively. Additionally, the amplitude of deoxyhemoglobin increase between 60 and 100% of MAP positively correlated with the VO2 excess (r=0.69, p<0.05). Compared to exercise start, the oxygen tissue saturation index decreased from 80% of MAP (-4.8±3.2%, p<0.05) onwards. At exhaustion, maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures declined by 7.8±16% and 12.6±10% (both p<0.05), respectively. In summary, our results suggest a significant contribution of respiratory muscles to the VO2 excess phenomenon.

  12. Positive Reinforcement Training for Blood Collection in Grizzly Bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) Results in Undetectable Elevations in Serum Cortisol Levels: A Preliminary Investigation.

    PubMed

    Joyce-Zuniga, Nicole M; Newberry, Ruth C; Robbins, Charles T; Ware, Jasmine V; Jansen, Heiko T; Nelson, O Lynne

    2016-01-01

    Training nonhuman animals in captivity for participation in routine husbandry procedures is believed to produce a lower stress environment compared with undergoing a general anesthetic event for the same procedure. This hypothesis rests largely on anecdotal evidence that the captive subjects appear more relaxed with the trained event. Blood markers of physiological stress responses were evaluated in 4 captive grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) who were clicker-trained for blood collection versus 4 bears who were chemically immobilized for blood collection. Serum cortisol and immunoglobulin A (IgA) and plasma β-endorphin were measured as indicators of responses to stress. Plasma β-endorphin was not different between the groups. Serum IgA was undetectable in all bears. Serum cortisol was undetectable in all trained bears, whereas chemically immobilized bears had marked cortisol elevations (p < .05). The highest cortisol elevations were found in 2 bears with extensive recent immobilization experience. These findings support the use of positive reinforcement training for routine health procedures to minimize anxiety.

  13. The positive link between executive function and lifetime cannabis use in schizophrenia is not explained by current levels of superior social cognition.

    PubMed

    Helle, Siri; Løberg, Else-Marie; Gjestad, Rolf; Schnakenberg Martin, Ashley M; Lysaker, Paul H

    2017-04-01

    There has been a growing link between a history of cannabis use and neurocognitive performance in patients with schizophrenia. Fewer neurocognitive deficits may be a marker of the superior social cognition needed to obtain illicit substances, or cannabis use may indicate a distinct path to schizophrenia with less neurocognitive vulnerability. This study sought to determine whether the relationship of cannabis use and executive function exists independently of social cognition. Eighty-seven patients with schizophrenia were administered measures of social cognition and executive function. Social cognition was assessed using the Bell-Lysaker Emotion Recognition Test to measure affect recognition, and the Eyes and Hinting Tests to measure theory of mind. Executive function was assessed by the Mental Flexibility component of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Functioning Scale. The relations between the variables were examined with structural equation modeling. Cannabis use positively related to executive function, negatively related to affect recognition, and had no relationship with theory of mind. There were no indirect effects of other illicit substances on amount of regular cannabis use. Alcohol use was related to worse affect recognition. The relationship between cannabis use and better executive function was supported and was not explained by superior social cognition.

  14. Critical multi-level governance issues of integrated modelling: An example of low-water management in the Adour-Garonne basin (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzega, Pierre; Therond, Olivier; Debril, Thomas; March, Hug; Sibertin-Blanc, Christophe; Lardy, Romain; Sant'ana, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the experience gained related to the development of an integrated simulation model of water policy. Within this context, we analyze particular difficulties raised by the inclusion of multi-level governance that assigns the responsibility of individual or collective decision-making to a variety of actors, regarding measures of which the implementation has significant effects toward the sustainability of socio-hydrosystems. Multi-level governance procedures are compared with the potential of model-based impact assessment. Our discussion is illustrated on the basis of the exploitation of the multi-agent platform MAELIA dedicated to the simulation of social, economic and environmental impacts of low-water management in a context of climate and regulatory changes. We focus on three major decision-making processes occurring in the Adour-Garonne basin, France: (i) the participatory development of the Master Scheme for Water Planning and Management (SDAGE) under the auspices of the Water Agency; (ii) the publication of water use restrictions in situations of water scarcity; and (iii) the determination of the abstraction volumes for irrigation and their allocation. The MAELIA platform explicitly takes into account the mode of decision-making when it is framed by a procedure set beforehand, focusing on the actors' participation and on the nature and parameters of the measures to be implemented. It is observed that in some water organizations decision-making follows patterns that can be represented as rule-based actions triggered by thresholds of resource states. When decisions are resulting from individual choice, endowing virtual agents with bounded rationality allows us to reproduce (in silico) their behavior and decisions in a reliable way. However, the negotiation processes taking place during the period of time simulated by the models in arenas of collective choices are not all reproducible. Outcomes of some collective decisions are very little or

  15. Critical Information at Critical Moments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fierman, Ben; Thrower, Raymond H., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    On a daily basis, administrators are reminded of the potential, perhaps the likelihood, of violence or natural crises on their campuses. Comprehensive studies have been conducted and point to recommendations and best practices for planning, preparing, responding to, and recovering from critical incidents. The International Association of Campus…

  16. Positive Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Martin E. P.; Rashid, Tayyab; Parks, Acacia C.

    2006-01-01

    Positive psychotherapy (PPT) contrasts with standard interventions for depression by increasing positive emotion, engagement, and meaning rather than directly targeting depressive symptoms. The authors have tested the effects of these interventions in a variety of settings. In informal student and clinical settings, people not uncommonly reported…

  17. The independent contribution of individual-, neighbourhood-, and country-level socioeconomic position on attitudes towards intimate partner violence against women in sub-Saharan Africa: a multilevel model of direct and moderating effects.

    PubMed

    Uthman, Olalekan Abdulrahman; Moradi, Tahereh; Lawoko, Stephen

    2009-05-01

    We examined associations between country, neighbourhood, and individual socioeconomic position (SEP) and attitudes towards intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW). We applied multivariable multilevel logistic regression analysis on Demographic and Health Survey data for 165,983 women and 68,501 men nested within 7465 communities from 17 countries in sub-Saharan Africa collected between 2003 and 2007. Contrary to expectation women were 34% more likely to justify IPVAW than men. We found that sex moderates associations of individual-, neighbourhood-, and country-level SEP with attitudes towards IPVAW. There was a significant positive interaction effect between sex and education attainment; women with no education were more likely to justify IPVAW than men with no education. Negative sex interaction with household wealth status indicates that differences in attitude are less pronounced among women. Unemployed men were more likely to justify IPVAW. Interaction effects indicate that the association of neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage with attitudes was more pronounced among women than among men. The association of country-level SEP with attitudes towards IPVWA was inconclusive. There was some evidence that neighbourhood modified the association between individual SEP and attitudes towards IPV. Also, there was cross-level interaction between country and neighbourhood SEP. Neighbourhood and individual SEP were independently associated with attitudes towards IPVAW. The relationship with country-level SEP was inconclusive. The findings underscore the need to implement public health prevention/intervention strategies not only at the level of individual SEP but also at the neighbourhood level.

  18. Toward a life cycle-based, diet-level framework for food environmental impact and nutritional quality assessment: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Heller, Martin C; Keoleian, Gregory A; Willett, Walter C

    2013-11-19

    Supplying adequate human nutrition within ecosystem carrying capacities is a key element in the global environmental sustainability challenge. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used effectively to evaluate the environmental impacts of food production value chains and to identify opportunities for targeted improvement strategies. Dietary choices and resulting consumption patterns are the drivers of production, however, and a consumption-oriented life cycle perspective is useful in understanding the environmental implications of diet choices. This review identifies 32 studies that use an LCA framework to evaluate the environmental impact of diets or meals. It highlights the state of the art, emerging methodological trends and current challenges and limitations to such diet-level LCA studies. A wide range of bases for analysis and comparison (i.e., functional units) have been employed in LCAs of foods and diet; we conceptually map appropriate functional unit choices to research aims and scope and argue for a need to move in the direction of a more sophisticated and comprehensive nutritional basis in order to link nutritional health and environmental objectives. Nutritional quality indices are reviewed as potential approaches, but refinement through ongoing collaborative research between environmental and nutritional sciences is necessary. Additional research needs include development of regionally specific life cycle inventory databases for food and agriculture and expansion of the scope of assessments beyond the current focus on greenhouse gas emissions.

  19. Landau levels and spin splitting in the two-dimensional electron gas of a HgTe quantum well near the critical width for the topological phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakmehr, M.; Bruene, C.; Buhmann, H.; Molenkamp, L. W.; Stier, A. V.; McCombe, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    We report a detailed low-temperature study of the two-dimensional (2D) electron gas in a 6.1-nm-wide HgTe quantum well with H g0.3C d0.7Te barriers by terahertz magnetophotoconductivity and magnetotransmission combined with magnetotransport measurements (Rx x and Rx y) in magnetic fields up to 10 T. This well width, close to that at the topological phase transition, corresponds to conventional band ordering, and we probe the "bulk" quasi-2D Landau-level (LL) spectrum of the conduction band at high energies (≈135 -160 meV ) above the Dirac point. The calculated separations between adjacent LLs of the same spin based on published parameters for this structure are in fair agreement with the measured cyclotron resonance energies. However, the very large spin splittings observed (Espin>Ecyclotron) require a significantly larger g -parameter ge for electrons. Tilted field coincidence experiments are consistent with the large spin splitting showing coincidences at 3/2 and twice the cyclotron energy. This large value of ge also leads to interesting crossings of the calculated LLs, and we find direct evidence of these crossings in the Rx x measurements at lower electron densities (Fermi energies) produced by negative gate bias.

  20. Area-under-the-curve versus trough level monitoring of cyclosporine concentration: critical assessment of dosage adjustment practices and measurement of clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Grevel, J

    1993-12-01

    Cyclosporine (CsA) immunosuppressive therapy is confounded by a narrow therapeutic window and large intersubject variability. Trough-level monitoring cannot prevent the frequent occurrence of toxic side effects and graft rejection. Area-under-the-curve (AUC) monitoring affords better control of exposure of an individual patient to CsA, which is compensated for by a moderate increase in the number of blood samples. A linear pharmacokinetic model for CsA dosage adjustment using AUC measurements as feedback information decreased the incidence of delayed graft loss during the first month. This strategy failed, however, to lower the frequency of acute graft rejection despite a significant relationship between the probability of rejection and exposure to CsA (measured as average steady-state concentration). A nonlinear Michaelis-Menten model describes the relationship between oral dose rate and average steady-state concentration better than does a linear clearance model. Clinical utility of the nonlinear model remains to be proven.

  1. Positive impact of a weekly iron-folic acid supplement delivered with social marketing to Cambodian women: compliance, participation, and hemoglobin levels increase with higher socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Crape, Byron L; Kenefick, Eric; Cavalli-Sforza, Tommaso; Busch-Hallen, Jennifer; Milani, Silvano; Kanal, Koum

    2005-12-01

    A social marketing program promoting weekly iron-folic acid supplementation improved hemoglobin levels in women of reproductive age in Cambodia. Supplementation was increasingly effective among women of higher socioeconomic status (SES). Among higher SES schoolgirls, 58% took the supplements, compared with 49% for lower SES (P = 0.07). Garment factory workers with an 11th- or 12th-grade education had a mean improvement in hemoglobin of 0.72 g/dL over those with a 5th-grade education or less (P = 0.04). The percentage of rural village women taking supplements increased with increasing SES (linear trend P = 0.046). These results suggest that women with lower SES be given special attention for future programs.

  2. Carbonate deposition, Pyramid Lake subbasin, Nevada: 2. Lake levels and polar jet stream positions reconstructed from radiocarbon ages and elevations of carbonates (tufas) deposited in the Lahontan basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, L.; Kashgarian, Michaele; Rubin, M.

    1995-01-01

    Most of the tufas in the Pyramid Lake subbasin were deposited within the last 35 000 yr, including most of the mound tufas that border the existing lake. Many of the older tufas (>21 000 yr BP) contained in the mounds were formed in association with groundwater discharge. Lake Lahontan experienced large and abrupt rises in level that are believed to indicate the passage of the polar jet stream over the Lahontan basin. During expansion of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, the jet stream moved south across the basin, and during the contraction of the Ice Sheet, the jet stream moved north across the basin. The bulk of the carbonate contained in the mound tufas was deposited during the last major lake cycle (~23 500-12 000 yr BP), indicating that ground- and surface-water discharges increased at ~23 500 and decreased at ~ 12 000 yr BP. -from Authors

  3. Can parent training for parents with high levels of expressed emotion have a positive effect on their child's social anxiety improvement?

    PubMed

    Garcia-Lopez, Luis Joaquín; Díaz-Castela, Maria del Mar; Muela-Martinez, Jose Antonio; Espinosa-Fernandez, Lourdes

    2014-12-01

    The role that parents' involvement may play in improving their child's social anxiety is still under debate. This paper aimed to investigate whether training parents with high expressed emotion (EE) could improve outcomes for adolescent social anxiety intervention. Fifty-two socially anxious adolescents (aged 13-18 years), whose parents exhibited high levels of expressed emotion, were assigned to either (a) a school-based intervention with an added parent training component, or (b) a school-based program focused solely on intervening with the adolescent (no parental involvement). Post-treatment and 12-month follow-up findings showed that school-based intervention with parent training was superior to the adolescent-specific program, yielding significant reductions in diagnosis remission, social and depressive symptomatology, particularly when the EE status of parents changed. Overall, the findings suggest that high-EE parents of children with social anxiety need to be involved in their child's therapy.

  4. Plasmin activity in the porcine airways is enhanced during experimental infection with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, is positively correlated with proinflammatory cytokine levels and is ameliorated by vaccination.

    PubMed

    Woolley, Lauren K; Fell, Shayne A; Djordjevic, Steven P; Eamens, Graeme J; Jenkins, Cheryl

    2013-05-31

    In Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp) infection of swine, the host immune response is considered a major driver of lung pathology; however the underlying inflammatory mechanisms are not well understood. The serine protease plasmin is being increasingly recognised as a significant player in inflammatory processes. Here we compare plasmin activity in tracheobronchial lavage fluid (TBLF) from pigs experimentally challenged with Mhp that were either unvaccinated (n=10), or vaccinated with the commercial vaccine Suvaxyn(®) M.hyo (n=10). TBLF collected immediately prior to challenge and at 21 d and 35 d post-challenge was also assayed for levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6), and for bacterial load (by qPCR). Clinical signs, pathology, cytokine analyses and qPCR all indicated that vaccinated pigs had significantly reduced disease relative to unvaccinated animals. Plasmin activity increased significantly in TBLF collected at 21 d post-challenge compared to pre-challenge TBLF in unvaccinated (P<0.01), but not vaccinated animals (P>0.05). A significant correlation was observed between bacterial load and plasmin activity in the 21 d (r=0.66; P<0.01) and the 35 d post-challenge samples, (r=0.62; P<0.01). Plasmin activity was also significantly correlated with levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 at 21 d (r=0.78, P<0.0001; r=0.77, P<0.0001; r=0.64, P<0.005) and with TNF-α and IL-1β at 35 d post-challenge (r=0.77, P<0.0001; r=0.74, P<0.0005). Our results indicate that plasminogen is activated to plasmin in the respiratory tract of pigs as part of the host inflammatory response to Mhp infection and that this effect is ameliorated by vaccination.

  5. Effect of different head and neck positions on behaviour, heart rate variability and cortisol levels in lunged Royal Dutch Sport horses.

    PubMed

    Smiet, E; Van Dierendonck, M C; Sleutjens, J; Menheere, P P C A; van Breda, E; de Boer, D; Back, W; Wijnberg, I D; van der Kolk, J H

    2014-10-01

    Different head-and-neck positions (HNPs) are discussed in relation to potential welfare issues. To evaluate the effect on welfare, seven Royal Dutch Sport horses were studied in five predetermined HNPs: (1) unrestrained (HNP1); (2) neck raised, bridge of nose around the vertical (HNP2); (3) neck lowered and considerably flexed, bridge of nose pointing towards the chest (HNP4); (4) neck raised and extended, bridge of nose in front of the vertical (HNP5), and (5) neck lowered and flexed, bridge of nose pointing towards the carpus (HNP7). A standardised exercise test (SET) of 34 min consisted of trot, canter and walk. Behaviour was recorded with a pre-defined ethogram and R-R intervals measured using telemetry. Cortisol concentrations were taken at the start, 5 and 30 min after the SET. Behaviour around the SET was scored separately. Conflict behaviours increased significantly during HNP2 when compared with HNP1, HNP4 and HNP7 during the SET, and there was significant negative anticipation before HNP2 and HNP7. The heart rate variability (HRV) frequency domain for HNP2 showed a significantly increased low frequency peak (LFpeak) compared with other HNPs, and there was a decrease in very low frequency (VLF%) compared with HNP1. HNP4 showed a significant increase in LF% and decrease in VLF% compared with HNP1. Saliva cortisol concentrations were significantly increased in HNP2 at 5 and 30 min after exercise. Increased conflict behaviour was mostly observed in HNP2, but there was a raised HRV suggesting a sympathetic shift in HNP2 and HNP4, and increased cortisol concentrations during HNP2 indicated a stress response.

  6. Morphogenesis at criticality?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krotov, Dmitry; Dubuis, Julien; Gregor, Thomas; Bialek, William

    2014-03-01

    Spatial patterns in the early fruit fly embryo emerge from a network of interactions among transcription factors, the gap genes, driven by maternal inputs. Such networks can exhibit many qualitatively different behaviors, separated by critical surfaces. At criticality, we should observe strong correlations in the fluctuations of different genes around their mean expression levels, a slowing of the dynamics along some but not all directions in the space of possible expression levels, correlations of expression fluctuations over long distances in the embryo, and departures from a Gaussian distribution of these fluctuations. Analysis of recent experiments on the gap genes shows that all these signatures are observed, and that the different signatures are related in ways predicted by theory. While there might be other explanations for these individual phenomena, the confluence of evidence suggests that this genetic network is tuned to criticality.

  7. Critical Thinking Concept Reconstructed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minter, Mary Kennedy

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the proposition that teaching of critical thinking (CT) should include: (1) identifying and addressing the many environmental variables acting as barriers to our human thinking, i.e., an open system approach, and (2) utilizing the interrelatedness of the CT building blocks, i.e., creative thinking techniques, levels of…

  8. Conductive Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paetkau, Mark

    2007-01-01

    One of my goals as an instructor is to teach students critical thinking skills. This paper presents an example of a student-led discussion of heat conduction at the first-year level. Heat loss from a human head is calculated using conduction and radiation models. The results of these plausible (but wrong) models of heat transfer contradict what…

  9. Adult attachment, dependence, self-criticism, and depressive symptoms: a test of a mediational model.

    PubMed

    Cantazaro, Amy; Wei, Meifen

    2010-08-01

    Attachment anxiety is expected to be positively associated with dependence and self-criticism. However, attachment avoidance is expected to be negatively associated with dependence but positively associated with self-criticism. Both dependence and self-criticism are expected to be related to depressive symptoms. Data were analyzed from 424 undergraduate participants at a large Midwestern university, using structural equation modeling. Results indicated that the relation between attachment anxiety and depressive symptoms was fully mediated by dependence and self-criticism, whereas the relation between attachment avoidance and depressive symptoms was partially mediated by dependence and self-criticism. Moreover, through a multiple-group comparison analysis, the results indicated that men with high levels of attachment avoidance are more likely than women to be self-critical.

  10. Nursing Positions

    MedlinePlus

    ... and actually needs to feed. Getting Comfortable With Breastfeeding Nursing can be one of the most challenging ... a mother. As you become more used to breastfeeding your baby, you can try different positions or ...

  11. Positive Proof.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auty, Geoffrey

    1988-01-01

    Presents experiments which show that in electrostatics there are logical reasons for describing charged materials as positive or negative. Indicates that static and current electricity are not separate areas of physics. Diagrams of experiments and circuits are included. (RT)

  12. Presence of diadenosine 5',5''' -P1, P4-tetraphosphate (Ap4A) in mamalian cells in levels varying widely with proliferative activity of the tissue: a possible positive "pleiotypic activator".

    PubMed Central

    Rapaport, E; Zamecnik, P C

    1976-01-01

    An accurate assay of diadenosine 5',5'''- P1,P4-tetraphosphate [A(5') pppp(5')A], which was shown to be formed in vitro in the backreaction of the amino acid activation step, has been developed in various cell lines in culture and in normal mouse liver or hepatoma in vivo. Use of radioactive labeling of acid-soluble nucleotides to high specific activity followed by chromatographic separation techniques yielded levels of Ap4A varying from 5 to 0.05 muM (from 30 pmol/mg of protein to 0.15 pmol), depending on the doubling time of the cell line or the proliferative state of the cells. The levels of Ap4A incells is inversely related to their doubling time, varying from 0.1 X 10(-4) of the cellular ATP levels in slowly growing cells to 20 X 10(-4) of the ATP levels of cells with rapid doubling times. The steady-state levels of ATP of different cell lines, although showing some fluctuations, are not related to the doubling time of the cells. Arrest of cellular proliferation by serum deprivation or amino acid starvation, which does not alter the cellular ATP levels more than 2-fold, does nevertheless cause a decrease of 30 to 50-fold in the Ap4A levels. Inhibition of protein synthesis by pactamycin or puromycin, or inhibition of DNA synthesis by hydroxyurea, leads to a more dramatic decrease of 50 to 100-fold in intracellular Ap4A levels. The metabolic lability of Ap4A is also demonstrated by its rapid depletion after decreases in the ATP/ADP ratio. The possibility of Ap4A being a metabolic "signal nucleotide" that is formed at the onset of protein synthesis and is active in positive growth regulation (positive pleiotypic activation) is discussed. PMID:1069282

  13. [Critical incidents].

    PubMed

    Scheidegger, D

    2005-03-01

    In medicine real severe mishaps are rare. On the other hand critical incidents are frequent. Anonymous critical incident reporting systems allow us to learn from these mishaps. This learning process will make our daily clinical work safer Unfortunately, before these systems can be used efficiently our professional culture has to be changed. Everyone in medicine has to admit that errors do occur to see the need for an open discussion. If we really want to learn from errors, we cannot punish the individual, who reported his or her mistake. The interest is primarily in what has happened and why it has happened and not who has committed this mistake. The cause for critical incidents in medicine is in over 80% the human factor Poor communication, work under enormous stress, conflicts and hierarchies are the main cause. This has been known for many years, therefore have already 15 years ago high-tech industries, like e.g. aviation, started to invest in special courses on team training. Medicine is a typical profession were until now only the individual performance decided about the professional career Communication, conflict management, stress management, decision making, risk management, team and team resource management were subjects that have never been taught during our preor postgraduate education. These points are the most important ones for an optimal teamwork. A multimodular course designed together with Swissair (Human Aspect Development medical, HADmedical) helps to cover, as in aviation, the soft factor and behavioural education in medicine and to prepare professionals in health care to work as a real team.

  14. Costs of health resource utilization among HIV-positive individuals in British Columbia, Canada: Results from a population-level study

    PubMed Central

    Nosyk, B; Lima, V; Colley, G; Yip, B; Hogg, RS; Montaner, JSG

    2015-01-01

    Background Through delayed HIV disease progression, Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) may reduce direct medical costs, thus at least partially offsetting therapy costs. Recent findings regarding the secondary preventive benefits of HAART necessitate careful consideration of funding allocations for HIV/AIDS care. Our objective is to estimate non-HAART direct medical costs at different levels of disease progression and over time in British Columbia, Canada. Methods We considered the population of individuals with HIV/AIDS within a set of linked disease registries and health administrative databases (N=11,836) from 1996–2010. Costs of hospitalization, physician billing, diagnostic testing and non-HAART medications were calculated in 2010$CDN. Effects of covariates on quarterly costs were assessed with a two-part model with logit for probability of nonzero costs and a generalized linear model (GLM). Net effects of CD4 strata on direct non-HAART medical costs were evaluated over time during the study period. Results Compared to person-quarters in which CD4>500mm3, costs were $185(95% confidence interval:132,239) greater for CD4:350–500mm3, $441(366,516) greater for CD4 200–350mm3 and $1173(1051,1294) greater when CD4<200mm3. Prior to HIV care initiation, individuals incurred costs $385(283,487) greater than in periods with CD4>500mm3. Hospitalization comprised the majority of the increment in costs amongst those with no measured CD4. Evaluated at CD4 state conditional means, those with CD4<200mm3 incurred quarterly costs of $5781(4716,6846), versus $1307(1154,1460) (p<0.001) for CD4≥500mm3 in 2010. Conclusion Non-HAART direct medical costs were substantially lower for individuals during periods of sustained virologic suppression and high CD4 count. HIV treatment and prevention evaluations require detailed health resource use data to inform funding allocation decisions. PMID:25404425

  15. Critical thinking in nurse managers.

    PubMed

    Zori, Susan; Morrison, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Formal education and support is needed for nurse managers to effectively function in their role in the current health care environment. Many nurse managers assume their positions based on expertise in a clinical role with little expertise in managerial and leadership skills. Operating as a manager and leader requires ongoing development of critical thinking skills and the inclination to use those skills. Critical thinking can have a powerful influence on the decision making and problem solving that nurse managers are faced with on a daily basis. The skills that typify critical thinking include analysis, evaluation, inference, and deductive and inductive reasoning. It is intuitive that nurse managers require both the skills and the dispositions of critical thinking to be successful in this pivotal role at a time of transformation in health care. Incorporating critical thinking into education and support programs for the nurse manager is necessary to position the nurse manager for success.

  16. Analysis of glutathione levels in the brain tissue samples from HIV-1-positive individuals and subject with Alzheimer's disease and its implication in the pathophysiology of the disease process.

    PubMed

    Saing, Tommy; Lagman, Minette; Castrillon, Jeffery; Gutierrez, Eutiquio; Guilford, Frederick T; Venketaraman, Vishwanath

    2016-12-01

    HIV-1 positive individuals are at high risk for susceptibility to both pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and extra-pulmonary TB, including TB meningitis (TBM) which is an extreme form of TB. The goals of this study are to determine the mechanisms responsible for compromised levels of glutathione (GSH) in the brain tissue samples derived from HIV-1-infected individuals and individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD), investigate the possible underlying mechanisms responsible for GSH deficiency in these pathological conditions, and establish a link between GSH levels and pathophysiology of the disease processes. We demonstrated in the autopsied human brain tissues that the levels of total and reduced forms of GSH were significantly compromised in HIV-1 infected individuals compared to in healthy subjects and individuals with AD. Brain tissue samples derived from HIV-1-positive individuals had substantially higher levels of free radicals than that derived from healthy and AD individuals. Enzymes that are responsible for the de novo synthesis of GSH such as γ-glutamate cysteine-ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC-rate limiting step enzyme) and glutathione synthetase (GSS-enzyme involved in the second step reaction) were significantly decreased in the brain tissue samples derived from HIV-1-positive individuals with low CD4 + T-cells (< 200 cells/mm(3)) compared to healthy and AD individuals. Levels of glutathione reductase (GSR) were also decreased in the brain tissue samples derived from HIV-1 infected individuals. Overall, our findings demonstrate causes for GSH deficiency in the brain tissue from HIV-1 infected individuals explaining the possible reasons for increased susceptibility to the most severe form of extra-pulmonary TB, TBM.

  17. Positive Psychologists on Positive Constructs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyubomirsky, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Comments on the original article by McNulty and Fincham (see record 2011-15476-001). In their article, the authors offered compelling evidence that constructs such as forgiveness and optimism can have both beneficial and adverse consequences, depending on the context. Their caution about labeling particular psychological processes as "positive" is…

  18. Combination of PB2 271A and SR polymorphism at positions 590/591 is critical for viral replication and virulence of swine influenza virus in cultured cells and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qinfang; Qiao, Chuanling; Marjuki, Henju; Bawa, Bhupinder; Ma, Jingqun; Guillossou, Stephane; Webby, Richard J; Richt, Jürgen A; Ma, Wenjun

    2012-01-01

    Triple reassortant swine influenza viruses (SIVs) and 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) virus contain an avian-origin PB2 with 271A, 590S, 591R, and 627E. To evaluate the role of PB2 271A, 590S, and 591R in the replication and virulence of SIV, single (1930-TX98-PB2-271T)-, double (1930-TX98-PB2-590A591A)-, and triple (1930-TX98-PB2-271T590A591A)-mutated viruses were generated in the background of the H1N1 A/swine/Iowa/15/30 (1930) virus with an avian-origin PB2 from the triple-reassortant A/swine/Texas/4199-2/98 (TX98) virus, called the parental 1930-TX98-PB2. Compared to parental virus and single- and double-mutated viruses, the triple-mutated virus replicated less efficiently in cell cultures and was attenuated in mice. These results suggest that a combination of 271A with the 590/591 SR polymorphism is critical for pH1N1 and triple-reassortant SIVs for efficient replication and adaptation in mammals.

  19. Gene Positioning

    PubMed Central

    Ferrai, Carmelo; de Castro, Inês Jesus; Lavitas, Liron; Chotalia, Mita; Pombo, Ana

    2010-01-01

    Eukaryotic gene expression is an intricate multistep process, regulated within the cell nucleus through the activation or repression of RNA synthesis, processing, cytoplasmic export, and translation into protein. The major regulators of gene expression are chromatin remodeling and transcription machineries that are locally recruited to genes. However, enzymatic activities that act on genes are not ubiquitously distributed throughout the nucleoplasm, but limited to specific and spatially defined foci that promote preferred higher-order chromatin arrangements. The positioning of genes within the nuclear landscape relative to specific functional landmarks plays an important role in gene regulation and disease. PMID:20484389

  20. POSITIONING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Wall, R.R.; Peterson, D.L.

    1959-09-15

    A positioner is described for a vertical reactor-control rod. The positioner comprises four grooved friction rotatable members that engage the control rod on all sides and shift it longitudinally. The four friction members are drivingly interconnected for conjoint rotation and comprise two pairs of coaxial members. The members of each pair are urged toward one another by hydraulic or pneumatic pressure and thus grip the control rod so as to hold it in any position or adjust it. Release of the by-draulic or pneumatic pressure permits springs between the friction members of each pair to force them apart, whereby the control rod moves quickly by gravity into the reactor.

  1. Positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Vogel, Max A.; Alter, Paul

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus for precisely positioning materials test specimens within the optimum neutron flux path emerging from a neutron source located in a housing. The test specimens are retained in a holder mounted on the free end of a support pivotably mounted and suspended from a movable base plate. The support is gravity biased to urge the holder in a direction longitudinally of the flux path against the housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the holder in two mutually perpendicular directions normal to the axis of the flux path.

  2. Positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Vogel, Max A.; Alter, Paul

    1986-05-06

    An apparatus for precisely positioning materials test specimens within the optimum neutron flux path emerging from a neutron source located in a housing. The test specimens are retained in a holder mounted on the free end of a support pivotably mounted and suspended from a movable base plate. The support is gravity biased to urge the holder in a direction longitudinally of the flux path against the housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the holder in two mutually perpendicular directions normal to the axis of the flux path.

  3. Positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Vogel, M.A.; Alter, P.

    1983-07-07

    An apparatus is provided for precisely adjusting the position of an article relative to a beam emerging from a neutron source disposed in a housing. The apparatus includes a support pivotably mounted on a movable base plate and freely suspended therefrom. The support is gravity biased toward the housing and carries an article holder movable in a first direction longitudinally of the axis of said beam and normally urged into engagement against said housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the suspended holder in two mutually perpendicular directions, respectively, normal to the axis of the beam.

  4. Leucine-rich Repeat 11 of Toll-like Receptor 9 Can Tightly Bind to CpG-containing Oligodeoxynucleotides, and the Positively Charged Residues Are Critical for the High Affinity*

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xichun; Yue, Junjie; Ding, Guofu; Li, Bin; Liu, Xin; Zheng, Xinchuan; Yu, Mengchen; Li, Jun; Jiang, Weiwei; Wu, Chong; Zheng, Jiang; Zhou, Hong

    2012-01-01

    TLR9 is a receptor for sensing bacterial DNA/CpG-containing oligonucleotides (CpG ODN). The extracellular domain (ECD) of human TLR9 (hTLR9) is composed of 25 leucine-rich repeats (LRR) contributing to the binding of CpG ODN. Herein, we showed that among LRR2, -5, -8, and -11, LRR11 of hTLR9 had the highest affinity for CpG ODN followed by LRR2 and -5, whereas LRR8 had almost no affinity. In vitro, preincubation with LRR11 more significantly decreased CpG ODN internalization, subsequent NF-κB activation, and cytokine release than with LRR2 and -5 in mouse peritoneal macrophages treated with CpG ODN. The LRR11 deletion mutant of hTLR9 conferred decreased cellular responses to CpG ODN. Single- or multiple-site mutants at five positively charged residues of LRR11 (LRR11m1–9), especially Arg-337 and Lys-367, were shown to contribute to hTLR9 binding of CpG ODN. LRR11m1–9 showed reduced inhibition of CpG ODN internalization and CpG ODN/TLR9 signaling, supporting the above findings. Prediction of whole hTLR9 ECD-CpG ODN interactions revealed that Arg-337 and Lys-338 directly contact CpG ODN through hydrogen bonding, whereas Lys-347, Arg-348, and His-353 contribute to stabilizing the shape of the ligand binding region. These findings suggested that although all five positively charged residues within LRR11 contributed to its high affinity, only Arg-337 and Lys-338 directly interacted with CpG ODN. In conclusion, the results suggested that LRR11 could strongly bind to CpG ODN, whereas mutations at the five positively charge residues reduced this high affinity. LRR11 may be further investigated as an antagonist of hTLR9. PMID:22822061

  5. Physical activity prescription: a critical opportunity to address a modifiable risk factor for the prevention and management of chronic disease: a position statement by the Canadian Academy of Sport and Exercise Medicine.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Jane S; Frémont, Pierre; Khan, Karim; Poirier, Paul; Fowles, Jonathon; Wells, Greg D; Frankovich, Renata J

    2016-09-01

    Non-communicable disease is a leading threat to global health. Physical inactivity is a large contributor to this problem; in fact, the WHO ranks it as the fourth leading risk factor for overall morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Canada, at least 4 of 5 adults do not meet the Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines of 150 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per week. Physicians play an important role in the dissemination of physical activity (PA) recommendations to a broad segment of the population, as over 80% of Canadians visit their doctors every year and prefer to get health information directly from them. Unfortunately, most physicians do not regularly assess or prescribe PA as part of routine care, and even when discussed, few provide specific recommendations. PA prescription has the potential to be an important therapeutic agent for all ages in primary, secondary and tertiary prevention of chronic disease. Sport and exercise medicine (SEM) physicians are particularly well suited for this role and should collaborate with their primary care colleagues for optimal patient care. The purpose of this Canadian Academy and Sport and Exercise Medicine position statement is to provide an evidence-based, best practices summary to better equip SEM and primary care physicians to prescribe PA and exercise, specifically for the prevention and management of non-communicable disease. This will be achieved by addressing common questions and perceived barriers in the field.Author note This position statement has been endorsed by the following nine sport medicine societies: Australasian College of Sports and Exercise Physicians (ACSEP), American Medical Society for Sports Medicine (AMSSM), British Association of Sports and Exercise Medicine (BASEM), European College of Sport & Exercise Physicians (ECOSEP), Norsk forening for idrettsmedisin og fysisk aktivite (NIMF), South African Sports Medicine Association (SASMA), Schweizerische Gesellschaft für Sportmedizin

  6. Better position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    The U.S. Global Positioning System (GPS) will soon become more accurate for civilian users, improving the quality of navigation and of some types of scientific research. The Clinton Administration announced March 29 that within a decade, the federal government will stop degrading the civilian GPS signal and will allow nonmilitary users access to the same clear signals that U.S. troops rely upon.Designed as dual-use system with primary use by the American military, the GPS is a constellation of 24 satellites that allows soldiers to determine their exact positions (in latitude and longitude) anywhere in the world. While the GPS is operated by the Department of Defense (DoD), scientists and adventurous civilians have been able to purchase small, portable GPS devices. However, the U.S. military has kept to itself a capability known as “selective availability” that provides a much more precise signal than is available to the public. According to the White House, that selected signal will be available to all users within 4-10 years.

  7. Self-organized criticality in single-neuron excitability.

    PubMed

    Gal, Asaf; Marom, Shimon

    2013-12-01

    We present experimental and theoretical arguments, at the single-neuron level, suggesting that neuronal response fluctuations reflect a process that positions the neuron near a transition point that separates excitable and unexcitable phases. This view is supported by the dynamical properties of the system as observed in experiments on isolated cultured cortical neurons, as well as by a theoretical mapping between the constructs of self-organized criticality and membrane excitability biophysics.

  8. AVLIS Criticality risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Brereton, S.J., LLNL

    1998-04-29

    Evaluation of criticality safety has become an important task in preparing for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) uranium enrichment runs that will take place during the Integrated Process Demonstration (IPD) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This integrated operation of AVLIS systems under plant-like conditions will be used to verify the performance of process equipment and to demonstrate the sustained integrated enrichment performance of these systems using operating parameters that are similar to production plant specifications. Because of the potential criticality concerns associated with enriched uranium, substantial effort has been aimed towards understanding the potential system failures of interest from a criticality standpoint, and evaluating them in detail. The AVLIS process is based on selective photoionization of uranium atoms of atomic weight 235 (U-235) in a vapor stream, followed by electrostatic extraction. The process is illustrated in Figure 1. Two major subsystems are involved: the uranium separator and the laser system. In the separator, metallic uranium is fed into a crucible where it is heated and vaporized by an electron beam. The atomic U-235/U-238 vapor stream moves away from the molten uranium and is illuminated by precisely tuned beams of dye laser light. Upon absorption of the tuned dye laser light, the U-235 atoms become excited and eject electrons (become photoionized), giving them a net positive charge. The ions of U-235 are moved preferentially by an electrostatic field to condense on the product collector, forming the enriched uranium product. The remaining vapor, which is depleted in U-235 (tails), passes unaffected through the photoionization/extractor zone and accumulates on collectors in the top of the separator. Tails and product collector surfaces operate at elevated temperatures so that deposited materials flow as segregated liquid streams. The separated uranium condensates (uranium enriched in

  9. Critical care nursing.

    PubMed

    Dracup, K

    1987-01-01

    The research pertaining to the delivery of nursing care in the ICU was reviewed to describe: the impact of the unit structure and organization, including policies and procedures, on patients, nurses, and families; the process of critical care nursing; the outcomes of critical care nursing; some of the ethical issues germane to the care of the critically ill patient. Although these areas of inquiry are quite diverse, a number of similarities can be identified. The most obvious of the similarities was that, with few exceptions, the studies pertaining to delivery of nursing care were performed by researchers from a variety of disciplines other than nursing, including medicine, psychology, public health, and economics. In many instances, such as the studies of patients' stress experiences in ICUs, these efforts enhanced our knowledge of the phenomena and complemented or replicated the efforts of nurse researchers. Unfortunately, in some areas nurse researchers were quite absent, with the result that the studies lacked a nursing perspective. For example, the large body of knowledge related to the effects of critical care on patient outcome reflected medicine's orientation toward cure. While it is important to measure the effect of nursing care in the ICU on patient survival, the effect of nursing efforts on short- and long-term quality of life, functional status, and health maintenance is also critical and remains unknown. Nurse researchers need to build on the data base already acquired about critical care. Even more important, they need to fashion programs of research focused on the concepts central to the discipline of nursing. A second similarity relates to the increasing quality of the reported research over the past decade. In general, early descriptive studies were conducted in a single critical care unit with a small and often biased sample. These gave way to more carefully designed, multicenter studies, although lack of randomization procedures continued to be

  10. Hepatitis B virus basal core promoter mutations A1762T/G1764A are associated with genotype C and a low serum HBsAg level in chronically-infected HBeAg-positive Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chun-Hui; Zhao, Cheng-Yu; Ding, Hai; Peng, Ya-Qin; Jin, Peng-Yuan; Yan, Ling; Zhuang, Hui; Li, Tong

    2012-11-01

    The present study was aimed to obtain baseline information of basal core promoter A1762T/G1764A and precore G1896A mutations of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in 192 HBeAg-positive chronically-infected Chinese patients, who were potential candidates for antiviral treatment. The detection of these mutations (including minor mutant subpopulations) was achieved by direct sequencing, whose sensitivity for minor mutant subpopulations identification was confirmed by clone sequencing. Patients enrolled were infected with either genotype B (46.35%) or C (53.65%) HBV identified by routine tests in our laboratory. The A1762T/G1764A or G1896A mutations were detected in 125specimens (125/192, 65.10%), in which 77 (77/125, 61.60%) existed as subpopulations. The A1762T/G1764A mutations were found to be more prevalent in genotype C than that in genotype B HBV [62.14% (64/103) vs. 20.22% (18/89), P<0.0001]. There is no statistically significant link between G1896A and genotypes. The emergence of A1762T/G1764A mutations was also found to be associated with an older age, an elevated ALT/AST level, and a lower HBsAg level in serum [wild-type vs. mutant: 4.57 (3.46-5.42) vs. 3.93 (2.51-5.36), P<0.0001]. In conclusion, HBV basal core promoter mutations A1762T/G1764A are associated with genotype C and a low serum HBsAg level in chronically-infected HBeAg-positive Chinese patients.

  11. The incompatibility of science and religion sustained: A reply to our critics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahner, Martin; Bunge, Mario

    1996-04-01

    This article replies to a number of criticisms levelled at us by Tom Settle, Hugh Lacey, Michael Poole, Brian Woolnough, John Wren-Lewis, and Harold Turner in a series of comments on our paper entitled ‘Is religious education compatible with science education?’ By offering counter-arguments and by clarifying certain misunderstandings, we show that these criticisms fail to affect our position.

  12. Asymmetric 1,8/13,2,x-M2C2B10 14-vertex metallacarboranes by direct electrophilic insertion reactions; the VCD and BHD methods in critical analysis of cage C atom positions.

    PubMed

    McAnaw, Amelia; Lopez, Maria Elena; Ellis, David; Rosair, Georgina M; Welch, Alan J

    2014-04-07

    The isolation of six isomeric, low-symmetry, dicobaltacarboranes with bicapped hexagonal antiprismatic cage structures, always in low yield, is described from reactions in which 13-vertex cobaltacarborane anions and sources of cobalt-containing cations were present. The vertex-to-centroid distance (VCD) and boron-H distance (BHD) methods are used to locate the correct C atom positions in the cages, thus allowing the compounds to be identified as 1,13-Cp2-1,13,2,10-closo-Co2C2B10H12 (1), 1,8-Cp2-3-OEt-1,8,2,10-closo-Co2C2B10H11 (2), 1,13-Cp2-1,13,2,9-closo-Co2C2B10H12 (3), 1,8-Cp2-1,8,2,4-closo-Co2C2B10H12 (4), 1,13-Cp2-1,13,2,4-closo-Co2C2B10H12 (5) and 1,8-Cp2-1,8,2,5-closo-Co2C2B10H12 (6). It is shown that a common alternative method of cage C atom identification, using refined (as B) U(eq) values, does not work well, at least in these cases. Having identified the correct isomeric forms of the six dicobaltacarboranes, their syntheses are tentatively rationalised in terms of the direct electrophilic insertion of a {CpCo(+)} fragment into [CpCoC2B10](-) anions and it is demonstrated that compounds 1, 4, 5 and 6 can be successfully prepared by deliberately performing such reactions.

  13. Morphogenesis at criticality?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krotov, Dmitry; Dubuis, Julien; Wieschaus, Eric; Gregor, Thomas; Bialek, William

    2013-03-01

    Embryonic development of many multicellular organisms begins with the generation of spatially varying patterns of morphogens that encode the body plan of the future organism. We study the spatial pattern formed by the gap gene proteins in the early fruit fly embryo, which is anchored by ``crossing points'' between expression levels of different genes; these are thought to result from mutual repression. We explore a broad class of models for such interacting genes and show that the parameters implied implied by recent quantitative measurements are non-generic, but rather tuned to certain values, so that the entire gap gene network operates close to the critical surface in its phase diagram. We develop a mean field description of this system as well as derive signatures of critical behavior in the structure of expression noise. One such signature is that fluctuations are dominated by a single ``massless'' mode, so that fluctuations of expression levels of different genes are highly correlated/anticorrelated. We find a surprisingly high degree of anticorrelation in the real experimental data. These results suggest an interesting possibility that the network of genes responsible for development is operating near criticality.

  14. Critical thinking and learning styles of nursing students at the Baccalaureate nursing program in Korea.

    PubMed

    Gyeong, Ju An; Myung, Sook Yoo

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the critical thinking dispositions and learning styles, as well as the relationships between critical thinking and learning styles of nursing students enrolled in Baccalaureate nursing programs in Korea. The convenient sample consisted of 724 students from five cities. The learning style inventory of Kolb (1976) and critical thinking disposition inventory of Rudd et al (2000) were used for collecting data. Learning styles of the subjects were Diverging 315 (43.5%), Accommodating 223 (30.4%), Assimilating 78 (10.8%), and Converging 65 (9.0%). There were no significant differences in learning styles among grades (p=.197). The level of critical thinking significantly differed among learning styles (p=.000), and grades (p=.043). Critical thinking positively related to learning styles (r=.219) and grades (r=.097). This study suggested that adopting Abstract Conceptualization and Active Experimentation modes of pedagogy may promote critical thinking.

  15. The role of dose rate in radiation cancer risk: evaluating the effect of dose rate at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels using key events in critical pathways following exposure to low LET radiation

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Antone L.; Hoel, David G.; Preston, R. Julian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: This review evaluates the role of dose rate on cell and molecular responses. It focuses on the influence of dose rate on key events in critical pathways in the development of cancer. This approach is similar to that used by the U.S. EPA and others to evaluate risk from chemicals. It provides a mechanistic method to account for the influence of the dose rate from low-LET radiation, especially in the low-dose region on cancer risk assessment. Molecular, cellular, and tissues changes are observed in many key events and change as a function of dose rate. The magnitude and direction of change can be used to help establish an appropriate dose rate effectiveness factor (DREF). Conclusions: Extensive data on key events suggest that exposure to low dose-rates are less effective in producing changes than high dose rates. Most of these data at the molecular and cellular level support a large (2–30) DREF. In addition, some evidence suggests that doses delivered at a low dose rate decrease damage to levels below that observed in the controls. However, there are some data human and mechanistic data that support a dose-rate effectiveness factor of 1. In summary, a review of the available molecular, cellular and tissue data indicates that not only is dose rate an important variable in understanding radiation risk but it also supports the selection of a DREF greater than one as currently recommended by ICRP (2007) and BEIR VII (NRC/NAS 2006). PMID:27266588

  16. Does provision of point-of-care CD4 technology and early knowledge of CD4 levels affect early initiation and retention on antiretroviral treatment in HIV-positive pregnant women in the context of Option B+ for PMTCT?

    PubMed

    Mangwiro, Alexio-Zambezi; Makomva, Kudzai; Bhattacharya, Antoinette; Bhattacharya, Gaurav; Gotora, Tendai; Owen, Mila; Mushavi, Angela; Mangwanya, Douglas; Zinyowera, Sekesai; Rusakaniko, Simbarashe; Mugurungi, Owen; Zizhou, Simukai; Busumani, William; Masuka, Nyasha

    2014-11-01

    Evidence for Elimination (E4E) is a collaborative project established in 2012 as part of the INSPIRE (INtegrating and Scaling up PMTCT through Implementation REsearch) initiative. E4E is a cluster-randomized trial with 2 arms; Standard of care and "POC Plus" [in which point-of-care (POC) CD4 devices and related counseling support are provided]; aimed at improving retention-in-care of HIV-infected pregnant women and mothers. In November 2013, Zimbabwe adopted Option B+ for HIV-positive pregnant women under which antiretroviral treatment eligibility is no longer based on CD4 count. However, Ministry of Health and Child Care guidelines still require baseline and 6-monthly CD4 testing for treatment monitoring, until viral load testing becomes widely available. Considering the current limited capacity for viral-load testing, the significant investments in CD4 testing already made and the historical reliance on CD4 by health care workers for determining eligibility for antiretroviral treatment, E4E seeks to compare the impact of the provision of POC CD4 technology and early knowledge of CD4 levels on retention-in-care at 12 months, with the current standard of routine, laboratory-based CD4 testing. The study also compares rates of initiation and time-to-initiation between the 2 arms and according to level of maternal CD4 count, the cost of retaining HIV-positive pregnant women in care and the acceptability and feasibility of POC CD4 in the context of Option B+. Outcome measures are derived from routine health systems data. E4E will provide data on POC CD4 testing and retention-in-care associated with Option B+ and serve as an early learning platform to inform implementation of Option B+ in Zimbabwe.

  17. Investigation of strongyle EPG values in horse mares relative to known age, number positive, and level of egg shedding in field studies on 26 farms in Central Kentucky (2010-2011).

    PubMed

    Lyons, E T; Tolliver, S C; Kuzmina, T A

    2012-06-01

    A parasite study was done in 1,300 horse mares on 26 farms in Central Kentucky over a 5-month period in 2010 and 2011. The mares included 1,114 Thoroughbreds (TB) on 24 farms, 64 Standardbreds (SB) on 1 farm, and 122 mixed light horse types (MLH) on 1 farm. The objective of this research was to determine strongyle eggs per gram of feces (EPG) counts for evaluation by known age, number positive, and level of egg shedding by the mares. This was done to establish strongyle EPG profiles for the mares to aid in determining whether antiparasitic treatment was necessary. Eggs found were considered those of small strongyles. (A) For the Thoroughbred mares, (1) 362 (32%) were EPG-positive, and (2) the average (percentage) of EPG-positive mares by year of age was 3-5 (54%), 6-10 (36%), 11-15 (24%), 16-20 (17%), and >20 (21%); (3) EPG average counts were similar for all age categories except for the 6- to 10-year-olds, which were higher; (4) and the average (percentage) of positive mares by 100 units of EPG counts was ≤100 (50%), ≤200 (62%), ≤300 (70%), ≤400 (76%), ≤500 (80%), and >500 (20%). (B) For the Standardbred mares, 31 (48%) were EPG-positive; (2) the average (percentage) of EPG-positive mares by year of age (no >20 sampled) was lowest for the 3-5 and 16-20 categories and highest for the 6-10 and 11-15 groups; (3) EPG average counts by years of age were lowest for 3-5, 11-15, and 16-20 groups and highest for the 6-10 group; and (4) the average (percentage) of positive mares by 100 units of EPGs was 62% for the ≤100 category, 71-84% for ≤200 to ≤400 units, and the highest (97%) for the ≤500 unit. (C) For the mixed light horse type mares: (1) 94 (77%) were EPG-positive, (2) the average (percentage) of EPG-positive mares by age was lowest for the two oldest age groups, higher for the 11 to 15-year-old age group, and highest for the two youngest age groups; (3) EPG average counts by year of age were lowest for the 16-20 group, higher for the 6-10 and >20

  18. Critical Reading: An Aristotelian Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, James C.

    In view of Aristotle's remarks about requiring different kinds of proof in different subjects, the critical reader must make judgments about the quality of proof offered for a position. The four realms of knowledge, in decreasing order of certitude, include mathematics, empirical science, rhetoric (values, ethics, politics), and myth, or…

  19. Critical neuroscience meets medical humanities.

    PubMed

    Slaby, Jan

    2015-06-01

    This programmatic theory paper sketches a conceptual framework that might inspire work in critical Medical Humanities. For this purpose, Kaushik Sunder Rajan's account of biocapital is revisited and discussed in relation to the perspective of a critical neuroscience. Critical neuroscience is an encompassing positioning towards the recent public prominence of the brain and brain-related practices, tools and discourses. The proposed analytical scheme has five focal nodes: capital, life, technoscience, (neoliberal) politics and subjectivity. A special emphasis will be placed on contemporary framings of subjectivity, as it is here where deep-reaching entanglements of personhood with scientific practice and discourse, medical and informational technologies, and economic formations are most evident. Notably, the emerging subject position of the 'prospective health consumer' will be discussed as it figures prominently in the terrain between neuroscience and other medico-scientific disciplines.

  20. Changes in serum levels of miR-21, miR-210, and miR-373 in HER2-positive breast cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant therapy: a translational research project within the Geparquinto trial.

    PubMed

    Müller, Volkmar; Gade, Stephan; Steinbach, Bettina; Loibl, Sibylle; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Untch, Michael; Schwedler, Kathrin; Lübbe, Kristina; Schem, Christian; Fasching, Peter A; Mau, Christine; Pantel, Klaus; Schwarzenbach, Heidi

    2014-08-01

    Trastuzumab and lapatinib are established treatments for patients with HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2)-positive breast cancer with different mechanisms of action. The focus of this study is to investigate, whether altered expression levels of potentially relevant microRNAs (miRs) in serum are associated with response to trastuzumab or lapatinib. Circulating miR-21, miR-210, and miR-373 were quantified with TaqMan MicroRNA assays in serum of 127 HER2-postive breast cancer patients before and after neoadjuvant therapy and in 19 healthy controls. Patients received chemotherapy combined with either trastuzumab or lapatinib within the prospectively randomized Geparquinto trial. The association between miR levels and pathological response (pCR) to therapy and type of therapy was examined. Serum levels of miR-21 (p = 5.04e-08, p = 1.43e-10), miR-210 (p = 0.00151, p = 1.6e-05), and miR-373 (p = 7.87e-06, p = 1.75e-07) were significantly higher in patients before and after chemotherapy than in healthy women. Concentrations of miR-21 (p = 5.73e-08), miR-210 (p = 0.000724), and miR-373 (p = 0.00209) increased further after chemotherapy. A significant association of higher serum levels of miR-373 with advanced clinical tumor stage could be detected (p < 0.002). An association of miR-21 levels before (p = 0.0091) and after (p = 0.037) chemotherapy with overall survival of the patients could be detected, independent of type of anti-HER2 therapy. No association of circulating miRs with pCR was found. Our findings demonstrate a specific influence of neoadjuvant therapy on the serum levels of miR-21, miR-210, and miR-373 in breast cancer patients together with a prognostic value of miR-21.

  1. A Study of Army Civilian Entry Level and Mid-Level Program Management Leadership Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-08

    Teams 6 5 2 4 4 4.2 Time Management 5 6 5 3 4 4.6 Average Score by Position 4.8 5.1 4.0 3.1 3.7 Civilian Education System Leader Training Course...effectively, conflict management , emotional intelligence, critical thinking, schedules and scheduling, understanding stakeholders, leading teams, and time ...Teams Time Management 14. Identify the highest recommended CES, and ALCP leadership training required for each entry level and mid-level

  2. Fad24, a Positive Regulator of Adipogenesis, Is Required for S Phase Re-entry of C2C12 Myoblasts Arrested in G0 Phase and Involved in p27(Kip1) Expression at the Protein Level.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Natsuki; Nishizuka, Makoto; Osada, Shigehiro; Imagawa, Masayoshi

    2016-05-01

    Factor for adipocyte differentiation 24 (fad24) is a positive regulator of adipogenesis. We previously found that human fad24 is abundantly expressed in skeletal muscle. However, the function of fad24 in skeletal muscle remains largely unknown. Because skeletal muscle is a highly regenerative tissue, we focused on the function of fad24 in skeletal muscle regeneration. In this paper, we investigated the role of fad24 in the cell cycle re-entry of quiescent C2C12 myoblasts-mimicked satellite cells. The expression levels of fad24 and histone acetyltransferase binding to ORC1 (hbo1), a FAD24-interacting factor, were elevated at the early phase of the regeneration process in response to cardiotoxin-induced muscle injury. The knockdown of fad24 inhibited the proliferation of quiescent myoblasts, whereas fad24 knockdown did not affect differentiation. S phase entry following serum activation is abrogated by fad24 knockdown in quiescent cells. Furthermore, fad24 knockdown cells show a marked accumulation of p27(Kip1) protein. These results suggest that fad24 may have an important role in the S phase re-entry of quiescent C2C12 cells through the regulation of p27(Kip1) at the protein level.

  3. Critical Viewing: Stimulant to Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Kevin; Splaine, John

    This document is intended to improve the critical viewing skills and increase the understanding and appreciation of what is viewed. Included are the chapters: (1) "Critical Thinking: The Parts of an Argument," intended to develop a process to help a person judge arguments in what is read, seen, and heard; (2) "Critical Viewing:…

  4. Robot Position Sensor Fault Tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldridge, Hal A.

    1997-01-01

    Robot systems in critical applications, such as those in space and nuclear environments, must be able to operate during component failure to complete important tasks. One failure mode that has received little attention is the failure of joint position sensors. Current fault tolerant designs require the addition of directly redundant position sensors which can affect joint design. A new method is proposed that utilizes analytical redundancy to allow for continued operation during joint position sensor failure. Joint torque sensors are used with a virtual passive torque controller to make the robot joint stable without position feedback and improve position tracking performance in the presence of unknown link dynamics and end-effector loading. Two Cartesian accelerometer based methods are proposed to determine the position of the joint. The joint specific position determination method utilizes two triaxial accelerometers attached to the link driven by the joint with the failed position sensor. The joint specific method is not computationally complex and the position error is bounded. The system wide position determination method utilizes accelerometers distributed on different robot links and the end-effector to determine the position of sets of multiple joints. The system wide method requires fewer accelerometers than the joint specific method to make all joint position sensors fault tolerant but is more computationally complex and has lower convergence properties. Experiments were conducted on a laboratory manipulator. Both position determination methods were shown to track the actual position satisfactorily. A controller using the position determination methods and the virtual passive torque controller was able to servo the joints to a desired position during position sensor failure.

  5. Virtual Egalitarianism, Critical Pedagogy, and Geographic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukinbeal, Chris; Allen, Casey D.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the implementation of critical pedagogic practices into a graduate level landscape seminar Web site. Critical pedagogy seeks to reconfigure student-teacher relationships and disrupt embedded power regimes within academia and society. Critical pedagogic practices create a dialogue amongst learners, where everyone has a stake…

  6. The Cool Card Intervention: A Positive Support Strategy for Managing Anger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Darlene H.; Fisher, Adam; Marchant, Michelle; Young, K. Richard; Smith, Jennifer A.

    2006-01-01

    Preventative strategies are critical for the 5-15% of students at risk at the secondary level of intervention within the three-tier model of positive behavior support, and on the verge of developing more severe problem behavior. Two case studies illustrate how the use of social skills instruction and a self-management system can effectively…

  7. 5 CFR 731.106 - Designation of public trust positions and investigative requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... receive a sensitivity designation of Special-Sensitive, Critical-Sensitive, or Noncritical-Sensitive, when... sensitivity levels and investigative requirements. Procedures for determining investigative requirements for all positions based upon risk and sensitivity will be published in OPM issuances, as described...

  8. Critical Science Education in a Suburban High School Chemistry Class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashby, Patrick

    To improve students' scientific literacy and their general perceptions of chemistry, I enacted critical chemistry education (CCE) in two "regular level" chemistry classes with a group of 25 students in a suburban, private high school as part of this study. CCE combined the efforts of critical science educators (Fusco & Calabrese Barton, 2001; Gilbert 2013) with the performance expectations of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) (NGSS Lead States, 2013a) to critically transform the traditional chemistry curriculum at this setting. Essentially, CCE engages students in the critical exploration of socially situated chemistry content knowledge and requires them to demonstrate this knowledge through the practices of science. The purpose of this study was to gauge these students development of chemistry content knowledge, chemistry interest, and critical scientific literacy (CSL) as they engaged in CCE. CSL was a construct developed for this study that necessarily combined the National Research Center's (2012) definition of scientific literacy with a critical component. As such, CSL entailed demonstrating content knowledge through the practices of science as well as the ability to critically analyze the intersections between science content and socially relevant issues. A mixed methods, critical ethnographic approach framed the collection of data from open-ended questionnaires, focus group interviews, Likert surveys, pre- and post unit tests, and student artifacts. These data revealed three main findings: (1) students began to develop CSL in specific, significant ways working through the activities of CCE, (2) student participants of CCE developed a comparable level of chemistry content understanding to students who participated in a traditional chemistry curriculum, and (3) CCE developed a group of students' perceptions of interest in chemistry. In addition to being able to teach students discipline specific content knowledge, the implications of this study are

  9. NSTA Positions on Critical Issues Confronting the Science Teaching Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sci Teacher, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Presents National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) policy statements of 1968 and 1969 with respect to the (1) use of natural resources for teaching purposes, (2) use of live animals, (3) teaching of human reproduction and sexuality, (4) functions of science fairs, (5) teacher liability for laboratory safety and field trips, (6) national…

  10. Global Positioning System Timing Criticality Assessment - Preliminary Performance Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    average person doesn’t realize how much infrastructure is based on GPS and how vulnerable it is,” said Brent Ledvina of Virginia Tech, who helped...incorrect time or location appears on the intended receiver. “It looks exactly like a real GPS signal,” said Ledvina . “Everything looks completely

  11. [Nutrition in critical illness].

    PubMed

    Ökrös, Ilona

    2014-12-21

    Critically ill patients are often unable to eat by themselves over a long period of time, sometimes for weeks. In the acute phase, serious protein-energy malnutrition may develop with progressive muscle weakness, which may result in assisted respiration of longer duration as well as longer stay in intensive care unit and hospital. In view of the metabolic processes, energy and protein intake targets should be defined and the performance of metabolism should be monitored. Enteral nutrition is primarily recommended. However, parenteral supplementation is often necessary because of the disrupted tolerance levels of the gastrointestinal system. Apparently, an early parenteral supplementation started within a week would be of no benefit. Some experts believe that muscle loss can be reduced by increased target levels of protein. Further studies are needed on the effect of immune system feeding, fatty acids and micronutrients.

  12. Cruciform position for trauma resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Biswadev; Fitzgerald, Mark C; Olaussen, Alexander; Thaveenthiran, Prasanthan; Bade-Boon, Jordan; Martin, Katherine; Smit, De Villiers; Cameron, Peter A

    2017-04-01

    Multiply injured patients represent a particularly demanding subgroup of trauma patients as they require urgent simultaneous clinical assessments using physical examination, ultrasound and invasive monitoring together with critical management, including tracheal intubation, thoracostomies and central venous access. Concurrent access to multiple body regions is essential to facilitate the concept of 'horizontal' resuscitation. The current positioning of trauma patient, with arms adducted, restricts this approach. Instead, the therapeutic cruciform positioning, with arms abducted at 90°, allows planning and performing of multiple life-saving interventions simultaneously. This positioning also provides a practical surgical field with improved sterility and procedural access.

  13. Critical Materials Institute

    ScienceCinema

    Alex King

    2016-07-12

    Ames Laboratory Director Alex King talks about the goals of the Critical Materials Institute in diversifying the supply of critical materials, developing substitute materials, developing tools and techniques for recycling critical materials, and forecasting materials needs to avoid future shortages.

  14. Critical Materials Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Alex King

    2013-01-09

    Ames Laboratory Director Alex King talks about the goals of the Critical Materials Institute in diversifying the supply of critical materials, developing substitute materials, developing tools and techniques for recycling critical materials, and forecasting materials needs to avoid future shortages.

  15. What is Positive Technology and its impact on cyberpsychology.

    PubMed

    Riva, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to introduce and describe the "Positive Technology" approach - the scientific and applied approach to the use of technology for improving the quality of our personal experience through its structuring, augmentation and/or replacement - as a way of framing a suitable object of study in the field of cyberpsychology and human-computer interaction. Specifically, we suggest that it is possible to use technology to influence three specific features of our experience - affective quality, engagement/actualization and connectedness - that serve to promote adaptive behaviors and positive functioning. In this framework, positive technologies are classified according to their effects on a specific feature of personal experience. More, for each level we have identified critical variables that can be manipulated to guide the design and development of positive technologies.

  16. Assessing the critical thinking skills of faculty: What do the findings mean for nursing education?

    PubMed

    Zygmont, Dolores M; Schaefer, Karen Moore

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: to determine the critical thinking skills of nurse faculty and to examine the relationship between epistemological position and critical thinking. Most participants reported having no education on critical thinking. Data were collected using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) and the Learning Environment Preferences (LEP). Findings from the CCTST indicated that faculty varied considerably in their ability to think critically; LEP findings suggested that participants had not reached the intellectual level needed for critical thinking. In addition, 12 faculty participated in one-hour telephone interviews in which they described experiences in which students demonstrated critical thinking. Despite a lack of clarity on the definition of critical thinking, faculty described clinical examples where students engaged in analysis, inference, and evaluation. Based on these findings, it is recommended that faculty transfer their ability to engage students in critical thinking in the clinical setting to the classroom setting. Benchmarks can be established based on the ability of faculty to engage in critical thinking.

  17. Nuclear criticality safety guide

    SciTech Connect

    Pruvost, N.L.; Paxton, H.C.

    1996-09-01

    This technical reference document cites information related to nuclear criticality safety principles, experience, and practice. The document also provides general guidance for criticality safety personnel and regulators.

  18. Critical Access Hospitals (CAH)

    MedlinePlus

    ... use requirements for Critical Access Hospitals related to Electronic Health Records (EHRs)? Critical Access Hospital (CAH) are eligible for Electronic Health Record (EHR) incentive payments and can receive ...

  19. Productive criticism. Part 1: Criticism that works.

    PubMed

    Weisinger, H D

    1995-01-01

    Criticism affects almost all aspects of your job: the quality of work you do, how you feel about your performance, and your relationships with your boss, coworkers, and subordinates. Used productively, criticism is a powerful tool that helps you improve your work, enhance your working relationships, increase your job satisfaction, and achieve better overall results. Improperly used, it impedes performance, demoralizes you, discourages you from wanting to try again, and creates friction in the workplace. In short, the ability to give and take criticism significantly determines how well you do on the job. In Part I, we will examine the traditional negative approach to criticism and develop new management tools to turn criticism into an opportunity for growth and education. By explaining new evaluation and communication techniques, we will show the reader how to use productive criticism to increase job performance and satisfaction.

  20. Determination of the position of the 5d excited levels of Ce3+ ions with respect to the conduction band in the epitaxial films of the multicomponent (Lu,Gd)3(Ga,Al)5O12:Ce garnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babin, V.; Hanus, M.; Krasnikov, A.; Kučera, M.; Nikl, M.; Zazubovich, S.

    2016-12-01

    Temperature dependences of the intensity and decay kinetics of the Ce3+ - related photoluminescence and characteristics of thermally stimulated luminescence are investigated in the 77-500 K temperature range for the epitaxial films of the multicomponent garnets of the type of Lu3-xGdxGayAl5-yO12:Ce with Ce content of 0.3-0.7 at. %, where x varies from 0.14 to 3 and y varies from 0 to 3.54. Different methods are used for the determination of energy distances between the excited 5d1 and 5d2 levels of Ce3+ ions and the conduction band (CB) and their applicability is compared. The dependences of the 5d1,2 - CB energy distances on the multicomponent garnet composition are clarified. The 5d1 - CB energy distance is found to decrease by about an order of magnitude with the increasing Ga3+ content. The most drastic decrease, observed at the Ga3+ content around y ≈ 1.7, is suggested to arise from the change in the Ga3+ position from the smaller tetrahedral to larger octahedral Al3+ sites. This effect is explained by the lattice distortion due to the substitution of smaller Lu3+ and Al3+ ions by larger Gd3+ and Ga3+ ions. Application potential of these epitaxial films for fast 2D-imaging is discussed.