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Sample records for critical level position

  1. Positioning critically ill patients in hospital.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, H; Gallimore, D

    Although moving and handling is an important aspect of nurse training, the emphasis is often more on the health and safety of the nurse than on the importance of the correct therapeutic positioning of patients. This article outlines optimum patient positioning in different critical care settings and for different medical conditions.

  2. Situation criticality and basketball officials' stress levels.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Jason; Basevitch, Itay; Rodenberg, Ryan; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2017-11-01

    Officials are expected to perform impeccably despite the wide range of stressors they experience. A stressor that officials frequently report is situation criticality. Situation criticality is comprised of score differential (i.e., more pressure in close games) and time remaining in a game (i.e., more pressure as time expires), which affects athletes' stress levels. The present study explored the effect of situation criticality on officials' stress levels. High school basketball officials (n = 108) with an average of 18.1 (SD = 11.2) years of officiating experience were given a survey packet containing game situations that varied in criticality. For each game situation (n = 9) officials completed the overall stress and appraisal portions of the Stress Appraisal Measure (SAM). Results revealed that situation criticality has an effect on officials' perceived stress levels. Both threat and challenge appraisals were positively correlated with perceived stress. Overall, these findings indicate that officials' stress levels fluctuate within games depending on score differential and time of game. The findings encourage officials to recognise and manage their stress, possibly through their appraisals. Additionally, the findings can affect the training of officials in the management of stress, as well as prompt the consideration of potential rule changes that reflect the increased situational demands on officials in critical situations (e.g., expanded instant replay).

  3. Lateral positioning for critically ill adult patients.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Nicky; Bucknall, Tracey; Faraone, Nardene M

    2016-05-12

    Critically ill patients require regular body position changes to minimize the adverse effects of bed rest, inactivity and immobilization. However, uncertainty surrounds the effectiveness of lateral positioning for improving pulmonary gas exchange, aiding drainage of tracheobronchial secretions and preventing morbidity. In addition, it is unclear whether the perceived risk levied by respiratory and haemodynamic instability upon turning critically ill patients outweighs the respiratory benefits of side-to-side rotation. Thus, lack of certainty may contribute to variation in positioning practice and equivocal patient outcomes. To evaluate effects of the lateral position compared with other body positions on patient outcomes (mortality, morbidity and clinical adverse events) in critically ill adult patients. (Clinical adverse events include hypoxaemia, hypotension, low oxygen delivery and global indicators of impaired tissue oxygenation.) We examined single use of the lateral position (i.e. on the right or left side) and repeat use of the lateral position (i.e. lateral positioning) within a positioning schedule. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 5), MEDLINE (1950 to 23 May 2015), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (1937 to 23 May 2015), the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED) (1984 to 23 May 2015), Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) (1901 to 23 May 2015), Web of Science (1945 to 23 May 2015), Index to Theses in Great Britain and Ireland (1950 to 23 May 2015), Trove (2009 to 23 May 2015; previously Australasian Digital Theses Program (1997 to December 2008)) and Proquest Dissertations and Theses (2009 to 23 May 2015; previously Proquest Digital Dissertations (1980 to 23 May 2015)). We handsearched the reference lists of potentially relevant reports and two nursing journals. We included randomized and quasi-randomized trials examining effects of

  4. Critical level statistics for weakly disordered graphene.

    PubMed

    Amanatidis, E; Kleftogiannis, I; Katsanos, D E; Evangelou, S N

    2014-04-16

    In two dimensions chaotic level statistics with the Wigner spacing distribution P(S) is expected for massless fermions in the Dirac region. The obtained P(S) for weakly disordered finite graphene samples with zigzag edges turns out, however, to be neither chaotic (Wigner) nor localized (Poisson). It is similar to the intermediate statistics at the critical point of the Anderson metal-insulator transition. The quantum transport of finite graphene for weak disorder, with critical level statistics can occur via edge states as in topological insulators, and for strong disorder, graphene behaves as an ordinary Anderson insulator with Poisson statistics.

  5. [Educative intervention and development of position and critical reading].

    PubMed

    Angulo-Bernal, Sonia Elizabeth; Leyva-González, Félix Arturo; Viniegra-Velázquez, Leonardo

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the professors of technical courses of the area of health, the effects of a promotional educative strategy of the participation in the development of a position prior to the education and of the aptitude for the critical theoretical text reading and information of educative research. A longitudinal study took place, of intervention. In order to measure the degree of development of a position before the education, it was applied to the instrument Concepts and ideas about education. It consists of 72 statements, organized in duple that expresses two different approaches from education: participative and passive. For the inquiry of the degree of development of critical reading two instruments were applied: 1) Theoretical text reading of education and, 2) Reading information of educative research, constituted both by 120 itemes. The validity and trustworthiness of the three instruments were valued by experts with experience in teaching and educative research. The strategy was implemented through activities in seminary form, which were done twice a week, with a duration of five hours per session, for nine months; within the activities outside the classroom, the student completed reading of a theoretical text and/or report of educative research and the resolution of a reading guide (task). During the activities in a propitious classroom, discussion atmosphere and promoting at any moment the participation of the students; a space for the reflective recovery of their own experience was opened, for the analysis and interchange of ideas and for the critic and self-criticism of the main educative practices. The professor intervened when individual participation diminished; he also channeled the discussion, indicating to the enlightening observations and strong arguments of the students. The three instruments were applied to the group of professors of technical courses (n = 10); the initial measurement was applied before initiating the educative strategy and the

  6. Drawing Near and Pushing Away: Critical Positioning in Multimodal Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerr-Stevens, Candance

    2016-01-01

    As the tools and modes of literate practice continually emerge, so too must our critical approaches to understanding their expression. While media production has been praised for its potential to provide youth a voice to challenge dominant narratives, various questions remain as to what happens at the multimodal levels of composition in terms of…

  7. Drawing Near and Pushing Away: Critical Positioning in Multimodal Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerr-Stevens, Candance

    2016-01-01

    As the tools and modes of literate practice continually emerge, so too must our critical approaches to understanding their expression. While media production has been praised for its potential to provide youth a voice to challenge dominant narratives, various questions remain as to what happens at the multimodal levels of composition in terms of…

  8. Critical pollution levels in Umguza River, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinyama, A.; Ncube, R.; Ela, W.

    2016-06-01

    In most countries worldwide regulatory bodies set effluent discharge limits into rivers and other natural water bodies. These limits specify the maximum permissible concentration of defined pollutants that may be discharged into the water body. This limit is conceptually based on the self-purification (assimilative) capacity of the receiving water. However, this self-purification constant is itself a function of the water's pollutant loading. Umguza River situated south west of Zimbabwe, is fed by tributaries that drain an urban catchment and as such is prone to pollution due to human activities in the catchment. This study investigated the levels of pollution in Umguza River that would affect its self-purification capacity. This was achieved by characterising the spatial distribution of a selected range of water quality parameters as well as determining the self-purification capacity of a stretch of the river. Critical pollutant concentrations were determined for some of the parameters that showed high values along the stretch. The selected parameters of interest were dissolved oxygen, suspended solids, phosphates, nitrates, COD, turbidity, ammonia, pH, alkalinity and temperature. The study was carried out from January 2014 to April 2014. The self-purification capacity was determined using a formula that compares the mass flux of a pollutant upstream and downstream of the selected stretch of the river. Statistical analysis was used to establish relationships between the pollutants and the self-purification capacity of the river. The study found that the levels of ammonia and phosphates were very high compared to the regulated limits (2 mg/l vs 0.5 mg/l; and 8 mg/l vs 0.5 mg/l respectively). It was also found that the self-purification capacity varied significantly across pollutants. It was therefore concluded that a critical pollutant concentration exists above which the river completely loses its natural ability to assimilate and decrease its pollutant load over

  9. FGF-23 levels in patients with critical carotid artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Del Porto, Flavia; Proietta, Maria; di Gioia, Cira; Cifani, Noemi; Dito, Raffaele; Fantozzi, Cristiano; Ferri, Livia; Fabriani, Lucrezia; Rossi, Michele; Tritapepe, Luigi; Taurino, Maurizio

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23 serum levels and its tissue expression in patients with critical carotid artery stenosis (CAS). We selected 35 patients with critical CAS undergoing carotid thromboendoarterectomy. In each patient, FGF-23 serum levels were evaluated just prior to the surgery (t0) and 30 min (t1) thereafter. Moreover, macrophage cytokines were measured at baselines. Carotid artery specimens were used for immune histochemistry. On the basis of the histology, the patients were divided into 2 groups: A with complicated plaque and B with uncomplicated plaque. Twenty complicated plaques (57.14%, group A,) and 15 uncomplicated (42.86%, group B) were evaluated: calcifications were present in 16/20 (80%) complicated plaques and in 6/15 (40%) uncomplicated plaques. An inflammatory infiltrate was observed in 26/35 carotid samples: 18/26 (69.23%) complicated and 8/26 (30.76%) uncomplicated. FGF-23(+) cells were present in 17/20 complicated (85%) and in 8 uncomplicated (53%) plaques. The double-staining immunofluorescence confirmed that macrophage cells (CD68(+)) were also positive for FGF-23 staining. Serum levels of FGF-23 were significantly higher in group A versus group B at t0 (p < 0.05) and t1 (p 0.0047). Moreover, in group A patients a significant increase of FGF-23 serum levels was observed at t1 in comparison with t0 (p 0.0011). Our results suggest that FGF-23 acts in the late phases of atherosclerotic disease and may potentially represent a marker of complications in critical CAS.

  10. 5 CFR 319.401 - Senior-level positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Senior-level positions. 319.401 Section... IN SENIOR-LEVEL AND SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS Recruitment and Examination § 319.401 Senior-level positions. (a) General. SL positions may be in either the competitive or excepted service...

  11. 5 CFR 319.401 - Senior-level positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Senior-level positions. 319.401 Section... IN SENIOR-LEVEL AND SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS Recruitment and Examination § 319.401 Senior-level positions. (a) General. SL positions may be in either the competitive or excepted service...

  12. 5 CFR 319.401 - Senior-level positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Senior-level positions. 319.401 Section... IN SENIOR-LEVEL AND SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS Recruitment and Examination § 319.401 Senior-level positions. (a) General. SL positions may be in either the competitive or excepted service...

  13. Critical levels as applied to ozone for North American forests

    Treesearch

    Robert C. Musselman

    2006-01-01

    The United States and Canada have used concentration-based parameters for air quality standards for ozone effects on forests in North America. The European critical levels method for air quality standards uses an exposure-based parameter, a cumulative ozone concentration index with a threshold cutoff value. The critical levels method has not been used in North America...

  14. 5 CFR 319.102 - Senior-level positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 319.102 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT IN SENIOR-LEVEL AND SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS General § 319.102 Senior-level positions... of Personnel Management (OPM). ...

  15. 5 CFR 319.102 - Senior-level positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Senior-level positions. 319.102 Section 319.102 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT IN SENIOR-LEVEL AND SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS General § 319.102 Senior-level positions...

  16. 5 CFR 319.102 - Senior-level positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Senior-level positions. 319.102 Section 319.102 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT IN SENIOR-LEVEL AND SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS General § 319.102 Senior-level positions...

  17. 5 CFR 319.102 - Senior-level positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Senior-level positions. 319.102 Section 319.102 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT IN SENIOR-LEVEL AND SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS General § 319.102 Senior-level positions...

  18. 5 CFR 319.102 - Senior-level positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Senior-level positions. 319.102 Section 319.102 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT IN SENIOR-LEVEL AND SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS General § 319.102 Senior-level positions...

  19. Developing a Critical Consciousness: Positionality, Pedagogy, and Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamudio, Margaret; Bridgeman, Jacquelyn; Russell, Caskey; Rios, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    This article relies on Critical Race Theory (CRT) to examine the development of a critical consciousness necessary to understand the contradictions between the post-civil rights notion of abstract equality and the reality of structurally entrenched inequality. The authors' ground their analysis in narratives on the development of their own…

  20. Developing a Critical Consciousness: Positionality, Pedagogy, and Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamudio, Margaret; Bridgeman, Jacquelyn; Russell, Caskey; Rios, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    This article relies on Critical Race Theory (CRT) to examine the development of a critical consciousness necessary to understand the contradictions between the post-civil rights notion of abstract equality and the reality of structurally entrenched inequality. The authors' ground their analysis in narratives on the development of their own…

  1. Energy level statistics of a critical random matrix ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndawana, Macleans L.; Kravtsov, Vladimir E.

    2003-03-01

    We study energy level statistics of a critical random matrix ensemble of power-law banded complex Hermitian matrices. We compute the level compressibility via the level-number variance and compare it with the analytical formula for the exactly solvable model of Moshe, Neuberger and Shapiro.

  2. 'Right' way to 'do' illness? Thinking critically about positive thinking.

    PubMed

    McGrath, C; Jordens, C F C; Montgomery, K; Kerridge, I H

    2006-10-01

    Exhortations to 'be positive' accompany many situations in life, either as a general injunction or in difficult situations where people are facing pressure or adversity. It is particularly evident in health care, where positive thinking has become an aspect of the way people are expected to 'do' illness in developed society. Positive thinking is framed both as a moral injunction and as a central belief system. It is thought to help patients cope emotionally with illness and to provide a biological benefit. Yet, the meanings, expectations and outcomes of positive thinking are infrequently questioned and the risks of positive thinking are rarely examined. We outline some of the latter and suggest that health professionals should exercise caution in both 'prescribing' positive thinking and in responding to patients and carers whose belief systems and feelings of obligation rest on it.

  3. Acoustical positioning method using transponders with adaptive signal level normalizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwaya, Hirokazu; Mizutani, Koichi; Ebihara, Tadashi; Wakatsuki, Naoto

    2017-07-01

    Acoustical indoor positioning — a technology to locate objects or people inside a building using acoustical signals — is a key technology for contextual awareness and ubiquitous computing. To achieve simple localization, in this paper, we propose a transponder-based indoor positioning method. The proposed method does not require clock synchronization for accurate positioning. Furthermore, by using an adaptive signal level normalizer, the terminal can receive acoustic signals with appropriate levels resulting in accurate positioning. We designed a transponder-based indoor positioning method using audible sound and evaluated its performance in experiments. In experiments, three anchors (transponders) of known position are installed on a ceiling of an anechoic chamber, and positioning is performed by setting a terminal in various points. Positioning experiment results showed that the proposed method can achieve on the order of 0.08 ± 0.02 m positioning.

  4. High-Level Visual Object Representations Are Constrained by Position

    PubMed Central

    Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Baker, Chris I.

    2010-01-01

    It is widely assumed that high-level visual object representations are position-independent (or invariant). While there is sensitivity to position in high-level object-selective cortex, position and object identity are thought to be encoded independently in the population response such that position information is available across objects and object information is available across positions. Contrary to this view, we show, with both behavior and neuroimaging, that visual object representations are position-dependent (tied to limited portions of the visual field). Behaviorally, we show that the effect of priming an object was greatly reduced with any change in position (within- or between-hemifields), indicating nonoverlapping representations of the same object across different positions. Furthermore, using neuroimaging, we show that object-selective cortex is not only highly sensitive to object position but also the ability to differentiate objects based on its response is greatly reduced across different positions, consistent with the observed behavior and the receptive field properties observed in macaque object-selective neurons. Thus, even at the population level, the object information available in response of object-selective cortex is constrained by position. We conclude that even high-level visual object representations are position-dependent. PMID:20351021

  5. High-level visual object representations are constrained by position.

    PubMed

    Kravitz, Dwight J; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Baker, Chris I

    2010-12-01

    It is widely assumed that high-level visual object representations are position-independent (or invariant). While there is sensitivity to position in high-level object-selective cortex, position and object identity are thought to be encoded independently in the population response such that position information is available across objects and object information is available across positions. Contrary to this view, we show, with both behavior and neuroimaging, that visual object representations are position-dependent (tied to limited portions of the visual field). Behaviorally, we show that the effect of priming an object was greatly reduced with any change in position (within- or between-hemifields), indicating nonoverlapping representations of the same object across different positions. Furthermore, using neuroimaging, we show that object-selective cortex is not only highly sensitive to object position but also the ability to differentiate objects based on its response is greatly reduced across different positions, consistent with the observed behavior and the receptive field properties observed in macaque object-selective neurons. Thus, even at the population level, the object information available in response of object-selective cortex is constrained by position. We conclude that even high-level visual object representations are position-dependent.

  6. 5 CFR 319.401 - Senior-level positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Senior-level positions. 319.401 Section 319.401 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT IN SENIOR-LEVEL AND SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS Recruitment and Examination § 319.401...

  7. Identifying relevant positions in proteins by Critical Variable Selection.

    PubMed

    Grigolon, Silvia; Franz, Silvio; Marsili, Matteo

    2016-06-21

    Evolution in its course has found a variety of solutions to the same optimisation problem. The advent of high-throughput genomic sequencing has made available extensive data from which, in principle, one can infer the underlying structure on which biological functions rely. In this paper, we present a new method aimed at the extraction of sites encoding structural and functional properties from a set of protein primary sequences, namely a multiple sequence alignment. The method, called critical variable selection, is based on the idea that subsets of relevant sites correspond to subsequences that occur with a particularly broad frequency distribution in the dataset. By applying this algorithm to in silico sequences, to the response regulator receiver and to the voltage sensor domain of ion channels, we show that this procedure recovers not only the information encoded in single site statistics and pairwise correlations but also captures dependencies going beyond pairwise correlations. The method proposed here is complementary to statistical coupling analysis, in that the most relevant sites predicted by the two methods differ markedly. We find robust and consistent results for datasets as small as few hundred sequences that reveal a hidden hierarchy of sites that are consistent with the present knowledge on biologically relevant sites and evolutionary dynamics. This suggests that critical variable selection is capable of identifying a core of sites encoding functional and structural information in a multiple sequence alignment.

  8. Eutrophic lichens respond to multiple forms of N: implications for critical levels and critical loads research

    Treesearch

    Sarah Jovan; Jennifer Riddell; Pamela E Padgett; Thomas Nash

    2012-01-01

    Epiphytic lichen communities are highly sensitive to excess nitrogen (N), which causes the replacement of native floras by N-tolerant, ‘‘weedy’’ eutrophic species. This shift is commonly used as the indicator of ecosystem ‘‘harm’’ in studies developing empirical critical levels (CLE) for ammonia (NH3) and critical loads (CLO) for N. To be most...

  9. The critical loads and levels approach for nitrogen

    Treesearch

    T.A. Clair; T. Blett; J. Aherne; M.P.M. Aidar; R. Artz; W.J. Bealey; W. Budd; J.N. Cape; C.J. Curtis; L. Duan; M.E. Fenn; P. Groffman; R. Haeuber; J.R. Hall; J.-P. Hettelingh; D. López-Hernández; B. Mathieson; L. Pardo; M. Posch; R.V. Pouyat; T. Spranger; H. Sverdrup; H. van Dobben; A. van Hinsberg

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reports the findings of a Working Group to review the critical loads (CLs) and levels approach for nitrogen (N). The three main approaches to estimating CLs are empirical, mass balance and dynamic modelling. Examples are given of recent developments in Europe, North America and Asia and it is concluded that other countries should be encouraged to develop...

  10. "College Level" and "Critical Thinking": Public Policy and Educational Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glock, Nancy Clover

    Designed to assist California community college personnel in implementing 1986 regulations concerning associate degree requirements, this paper analyzes the key terms in the new policy, "college level" and "critical thinking," and discusses practical implications for assessment, curriculum, and instruction. First, the paper…

  11. 5 CFR 319.401 - Senior-level positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... IN SENIOR-LEVEL AND SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS Recruitment and Examination § 319.401... offices must be notified of the vacancy in accordance with 5 CFR 330.102. Publication in OPM's listing of...

  12. Paths to Upper Level Positions in Public Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    Preparation for a career in the field of public relations (PR) is based on a set of unique core competencies typically found in liberal arts. Though PR professionals rarely gain business degrees, they acquire knowledge, skills, perspectives, and strategies well-suited to executive-level positions in business. Additionally, managerial positions in…

  13. Paths to Upper Level Positions in Public Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    Preparation for a career in the field of public relations (PR) is based on a set of unique core competencies typically found in liberal arts. Though PR professionals rarely gain business degrees, they acquire knowledge, skills, perspectives, and strategies well-suited to executive-level positions in business. Additionally, managerial positions in…

  14. Critical loads of nitrogen deposition and critical levels of atmospheric ammonia for mediterranean evergreen woodlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinho, P.; Theobald, M. R.; Dias, T.; Tang, Y. S.; Cruz, C.; Martins-Loução, M. A.; Máguas, C.; Sutton, M.; Branquinho, C.

    2011-11-01

    Nitrogen (N) has emerged in recent years as a key factor associated with global changes, with impacts on biodiversity, ecosystems functioning and human health. In order to ameliorate the effects of excessive N, safety thresholds have been established, such as critical loads (deposition fluxes) and levels (concentrations). For Mediterranean ecosystems, few studies have been carried out to assess these parameters. Our objective was therefore to determine the critical loads of N deposition and long-term critical levels of atmospheric ammonia for Mediterranean evergreen woodlands. For that we have considered changes in epiphytic lichen communities, which have been shown to be one of the most sensitive to excessive N. Based on a classification of lichen species according to their tolerance to N we grouped species into response functional groups, which we used as a tool to determine the critical loads and levels. This was done under Mediterranean climate, in evergreen cork-oak woodlands, by sampling lichen functional diversity and annual atmospheric ammonia concentrations and modelling N deposition downwind from a reduced N source (a cattle barn). By modelling the highly significant relationship between lichen functional groups and N deposition, the critical load was estimated to be below 26 kg (N) ha-1 yr-1, which is within the upper range established for other semi-natural ecosystems. By modelling the highly significant relationship of lichen functional groups with annual atmospheric ammonia concentration, the critical level was estimated to be below 1.9 μg m-3, in agreement with recent studies for other ecosystems. Taking into account the high sensitivity of lichen communities to excessive N, these values should be taken into account in policies that aim at protecting Mediterranean woodlands from the initial effects of excessive N.

  15. Use of Opioid Medications for Employees in Critical Safety or Security Positions and Positions with Safety Sensitive Duties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-30

    Employees in Critical Safety or Security Positions and Positions with Safety Sensitive Duties . 1. REFERENCES. A. Army Regulation 40-5, Preventive... duties . C. The employee is considered unfit for safety sensitive duties until such a time when he or she is no longer taking opioid pain...Aeromedical Policy Letters, Medication Waivers, January 2002 Revision. 2. BACKGROUND. Employees who work in safety-sensitive occupations or handle

  16. Perceived and actual noise levels in critical care units.

    PubMed

    White, Brittany Lynn; Zomorodi, Meg

    2017-02-01

    To compare the noise levels perceived by critical care nurses in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) to actual noise levels in the ICU. Following a pilot study (n=18) and revision of the survey tool, a random sample of nurses were surveyed twice in a 3-day period (n=108). Nurses perception of noise was compared to the actual sound pressure level using descriptive statistics. Nurses perceived the ICUs to be noisier than the actual values. The ICU was louder than the recommended noise level for resotrative sleep. This finding raises the question of how we can assist nurses to reduce what they perceive to be a loud environment. Future work is needed to develop interventions specifically for nurses to raise awareness of noise in the ICU and to provide them with skills to assist in noise reduction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Stable superconducting magnet. [high current levels below critical temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boom, R. W. (Inventor)

    1967-01-01

    Operation of a superconducting magnet is considered. A method is described for; (1) obtaining a relatively high current in a superconducting magnet positioned in a bath of a gas refrigerant; (2) operating a superconducting magnet at a relatively high current level without training; and (3) operating a superconducting magnet containing a plurality of turns of a niobium zirconium wire at a relatively high current level without training.

  18. Does Incremental Positioning (Weight Shifts) Reduce Pressure Injuries in Critical Care Patients?

    PubMed

    Krapfl, Lee Ann; Langin, Julia; Pike, Caitlin A; Pezzella, Patricia

    Incremental positioning or weight shifts are often suggested as an alternative to standard repositioning/turning in critical care patients deemed clinically unstable. This evidence-based report card reviews whether incremental positioning and/or weight shifts reduce hospital-acquired sacral/buttocks pressure injuries in critical care patients deemed too unstable to turn. A scoping review of the literature was conducted for studies related to repositioning and hospital-acquired pressure injuries in high-risk, critical care patients. The databases searched were CINAHL, EMBASE, and PubMed. Key words used in the search were "intensive care," "critical care," "pressure ulcer(s)," "pressure injury(ies)," "pressure sore(s)," "turn(s)," "turning," "shift(s)," "shifting," "position(s)," OR "positioning, cardiopulmonary support." The search yielded 183 articles. The search was then narrowed to those published within the past 10 years, yielding 35 citations. Following title and abstract review, 5 studies were identified that met inclusion criteria; an additional 13 articles were found by ancestry and hand-searching. No evidence was identified that incremental positioning and/or weight shifts reduce hospital-acquired sacral/buttocks pressure injuries in critical care patients deemed too unstable to turn. In addition, no evidence was found that incremental positioning and/or weight shifts affect interface pressure on the sacrum/buttocks. However, there was evidence that incremental positioning and/or weight shifts do impact gravitational equilibrium. Despite the paucity of evidence, incremental positioning and/or weight shifts are recommended as an intervention in critical care patients deemed too unstable to turn. Further research is needed to examine whether incremental positioning and/or weight shifts are effective in reducing pressure injuries in critical care patients.

  19. Leadership: Industry Needs for Entry-Level Engineering Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartmann, Beth Lin; Jahren, Charles T.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study that sought to identify what companies mean by the word "leadership" when used a job descriptions for entry-level, full-time engineering positions. Seven years of job posting data was analyzed to first understand the frequency and use of the word "leadership" in job descriptions. Using…

  20. Leadership: Industry Needs for Entry-Level Engineering Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartmann, Beth Lin; Jahren, Charles T.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study that sought to identify what companies mean by the word "leadership" when used a job descriptions for entry-level, full-time engineering positions. Seven years of job posting data was analyzed to first understand the frequency and use of the word "leadership" in job descriptions. Using…

  1. Maximum force levels in different positions of shoulder and elbow.

    PubMed

    Castro, C; De la Vega, E; Báez, G; Carrasco, F

    2012-01-01

    The number of occupational diseases in Mexico is alarming and clearly it is important to do studies with the purpose of improving the design of workstations. The objective of this research is to determine the maximum force levels in different positions of shoulder and elbow. An experiment was conducted with 16 subjects between 18 and 28 years old: 8 male and 8 female. We considered 16 different positions, working with the right and left arm to perform the tasks of pull and push. The tasks consisted of pushing or pulling a dynamometer for a period of 3 seconds as hard as possible. The results were presented in tables. The tables show the mean, standard deviation and range of force levels in different positions.

  2. Discrimination of u-14 soccer players by level and position.

    PubMed

    Coelho E Silva, M J; Figueiredo, A J; Simões, F; Seabra, A; Natal, A; Vaeyens, R; Philippaerts, R; Cumming, S P; Malina, R M

    2010-11-01

    Adolescence is often viewed as a critical period for selection in youth soccer. The present study compared the characteristics of regionally selected and non-selected under-14 players (U-14) as a group and by position. Players were classified as local (n=69) and regional (n=45). Weight, height, skinfolds, functional capacities, soccer skills and goal orientation were measured and skeletal age was assessed with the Fels method. Factorial ANOVA was used to test the effect of selection, position and respective interaction terms, while discriminant analysis was used to identify the variables that contributed to selection. Selected players had an advanced maturity status (F=24.97, p<0.01), were heavier (F=30.67, p<0.01) and taller (F=35.07, p<0.01); performed better in explosive power (F=21.25, p<0.01), repeated sprints (F=20.04, p<0.01) and ball control (F=3.69, p<0.05); and were more ego oriented (F=13.29, p<0.01). The 2 competitive groups did not differ in agility, aerobic endurance, dribbling, shooting, passing, and task orientation. Position-related variation was negligible. The percentage of players who were correctly classified in the original groups was slightly lower when the analysis was performed for the total sample (86%) than by position (86-90%). Future research on talent identification and selection should adopt a multidimensional approach including variables related to the physiological, perceptual, cognitive and tactical demands.

  3. Hepcidin levels in chronic hemodialysis patients: a critical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Valenti, Luca; Messa, Piergiorgio; Pelusi, Serena; Campostrini, Natascia; Girelli, Domenico

    2014-05-01

    Altered systemic iron metabolism is a key element of uremia, and functional iron deficiency mainly related to subclinical inflammation makes it difficult to maintain proper control of anemia in chronic hemodialysis patients (CHD). In the last decade, the hepatic hormone hepcidin has been progressively recognized as the master regulator of circulating iron levels through the modulation of cellular iron fluxes in response to iron stores, as well as to erythroid and inflammatory stimuli. Hepcidin is cleared by the kidney and progression of renal disease has been associated to increased serum hepcidin levels. This, in turn, reduces iron availability for erythropoiesis, suggesting anti-hepcidin strategies for improving anemia control. Moreover, hepcidin has been recently implicated in the pathogenesis of long-term complications of dialysis, like accelerated atherosclerosis. Initial studies almost invariably reported a sustained increase of serum hepcidin in chronic hemodialysis patients. Noteworthy, such studies included relatively few patients and controls that were poorly matched for major determinants of serum hepcidin at population level, i.e., age and gender. More recent data based on accurately matched larger series challenge the view that hepcidin is intrinsically increased in hemodialysis patients, showing a marked inter- and intra-individual variability of hormone levels. Here we take a critical look to the data published so far on hepcidin levels in CHD, analyze the reasons underlying the discrepancies in available studies and the hepcidin variability in CHD, and point out the need for further studies in large series of well-characterized CHD patients and controls.

  4. Magnesium levels in critically ill patients. What should we measure?

    PubMed

    Huijgen, H J; Soesan, M; Sanders, R; Mairuhu, W M; Kesecioglu, J; Sanders, G T

    2000-11-01

    We studied the relation between ionized magnesium, total magnesium, and albumin levels in serum of 115 critically ill patients and the role of extracellular and intracellular magnesium in outcome prediction. Levels of serum total and ionized magnesium, serum albumin, and magnesium in mononuclear blood cells and erythrocytes were measured and the APACHE II score and 1-month mortality recorded. Of all patients, 51.3% had a serum total magnesium concentration below the reference range. In 71% of these hypomagnesemic patients, a normal serum ionized magnesium concentration was measured. None of the patients had an intracellular magnesium concentration below the reference limit. Except for serum total and ionized magnesium, none of the magnesium parameters correlated significantly with each other. A significantly negative correlation was found between serum albumin and the fraction ionized magnesium. There was no association between low extracellular or intracellular magnesium and clinical outcome. The observation of hypomagnesemia in critically ill patients depends on which magnesium fraction is measured. The lack of correlation with clinical outcome suggests hypomagnesemia to be merely an epiphenomenon. Reliable concentrations of serum ionized magnesium can be obtained only by direct measurement and not by calculation from serum total magnesium and albumin.

  5. Positioning positivism, critical realism and social constructionism in the health sciences: a philosophical orientation.

    PubMed

    Cruickshank, Justin

    2012-03-01

    Positioning positivism, critical realism and social constructionism in the health sciences: a philosophical orientation This article starts by considering the differences within the positivist tradition and then it moves on to compare two of the most prominent schools of postpositivism, namely critical realism and social constructionism. Critical realists hold, with positivism, that knowledge should be positively applied, but reject the positivist method for doing this, arguing that causal explanations have to be based not on empirical regularities but on references to unobservable structures. Social constructionists take a different approach to postpositivism and endorse a relativist rejection of truth and hold that the task of research is to foster a scepticism that undermines any positive truth claim made. It is argued that social constructionism is a contradictory position. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Evidence for changing the critical level for ammonia.

    PubMed

    Cape, J N; van der Eerden, L J; Sheppard, L J; Leith, I D; Sutton, M A

    2009-03-01

    The current critical level for ammonia (CLE(NH3)) in Europe is set at 8mug NH(3) m(-3) as an annual average concentration. Recent evidence has shown specific effects of ammonia (NH(3)) on plant community composition (a true ecological effect) at much smaller concentrations. The methods used in setting a CLE(NH3) are reviewed, and the available evidence collated, in proposing a new CLE(NH3) for different types of vegetation. For lichens and bryophytes, we propose a new CLE(NH3) of 1 microg NH(3) m(-3) as a long-term (several year) average concentration; for higher plants, there is less evidence, but we propose a CLE(NH3) of 3+/-1 microg NH(3) m(-3) for herbaceous species. There is insufficient evidence to provide a separate CLE(NH3) for forest trees, but the value of 3+/-1 microg NH(3) m(-3) is likely to exceed the empirical critical load for N deposition for most forest ecosystems.

  7. 5 CFR 535.104 - Requests for and granting critical position pay authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... authority for any incumbent); (3) Pay plan and grade/level; (4) Occupational series of the position; (5... availability of individuals who possess the qualifications to do the work required by the position;...

  8. FEATURES, EVENTS, AND PROCESSES: SYSTEM-LEVEL AND CRITICALITY

    SciTech Connect

    D.L. McGregor

    2000-12-20

    The primary purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to identify and document the screening analyses for the features, events, and processes (FEPs) that do not easily fit into the existing Process Model Report (PMR) structure. These FEPs include the 3 1 FEPs designated as System-Level Primary FEPs and the 22 FEPs designated as Criticality Primary FEPs. A list of these FEPs is provided in Section 1.1. This AMR (AN-WIS-MD-000019) documents the Screening Decision and Regulatory Basis, Screening Argument, and Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Disposition for each of the subject Primary FEPs. This AMR provides screening information and decisions for the TSPA-SR report and provides the same information for incorporation into a project-specific FEPs database. This AMR may also assist reviewers during the licensing-review process.

  9. Testing nasogastric tube positioning in the critically ill: exploring the evidence.

    PubMed

    May, Sarah

    Nutritional support in the critically ill is commonly delivered via a nasogastric tube. Correct positioning in the stomach must first be confirmed as inadvertent feeding into the lungs carries a high risk of mortality. The National Patient Safety Agency (2005) recommends the method of pH testing nasogastric tube aspirates to verify tube position. This article critically analyses the research supporting this method, and questions its reliability in critically ill patients whose gastric pH may well be altered due to prophylactic stress ulcer medications and continuous feeding regimens. There is a lack of quality research testing this method in the critically ill population. The theory-practice gap is addressed, and preliminary research behind use of techniques such as capnography and capnometry is also examined.

  10. Support vector machines for learning to identify the critical positions of a protein.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Anshul; Realff, Matthew J; Lee, Jay H; Bommarius, Andreas S

    2005-06-07

    A method for identifying the positions in the amino acid sequence, which are critical for the catalytic activity of a protein using support vector machines (SVMs) is introduced and analysed. SVMs are supported by an efficient learning algorithm and can utilize some prior knowledge about the structure of the problem. The amino acid sequences of the variants of a protein, created by inducing mutations, along with their fitness are required as input data by the method to predict its critical positions. To investigate the performance of this algorithm, variants of the beta-lactamase enzyme were created in silico using simulations of both mutagenesis and recombination protocols. Results from literature on beta-lactamase were used to test the accuracy of this method. It was also compared with the results from a simple search algorithm. The algorithm was also shown to be able to predict critical positions that can tolerate two different amino acids and retain function.

  11. Serum YKL-40 Level Positively Correlates With Uterine Leiomyomas.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenping; Wang, Jing; Wei, Hongyi

    2016-11-01

    Uterine leiomyomas (ULMs) are the most common benign tumors in premenopausal women associated with major tissue fibrosis. It has been suggested that inflammatory response is associated with the development of ULM. YKL-40 is a chitinase-like protein present in serum of healthy participants, and its levels are increased in several human inflammatory diseases. However, the association between YKL-40 and ULM has not been reported. The aim of this study was to identify whether serum YKL-40 levels correlate with ULM. Premenopausal women with ULM (n = 61) and leiomyoma-free control women (n = 45) were recruited for this study. Serum YKL-40 levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Correlations were assessed by Spearman rank correlation test. Receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve was used to define the optimal cutoff value for predicting ULM. We found that serum YKL-40 levels in patients with ULM were significantly higher than in healthy controls (P < .001). Positive correlation was also observed between serum YKL-40 levels and leiomyoma weight (r = .92; P < .001). Moreover, ROC curves yielded robust area under the curve value (0.94) accompanied by high sensitivity (82.0%) and specificity (91.1%) in distinguishing patients with ULM from healthy controls. These findings suggest that elevated serum YKL-40 levels are associated with the existence of ULM, and YKL-40 might be a potential adjunct biomarker for diagnosis of ULM. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Precise mean sea level measurements using the Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelecy, Thomas M.; Born, George H.; Parke, Michael E.; Rocken, Christian

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a sea level measurement test conducted off La Jolla, California, in November of 1991. The purpose of this test was to determine accurate sea level measurements using a Global Positioning System (GPS) equipped buoy. These measurements were intended to be used as the sea level component for calibration of the ERS 1 satellite altimeter. Measurements were collected on November 25 and 28 when the ERS 1 satellite overflew the calibration area. Two different types of buoys were used. A waverider design was used on November 25 and a spar design on November 28. This provided the opportunity to examine how dynamic effects of the measurement platform might affect the sea level accuracy. The two buoys were deployed at locations approximately 1.2 km apart and about 15 km west of a reference GPS receiver located on the rooftop of the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics at the Scripps Institute of Oceanography. GPS solutions were computed for 45 minutes on each day and used to produce two sea level time series. An estimate of the mean sea level at both locations was computed by subtracting tide gage data collected at the Scripps Pier from the GPS-determined sea level measurements and then filtering out the high-frequency components due to waves and buoy dynamics. In both cases the GPS estimate differed from Rapp's mean altimetric surface by 0.06 m. Thus, the gradient in the GPS measurements matched the gradient in Rapp's surface. These results suggest that accurate sea level can be determined using GPS on widely differing platforms as long as care is taken to determine the height of the GPS antenna phase center above water level. Application areas include measurement of absolute sea level, of temporal variations in sea level, and of sea level gradients (dominantly the geoid). Specific applications would include ocean altimeter calibration, monitoring of sea level in remote regions, and regional experiments requiring spatial and

  13. Precise mean sea level measurements using the Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelecy, Thomas M.; Born, George H.; Parke, Michael E.; Rocken, Christian

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a sea level measurement test conducted off La Jolla, California, in November of 1991. The purpose of this test was to determine accurate sea level measurements using a Global Positioning System (GPS) equipped buoy. These measurements were intended to be used as the sea level component for calibration of the ERS 1 satellite altimeter. Measurements were collected on November 25 and 28 when the ERS 1 satellite overflew the calibration area. Two different types of buoys were used. A waverider design was used on November 25 and a spar design on November 28. This provided the opportunity to examine how dynamic effects of the measurement platform might affect the sea level accuracy. The two buoys were deployed at locations approximately 1.2 km apart and about 15 km west of a reference GPS receiver located on the rooftop of the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics at the Scripps Institute of Oceanography. GPS solutions were computed for 45 minutes on each day and used to produce two sea level time series. An estimate of the mean sea level at both locations was computed by subtracting tide gage data collected at the Scripps Pier from the GPS-determined sea level measurements and then filtering out the high-frequency components due to waves and buoy dynamics. In both cases the GPS estimate differed from Rapp's mean altimetric surface by 0.06 m. Thus, the gradient in the GPS measurements matched the gradient in Rapp's surface. These results suggest that accurate sea level can be determined using GPS on widely differing platforms as long as care is taken to determine the height of the GPS antenna phase center above water level. Application areas include measurement of absolute sea level, of temporal variations in sea level, and of sea level gradients (dominantly the geoid). Specific applications would include ocean altimeter calibration, monitoring of sea level in remote regions, and regional experiments requiring spatial and

  14. The Offlap Break Position Vs Sea Level: A Discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tropeano, M.; Pieri, P.; Pomar, L.; Sabato, L.

    Sedimentary lithosomes with subhorizontal topsets, basinward prograding foresets and subhorizontal bottomsets are common in the geologic record, and most of them display similar bedding architectures and/or seismic reflection patterns (i.e. Gylbert- type deltas and shelf wedges). Nevertheless, in shallow marine settings these bodies may form in distinct sedimentary environments and they result from different sed- imentary processes. The offlap break (topset edge) occurs in relation to the posi- tion of baselevel and two main groups of lithosomes can be differentiated with re- spect to the position of the offlap break within the shelf profile. The baselevel of the first group is the sea level (or lake level); the topsets are mainly composed by continental- or very-shallow-water sedimentary facies and the offlap break practi- cally corresponds to the shoreline. Exemples of these lithosomes are high-constructive deltas (river-dominated deltas) and prograding beaches. For the second group, base- level corresponds to the base of wave/tide traction, and their topsets are mostly composed by shoreface/nearshore deposits. Examples of these lithosomes are high- destructive deltas (wave/tide-dominated deltas) and infralittoral prograding wedges (i.e Hernandez-Molina et al., 2000). The offlap break corresponds to the shelf edge (shoreface edge), which is located at the transition between nearshore and offshore set- tings, where a terrace prodelta- or transition-slope may develop (Pomar &Tropeano, 2001). Two main problems derive from these alternative interpretations of shallow- marine seaward prograding lithosomes: 1) both in ancient sedimentary shallow-marine successios (showing seaward prograding foresets) and in high resolution seismic pro- files (showing shelf wedges), the offlap break is commonly considered to correspond to the sea-level (shoreline) and used to inferr paleo sea-level positions and to construct sea-level curves. Without a good facies control, this use of

  15. Critical Design Decisions of The Planck LFI Level 1 Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morisset, N.; Rohlfs, R.; Türler, M.; Meharga, M.; Binko, P.; Beck, M.; Frailis, M.; Zacchei, A.

    2010-12-01

    The PLANCK satellite with two on-board instruments, a Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) and a High Frequency Instrument (HFI) has been launched on May 14th with Ariane 5. The ISDC Data Centre for Astrophysics in Versoix, Switzerland has developed and maintains the Planck LFI Level 1 software for the Data Processing Centre (DPC) in Trieste, Italy. The main tasks of the Level 1 processing are to retrieve the daily available scientific and housekeeping (HK) data of the LFI instrument, the Sorption Cooler and the 4k Cooler data from Mission Operation Centre (MOC) in Darmstadt; to sort them by time and by type (detector, observing mode, etc...); to extract the spacecraft attitude information from auxiliary files; to flag the data according to several criteria; and to archive the resulting Time Ordered Information (TOI), which will then be used to produce maps of the sky in different spectral bands. The output of the Level 1 software are the TOI files in FITS format, later ingested into the Data Management Component (DMC) database. This software has been used during different phases of the LFI instrument development. We started to reuse some ISDC components for the LFI Qualification Model (QM) and we completely rework the software for the Flight Model (FM). This was motivated by critical design decisions taken jointly with the DPC. The main questions were: a) the choice of the data format: FITS or DMC? b) the design of the pipelines: use of the Planck Process Coordinator (ProC) or a simple Perl script? c) do we adapt the existing QM software or do we restart from scratch? The timeline and available manpower are also important issues to be taken into account. We present here the orientation of our choices and discuss their pertinence based on the experience of the final pre-launch tests and the start of real Planck LFI operations.

  16. Neural processing of criticism and positive comments from relatives in individuals with schizotypal personality traits.

    PubMed

    Premkumar, Preethi; Williams, Steven C R; Lythgoe, David; Andrew, Christopher; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Kumari, Veena

    2013-02-01

    OBJECTIVES. High negative expressed emotion by family members towards schizophrenia patients increases the risk of subsequent relapse. The study aimed to determine whether individuals with high schizotypy (HS) and low schizotypy (LS) would differ in activation of brain areas involved in cognitive control when listening to relative criticism. METHODS. Twelve HS and 12 LS individuals listened to relative's critical, positive and neutral comments about them while undergoing functional MRI. Activation maps in the two groups during the comments were compared using SPM5. RESULTS. The left superior frontal and middle frontal gyri and bilateral posterior cingulate cortex were activated during criticism, compared to neutral comments, across all participants. While there were no group differences in brain activity for criticism versus neutral comments, the HS group, who had lower current mood relative to the LS group, activated to a lesser extent the thalamus, insula, putamen and brain stem during positive, compared to neutral, comments. CONCLUSIONS. Listening to relative criticism in healthy individuals engages brain areas for cognitive control of negative emotion and self-referential processing. However, HS individuals may have an attenuated ability to respond to rewarding aspects of positive comments due to their lower current mood.

  17. 5 CFR 535.104 - Requests for and granting critical position pay authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the use of other available human resources flexibilities and pay authorities. Agency requests must... other human resources flexibilities and pay authorities, such as recruitment, relocation, and retention... critical position and made eligible for a higher rate of pay under this part within its organizational...

  18. Critical Features Predicting Sustained Implementation of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Susanna; McIntosh, Kent; Frank, Jennifer L.; May, Seth L.

    2014-01-01

    The current study explored the extent to which a common measure of perceived implementation of critical features of Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) predicted fidelity of implementation 3 years later. Respondents included school personnel from 261 schools across the United States implementing PBIS. School teams completed the…

  19. Critical Features Predicting Sustained Implementation of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Susanna; McIntosh, Kent; Frank, Jennifer L.; May, Seth L.

    2014-01-01

    The current study explored the extent to which a common measure of perceived implementation of critical features of Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) predicted fidelity of implementation 3 years later. Respondents included school personnel from 261 schools across the United States implementing PBIS. School teams completed the…

  20. Critical Features Predicting Sustained Implementation of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Susanna; McIntosh, Kent; Frank, Jennifer; May, Seth

    2014-01-01

    The current study explored the extent to which a common measure of perceived implementation of critical features of School-wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) predicted fidelity of implementation 3 years later. Respondents included school personnel from 261 schools across the United States implementing SWPBS. School teams completed the…

  1. Spiraling through the Glass Ceiling: Seven Critical Lessons for Negotiating a Leadership Position in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crutcher, Ronald A.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses seven critical lessons for navigating a leadership position in higher education. The author focuses on developing a personal means of remaining centered regardless of circumstances or situations as well as building an ethical foundation for one's work. He uses spiraling as a metaphor to describe his own…

  2. [Blood lactic acid level and APACHE II score on prognosis of critically ill elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Bao, Bin; Li, Zhi-gang; Sun, Xiao-lin

    2012-04-01

    To analyze the relevance between blood lactic acid level and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score in order to provide guideline for clinical treatment. Retrospective analyses on 537 critically ill elderly patients who were hospitalized in the ICU with their blood lactic acid level tested and APACHE II scores calculated. The overall death rate was 35.75% (192/537) with the APACHE II score as (22.6±12.8), and blood lactic acid level as (6.84±2.01) mmol/L. The blood lactic acid level among deaths was obviously higher than in the control group, with significant differences (P<0.05). The level of blood lactic acid was positively related to APACHE II score (r=0.572, P<0.05) while the death rate was both positively related to APACHE II score (r=0.475, P<0.05) and the level of blood lactic acid (r=0.506, P<0.05). There seemed a positive correlation between blood lactic acid level and the APACHE II score. Both of them showed good relevance with the prognosis of the disease.

  3. Adapting Entry-Level Engineering Courses to Emphasize Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagerty, D. Joseph; Rockaway, Thomas D.

    2012-01-01

    The University of Louisville recently developed a Quality Enhancement Plan (QEP) to improve undergraduate instruction across all disciplines as part of its ongoing accreditation requirements. Central elements of the plan are emphasis on critical thinking; integration of critical thinking throughout the curriculum; service learning for…

  4. Criticisms of Educational Research: Key Topics and Levels of Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oancea, Alis

    2005-01-01

    The article is an exploration of the meanings and worthiness of criticism as a significant phenomenon in the evolution of educational research during the 1990s. While drawing on an overview of the vast amount of documents expressing criticisms of educational research in the UK, western and eastern continental Europe and the USA, it summarises the…

  5. Adapting Entry-Level Engineering Courses to Emphasize Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagerty, D. Joseph; Rockaway, Thomas D.

    2012-01-01

    The University of Louisville recently developed a Quality Enhancement Plan (QEP) to improve undergraduate instruction across all disciplines as part of its ongoing accreditation requirements. Central elements of the plan are emphasis on critical thinking; integration of critical thinking throughout the curriculum; service learning for…

  6. Existence and concentration of positive ground states for a Kirchhoff equation involving critical Sobolev exponent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhisu; Guo, Shangjiang

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we consider the following semilinear Kirchhoff type equation where is a small parameter, , a, b are positive constants, μ > 0 is a parameter, and the nonlinear growth of | u|4 u reaches the Sobolev critical exponent since 2* = 6 for three spatial dimensions. We prove the existence of a positive ground state solution with exponential decay at infinity for μ > 0 and sufficiently small under some suitable conditions on the nonnegative functions V, K and Q. Moreover, concentrates around a global minimum point of V as . The methods used here are based on the concentration-compactness principle of Lions.

  7. Mobile subjectivities: positioning the nonunitary self in critical feminist and postmodern research.

    PubMed

    Ogle, Kaye Robyn; Glass, Nel

    2006-01-01

    Most scholarly work is written from the perspective of the author being a unitary subject occupying a sole, rational, and unified position. This article argues that scholarship may be enhanced by the author adopting multiple subject positions as a methodological framework. Such an adoption is advantageous in working against the romance of the notion of a single truth while also maintaining teleological values congruent with critical and feminist agendas. This article outlines the conceptual development of this methodological framework, the rationale for its development, an explication of the concept of multiple subjectivity, and an exemplar of its application within nursing research.

  8. Gasp, a Grb2-associating protein, is critical for positive selection of thymocytes

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Michael S.; Oda, Hiroyo; Hayakawa, Kunihiro; Sato, Yoshinori; Eshima, Koji; Kirikae, Teruo; Iemura, Shun-ichiro; Shirai, Mutsunori; Abe, Takaya; Natsume, Tohru; Sasazuki, Takehiko; Suzuki, Harumi

    2009-01-01

    T cells develop in the thymus through positive and negative selection, which are responsible for shaping the T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in selection remains an area of intense interest. Here, we identified and characterized a gene product Gasp (Grb2-associating protein, also called Themis) that is critically required for positive selection. Gasp is a cytosolic protein with no known functional motifs that is expressed only in T cells, especially immature CD4/CD8 double positive (DP) thymocytes. In the absence of Gasp, differentiation of both CD4 and CD8 single positive cells in the thymus was severely inhibited, whereas all other TCR-induced events such as β-selection, negative selection, peripheral activation, and homeostatic proliferation were unaffected. We found that Gasp constitutively associates with Grb2 via its N-terminal Src homology 3 domain, suggesting that Gasp acts as a thymocyte-specific adaptor for Grb2 or regulates Ras signaling in DP thymocytes. Collectively, we have described a gene called Gasp that is critical for positive selection. PMID:19805304

  9. Critical care patients' experience of the helmet continuous positive airway pressure.

    PubMed

    Dimech, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a common treatment modality for acute respiratory failure (ARF) in critical care. Historically, a tight-fitting mask is used to provide respiratory support. This however is not without risks to the patient. The helmet CPAP is a new product that provides the same treatment with a different method of delivery. There is minimal evidence to date explaining the patient's experience of the new helmet modality. The aim of this research study is to explore critical care patient's experience of helmet CPAP. A qualitative approach was taken utilizing descriptive phenomenological methodology. In order to obtain rich data, six interviews with cues provided the platform for data generation and collection. A thematic framework was utilized with emergent themes manually analysed using a constant comparative technique to express the experiences or phenomena of a particular event or experiences. The overall experience was unique to each patient. The patients entrusted the health care team which made the experience more tolerable. Paradoxical themes were experienced during treatment. The themes included entrapment, confusion, helping me breathe, liberation, challenges, apprehension, relief, trust and endurance. The desire to survive the acute illness proved to be a driving factor. The study has provided an insight into the patient's experience of helmet CPAP in the critical care setting. The findings have provided a basis for policy and guideline development. It will also assist in developing future patient focused care. © 2012 The Author. Nursing in Critical Care © 2012 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  10. Deep UV Positive Resists For Two-Level Photoresist Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichmanis, E.; Smolinsky, G.

    1984-05-01

    trimethylsilylstyrene and chlorostyrene, shows excellent resistance to oxygen RIE. Similar trimethylsilylstyrene-chloromethylstyrene copolymers have been described by Suzuki et al. Negative resists, however, may swell during development and thus limit the degree of resolution. Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)3 and various substituted methacrylates 8,9 are well known, high resolution, positive deep UV resists. However they are not sufficiently resistant to an oxygen plasma to be usable in a two-level process employing RIE pattern transfer. Ideally, the etching rate ratios for the planarizing material vs. resist should be >10:1 and preferably >20:1 in order to minimize the effects of line width erosion and allow optimization of the thickness of the lower layer. This ratio may also be maximized through appropriate selection of the planarizing layer material. Our initial efforts have concentrated on effecting an improvement in the oxygen RIE resistance of PMMA, without destroying its high resolution characteristics. Improvements by factors of over 30 have been accomplished through the incorporation of siloxane substituted esters in the poly-mers; these effects are described as a function of silicon content. A preliminary litho-graphic evaluation of the materials is presented and while the etching rate ratio of HPR-204 vs. the P(DS-A-M) polymer employed is only ≍7 it is demonstrated that these new deep UV resists show promise as oxygen RIE masks for a two-level photoresist system employing dry etching pattern transfer techniques.

  11. High-level fluorescence labeling of gram-positive pathogens.

    PubMed

    Aymanns, Simone; Mauerer, Stefanie; van Zandbergen, Ger; Wolz, Christiane; Spellerberg, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Fluorescence labeling of bacterial pathogens has a broad range of interesting applications including the observation of living bacteria within host cells. We constructed a novel vector based on the E. coli streptococcal shuttle plasmid pAT28 that can propagate in numerous bacterial species from different genera. The plasmid harbors a promoterless copy of the green fluorescent variant gene egfp under the control of the CAMP-factor gene (cfb) promoter of Streptococcus agalactiae and was designated pBSU101. Upon transfer of the plasmid into streptococci, the bacteria show a distinct and easily detectable fluorescence using a standard fluorescence microscope and quantification by FACS-analysis demonstrated values that were 10-50 times increased over the respective controls. To assess the suitability of the construct for high efficiency fluorescence labeling in different gram-positive pathogens, numerous species were transformed. We successfully labeled Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus anginosus and Staphylococcus aureus strains utilizing the EGFP reporter plasmid pBSU101. In all of these species the presence of the cfb promoter construct resulted in high-level EGFP expression that could be further increased by growing the streptococcal and enterococcal cultures under high oxygen conditions through continuous aeration.

  12. Experimental enhancement of corticosterone levels positively affects subsequent male survival.

    PubMed

    Cote, J; Clobert, J; Meylan, S; Fitze, P S

    2006-03-01

    Corticosterone is an important hormone of the stress response that regulates physiological processes and modifies animal behavior. While it positively acts on locomotor activity, it may negatively affect reproduction and social activity. This suggests that corticosterone may promote behaviors that increase survival at the cost of reproduction. In this study, we experimentally investigate the link between corticosterone levels and survival in adult common lizards (Lacerta vivipara) by comparing corticosterone-treated with placebo-treated lizards. We experimentally show that corticosterone enhances energy expenditure, daily activity, food intake, and it modifies the behavioral time budget. Enhanced appetite of corticosterone-treated individuals compensated for increased energy expenditure and corticosterone-treated males showed increased survival. This suggests that corticosterone may promote behaviors that reduce stress and it shows that corticosterone per se does not reduce but directly or indirectly increases longer-term survival. This suggests that the production of corticosterone as a response to a stressor may be an adaptive mechanism that even controls survival.

  13. Critical Levels of Perceived Social Support Associated with Student Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick; Malecki, Christine Kerres

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the relationships among students' perceived social support and a wide range of academic, behavioral, and social indicators. Significant, positive relationships among perceived social support and a variety of positive indicators (e.g., social skills, self-concept, and adaptive skills) were found. In addition, significant, negative…

  14. A positive feedback at the cellular level promotes robustness and modulation at the circuit level.

    PubMed

    Dethier, Julie; Drion, Guillaume; Franci, Alessio; Sepulchre, Rodolphe

    2015-10-01

    This article highlights the role of a positive feedback gating mechanism at the cellular level in the robustness and modulation properties of rhythmic activities at the circuit level. The results are presented in the context of half-center oscillators, which are simple rhythmic circuits composed of two reciprocally connected inhibitory neuronal populations. Specifically, we focus on rhythms that rely on a particular excitability property, the postinhibitory rebound, an intrinsic cellular property that elicits transient membrane depolarization when released from hyperpolarization. Two distinct ionic currents can evoke this transient depolarization: a hyperpolarization-activated cation current and a low-threshold T-type calcium current. The presence of a slow activation is specific to the T-type calcium current and provides a slow positive feedback at the cellular level that is absent in the cation current. We show that this slow positive feedback is required to endow the network rhythm with physiological modulation and robustness properties. This study thereby identifies an essential cellular property to be retained at the network level in modeling network robustness and modulation. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Positive-overlap transition and critical exponents in mean field spin glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostini, Alessandra; Barra, Adriano; DeSanctis, Luca

    2006-11-01

    In this paper we obtain two results for the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick (SK) model, and we show that they both emerge from a single approach. First, we prove that the average of the overlap takes positive values when it is non-zero. More specifically, the average of the overlap, which is naively expected to take values in the whole interval [-1,+1], becomes positive if we 'first' apply an external field, so as to destroy the gauge invariance of the model, and 'then' remove it in the thermodynamic limit. This phenomenon emerges at the critical point. This first result is weaker than the one obtained by Talagrand (not limited to the average of the overlap), but we show here that, at least on average, the overlap is proven to be non-negative with no use of the Ghirlanda-Guerra identities. The latter are instead needed to obtain the second result, which is to control the behaviour of the overlap at the critical point: we find the critical exponents of all the overlap correlation functions.

  16. Creating a Positive School Climate at the Junior High Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Licata, Vincent F.

    One of the seven correlates of an effective school, as identified by the Effective Schools Research, is a positive school climate: a positive attitude on the part of the entire staff and student body exhibited through overt behavior that creates a warm, orderly learning environment. Development of such an environment depends upon: (1) strong…

  17. Creating a Positive School Climate at the Junior High Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Licata, Vincent F.

    One of the seven correlates of an effective school, as identified by the Effective Schools Research, is a positive school climate: a positive attitude on the part of the entire staff and student body exhibited through overt behavior that creates a warm, orderly learning environment. Development of such an environment depends upon: (1) strong…

  18. Critical loads of nitrogen deposition and critical levels of atmospheric ammonia for semi-natural Mediterranean evergreen woodlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinho, P.; Theobald, M. R.; Dias, T.; Tang, Y. S.; Cruz, C.; Martins-Loução, M. A.; Máguas, C.; Sutton, M.; Branquinho, C.

    2012-03-01

    Nitrogen (N) has emerged in recent years as a key factor associated with global changes, with impacts on biodiversity, ecosystems functioning and human health. In order to ameliorate the effects of excessive N, safety thresholds such as critical loads (deposition fluxes) and levels (concentrations) can be established. Few studies have assessed these thresholds for semi-natural Mediterranean ecosystems. Our objective was therefore to determine the critical loads of N deposition and long-term critical levels of atmospheric ammonia for semi-natural Mediterranean evergreen woodlands. We have considered changes in epiphytic lichen communities, one of the most sensitive comunity indicators of excessive N in the atmosphere. Based on a classification of lichen species according to their tolerance to N we grouped species into response functional groups, which we used as a tool to determine the critical loads and levels. This was done for a Mediterranean climate in evergreen cork-oak woodlands, based on the relation between lichen functional diversity and modelled N deposition for critical loads and measured annual atmospheric ammonia concentrations for critical levels, evaluated downwind from a reduced N source (a cattle barn). Modelling the highly significant relationship between lichen functional groups and annual atmospheric ammonia concentration showed the critical level to be below 1.9 μg m-3, in agreement with recent studies for other ecosystems. Modelling the highly significant relationship between lichen functional groups and N deposition showed that the critical load was lower than 26 kg (N) ha-1 yr-1, which is within the upper range established for other semi-natural ecosystems. Taking into account the high sensitivity of lichen communities to excessive N, these values should aid development of policies to protect Mediterranean woodlands from the initial effects of excessive N.

  19. Critical width of tidal flats triggers marsh collapse in the absence of sea-level rise.

    PubMed

    Mariotti, Giulio; Fagherazzi, Sergio

    2013-04-02

    High rates of wave-induced erosion along salt marsh boundaries challenge the idea that marsh survival is dictated by the competition between vertical sediment accretion and relative sea-level rise. Because waves pounding marshes are often locally generated in enclosed basins, the depth and width of surrounding tidal flats have a pivoting control on marsh erosion. Here, we show the existence of a threshold width for tidal flats bordering salt marshes. Once this threshold is exceeded, irreversible marsh erosion takes place even in the absence of sea-level rise. This catastrophic collapse occurs because of the positive feedbacks among tidal flat widening by wave-induced marsh erosion, tidal flat deepening driven by wave bed shear stress, and local wind wave generation. The threshold width is determined by analyzing the 50-y evolution of 54 marsh basins along the US Atlantic Coast. The presence of a critical basin width is predicted by a dynamic model that accounts for both horizontal marsh migration and vertical adjustment of marshes and tidal flats. Variability in sediment supply, rather than in relative sea-level rise or wind regime, explains the different critical width, and hence erosion vulnerability, found at different sites. We conclude that sediment starvation of coastlines produced by river dredging and damming is a major anthropogenic driver of marsh loss at the study sites and generates effects at least comparable to the accelerating sea-level rise due to global warming.

  20. Critical Skills for U.S. Marine Corps Call for Fire Positions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-06

    analysts. Agreement within and between ratings sources was high . Among the SAOs that emerged as most important for call for fire positions were several... high . Among the SAOs that emerged as most important for call for fire positions were several related to attention, planning, and problem solving...level SAO taxonomy consisting of 78 cognitive , non- cognitive , physiological, sensory and physical SAOs was culled to 57 based on preliminary ratings

  1. Critical cell wall hole size for lysis in Gram-positive bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Gabriel; Wiesenfeld, Kurt; Nelson, Daniel; Weitz, Joshua

    2013-03-01

    Gram-positive bacteria transport molecules necessary for their survival through holes in their cell wall. The holes in cell walls need to be large enough to let critical nutrients pass through. However, the cell wall must also function to prevent the bacteria's membrane from protruding through a large hole into the environment and lysing the cell. As such, we hypothesize that there exists a range of cell wall hole sizes that allow for molecule transport but prevent membrane protrusion. Here we develop and analyze a biophysical theory of the response of a Gram-positive cell's membrane to the formation of a hole in the cell wall. We predict a critical hole size in the range 15-24nm beyond which lysis occurs. To test our theory, we measured hole sizes in Streptococcus pyogenes cells undergoing enzymatic lysis via transmission electron microscopy. The measured hole sizes are in strong agreement with our theoretical prediction. Together, the theory and experiments provide a means to quantify the mechanisms of death of Gram-positive cells via enzymatically mediated lysis and provides insight into the range of cell wall hole sizes compatible with bacterial homeostasis.

  2. Word Criticality Analysis. MOS: 91F. Skill Levels 1 & 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    matter/job experts knowledgeable in their MS. The vocabulary set used as the basis for critical word analysis was the Word Frequency Report based on the SM...4 424,.%5 -300A’ 230,130 I TGFPER 424,2 Z300,3236 7 !,) . 424,1 ’r .J1MiS 30010 424,2 300.3 230.7 1. I PrJ 󈧎!E 2300.12 1 Triz - R120# oll1 1- L

  3. Word Criticality Analysis MOS: Common Task. Skill Levels 1 & 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    critical word analysis was the Word Frequency Report based on the SM for the same MOS. JAN T oM ov ISOOT UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIrICATION OF THIS...reports. Improvements in programning and coding increased this accuracy to 95% in those reports completed last (i.e., dated Jan -Mar 82). 3. Word...tak 26 1 (JAGANILE VAN 26 I 1a forI JAN 20 1 P? I ETATW’iN TAN 26 co I ClCA TN 20 4 10, VYNL A p pI IAN: 26 1. .𔃻,01 CvIIG!IT TAN 20 Q. I PACE

  4. Work engagement, moral distress, education level, and critical reflective practice in intensive care nurses.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Lisa A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how nurses' moral distress, education level, and critical reflective practice (CRP) related to their work engagement. The study is relevant to nursing, given registered nurse (RN) documented experiences of job-related distress and work dissatisfaction, and the nursing shortage crisis. A better understanding of factors that may enhance RN work engagement is needed. A non-experimental, descriptive, correlational design was used to examine the relationships among four variables: moral distress, education level, CRP, and work engagement. The sample included 28 intensive care unit RNs from three separate ICUs in a 355-bed Southwest magnet-designated hospital. There was a positive direct relationship between CRP and work engagement, a negative direct relationship between moral distress and work engagement, and CRP and moral distress, together, explained 47% of the variance in work engagement. Additionally, in the neonatal intensive care unit, a positive direct relationship between increased educational level and CRP was identified, with a suggested negative relationship between increased education level and moral distress. Strategies to promote CRP and reduce moral distress are recommended, to promote RN work engagement. Additionally, further study on the role of education in nurses' work engagement is recommended. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Multiple positive solutions for Kirchhoff-type problems in R^3 involving critical Sobolev exponents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Haining

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we study the following nonlinear problem of Kirchhoff type with critical Sobolev exponent -(a+bintlimits_{R^3}|nabla u|^2dx)Δ u+u=λ f(x)u^{q-1}+g(x)u^5,quad xin R^3, uin H^1(R^3), where a, b > 0, 4 < q < 6, and {λ} is a positive parameter. Under certain assumptions on f( x) and g( x) and {λ} is small enough, we obtain a relationship between the number of positive solutions and the topology of the global maximum set of g. The Nehari manifold and Ljusternik-Schnirelmann category are the main tools in our study. Moreover, using the Mountain Pass Theorem, we give an existence result about {λ} large.

  6. Following Alice: Theories of Critical Thinking and Reflective Practice in Action at Postgraduate Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanwick, Ruth; Kitchen, Ruth; Jarvis, Joy; McCracken, Wendy; O'Neil, Rachel; Powers, Steve

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a flexible framework of principles for teaching critical thinking and reflective practice skills at the postgraduate level. It reports on a collaborative project between four UK institutions providing postgraduate programmes in deaf education. Through a critical review of current theories of critical thinking and reflective…

  7. Following Alice: Theories of Critical Thinking and Reflective Practice in Action at Postgraduate Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanwick, Ruth; Kitchen, Ruth; Jarvis, Joy; McCracken, Wendy; O'Neil, Rachel; Powers, Steve

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a flexible framework of principles for teaching critical thinking and reflective practice skills at the postgraduate level. It reports on a collaborative project between four UK institutions providing postgraduate programmes in deaf education. Through a critical review of current theories of critical thinking and reflective…

  8. Building District-Level Capacity for Positive Behavior Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Heather Peshak; Kincaid, Don K.

    2008-01-01

    As more and more schools adopt school-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) as a model for school improvement and the success of initial demonstration sites becomes evident, districts are faced with expansion and sustainability issues. Careful planning of these implementation efforts requires district personnel to be familiar with the resources…

  9. The Realities of a New Senior-Level IT Position.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucher, John; Horgan, Barbara; Moberg, Thomas; Paterson, Robert; Todd, H. David

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on specific actions and activities that a senior-level information technology manager in higher education, such as a chief information officer, might use after starting a new job to help ensure his or her success. (EV)

  10. Positive Association Between Vitamin D Serum Levels and Naevus Counts.

    PubMed

    Ribero, Simone; Glass, Dan; Mangino, Massimo; Aviv, Abraham; Spector, Tim; Bataille, Veronique

    2017-03-10

    Lower vitamin D serum levels are linked to increased melanoma risk and poorer survival. Naevus counts are associated with both melanoma risk and survival and to leucocyte telomere length. Vitamin D is also linked to telomere biology with higher levels of vitamin D in individuals with longer leucocyte telomere length despite adjusting for age. Using the TwinsUK data, we explored the association between naevus count, leucocyte telomere length and vitamin D serum levels. Increasing vitamin D levels were associated with increasing naevus count: serum levels were 73.3 nmol/l in individuals with less than 50 naevi compared to 78.8 nmol/l in individuals with more than 50 naevi (p?=?0.002). In the final regression model, using naevus count as a continuous variable, vitamin D remained associated with higher naevus counts despite adjustment for age, weight, height, season of sampling and twin relatedness (p?=?0.02). Further adjustment for leucocyte telomere length, decreased the magnitude of the association but it remained significant so leucocyte telomere length is not the sole driver of this association. Having large numbers of naevi is associated with higher vitamin D serum levels.

  11. Chemerin levels are positively correlated with abdominal visceral fat accumulation.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyun-Young; Lee, Duk C; Chu, Sang H; Jeon, Justin Y; Lee, Mi K; Im, Jee A; Lee, Ji W

    2012-07-01

    Chemerin, a recently discovered adipocytokine, may be linked to obesity and obesity-associated metabolic complications. However, the relationship between visceral fat accumulation and chemerin is still unknown. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between serum chemerin levels and body composition as measured by computed tomography (CT). We recruited 173 men and women without histories of diabetes or cardiovascular disease. Biomarkers of metabolic risk factors and body composition by computed tomography were assessed. Serum chemerin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Chemerin levels correlated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, abdominal visceral fat area, blood pressure, fasting insulin, homoeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance, total cholesterol, triglyceride, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase. By stepwise multiple regression analysis, abdominal visceral fat area, blood pressure and total cholesterol levels independently affected chemerin levels. Abdominal visceral fat accumulation, blood pressure and lipid profile were significantly associated with serum chemerin levels. Our findings suggest that chemerin may be a mediator that links visceral obesity to cardiovascular risk factors. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. How social position of origin relates to intelligence and level of education when adjusting for attained social position.

    PubMed

    Sorjonen, Kimmo; Hemmingsson, Tomas; Lundin, Andreas; Melin, Bo

    2011-06-01

    Intelligence and its relationship to achievement is a classical question within psychology. In accordance with earlier British studies, the present study, based on conscription data and follow-ups for Swedish men born 1949-51 (N = 36,156), found that when adjusting for attained social position, people with a high social position of origin tend to have higher intelligence and level of education than people with a lower social position of origin. These results could be seen to contradict the claim that more merit, at least when operationalized as intelligence or education, is required from people with a low social position of origin in order to attain a certain social level.

  13. Construction of the Mid-Level Management Position

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyrell, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The role of the mid-level manager as an organizer, communicator, and problem-solver in student affairs has been examined within the literature, but current discussion generally excludes the perspective of managers at community colleges. This chapter focuses on the importance of managerial identity and roles, particularly as it is enacted within a…

  14. Construction of the Mid-Level Management Position

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyrell, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The role of the mid-level manager as an organizer, communicator, and problem-solver in student affairs has been examined within the literature, but current discussion generally excludes the perspective of managers at community colleges. This chapter focuses on the importance of managerial identity and roles, particularly as it is enacted within a…

  15. Body position reproducibility and joint alignment stability criticality on a muscular strength research device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunez, F.; Romero, A.; Clua, J.; Mas, J.; Tomas, A.; Catalan, A.; Castellsaguer, J.

    2005-08-01

    MARES (Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System) is a computerized ergometer for neuromuscular research to be flown and installed onboard the International Space Station in 2007. Validity of data acquired depends on controlling and reducing all significant error sources. One of them is the misalignment of the joint rotation axis with respect to the motor axis.The error induced on the measurements is proportional to the misalignment between both axis. Therefore, the restraint system's performance is critical [1]. MARES HRS (Human Restraint System) assures alignment within an acceptable range while performing the exercise (results: elbow movement:13.94mm+/-5.45, Knee movement: 22.36mm+/- 6.06 ) and reproducibility of human positioning (results: elbow movement: 2.82mm+/-1.56, Knee movement 7.45mm+/-4.8 ). These results allow limiting measurement errors induced by misalignment.

  16. A Critical-Positive Youth Development Model for Intervening With Minority Youth at Risk for Delinquency.

    PubMed

    Case, Andrew D

    2017-06-15

    Minority youths who experience adversity in the forms of concentrated poverty, neighborhood violence, and social marginalization are at increased risk for delinquency. Yet, traditional approaches to reducing delinquency do not typically account for these social-structural risk factors. This article proposes a model of intervening that was developed to address this limitation. The current model was informed by the findings of a 9-month ethnography of a leadership development program for African American youths as well as positive youth development and critical theory frameworks. It delineates the roles of key intervention features in enhancing important assets among minority youths that help them to better navigate adverse social-structural conditions, decrease problem behaviors, and increase prosocial behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Delineation of plant caleosin residues critical for functional divergence, positive selection and coevolution

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The caleosin genes encode proteins with a single conserved EF hand calcium-binding domain and comprise small gene families found in a wide range of plant species. These proteins may be involved in many cellular and biological processes coupled closely to the synthesis, degradation, or stability of oil bodies. Although previous studies of this protein family have been reported for Arabidopsis and other species, understanding of the evolution of the caleosin gene family in plants remains inadequate. Results In this study, comparative genomic analysis was performed to investigate the phylogenetic relationships, evolutionary history, functional divergence, positive selection, and coevolution of caleosins. First, 84 caleosin genes were identified from five main lineages that included 15 species. Phylogenetic analysis placed these caleosins into five distinct subfamilies (sub I–V), including two subfamilies that have not been previously identified. Among these subfamilies, sub II coincided with the distinct P-caleosin isoform recently identified in the pollen oil bodies of lily; caleosin genes from the same lineage tended to be clustered together in the phylogenetic tree. A special motif was determined to be related with the classification of caleosins, which may have resulted from a deletion in sub I and sub III occurring after the evolutionary divergence of monocot and dicot species. Additionally, several segmentally and tandem-duplicated gene pairs were identified from seven species, and further analysis revealed that caleosins of different species did not share a common expansion model. The ages of each pair of duplications were calculated, and most were consistent with the time of genome-wide duplication events in each species. Functional divergence analysis showed that changes in functional constraints have occurred between subfamilies I/IV, II/IV, and II/V, and some critical amino acid sites were identified during the functional divergence. Additional

  18. Nursing students' critical thinking disposition according to academic level and satisfaction with nursing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Hee; Moon, Seongmi; Kim, Eun Jung; Kim, Young-Ju; Lee, Sunhee

    2014-01-01

    The development of critical thinking dispositions has become an important issue in nursing education in Korea. Nursing colleges in Korea have developed teaching strategies and curricula that focus on developing critical thinking dispositions. It is an imperative step that evaluates the changing pattern and development of students' critical thinking dispositions. This study identified critical thinking dispositions of Korean nursing students according to academic level and satisfaction with nursing. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among 1074 students in four colleges who completed the self-reported Critical Thinking Disposition Scale. Descriptive and univariate general linear model analyses were performed. The critical thinking disposition score increased according to academic level until junior year, after which it decreased in the senior year. Nursing students who were satisfied with nursing reported higher levels of critical thinking than those who were not satisfied or who responded neutrally. The critical thinking scores of nursing students not satisfied with nursing dropped greatly in the senior year. These results suggest the importance of targeting the development of curriculum and teaching methods for seniors and students who have a lower level of satisfaction with nursing to increase their critical thinking dispositions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Detector positioning for the initial subcriticality level determination in accelerator-driven systems

    SciTech Connect

    Uyttenhove, W.; Van Den Eynde, G.; Baeten, P.; Kochetkov, A.; Vittiglio, G.; Wagemans, J.; Lathouwers, D.; Kloosterman, J. L.; Van Der Hagen, T. J. H. H.; Wols, F.; Billebaud, A.; Chabod, S.; Thybault, H. E.

    2012-07-01

    Within the GUINEVERE project (Generation of Uninterrupted Intense Neutrons at the lead Venus Reactor) carried out at SCK-CEN in Mol, the continuous deuteron accelerator GENEPI-3C was coupled to the VENUS-F fast simulated lead-cooled reactor. Today the FREYA project (Fast Reactor Experiments for hYbrid Applications) is ongoing to study the neutronic behavior of this Accelerator Driven System (ADS) during different phases of operation. In particular the set-up of a monitoring system for the subcriticality of an ADS is envisaged to guarantee safe operation of the installation. The methodology for subcriticality monitoring in ADS takes into account the determination of the initial subcriticality level, the monitoring of reactivity variations, and interim cross-checking. At start-up, the Pulsed Neutron Source (PNS) technique is envisaged to determine the initial subcriticality level. Thanks to its reference critical state, the PNS technique can be validated on the VENUS-F core. A detector positioning methodology for the PNS technique is set up in this paper for the subcritical VENUS-F core, based on the reduction of higher harmonics in a static evaluation of the Sjoestrand area method. A first case study is provided on the VENUS-F core. This method can be generalised in order to create general rules for detector positions and types for full-scale ADS. (authors)

  20. Criticality Safety Evaluation of Hanford Site High Level Waste Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    ROGERS, C.A.

    2000-02-17

    This criticality safety evaluation covers operations for waste in underground storage tanks at the high-level waste tank farms on the Hanford site. This evaluation provides the bases for criticality safety limits and controls to govern receipt, transfer, and long-term storage of tank waste. Justification is provided that a nuclear criticality accident cannot occur for tank farms operations, based on current fissile material and operating conditions.

  1. Modulating Expression of Peripherin/rds in Transgenic Mice: Critical Levels and the Effect of Overexpression

    PubMed Central

    Nour, May; Ding, Xi-Qin; Stricker, Heidi; Fliesler, Steven J.; Naash, Muna I.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE Mutations in the photoreceptor-specific protein peripherin/rds are associated with multiple retinal diseases. To date, attempts to achieve complete structural and functional rescue in animal models of peripherin/rds-induced retinal degeneration have not been successful. Gene therapy – directed approaches have been hindered by the haploinsufficiency phenotype, which dictates well-regulated expression of peripherin/rds protein levels. METHODS Using a transgenic mouse line expressing wild-type peripherin/rds (NMP), the authors evaluated the critical in vivo level of peripherin/rds needed to maintain photoreceptor structure and ERG function and assessed the consequences of peripherin/rds overexpression in both rods and cones by Western blot and immunoprecipitation analyses, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and electroretinography. The NMP transgene included a C-terminal modification (P341Q) to facilitate detection of the transgenic protein in the presence of wild-type peripherin/rds, using the monoclonal antibody 3B6. RESULTS Peripherin/rds protein levels in NMP homozygotes were ~60% of wild-type levels. Western blot and immunoprecipitation analyses confirmed normal biochemical properties of the NMP protein when compared with wild-type peripherin/rds. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated appropriate localization of transgenic peripherin/rds protein to the disc rim region of photoreceptor outer segments. Total peripherin/rds levels in the retina were modulated by crossing NMP transgenic mice into different rds genetic backgrounds. A positive correlation was observed between peripherin/rds expression levels and the structural and functional integrity of photoreceptor outer segments. Overexpression of peripherin/rds caused no detectable adverse effects on rod or cone structure and function. CONCLUSIONS These findings may have significant implications regarding therapeutic intervention in peripherin/rds-associated retinal diseases. PMID:15277471

  2. Utilization of critical periods during development to study the effects of low levels of environmental agents

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, L. B.

    1980-01-01

    Careful definition of critical periods in the development of selected characters can result in experimental systems that may be highly useful in studying risk at low levels of exposure. Three examples are presented. Epidemiological investigations can lose much of their value unless critical periods are known for the end points being studied.

  3. On the Determination of the Critical Level of Market Concentration in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borland, Melvin V.; Howsen, Roy M.

    1993-01-01

    Attempts to estimate a critical level of market concentration within the educational sector for Kentucky. The critical Herfindahl was estimated at 0.50. Counties experiencing a Herfindahl index at or above this number can expect, on average, a 1.6 percentage point decrease (or a 3% reduction) in student achievement scores. (MLH)

  4. Integrating Levels of Critical Thinking into Writing Assignments for Introductory Psychology Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, A. Sandra

    Short analytical writing exercises were designed to develop critical thinking and writing skills; stimulate creative thinking and writing; promote learning of psychological concepts; and to assess student knowledge. Design of these assignments was based on Bloom's taxonomy of multiple levels of critical thinking: recall, comprehension,…

  5. Instructors' Positive Emotions: Effects on Student Engagement and Critical Thinking in U.S. and Chinese Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Jibiao

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we used the broaden-and-build theory and emotional response theory as the framework to examine the effects of instructors' positive emotions on student engagement and critical thinking in U.S. and Chinese classrooms, as well as the mediating role of students' positive emotions in their relationships. MANOVA results revealed no…

  6. Instructors' Positive Emotions: Effects on Student Engagement and Critical Thinking in U.S. and Chinese Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Jibiao

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we used the broaden-and-build theory and emotional response theory as the framework to examine the effects of instructors' positive emotions on student engagement and critical thinking in U.S. and Chinese classrooms, as well as the mediating role of students' positive emotions in their relationships. MANOVA results revealed no…

  7. Retrieved waste properties and high-level waste critical component ratios for privatization waste feed delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, B.B.

    1998-03-04

    The purpose for this document is to provide the basis for the retrieved waste properties and high-level waste critical component ratios specified in the System Specification for the Double-Shell Tank System.

  8. Family presence during resuscitation: A Canadian Critical Care Society position paper

    PubMed Central

    Oczkowski, Simon JW; Mazzetti, Ian; Cupido, Cynthia; Fox-Robichaud, Alison E

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that patient outcomes are not affected by the offering of family presence during resuscitation (FPDR), and that psychological outcomes are neutral or improved in family members of adult patients. The exclusion of family members from the resuscitation area should, therefore, be reassessed. OBJECTIVE: The present Canadian Critical Care Society position paper is designed to help clinicians and institutions decide whether to incorporate FPDR as part of their routine clinical practice, and to offer strategies to implement FPDR successfully. METHODS: The authors conducted a literature search of the perspectives of health care providers, patients and families on the topic of FPDR, and considered the relevant ethical values of beneficence, nonmaleficence, autonomy and justice in light of the clinical evidence for FPDR. They reviewed randomized controlled trials and observational studies of FPDR to determine strategies that have been used to screen family members, select appropriate chaperones and educate staff. RESULTS: FPDR is an ethically sound practice in Canada, and may be considered for the families of adult and pediatric patients in the hospital setting. Hospitals that choose to implement FPDR should develop transparent policies regarding which family members are to be offered the opportunity to be present during the resuscitation. Experienced chaperones should accompany and support family members in the resuscitation area. Intensive educational interventions and increasing experience with FPDR are associated with increased support for the practice from health care providers. CONCLUSIONS: FPDR should be considered to be an important component of patient and family-centred care. PMID:26083541

  9. A Multicenter, Randomized Trial of Ramped Position vs Sniffing Position During Endotracheal Intubation of Critically Ill Adults.

    PubMed

    Semler, Matthew W; Janz, David R; Russell, Derek W; Casey, Jonathan D; Lentz, Robert J; Zouk, Aline N; deBoisblanc, Bennett P; Santanilla, Jairo I; Khan, Yasin A; Joffe, Aaron M; Stigler, William S; Rice, Todd W

    2017-10-01

    Hypoxemia is the most common complication during endotracheal intubation of critically ill adults. Intubation in the ramped position has been hypothesized to prevent hypoxemia by increasing functional residual capacity and decreasing the duration of intubation, but has never been studied outside of the operating room. Multicenter, randomized trial comparing the ramped position (head of the bed elevated to 25°) with the sniffing position (torso supine, neck flexed, and head extended) among 260 adults undergoing endotracheal intubation by pulmonary and critical care medicine fellows in four ICUs between July 22, 2015, and July 19, 2016. The primary outcome was lowest arterial oxygen saturation between induction and 2 minutes after intubation. Secondary outcomes included Cormack-Lehane grade of glottic view, difficulty of intubation, and number of laryngoscopy attempts. The median lowest arterial oxygen saturation was 93% (interquartile range [IQR], 84%-99%) with the ramped position vs 92% (IQR, 79%-98%) with the sniffing position (P = .27). The ramped position appeared to increase the incidence of grade III or IV view (25.4% vs 11.5%, P = .01), increase the incidence of difficult intubation (12.3% vs 4.6%, P = .04), and decrease the rate of intubation on the first attempt (76.2% vs 85.4%, P = .02), respectively. In this multicenter trial, the ramped position did not improve oxygenation during endotracheal intubation of critically ill adults compared with the sniffing position. The ramped position may worsen glottic view and increase the number of laryngoscopy attempts required for successful intubation. ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT02497729; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. New stomatal flux-based critical levels for ozone effects on vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Gina; Pleijel, Håkan; Braun, Sabine; Büker, Patrick; Bermejo, Victoria; Calvo, Esperanza; Danielsson, Helena; Emberson, Lisa; Fernández, Ignacio González; Grünhage, Ludger; Harmens, Harry; Hayes, Felicity; Karlsson, Per-Erik; Simpson, David

    2011-09-01

    The critical levels for ozone effects on vegetation have been reviewed and revised by the LRTAP Convention. Eight new or revised critical levels based on the accumulated stomatal flux of ozone (POD Y, the Phytotoxic Ozone Dose above a threshold flux of Y nmol m -2 PLA s -1, where PLA is the projected leaf area) have been agreed. For each receptor, data were combined from experiments conducted under naturally fluctuating environmental conditions in 2-4 countries, resulting in linear dose-response relationships with response variables specific to each receptor ( r2 = 0.49-0.87, p < 0.001 for all). For crops, critical levels were derived for effects on wheat (grain yield, grain mass, and protein yield), potato (tuber yield) and tomato (fruit yield). For forest trees, critical levels were derived for effects on changes in annual increment in whole tree biomass for beech and birch, and Norway spruce. For (semi-)natural vegetation, the critical level for effects on productive and high conservation value perennial grasslands was based on effects on important component species of the genus Trifolium (clover species). These critical levels can be used to assess protection against the damaging effects of ozone on food security, important ecosystem services provided by forest trees (roundwood production, C sequestration, soil stability and flood prevention) and the vitality of pasture.

  11. Nuclear criticality safety assessment of the low level radioactive waste disposal facility trenches

    SciTech Connect

    Kahook, S.D.

    1994-04-01

    Results of the analyses performed to evaluate the possibility of nuclear criticality in the Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (LLRWDF) trenches are documented in this report. The studies presented in this document are limited to assessment of the possibility of criticality due to existing conditions in the LLRWDF. This document does not propose nor set limits for enriched uranium (EU) burial in the LLRWDF and is not a nuclear criticality safety evaluation nor analysis. The calculations presented in the report are Level 2 calculations as defined by the E7 Procedure 2.31, Engineering Calculations.

  12. Factors Associated with Failure of Non-invasive Positive Pressure Ventilation in a Critical Care Helicopter Emergency Medical Service.

    PubMed

    Lee, James S; O'Dochartaigh, Domhnall; MacKenzie, Mark; Hudson, Darren; Couperthwaite, Stephanie; Villa-Roel, Cristina; Rowe, Brian H

    2015-06-01

    Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) is used to treat severe acute respiratory distress. Prehospital NIPPV has been associated with a reduction in both in-hospital mortality and the need for invasive ventilation. The authors of this study examined factors associated with NIPPV failure and evaluated the impact of NIPPV on scene times in a critical care helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS). Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation failure was defined as the need for airway intervention or alternative means of ventilatory support. A retrospective chart review of consecutive patients where NIPPV was completed in a critical care HEMS was conducted. Factors associated with NIPPV failure in univariate analyses and from published literature were included in a multivariable, logistic regression model. From a total of 44 patients, NIPPV failed in 14 (32%); a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)<15 at HEMS arrival was associated independently with NIPPV failure (adjusted odds ratio 13.9; 95% CI, 2.4-80.3; P=.003). Mean scene times were significantly longer in patients who failed NIPPV when compared with patients in whom NIPPV was successful (95 minutes vs 51 minutes; 39.4 minutes longer; 95% CI, 16.2-62.5; P=.001). Patients with a decreased level of consciousness were more likely to fail NIPPV. Furthermore, patients who failed NIPPV had significantly longer scene times. The benefits of NIPPV should be balanced against risks of long scene times by HEMS providers. Knowing risk factors of NIPPV failure could assist HEMS providers to make the safest decision for patients on whether to initiate NIPPV or proceed directly to endotracheal intubation prior to transport.

  13. Treatment de-escalation in HPV-positive oropharyngeal carcinoma: ongoing trials, critical issues and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mirghani, H; Amen, F; Blanchard, P; Moreau, F; Guigay, J; Hartl, D M; Lacau St Guily, J

    2015-04-01

    Due to the generally poor prognosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), treatment has been intensified, these last decades, leading to an increase of serious side effects. High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection has been recently etiologically linked to a subset of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), which is on the increase. These tumors are different, at the clinical and molecular level, when compared to tumors caused by traditional risk factors. Additionally, their prognosis is much more favorable which has led the medical community to consider new treatment strategies. Indeed, it is possible that less intensive treatment regimens could achieve similar efficacy with less toxicity and improved quality of life. Several clinical trials, investigating different ways to de-escalate treatment, are currently ongoing. In this article, we review these main approaches, discuss the rationale behind them and the issues raised by treatment de-escalation in HPV-positive OPSCC.

  14. DDE in birds' eggs: Comparisons of two methods for estimating critical levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    The sample egg technique and eggshell thickness-residue regression analysis were comparatively evaluated as tools in estimating critical levels of DDE in birds? eggs that seriously affect reproductive successa nd population starts....In comparing critical values of DDE that were derived from the two methods, the estimates were lower using the sample egg technique for both the Brown Pelican (3 ?g/g vs 8 ?g/g) and the Black-crowned Night-Heron (12?g/g/ vs 54 ?g/g) assuming a critical value of eggshell thinning at 20%....Extension of the regression line beyond the eggshell thickness-DDE residue data base is likely to result in spurious critical values of DDE. When sufficient thickness and residue data are available for estimating critical values of DDE from the regression equation, the estimates are meaningful but are likely to be inflated because adverse effects unrelated to eggshell thinning such as parental behavior and embryotoxicity unrelated to eggshell deficiencies are not taken into account.....Establishing critical levels of pollutants in eggs and tissues is a necessary procedure in assessing effects of these chemicals on individuals and populations of sensitive species. There are inherent difficulties in quantifying the effects of any pollutant on population trends and declines in productivity. The sample egg technique is apparently a more sensitive method for estimating critical levels of DDE, but some subjective interpretation is required for results obtained by both methods.

  15. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in critical and palliative care settings: understanding the goals of therapy.

    PubMed

    Curtis, J Randall; Cook, Deborah J; Sinuff, Tasnim; White, Douglas B; Hill, Nicholas; Keenan, Sean P; Benditt, Joshua O; Kacmarek, Robert; Kirchhoff, Karin T; Levy, Mitchell M

    2007-03-01

    Although noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) is a widely accepted treatment for some patients with acute respiratory failure, the use of NPPV in patients who have decided to forego endotracheal intubation is controversial. Therefore, the Society of Critical Care Medicine charged this Task Force with developing an approach for considering use of NPPV for patients who choose to forego endotracheal intubation. The Task Force met in person once, by conference call twice, and wrote this document during six subsequent months. We reviewed English-language literature on NPPV for acute respiratory failure. SYNTHESIS AND OVERVIEW: The use of NPPV for patients with acute respiratory failure can be classified into three categories: 1) NPPV as life support with no preset limitations on life-sustaining treatments, 2) NPPV as life support when patients and families have decided to forego endotracheal intubation, and 3) NPPV as a palliative measure when patients and families have chosen to forego all life support, receiving comfort measures only. For each category, we reviewed the rationale and evidence for NPPV, key points to communicate to patients and families, determinants of success and failure, appropriate healthcare settings, and alternative approaches if NPPV fails to achieve the original goals. This Task Force suggests an approach to use of NPPV for patients and families who choose to forego endotracheal intubation. NPPV should be applied after careful discussion of the goals of care, with explicit parameters for success and failure, by experienced personnel, and in appropriate healthcare settings. Future studies are needed to evaluate the clinical outcomes of using NPPV for patients who choose to forego endotracheal intubation and to examine the perspectives of patients, families, and clinicians on use of NPPV in these contexts.

  16. Critical exposure level of cadmium for elevated urinary metallothionein-An occupational population study in China

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Liang; Jin Taiyi . E-mail: tyjin@shmu.edu.cn; Huang, Bo; Nordberg, Gunnar; Nordberg, Monica

    2006-08-15

    Cadmium is a well-known nephrotoxic agent with extremely long biological half-time of 15-30 years in humans. To prevent nephrotoxicity induced by cadmium, it is necessary to identify specific and sensitive biomarkers of cadmium exposure and renal damage, and to define critical exposure levels related to minimal nephrotoxicity in humans. In this study, urinary cadmium (UCd) and blood cadmium (BCd) were used as cadmium exposure indicators, urinary {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin (UB2M), N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucosaminidase (UNAG) and albumin (UALB) were applied as the effect biomarkers of tubular and glomerular dysfunction. The relationship between urinary metallothionein (UMT) and cadmium exposure biomarkers as well as effect biomarkers was examined. Significant correlations were found between the UMT and BCd, and UCd. At the same time, UB2M, UALB and UNAG showed positive correlation with UMT as well. According to this result, cadmium-exposed individuals with renal dysfunction excreted more metallothionein than those without. Dose-response relationships between UCd and urinary indicators of renal dysfunction were studied. The critical concentration of UCd was quantitatively estimated by the benchmark dose (BMD) method. The lower confidence limit of the BMD-10 (BMDL) of UCd (3.1 {mu}g/g Cr) related to increased excretion of urinary metallothionein was slightly higher than that for UNAG (2.7 {mu}g/g Cr), but lower than those of UB2M (3.4 {mu}g/g Cr) and UALB (4.2 {mu}g/g Cr). The results demonstrate that UMT may be used as a sensitive biomarker of renal tubular dysfunction in cadmium-exposed populations.

  17. Students' Critical Thinking Ability: Description Based on Academic Level and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zetriuslita, Hj.; Ariawan, Rezi; Nufus, Hayatun

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to describe students' critical thinking ability based on the level academic and gender. The populations of this study were 132 students participating in five classes of Calculus course. The research data obtained through technical tests and interview techniques. This study found that the high level of capability, both male…

  18. Urine levels of drugs for which Triage DOA screening was positive.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Fumio

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between urine levels of target drugs of abuse for which Triage DOA gave positive results, as well as the cut-off levels for these drugs. Thirty-eight forensic urine samples positive for commonly abused drugs were involved. Of these samples, 12 were positive for barbiturates (BAR), 11 for benzodiazepines (BZO), 8 for opiates (OPI), 7 for amphetamines (AMP), and 4 for tricyclic antidepressants (TCA). In the BAR-positive urine samples, phenobarbital, amobarbital or barbital was detected at concentrations higher than cut-off levels. In the BZO-positive samples, diazepam, nordiazepam, triazolam, nitrazepam and/or midazolam was detected at concentrations lower than cut-off levels; in the triazolam-involved urine, alpha-hydroxytriazolam, a metabolite of triazolam, showed concentrations higher than cut-off level. In the AMP-positive samples, methamphetamine was detected at concentrations higher than cut-off level. Urine samples positive for OPI contained total dihydrocodeine, codeine or morphine at concentrations higher than cut-off levels. In TCA-positive samples, amitriptyline was detected at concentrations higher or lower than cut-off level, and clomipramine was detected at a concentration much lower than cut-off level. Metabolites of BZO and TCA, which are not typically analyzed by instrumental procedures, may cross-react to varying degrees with the antibodies used for Triage DOA.

  19. The Career Development of Women in Executive Level Positions in Information Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordova-Wentling, Rose Mary; Thomas, Steven P.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an in-depth understanding of career development for women in executive level positions in information technology. The study examined the barriers that hindered and the factors that assisted the women in achieving executive level positions. Furthermore, this study obtained an in-depth understanding of the…

  20. Positioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conone, Ruth M.

    The key to positioning is the creation of a clear benefit image in the consumer's mind. One positioning strategy is creating in the prospect's mind a position that takes into consideration the company's or agency's strengths and weaknesses as well as those of its competitors. Another strategy is to gain entry into a position ladder owned by…

  1. [Relationship between changes of increased amylase or lipase levels and pancreas injury in critically ill children].

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    , white blood cell count, procalcitonin, calcium, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine, urea nitrogen, lactate dehydrogenase, CKMB among the three groups were statistically significant(χ(2)=59.485, 27.634, 125.564, 102.258, 10.175, 27.338, 80.616, 140.521, 72.830, 72.136, P all <0.05). (5) The differences of occurrence rates of myocardial damage, liver injury, kidney injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, intracranial hypertension syndrome, stress ulcer, coagulation disorders, circulatory dysfunction, severe sepsis, multiple organ dysfunction (MODS) among the three groups were statistically significant(χ(2)=8.826, 17.864, 49.061, 96.221, 106.918, 80.559, 30.355, 99.183, 196.412, 133.887, 154.239, 9.206, P all <0.01). (6) The median of survival table of children with normal pancreas was 75 days, the median of survival table of children with elevated amylase or lipase was 24 days.(7) The risk factors of elevated amylase or lipase were age, convulsions, consciousness, BE, PCT, calcium, mechanical ventilation, severe sepsis and MODS(OR=1.155, 1.491, 2.237, 0.949, 0.604, 1.008, 0.660, 1.907, 0.836, P all<0.05). The occurrence rate of hyperamylasemia or high lipase levels in critically ill children were lower than adults, elevated pancreatic enzymes was accompanied by the progression of critical illness, pancreatic enzymes elevated probably due to pancreatic damage, which positively correlated with severity of the disease and the prognosis.

  2. Positional role and competitive-level differences in elite-level men's basketball players.

    PubMed

    Ben Abdelkrim, Nidhal; Chaouachi, Anis; Chamari, Karim; Chtara, Mokhtar; Castagna, Carlo

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the physical attributes of elite men's basketball players according to age and specific individual positional roles. Forty-five players from 3 national basketball teams (Under-18 years, Under-20 years, and Senior) were measured for anthropometry (height, body mass, percentage body fat), explosive power (5 jumps and vertical jump), speed (5-m, 10-m, and 30-m sprint), agility (T-test), strength (bench press and squat 1 repetition maximum [1RM]), and intermittent high-intensity endurance performance (Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test [Yo-Yo IR1]). Data on match frequency, training routines, and playing experience were also collected. Under-18 players were significantly (p < 0.05) shorter and lighter than both Senior and Under-20 players but showed higher (p < 0.05) percentage body fat. Under-20 and Senior players were faster and had better explosive-power and agility (p < 0.05) performances than Under-18 players. Bench press and squat 1RMs were higher in Senior players (p < 0.05) compared with the other groups. There were significant difference in the Yo-Yo IR1 performance among groups (Senior > Under-20 > Under-18, p < 0.05). Centers and power forwards were the tallest and the heaviest (p < 0.05). The Yo-Yo IR1 performance was higher (p < 0.01) in point guards than in centers. Point guards showed also better agility and 5- and 10-m performances. Power forwards and centers were stronger than the rest of players' positions in the bench press 1RM (p < 0.01). These results showed the existence of age and positional role differences in fitness performance in men's basketball. Differences were particularly evident in intermittent high-intensity endurance and agility performance. Sprint training possibly should be individualized when dealing with positional roles in elite men's basketball. Strength and conditioning coaches should use Yo-Yo IR1 to assess specific endurance in players of different age and positional role.

  3. Elevated Omentin Serum Levels Predict Long-Term Survival in Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Luedde, Mark; Benz, Fabian; Niedeggen, Jennifer; Vucur, Mihael; Hippe, Hans-Joerg; Spehlmann, Martina E.; Schueller, Florian; Loosen, Sven; Frey, Norbert; Trautwein, Christian; Koch, Alexander; Luedde, Tom; Tacke, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Omentin, a recently described adipokine, was shown to be involved in the pathophysiology of inflammatory and infectious diseases. However, its role in critical illness and sepsis is currently unknown. Materials and Methods. Omentin serum concentrations were measured in 117 ICU-patients (84 with septic and 33 with nonseptic disease etiology) admitted to the medical ICU. Results were compared with 50 healthy controls. Results. Omentin serum levels of critically ill patients at admission to the ICU or after 72 hours of ICU treatment were similar compared to healthy controls. Moreover, circulating omentin levels were independent of sepsis and etiology of critical illness. Notably, serum concentrations of omentin could not be linked to concentrations of inflammatory cytokines or routinely used sepsis markers. While serum levels of omentin were not predictive for short term survival during ICU treatment, low omentin concentrations were an independent predictor of patients' overall survival. Omentin levels strongly correlated with that of other adipokines (e.g., leptin receptor or adiponectin), which have also been identified as prognostic markers in critical illness. Conclusions. Although circulating omentin levels did not differ between ICU-patients and controls, elevated omentin levels were predictive for an impaired patients' long term survival. PMID:27867249

  4. Healthcare librarians and the delivery of critical appraisal training: attitudes, level of involvement and support.

    PubMed

    Maden-Jenkins, Michelle

    2010-12-01

    Although healthcare librarians are undertaking training in critical appraisal skills, what is not so clear is the impact of the training on the understanding and dissemination of these skills. This study aims to examine the attitudes of healthcare librarians towards delivering critical appraisal training and their level of involvement. A questionnaire survey of 57 library services across 48 NHS Trust Library Services in north-west England followed up with 21 semi-structured interviews. Seventy-three per cent of respondents felt that they ought to be involved in delivering critical appraisal training, however less than a third (29%) are actually involved. Librarians are involved in critical appraisal facilitation at various levels. Debate continues over the extent of librarian involvement in delivering critical appraisal training. As long as healthcare librarians recognise their own capabilities and identify the boundaries within which they feel comfortable then there is no reason why they should not be involved in delivering critical appraisal training. © 2010 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2010 Health Libraries Group.

  5. A critical state model for mudrock behavior at high stress levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidari, M.; Nikolinakou, M. A.; Flemings, P. B.

    2016-12-01

    Recent experimental work has documented that the compression behavior, friction angle, and lateral stress ratio (k0) of mudrocks vary over the stress range of 1 to 100 MPa. We integrate these observations into a critical state model. The internal friction angle and the slope of the compression curve are key parameters in a mudrock critical state model. Published models assume that these parameters do not depend on the stress level, and hence predict lateral stress and normalized strength ratios that do not change with the stress level. However, recent experimental data on resedimented mudrock samples from Eugene Island, Gulf of Mexico, demonstrate that all these parameters vary considerably with the stress level (Casey and Germaine, 2013; Casey et al., 2015). To represent these variations, we develop an enhanced critical state model that uses a stress-level-dependent friction angle and a curvilinear compression curve. We show that this enhanced model predicts the observed variations of the lateral stress and strength ratios. The successful performance of our model indicates that the critical state theory developed for soil can predict mudrock nonlinear behavior at high stress levels and thus can be used in modeling geologic systems. Casey, B., Germaine, J., 2013. Stress Dependence of Shear Strength in Fine-Grained Soils and Correlations with Liquid Limit. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng. 139, 1709-1717. Casey, B., Germaine, J., Flemings, P.B., Fahy, B.P., 2015. Estimating horizontal stresses for mudrocks under one-dimensional compression. Mar. Pet. Geol. 65, 178-186.

  6. Dose consequences from a postulated criticality occurring in a low-level waste disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Broadhead, B.L.; Childs, R.L.; Hopper, C.M.; Parks, C.V.

    1997-12-01

    Evaluations were done to determine conditions that could permit nuclear criticality with fissile uranium in low-level waste (LLW) facilities and to estimate potential radiation exposures to personnel if there were such an accident. Simultaneous hydrogeochemical and nuclear criticality studies were done (1) to identity realistic scenarios for uranium migration and concentration increase at LLW disposal facilities, (2) to model groundwater transport of uranium and subsequent concentration via sorption or precipitation, (3) to evaluate the potential for nuclear criticality resulting from potential increases in uranium concentration over disposal limits, and (4) to estimate potential radiation exposures to personnel resulting from criticality consequences. This paper presents the details of the radiation exposure calculations relying on the conditions as determined from the preceding studies detailed in a cited reference.

  7. Existence and concentration of positive solutions for fractional nonlinear Schrödinger equation with critical growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Xudong; Zhang, Jihui

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we study the existence and concentration behavior of positive solutions for the following critical fractional nonlinear Schrödinger equation ℏ2 s(-Δ) su +V (x ) u =u2s*-1+f (u ) with u (x ) >0 , u ∈Hs(RN ) , where ℏ is a positive parameter, s ∈(0 ,1 ) , N >2 s and 2s*=2/N N -2 s are the fractional critical exponent, and f is a continuous subcritical nonlinearity. Suppose the potential V(x) satisfying infRNV (x ) >0 and there exists an open bounded domain Ω of RN such that infx ∈∂ ΩV (x ) >infx ∈ΩV (x ) =m0. By using variational methods, we show that the problem has a positive bound state solution which concentrates around a local minimum point of V as ℏ tends to zero. Moreover, we investigate regularity and decay properties of the solution.

  8. Pharmacist independent prescribing in critical care: results of a national questionnaire to establish the 2014 UK position.

    PubMed

    Bourne, Richard S; Whiting, Paul; Brown, Lisa S; Borthwick, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Clinical pharmacist practice is well established in the safe and effective use of medicines in the critically ill patient. In the UK, independent pharmacist prescribers are generally recognised as a valuable and desirable resource. However, currently, there are only anecdotal reports of pharmacist-independent prescribing in critical care. The aim of this questionnaire was to determine the current and proposed future independent prescribing practice of UK clinical pharmacists working in adult critical care. The questionnaire was distributed electronically to UK Clinical Pharmacy Association members (closed August 2014). There were 134 responses to the questionnaire (response rate at least 33%). Over a third of critical care pharmacists were practising independent prescribers in the specialty, and 70% intended to be prescribers within the next 3 years. Pharmacists with ≥5 years critical care experience (P < 0.001) or worked in a team (P = 0.005) were more likely to be practising independent prescribers. Pharmacists reported significant positives to the use of independent prescribing in critical care both in patient care and job satisfaction. Independently, prescribing was routine in: dose adjustment for multi-organ failure, change in route or formulation, correction prescribing errors, therapeutic drug monitoring and chronic medication. The majority of pharmacist prescribers reported they spent ≤5% of their clinical time prescribing and accounted for ≤5% of new prescriptions in critical care patients. Most critical care pharmacists intend to be practising as independent prescribers within the next 3 years. The extent and scope of critical care pharmacist prescribing appear to be of relatively low volume and within niche prescribing areas. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  9. Positioning Sex Educators: A Critical Ethnography of a Professional Development Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Brigitte C.

    2013-01-01

    In this ethnographic research, I offer an analysis of a state-sponsored professional development workshop for sex educators. Positioning theory is used to understand how the lived space of the workshop -- including texts, talk and silence -- positions sex education teachers as professionals and practitioners with certain (limited) speaking rights…

  10. Positioning Sex Educators: A Critical Ethnography of a Professional Development Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Brigitte C.

    2013-01-01

    In this ethnographic research, I offer an analysis of a state-sponsored professional development workshop for sex educators. Positioning theory is used to understand how the lived space of the workshop -- including texts, talk and silence -- positions sex education teachers as professionals and practitioners with certain (limited) speaking rights…

  11. A Critical Review of Self-Perceptions and the Positive Illusory Bias in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Julie Sarno; Goldfine, Matthew E.; Evangelista, Nicole M.; Hoza, Betsy; Kaiser, Nina M.

    2007-01-01

    Despite significant functional problems in multiple domains, children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) unexpectedly provide extremely positive reports of their own competence in comparison to other criteria reflecting actual competence. This counterintuitive phenomenon is known as the positive illusory bias (PIB). This article…

  12. Positioning and Classroom Literacy Research: A Polyvocal Re-presentational Critical Re-view.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udell, Risa; Meyer, Richard

    In an effort to create a polyphonic critical response to the roles of the researcher and the researched in classroom-based literacy research, this paper is formatted as a play--indented parts are direct quotes from others spoken by the speakers. It articulates questions of classroom literacy research as it considers the methods, goals, and…

  13. The Politics of Publishing: Positioning Critical Voices in an ELT Journal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Brian

    1997-01-01

    Emphasizes that applied linguistics, especially within the context of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) instruction, faces a critical juncture and that publishing activities will influence the assessment of the discourses available to reconceptualize the field. Examines the process of editing an article about teaching the Gulf War to ESL students…

  14. Expanding Opportunity through Critical Restorative Justice Portraits of Resilience at the Individual and School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, David; Wadhwa, Anita

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we tackle the disadvantaging conditions of zero tolerance policies in school settings and advocate using an alternative approach--critical restorative justice through peacemaking circles--to nurture resilience and open opportunity at the school level. In the process, this article builds on theory and qualitative research and…

  15. A Critical Study of the Subject of Education at Graduate Level in Karachi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakil, Anila Fatima; Faizi, Waqar Un Nisa; Ahmed, Syed Munir; Jabeen, Farkhanda

    2015-01-01

    This research is a critical study of instructional topics and their effectiveness in the subject of Education taught in colleges at graduate level vis-à-vis our current needs and the advancements in this field through research in all over the world. It also emphasizes the importance of curriculum review and revision for overcoming obstacles in…

  16. Leveling of Critical Thinking Abilities of Students of Mathematics Education in Mathematical Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasiman

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to determine the leveling of critical thinking abilities of students of mathematics education in mathematical problem solving. It includes qualitative-explorative study that was conducted at University of PGRI Semarang. The generated data in the form of information obtained problem solving question and interview guides. The…

  17. Developing Critical Awareness at the Middle Level: Using Texts as Tools for Critique and Pleasure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Holly; Freedman, Lauren

    2005-01-01

    Young adolescents need and want more than a diet of worksheets and rote skills that asks them to think little and talk less. This book presents an instructional approach that mixes critique and pleasure, allowing middle-level students to read literature they enjoy while they develop critical awareness and address issues of social justice.…

  18. Malaysian Rural ESL Students' Critical Thinking Literacy Level: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baki, Nurshila Umar; Rafik-Galea, Shameem; Nimehchisalem, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been much interest in the development of thinking skills in the education circles in Malaysia. Nevertheless, more effort needs to be placed on providing skills in developing the critical thinking literacy level of English as a second language (ESL) secondary school students, and its implication on the practice of…

  19. Expanding Opportunity through Critical Restorative Justice Portraits of Resilience at the Individual and School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, David; Wadhwa, Anita

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we tackle the disadvantaging conditions of zero tolerance policies in school settings and advocate using an alternative approach--critical restorative justice through peacemaking circles--to nurture resilience and open opportunity at the school level. In the process, this article builds on theory and qualitative research and…

  20. Critical levels and loads and the regulation of industrial emissions in northwest British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williston, P.; Aherne, J.; Watmough, S.; Marmorek, D.; Hall, A.; de la Cueva Bueno, P.; Murray, C.; Henolson, A.; Laurence, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    Northwest British Columbia, Canada, a sparsely populated and largely pristine region, is targeted for rapid industrial growth owing to the modernization of an aluminum smelter and multiple proposed liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities. Consequently, air quality in this region is expected to undergo considerable changes within the next decade. In concert, the increase in LNG capacity driven by gas production from shale resources across North America has prompted environmental concerns and highlighted the need for science-based management decisions regarding the permitting of air emissions. In this study, an effects-based approach widely-used to support transboundary emissions policy negotiations was used to assess industrial air emissions in the Kitimat and Prince Rupert airsheds under permitted and future potential industrial emissions. Critical levels for vegetation of SO2 and NO2 and critical loads of acidity and nutrient nitrogen for terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems were estimated for both regions and compared with modelled concentration and deposition estimates to identify the potential extent and magnitude of ecosystem impacts. The critical level for SO2 was predicted to be exceeded in an area ranging from 81 to 251 km2 in the Kitimat airshed owing to emissions from an existing smelter, compared with <1 km2 in Prince Rupert under the lowest to highest emissions scenarios. In contrast, the NO2 critical level was not exceeded in Kitimat, and ranged from 4.5 to 6 km2 in Prince Rupert owing to proposed LNG related emissions. Predicted areal exceedance of the critical load of acidity for soil ranged from 1 to 28 km2 in Kitimat and 4-10 km2 in Prince Rupert, while the areal exceedance of empirical critical load for nutrient N was predicted to be greater in the Prince Rupert airshed (20-94 km2) than in the Kitimat airshed (1-31 km2). The number of lakes that exceeded the critical load of acidity did not vary greatly across emissions scenarios in the Kitimat (21

  1. Normative data for critical speed and D' for high-level male rugby players.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Mark; Clark, Ida E; Jamnick, Nick; Strom, Cody; Pettitt, Robert W

    2017-03-08

    The critical speed (CS) concept helps characterize the aerobic and anaerobic fitness of an athlete. Rugby players should hypothetically have modest CS values but extremely high curvature constant (D') values, yet, normative data are currently unavailable. To develop normative data of CS and D' for high-level male rugby players, a total of 30 male rugby players, were recruited from the Eastern Cape of South Africa. All subjects performed the running 3-min all-out exercise test (3 MT) using global positioning system (GPS) technology to determine CS and D'. The GPS data were used to determine the total distance and velocities performed, and to examine for pacing affects. Summary statistics of mean ± SD are provided. High total running speeds for the initial 150 s (S150s = 5.79 ± 0.59 m/s) and total distance (3 MT distance = 871.5 ± 71.9 m) were observed. A total of 13 of 30 subjects surpassed the 300 m D' value (mean D' = 288.2 ± 49.1 m). The CS of the total group was 3.87 ± 0.55 m/s. All 3MT-derived data was categorized using stanine tables that allowed for the generation of normative data to which future performances, performances across similar sporting domains and more accurate contrasts across the literature can be compared. Skewing of CS and D' was observed between forwards and backs, therefore between-group differences in neither CS nor D' were observed (p > 0.05). Comparisons with previous literature indicate male rugby players have higher CS values than female rugby players. When compared with Olympic distance runners, male rugby players have markedly higher D' values and markedly lower CS values. The 3 MT provides a useful procedure for assessing and prescribing high-intensity interval training for rugby athletes.

  2. Measuring precise sea level from a buoy using the Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rocken, Christian; Kelecy, Thomas M.; Born, George H.; Young, Larry E.; Purcell, George H., Jr.; Wolf, Susan Kornreich

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of using the Global Positioning System (GPS) for accurate sea surface positioning was examined. An experiment was conducted on the Scripps pier at La Jolla, California from December 13-15, 1989. A GPS-equipped buoy was deployed about 100 m off the pier. Two fixed reference GPS receivers, located on the pier and about 80 km away on Monument Peak, were used to estimate the relative position of the floater. Kinematic GPS processing software, developed at the National Geodetic Survey, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's GPS Infrared Processing System software were used to determine the floater position relative to land-fixing receivers. Calculations were made of sea level and ocean wave spectra from GPS measurements. It is found that the GPS sea level for the short 100 m baseline agrees with the PPT sea level at the 1 cm level and has an rms variation of 5 mm over a period of 4 hours.

  3. Measuring precise sea level from a buoy using the Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rocken, Christian; Kelecy, Thomas M.; Born, George H.; Young, Larry E.; Purcell, George H., Jr.; Wolf, Susan Kornreich

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of using the Global Positioning System (GPS) for accurate sea surface positioning was examined. An experiment was conducted on the Scripps pier at La Jolla, California from December 13-15, 1989. A GPS-equipped buoy was deployed about 100 m off the pier. Two fixed reference GPS receivers, located on the pier and about 80 km away on Monument Peak, were used to estimate the relative position of the floater. Kinematic GPS processing software, developed at the National Geodetic Survey, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's GPS Infrared Processing System software were used to determine the floater position relative to land-fixing receivers. Calculations were made of sea level and ocean wave spectra from GPS measurements. It is found that the GPS sea level for the short 100 m baseline agrees with the PPT sea level at the 1 cm level and has an rms variation of 5 mm over a period of 4 hours.

  4. From Bottom-Up Approaches to Levels of Organization and Extended Critical Transitions

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Giuseppe; Montévil, Maël; Pocheville, Arnaud

    2012-01-01

    Biological thinking is structured by the notion of level of organization. We will show that this notion acquires a precise meaning in critical phenomena: they disrupt, by the appearance of infinite quantities, the mathematical (possibly equational) determination at a given level, when moving at an “higher” one. As a result, their analysis cannot be called genuinely bottom-up, even though it remains upward in a restricted sense. At the same time, criticality and related phenomena are very common in biology. Because of this, we claim that bottom-up approaches are not sufficient, in principle, to capture biological phenomena. In the second part of this paper, following (Bailly, 1991b), we discuss a strong criterium of level transition. The core idea of the criterium is to start from the breaking of the symmetries and determination at a “first” level in order to “move” at the others. If biological phenomena have multiple, sustained levels of organization in this sense, then they should be interpreted as extended critical transitions. PMID:22934001

  5. D-dimer levels and cerebral infarction in critically ill cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jeong-Am; Bang, Oh Young; Lee, Geun-Ho

    2017-08-30

    D-dimer levels have been used in the diagnosis of a variety of thrombosis-related diseases. In this study, we evaluated whether measuring D-dimer levels can help to diagnose cerebral infarction (CI) in critically ill cancer patients. We retrospectively evaluated all cancer patients who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) between March 2010 and February 2014 at the medical oncology intensive care unit (ICU) of Samsung Medical Center. Brain MRI scanning was performed when CI was suspected due to acute neurological deficits. We compared D-dimer levels between patients ultimately diagnosed as having or not having CI and analyzed diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) lesion patterns. A total of 88 patients underwent brain MRI scanning due to clinical suspicion of CI; altered mental status and unilateral hemiparesis were the most common neurological deficits. CI was ultimately diagnosed in 43 (49%) patients. According to the DWI patterns, multiple arterial infarctions (40%) were more common than single arterial infarctions (9%). Cryptogenic stroke etiologies were more common (63%) than determined etiologies. There was no significant difference in D-dimer levels between patients with and without CI (P = 0.319). Although D-dimer levels were not helpful in diagnosing CI, D-dimer levels were associated with cryptogenic etiologies in critically ill cancer patients; D-dimer levels were higher in the cryptogenic etiology group than in the determined etiology group or the non-infarction group (P = 0.001). In multivariate analysis, elevated D-dimer levels (> 8.89 μg/mL) were only associated with cryptogenic stroke (adjusted OR 5.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.876-15.857). Abnormal D-dimer levels may support the diagnosis of cryptogenic stroke in critically ill cancer patients.

  6. High glucose intake and glycaemic level in critically ill neonates with inherited metabolic disorders of intoxication.

    PubMed

    Grimaud, Marion; de Lonlay, Pascale; Dupic, Laurent; Arnoux, Jean-Baptiste; Brassier, Anais; Hubert, Philippe; Lesage, Fabrice; Oualha, Mehdi

    2016-06-01

    To investigate glycaemic levels in critically ill neonates with inherited metabolic disorders of intoxication. Thirty-nine neonates with a median age of 7 days (0-24) were retrospectively included (urea cycle disorders (n = 18), maple syrup disease (n = 13), organic acidemias (n = 8)). Twenty-seven neonates were intubated, 21 were haemodialysed and 6 died. During the first 3 days, median total and peak blood glucose (BG) levels were 7.1 mmol/L (0.9-50) and 10 mmol/L (5.1-50), respectively. The median glucose intake rate was 11 mg/kg/min (2.7-15.9). Fifteen and 23 neonates exhibited severe hyperglycaemia (≥2 BG levels >12 mmol/L) and mild hyperglycaemia (≥2 BG levels >7 and ≤12 mmol/L), respectively. Glycaemic levels and number of hyperglycaemic neonates decreased over the first 3 days (p < 0.001) while total glucose intake rate was stable (p = 0.11). Enteral route of glucose intake was associated with a lower number of hyperglycaemic neonates (p = 0.04) and glycaemic level (p = 0.02). Hyperglycaemia is common in critically ill neonates receiving high glucose intake with inherited metabolic disorders of intoxication. Physicians should decrease the rate of total glucose intake and begin enteral feeding as quickly as possible in cases of persistent hyperglycaemia. • The risk of hyperglycaemia in the acute phase of critical illness is high. What is New: • Hyperglycaemia is common in the initial management of critically ill neonates with inherited metabolic disorders of intoxication receiving high glucose intake.

  7. The Association of Levels of and Decline in Grip Strength in Old Age with Trajectories of Life Course Occupational Position.

    PubMed

    Kröger, Hannes; Fritzell, Johan; Hoffmann, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    The study of the influence of life course occupational position (OP) on health in old age demands analysis of time patterns in both OP and health. We study associations between life course time patterns of OP and decline in grip strength in old age. We analyze 5 waves from the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe (n = 5108, ages 65-90). We use a pattern-mixture latent growth model to predict the level and decline in grip strength in old age by trajectory of life course OP. We extend and generalize the structured regression approach to establish the explanatory power of different life course models for both the level and decline of grip strength. Grip strength declined linearly by 0.70 kg (95% CI -0.74;-0.66) for men and 0.42 kg (95% CI -0.45;-0.39) for women per year. The level of men's grip strength can best be explained by a critical period during midlife, with those exposed to low OP during this period having 1.67 kg (95% CI -2.33;-1.00) less grip strength. These differences remain constant over age. For women, no association between OP and levels of or decline in grip strength was found. Men's OP in midlife seems to be a critical period for the level of grip strength in old age. Inequalities remain constant over age. The integration of the structured regression approach and latent growth modelling offers new possibilities for life course epidemiology.

  8. A Critical Role of Lyst-Interacting Protein5, a Positive Regulator of Multivesicular Body Biogenesis, in Plant Responses to Heat and Salt Stresses1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Yang, Yan; Wang, Zhe; Zhou, Jie; Fan, Baofang; Chen, Zhixiang

    2015-01-01

    Multivesicular bodies (MVBs) are unique endosomes containing vesicles in the lumen and play critical roles in many cellular processes. We have recently shown that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Lyst-Interacting Protein5 (LIP5), a positive regulator of the Suppressor of K+ Transport Growth Defect1 (SKD1) AAA ATPase in MVB biogenesis, is a critical target of the mitogen-activated protein kinases MPK3 and MPK6 and plays an important role in the plant immune system. In this study, we report that the LIP5-regulated MVB pathway also plays a critical role in plant responses to abiotic stresses. Disruption of LIP5 causes compromised tolerance to both heat and salt stresses. The critical role of LIP5 in plant tolerance to abiotic stresses is dependent on its ability to interact with Suppressor of K+ Transport Growth Defect1. When compared with wild-type plants, lip5 mutants accumulate increased levels of ubiquitinated protein aggregates and NaCl under heat and salt stresses, respectively. Further analysis using fluorescent dye and MVB markers reveals that abiotic stress increases the formation of endocytic vesicles and MVBs in a largely LIP5-dependent manner. LIP5 is also required for the salt-induced increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species, which have been implicated in signaling of salt stress responses. Basal levels of LIP5 phosphorylation by MPKs and the stability of LIP5 are elevated by salt stress, and mutation of MPK phosphorylation sites in LIP5 reduces the stability and compromises the ability to complement the lip5 salt-sensitive mutant phenotype. These results collectively indicate that the MVB pathway is positively regulated by pathogen/stress-responsive MPK3/6 through LIP5 phosphorylation and plays a critical role in broad plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. PMID:26229051

  9. Both Positive and Negative Fluid Balance May Be Associated With Reduced Long-Term Survival in the Critically Ill.

    PubMed

    Balakumar, Vikram; Murugan, Raghavan; Sileanu, Florentina E; Palevsky, Paul; Clermont, Gilles; Kellum, John A

    2017-08-01

    Among critically ill patients with acute kidney injury, exposure to positive fluid balance, compared with negative fluid balance, has been associated with mortality and impaired renal recovery. However, it is unclear whether positive and negative fluid balances are associated with poor outcome compared to patients with even fluid balance (euvolemia). In this study, we examined the association between exposure to positive or negative fluid balance, compared with even fluid balance, on 1-year mortality and renal recovery. Retrospective cohort study. Eight medical-surgical ICUs at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA. Critically ill patients admitted between July 2000 and October 2008. None. Among 18,084 patients, fluid balance was categorized as negative (< 0%), even (0% to < 5%), or positive (≥ 5%). Following propensity matching, positive fluid balance, compared with even or negative fluid balance, was associated with increased mortality (30.3% vs 21.1% vs 22%, respectively; p < 0.001). Using Gray's model, negative fluid balance, compared with even fluid balance, was associated with lower short-term mortality (adjusted hazard ratio range, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.68-0.96) but higher long-term mortality (adjusted hazard ratio range, 1.16-1.22; p = 0.004). Conversely, positive fluid balance was associated with higher mortality throughout 1-year (adjusted hazard ratio range, 1.30-1.92; p < 0.001), which was attenuated in those who received renal replacement therapy (positive fluid balance × renal replacement therapy interaction (adjusted hazard ratio range, 0.43-0.89; p < 0.001). Of patients receiving renal replacement therapy, neither positive (adjusted odds ratio, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.68-1.4) nor negative (adjusted odds ratio, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.43-1.55) fluid balance was associated with renal recovery. Among critically ill patients, exposure to positive or negative fluid balance, compared with even fluid balance, was associated with higher 1-year mortality

  10. Existence of multiple positive solutions for Schrödinger-Poisson systems with critical growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Tian, Lixin; Xu, Junxiang; Zhang, Fubao

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we are concerned with the existence, multiplicity and concentration of positive ground state solutions for the semilinear Schrödinger-Poisson system -\\varepsilon2 Δ u+a(x)u+λφ(x)u=b(x)f(u)+|u|4u,&xin{R}3, -\\varepsilon2 Δφ=u2, uin H1({R}3),&xin{R}3, where {\\varepsilon > 0} is a small parameter, f is a continuous, superlinear and subcritical nonlinearity, and {λ≠0} is a real parameter. Suppose that a( x) has at least one global minimum and b( x) has at least one global maximum. We prove that there are two families of positive solutions for sufficiently small {\\varepsilon > 0}, of which one is concentrating on the set of minimal points of a and the other on the sets of maximal points of b. Moreover, we obtain some sufficient conditions for the nonexistence of positive ground state solutions.

  11. Supine position and REM dependence in obstructive sleep apnea : Critical model considerations.

    PubMed

    Steffen, A; Maibücher, L; König, I R

    2017-01-01

    When considering supine position and REM dependence, many studies refer to the traditional definition in which obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity is at least doubled in the corresponding position/sleep stage (Cartwright index). The lack of consideration of the time spent in that particular sleep situation can lead to clinical bias. Two cohorts of patients with at least moderate OSA were analyzed retrospectively for anthropometric associations and correlations with OSA severity. One group consisted of 48 patients diagnosed using a polygraph, and the other group of 222 patients underwent polysomnography. First, the conventional Cartwright index was used, and a modified index was later applied to integrate the relative time component for REM sleep and the supine position. Less than a fifth of the patients fulfilled the classic conditions for supine position or REM sleep dependency. There were no definitive cut-offs in the classic or modified Cartwright index with regard to daytime sleepiness. Both indices show there was a correlation between OSA severity and being overweight. The modified Cartwright index allowed us to identify borderline cases that were characterized by a very low or high amount of time spent in the supine position or REM sleep situation. Therapy effects that could have been biased only by varying amounts of time spent in the supine position could be better controlled for. Future studies will possibly include various other ratios besides the previously accepted 2:1 ratio when different statistical parameters are considered, such as the reduction of OSA severity or therapy adherence.

  12. [Supine position and REM dependence in obstructive sleep apnea. Critical model considerations. German version].

    PubMed

    Steffen, A; Maibücher, L; König, I R

    2017-02-01

    When considering supine position and REM dependence, many previous studies have referred to the traditional definition in which obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity is at least doubled in the corresponding position/sleep stage (Cartwright index). The lack of consideration of the time spent in the particular sleep situation could cause clinical bias. Two cohorts of patients with at least moderate OSA were analyzed retrospectively for anthropometric associations with OSA severity. One group consisted of 48 patients diagnosed using a polygraph and the other group of 222 patients underwent polysomnography. First, the conventional Cartwright index was used, and a modified index was later applied to integrate the relative time component for REM sleep and the supine position. Less than a fifth of the patients fulfilled the classic conditions for supine position or REM sleep dependency. There were no definitive cutoffs in the classic or modified Cartwright index with regard to daytime sleepiness. Both indices show there was a correlation between OSA severity and being overweight. The modified Cartwright index allowed identification of borderline cases that were characterized by a very low or high amount of time spent in the supine position or REM sleep situation. Treatment effects that could have been caused only by other components, e.g., different times spent in the supine position, could be better controlled for. In future studies there will be various other ratios besides the previously accepted 2:1 ratio when different statistical parameters are considered, such as the reduction of OSA severity or adherence to treatment.

  13. Parents with high levels of communicative and critical health literacy are less likely to vaccinate their children.

    PubMed

    Amit Aharon, Anat; Nehama, Haim; Rishpon, Shmuel; Baron-Epel, Orna

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the relationship between parents' health literacy and decision-making regarding child vaccinations. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 731 parents of children aged 3-4 years. Functional, communicative, and critical health literacy (HL), knowledge, beliefs, reliability of the vaccine's information resources, and vaccine's attitudes were measured. Attitudes included three types: pro-vaccine attitudes, anti-vaccine attitudes, and attitudes regarding mandatory vaccination. Path analysis was conducted to explore direct and indirect associations of compliance with childhood vaccinations and HL. Communicative HL has a significant negative direct association with compliance with vaccinations (ß=-0.06, p<0.05). High functional and critical HL have significant negative indirect associations with vaccinations through parents' attitudes regarding vaccines. Higher levels of perception of reliability of informal information resources are associated with non-compliance. The results indicate that parents with high functional, communicative, and critical HL are more at risk of not vaccinating their children. The results are contrary to expectations in which people with high HL adopt more positive health behaviors. Public health professionals may need more sophisticated communication methods to transfer messages regarding vaccines to parents in order to prevent decline in vaccine coverage rates, taking into account levels of trust and health literacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Restructuring support staff classification levels for academic health sciences library positions.

    PubMed Central

    McCann, J C; Davis, S E; Trainor, D J; Waller, D K; Greenblatt, R B

    1990-01-01

    Nonprofessional library support staff traditionally hold what are considered to be low-paying, nonchallenging positions. These negative factors make retaining creative and productive employees difficult. This article outlines the approach taken at the Medical College of Georgia's Robert B. Greenblatt, M.D. Library to devise a structure of library staff positions that becomes progressively more demanding. A new nine-level Library Staff Classification Plan resulted. This plan also enables and encourages employees to acquire more skills and to accept more responsibility in order to qualify for higher-level library positions or to advance their present position to receive comparable rewards. The plan expresses the level of responsibilities expected, the employee qualifications desired, and lists representative duties across the spectrum of typical library tasks. PMID:2393758

  15. Critical Incidents in Sustaining School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreou, Theresa E.; McIntosh, Kent; Ross, Scott W.; Kahn, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify, categorize, and describe practitioners' perspectives regarding factors that help and hinder sustainability of Tier I (universal) systems within School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS). Seventeen participants involved in sustaining Tier I SWPBIS over several years within a…

  16. Critical Incidents in Sustaining School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreou, Theresa E.; McIntosh, Kent; Ross, Scott W.; Kahn, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify, categorize, and describe practitioners' perspectives regarding factors that help and hinder sustainability of Tier I (universal) systems within School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS). Seventeen participants involved in sustaining Tier I SWPBIS over several years within a…

  17. Critical Incidents in Sustaining School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreou, Theresa E.; McIntosh, Kent; Ross, Scott W.; Kahn, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify, categorize, and describe practitioners' perspectives regarding factors that help and hinder sustainability of Tier I (universal) systems within School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS). Seventeen participants involved in sustaining Tier I SWPBIS over several years…

  18. Confidentiality, Equity, and Silence: A Critical Look at School Policy for HIV Positive Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenreich, Megan

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the author questions whether confidentiality laws interfere with the effort to meet the educational needs of HIV positive children. Laws intended to provide children with equal access to education often function primarily to keep schools "safe" for dominant groups rather than to serve more marginalized children most effectively.…

  19. Occupational Education in the Great Cities; A Statement of Position and Critical Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Great Cities Research Council, Chicago, IL.

    A position statement developed by representatives of 16 cities to broaden vocational education opportunities and improve program quality resulted in the following principles: (1) Programs of occupational education must be an integral part of the educational process, (2) Occupational education must be sufficiently broad and varied in scope and be…

  20. Confidentiality, Equity, and Silence: A Critical Look at School Policy for HIV Positive Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenreich, Megan

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the author questions whether confidentiality laws interfere with the effort to meet the educational needs of HIV positive children. Laws intended to provide children with equal access to education often function primarily to keep schools "safe" for dominant groups rather than to serve more marginalized children most effectively.…

  1. Opt Out: Women with Children Leaving Mid-Level Student Affairs Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebreard, Dana

    2010-01-01

    This phenomenological study is about the decision-making process of women with young children at the mid-level student affairs position who decide to opt out of their career for a minimum of one year, and for some, return to higher education. The study is based on interviews with 17 mid-level college administrators and mothers of young children,…

  2. Opt Out: Women with Children Leaving Mid-Level Student Affairs Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebreard, Dana

    2010-01-01

    This phenomenological study is about the decision-making process of women with young children at the mid-level student affairs position who decide to opt out of their career for a minimum of one year, and for some, return to higher education. The study is based on interviews with 17 mid-level college administrators and mothers of young children,…

  3. Noise levels at critical points in the municipality of Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa, Arturo; Garcia, Jesus; Macias, Jorge; Orozco, Martha; Garcia, Javier; Delgadillo, Alan

    2002-11-01

    Studies of acoustic conditions are planning tools on which we can diagnose the problem of noise pollution in the cities. The first study on noise pollution made in the city was made by the University of Guadalajara in 1995 and updated in 1998 covering with measuring points the city center. This paper discusses the problem of noise pollution by motor vehicles at critical points and covers a total of 105 points. The study also analyzes the problem of noise pollution base on the community annoyance from which a regulation policy should derive. Results of the study show that the most critical points are located within zone 1 (center) where Leq levels within the range of 70-85 dB were found. Such levels exceed by far the international standard of 65 dB as recommended for ambient noise by the World Health Organization.

  4. Air pollution critical levels in central México protected natural areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Suarez, L.; Andraca Ayala, G.; Mar Morales, B.; Garcia-reynoso, J.; Torres-JArdon, R.

    2013-05-01

    All the Natural Protected Areas (NPA) within the Central Mexico City Belt comprising five metropolitan areas including MCMA are under strong impact from air pollution. Ozone, nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide exceed critical levels for several types of vegetation. In this work we show the critical level maps for ozone, nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide for Sierra of Chichinautzin, the mountain that acts as the physical barrier to air pollution dispersion south of Mexico City Metropolitan Area, what makes of it a receptor area to MCMA pollution. Maps were made combining model outputs from WRF-Chem and passive samplers. We also describe a proposal to extend the observation network to all natural protected areas within the Central Mexico City Belt.

  5. Critical levels of brain atrophy associated with homocysteine and cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    de Jager, Celeste A

    2014-09-01

    Few B-vitamin trials to lower homocysteine (Hcy) have reported evidence of beneficial effects on cognition in older adults with cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's disease. This article reviews the role of Hcy in cognitive decline. It also considers some reasons why meta-analyses have failed to find effects of B-vitamin treatment. Findings from the successful VITACOG trial are examined from a new perspective of critical levels of Hcy and brain atrophy that may impact on the efficacy of B-vitamin treatment. It appears that there is a critical level of brain shrinkage, possibly mediated by elevated Hcy, which when reached, results in cognitive decline, especially in episodic memory performance. Supplements, food sources, and effects of folic acid fortification are discussed in relation to B12 deficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Critical boron-doping levels for generation of dislocations in synthetic diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Alegre, M. P. Araújo, D.; Pinero, J. C.; Lloret, F.; Villar, M. P.; Fiori, A.; Achatz, P.; Chicot, G.; Bustarret, E.; Jomard, F.

    2014-10-27

    Defects induced by boron doping in diamond layers were studied by transmission electron microscopy. The existence of a critical boron doping level above which defects are generated is reported. This level is found to be dependent on the CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} molar ratios and on growth directions. The critical boron concentration lied in the 6.5–17.0 × 10{sup 20}at/cm{sup 3} range in the 〈111〉 direction and at 3.2 × 10{sup 21 }at/cm{sup 3} for the 〈001〉 one. Strain related effects induced by the doping are shown not to be responsible. From the location of dislocations and their Burger vectors, a model is proposed, together with their generation mechanism.

  7. Cyclones leading to positive and negative sea level extremes in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lionello, Piero; Conte, Dario; Reale, Marco

    2017-04-01

    This study describes the strong link between cyclones crossing the Mediterranean region and sea level extremes, which are mainly caused by a pressure-induced redistribution of water within the basin, though wind plays a substantial role in shallow water areas (mainly in the Gulf of Gabes and North Adriatic Sea). Cyclones produce positive and negative anomalies in different parts of the basin, depending on their positions and tracks. For example, cyclones entering from the Atlantic Ocean domain produce initially positive sea level anomalies and successively, as they continue moving along the Mediterranean branch of the storm track, negative anomalies at several coastal stations in the western Mediterranean. Cyclones generated in the Western Mediterranean cause positive sea level anomalies along most of the basin coastline, but negative anomalies along the northwestern coast. The link between cyclone position and sea level anomaly is evident for both positive and negative events, but the dependence of the magnitude of the anomaly on the value of the low-pressure minimum is much stronger for the former than for the latter.

  8. Majorization of regular measures and weights with finite and positive critical exponent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakan, Andrew; Ruscheweyh, Stephan

    2008-03-01

    For the sets , 1[less-than-or-equals, slant]p<[infinity], of positive finite Borel measures [mu] on the real axis with the set of algebraic polynomials dense in , we establish a majorization principle of their "boundaries," i.e. for every there exists such that d[mu]/d[nu][less-than-or-equals, slant]1. A corresponding principle holds for the sets , p>0, of non-negative upper semi-continuous on functions (weights) w such that is dense in the space : For every there exists such that w[less-than-or-equals, slant][omega].

  9. Physical Fitness Attributes of Team-Handball Players are Related to Playing Position and Performance Level.

    PubMed

    Massuca, Luis; Branco, Braulio; Miarka, Bianca; Fragoso, Isabel

    2015-03-01

    Investigations have reported differences amongst player position groups in elite team-Handball (HB) players. Nevertheless, studies with normative physical fitness data of the HB playing positions at more than two different levels of male HB players have not been reported yet. This study aimed: 1) to describe and compare the physical fitness (PF) attributes of male HB players in different playing positions, and 2) to determine which combination of PF measures best discriminate the performance level groups in each one of the individual HB playing position groups. One hundred and sixty-one male HB players participated in this study. The participants were divided into five playing position groups: 1) Goalkeeper (GK, n = 24), 2) Wing (W, n = 48), 3) Back left/right (BLR, n = 38), 4) Back center (BC, n = 29), 5) Pivot (Pi, n = 22), complementarily, performance level was recorded for each participant according to the national HB association, i.e. 1) Top Elite, 2) Moderate Elite, 3) Sub-Elite or, 4) Moderately Trained. Stature and body mass measures were taken from each HB player, and six fitness tests were performed (30 -m sprint, handgrip, vertical jumps-SJ and CMJ, sit-ups, and Yo-Yo IE2). Significant differences were observed between HB playing position groups in body size, speed, and lower limb power and handgrip strength. Nevertheless, 1) the performance in Yo-Yo IE2 was the best measure to discriminate the performance level groups when considering the HB goalkeeper group, HB center back group, and HB pivot group; 2) the average leg power (in squat jump) and the number of executions in sit up test successfully discriminated HB wing performance level groups; and, 3) Stature, countermovement jump height and the position in the Yo-Yo IE2, successfully discriminated HB left/right back performance level groups. It can be concluded that HB players profile, 1) differs according to HB playing position group, and, 2) for the same playing position group, it differs according

  10. Physical Fitness Attributes of Team-Handball Players are Related to Playing Position and Performance Level

    PubMed Central

    Massuca, Luis; Branco, Braulio; Miarka, Bianca; Fragoso, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Investigations have reported differences amongst player position groups in elite team-Handball (HB) players. Nevertheless, studies with normative physical fitness data of the HB playing positions at more than two different levels of male HB players have not been reported yet. Objectives: This study aimed: 1) to describe and compare the physical fitness (PF) attributes of male HB players in different playing positions, and 2) to determine which combination of PF measures best discriminate the performance level groups in each one of the individual HB playing position groups. Materials and Methods: One hundred and sixty-one male HB players participated in this study. The participants were divided into five playing position groups: 1) Goalkeeper (GK, n = 24), 2) Wing (W, n = 48), 3) Back left/right (BLR, n = 38), 4) Back center (BC, n = 29), 5) Pivot (Pi, n = 22), complementarily, performance level was recorded for each participant according to the national HB association, i.e. 1) Top Elite, 2) Moderate Elite, 3) Sub-Elite or, 4) Moderately Trained. Stature and body mass measures were taken from each HB player, and six fitness tests were performed (30 -m sprint, handgrip, vertical jumps-SJ and CMJ, sit-ups, and Yo-Yo IE2). Results: Significant differences were observed between HB playing position groups in body size, speed, and lower limb power and handgrip strength. Nevertheless, 1) the performance in Yo-Yo IE2 was the best measure to discriminate the performance level groups when considering the HB goalkeeper group, HB center back group, and HB pivot group; 2) the average leg power (in squat jump) and the number of executions in sit up test successfully discriminated HB wing performance level groups; and, 3) Stature, countermovement jump height and the position in the Yo-Yo IE2, successfully discriminated HB left/right back performance level groups. Conclusions: It can be concluded that HB players profile, 1) differs according to HB playing position group

  11. [Critical tidal level for Kandelia candel forestation in strong tidal range area].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jian-biao; Huang, Li; Chen, Shao-bo; Chi, Wei; Ding, Wen-yong; Zhou, Chao-sheng; Zheng, Chun-fang; Wang, Wen-qing

    2010-05-01

    Taking Ximen island of Yueqing bay, the biggest tidal range area among the coasts of China, as study site, an investigation was made on the survival rate, growth characteristics, and attached barnacles of 1- and 3-year-old Kandelia candel seedlings at the elevations 1.96, 1.66, 1.35, and 1.03 m above the zero tidal level of Yellow Sea. Significant differences were observed in the survival rate and growth situation of the seedlings among the elevations. There were two barnacle species, Balanus albicostatus and Balanus amphitrite amphitrite, and B. albicostatus was the major species which attached K. candel most seriously at elevation 1.35 m. The critical tidal level for K. candel in the site was 1.66 m above the zero tidal level, i.e., at least 1.29 m higher than the local mean sea level, and the flooding time per tide cycle being less than 3.65 h. Barnacle, strong tide, and extreme weather event were the main reasons for the higher critical tidal level.

  12. Correlation of end tidal and arterial carbon dioxide levels in critically Ill neonates and children.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Hiren; Kashyap, Rahul; Trivedi, Sangita

    2014-06-01

    End tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2) monitoring is considered to reflect real-time estimation of partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood (PaCO2) noninvasively. However, knowledge about its relationship with PaCO2 in critically ill pediatric and neonatal patients is limited. The primary objective was to evaluate predictive capability of end tidal carbon dioxide monitoring and secondary objective was to determine the influence of severity of lung disease on EtCO2 and PaCO2 relationship. This was a prospective, nonrandomized, consecutive enrollment study carried out in neonatal and pediatric intensive care units of a tertiary care children hospital. It was conducted in 66 neonates and 35 children receiving mechanical ventilation. Severity of lung disease was estimated by ventilation index and PaO2/FiO2 (P/F) ratio. Simultaneous recording of EtCO2 and PaCO2 levels was done and data were analyzed for correlation and agreement. In neonates, 150 EtCO2 and PaCO2 pairs were recorded. The mean weight ± SD of patients was 2.1 ± 0.63 kg. PaCO2 had a positive correlation with EtCO2 (r = 0.836, 95% CI = 0.78-0.88). P/F ratio <200 adversely affected relationship. In infants and children, 96 pairs were recorded. Mean age ± SD of patients was 4.20 ± 4.92 years and mean weight ± SD was 13.1 ± 9.49 kg. PaCO2 had an excellent correlation with EtCO2 (r = 0.914, 95% CI = 0.87 and 0.94). P/F ratio <200 adversely affected relationship. EtCO2 monitoring displayed a good validity to predict PaCO2. Correlation was affected by low P/F ratio (<200); hence, it is recommended that blood gases be measured in these patients until such time that a good relation can be established between end tidal and arterial CO2 values.

  13. Evolutionary tuning of protein expression levels of a positively autoregulated two-component system.

    PubMed

    Gao, Rong; Stock, Ann M

    2013-10-01

    Cellular adaptation relies on the development of proper regulatory schemes for accurate control of gene expression levels in response to environmental cues. Over- or under-expression can lead to diminished cell fitness due to increased costs or insufficient benefits. Positive autoregulation is a common regulatory scheme that controls protein expression levels and gives rise to essential features in diverse signaling systems, yet its roles in cell fitness are less understood. It remains largely unknown how much protein expression is 'appropriate' for optimal cell fitness under specific extracellular conditions and how the dynamic environment shapes the regulatory scheme to reach appropriate expression levels. Here, we investigate the correlation of cell fitness and output response with protein expression levels of the E. coli PhoB/PhoR two-component system (TCS). In response to phosphate (Pi)-depletion, the PhoB/PhoR system activates genes involved in phosphorus assimilation as well as genes encoding themselves, similarly to many other positively autoregulated TCSs. We developed a bacteria competition assay in continuous cultures and discovered that different Pi conditions have conflicting requirements of protein expression levels for optimal cell fitness. Pi-replete conditions favored cells with low levels of PhoB/PhoR while Pi-deplete conditions selected for cells with high levels of PhoB/PhoR. These two levels matched PhoB/PhoR concentrations achieved via positive autoregulation in wild-type cells under Pi-replete and -deplete conditions, respectively. The fitness optimum correlates with the wild-type expression level, above which the phosphorylation output saturates, thus further increase in expression presumably provides no additional benefits. Laboratory evolution experiments further indicate that cells with non-ideal protein levels can evolve toward the optimal levels with diverse mutational strategies. Our results suggest that the natural protein expression

  14. Circulating Irisin Levels Are Positively Associated with Metabolic Risk Factors in Sedentary Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, María; Moreno-Navarrete, José María; Serrano, Marta; Ortega, Francisco; Delgado, Elías; Sanchez-Ragnarsson, Cecilia; Valdés, Sergio; Botas, Patricia; Ricart, Wifredo; Fernández-Real, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A physically active life-style plays an independent role in the protection against type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Irisin, a novel exercise-induced myokine, activates thermogenesis in rodents through increasing beige fat cells abundance within white fat. We aimed to investigate circulating irisin levels in association with the degree of physical activity and various metabolic parameters in humans. Methods Circulating irisin levels (ELISA) and metabolic parameters were analyzed in 428 subjects (195 men/233 women). Participants were classified according to their self-reported physical activity and to their area of residence. Results Circulating irisin levels were higher in active than in sedentary subjects (p= 0.006). Rural inhabitants showed higher circulating irisin levels than urban subjects (p < 0.0001). The increase in irisin levels related to an active lifestyle was only observed in rural citizens (p = 0.014). Among sedentary participants, irisin levels were positively associated with metabolic risk factors (BMI, fasting insulin, HOMA and fasting triglycerides). The area of residence (β= - 0.592, p= < 0.0001) contributed independently to circulating irisin levels variance after controlling for age, gender, BMI, HOMAIR, triglycerides and physical activity. Conclusions In sedentary participants, circulating irisin levels were positively associated with parameters related to an increased cardiometabolic risk. The present study confirmed that an active lifestyle increases circulating irisin levels, but only among subjects living in a rural environment. Area of residence might be a determinant of irisin levels. PMID:25897751

  15. A critical review of HER2-positive gastric cancer evaluation and treatment: from trastuzumab, and beyond.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Martín, Carlos; Lopez-Rios, Fernando; Aparicio, Jorge; Barriuso, Jorge; García-Carbonero, Rocio; Pazo, Roberto; Rivera, Fernando; Salgado, Mercedes; Salud, Antonieta; Vázquez-Sequeiros, Enrique; Lordick, Florian

    2014-08-28

    Identification of the importance of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) status, biomarker testing and the development of anti-HER2 treatments have changed the prognosis of breast and gastric cancers. The addition of trastuzumab to chemotherapy has improved outcomes for patients with HER2-positive metastatic adenocarcinoma of the stomach and gastroesophageal junction, but some relevant issues remain to be elucidated or will emerge with new drugs. This article reviews the current state of HER2 in gastric cancer focusing on diagnostic and anti-HER2 targeted treatment issues and the role of trastuzumab in localized disease, and its combination or integration with new therapies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Anthropometric, Physical, and Age Differences by the Player Position and the Performance Level in Volleyball

    PubMed Central

    Palao, José M.; Manzanares, Policarpo; Valadés, David

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to study the ranges in height, weight, age, spike reach, and block reach of volleyball players in relation to the player position and the level of their respective teams in peak performance. The analysed sample included 1454 male and 1452 female players who participated in the volleyball competitions of the Olympic Games and World Championships in the 2000–2012 period. A descriptive, correlational, and longitudinal design was used. The variables studied were: the player position, body height, weight, body mass index, spike reach, block reach, age, and team level. The results show differences between body height, spike and block reaches, and the age of the players by their position. These differences are related to the needs of the different positions with regard to the actions they execute. Middle-blockers, outside-hitters, and opposites have the characteristics that are most suitable for blocking and spiking, and the setters and liberos appear to have characteristics conducive to setting and receiving as well as digging, respectively. The differences found in the studied variables with regard to the playing position are related to players’ needs regarding the actions they perform. Player’s age was a variable that differentiated first teams at this level of competition for males, and physical capacities (body height, weight, spike reach, and block reach) were variables that differentiated first teams at this level of competition for females. PMID:25713683

  17. The effect of audiometric headphone position on the measurements of threshold levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffani, Jovani A.; Gerges, Samir N. Y.; Fiorini, Ana C.

    2002-05-01

    The results of audiometric tests are sensitive to the position of the headphone on the ears. Up to 30-dB differences in all frequency bands can be obtained. In this paper measurements are reported for normal audiometric tests for the same audiometer equipment varying the listener and also for different audiometric equipment for the same listener. These measurements were also carried out using an artificial head with molded external ears to give more parameter control experimental results. All the measurements were carried out in an acoustic room with very low background noise. Nine positions were used for the measurements of SPL (one reference headphone position and four positions in the up, down, left, right and four other positions on the 45 deg), for each position three locations of the headphone were used at 5 mm, 10 mm and 15 mm away from the center), totaling 45 cases. Larger differences obtained at high frequencies. 72% of the measured cases give higher threshold levels and 28% gives lower levels than reference position. The results can give good contribution to the confidence limits and repeatability factor for audiometric testing.

  18. [GEIPC-SEIMC and GTEI-SEMICYUC recommendations for antibiotic treatment of gram positive coccal infections in the critical patient].

    PubMed

    Olaechea Astigarraga, P M; Garnacho Montero, J; Grau Cerrato, S; Rodríguez Colomo, O; Palomar Martínez, M; Zaragoza Crespo, R; Muñoz García-Paredes, P; Cerdá Cerdá, E; Alvarez Lerma, F

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, an increment of infections caused by gram-positive cocci has been documented in nosocomial and hospital-acquired infections. In diverse countries, a rapid development of resistance to common antibiotics against gram-positive cocci has been observed. This situation is exceptional in Spain but our country might be affected in the near future. New antimicrobials active against these multi-drug resistant pathogens are nowadays available. It is essential to improve our current knowledge about pharmacokinetic properties of traditional and new antimicrobials to maximize its effectiveness and to minimize toxicity. These issues are even more important in critically ill patients because inadequate empirical therapy is associated with therapeutic failure and a poor outcome. Experts representing two scientific societies (Grupo de estudio de Infecciones en el Paciente Critico de la SEIMC and Grupo de trabajo de Enfermedades Infecciosas de la SEMICYUC) have elaborated a consensus document based on the current scientific evidence to summarize recommendations for the treatment of serious infections caused by gram-positive cocci in critically ill patients.

  19. Determination of vertical deflections using the global positioning system and geodetic leveling

    SciTech Connect

    Solar, T.; Carlson, A.E. Jr.; Evans, A.G.

    1989-07-01

    The capabilities of the Global Positioning System (GPS) for accurately determining geodetic quantities are well established. Nevertheless, no comparison between deflections of the vertical as determined through GPS with leveling and values conventionally computer by astrogeodetic methods has yet been published. This investigation demonstrates that the accurate deflections of the vertical components ({eta}, {xi}) can be obtained independently of classical astronomic observations by combining geodetic leveling with satellite GOS positioning. The approach uses a radial configuration of baselines to determine the best (in a least square sense) values of ({eta}, {xi}) at the central station.

  20. Marginal bone level changes in association with different vertical implant positions: a 3-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon-Tae; Lim, Gyu-Hyung; Lee, Jae-Hong; Jeong, Seong-Nyum

    2017-08-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the relationship between the vertical position of the implant-abutment interface and marginal bone loss over 3 years using radiological analysis. In total, 286 implant surfaces of 143 implants from 61 patients were analyzed. Panoramic radiographic images were taken immediately after implant installation and at 6, 12, and 36 months after loading. The implants were classified into 3 groups based on the vertical position of the implant-abutment interface: group A (above bone level), group B (at bone level), and group C (below bone level). The radiographs were analyzed by a single examiner. Changes in marginal bone levels of 0.99±1.45, 1.13±0.91, and 1.76±0.78 mm were observed at 36 months after loading in groups A, B, and C, respectively, and bone loss was significantly greater in group C than in groups A and B. The vertical position of the implant-abutment interface may affect marginal bone level change. Marginal bone loss was significantly greater in cases where the implant-abutment interface was positioned below the marginal bone. Further long-term study is required to validate our results.

  1. Light is a positive regulator of strigolactone levels in tomato roots.

    PubMed

    Koltai, Hinanit; Cohen, Maja; Chesin, Ori; Mayzlish-Gati, Einav; Bécard, Guillaume; Puech, Virginie; Ben Dor, Bruria; Resnick, Natalie; Wininger, Smadar; Kapulnik, Yoram

    2011-11-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) or closely related molecules were recently identified as phytohormones, acting as long-distance branching factors that suppress growth of pre-formed axillary buds in the shoot. The SL signaling pathways and light appear to be connected, as SLs were shown to induce light-regulated pathways and to mimic light-adapted plant growth. However, it is not yet clear how light affects SL levels. Here, we examined the effect of different light intensities on SL levels in tomato roots. The results show that light intensity, above a certain threshold, is a positive regulator of SL levels and of Sl-CCD7 transcription; Sl-CCD7 is involved in SLs biosynthesis in tomato. Moreover, SL accumulation in plant roots is shown to be a time-dependent process. At least some of the similar effects of light and SLs on plant responses might result from a positive effect of light on SL levels.

  2. Simulated microgravity: critical review on the use of random positioning machines for mammalian cell culture.

    PubMed

    Wuest, Simon L; Richard, Stéphane; Kopp, Sascha; Grimm, Daniela; Egli, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Random Positioning Machines (RPMs) have been used since many years as a ground-based model to simulate microgravity. In this review we discuss several aspects of the RPM. Recent technological development has expanded the operative range of the RPM substantially. New possibilities of live cell imaging and partial gravity simulations, for example, are of particular interest. For obtaining valuable and reliable results from RPM experiments, the appropriate use of the RPM is of utmost importance. The simulation of microgravity requires that the RPM's rotation is faster than the biological process under study, but not so fast that undesired side effects appear. It remains a legitimate question, however, whether the RPM can accurately and reliably simulate microgravity conditions comparable to real microgravity in space. We attempt to answer this question by mathematically analyzing the forces working on the samples while they are mounted on the operating RPM and by comparing data obtained under real microgravity in space and simulated microgravity on the RPM. In conclusion and after taking the mentioned constraints into consideration, we are convinced that simulated microgravity experiments on the RPM are a valid alternative for conducting examinations on the influence of the force of gravity in a fast and straightforward approach.

  3. Simulated Microgravity: Critical Review on the Use of Random Positioning Machines for Mammalian Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Wuest, Simon L.; Richard, Stéphane; Kopp, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    Random Positioning Machines (RPMs) have been used since many years as a ground-based model to simulate microgravity. In this review we discuss several aspects of the RPM. Recent technological development has expanded the operative range of the RPM substantially. New possibilities of live cell imaging and partial gravity simulations, for example, are of particular interest. For obtaining valuable and reliable results from RPM experiments, the appropriate use of the RPM is of utmost importance. The simulation of microgravity requires that the RPM's rotation is faster than the biological process under study, but not so fast that undesired side effects appear. It remains a legitimate question, however, whether the RPM can accurately and reliably simulate microgravity conditions comparable to real microgravity in space. We attempt to answer this question by mathematically analyzing the forces working on the samples while they are mounted on the operating RPM and by comparing data obtained under real microgravity in space and simulated microgravity on the RPM. In conclusion and after taking the mentioned constraints into consideration, we are convinced that simulated microgravity experiments on the RPM are a valid alternative for conducting examinations on the influence of the force of gravity in a fast and straightforward approach. PMID:25649075

  4. The journey of positioning self as both mental health nurse and qualitative researcher: a critical reflection.

    PubMed

    Brunero, S J; Jeon, Y H; Foster, K

    2015-09-01

    This paper discusses the development of a mental health nurse clinician to a mental health nurse researcher. Understanding the theoretical and professional drives that shape mental health nurses clinical practice and how that links to becoming a researcher is discussed. Mental health nurses who conduct research have to often move between their clinical roles and that of the researcher, doing this safely using a reflective supervision approach enables the nurse to conduct the research from a stronger professional and ethical standpoint. The intention of the paper is to encourage mental health nurses to engage in research and development. Shifting between the positions of a mental health nurse clinician and a qualitative researcher has some parallels to the processes in the nurse-service user relationship. This paper addresses this development from practitioner to researcher in one mental health nurse's journey through a PhD study using constructivist grounded theory. The paper examines theoretical and professional drives that have shaped my clinical practice and the role of the researcher in constructivist grounded theory, the notion of the researcher shifting between insider and outsider status, and the importance of reflexivity in conducting research. These influences will be discussed in the context of the development of a constructivist grounded theory study of the delivery of health care to service users with a mental illness in general hospital wards.

  5. Randomized, controlled trial of three levels of critical incident stress intervention.

    PubMed

    Macnab, Andrew; Sun, Charles; Lowe, John

    2003-01-01

    Stress debriefing following exposure to a critical incident is becoming more prevalent. Its aim is to prevent or minimize the development of excessive stress response symptoms that lead to loss of productivity or effectiveness in the workplace or at home. There is little evidence that any form of psychological debriefing is effective. This study evaluated the effectiveness of three intervention strategies, and attempted to correlate the symptoms with the severity of the incident and level of intervention. A randomized, controlled trial of three levels of critical stress intervention was conducted in the British Columbia Ambulance Service (BCAS), in British Columbia, Canada, among paramedics and emergency medical technicians (EMTs), reporting critical incident stress. Outcomes were measured at one week (Stanford Acute Stress Reaction Questionnaire (SASRQ), the Life Impact Score (LIS), and Schedule of Recent Events (SRE)), and at three months and six months following the intervention (Impact of Events (IE), Coping Mechanisms, LIS, and SRE). Fifty calls were received during the 26-month study period (<1 per 10,000 BCAS response calls): 23 were by third parties, but the involved EMT did not call; nine were placed by crew unwilling to participate in the study; 18 subjects enrolled, but six completed no forms. No correlation was found between severity of the incident and scores on the SASRQ, IE, or LIS, or between any of these scores. There was no consistent pattern in the stress scores over time. Requests for critical incident stress intervention were uncommon. The need for intervention may not be as great as generally is assumed. Further randomized trials, ideally multicenter studies, are indicated.

  6. Implementation of CTRLPOS, a VENTURE module for control rod position criticality searches, control rod worth curve calculations, and general criticality searches

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.A.; Renier, J.P.

    1994-06-01

    A module in the VENTURE reactor analysis code system, CTRLPOS, is developed to position control rods and perform control rod position criticality searches. The module is variably dimensioned so that calculations can be performed with any number of control rod banks each having any number of control rods. CTRLPOS can also calculate control rod worth curves for a single control rod or a bank of control rods. Control rod depletion can be calculated to provide radiation source terms. These radiation source terms can be used to predict radiation doses to personnel and estimate the shielding and long-term storage requirements for spent control rods. All of these operations are completely automated. The numerous features of the module are discussed in detail. The necessary input data for the CTRLPOS module is explained. Several sample problems are presented to show the flexibility of the module. The results presented with the sample problems show that the CTRLPOS module is a powerful tool which allows a wide variety of calculations to be easily performed.

  7. Identification of the critical level of implantation of an osseointegrated prosthesis for above-knee amputees.

    PubMed

    Andrango Castro, Elder Michael; Konvickova, Svatava; Daniel, Matej; Horak, Zdenek

    2017-09-27

    The aim of our study was to identify potential critical levels of implantation of an osseointegrated prosthesis for above-knee amputees. The implant used was the OPRA system. It was inserted in the femur at four different amputation heights, characterized by their residual limb ratios (0.299, 0.44, 0.58 and 0.73). The stress and strain distribution was evaluated in the bone-implant system during walking, considering a body mass of 100 kg. Considerably high stimulus (11,489 με) in the tissue near the tip was found at the highest implantation level. All models presented small non-physiologic stress values in the tissue around the implant. The results revealed that the implantation level has a decisive effect on bone-implant performance. Mainly, the analysis indicates adverse biomechanical conditions for implantations in very short residual limbs.

  8. Positive mental health and well-being among a third level student population.

    PubMed

    Davoren, Martin P; Fitzgerald, Eimear; Shiely, Frances; Perry, Ivan J

    2013-01-01

    Much research on the health and well-being of third level students is focused on poor mental health leading to a dearth of information on positive mental health and well-being. Recently, the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being scale (WEMWBS) was developed as a measurement of positive mental health and well-being. The aim of this research is to investigate the distribution and determinants of positive mental health and well-being in a large, broadly representative sample of third level students using WEMWBS. Undergraduate students from one large third level institution were sampled using probability proportional to size sampling. Questionnaires were distributed to students attending lectures in the randomly selected degrees. A total of 2,332 self-completed questionnaires were obtained, yielding a response rate of 51% based on students registered to relevant modules and 84% based on attendance. One-way ANOVAs and multivariate logistic regression were utilised to investigate factors associated with positive mental health and well-being. The sample was predominantly female (62.66%), in first year (46.9%) and living in their parents' house (42.4%) or in a rented house or flat (40.8%). In multivariate analysis adjusted for age and stratified by gender, no significant differences in WEMWBS score were observed by area of study, alcohol, smoking or drug use. WEMWBS scores were higher among male students with low levels of physical activity (p=0.04). Men and women reporting one or more sexual partners (p<0.001) were also more likely to report above average mental health and well-being. This is the first study to examine positive mental health and well-being scores in a third level student sample using WEMWBS. The findings suggest that students with a relatively adverse health and lifestyle profile have higher than average mental health and well-being. To confirm these results, this work needs to be replicated across other third level institutions.

  9. Serum aldosterone is correlated positively to parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Brunaud, Laurent; Germain, Adeline; Zarnegar, Rasa; Rancier, Marc; Alrasheedi, Saud; Caillard, Cecile; Ayav, Ahmet; Weryha, George; Mirallie, Eric; Bresler, Laurent

    2009-12-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism is associated with an increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, mechanisms underlying this association are currently unclear. As there is clear evidence of the independent role of aldosterone on the cardiovascular system, the aim of this study was to evaluate aldosterone levels in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. A prospective study of 134 consecutive patients with primary hyperparathyroidism before and 3 months after parathyroidectomy. Pre-operative serum aldosterone and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were correlated positively in all patients (.238; P = .005). In the 62 patients (46%) that were not on antihypertensive medications, this correlation was stronger (.441; P = .0003). In the 72 patients (54%) treated with at least 1 antihypertensive medication, no correlation between preoperative aldosterone and PTH serum levels was observed. By multivariate analysis, pre-operative PTH level (.409; P = .005) was an independent predictor of aldosterone. Pre-operative PTH level >100 ng/L was an independent predictor of abnormally elevated plasma aldosterone level (odds ratio 3.5; P = .01). At 3 months after parathyroidectomy, no correlation was observed between postoperative PTH and aldosterone levels. Aldosterone is correlated positively to preoperative PTH levels in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Aldosterone might be a key mediator of cardiovascular symptoms in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.

  10. Telemarketing. Curriculum Guides and Content Outlines for Telemarketing: Entry-Level Position.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Del

    This curriculum guide and content outline for the telemarketing entry-level position contains seven sections: (1) specialized telemarketing tasks; (2) telemarketing selling skills; (3) marketing tasks; (4) business-related tasks; (5) business-specific tasks; (6) personnel/human resources-related tasks; and (7) communications and minimum skill…

  11. Classroom-Level Positive Behavior Supports in Schools Implementing SW-PBIS: Identifying Areas for Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinke, Wendy M.; Herman, Keith C.; Stormont, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the use of classroom-level behavior management strategies that align with School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SW-PBIS). Direct observations of universal classroom management strategies were conducted across 33 elementary classrooms in elementary schools implementing SW-PBIS with high fidelity. Findings…

  12. Assessment of Positive Psychology Course According to Comments and Life Satisfaction Levels of Counselor Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bas, Asli Uz

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the "Positive Psychology" course according to comments and life satisfaction levels of counselor candidates. The course was offered in Guidance and Psychological Counseling undergraduate program as an elective course. The participants of the study were 56 senior undergraduate students attended…

  13. Baseline acetylcholinesterase activity and serotonin plasma levels are not associated with delirium in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Tomasi, Cristiane Damiani; Salluh, Jorge; Soares, Márcio; Vuolo, Francieli; Zanatta, Francieli; Constantino, Larissa de Souza; Zugno, Alexandra Ioppi; Ritter, Cristiane; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether plasma serotonin levels or acetylcholinesterase activities determined upon intensive care unit admission could predict the occurrence of acute brain dysfunction in intensive care unit patients. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted with a sample of 77 non-consecutive patients observed between May 2009 and September 2010. Delirium was determined using the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit tool, and the acetylcholinesterase and serotonin measurements were determined from blood samples collected up to a maximum of 24 h after the admission of the patient to the intensive care unit. Results In the present study, 38 (49.6%) patients developed delirium during their intensive care unit stays. Neither serum acetylcholinesterase activity nor serotonin level was independently associated with delirium. No significant correlations of acetylcholinesterase activity or serotonin level with delirium/coma-free days were observed, but in the patients who developed delirium, there was a strong negative correlation between the acetylcholinesterase level and the number of delirium/coma-free days, indicating that higher acetylcholinesterase levels are associated with fewer days alive without delirium or coma. No associations were found between the biomarkers and mortality. Conclusions Neither serum acetylcholinesterase activity nor serotonin level was associated with delirium or acute brain dysfunction in critically ill patients. Sepsis did not modify these relationships. PMID:26340158

  14. Do written mandatory accreditation standards for residential care positively model learning organizations? Textual and critical discourse analysis.

    PubMed

    Bell, Erica; Robinson, Andrew; See, Catherine

    2013-11-01

    Unprecedented global population ageing accompanied by increasing complexity of aged care present major challenges of quality in aged care. In the business literature, Senge's theory of adaptive learning organisations offers a model of organisational quality. However, while accreditation of national standards is an increasing mechanism for achieving quality in aged care, there are anecdotal concerns it creates a 'minimum standards compliance mentality' and no evidence about whether it reinforces learning organisations. The research question was 'Do mandatory national accreditation standards for residential aged care, as they are written, positively model learning organisations?'. Automatic text analysis was combined with critical discourse analysis to analyse the presence of learning concepts from Senge's learning organisation theory in an exhaustive sample of national accreditation standards from 7 countries. The two stages of analysis were: (1) quantitative mapping of the presence of learning organisation concepts in standards using Bayesian-based textual analytics software and (2) qualitative critical discourse analysis to further examine how the language of standards so identified may be modelling learning organisation concepts. The learning concepts 'training', 'development', 'knowledge', and 'systems' are present with relative frequencies of 19%, 11%, 10%, and 10% respectively in the 1944 instances, in paragraph-sized text blocks, considered. Concepts such as 'team', 'integration', 'learning', 'change' and 'innovation' occur with 7%, 6%, 5%, 5%, and 1% relative frequencies respectively. Learning concepts tend to co-occur with negative rather than positive sentiment language in the 3176 instances in text blocks containing sentiment language. Critical discourse analysis suggested that standards generally use the language of organisational change and learning in limited ways that appear to model 'learning averse' communities of practice and organisational

  15. Tentative critical levels of tropospheric ozone for agricultural crops in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonekura, T.

    2010-12-01

    Ground level ozone concentrations have increased year by year in Japan. High ozone concentrations have been known to affect growth and yield of agricultural crops. In the US and Europe, much effort has been directed to establish regulatory policies such as secondary air quality standard and critical levels to protect vegetation against ozone. On the contrary, in Japan, there is a few data of agricultural crops sensitivity to ozone. Furthermore, there is no information about the ozone risk of agricultural crop loss by based on ozone index (e.g. AOT40, SUM06, W126)-crop response relationship, yet. The objects of our research are: (1) to screen sensitivity of ozone on 10 crops cultivated in urban area in Japan. (2) to establish critical levels of ozone for protecting agricultural crops based on ozone index-crop response relationship. The 10 Japanese agricultural crops such as Japanese rice, Hanegi (Welsh onion), Shungiku (Crown daisy), Saradana (Lettus), Hatsukadaikon (Radish), Kokabu (Small Turnip), Santosai (Chinese cabbage), Tasai (Spinach mustard), Komatsuna (Japanese mustard spinach) and Chingensai (Bok Choy), were fumigated to three levels of ozone (clean air (< 5 ppbv), ambient level of ozone, 1.5 times ambient ozone) in open-top chambers during 30 to 120 days. Those experiments were repeated five times during two growing season. Throughout the experimental period, the growth or yield were measured, and the relationship between growth (or yield) and ozone index was examined. As a result, the influences of ozone on growth or yield were different among 10 crops. Relatively good correlations of coefficients of determination (r2) for linear regressions to growth or yield were obtained with “8h means” and “AOT40” rather than “SUM00”, “SUM06” and “W126”. Critical level for 10 crops in terms of an AOT40 were 1.1 to 2.1 ppm h per month. The ozone sensitive crop in our study was sound to be 1.0 ppm h per month in AOT40.

  16. Reduction of false positives in lung nodule detection using a two-level neural classification.

    PubMed

    Lin, J S; Lo, S B; Hasegawa, A; Freedman, M T; Mun, S K

    1996-01-01

    The authors have developed a neural-digital computer-aided diagnosis system, based on a parameterized two-level convolution neural network (CNN) architecture and on a special multilabel output encoding procedure. The developed architecture was trained, tested, and evaluated specifically on the problem of diagnosis of lung cancer nodules found on digitized chest radiographs. The system performs automatic "suspect" localization, feature extraction, and diagnosis of a particular pattern-class aimed at a high degree of "true-positive fraction" detection and low "false-positive fraction" detection. In this paper, the authors aim at the presentation of the two-level neural classification method in reducing false-positives in their system. They employed receiver operating characteristics (ROC) method with the area under the ROC curve (A(z)) as the performance index to evaluate all the simulation results. The two-level CNN showed superior performance (A(z)=0.93) to the single-level CNN (A(z)=0.85). The proposed two-level CNN architecture is proven to be promising and to be extensible, problem-independent, and therefore, applicable to other medical or difficult diagnostic tasks in two-dimensional (2-D) image environments.

  17. Observational and model evidence for positive low-level cloud feedback.

    PubMed

    Clement, Amy C; Burgman, Robert; Norris, Joel R

    2009-07-24

    Feedbacks involving low-level clouds remain a primary cause of uncertainty in global climate model projections. This issue was addressed by examining changes in low-level clouds over the Northeast Pacific in observations and climate models. Decadal fluctuations were identified in multiple, independent cloud data sets, and changes in cloud cover appeared to be linked to changes in both local temperature structure and large-scale circulation. This observational analysis further indicated that clouds act as a positive feedback in this region on decadal time scales. The observed relationships between cloud cover and regional meteorological conditions provide a more complete way of testing the realism of the cloud simulation in current-generation climate models. The only model that passed this test simulated a reduction in cloud cover over much of the Pacific when greenhouse gases were increased, providing modeling evidence for a positive low-level cloud feedback.

  18. Critical illness research involving collection of genomic data: the conundrum posed by low levels of genomic literacy among surrogate decision makers for critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Iverson, Ellen; Celious, Aaron; Shehane, Erica; Oerke, Mandy; Warren, Victoria; Eastman, Alexander; Kennedy, Carie R; Freeman, Bradley D

    2013-07-01

    Critical illness clinical trials that entail genomic data collection pose unique challenges. In this qualitative study, we found that surrogate decision makers (SDMs) for critically ill individuals, such as those who would be approached for study participation, appeared to have a limited grasp of genomic principles. We argue that low levels of genomic literacy should neither preclude nor be in conflict with the conduct of ethically rigorous clinical trials.

  19. The Association of Levels of and Decline in Grip Strength in Old Age with Trajectories of Life Course Occupational Position

    PubMed Central

    Fritzell, Johan; Hoffmann, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    Background The study of the influence of life course occupational position (OP) on health in old age demands analysis of time patterns in both OP and health. We study associations between life course time patterns of OP and decline in grip strength in old age. Methods We analyze 5 waves from the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe (n = 5108, ages 65–90). We use a pattern-mixture latent growth model to predict the level and decline in grip strength in old age by trajectory of life course OP. We extend and generalize the structured regression approach to establish the explanatory power of different life course models for both the level and decline of grip strength. Results Grip strength declined linearly by 0.70 kg (95% CI -0.74;-0.66) for men and 0.42 kg (95% CI -0.45;-0.39) for women per year. The level of men’s grip strength can best be explained by a critical period during midlife, with those exposed to low OP during this period having 1.67 kg (95% CI -2.33;-1.00) less grip strength. These differences remain constant over age. For women, no association between OP and levels of or decline in grip strength was found. Conclusions Men’s OP in midlife seems to be a critical period for the level of grip strength in old age. Inequalities remain constant over age. The integration of the structured regression approach and latent growth modelling offers new possibilities for life course epidemiology. PMID:27232696

  20. Remarkably increased resistin levels in anti-AChR antibody-positive myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Da-Qi; Wang, Rong; Li, Ting; Li, Xin; Qi, Yuan; Wang, Jing; Yang, Li

    2015-06-15

    Resistin is a pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. To investigate serum resistin levels in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) and determine if there are associations between resistin levels and disease severity, we measured serum resistin levels in 102 patients with anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive MG (AChR-MG). We further analyzed associations between serum resistin levels and clinical variables in patients with MG. Our findings demonstrate that serum resistin levels are elevated in patients with AChR-generalized MG and AChR-MG with thymoma and are correlated with disease severity. Resistin has potential as a useful serum biomarker for inflammation in AChR-MG.

  1. Injured Fluoro-Jade-positive hippocampal neurons contain high levels of zinc after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Hellmich, Helen L; Eidson, Kristine A; Capra, Bridget A; Garcia, Jeanna M; Boone, Deborah R; Hawkins, Bridget E; Uchida, Tatsuo; Dewitt, Douglas S; Prough, Donald S

    2007-01-05

    Hippocampal damage contributes to cognitive dysfunction after traumatic brain injury (TBI). We previously showed that Fluoro-Jade, a fluorescent stain that labels injured, degenerating brain neurons, quantifies the extent of hippocampal injury after experimental fluid percussion TBI in rats. Coincidentally, we observed that injured neurons in the rat hippocampus also stained with Newport Green, a fluorescent dye specific for free ionic zinc. Here, we show that, regardless of injury severity or therapeutic intervention, the post-TBI population of injured neurons in rat hippocampal subfields CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus is indistinguishable, both in numbers and anatomical distribution, from the population of neurons containing high levels of zinc. Treatment with lamotrigine, which inhibits presynaptic release of glutamate and presumably zinc that is co-localized with glutamate, reduced numbers of Fluoro-Jade-positive and Newport Green-positive neurons equally as did treatment with nicardipine, which blocks voltage-gated calcium channels through which zinc enters neurons. To confirm using molecular techniques that Fluoro-Jade and Newport Green-positive neurons are equivalent populations, we isolated total RNA from 25 Fluoro-Jade-positive and 25 Newport Green-positive pyramidal neurons obtained by laser capture microdissection (LCM) from the CA3 subfield, linearly amplified the mRNA and used quantitative ribonuclease protection analysis to demonstrate similar expression of mRNA for selected TBI-induced genes. Our data suggest that therapeutic interventions aimed at reducing neurotoxic zinc levels after TBI may reduce hippocampal neuronal injury.

  2. Serum immunoglobulin levels in Australia antigen positive and Australia antigen negative hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Peters, C. J.; Johnson, K. M.

    1972-01-01

    Ig levels were determined by radial immunodiffusion in uncomplicated cases of acute hepatitis with or without Australia antigenaemia. Initial sera from Australia antigen negative cases showed a striking elevation in IgM levels when compared to Australia antigen positive cases (6·5 versus 1·9 mg/ml). None of twenty-four Australia antigen positive cases exceeded 3 mg/ml IgM, and only 3/58 Australia antigen negative cases exhibited values below 3 mg/ml. Intial sera from Australia antigen positive and Australia antigen negative subjects did not differ in concentration of IgG, IgA, or IgD. Serial determinations of IgG revealed a transient fall in patients with Australia antigen positive hepatitis, and a rise in Australia antigen negative cases. Asymptomatic, Australia antigen positive, Guaymi Indian subjects were compared to matched Australia antigen negative controls from the same indigenous group and no differences in the concentration of IgG, IgM, IgA or IgD were found, although elevations of IgG and IgM were common in both groups. No evidence of abnormal proteins was found when sera were tested by cellulose acetate electrophoresis or by immunoelectrophoresis versus immunoglobulin-specific antisera. Ultracentrifugal analysis failed to detect `7S' IgM. PMID:4625396

  3. Evolutionary Tuning of Protein Expression Levels of a Positively Autoregulated Two-Component System

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Rong; Stock, Ann M.

    2013-01-01

    Cellular adaptation relies on the development of proper regulatory schemes for accurate control of gene expression levels in response to environmental cues. Over- or under-expression can lead to diminished cell fitness due to increased costs or insufficient benefits. Positive autoregulation is a common regulatory scheme that controls protein expression levels and gives rise to essential features in diverse signaling systems, yet its roles in cell fitness are less understood. It remains largely unknown how much protein expression is ‘appropriate’ for optimal cell fitness under specific extracellular conditions and how the dynamic environment shapes the regulatory scheme to reach appropriate expression levels. Here, we investigate the correlation of cell fitness and output response with protein expression levels of the E. coli PhoB/PhoR two-component system (TCS). In response to phosphate (Pi)-depletion, the PhoB/PhoR system activates genes involved in phosphorus assimilation as well as genes encoding themselves, similarly to many other positively autoregulated TCSs. We developed a bacteria competition assay in continuous cultures and discovered that different Pi conditions have conflicting requirements of protein expression levels for optimal cell fitness. Pi-replete conditions favored cells with low levels of PhoB/PhoR while Pi-deplete conditions selected for cells with high levels of PhoB/PhoR. These two levels matched PhoB/PhoR concentrations achieved via positive autoregulation in wild-type cells under Pi-replete and -deplete conditions, respectively. The fitness optimum correlates with the wild-type expression level, above which the phosphorylation output saturates, thus further increase in expression presumably provides no additional benefits. Laboratory evolution experiments further indicate that cells with non-ideal protein levels can evolve toward the optimal levels with diverse mutational strategies. Our results suggest that the natural protein

  4. Psychological support based on positive suggestions in the treatment of a critically ill ICU patient – A case report

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Zsófia; Fritúz, Gábor

    2013-01-01

    This case report describes the way psychological support based on positive suggestions (PSBPS) was added to the traditional somatic treatment of an acute pancreatitis 36-year-old male patient. Psychological support based on positive suggestions (PSBPS) is a new adjunct therapeutic tool focused on applying suggestive techniques in medical settings. The suggestive techniques usually applied with critically ill patients are based on a number of pre-prepared scripts like future orientation, reframing, positivity, supporting autonomy, etc., and other, very unique and personalized interventions, which are exemplified with verbatim quotations. We describe the way several problems during treatment of intensive care unit (ICU) patients were solved using suggestive methods: uncooperativeness, difficulties of weaning, building up enteral nutrition, supporting recovery motivation, and so on, which permanently facilitated the patient’s medical state: the elimination of gastrointestinal bleeding, recovery of the skin on the abdomen, etc. Medical effects follow-up data at 10 months show that the patient recovered and soon returned to his original work following discharge. PMID:24381733

  5. Low frequency critical current noise and two level system defects in Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugroho, Christopher Daniel

    The critical current in a Josephson junction is known to exhibit a 1/falpha low frequency noise. Implemented as a superconducting qubit, this low frequency noise can lead to decoherence. While the 1/f noise has been known to arise from an ensemble of two level systems connected to the tunnel barrier, the precise microscopic nature of these TLSs remain a mystery. In this thesis we will present measurements of the 1/f alpha low frequency noise in the critical current and tunneling resistance of Al-AlOx-Al Josephson junctions. Measurements in a wide range of resistively shunted and unshunted junctions confirm the equality of critical current and tunneling resistance noise. That is the critical current fluctuation corresponds to fluctuations of the tunneling resistance. In not too small Al-AlOx-Al junctions we have found that the fractional power spectral density scales linearly with temperature. We confirmed that the 1/falpha power spectrum is the result of a large number of two level systems modulating the tunneling resistance. At small junction areas and low temperatures, the number of thermally active TLSs is insufficient to integrate out a featureless 1/ f spectral shape. By analyzing the spectral variance in small junction areas, we have been able to deduce the TLS defect density, n ≈ 2.53 per micrometer squared per Kelvin spread in the TLS energy per factor e in the TLS lifetimes. This density is consistent with the density of tunneling TLSs found in glassy insulators, as well as the density deduced from coherent TLSs interacting at qubit frequencies. The deduced TLS density combined with the magnitude of the 1/f power spectral density in large area junctions, gives an average TLS effective area, A ˜ 0.3 nanometer squared. In ultra small tunnel junctions, we have studied the time-domain dynamics of isolated TLSs. We have found a TLS whose dynamics is described by the quantum tunneling between the two localized wells, and a one-phonon absorption

  6. Energized by love: thinking about romantic relationships increases positive affect and blood glucose levels.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Sarah C E; Campbell, Lorne; Loving, Timothy J

    2014-10-01

    We assessed the impact of thinking of a current romantic partner on acute blood glucose responses and positive affect over a short period of time. Participants in romantic relationships were randomly assigned to reflect on their partner, an opposite-sex friend, or their morning routine. Blood glucose levels were assessed prior to reflection, as well as at 10 and 25 min postreflection. Results revealed that individuals in the routine and friend conditions exhibited a decline in glucose over time, whereas individuals in the partner condition did not exhibit this decline (rather, a slight increase) in glucose over time. Reported positive affect following reflection was positively associated with increases in glucose, but only for individuals who reflected on their partner, suggesting this physiological response reflects eustress. These findings add to the literature on eustress in relationships and have implications for relationship processes.

  7. Municipal-level responses to household food insecurity in Canada: a call for critical, evaluative research.

    PubMed

    Collins, Patricia A; Power, Elaine M; Little, Margaret H

    2014-04-09

    Household food insecurity (HFI) is a persistent public health problem affecting 3.8 million Canadians. While the causes of HFI are rooted in income insecurity, solutions to HFI have been primarily food-based, with the bulk of activity occurring at the municipal level across Canada. We conceptualize these municipal-level actions as falling within three models: "charitable", "household improvements and supports" and "community food systems". Many initiatives, especially non-charitable ones, generate widespread support, as they aim to increase participants' food security using an empowering and dignified approach. While these initiatives may offer some benefits to their participants, preliminary research suggests that any food-based solution to an income-based problem will have limited reach to food-insecure households and limited impact on participants' experience of HFI. We suspect that widespread support for the local-level food-based approach to HFI has impeded critical judgement of the true potential of these activities to reduce HFI. As these initiatives grow in number across Canada, we are in urgent need of comprehensive and comparative research to evaluate their impact on HFI and to ensure that municipal-level action on HFI is evidence-based.

  8. cAMP Level Modulates Scleral Collagen Remodeling, a Critical Step in the Development of Myopia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shufeng; Fang, Fang; Lu, Runxia; Lu, Chanyi; Zheng, Min; An, Jianhong; Xu, Hongjia; Zhao, Fuxin; Chen, Jiang-fan; Qu, Jia; Zhou, Xiangtian

    2013-01-01

    The development of myopia is associated with decreased ocular scleral collagen synthesis in humans and animal models. Collagen synthesis is, in part, under the influence of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). We investigated the associations between cAMP, myopia development in guinea pigs, and collagen synthesis by human scleral fibroblasts (HSFs). Form-deprived myopia (FDM) was induced by unilateral masking of guinea pig eyes. Scleral cAMP levels increased selectively in the FDM eyes and returned to normal levels after unmasking and recovery. Unilateral subconjunctival treatment with the adenylyl cyclase (AC) activator forskolin resulted in a myopic shift accompanied by reduced collagen mRNA levels, but it did not affect retinal electroretinograms. The AC inhibitor SQ22536 attenuated the progression of FDM. Moreover, forskolin inhibited collagen mRNA levels and collagen secretion by HSFs. The inhibition was reversed by SQ22536. These results demonstrate a critical role of cAMP in control of myopia development. Selective regulation of cAMP to control scleral collagen synthesis may be a novel therapeutic strategy for preventing and treating myopia. PMID:23951163

  9. Dose critical in-vivo detection of anti-cancer drug levels in blood

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Holly H.; Hirschfeld, deceased, Tomas B.

    1991-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for the in vivo and in vitro detection and measurement of dose critical levels of DNA-binding anti-cancer drug levels in biological fluids. The apparatus comprises a laser based fiber optic sensor (optrode) which utilizes the secondary interactions between the drug and an intercalating fluorochrome bound to a probe DNA, which in turn is attached to the fiber tip at one end thereof. The other end of the optical fiber is attached to an illumination source, detector and recorder. The fluorescence intensity is measured as a function of the drug concentration and its binding constant to the probe DNA. Anticancer drugs which lend themselves to analysis by the use of the method and the optrode of the present invention include doxorubicin, daunorubicin, carminomycin, aclacinomycin, chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-uracil, arabinosyl cytosine, mitomycin, cis-platinum 11 diamine dichloride procarbazine, vinblastine vincristine and the like. The present method and device are suitable for the continuous monitoring of the levels of these and other anticancer drugs in biological fluids such as blood, serum, urine and the like. The optrode of the instant invention also enables the measurement of the levels of these drugs from a remote location and from multiple samples.

  10. Fibrinogen as a therapeutic target for bleeding: a review of critical levels and replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Levy, Jerrold H; Welsby, Ian; Goodnough, Lawrence T

    2014-05-01

    Fibrinogen plays a critical role in achieving and maintaining hemostasis and is fundamental to effective clot formation. There is increasing awareness of the important role of fibrinogen as a key target for the treatment and prevention of acquired bleeding. Fibrinogen is the first coagulation factor to fall to critically low levels (<1.0 g/L) during major hemorrhage (normal plasma fibrinogen levels range from 2.0 to 4.5 g/L), and current guidelines recommend maintaining the plasma fibrinogen level above 1.5 g/L. Fibrinogen supplementation can be achieved using plasma or cryoprecipitate; however, there are a number of safety concerns associated with these allogeneic blood products and there is a lack of high-quality evidence to support their use. Additionally, there is sometimes a long delay associated with the preparation of frozen products for infusion. Fibrinogen concentrate provides a promising alternative to allogeneic blood products and has a number of advantages: it allows a standardized dose of fibrinogen to be rapidly administered in a small volume, has a very good safety profile, and is virally inactivated as standard. Administration of fibrinogen concentrate, often guided by point-of-care viscoelastic testing to allow individualized dosing, has been successfully used as hemostatic therapy in a range of clinical settings, including cardiovascular surgery, postpartum hemorrhage, and trauma. Results show that fibrinogen concentrate is associated with a reduction or even total avoidance of allogeneic blood product transfusion. Fibrinogen concentrate represents an important option for the treatment of coagulopathic bleeding; further studies are needed to determine precise dosing strategies and thresholds for fibrinogen supplementation.

  11. Evaluation of intramitochondrial ATP levels identifies G0/G1 switch gene 2 as a positive regulator of oxidative phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Kioka, Hidetaka; Kato, Hisakazu; Fujikawa, Makoto; Tsukamoto, Osamu; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Imamura, Hiromi; Nakano, Atsushi; Higo, Shuichiro; Yamazaki, Satoru; Matsuzaki, Takashi; Takafuji, Kazuaki; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Asakura, Masanori; Minamino, Tetsuo; Shintani, Yasunori; Yoshida, Masasuke; Noji, Hiroyuki; Kitakaze, Masafumi; Komuro, Issei; Asano, Yoshihiro; Takashima, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    The oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system generates most of the ATP in respiring cells. ATP-depleting conditions, such as hypoxia, trigger responses that promote ATP production. However, how OXPHOS is regulated during hypoxia has yet to be elucidated. In this study, selective measurement of intramitochondrial ATP levels identified the hypoxia-inducible protein G0/G1 switch gene 2 (G0s2) as a positive regulator of OXPHOS. A mitochondria-targeted, FRET-based ATP biosensor enabled us to assess OXPHOS activity in living cells. Mitochondria-targeted, FRET-based ATP biosensor and ATP production assay in a semiintact cell system revealed that G0s2 increases mitochondrial ATP production. The expression of G0s2 was rapidly and transiently induced by hypoxic stimuli, and G0s2 interacts with OXPHOS complex V (FoF1-ATP synthase). Furthermore, physiological enhancement of G0s2 expression prevented cells from ATP depletion and induced a cellular tolerance for hypoxic stress. These results show that G0s2 positively regulates OXPHOS activity by interacting with FoF1-ATP synthase, which causes an increase in ATP production in response to hypoxic stress and protects cells from a critical energy crisis. These findings contribute to the understanding of a unique stress response to energy depletion. Additionally, this study shows the importance of assessing intramitochondrial ATP levels to evaluate OXPHOS activity in living cells. PMID:24344269

  12. Positive Association between Blood 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Pterygium after Control for Sunlight Exposure.

    PubMed

    Jee, Donghyun; Kim, Eun Chul; Cho, Eunyoung; Arroyo, Jorge G

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the association between blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and pterygium. Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011 were used for the present epidemiologic study. A total of 19,178 participants aged ≥ 30 years were evaluated for blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and performed ophthalmic slit lamp examinations. Pterygium was considered as a growth of fibrovascular tissue over the cornea. The average blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were 18.6 ng/mL, and prevalence of pterygium was 6.5%. The odds of pterygium significantly increased across blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D quintiles after controlling sun exposure time as well as other confounders such as sex, age, smoking, diabetes, hypertension (P < 0.001). The odds ratios (OR) for pterygium was 1.51 (95% Confidence Interval[95%CI]; 1.19-1.92) in the highest blood vitamin D quintile. Stratified analysis by sex showed a positive association between blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and pterygium in both men (quintile 5 versus 1, OR; 1.68, 95%CI; 1.19-2.37) and women (quintile 5 versus 1, OR; 1.37, 95% CI; 1.00-1.88). Even after controlling sun light exposure time, we found a positive association between blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and pterygium in a representative Korean population. The mechanism underlying this association is unknown.

  13. Quantum cosmological Friedman models with a Yang-Mills field and positive energy levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhardt, Claus

    2010-02-01

    We prove the existence of a spectral resolution of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation when the matter field is provided by a Yang-Mills field, with or without mass term, if the spatial geometry of the underlying spacetime is homothetic to {\\bb R}^{3} . The energy levels of the resulting quantum model, i.e. the eigenvalues of the corresponding self-adjoint Hamiltonian with a pure point spectrum, are strictly positive. This work has been supported by the DFG.

  14. A Critical Compilation of Energy Levels, Spectral Lines, and Transition Probabilities of Singly Ionized Silver, Ag II.

    PubMed

    Kramida, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    All available experimental measurements of the spectrum of the Ag(+) ion are critically reviewed. Systematic shifts are removed from the measured wavelengths. The compiled list of critically evaluated wavelengths is used to derive a comprehensive list of energy levels with well-defined uncertainties. Eigenvector compositions and level designations are found in two alternate coupling schemes. Some of the older work is found to be incorrect. A revised value of the ionization energy, 173283(7) cm(-1), equivalent to 21.4844(8) eV, is derived from the new energy levels. A set of critically evaluated transition probabilities is given.

  15. A Critical Compilation of Energy Levels, Spectral Lines, and Transition Probabilities of Singly Ionized Silver, Ag II

    PubMed Central

    Kramida, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    All available experimental measurements of the spectrum of the Ag+ ion are critically reviewed. Systematic shifts are removed from the measured wavelengths. The compiled list of critically evaluated wavelengths is used to derive a comprehensive list of energy levels with well-defined uncertainties. Eigenvector compositions and level designations are found in two alternate coupling schemes. Some of the older work is found to be incorrect. A revised value of the ionization energy, 173283(7) cm−1, equivalent to 21.4844(8) eV, is derived from the new energy levels. A set of critically evaluated transition probabilities is given. PMID:26401429

  16. Testing the Effect of Medical Positive Reinforcement Training on Salivary Cortisol Levels in Bonobos and Orangutans

    PubMed Central

    Behringer, Verena; Stevens, Jeroen M. G.; Hohmann, Gottfried; Möstl, Erich; Selzer, Dieter; Deschner, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The management of captive animals has been improved by the establishment of positive reinforcement training as a tool to facilitate interactions between caretakers and animals. In great apes, positive reinforcement training has also been used to train individuals to participate in simple medical procedures to monitor physical health. One aim of positive reinforcement training is to establish a relaxed atmosphere for situations that, without training, might be very stressful. This is especially true for simple medical procedures that can require animals to engage in behaviours that are unusual or use unfamiliar medical devices that can be upsetting. Therefore, one cannot exclude the possibility that the training itself is a source of stress. In this study, we explored the effects of medical positive reinforcement training on salivary cortisol in two groups of captive ape species, orangutans and bonobos, which were familiar to this procedure. Furthermore, we successfully biologically validated the salivary cortisol assay, which had already been validated for bonobos, for orangutans. For the biological validation, we found that cortisol levels in orangutan saliva collected during baseline conditions were lower than in samples collected during three periods that were potentially stressful for the animals. However, we did not find significant changes in salivary cortisol during medical positive reinforcement training for either bonobos or orangutans. Therefore, for bonobos and orangutans with previous exposure to medical PRT, the procedure is not stressful. Thus, medical PRT provides a helpful tool for the captive management of the two species. PMID:25250566

  17. Testing the effect of medical positive reinforcement training on salivary cortisol levels in bonobos and orangutans.

    PubMed

    Behringer, Verena; Stevens, Jeroen M G; Hohmann, Gottfried; Möstl, Erich; Selzer, Dieter; Deschner, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The management of captive animals has been improved by the establishment of positive reinforcement training as a tool to facilitate interactions between caretakers and animals. In great apes, positive reinforcement training has also been used to train individuals to participate in simple medical procedures to monitor physical health. One aim of positive reinforcement training is to establish a relaxed atmosphere for situations that, without training, might be very stressful. This is especially true for simple medical procedures that can require animals to engage in behaviours that are unusual or use unfamiliar medical devices that can be upsetting. Therefore, one cannot exclude the possibility that the training itself is a source of stress. In this study, we explored the effects of medical positive reinforcement training on salivary cortisol in two groups of captive ape species, orangutans and bonobos, which were familiar to this procedure. Furthermore, we successfully biologically validated the salivary cortisol assay, which had already been validated for bonobos, for orangutans. For the biological validation, we found that cortisol levels in orangutan saliva collected during baseline conditions were lower than in samples collected during three periods that were potentially stressful for the animals. However, we did not find significant changes in salivary cortisol during medical positive reinforcement training for either bonobos or orangutans. Therefore, for bonobos and orangutans with previous exposure to medical PRT, the procedure is not stressful. Thus, medical PRT provides a helpful tool for the captive management of the two species.

  18. Choice of reference levels for dissolved organic carbon - a critical step for acidification assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlandsson, M.; Cory, N.; Fölster, J.; Köhler, S.; Laudon, H.; Weyhenmeyer, G.; Bishop, K.

    2009-12-01

    A quarter of a century ago, Krug and Frink published an article in Science, where they suggested that acid deposition would not acidify lakes and streams, but merely replace the natural organic acidity with strong acids of anthropogenic origin. The decadal trend of rising surface water DOC (dissolved organic carbon) that correlates with declining sulphate deposition is cause for reconsidering that controversial claim. If the observed increase in DOC is actually a recovery to pre-acidification levels, then more recent, higher DOC concentrations may better represent pre-industrial reference conditions than the lower DOC levels during the height of acidification. The choice of DOC reference level is a critical step when assessing acidification status. Here we show that if the pre-industrial reference levels for DOC are higher than they were previously thought to be, then the actual extent of surface water acidification in Sweden is substantially less than previously reported, if still far from unimpacted. We assessed the acidification status of 66 lakes with long-term observations which represent a population of c:a 12,700 acid sensitive lakes in nemoral/boreal Sweden. The lakes were classified by the deviation from the reference (i.e. pre-industrial) pH (ΔpH). Whereas 30 of the 66 study lakes were classified as severely acidified (ΔpH ≥ 0.8) in 1990 using the DOC levels observed then as the pre-industrial reference, only 18 of them would have been classified as severely acidified with the higher DOC observed in 2008 as reference level. Furthermore, by 2008, 17 of the lakes would be classed as significantly acidified (ΔpH ≥ 0.4) with the lower DOC reference. With the higher DOC reference, only 7 lakes would be classified as significantly acidified. With further progress in the recovery from acidification, in combination with climate changes, future DOC levels may rise even further. These findings emphasize the need to establish reference levels for DOC, which

  19. Variations in daily quality assurance dosimetry from device levelling, feet position and backscatter material.

    PubMed

    Ceylan, Abdurrahman; Butson, Martin; Cullen, Ashley; Yu, Peter K N; Alnawaf, Hani

    2012-12-01

    Daily quality assurance procedures are an essential part of radiotherapy medical physics. Devices such as the Sun Nuclear, DQA3 are effective tools for analysis of daily dosimetry including flatness, symmetry, energy, field size and central axis radiation dose measurement. The DQA3 can be used on the treatment couch of the linear accelerator or on a dedicated table/bed for superficial and orthovoltage x-ray machines. This device is levelled using its dedicated feet. This work has shown that depending on the quantity of backscatter material behind the DQA3 device, the position of the levelling feet can affect the measured central axis dose by up to 1.8 % (250 kVp and 6 MV) and that the introduction of more backscatter material behind the DQA3 can lead to up to 7.2 % (6 MV) variations in measured central axis dose. In conditions where no backscatter material is present, dose measurements can vary up to 1 %. As such this work has highlighted the need to keep the material behind the DQA3 device constant as well as maintaining the accuracy of the feet position on the device to effectively measure the most accurate daily constancy achievable. Results have also shown that variations in symmetry and energy calculations of up to 1 % can occur if the device is not levelled appropriately. As such, we recommend the position of the levelling feet on the device be as close as possible to the device so that a constant distance is kept between the DQA3 and the treatment couch and thus minimal levelling variations also occur. We would also recommend having no extra backscattering material behind the DQA3 device during use to minimise any variations which might occur from these backscattering effects.

  20. Use of an Electromagnetic Device Compared With Chest X-ray to Confirm Nasogastric Feeding Tube Position in Critical Care.

    PubMed

    Bear, Danielle E; Champion, Alice; Lei, Katie; Smith, John; Beale, Richard; Camporota, Luigi; Barrett, Nicholas A

    2016-05-01

    Insertion of nasogastric feeding tubes (NGTs) is common in critical care. However, misplacement is frequent and can carry a significant morbidity. Current methods to confirm position of NGTs are not reliable in this setting. We retrospectively compared the position of NGTs using an electromagnetically guided nasogastric tube (e-NGT) with that demonstrated by chest x-ray (CXR), the proportion of lung placements avoided, and the time taken to establish enteral feeding. This was a retrospective, observational study undertaken in a tertiary referral, adult intensive care unit between February 2006 and November 2013. Patients were included if they had a radiologically confirmed NGT. All CXRs were independently reviewed by an intensivist to determine position, and a subset of patients had their e-NGT image independently reviewed for quality control. Statistical analysis was in the form of sensitivity and specificity and descriptive where indicated. In total, 121 NGT placements in 113 patients were analyzed. We found a sensitivity of 98% (95% confidence interval [CI], 93.9%-99.7%) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI, 48.0%-100.0%) when using the e-NGT compared with CXR. In the subset of 51 independently reviewed e-NGT images, 9 lung placements were avoided. The mean (SD) time from e-NGT placement to CXR was 185 (264.4) minutes and to feeding was 404 (77.8) minutes. When placed by a dedicated team, e-NGT allowed immediate detection of tube misplacement. As such, if used as the sole method for determining NGT position, e-NGTs minimize feeding delay and the need for multiple CXRs with subsequent cost savings. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  1. Cumulative experiences with life adversity: Identifying critical levels for targeting prevention efforts.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Tynes, Brendesha; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Williams, David

    2015-08-01

    This paper aims to assess the role of individual types and cumulative life adversity for understanding depressive symptomatology and aggressive behavior. Data were collected in 2011 as part of the Teen Life Online and in Schools Study from 916 ethnically-diverse students from 12 middle, K-8, 6-12 and high schools in the Midwest United States. Youth reported an average of 4.1 non-victimization adversities and chronic stressors in their lifetimes. There was a linear relationship between number of adversities and depression and aggression scores. Youth reporting the highest number of adversities (7 or more) had significantly higher depression and aggression scores than youth reporting any other number of adversities suggesting exposure at this level is a critical tipping point for mental health concerns. Findings underscore an urgent need to support youth as they attempt to negotiate, manage, and cope with adversity in their social worlds.

  2. Cumulative experiences with life adversity: Identifying critical levels for targeting prevention efforts

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Kimberly J.; Tynes, Brendesha; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Williams, David

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to assess the role of individual types and cumulative life adversity for understanding depressive symptomatology and aggressive behavior. Data were collected in 2011 as part of the Teen Life Online and in Schools Study from 916 ethnically-diverse students from 12 middle, K-8, 6-12 and high schools in the Midwest United States. Youth reported an average of 4.1 non-victimization adversities and chronic stressors in their lifetimes. There was a linear relationship between number of adversities and depression and aggression scores. Youth reporting the highest number of adversities (7 or more) had significantly higher depression and aggression scores than youth reporting any other number of adversities suggesting exposure at this level is a critical tipping point for mental health concerns. Findings underscore an urgent need to support youth as they attempt to negotiate, manage, and cope with adversity in their social worlds. PMID:26057876

  3. Critical Review of Experimental Studies of the Be II Core-Excited Level System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramida, A. E.

    1998-01-01

    All published experimental data on the spectrum of the core-excited term system of the Be+ ion are critically compiled and analysed on the basis of Hartree-Fock calculations and computer-aided spectrum-identification and level-optimization programs. As a result, 49 core-excited terms in Be II are firmly established. Another 44 terms need further confirmation. More than 100 spectral lines belonging to transitions in the Be II core-excited term system are compiled. Spectral regions 80-105Å and 580-5200Å are covered. 13 new assignments are made, and 33 old assignments are changed. 44 previously unobserved spectral lines are predicted, including 10 intersystem lines. Several experimental and theoretical problems are outlined.

  4. Investigating students' levels of engagement with mathematics: critical events, motivations, and influences on behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grehan, Martin; Bhaird, Ciarán Mac an; O'Shea, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Universities invest significant resources in the provision of mathematics tuition to first year students, through both traditional and non-traditional means. Research has shown that a significant minority of students do not engage with these resources appropriately. This paper presents findings from a study of two groups of students at Maynooth University. Both groups had similar mathematical backgrounds on entry to university. The first group consisted of seven students who had failed first year mathematics and had very low levels of engagement with available supports. The second group consisted of nine students who had passed first year mathematics and had engaged with the supports to a significant extent. It emerged that while both groups initially displayed similar tactics and encountered similar difficulties, their levels of reaction to a number of critical events in their mathematical education were key to their engagement levels and their subsequent progression. Further analysis revealed aspects of the students' behaviour which caused them to approach or avoid difficulties. The reasons behind the different student behaviours were investigated, and the main categories of influence on student behaviour which emerged from the interview data were fear, social factors, and motivation.

  5. A critical discussion of the benefits of e-health in population-level dental research.

    PubMed

    Lam, Raymond; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Population-level research is an essential area of health with the potential to affect quality of life and the broader economy. There are excellent epidemiological studies that have improved health services, but traditional research requires a considerable investment. Although electronic technology has changed the practice of many industries with improved efficiency, its application to health is relatively new. Termed 'e-health', this emerging area has been defined by the World Health Organization as the use of information technology to support many aspects of health such as in administration and scientific information. However, not all professionals are convinced of its use. This paper presents a novel application of this emerging area to describe the benefit in data collation and research to support one of the most pressing issues in public health: oral health and policy. Using the Chronic Disease Dental Scheme as an example, a critical discussion of its benefit to population-level research is presented. The Chronic Disease Dental Scheme method of electronic administration has been shown to enhance research and to complement existing progress in health data linkage. e-Health is an invaluable tool for population-level dental research.

  6. Injured fluoro-jade positive hippocampal neurons contain high levels of zinc after traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Hellmich, Helen L.; Eidson, Kristine A.; Capra, Bridget A.; Garcia, Jeanna M.; Boone, Deborah R.; Hawkins, Bridget E.; Uchida, Tatsuo; DeWitt, Douglas S.; Prough, Donald S.

    2010-01-01

    Hippocampal damage contributes to cognitive dysfunction after traumatic brain injury (TBI). We previously showed that Fluoro-Jade, a fluorescent stain that labels injured, degenerating brain neurons, allows us to estimate the extent of hippocampal injury after experimental fluid-percussion TBI in rats. Coincidentally, we observed that injured neurons in the rat hippocampus also stained with Newport Green, a fluorescent dye specific for free ionic zinc. Here, we show that, regardless of injury severity or drug treatment, the post-TBI population of injured neurons in rat hippocampal subfields CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus is indistinguishable, both in numbers and anatomical distribution, from the population of neurons containing high levels of zinc. Treatment with lamotrigine, which inhibits presynaptic release of glutamate and, by inference, zinc that is co-localized with glutamate, reduced numbers of Fluoro-Jade-positive and Newport Green-positive neurons equally as did treatment with nicardipine, which blocks voltage-gated calcium channels through which zinc enters neurons. To confirm using molecular techniques that Fluoro-Jade and Newport Green-positive neurons are equivalent populations, we isolated total RNA from 25 Fluoro-Jade-positive and 25 Newport Green-positive pyramidal neurons obtained by laser capture microdissection (LCM) from the CA3 subfield, linearly amplified the mRNA and used quantitative ribonuclease protection analysis to demonstrate similar expression of mRNA for selected TBI-induced genes. Our data suggest a strong association between reduced neurotoxic zinc levels after TBI and reduced hippocampal neuronal injury. PMID:17109824

  7. A new analysis of hypoxia tolerance in fishes using a database of critical oxygen level (Pcrit)

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Nicholas J.; Urbina, Mauricio A.; Reardon, Erin E.; McKenzie, David J.; Wilson, Rod W.

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia is a common occurrence in aquatic habitats, and it is becoming an increasingly frequent and widespread environmental perturbation, primarily as the result of anthropogenic nutrient enrichment and climate change. An in-depth understanding of the hypoxia tolerance of fishes, and how this varies among individuals and species, is required to make accurate predictions of future ecological impacts and to provide better information for conservation and fisheries management. The critical oxygen level (Pcrit) has been widely used as a quantifiable trait of hypoxia tolerance. It is defined as the oxygen level below which the animal can no longer maintain a stable rate of oxygen uptake (oxyregulate) and uptake becomes dependent on ambient oxygen availability (the animal transitions to oxyconforming). A comprehensive database of Pcrit values, comprising 331 measurements from 96 published studies, covering 151 fish species from 58 families, provides the most extensive and up-to-date analysis of hypoxia tolerance in teleosts. Methodologies for determining Pcrit are critically examined to evaluate its usefulness as an indicator of hypoxia tolerance in fishes. Various abiotic and biotic factors that interact with hypoxia are analysed for their effect on Pcrit, including temperature, CO2, acidification, toxic metals and feeding. Salinity, temperature, body mass and routine metabolic rate were strongly correlated with Pcrit; 20% of variation in the Pcrit data set was explained by these four variables. An important methodological issue not previously considered is the inconsistent increase in partial pressure of CO2 within a closed respirometer during the measurement of Pcrit. Modelling suggests that the final partial pressure of CO2 reached can vary from 650 to 3500 µatm depending on the ambient pH and salinity, with potentially major effects on blood acid–base balance and Pcrit itself. This database will form part of a widely accessible repository of physiological

  8. The phylogenetic position of the Critically Endangered Saint Croix ground lizard Ameiva polops: revisiting molecular systematics of West Indian Ameiva.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Luis A; Santamaria, Carlos A; Fitzgerald, Lee A

    2014-05-06

    The phylogenetic position of the critically endangered Saint Croix ground lizard Ameiva polops is presently unknown and several hypotheses have been proposed. We investigated the phylogenetic position of this species using molecular phylogenetic methods. We obtained sequences of DNA fragments of the mitochondrial ribosomal genes 12S rDNA and 16S rDNA for this species. We aligned these sequences with published sequences of other Ameiva species, which include most of the Ameiva species from the West Indies, three Ameiva species from Central America and South America, and one from the teiid lizard Tupinambis teguixin, which was used as outgroup. We conducted Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. The phylogenetic reconstructions among the different methods were very similar, supporting the monophyly of West Indian Ameiva and showing within this lineage, a basal polytomy of four clades that are separated geographically. Ameiva polops grouped in a cluster that included the other two Ameiva species found in the Puerto Rican Bank: A. wetmorei and A. exsul. A sister relationship between A. polops and A. wetmorei is suggested by our analyses. We compare our results with a previous study on molecular systematics of West Indian Ameiva. 

  9. Cortisol levels are positively associated with pup-feeding rates in male meerkats.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Anne A; Manser, Marta B; Young, Andrew J; Russell, Andrew F; Jordan, Neil R; McNeilly, Alan S; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2006-03-07

    In societies of cooperative vertebrates, individual differences in contributions to offspring care are commonly substantial. Recent attempts to explain the causes of this variation have focused on correlations between contributions to care and the protein hormone prolactin, or the steroid hormone testosterone. However, such studies have seldom considered the importance of other hormones or controlled for non-hormonal factors that are correlative with both individual hormone levels and contributions to care. Using multivariate statistics, we show that hormone levels explain significant variation in contributions to pup-feeding by male meerkats, even after controlling for non-hormonal effects. However, long-term contributions to pup provisioning were significantly and positively correlated with plasma levels of cortisol rather than prolactin, while plasma levels of testosterone were not related to individual patterns of pup-feeding. Furthermore, a playback experiment that used pup begging calls to increase the feeding rates of male helpers gave rise to parallel increases in plasma cortisol levels, whilst prolactin and testosterone levels remained unchanged. Our findings confirm that hormones can explain significant amounts of variation in contributions to offspring feeding, and that cortisol, not prolactin, is the hormone most strongly associated with pup-feeding in cooperative male meerkats.

  10. Cortisol levels are positively associated with pup-feeding rates in male meerkats

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Anne A; Manser, Marta B; Young, Andrew J; Russell, Andrew F; Jordan, Neil R; McNeilly, Alan S; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2005-01-01

    In societies of cooperative vertebrates, individual differences in contributions to offspring care are commonly substantial. Recent attempts to explain the causes of this variation have focused on correlations between contributions to care and the protein hormone prolactin, or the steroid hormone testosterone. However, such studies have seldom considered the importance of other hormones or controlled for non-hormonal factors that are correlative with both individual hormone levels and contributions to care. Using multivariate statistics, we show that hormone levels explain significant variation in contributions to pup-feeding by male meerkats, even after controlling for non-hormonal effects. However, long-term contributions to pup provisioning were significantly and positively correlated with plasma levels of cortisol rather than prolactin, while plasma levels of testosterone were not related to individual patterns of pup-feeding. Furthermore, a playback experiment that used pup begging calls to increase the feeding rates of male helpers gave rise to parallel increases in plasma cortisol levels, whilst prolactin and testosterone levels remained unchanged. Our findings confirm that hormones can explain significant amounts of variation in contributions to offspring feeding, and that cortisol, not prolactin, is the hormone most strongly associated with pup-feeding in cooperative male meerkats. PMID:16537128

  11. Serum leptin level has a positive correlation with BMI and creatinine clearance in CAPD patients.

    PubMed

    Seirafian, S; Momeni, A; Taheri, S; Mortazavi, M; Paknahad, Z

    2012-01-01

    In a cross sectional study, 75 patients (42 males and 33 females) on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) were enrolled from October 2007 to February 2008. Serum levels of leptin, albumin, triglyceride, dialysis adequacy (total KT/V), renal creatinine clearance (Cr Cl), mid arm circumference and demographic findings were measured in all patients. The mean age of patients was 53±14.76. The history of hemodialysis was seen in 23 patients. Mean serum leptin level in women and men were 27±23µg/l and 16±13µg/l, respectively. A significant correlation of serum leptin level with body mass index (BMI) (p<0.001) and renal Cr Cl (p<0.001) was found. There was no significant correlation of serum leptin level with KT/V, duration of renal failure, serum triglycerides (TG), serum low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and mid arm circumference (p>0.05). To our knowledge, this is probably the first study to report that serum leptin level has a direct positive correlation with renal Cr Cl in CAPD patients. This may explain the increase in mortality in patients with lower serum leptin levels (Tab. 2, Fig. 2, Ref. 25).

  12. Parental educational level and psychological positive health and health complaints in Spanish children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Moledo, C; Ruiz, J R; Castro-Piñero, J

    2016-07-01

    Interest on the impact of socioeconomic differences on youth's health is growing. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of parental educational level with psychological positive health and health complaints in Spanish children and adolescents. Parental educational level, psychological positive health indicators (perceived health status, life satisfaction, quality of family relationships, quality of peer relationships and academic performance) and health complaint index (headache, stomach ache, backache, feeling low, irritability or bad temper, feeling nervous, difficulties getting to sleep, feeling dizzy) were self-reported using the Health Behavior in School-aged Children questionnaire in 685 (366 boys and 319 girls) children and adolescents. Children reporting parents with non-university studies (father, mother or both) had significantly higher odd ratio of having lower academic performance, lower life satisfaction, perceiving their health status as otherwise (vs. excellent) and having health complaints sometime than their counterparts reporting parents with university studies (father, mother or both). Current results provide evidence that children having parents with a university degree (father, mother or both) are more likely to have higher psychological positive health and lower health complaints than children reporting parents with non-university studies. This is particularly important for the welfare policy that must pay attention for implementing programs for helping population to access to university studies by their impact on youth health. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Plasma zinc alpha2-glycoprotein levels correlate positively with frailty severity in female elders

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ya-Ping; Chang, Chin-Hao; Liu, Heng-Hsiu; Chen, Chin-Ying; Chen, Ching-Yu; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Chang, Ching-I; Lin, Yen-Ting; Lee, Chung-Sheng; Tsai, Jaw-Shiun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Frailty is a geriatric syndrome associated with adiposity. Zinc alpha2-glycoprotein (ZAG), a novel adipokine, is a modulator of body fat mass and positively correlates with age. This observational study aims to investigate the relationship between plasma ZAG levels and frailty in the elderly. We enrolled 189 elder participants from a hospital-based comprehensive geriatric assessment program in Taiwan from January 2007 to June 2008. The demographic data, body weight, body mass index, appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI), body fat mass percentage, metabolic and inflammatory parameters including plasma tumor-necrosis factor alpha, C-reactive protein and ZAG levels, were assessed. The frailty score was assessed by Fried Frailty Index. The mean age of all participants (91 [48.1%] men and 98 [51.9%] women) was 77.19 ± 6.12 years. Judged by the FFI score, 46 (24.34%) elders were robust, 106 (56.08%) were pre-frail, and 37 (19.58%) were frail. Older men showed greater ASMI and lower fat mass percentage in comparison to older women (P < 0.0001). The log-transformed mean plasma ZAG (μg/mL) level of overall was 1.82 ± 0.11, and it was higher in men than in women (1.85 ± 0.12 vs 1.79 ± 0.1, P = 0.0006). Plasma ZAG levels were different among the robust, pre-frail and frail subgroups (1.78 ± 0.09, 1.83 ± 0.12, 1.83 ± 1.10, respectively, P = 0.028), and the differences were more significant in woman elders (P = 0.005). Further multiple linear regression analysis showed plasma ZAG levels positively correlated with frailty severity in women (P for trend = 0.0435). Plasma ZAG levels positively correlated with frailty severity in woman elders. The difference between sexes suggests certain sex-specific mechanisms may exist to affect the association between plasma ZAG levels and frailty. PMID:27583927

  14. 4-Point ultrasonography to confirm the correct position of the nasogastric tube in 114 critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Zatelli, Marianna; Vezzali, Norberto

    2017-03-01

    Nasogastric feeding tube is routinely positioned in intensive care units. The complications of misplacement are rare but very dangerous for the patients. The aim of this study is to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of this new technique, 4-point ultrasonography to confirm nasogastric tube placement in intensive care. One hundred fourteen critical ill patients monitored in ICU were included. The intensivist provided in real time to perform the exam in four steps: sonography from either the right or left side of the patient's neck to visualize the esophagus, sonography of epigastrium to confirm the passage through the esophagogastric junction and the positioning in antrum, sonography of the fundus. Finally, gastric placement of the nasogastric feeding tube was confirmed with thorax radiograph. One hundred fourteen of the gastric tubes were visualized by sonography in the digestive tract and all were confirmed by radiography (sensitivity 100%). The entire sonographic procedure, including the longitudinal and transversal scan of the esophagus, the esophagogastric junction, the antrum and the fundus, took 10 min. Our pilot study demonstrated that not weighted-tip gastric tube routinely used in Intensive Care is visible with the sonography. The pilot study confirmed the high sensitivity of the sonography in the verify correct positioning of gastric tube in the adult ICU patients. The ultrasound examination seems to be easy and rapid even when performed by a intensivist whit a sonographic training of only 40 h. The sonographic exam at the bedside was performed in a shorter time than the acquisition and reporting of the X-ray.

  15. Allosteric underwinding of DNA is a critical step in positive control of transcription by Hg-MerR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Aseem Z.; Chael, Mark L.; O'Halloran, Thomas V.

    1992-01-01

    POSITIVE control of transcription often involves stimulatory protein-protein interactions between regulatory factors and RNA polymerase1. Critical steps in the activation process itself are seldom ascribed to protein-DNA distortions. Activator-induced DNA bending is typically assigned a role in binding-site recognition2, alterations in DNA loop structures3 or optimal positioning of the activator for interaction with polymerase4. Here we present a transcriptional activation mechanism that does not require a signal-induced DNA bend but rather a receptor-induced untwisting of duplex DNA. The allosterically modulated transcription factor MerR is a represser and an Hg(II)-responsive activator of bacterial mercury-resistance genes5-7.Escherichia coliRNA polymerase binds to the MerR-promoter complex but cannot proceed to a transcriptionally active open complex until Hg(II) binds to MerR (ref. 6). Chemical nuclease studies show that the activator form, but not the represser, induces a unique alteration of the helical structure localized at the centre of the DNA-binding site6. Data presented here indicate that this Hg-MerR-induced DNA distortion corresponds to a local underwinding of the spacer region of the promoter by about 33° relative to the MerR-operator complex. The magnitude and the direction of the Hg-MerR-induced change in twist angle are consistent with a positive control mechanism involving reorientation of conserved, but suboptimally phased, promoter elements and are consistent with a role for torsional stress in formation of an open complex.

  16. Enhanced diffusion of oxygen depending on Fermi level position in heavily boron-doped silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Torigoe, Kazuhisa Fujise, Jun; Ono, Toshiaki; Nakamura, Kozo

    2014-11-21

    The enhanced diffusivity of oxygen in heavily boron doped silicon was obtained by analyzing oxygen out-diffusion profile changes found at the interface between a lightly boron-doped silicon epitaxial layer and a heavily boron-doped silicon substrate by secondary ion mass spectrometry. It was found that the diffusivity is proportional to the square root of boron concentration in the range of 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}–10{sup 19 }cm{sup −3} at temperatures from 750 °C to 950 °C. The model based on the diffusion of oxygen dimers in double positive charge state could explain the enhanced diffusion. We have concluded that oxygen diffusion enhanced in heavily boron-doped silicon is attributed to oxygen dimers ionized depending on Fermi level position.

  17. Morphological characteristics of adult male handball players considering five levels of performance and playing position.

    PubMed

    Massuça, Luís; Fragoso, Isabel

    2015-03-01

    This study aims 1--to describe and compare the anthropometric characteristics of male handball players from different levels of performance, and 2--to identify the morphological variables that allow differentiation of the level of performance for each individual playing position. A total of 212 male handball players (age, 23.6 ± 5.2 years) were included in this study, and divided into five levels of performance for comparison. The playing position of each player was recorded. All participants were tested during the 2008-2009 Portuguese handball season. Twenty-eight anthropometric measures were taken by a group of anthropometrics accredited by International Society of the Advance of Kinanthropometry. Body composition, fat mass and muscle mass were calculated from the equations proposed by Faulkner26, Yuhase28, Durnin and Womersley25, Jackson and Pollock29, Matiegka33, Heymsfield, McManus, Smith, Stevens and Nixon34, Martin, Spenst, Drinkwater and Clarys21, Doupe, Martin, Searle, Kriellaars and Giesbrecht35 and Lee, Wang, Heo, Ross, Janssen and Heymsfield36. The research findings showed that the morphological optimization is important to have success in handball.

  18. Development and Testing of a Bubble Bi-Level Positive Airway Pressure System.

    PubMed

    John, Stephen C; Barnett, Joseph D; Habben, Nickolas D; Le, Hoa T; Cheng, Eric; John, Sunil P; Gustafson, Peter A

    2017-09-01

    Neonatal respiratory distress results in > 1 million annual deaths worldwide. Bubble CPAP is a simple, effective, and widely used therapy for infants in respiratory distress. In low-resource settings, more advanced respiratory support is limited by cost, technical expertise, and sporadic electricity. We sought to develop a safe, inexpensive, and simple solution to provide further respiratory support for these infants. A standard bubble CPAP system was modified to provide 2 levels of positive airway pressure (bi-level positive airway pressure) by attaching a novel device. To demonstrate reliability, the system was run with continuous pressure monitoring on full-term and preterm neonatal mannikins with pressure targets of 8/5 cm H2O and 15/5 cm H2O to simulate 2 different modes of noninvasive ventilation (NIV). At a ventilation rate set between 30 and 45 cycles/min, by adjusting the leak rate of the device, the following mean pressures ± SD were demonstrated: term mannikin low-pressure NIV, 7.9 ± 0.2/5.3 ± 0.2 cm H2O; term mannikin high-pressure NIV, 15.1 ± 0.1/6.1 ± 0.1 cm H2O; preterm mannikin low-pressure NIV, 7.9 ± 0.2/5.3 ± 0.2 cm H2O; preterm mannikin high-pressure NIV, 16.5 ± 0.4/5.1 ± 0.1 cm H2O. The modified bubble CPAP system reliably provided alternating pressures similar to bi-level positive airway pressure modes of respiratory support in neonatal mannikins. The dual-pressure technology is a simple, single connection add-on that can readily be applied to existing bubble CPAP systems. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  19. Benzo[a]pyrene in urban environments of eastern Moscow: pollution levels and critical loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasimov, Nikolay S.; Kosheleva, Natalia E.; Nikiforova, Elena M.; Vlasov, Dmitry V.

    2017-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), particularly benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), are toxic compounds emitted from various anthropogenic sources. Understanding the BaP concentrations, dynamics and decomposition in soil is required to assess the critical loads of BaP in urban environments. This study is the first attempt to evaluate all major input and output components of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) balance and to calculate the permissible load on the urban environment in different land-use zones in the Eastern district of Moscow. BaP contamination of the snow cover in the Eastern district of Moscow was related to daily BaP fallout from the atmosphere. In 2010, the mean content of the pollutant in the snow dust was 1942 ng g-1, whereas the average intensity of its fallout was 7.13 ng m-2 per day. Across the territory, BaP winter fallout intensities varied from 0.3 to 1100 ng m-2 per day. The average BaP content in the surface (0-10 cm) soil horizons was 409 ng g-1, which is 83 times higher than the local background value and 20 times higher than the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) accepted in Russia. The variations in soil and snow BaP concentrations among different land-use zones were examined. A significant contribution of BaP from the atmosphere to urban soils was identified. Based on the measurements of BaP atmospheric fallout and BaP reserves in the soils, the critical loads of BaP for the land-use zones in the Eastern district were calculated for different values of degradation intensity and different exposure times. It was established that at an annual degradation intensity of 1-10 %, ecologically safe BaP levels in the soils of all land-use zones, excluding the agricultural zone, will only be reached after many decades or centuries.

  20. The effects of rock type and landscape position on solution chemistry of soils in the Biosphere 2 Desert Site of the Santa Catalina Mountains Critical Zone Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penprase, S. B.; Abramson, N.; LaSharr, K.; Chorover, J.

    2014-12-01

    The interaction of near surface soil water with surrounding rock and soil matter plays a crucial role in determining the chemical composition of biogeological systems. This interaction drives subsurface processes such as erosion, mineralization, and depletion. However, how and why soil pore water chemistry fluctuates based on localized conditions such as rock type and landscape position is not fully understood. This study examines the role these two factors play in altering soil water chemistry by analyzing samples collected from schist and granite field sites within the Biosphere 2 Desert Site of the Santa Catalina Mountains Critical Zone Observatory. We hypothesized that soil water from the schist site would have higher solute concentrations than the granite site because schist is a more weatherable rock and, thus, is more susceptible to chemical erosion. We also hypothesized that soil water from convergent positions would have higher solute concentrations than those from divergent positions due to a longer upgradient flow path. Each field site was situated within a Zero Order Basin (ZOB) with seven Zero Tension Lysimeters (ZTL). At the schist site, there were 3 convergent (SC 1-3) and 4 divergent (SD 1-4) ZTL positions. For the granite site, there were 4 convergent (GC 1-2, 4-5) and 3 divergent (GD 1-3) ZTLs. Samples were collected following rainstorms from July 2011-July 2013. Each solution sample was analyzed for major and trace cations, anions, pH, EC, and organic and inorganic carbon. Comparisons between SC and GC and all schist and all granite are consistent with the hypotheses for multiple elements. Results also indicate higher solute levels for SC relative to SD. Thus, our analyses suggest that rock type and landscape position influence the chemical composition of soil water at these two sites.

  1. Association between continuous positive airway pressure and circulating omentin levels in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Uygur, Firat; Tanrıverdi, Hakan; Can, Murat; Erboy, Fatma; Altınsoy, Bulent; Atalay, Figen; Ornek, Tacettin; Damar, Murat; Kokturk, Furuzan; Tor, Meltem

    2016-09-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress play important roles in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS). Omentin is expressed in visceral adipose tissue and is associated with the inflammatory response. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between OSAS and omentin based on a comparison of its serum levels at baseline and after 3 months of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. Ninety-six newly diagnosed OSAS patients and 31 non-apnoeic controls were enrolled in this study. Blood samples were obtained in the morning after polysomnography. Within the OSAS group, 30 patients were started on CPAP therapy and then reassessed clinically, including a blood test for serum omentin and other biochemical analysis, at 3 months. Serum omentin levels were significantly lower in the OSAS group than in the control group (27.7 ± 7.6 and 42.5 ± 5.2 ng/mL, P < 0.001). In the subgroup analysis, omentin concentrations were significantly lower in patients with severe OSAS than in those with mild/moderate OSAS (P < 0.001). Circulating omentin levels were significantly correlated with the apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI), mean SaO2, oxygen desaturation index, and serum C-reactive protein levels. Treatment with CPAP resulted in a significant increase in circulating omentin levels after 3 months, from 22.7 ± 1.4 to 41.2 ± 3.3 ng/mL (P < 0.001). OSAS is associated with low serum omentin levels, and these levels can be reversed by effective CPAP treatment.

  2. Disparities in Children's Blood Lead and Mercury Levels According to Community and Individual Socioeconomic Positions.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sinye; Ha, Mina; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Son, Mia; Kwon, Ho-Jang

    2015-05-29

    We aimed to examine the associations between blood lead and mercury levels and individual and community level socioeconomic positions (SEPs) in school-aged children. A longitudinal cohort study was performed in 33 elementary schools in 10 cities in Korea. Among a total of 6094 children included at baseline, the final study population, 2281 children followed-up biennially, were analyzed. The geometric mean (GM) levels of blood lead were 1.73 μg/dL (range 0.02-9.26) and 1.56 μg/dL (range 0.02-6.83) for male and female children, respectively. The blood lead levels were significantly higher in males, children living in rural areas, and those with lower individual SEP. The GM levels of blood mercury were 2.07 μg/L (range 0.09-12.67) and 2.06 μg/L (range 0.03-11.74) for males and females, respectively. Increased blood mercury levels were significantly associated with urban areas, higher individual SEP, and more deprived communities. The risk of high blood lead level was significantly higher for the lower individual SEP (odds ratio (OR) 2.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.36-3.50 in the lowest educational attainment of the father), with a significant dose-response relationship observed after adjusting for the community SEP. The association between high blood lead levels and lower individual SEP was much stronger in the more deprived communities (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.27-6.53) than in the less deprived communities (OR 1.40, 95% CI 0.76-2.59), and showed a significant decreasing trend during the follow-up only in the less deprived communities. The risk of high blood mercury levels was higher in higher individual SEP (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.40-1.03 in the lowest educational attainment of the father), with a significant dose-response relationship noted. Significant decreasing trends were observed during the follow-up both in the less and more deprived communities. From a public health point-of-view, community level intervention with different approaches for different metals is

  3. Millimetre Level Accuracy GNSS Positioning with the Blind Adaptive Beamforming Method in Interference Environments

    PubMed Central

    Daneshmand, Saeed; Marathe, Thyagaraja; Lachapelle, Gérard

    2016-01-01

    The use of antenna arrays in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) applications is gaining significant attention due to its superior capability to suppress both narrowband and wideband interference. However, the phase distortions resulting from array processing may limit the applicability of these methods for high precision applications using carrier phase based positioning techniques. This paper studies the phase distortions occurring with the adaptive blind beamforming method in which satellite angle of arrival (AoA) information is not employed in the optimization problem. To cater to non-stationary interference scenarios, the array weights of the adaptive beamformer are continuously updated. The effects of these continuous updates on the tracking parameters of a GNSS receiver are analyzed. The second part of this paper focuses on reducing the phase distortions during the blind beamforming process in order to allow the receiver to perform carrier phase based positioning by applying a constraint on the structure of the array configuration and by compensating the array uncertainties. Limitations of the previous methods are studied and a new method is proposed that keeps the simplicity of the blind beamformer structure and, at the same time, reduces tracking degradations while achieving millimetre level positioning accuracy in interference environments. To verify the applicability of the proposed method and analyze the degradations, array signals corresponding to the GPS L1 band are generated using a combination of hardware and software simulators. Furthermore, the amount of degradation and performance of the proposed method under different conditions are evaluated based on Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:27809252

  4. Millimetre Level Accuracy GNSS Positioning with the Blind Adaptive Beamforming Method in Interference Environments.

    PubMed

    Daneshmand, Saeed; Marathe, Thyagaraja; Lachapelle, Gérard

    2016-10-31

    The use of antenna arrays in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) applications is gaining significant attention due to its superior capability to suppress both narrowband and wideband interference. However, the phase distortions resulting from array processing may limit the applicability of these methods for high precision applications using carrier phase based positioning techniques. This paper studies the phase distortions occurring with the adaptive blind beamforming method in which satellite angle of arrival (AoA) information is not employed in the optimization problem. To cater to non-stationary interference scenarios, the array weights of the adaptive beamformer are continuously updated. The effects of these continuous updates on the tracking parameters of a GNSS receiver are analyzed. The second part of this paper focuses on reducing the phase distortions during the blind beamforming process in order to allow the receiver to perform carrier phase based positioning by applying a constraint on the structure of the array configuration and by compensating the array uncertainties. Limitations of the previous methods are studied and a new method is proposed that keeps the simplicity of the blind beamformer structure and, at the same time, reduces tracking degradations while achieving millimetre level positioning accuracy in interference environments. To verify the applicability of the proposed method and analyze the degradations, array signals corresponding to the GPS L1 band are generated using a combination of hardware and software simulators. Furthermore, the amount of degradation and performance of the proposed method under different conditions are evaluated based on Monte Carlo simulations.

  5. Individual and household-level socioeconomic position is associated with harmful alcohol consumption behaviours among adults.

    PubMed

    Giskes, Katrina; Turrell, Gavin; Bentley, Rebecca; Kavanagh, Anne

    2011-06-01

    To examine associations between individual-, household- and neighbourhood-level socioeconomic position (SEP) and harmful alcohol consumption. Adults aged 18-76 residing in 50 neighbourhoods in Melbourne completed a postal questionnaire (n= 2349, 58.7% response rate). Alcohol-related behaviours were classified by risk of short- and long-term harm. Individual-, household- and neighbourhood-level SEP were ascertained by education, household income and proportion of low-income households, respectively. The association were examined by multi-level logistic regression. Participants lower education or household income were less likely to consume alcohol frequently compared to their more-advantaged counterparts. Lower-educated men were more likely to be at risk of short-term harm [OR 1.75 (1.23 - 2.48)]. Low-income women were less likely to be at risk of short-term harm [OR 0.44 (0.23 - 0.81)]. Neighbourhood disadvantage was not associated with alcohol consumption. Men and women from socioeconomically advantaged backgrounds were more frequent consumers of alcohol, whereas their disadvantaged counterparts drank less frequently but in greater quantities on each drinking occasion. Socioeconomic disadvantage at the individual and household levels may be an important determinant of alcohol consumption among Australian adults. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.

  6. Effective population size is positively correlated with levels of adaptive divergence among annual sunflowers.

    PubMed

    Strasburg, Jared L; Kane, Nolan C; Raduski, Andrew R; Bonin, Aurélie; Michelmore, Richard; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2011-05-01

    The role of adaptation in the divergence of lineages has long been a central question in evolutionary biology, and as multilocus sequence data sets have become available for a wide range of taxa, empirical estimates of levels of adaptive molecular evolution are increasingly common. Estimates vary widely among taxa, with high levels of adaptive evolution in Drosophila, bacteria, and viruses but very little evidence of widespread adaptive evolution in hominids. Although estimates in plants are more limited, some recent work has suggested that rates of adaptive evolution in a range of plant taxa are surprisingly low and that there is little association between adaptive evolution and effective population size in contrast to patterns seen in other taxa. Here, we analyze data from 35 loci for six sunflower species that vary dramatically in effective population size. We find that rates of adaptive evolution are positively correlated with effective population size in these species, with a significant fraction of amino acid substitutions driven by positive selection in the species with the largest effective population sizes but little or no evidence of adaptive evolution in species with smaller effective population sizes. Although other factors likely contribute as well, in sunflowers effective population size appears to be an important determinant of rates of adaptive evolution.

  7. Lymphocyte subsets are influenced by positivity levels in healthy subjects before and after mild acute stress.

    PubMed

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Nisini, Roberto; Castellani, Valeria; Vittorio, Pasquali; Alessandri, Guido; Vincenzo, Ziparo; Claudia, Ferlito; Valentina, Germano; Andrea, Picchianti Diamanti; Biondo, Michela Ileen; Milanetti, Francesca; Salerno, Gerardo; Vincenzo, Visco; Mario, Pietrosanti; Aniballi, Eros; Simonetta, Salemi; Angela, Santoni; D'Amelio, Raffaele

    2017-08-01

    In the current study, the possible association of positivity (POS), recently defined as general disposition to view life under positive outlook, with immune markers and post-stress modifications, was analyzed. Circulating lymphocyte subsets and serum cytokine levels were evaluated before and after a standard mild acute stress test, in 41 healthy students, previously selected by a questionnaire for their level of POS (high [POS-H] and low [POS-L]). The CD3(+) and CD4(+) cell frequency was higher in the POS-H students before and after acute stress. CD4(+) subpopulation analysis revealed baseline higher terminally differentiated frequency in the POS-H, whereas higher effector memory frequency was present in the POS-L students. Moreover, the frequency of post-stress B cells was higher in the POS-H students. The mild-stress test was associated to an increase of the IL-10 mean values, while mean values of the other cytokines tested did not change significantly. It is tempting to speculate that IL-10 may work as biomarker of response to acute mild stress and that POS-H may be associated to a better capacity of the immune system to contrast the disturbing effects of mild acute stress. Yet further studies on lymphocyte subset absolute number and function of larger and different populations are needed to definitively prove these preliminary observations. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effective Population Size Is Positively Correlated with Levels of Adaptive Divergence among Annual Sunflowers

    PubMed Central

    Strasburg, Jared L.; Kane, Nolan C.; Raduski, Andrew R.; Bonin, Aurélie; Michelmore, Richard; Rieseberg, Loren H.

    2011-01-01

    The role of adaptation in the divergence of lineages has long been a central question in evolutionary biology, and as multilocus sequence data sets have become available for a wide range of taxa, empirical estimates of levels of adaptive molecular evolution are increasingly common. Estimates vary widely among taxa, with high levels of adaptive evolution in Drosophila, bacteria, and viruses but very little evidence of widespread adaptive evolution in hominids. Although estimates in plants are more limited, some recent work has suggested that rates of adaptive evolution in a range of plant taxa are surprisingly low and that there is little association between adaptive evolution and effective population size in contrast to patterns seen in other taxa. Here, we analyze data from 35 loci for six sunflower species that vary dramatically in effective population size. We find that rates of adaptive evolution are positively correlated with effective population size in these species, with a significant fraction of amino acid substitutions driven by positive selection in the species with the largest effective population sizes but little or no evidence of adaptive evolution in species with smaller effective population sizes. Although other factors likely contribute as well, in sunflowers effective population size appears to be an important determinant of rates of adaptive evolution. PMID:20952500

  9. Positive Association of Vitamin E Supplementation with Hemoglobin Levels in Mildly Anemic Healthy Pakistani Adults.

    PubMed

    Jilani, Tanveer; Azam, Iqbal; Moiz, Bushra; Mehboobali, Naseema; Perwaiz Iqbal, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Hemoglobin levels slightly below the lower limit of normal are common in adults in the general population in developing countries. A few human studies have suggested the use of antioxidant vitamins in the correction of mild anemia. The objective of the present study was to investigate the association of vitamin E supplementation in mildly anemic healthy adults with post-supplemental blood hemoglobin levels in the general population of Karachi, Pakistan. In a single-blinded and placebo-controlled randomized trial, 124 mildly anemic subjects from the General Practitioners' Clinics and personnel of the Aga Khan University were randomized into intervention (n = 82) and control (n = 42) group. In the intervention group, each subject was given vitamin E (400 mg) everyday for a period of three months, while control group subjects received a placebo. Eighty six subjects completed the trial. Fasting venous blood was collected at baseline and after three months of supplementation. Hemoglobin levels and serum/plasma concentrations of vitamin E, vitamin B12, folate, ferritin, serum transferrin receptor (sTfR), glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, creatinine, total-antioxidant-status and erythropoietin were measured and analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and multiple linear regression. The adjusted regression coefficients (β) and standard error [SE(β)] of the significant predictors of post-supplemental hemoglobin levels were serum concentration of vitamin E (0.983[0.095]), gender (- 0.656[0.244]), sTfR (- 0.06[0.02]) and baseline hemoglobin levels (0.768[0.077]). The study showed a positive association between vitamin E supplementation and enhanced hemoglobin levels in mildly anemic adults.

  10. ErbB4 in parvalbumin-positive interneurons is critical for neuregulin 1 regulation of long-term potentiation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong-Jun; Zhang, Meng; Yin, Dong-Min; Wen, Lei; Ting, Annie; Wang, Pu; Lu, Yi-Sheng; Zhu, Xin-Hong; Li, Shu-Ji; Wu, Cui-Ying; Wang, Xue-Ming; Lai, Cary; Xiong, Wen-Cheng; Mei, Lin; Gao, Tian-Ming

    2010-12-14

    Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) is a trophic factor that acts by stimulating ErbB receptor tyrosine kinases and has been implicated in neural development and synaptic plasticity. In this study, we investigated mechanisms of its suppression of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus. We found that NRG1 did not alter glutamatergic transmission at SC-CA1 synapses but increased the GABA(A) receptor-mediated synaptic currents in CA1 pyramidal cells via a presynaptic mechanism. Inhibition of GABA(A) receptors blocked the suppressing effect of NRG1 on LTP and prevented ecto-ErbB4 from enhancing LTP, implicating a role of GABAergic transmission. To test this hypothesis further, we generated parvalbumin (PV)-Cre;ErbB4(-/-) mice in which ErbB4, an NRG1 receptor in the brain, is ablated specifically in PV-positive interneurons. NRG1 was no longer able to increase inhibitory postsynaptic currents and to suppress LTP in PV-Cre;ErbB4(-/-) hippocampus. Accordingly, contextual fear conditioning, a hippocampus-dependent test, was impaired in PV-Cre;ErbB4(-/-) mice. In contrast, ablation of ErbB4 in pyramidal neurons had no effect on NRG1 regulation of hippocampal LTP or contextual fear conditioning. These results demonstrate a critical role of ErbB4 in PV-positive interneurons but not in pyramidal neurons in synaptic plasticity and support a working model that NRG1 suppresses LTP by enhancing GABA release. Considering that NRG1 and ErbB4 are susceptibility genes of schizophrenia, these observations contribute to a better understanding of how abnormal NRG1/ErbB4 signaling may be involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.

  11. Expansion of PD-1-positive effector CD4 T cells in an experimental model of SLE: contribution to the self-organized criticality theory.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Yumi; Tsumiyama, Ken; Yamane, Takashi; Ito, Mitsuhiro; Shiozawa, Shunichi

    2013-04-18

    We have developed a systems biology concept to explain the origin of systemic autoimmunity. From our studies of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) we have concluded that this disease is the inevitable consequence of over-stimulating the host's immune system by repeated exposure to antigen to levels that surpass a critical threshold, which we term the system's "self-organized criticality". We observed that overstimulation of CD4 T cells in mice led to the development of autoantibody-inducing CD4 T cells (aiCD4 T) capable of generating various autoantibodies and pathological lesions identical to those observed in SLE. We show here that this is accompanied by the significant expansion of a novel population of effector T cells characterized by expression of programmed death-1 (PD-1)-positive, CD27(low), CD127(low), CCR7(low) and CD44(high)CD62L(low) markers, as well as increased production of IL-2 and IL-6. In addition, repeated immunization caused the expansion of CD8 T cells into fully-matured cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) that express Ly6C(high)CD122(high) effector and memory markers. Thus, overstimulation with antigen leads to the expansion of a novel effector CD4 T cell population that expresses an unusual memory marker, PD-1, and that may contribute to the pathogenesis of SLE.

  12. Developing ozone critical levels for multi-species canopies of Mediterranean annual pastures.

    PubMed

    Calvete-Sogo, H; González-Fernández, I; García-Gómez, H; Alonso, R; Elvira, S; Sanz, J; Bermejo-Bermejo, V

    2017-01-01

    Ozone (O3) critical levels (CLe) are still poorly developed for herbaceous vegetation. They are currently based on single species responses which do not reflect the multi-species nature of semi-natural vegetation communities. Also, the potential effects of other factors like the nitrogen (N) input are not considered in their derivation, making their use uncertain under natural conditions. Exposure- and dose-response relationships were derived from two open-top chamber experiments exposing a mixture of 6 representative annual Mediterranean pasture species growing in natural soil to 4 O3 fumigation levels and 3 N inputs. The Deposition of O3 and Stomatal Exchange model (DO3SE) was modified to account for the multi-species nature of the canopy following a big-leaf approach. This new approach was used for estimating a multi-species phytotoxic O3 dose (PODy-MS). Response relationships were derived based on O3 exposure (AOT40) and flux (PODy-MS) indices. The treatment effects were similar in the two seasons: O3 reduced the aboveground biomass growth and N modulated this response. Gas exchange rates presented a high inter-specific variability and important inter-annual fluctuations as a result of varying growing conditions during the two years. The AOT40-based relationships were not statistically significant except when the highest N input was considered alone. In contrast, PODy-MS relationships were all significant but for the lowest N input level. The influence of the N input on the exposure- and dose-response relationships implies that N can modify the O3 CLe. However, this is an aspect that has not been considered so far in the methodologies for establishing O3 CLe. Averaging across N input levels, a multi-species O3 CLe (CLef-MS) is proposed POD1-MS = 7.9 mmol m(-2), accumulated over 1.5 month with a 95% confidence interval of (5.9, 9.8). Further efforts will be needed for comparing the CLef-MS with current O3 CLef based on single species responses.

  13. [Neopterin levels and systemic inflammatory response syndrome in pediatric critically ill patients].

    PubMed

    Gil-Gómez, Raquel; Blasco-Alonso, Javier; Sánchez-Yáñez, Pilar; Rosa-Camacho, Vanessa; Milano Manso, Guillermo

    2017-04-22

    Neopterin and biopterin are sub-products of redox reactions, which act as cofactors of enzymes responsible for nitric oxide production. The hypothesis is presented that plasma neopterin and biopterin evolve differently during the first days in a critically ill child. A single-centre prospective observational study was conducted on patients 7 days to 14 years admitted to our Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) and that met Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria. Neopterin and biopterin levels, as well as other acute phase reactants, were collected at admission and at 24 h. A total of 28 patients were included, of which 78.9% were male, The median age was 5.04 years (interquartile range [IQR] 1.47-10.26), and PRISM II 2.0% (IQR 1.1-5.0). Mechanical ventilation (MV) was used in 90% of patients, with a median duration of 6.0 hrs (IQR 3.7-102.0). The median length of stay in PICU was 5.0 days (IQR 2.7-18.7), maximum VIS mean of 0 (IQR 0-14). Baseline neopterin level was 2.3±1.2 nmol/l and at 24 h it was 2.3±1.4 nmol/l. Baseline biopterin was 1.3±0.5 nmol/l and 1.4±0.4 nmol/l at 24 h. Neopterin levels were significantly higher in patients with PICU length of stay > 6 days (P=.02), patients who needed MV >24 h (P=.023), and those who developed complications (P=.05). Neopterin correlates directly and is statistically significant with the duration of MV (rho=.6, P=.011), PICU length of stay (rho=.75, P<.0001), and VIS (rho=.73, P=.001). Additionally, biopterin directly correlates with the PRISM (rho=.61, P=.008). There is a higher neopterin level when there is a longer PICU stay, higher VIS score, longer time on MV, and occurrence of complications, indicating the involvement of an activation of the cellular immune system. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  14. Tools for determining critical levels of atmospheric ammonia under the influence of multiple disturbances.

    PubMed

    Pinho, P; Llop, E; Ribeiro, M C; Cruz, C; Soares, A; Pereira, M J; Branquinho, C

    2014-05-01

    Critical levels (CLEs) of atmospheric ammonia based on biodiversity changes have been mostly calculated using small-scale single-source approaches, to avoid interference by other factors, which also influence biodiversity. Thus, it is questionable whether these CLEs are valid at larger spatial scales, in a multi- disturbances context. To test so, we sampled lichen diversity and ammonia at 80 sites across a region with a complex land-cover including industrial and urban areas. At a regional scale, confounding factors such as industrial pollutants prevailed, masking the CLEs. We propose and use a new tool to calculate CLEs by stratifying ammonia concentrations into classes, and focusing on the highest diversity values. Based on the significant correlations between ammonia and biodiversity, we found the CLE of ammonia for Mediterranean evergreen woodlands to be 0.69 μg m(-3), below the previously accepted value of 1.9 μg m(-3), and below the currently accepted pan-European CLE of 1.0 μg m(-3). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Setting ozone critical levels for protecting horticultural Mediterranean crops: case study of tomato.

    PubMed

    González-Fernández, I; Calvo, E; Gerosa, G; Bermejo, V; Marzuoli, R; Calatayud, V; Alonso, R

    2014-02-01

    Seven experiments carried out in Italy and Spain have been used to parameterising a stomatal conductance model and establishing exposure- and dose-response relationships for yield and quality of tomato with the main goal of setting O3 critical levels (CLe). CLe with confidence intervals, between brackets, were set at an accumulated hourly O3 exposure over 40 nl l(-1), AOT40 = 8.4 (1.2, 15.6) ppm h and a phytotoxic ozone dose above a threshold of 6 nmol m(-2) s(-1), POD6 = 2.7 (0.8, 4.6) mmol m(-2) for yield and AOT40 = 18.7 (8.5, 28.8) ppm h and POD6 = 4.1 (2.0, 6.2) mmol m(-2) for quality, both indices performing equally well. CLe confidence intervals provide information on the quality of the dataset and should be included in future calculations of O3 CLe for improving current methodologies. These CLe, derived for sensitive tomato cultivars, should not be applied for quantifying O3-induced losses at the risk of making important overestimations of the economical losses associated with O3 pollution.

  16. Landscape level assessment of critically endangered vegetation of Lakshadweep islands using geo-spatial techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, C. Sudhakar; Debnath, Bijan; Krishna, P. Hari; Jha, C. S.

    2013-04-01

    The conservation of biodiversity is essential for human survival and quality of the environment. Lakshadweep islands are vulnerable to global change and the representing remnant natural vegetation. Landscape fragmentation, disturbance regimes and biological richness have been studied using geo-spatial techniques. Littoral vegetation is the only natural vegetation type of Lakshadweep islands. Altogether 59 patches of the littoral vegetation occupying an area of 137.2 ha were identified. 58.06% of the littoral vegetation patches belongs to the patch-size class of <5 ha. The remnant natural vegetation surviving with patches of less than 20 ha size indicates severe anthropogenic pressure. The fragmentation of littoral vegetation habitat into smaller isolated patches poses one of the key threats to biodiversity and coastal environment. Phytosociological observations revealed distinct plant communities and presence of invasive species in littoral vegetation. The high disturbance areas accounted for 59.11% area of the total vegetation. The overall spatial distribution of biological richness (BR) in Lakshadweep shows maximum BR at low level (78%), followed by medium (19%), high (2%) and very high (1%). The study emphasises the importance of conserving the remnant natural vegetation, which is critically endangered.

  17. Diagnosis-Dependent Relationships between Cytokine Levels and Survival in Patients Admitted for Surgical Critical Care

    PubMed Central

    Hranjec, Tjasa; Swenson, Brian R; Dossett, Lesly A; Metzger, Rosemarie; Flohr, Tanya R; Popovsky, Kimberley A; Bonatti, Hugo J; May, Addison K; Sawyer, Robert G

    2010-01-01

    Background Death following trauma, infection, or other critical illness has been attributed to unbalanced inflammation, where dysregulation of cytokines leads to multiple organ dysfunction and death. We hypothesized that admission cytokine profiles associated with death would differ based on admitting diagnosis. Study Design This five-year study included patients admitted for trauma or surgical intensive care for more than 48 hours at two academic, tertiary care hospitals between 10/01 and 05/06. Cytokine analysis for IL-1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, IFN-gamma, and TNF alpha was performed using ELISA on specimens drawn within 72 hours of admission. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare median admission cytokines levels between alive and deceased patients. Relative risks and odds of death associated with admission cytokines were generated using univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression models, respectively. Results 1655 patients had complete cytokine data: 290 infected, non-trauma, 343 non-infected, non-trauma, and 1022 trauma. Among infected patients, non-survivors had higher median admission levels of IL-2, -8, -10 and GMCSF; non-infected, non-trauma patients IL-6, -8 and IL-10; and non-surviving trauma patients had higher IL-4, -6, -8 and TNF-α. Interleukin-4 was the most significant predictor of death and carried the highest relative risk of dying in trauma patients, and IL-8 in non-trauma, non-infected patients. In infected patients, no cytokine independently predicted death. Conclusions Cytokine profiles of certain disease states may identify persons at risk of dying and allow for selective targeting of multiple cytokines to prevent organ dysfunction and death. PMID:20421061

  18. The Effect of Relaxation Interventions on Cortisol Levels in HIV-Sero-Positive Women

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Deborah; Owens, Mary; Kumar, Mahendra; Cook, Ryan; Weiss, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, assessed in terms of cortisol levels, may enhance the ability of HIV to infect lymphocytes and downregulate the immune system, accelerating disease progression. This study sought to determine the effects of relaxation techniques on cortisol levels in HIV-sero-positive women. Methods Women (n = 150) were randomized to a group cognitive–behavioral stress management (CBSM) condition or an individual information condition and underwent 3 types of relaxation training (progressive muscle relaxation, imagery, and autogenic training). Cortisol levels were obtained pre- and postrelaxation. Results Guided imagery was effective in reducing cortisol in the group condition (t = 3.90, P < .001), and muscle relaxation reduced cortisol in the individual condition (t = 3.11, P = .012). Among participants in the group condition attending all sessions, the magnitude of pre- to postsession reduction became greater over time. Conclusions Results suggest that specific relaxation techniques may be partially responsible for cortisol decreases associated with relaxation and CBSM. PMID:23715264

  19. Food aversion: a critical balance between allergen-specific IgE levels and taste preference.

    PubMed

    Mirotti, Luciana; Mucida, Daniel; de Sá-Rocha, Luis Carlos; Costa-Pinto, Frederico Azevedo; Russo, Momtchilo

    2010-03-01

    Animals sensitized to allergens change their feeding behavior and avoid drinking the otherwise preferred sweetened solutions containing the allergens. This phenomenon, known as food aversion, appears to be mediated by allergen-specific IgE antibodies. Here we investigated food aversion in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, which differ in their allergic responses to the allergen ovalbumin as well as in their preference for sweet taste. BALB/c mice present higher levels of IgE and a natural lower preference for sweet flavors when compared to C57BL/6 mice. Specifically, we studied a conflicting situation in which animals simultaneously experienced the aversive contact with the allergen and the attractive sweet taste of increasing concentrations of sucrose. We found that BALB/c mice were more prone to develop food aversion than C57BL/6 mice and that this aversive behavior could be abolished in both strains by increasing the palatability of the solution containing the allergen. In both strains food aversion was positively correlated with the levels of allergen-specific IgE antibodies and inversely correlated with their preference for sucrose sweetened solutions. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. An Analysis of the Critical Reading Levels of Pre-Service Turkish and Literature Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maltepe, Sadet

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Critical reading refers to individuals' thinking about what they read, assessing what they have read, and using their own judgment about what they have read. In order to teach critical reading skills to students, a teacher is expected to have knowledge about text selection, use of appropriate methods, preparation of functional…

  1. The Regression Level of Constructivist Learning Environment Characteristics on Classroom Environment Characteristics Supporting Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunca, Nihal

    2015-01-01

    Problem Statement: One of the main aims of constructivism is to improve critical thinking skills/tendencies via experiences. In this sense, it is believed that the more the constructivist-learning environment is improved, the more the appropriateness of supporting critical thinking is improved. However, no study has yet statistically tested this…

  2. Low baseline levels of NK cells may predict a positive response to ipilimumab in melanoma therapy.

    PubMed

    Tietze, Julia K; Angelova, Daniela; Heppt, Markus V; Ruzicka, Thomas; Berking, Carola

    2016-11-28

    The introduction of immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) has been a breakthrough in the therapy of metastatic melanoma. The influence of ICB on T-cell populations has been studied extensively, but little is known about the effect on NK cells. In this study, we analysed the relative and absolute amounts of NK cells and of the subpopulations of CD56(dim) and CD56(bright) NK cells among the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 32 patients with metastatic melanoma before and under treatment with ipilimumab or pembrolizumab by flow cytometry. In 15 (47%) patients, an abnormal low amount of NK cells was found at baseline. Analysis of the subpopulations showed also low or normal baseline levels for CD56(dim) NK cells, whereas the baseline levels of CD56(bright) NK cells were either normal or abnormally high. The relative and absolute amounts of NK cells and of CD56(dim) and CD56(bright) NK cell subpopulations in patients with a normal baseline did not change under treatment. However, patients with a low baseline of NK cells and CD56(dim) NK cells showed a significant increase in these immune cell subsets, but the amounts remained to be lower than the normal baseline. The amount of CD56(bright) NK cells was unaffected by treatment. The baseline levels of NK cells were correlated with the number of metastatic organs. Their proportion increased, whereas the expression of NKG2D decreased significantly when more than one organ was affected by metastases. Low baseline levels of NK cells and CD56(dim) NK cells as well as normal baseline levels of CD56(bright) NK cells correlated significantly with a positive response to ipilimumab but not to pembrolizumab. Survival curves of patients with low amounts of CD56(dim) NK cells treated with ipilimumab showed a trend to longer survival. Normal baseline levels of CD56(bright) NK cells were significantly correlated with longer survival as compared to patients with high baseline levels. In conclusion, analysis of the amounts of total

  3. Influences of menstrual cycle position and sex hormone levels on spontaneous intrusive recollections following emotional stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Ferree, Nikole K.; Kamat, Rujvi; Cahill, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous intrusive recollections (SIRs) are known to follow emotional events in clinical and nonclinical populations. Previous work in our lab has found that women report more SIRs than men after exposure to emotional films, and that this effect is driven entirely by women in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. To replicate and extend this finding, participants viewed emotional films, provided saliva samples for sex hormone concentration analysis, and estimated SIR frequency following film viewing. Women in the luteal phase reported significantly more SIRs than did women in the follicular phase, and SIR frequency significantly correlated with salivary progesterone levels. The results are consistent with an emerging pattern in the literature suggesting that menstrual cycle position of female participants can potently influence findings in numerous cognitive domains. The potential implications of these results for disorders characterized by intrusions, such as post-traumatic stress disorder, are also discussed. PMID:21353599

  4. Physiologic performance test differences in female volleyball athletes by competition level and player position.

    PubMed

    Schaal, Monique; Ransdell, Lynda B; Simonson, Shawn R; Gao, Yong

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine physiologic performance test differences by competition level (high school and Division-I collegiate athletes) and player position (hitter, setter, defensive specialist) in 4 volleyball-related tests. A secondary purpose was to establish whether a 150-yd shuttle could be used as a field test to assess anaerobic capacity. Female participants from 4 varsity high school volleyball teams (n = 27) and 2 Division-I collegiate volleyball teams (n = 26) were recruited for the study. Participants completed 4 performance-based field tests (vertical jump, agility T-test, and 150- and 300-yd shuttle runs) after completing a standardized dynamic warm-up. A 2-way multivariate analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc adjustments (when appropriate) and effect sizes were used for the analyses. The most important findings of this study were that (a) college volleyball athletes were older, heavier, and taller than high school athletes; (b) high school athletes had performance deficiencies in vertical jump/lower-body power, agility, and anaerobic fitness; (c) lower-body power was the only statistically significant difference in the performance test measures by player position; and (d) the correlation between the 150- and 300-yd shuttle was moderate (r = 0.488). Female high school volleyball players may enhance their ability to play collegiate volleyball by improving their vertical jump, lower-body power, agility, and anaerobic fitness. Furthermore, all player positions should emphasize lower-body power conditioning. These physical test scores provide baseline performance scores that should help strength and conditioning coaches create programs that will address deficits in female volleyball player performance, especially as they transition from high school to college.

  5. Head Strap Double Fluid Level Device: An Innovative and User Friendly Design to Record Natural Head Position (NHP)

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Nidhin Philip; Shetty, Siddarth

    2015-01-01

    Head positions can be oriented in a standardized position when the patient stands upright and focusses his/her eyes into a point in infinity. This is the natural head position. This position offers the maximum reproducibility and correlates well with the clinical picture offered to the diagnostician. This article describes an innovative and user friendly method to record natural head position using the head strap double fluid level device, a design modified from the popular fluid level device by Showfety, Vig and Matteson. PMID:25738103

  6. Intranasal oxytocin increases positive communication and reduces cortisol levels during couple conflict.

    PubMed

    Ditzen, Beate; Schaer, Marcel; Gabriel, Barbara; Bodenmann, Guy; Ehlert, Ulrike; Heinrichs, Markus

    2009-05-01

    In nonhuman mammals, the neuropeptide oxytocin has repeatedly been shown to increase social approach behavior and pair bonding. In particular, central nervous oxytocin reduces behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to social stress and is suggested to mediate the rewarding aspects of attachment in highly social species. However, to date there have been no studies investigating the effects of central oxytocin mechanisms on behavior and physiology in human couple interaction. In a double-blind placebo-controlled design, 47 heterosexual couples (total n = 94) received oxytocin or placebo intranasally before a standard instructed couple conflict discussion in the laboratory. The conflict session was videotaped and coded for verbal and nonverbal interaction behavior (e.g., eye contact, nonverbal positive behavior, and self-disclosure). Salivary cortisol was repeatedly measured during the experiment. Oxytocin significantly increased positive communication behavior in relation to negative behavior during the couple conflict discussion (F = 4.18, p = .047) and significantly reduced salivary cortisol levels after the conflict compared with placebo (F = 7.14, p = .011). These results are in line with animal studies indicating that central oxytocin facilitates approach and pair bonding behavior. Our findings imply an involvement of oxytocin in couple interaction and close relationships in humans.

  7. Assessment of noninvasive ventilation with two levels of positive airway pressure in patients after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Franco, Aline Marques; Torres, Franciele Cristina Clapis; Simon, Isabela Scali Lourenço; Morales, Daniela; Rodrigues, Alfredo José

    2011-01-01

    The application of two levels of ventilation by positive pressure (BiPAP®) associated with conventional respiratory therapy (CRT) in postoperative periord of cardiac surgery may contribute to reduction of pulmonary complications. To evaluate the safety and compliance of preventive application of BiPAP® CRT associated with immediate postoperative myocardial revascularization. 26 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting were randomly allocated in one of the groups. Patients of the Control Group (CG) were treated only with conventional respiratory therapy, compared to BiPAP group (BG) (in addition to conventional respiratory therapy the patients were subjected to 30 minutes of ventilation by two levels twice a day). The conventional respiratory therapy was held in both groups, twice a day. All patients were evaluated for vital capacity, airway permeability, maximal respiratory pressures, oxygen saturation, heart rate, respiratory frequency, Volume Minute, tidal volume, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Evaluations were performed during hospitalization preoperatively, immediately after extubation, 24h and 48h after extubation. In CG 61.5% of patients had some degree of atelectasias, in comparison to 54% of BG (P=0.691). The vital capacity was higher in the GB postoperatively (P<0.015). All the other ventilometric, gasometric, hemodynamic and manometric parameters were similar between groups. Coronary artery bypass grafting leads to deterioration of respiratory function postoperatively, and the application of positive pressure ventilation (BiPAP®) may be beneficial to restore lung function more quickly, especially vital capacity, safely, and well accepted by patients due to greater comfort with the sensation of pain during the execution of respiratory therapy.

  8. Electrical Stimulation in Bone Healing: Critical Analysis by Evaluating Levels of Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Michelle; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Direct current, capacitive coupling, and inductive coupling are modes of electrical stimulation (ES) used to enhance bone healing. It is important to assess the effectiveness of ES for bone healing to ensure optimization for clinical practice. This review aims to examine the level of evidence (LOE) for the application of ES to enhance bone healing and investigate the proposed mechanism for its stimulatory effect. Methods: MEDLINE and EMBASE searches were conducted to identify clinical and in vitro studies utilizing ES for bone healing since 1959. A total of 105 clinical studies and 35 in vitro studies were evaluated. Clinical studies were assigned LOE according to Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine (LOE-1, highest; LOE-5, lowest). Results: Direct current was found to be effective in enhancing bone healing in spinal fusion but only LOE-4 supported its use for nonunions. Eleven studies were retrieved for capacitive coupling with LOE-1 demonstrating its effectiveness for treating nonunions. The majority of studies utilized inductive coupling with LOE-1 supporting its application for healing osteotomies and nonunions. In vitro studies demonstrate that ES enhances bone healing by changes in growth factors and transmembrane signaling although no clear mechanism has been defined. Conclusion: Overall, the studies, although in favor of ES application in bone repair, displayed variability in treatment regime, primary outcome measures, follow-up times, and study design, making critical evaluation and assessment difficult. Electrical stimulation shows promise in enhancement of bone healing; however, better-designed clinical studies will enable the optimization for clinical practice. PMID:21847434

  9. Neurofilaments form a Highly Stable Stationary Cytoskeleton After Reaching a Critical Level in Axons

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Aidong; Sasaki, Takahiro; Rao, Mala V.; Kumar, Asok; Kanumuri, Vivek; Dunlop, David S.; Liem, Ronald K.; Nixon, Ralph A.

    2009-01-01

    The ultrastructural view of the axonal cytoskeleton as an extensively crosslinked network of neurofilaments (NFs) and other cytoskeletal polymers contrasts with the dynamic view suggested by axonal transport studies on cytoskeletal elements. Here we reconcile these perspectives by showing that neurons form a large NF network along axons which is unequivocally stationary, metabolically stable, and maintained by NFs and non-filamentous subunit assemblies undergoing slow transport by intermittent rapid movements and pauses. In mouse primary cortical neurons transfected with EGFP-NFL, formation of this stationary NF network requires a critical level of NFs, which explains its absence in NF-poor developing neurons studied previously. Most NFs at proximal axon regions were in a stationary structure coexisting with a smaller pool of moving EGFP-NFL assemblies that were mainly non-filamentous. Distally along the same axon, EGFP-labeled NFL was much less abundant and we detected only short filaments moving bidirectionally by slow transport (rapid movements and pauses) as previously described. In living mice, >25% of radiolabeled newly synthesized NFs remained in optic axons after slowly transport NFs had exited. Retained NF remained fixed over several months in a non-uniform distribution and exhibited exceptionally slow turnover (t 1/2 > 2.5 months), implying that, at steady state, >90% of NFs in mature optic axons comprise the stationary cytoskeleton and <10% are undergoing slow transport. These findings reconcile in vitro and in vivo axonal transport observations, showing that slowly transport NFs or subunit oligomers are precursors to a highly stable stationary cytoskeletal network that supports mature axons. PMID:19741138

  10. Prevalence and consequences of positive blood alcohol levels among patients injured at work

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Caitlin A.; Dissanaike, Sharmila D.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to characterize positive blood alcohol among patients injured at work, and to compare the severity of injury and outcome of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) positive and negative patients. Settings and Design: A retrospective cohort study was performed at a Level 1 academic trauma center. Patients injured at work between 01/01/07 and 01/01/12 and admitted with positive (BAC+) vs negative (BAC−) blood alcohol were compared using bivariate analysis. Results: Out of 823, 319 subjects were tested for BAC (38.8%), of whom 37 were BAC+ (mean 0.151 g/dL, range 0.015-0.371 g/dL). Age (41 years), sex (97.2% men), race, intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital length of stay (LOS), and mortality were similar between groups. Nearly half of BAC+ cases were farming injuries (18, 48.6%): Eight involved livestock, five involved all-terrain vehicles (ATVs), three involved heavy equipment, one fell, and one had a firearm injury. Eight (21.6%) were construction site injuries involving falls from a roof or scaffolding, five (13.5%) were semi-truck collisions, four (10.8%) involved falls from a vehicle in various settings, and two (5.4%) were crush injuries at an oilfield. BAC+ subjects were less likely to be injured in construction sites and oilfields, including vehicle-related falls (2.3 vs 33.9%, P < 0.0001). Over half of BAC+ (n = 20, 54%) subjects were alcohol dependent; three (8.1%) also tested positive for cocaine on admission. No BAC+ subjects were admitted to rehabilitation compared to 33 (11.7%) of BAC− subjects. Workers’ compensation covered a significantly smaller proportion of BAC+ patients (16.2 vs 61.0%, P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Alcohol use in the workplace is more prevalent than commonly suspected, especially in farming and other less regulated industries. BAC+ is associated with less insurance coverage, which probably affects resources available for post-discharge rehabilitation and hospital reimbursement. PMID:25400387

  11. Enhanced critical currents in (Gd,Y)Ba2Cu3Ox superconducting tapes with high levels of Zr addition

    SciTech Connect

    Selvamanickam, V; Chen, Y; Shi, T; Liu, Y; Khatri, ND; Liu, J; Yao, Y; Xiong, X; Lei, C; Soloveichik, S; Galstyan, E; Majkic, G

    2013-01-21

    The critical current and structural properties of (Gd,Y)BaCuO tapes made by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) with Zr addition levels up to 30 at.% have been investigated. The reduction in critical current beyond the previously optimized Zr addition level of 7.5 at.% was found to be due to structural deterioration of the (Gd,Y)Ba2Cu3Ox film. By a modified MOCVD process,enhanced critical current densities have been achieved with high levels of Zr addition,including 3.83 MA cm(-2) in 15 at.% Zr- added 1.1 mu m thick film at 77 K in zero magnetic field. Critical currents as high as 1072 A/ 12 mm have been reached in (Gd,Y) BaCuO tapes with 15 at.% Zr addition at 30 K in a field of 3 T applied perpendicular to the tape,corresponding to a pinning force value of 268 GN m(-3). The enhanced critical currents achievable with a high density of nanoscale defects by employing high levels of second- phase additions enable the performance targets needed for the use of HTS tapes in coil applications involving high magnetic fields at temperatures below 50 K to be met.

  12. Enhanced critical currents in (Gd,Y)Ba2Cu3Ox superconducting tapes with high levels of Zr addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvamanickam, V.; Chen, Y.; Shi, T.; Liu, Y.; Khatri, N. D.; Liu, J.; Yao, Y.; Xiong, X.; Lei, C.; Soloveichik, S.; Galstyan, E.; Majkic, G.

    2013-03-01

    The critical current and structural properties of (Gd,Y)BaCuO tapes made by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) with Zr addition levels up to 30 at.% have been investigated. The reduction in critical current beyond the previously optimized Zr addition level of 7.5 at.% was found to be due to structural deterioration of the (Gd,Y)Ba2Cu3Ox film. By a modified MOCVD process, enhanced critical current densities have been achieved with high levels of Zr addition, including 3.83 MA cm-2 in 15 at.% Zr-added 1.1 μm thick film at 77 K in zero magnetic field. Critical currents as high as 1072 A/12 mm have been reached in (Gd,Y)BaCuO tapes with 15 at.% Zr addition at 30 K in a field of 3 T applied perpendicular to the tape, corresponding to a pinning force value of 268 GN m-3. The enhanced critical currents achievable with a high density of nanoscale defects by employing high levels of second-phase additions enable the performance targets needed for the use of HTS tapes in coil applications involving high magnetic fields at temperatures below 50 K to be met.

  13. Reef Fishes at All Trophic Levels Respond Positively to Effective Marine Protected Areas.

    PubMed

    Soler, German A; Edgar, Graham J; Thomson, Russell J; Kininmonth, Stuart; Campbell, Stuart J; Dawson, Terence P; Barrett, Neville S; Bernard, Anthony T F; Galván, David E; Willis, Trevor J; Alexander, Timothy J; Stuart-Smith, Rick D

    2015-01-01

    Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) offer a unique opportunity to test the assumption that fishing pressure affects some trophic groups more than others. Removal of larger predators through fishing is often suggested to have positive flow-on effects for some lower trophic groups, in which case protection from fishing should result in suppression of lower trophic groups as predator populations recover. We tested this by assessing differences in the trophic structure of reef fish communities associated with 79 MPAs and open-access sites worldwide, using a standardised quantitative dataset on reef fish community structure. The biomass of all major trophic groups (higher carnivores, benthic carnivores, planktivores and herbivores) was significantly greater (by 40% - 200%) in effective no-take MPAs relative to fished open-access areas. This effect was most pronounced for individuals in large size classes, but with no size class of any trophic group showing signs of depressed biomass in MPAs, as predicted from higher predator abundance. Thus, greater biomass in effective MPAs implies that exploitation on shallow rocky and coral reefs negatively affects biomass of all fish trophic groups and size classes. These direct effects of fishing on trophic structure appear stronger than any top down effects on lower trophic levels that would be imposed by intact predator populations. We propose that exploitation affects fish assemblages at all trophic levels, and that local ecosystem function is generally modified by fishing.

  14. Reef Fishes at All Trophic Levels Respond Positively to Effective Marine Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Soler, German A.; Edgar, Graham J.; Thomson, Russell J.; Kininmonth, Stuart; Campbell, Stuart J.; Dawson, Terence P.; Barrett, Neville S.; Bernard, Anthony T. F.; Galván, David E.; Willis, Trevor J.; Alexander, Timothy J.; Stuart-Smith, Rick D.

    2015-01-01

    Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) offer a unique opportunity to test the assumption that fishing pressure affects some trophic groups more than others. Removal of larger predators through fishing is often suggested to have positive flow-on effects for some lower trophic groups, in which case protection from fishing should result in suppression of lower trophic groups as predator populations recover. We tested this by assessing differences in the trophic structure of reef fish communities associated with 79 MPAs and open-access sites worldwide, using a standardised quantitative dataset on reef fish community structure. The biomass of all major trophic groups (higher carnivores, benthic carnivores, planktivores and herbivores) was significantly greater (by 40% - 200%) in effective no-take MPAs relative to fished open-access areas. This effect was most pronounced for individuals in large size classes, but with no size class of any trophic group showing signs of depressed biomass in MPAs, as predicted from higher predator abundance. Thus, greater biomass in effective MPAs implies that exploitation on shallow rocky and coral reefs negatively affects biomass of all fish trophic groups and size classes. These direct effects of fishing on trophic structure appear stronger than any top down effects on lower trophic levels that would be imposed by intact predator populations. We propose that exploitation affects fish assemblages at all trophic levels, and that local ecosystem function is generally modified by fishing. PMID:26461104

  15. Positive reinforcement training moderates only high levels of abnormal behavior in singly housed rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Baker, Kate C; Bloomsmith, Mollie; Neu, Kimberly; Griffis, Caroline; Maloney, Margaret; Oettinger, Brooke; Schoof, Valerie A M; Martinez, Marni

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the application of positive reinforcement training (PRT) as an intervention for abnormal behaviors in singly housed laboratory rhesus macaques at 2 large primate facilities. Training involved basic control behaviors and body-part presentation. The study compared baseline behavioral data on 30 adult males and 33 adult females compared with 3 treatment phases presented in counterbalanced order: 6 min per week of PRT, 20 or 40 min per week of PRT, and 6 min per week of unstructured human interaction (HI). Within-subject parametric tests detected no main or interaction effects involving experimental phase. However, among a subset of subjects with levels of abnormal in the top quartile of the range (n = 15), abnormal behavior was reduced from 35% to 25% of samples with PRT but not with HI. These results suggest that short durations of PRT applied as enrichment for this species and in this context may not in itself be sufficient intervention for abnormal behavior because levels remained high. However, it may be appropriate as an adjunct to other interventions and may be best targeted to the most severely affected individuals.

  16. DasR positively controls monensin production at two-level regulation in Streptomyces cinnamonensis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Lin, Chun-Yan; Li, Xiao-Mei; Tang, Zheng-Kun; Qiao, Jianjun; Zhao, Guang-Rong

    2016-12-01

    The polyether ionophore antibiotic monensin is produced by Streptomyces cinnamonensis and is used as a coccidiostat for chickens and growth-promoting agent for cattle. Monensin biosynthetic gene cluster has been cloned and partially characterized. The GntR-family transcription factor DasR regulates antibiotic production and morphological development in Streptomyces coelicolor and Saccharopolyspora erythraea. In this study, we identified and characterized the two-level regulatory cascade of DasR to monensin production in S. cinnamonensis. Forward and reverse genetics by overexpression and antisense RNA silence of dasR revealed that DasR positively controls monensin production under nutrient-rich condition. Electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that DasR protein specifically binds to the promoter regions of both pathway-specific regulatory gene monRII and biosynthetic genes monAIX, monE and monT. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR further confirmed that DasR upregulates the transcriptional levels of these genes during monensin fermentation. Subsequently, co-overexpressed dasR with pathway-specific regulatory genes monRI, monRII or monH greatly improved monensin production.

  17. The Australasian Radiation Protection Society's position statement on risks from low levels of ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Higson, Donald

    2007-09-30

    Controversy continues on whether or not ionizing radiation is harmful at low doses, with unresolved scientific uncertainty about effects below a few tens of millisieverts. To settle what regulatory controls should apply in this dose region, an assumption has to be made relating dose to the possibility of harm or benefit. The position of the Australasian Radiation Protection Society on this matter is set out in a statement adopted by the Society in 2005. Its salient features are: --There is insufficient evidence to establish a dose-effect relationship for doses that are less than a few tens of millisieverts in a year. A linear extrapolation from higher dose levels should be assumed only for the purpose of applying regulatory controls.--Estimates of collective dose arising from individual doses that are less than some tens of millisieverts in a year should not be used to predict numbers of fatal cancers. --The risk to an individual of doses significantly less than 100 microsieverts in a year is so small, if it exists at all, that regulatory requirements to control exposure at this level are not warranted.

  18. Positive Reinforcement Training Moderates Only High Levels of Abnormal Behavior in Singly Housed Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Kate C.; Bloomsmith, Mollie; Neu, Kimberly; Griffis, Caroline; Maloney, Margaret; Oettinger, Brooke; Schoof, Valérie A. M.; Martinez, Marni

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the application of positive reinforcement training (PRT) as an intervention for abnormal behaviors in singly housed laboratory rhesus macaques at 2 large primate facilities. Training involved basic control behaviors and body-part presentation. The study compared baseline behavioral data on 30 adult males and 33 adult females compared with 3 treatment phases presented in counterbalanced order: 6 min per week of PRT, 20 or 40 min per week of PRT, and 6 min per week of unstructured human interaction (HI). Within-subject parametric tests detected no main or interaction effects involving experimental phase. However, among a subset of subjects with levels of abnormal in the top quartile of the range (n = 15), abnormal behavior was reduced from 35% to 25% of samples with PRT but not with HI. These results suggest that short durations of PRT applied as enrichment for this species and in this context may not in itself be sufficient intervention for abnormal behavior because levels remained high. However, it may be appropriate as an adjunct to other interventions and may be best targeted to the most severely affected individuals. PMID:20183477

  19. Caustic leaching of high-level radioactive tank sludge: A critical literature review

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, C.P.; Welch, T.D.; Hunt, R.D.

    1997-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) must treat and safely dispose of its radioactive tank contents, which can be separated into high-level waste (HLW) and low-level waste (LLW) fractions. Since the unit costs of treatment and disposal are much higher for HLW than for LLW, technologies to reduce the amount of HLW are being developed. A key process currently being studied to reduce the volume of HLW sludges is called enhanced sludge washing (ESW). This process removes, by water washes, soluble constituents such as sodium salts, and the washed sludge is then leached with 2--3 M NaOH at 60--100 C to remove nonradioactive metals such as aluminum. The remaining solids are considered to be HLW while the solutions are LLW after radionuclides such as {sup 137}Cs have been removed. Results of bench-scale tests have shown that the ESW will probably remove the required amounts of inert constituents. While both experimental and theoretical results have shown that leaching efficiency increases as the time and temperature of the leach are increased, increases in the caustic concentration above 2--3 M will only marginally improve the leach factors. However, these tests were not designed to validate the assumption that the caustic used in the ESW process will generate only a small increase (10 Mkg) in the amount of LLW; instead, the test conditions were selected to maximize leaching in a short period and used more water and caustic than is planned during full-scale operations. Even though calculations indicate that the estimate for the amount of LLW generated by the ESW process appears to be reasonable, a detailed study of the amount of LLW from the ESW process is still required. If the LLW analysis indicates that sodium management is critical, then a more comprehensive evaluation of the clean salt process or caustic recycle would be needed. Finally, experimental and theoretical studies have clearly demonstrated the need for the control of solids formation during and after leaching.

  20. Caustic leaching of high-level radioactive tank sludge: A critical literature review

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, C.P.; Welch, T.D.; Hunt, R.D.

    1998-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) must treat and safely dispose of its radioactive tank contents, which can be separated into high-level waste (HLW) and low-level waste (LLW) fractions. Since the unit costs of treatment and disposal are much higher for HLW than for LLW, technologies to reduce the amount of HLW are being developed. A key process currently being studied to reduce the volume of HLW sludges is called enhanced sludge washing (ESW). This process removes, by water washes, soluble constituents such as sodium salts, and the washed sludge is then leached with 2--3 M NaOH at 60--100 C to remove nonradioactive metals such as aluminum. The remaining solids are considered to be HLW while the solutions are LLW after radionuclides such as {sup 137}Cs have been removed. Results of bench-scale tests have shown that the ESW will probably remove the required amounts of inert constituents. While both experimental and theoretical results have shown that leaching efficiency increases as the time and temperature of the leach are increased, increases in the caustic concentration above 2--3 M will only marginally improve the leach factors. However, these tests were not designed to validate the assumption that the caustic used in the ESW process will generate only a small increase (10 Mkg) in the amount of LLW; instead the test conditions were selected to maximize leaching in a short period and used more water and caustic than is planned during full-scale operations. Even though calculations indicate that the estimate for the amount of LLW generated by the ESW process appears to be reasonable, a detailed study of the amount of LLW from the ESW process is still required. If the LLW analysis indicates that sodium management is critical, then a more comprehensive evaluation of the clean salt process or caustic recycle would be needed. Finally, experimental and theoretical studies have clearly demonstrated the need for the control of solids formation during and after leaching.

  1. GLP-1 Levels Predict Mortality in Patients with Critical Illness as Well as End-Stage Renal Disease.

    PubMed

    Lebherz, Corinna; Schlieper, Georg; Möllmann, Julia; Kahles, Florian; Schwarz, Marvin; Brünsing, Jan; Dimkovic, Nada; Koch, Alexander; Trautwein, Christian; Flöge, Jürgen; Marx, Nikolaus; Tacke, Frank; Lehrke, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone, which stimulates glucose-dependent insulin secretion from the pancreas and holds immune-regulatory properties. A marked increase of GLP-1 has been found in critically ill patients. This study was performed to elucidate the underlying mechanism and evaluate its prognostic value. GLP-1 plasma levels were determined in 3 different patient cohorts: 1) critically ill patients admitted to our intensive care unit (n = 215); 2) patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis (n = 173); and 3) a control group (no kidney disease, no acute inflammation, n = 105). In vitro experiments were performed to evaluate GLP-1 secretion in response to human serum samples from the above-described cohorts. Critically ill patients presented with 6.35-fold higher GLP-1 plasma level in comparison with the control group. There was a significant correlation of GLP-1 levels with markers for the severity of inflammation, but also kidney function. Patients with end-stage renal disease displayed 4.46-fold higher GLP-1 concentrations in comparison with the control group. In vitro experiments revealed a strong GLP-1-inducing potential of serum from critically ill patients, while serum from hemodialysis patients only modestly increased GLP-1 secretion. GLP-1 levels independently predicted mortality in critically ill patients and patients with end-stage renal disease. Chronic and acute inflammatory processes like sepsis or chronic kidney disease increase circulating GLP-1 levels. This most likely reflects a sum effect of increased GLP-1 secretion and decreased GLP-1 clearance. GLP-1 plasma levels independently predict the outcome of critically ill and end-stage renal disease patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cord Blood Irisin Levels are Positively Correlated with Birth Weight in Newborn Infants

    PubMed Central

    Joung, Kyoung Eun; Park, Kyung-Hee; Filippiaos, Andreas; Dincer, Fadime; Christou, Helen; Mantzoros, Christos S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Irisin is a novel myokine, secreted from skeletal muscle after exercise. Irisin mediates exercise-related energy expenditure by turning white adipose tissue (WAT) into brown adipose tissue (BAT). Thus, irisin is considered as a potential biomarker for obesity and metabolic syndrome. Infants born small for gestational age (SGA) have increased risk for metabolic syndrome. However, the physiologic role of irisin in neonates remains to be studied. Objective To evaluate the association of umbilical cord blood irisin levels with gestational age and birth weight categories in neonates. Methods A cross-sectional study of 341 newborns, from 26 to 41 weeks' gestation. We collected umbilical cord blood and analyzed plasma for irisin by ELISA. Results Plasma irisin levels were positively correlated with gestational age (r=0.21, p<0.001), and birth weight Z-score (r=0.18, p<0.001). SGA infants had significantly lower irisin (median [interquartile range] 55.38 [46.56 - 65.72] ng/mL) compared to appropriate for gestational age infants (64.41 [53.87 - 76.76] ng/mL) and large for gestational age infants (68.70 [54.78 - 79.09] ng/mL, p<0.01). The association between SGA and lower irisin remained significant in multivariate analysis independent of gestational age, maternal age, maternal BMI, and gestational diabetes (p=0.03). In singleton infants, irisin was also significantly negatively associated with maternal preeclampsia (p=0.01). Conclusions Our results support the notion that irisin may have a physiologic role in neonates. We speculate that decreased levels of irisin in SGA infants may contribute to the development of catch up growth and metabolic syndrome later in life. PMID:26303870

  3. Effect of Different Levels of Localized Muscle Fatigue on Knee Position Sense

    PubMed Central

    Gear, William S.

    2011-01-01

    There is little information available regarding how proprioceptive abilities decline as the amount of exertion increases during exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of different levels of fatigue on knee joint position sense. A repeated measures design was used to examine changes in active joint reposition sense (AJRS) prior to and following three levels of fatigue. Eighteen participants performed knee extension and flexion isokinetic exercise until torque output was 90%, 70%, or 50% of the peak hamstring torque for three consecutive repetitions. Active joint reposition sense at 15, 30, or 45 degrees was tested following the isokinetic exercise session. Following testing of the first independent measure, participants were given a 20 minute rest period. Testing procedures were repeated for two more exercise sessions following the other levels of fatigue. Testing of each AJRS test angle was conducted on three separate days with 48 hours between test days. Significant main effect for fatigue was indicated (p = 0.001). Pairwise comparisons indicated a significant difference between the pre-test and following 90% of peak hamstring torque (p = 0.02) and between the pre-test and following 50% of peak hamstring torque (p = 0.02). Fatigue has long been theorized to be a contributing factor in decreased proprioceptive acuity, and therefore a contributing factor to joint injury. The findings of the present study indicate that fatigue may have an effect on proprioception following mild and maximum fatigue. Key points A repeated measures design was used to examine the effect of different levels of fatigue on active joint reposition sense (AJRS) of the knee at joint angles of 15°, 30° and 45° of flexion. A statistically significant main effect for fatigue was found, specifically between no fatigue and mild fatigue and no fatigue and maximum fatigue. A statistically significant interaction effect between AJRS and fatigue was not found. Secondary

  4. Effect of different levels of localized muscle fatigue on knee position sense.

    PubMed

    Gear, William S

    2011-01-01

    There is little information available regarding how proprioceptive abilities decline as the amount of exertion increases during exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of different levels of fatigue on knee joint position sense. A repeated measures design was used to examine changes in active joint reposition sense (AJRS) prior to and following three levels of fatigue. Eighteen participants performed knee extension and flexion isokinetic exercise until torque output was 90%, 70%, or 50% of the peak hamstring torque for three consecutive repetitions. Active joint reposition sense at 15, 30, or 45 degrees was tested following the isokinetic exercise session. Following testing of the first independent measure, participants were given a 20 minute rest period. Testing procedures were repeated for two more exercise sessions following the other levels of fatigue. Testing of each AJRS test angle was conducted on three separate days with 48 hours between test days. Significant main effect for fatigue was indicated (p = 0.001). Pairwise comparisons indicated a significant difference between the pre-test and following 90% of peak hamstring torque (p = 0.02) and between the pre-test and following 50% of peak hamstring torque (p = 0.02). Fatigue has long been theorized to be a contributing factor in decreased proprioceptive acuity, and therefore a contributing factor to joint injury. The findings of the present study indicate that fatigue may have an effect on proprioception following mild and maximum fatigue. Key pointsA repeated measures design was used to examine the effect of different levels of fatigue on active joint reposition sense (AJRS) of the knee at joint angles of 15°, 30° and 45° of flexion.A statistically significant main effect for fatigue was found, specifically between no fatigue and mild fatigue and no fatigue and maximum fatigue.A statistically significant interaction effect between AJRS and fatigue was not found.Secondary analysis

  5. High level expression of differentially localized BAG-1 isoforms in some oestrogen receptor-positive human breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    Brimmell, M; Burns, J S; Munson, P; McDonald, L; O’Hare, M J; Lakhani, S R; Packham, G

    1999-01-01

    Sensitivity to oestrogens and apoptosis are critical determinants of the development and progression of breast cancer and reflect closely linked pathways in breast epithelial cells. For example, induction of BCL-2 oncoprotein expression by oestrogen contributes to suppression of apoptosis and BCL-2 and oestrogen receptor (ER) are frequently co-expressed in tumours. BAG-1/HAP is a multifunctional protein which complexes with BCL-2 and steroid hormone receptors (including the ER), and can suppress apoptosis and influence steroid hormone-dependent transcription. Therefore, analysis of expression of BAG-1 in human breast cancer is of considerable interest. BAG-1 was readily detected by immunostaining in normal breast epithelial cells and most ER-positive tumours, but was undetectable or weakly expressed in ER-negative tumours. BAG-1 positive cells showed a predominantly cytoplasmic or cytoplasmic plus nuclear distribution of staining. A correlation between ER and BAG-1 was also evident in breast cancer derived cell lines, as all lines examined with functional ER expression also expressed high levels of BAG-1. In addition to the prototypical 36 kDa BAG-1 isoform, breast cancer cells expressed higher molecular weight isoforms and, in contrast to BCL-2, BAG-1 expression was independent of oestrogens. BAG-1 isoforms were differentially localized to the nucleus or cytoplasm and this was also independent of oestrogens. These results demonstrate a close association between BAG-1 and functional ER expression and suggest BAG-1 may be useful as a therapeutic target or prognostic marker in breast cancer. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10576663

  6. The potential for criticality following disposal of uranium at low-level waste facilities: Uranium blended with soil

    SciTech Connect

    Toran, L.E.; Hopper, C.M.; Naney, M.T.

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether or not fissile uranium in low-level-waste (LLW) facilities can be concentrated by hydrogeochemical processes to permit nuclear criticality. A team of experts in hydrology, geology, geochemistry, soil chemistry, and criticality safety was formed to develop achievable scenarios for hydrogeochemical increases in concentration of special nuclear material (SNM), and to use these scenarios to aid in evaluating the potential for nuclear criticality. The team`s approach was to perform simultaneous hydrogeochemical and nuclear criticality studies to (1) identify some achievable scenarios for uranium migration and concentration increase at LLW disposal facilities, (2) model groundwater transport and subsequent concentration increase via sorption or precipitation of uranium, and (3) evaluate the potential for nuclear criticality resulting from potential increases in uranium concentration over disposal limits. The analysis of SNM was restricted to {sup 235}U in the present scope of work. The outcome of the work indicates that criticality is possible given established regulatory limits on SNM disposal. However, a review based on actual disposal records of an existing site operation indicates that the potential for criticality is not a concern under current burial practices.

  7. Positive correlation between PEDF expression levels and macrophage density in the human prostate

    PubMed Central

    Nelius, Thomas; Samathanam, Christina; Martinez-Marin, Dalia; Gaines, Natalie; Stevens, Jessica; Hickson, Johnny; de Riese, Werner; Filleur, Stéphanie

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND In this study, we investigated the capacity of PEDF to modulate the recruitment and the differentiation of monocytes/macrophages both in vitro and in human prostate. METHODS Using Boyden chambers, we assessed PEDF effect on the migration of monocytes and chemically-activated RAW264.7 macrophages. Normal, prostatitis and prostate cancer specimens were retrospectively selected and examined by immunohistochemistry for PEDF expression and infiltration of immune CD68+macrophagic cells. PEDF expression and macrophage density were then correlated with each other and clinicopathological parameters. M1 and M2 differentiation markers were quantified by qRT-PCR, western blotting and ELISA. RESULTS In chemotaxis, PEDF induced the migration of monocytes/macrophages. In immunohistochemistry, macrophages were markedly increased in prostatitis and malignant compared to normal tissues. PEDF was expressed at variable levels in the stroma and epithelium. PEDF mRNA was down-regulated in both prostate cancer and prostatitis compared to normal tissues. In correlation studies, macrophage density and PEDF expression were respectively positively and negatively associated with prostate size. Most importantly, PEDF expression positively correlated with macrophage density. Finally, PEDF stimulated the expression of iNOS, IL12 and TNFα; and inhibited IL10 and arginase 1 in mouse and human macrophages confirming a M1-type differentiation. CONCLUSIONS Our data demonstrate that PEDF acts directly on monocytes/macrophages by inducing their migration and differentiation into M1-type cells. These findings suggest a possible role of macrophages in PEDF anti-tumor properties and may support further development of PEDF-based anti-cancer therapy. PMID:23038613

  8. Reactor Testing and Qualification: Prioritized High-level Criticality Testing Needs

    SciTech Connect

    S. Bragg-Sitton; J. Bess; J. Werner; G. Harms; S. Bailey

    2011-09-01

    Researchers at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) were tasked with reviewing possible criticality testing needs to support development of the fission surface power system reactor design. Reactor physics testing can provide significant information to aid in development of technologies associated with small, fast spectrum reactors that could be applied for non-terrestrial power systems, leading to eventual system qualification. Several studies have been conducted in recent years to assess the data and analyses required to design and build a space fission power system with high confidence that the system will perform as designed [Marcille, 2004a, 2004b; Weaver, 2007; Parry et al., 2008]. This report will provide a summary of previous critical tests and physics measurements that are potentially applicable to the current reactor design (both those that have been benchmarked and those not yet benchmarked), summarize recent studies of potential nuclear testing needs for space reactor development and their applicability to the current baseline fission surface power (FSP) system design, and provide an overview of a suite of tests (separate effects, sub-critical or critical) that could fill in the information database to improve the accuracy of physics modeling efforts as the FSP design is refined. Some recommendations for tasks that could be completed in the near term are also included. Specific recommendations on critical test configurations will be reserved until after the sensitivity analyses being conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are completed (due August 2011).

  9. Supervisory-level interruption recovery in time-critical control tasks.

    PubMed

    Sasangohar, Farzan; Scott, Stacey D; Cummings, M L

    2014-07-01

    This paper investigates the effectiveness of providing interruption recovery assistance in the form of an interactive visual timeline of historical events on a peripheral display in support of team supervision in time-critical settings. As interruptions can have detrimental effects on task performance, particularly in time-critical work environments, there is growing interest in the design of tools to assist people in resuming their pre-interruption activity. A user study was conducted to evaluate the use of an interactive event timeline that provides assistance to human supervisors in time-critical settings. The study was conducted in an experimental platform that emulated a team of operators and a mission commander performing a time-critical unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) mission. The study results showed that providing interruption assistance enabled people to recover from interruptions faster and more accurately. These results have implications for interface design that could be adopted in similar time-critical environments such as air-traffic control, process control, and first responders.

  10. Leveling the Field: Negotiating Positions of Power as a Preservice Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vetter, Amy; Meacham, Mark; Schieble, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Set in an undergraduate Secondary English Education Program, this qualitative study draws on theories of power, positioning, and identity to explore how positions of power affect teacher identity construction. Drawn from a larger study, the authors examine how one preservice teacher negotiated positions of power with students in ways that enabled…

  11. Comparative analyses of rider position according to skill levels during walk and trot in Jeju horse.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ok-Deuk; Ryu, Youn-Chul; Ryew, Che-Cheong; Oh, Woon-Yong; Lee, Chong-Eon; Kang, Min-Soo

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rider position at walk and trot as a function of rider skill level by analyzing joint angles. Participants included three advanced riders and six beginners, and training was conducted for one hour, twice a week for 24 weeks. In the walk stage of the beginners' group, the elbows and shoulders sustained postures comparable to those of the advanced riders group; the trunk tilted forwards at first, but later it tilted slightly behind the vertical. The knee, ankle, and left-right angle kept stable postures after 12 weeks of training (p<.05). The front-rear (FR) angle of the beginners group improved during training, but it was still lower than the advanced riders group after 24 weeks of training (p<.05). At trot, while the knee angle measurement of the beginners' group was similar to the advanced riders, the ankle joint sustained a forward point posture. The ankle joint maintained dorsiflexion posture with 83.9°±5.3 in the advanced riders group, while the beginners group had plantar flexion posture with 98.7°±6.0. This study suggested that the correlation between the joint and body segment angles could be an important indicator in the evaluation of rider proficiency.

  12. A positive cis-acting DNA element is required for high-level transcription in Chlamydia.

    PubMed

    Schaumburg, C S; Tan, M

    2000-09-01

    The spacer A/T region is a positive cis-acting DNA element that was identified in the Chlamydia trachomatis rRNA promoter region. We have now demonstrated that similar sequences in other chlamydial promoters are important for transcription. Substitution of candidate spacer A/T regions in four chlamydial promoters decreased transcription by partially purified C. trachomatis RNA polymerase in an in vitro transcription assay. Addition of a spacer A/T region to the dnaK promoter, which does not contain an identifiable spacer A/T region, increased transcription 16-fold. Transcription of Escherichia coli promoters by C. trachomatis RNA polymerase also appeared to be dependent on the spacer A/T region. However, the effect of the spacer A/T region on transcription by E. coli RNA polymerase was small. In summary, the spacer A/T region is a novel DNA element that is required for high-level transcription of many promoters by chlamydial RNA polymerase.

  13. A Positive cis-Acting DNA Element Is Required for High-Level Transcription in Chlamydia

    PubMed Central

    Schaumburg, Chris S.; Tan, Ming

    2000-01-01

    The spacer A/T region is a positive cis-acting DNA element that was identified in the Chlamydia trachomatis rRNA promoter region. We have now demonstrated that similar sequences in other chlamydial promoters are important for transcription. Substitution of candidate spacer A/T regions in four chlamydial promoters decreased transcription by partially purified C. trachomatis RNA polymerase in an in vitro transcription assay. Addition of a spacer A/T region to the dnaK promoter, which does not contain an identifiable spacer A/T region, increased transcription 16-fold. Transcription of Escherichia coli promoters by C. trachomatis RNA polymerase also appeared to be dependent on the spacer A/T region. However, the effect of the spacer A/T region on transcription by E. coli RNA polymerase was small. In summary, the spacer A/T region is a novel DNA element that is required for high-level transcription of many promoters by chlamydial RNA polymerase. PMID:10960101

  14. The effect of variable arterial transducer level on the accuracy of pulse contour waveform-derived measurements in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    He, Huai-Wu; Liu, Da-Wei; Long, Yun; Wang, Xiao-Ting; Zhao, Mei-Ling; Lai, Xiao-Li

    2016-10-01

    We know that a 10 cm departure from the reference level of pressure transducer position is equal to a 7.5 mmHg change of invasive hemodynamic pressure monitoring in a fluid-filled system. However, the relationship between the site level of a variable arterial pressure transducer and the pulse contour-derived parameters has yet to be established in critically ill patients. Moreover, the related quantitative analysis has never been investigated. Forty-two critically ill patients requiring PiCCO-Plus cardiac output monitoring were prospectively studied. The phlebostatic axis was defined as the zero reference level; the arterial pressure transducer was then vertically adjusted to different positions (+5, +10, +15, +20, -20, -15, -10, -5 cm) of departure from the zero reference site. The pulse contour waveform-derived parameters were recorded at each position. Elevation of the pressure transducer caused significantly positive changes in the continuous cardiac index (+CCI), stroke volume index (+SVI), and stroke volume variation (+SVV), and negative changes in the rate of left ventricular pressure rise during systole (-dP/dtmax), the systemic vascular resistance index (-SVRI), and vice versa. At the 5 cm position, the SVRI changes reached statistical significance with error. At the 10 cm position, the changes in CCI and dP/dtmax reached statistical significance with error, while the change in SVV reached statistical significance at 15 cm. The change rate of CCI was more than 5 % at the 15 cm position and approximately 10 % at the 20 cm position. On average, for every centimeter change of the transducer, there was a corresponding 0.014 L/min/m(2) CCI change and 0.36 % change rate, a 1.41 mmHg/s dP/dtmax change and 0.13 % change rate, and a 25 dyne/s/cm(5) SVRI change and 1.2 % change rate. The variation of arterial transducer position can result in inaccurate measurement of pulse contour waveform-derived parameters, especially when the transducer

  15. Examining a Financial Climate of Support: How Institutional-Level Financial Aid Relates to Teamwork, Leadership, and Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Julie J.; Denson, Nida; Johnson, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Financial aid plays a critical role in college access and student success. It plays an increasingly important role as the college-going population continues to diversify and the cost of college continues to rise at both public and private institutions. In this study, the authors examined whether institutional level financial aid has any direct…

  16. Relationship between Critical Thinking Levels and Attitudes towards Reading Habits among Pre-Service Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulgurcuoglu, Ahmet Nusret

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present research is to define the critical thinking levels and reading habits of students studying at the department of physical education and sports teaching and analysing the relationship between these. The participants of the present research are 136 pre-service physical education teachers studying at Mugla Sitki Kocman…

  17. Examining a Financial Climate of Support: How Institutional-Level Financial Aid Relates to Teamwork, Leadership, and Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Julie J.; Denson, Nida; Johnson, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Financial aid plays a critical role in college access and student success. It plays an increasingly important role as the college-going population continues to diversify and the cost of college continues to rise at both public and private institutions. In this study, the authors examined whether institutional level financial aid has any direct…

  18. Studies on a Socio-Ecological Approach to Environmental Education: A Contribution to a Critical Position in the Education for Sustainable Development Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyburzgraber, Regula; Hofer, Kurt; Wolfensberger, Balz

    2006-01-01

    This article outlines a critical position in relation to education for sustainable development referring to a socio-ecological approach to environmental education. This approach was developed in a cooperative research process with pre-academic secondary schools over several years in Switzerland. For 13 years our research group has been the one in…

  19. Critical Friendship as a Contribution to Master's-Level Work in an International Programme of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Swet, Jacqueline; Smit, Ben H. J.; Corvers, Louise; van Dijk, Ineke

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on an action research project in which the value of critical friendship for students doing research and writing their dissertations within an international master's course has been explored. This course is run jointly by Roehampton University (London, UK), Charles University (Prague, Czech Republic) together with Fontys OSO…

  20. Critical Discourse Analysis and the Corpus-Informed Interpretation of Metaphor at the Register Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Halloran, Kieran

    2007-01-01

    One aspect of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) involves examining how metaphors in texts, particularly hard news texts (reports of very recent conflicts, crimes, etc.), imply certain values. The usual theoretical basis for such analysis is Lakoff and Johnson (1980). My article shows problems with transplanting Lakoff and Johnson's discourse-level…

  1. Discriminant Analysis of Scholastic Aptitude and Critical Thinking Tests and Levels of "Disadvantagement."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follman, John; and Others

    Differences among school children are typically measured by achievement, aptitude and/or intelligence tests. This study investigates the use of critical thinking tests to differentiate between schools of varying racial, economic, and "disadvantagement" factors; the latter being determined by Title I ESEA qualifications and U. S. Office of…

  2. Proposed Interoperability Readiness Level Assessment for Mission Critical Interfaces During Navy Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Figure 27. Milestone Evaluation Criteria ...........................................................................87 Figure 28. Communications ... community . Furthermore, requirements that are critical to mission success are not being identified in the current SE process, and allocations or...sample system for the TTX because it has many internal and external interfaces used for communication . The audio and visual communication between

  3. Treating 'AIDS blindness': a critical pedagogical approach to HIV education at tertiary level.

    PubMed

    Wood, Lesley; Rens, Julialet

    2014-01-01

    HIV and AIDS affect all South Africans, irrespective of gender, race, age and economic status. Teachers should therefore be able to meaningfully integrate HIV content into the school curriculum. However, pre-service teacher education programmes still do not pay adequate attention to HIV education, particularly in institutions where students are being prepared to work in environments that are perceived to be unaffected by the consequences of the pandemic. This article advocates that HIV education should be integrated into contexts of privilege and presents evidence of the influence that a critical pedagogical approach can have on changing student perceptions of the need to address HIV in and through their teaching. We led 109 Post-graduate Certificate of Education students through a series of activities that required them to critically reflect on their feelings, attitudes and perceived skills with regard to HIV and AIDS education; to identify potential areas of personal change; and to begin to imagine alternative professional possibilities. We generated qualitative data through drawings, group discussions, individual written reflections, and a voluntary focus group. A content analysis of the data revealed that the participating students initially felt incompetent to incorporate HIV and related issues into their teaching, and felt hesitant and uncomfortable at the prospect. However, a critical reflection on their thinking, both individually and in a group setting, served to shift them towards a more holistic, critical and humanising understanding of the pandemic and the role they could play as future teachers in helping to mitigate its impact. The findings provide evidence that a critical pedagogical approach - particularly with groups who believe that HIV and AIDS is not something that concerns them - can provide an effective way to mediate the knowledge, skills and attitudes that competent teachers need in today's world.

  4. Moving from technical to critical reflection in journalling: an investigation of students' ability to incorporate three levels of reflective writing.

    PubMed

    Usher, K; Tollefson, J; Francis, D

    2001-01-01

    This paper outlines a research project aimed at changing the levels of reflection of preregistration nursing students in a tertiary institution. Whilst reflection is widely espoused now in nursing, few studies have been found that identify whether the level of reflective writing can be identified or developed by students. Anecdotal and research evidence (Powell 1989; van Manen 1977) however indicates that most student reflective writing occurs at the technical level. A descriptive exploratory study using both qualitative and quantitative techniques was undertaken to apply van Manen's (1977) levels in a structured way in an attempt to facilitate the student's understanding and use of the levels in their reflective writing. The findings of the study indicate that student self evaluation and identification of the levels in their own writing can lead to change in the levels of critical reflective writing achieved by undergraduate students.

  5. Early life low-level cadmium exposure is positively associated with increased oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Kippler, Maria; Bakhtiar Hossain, Mohammad; Lindh, Christian; Moore, Sophie E.; Kabir, Iqbal; Vahter, Marie; Broberg, Karin

    2012-01-15

    Environmental exposure to cadmium (Cd) is known to induce oxidative stress, a state of imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the ability to detoxify them, in adults. However, data are lacking on potential effects in early-life. We evaluated urinary concentrations of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2 Prime -deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), a recognized marker of oxidative DNA damage, in relation to Cd exposure in 96 predominantly breast-fed infants (11-17 weeks of age) in rural Bangladesh. Urinary 8-oxodG was measured using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and Cd in urine and breast milk by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Median concentration of 8-oxodG was 3.9 nmol/L, urinary Cd 0.30 {mu}g/L, and breast-milk Cd 0.13 {mu}g/L. In linear regression analyses, urinary 8-oxodG was positively associated with Cd in both urine (p=0.00067) and breast milk (p=0.0021), and negatively associated with body weight (kg; p=0.0041). Adjustment for age, body weight, socio-economic status, urinary arsenic, as well as magnesium, calcium, and copper in breast milk did not change the association between Cd exposure and urinary 8-oxodG. These findings suggest that early-life low-level exposure to Cd via breast milk induces oxidative stress. Further studies are warranted to elucidate whether this oxidative stress is associated with impaired child health and development.

  6. Early life low-level cadmium exposure is positively associated with increased oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Kippler, Maria; Hossain, Mohammad Bakhtiar; Lindh, Christian; Moore, Sophie E; Kabir, Iqbal; Vahter, Marie; Broberg, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Environmental exposure to cadmium (Cd) is known to induce oxidative stress, a state of imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the ability to detoxify them, in adults. However, data are lacking on potential effects in early-life. We evaluated urinary concentrations of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), a recognized marker of oxidative DNA damage, in relation to Cd exposure in 96 predominantly breast-fed infants (11-17 weeks of age) in rural Bangladesh. Urinary 8-oxodG was measured using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and Cd in urine and breast milk by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Median concentration of 8-oxodG was 3.9 nmol/L, urinary Cd 0.30 μg/L, and breast-milk Cd 0.13 μg/L. In linear regression analyses, urinary 8-oxodG was positively associated with Cd in both urine (p=0.00067) and breast milk (p=0.0021), and negatively associated with body weight (kg; p=0.0041). Adjustment for age, body weight, socio-economic status, urinary arsenic, as well as magnesium, calcium, and copper in breast milk did not change the association between Cd exposure and urinary 8-oxodG. These findings suggest that early-life low-level exposure to Cd via breast milk induces oxidative stress. Further studies are warranted to elucidate whether this oxidative stress is associated with impaired child health and development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Recognition for positive behavior as a critical youth development construct: conceptual bases and implications on youth service development.

    PubMed

    Law, Ben M F; Siu, Andrew M H; Shek, Daniel T L

    2012-01-01

    Recognition for positive behavior is an appropriate response of the social environment to elicit desirable external behavior among the youth. Such positive responses, rendered from various social systems, include tangible and intangible reinforcements. The following theories are used to explain the importance of recognizing positive behavior: operational conditioning, observational learning, self-determination, and humanistic perspective. In the current work, culturally and socially desirable behaviors are discussed in detail with reference to Chinese adolescents. Positive behavior recognition is especially important to adolescent development because it promotes identity formation as well as cultivates moral reasoning and social perspective thinking from various social systems. The significance of recognizing positive behavior is illustrated through the support, tutorage, invitation, and subsidy provided by Hong Kong's social systems in recognition of adolescent volunteerism. The practical implications of positive behavior recognition on youth development programs are also discussed in this work.

  8. Recognition for Positive Behavior as a Critical Youth Development Construct: Conceptual Bases and Implications on Youth Service Development

    PubMed Central

    Law, Ben M. F.; Siu, Andrew M. H.; Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2012-01-01

    Recognition for positive behavior is an appropriate response of the social environment to elicit desirable external behavior among the youth. Such positive responses, rendered from various social systems, include tangible and intangible reinforcements. The following theories are used to explain the importance of recognizing positive behavior: operational conditioning, observational learning, self-determination, and humanistic perspective. In the current work, culturally and socially desirable behaviors are discussed in detail with reference to Chinese adolescents. Positive behavior recognition is especially important to adolescent development because it promotes identity formation as well as cultivates moral reasoning and social perspective thinking from various social systems. The significance of recognizing positive behavior is illustrated through the support, tutorage, invitation, and subsidy provided by Hong Kong's social systems in recognition of adolescent volunteerism. The practical implications of positive behavior recognition on youth development programs are also discussed in this work. PMID:22666155

  9. Effectiveness of flow inflating device in providing Continuous Positive Airway Pressure for critically ill children in limited-resource settings: A prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Anitha, G. Fatima Shirly; Velmurugan, Lakshmi; Sangareddi, Shanthi; Nedunchelian, Krishnamurthy; Selvaraj, Vinoth

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is an emerging popular concept, which includes bi-level positive airway pressure or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). In settings with scarce resources for NIV machines, CPAP can be provided through various indigenous means and one such mode is flow inflating device - Jackson-Rees circuit (JR)/Bain circuit. The study analyses the epidemiology, various clinical indications, predictors of CPAP failure, and stresses the usefulness of flow inflating device as an indigenous way of providing CPAP. Methods: A prospective observational study was undertaken in the critical care unit of a Government Tertiary Care Hospital, from November 2013 to September 2014. All children who required CPAP in the age group 1 month to 12 years of both sexes were included in this study. They were started on indigenous CPAP through flow inflating device on clinical grounds based on the pediatric assessment triangle, and the duration and outcome were analyzed. Results: This study population included 214 children. CPAP through flow inflating device was successful in 89.7% of cases, of which bronchiolitis accounted for 98.3%. A prolonged duration of CPAP support of >96 h was required in pneumonia. CPAP failure was noted in 10.3% of cases, the major risk factors being children <1 year and pneumonia with septic shock. Conclusion: We conclude that flow inflating devices - JR/Bain circuit are effective as an indigenous CPAP in limited resource settings. Despite its benefits, CPAP is not a substitute for invasive ventilation, as when the need for intubation arises timely intervention is needed. PMID:27630454

  10. A positive feedback loop between GRP78 and VPS34 is critical for GRP78-mediated autophagy in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingying; Wu, Haili; Li, Zongwei; Yang, Peng; Li, Zhuoyu

    2017-02-01

    Autophagy and GRP78 overexpression are two important means by which tumor cells resist microenvironmental stress and chemotherapeutic drugs; however, the relationship between autophagy and GRP78 remains unclear. Here, we found that forced expression of GRP78 in tumor cells promoted autophagy, which was indicated by alterations in the levels of autophagy related proteins, such as increased VPS34 and LC3-II, and decreased p62 and LC3-I. Consistently, GRP78 knockdown suppressed tumor cell autophagy. Our results further demonstrated that GRP78-induced autophagy was mediated by VPS34, and that UPR-associated autophagy was also involved. GRP78-overexpressing cells treated with VPS34 siRNA reversed the autophagy induced by GRP78. Importantly, the expression of microRNA-143 (miR-143) was decreased in GRP78-overexpressing cells, and the increased expression of VPS34 was reversed by treatment with miR-143 mimic. This demonstrated that miR-143 plays a key role in GRP78's mediation of VPS34 expression. In addition, GRP78 acetylation was also involved in the occurrence of autophagy through upregulating VPS34. In turn, high expression of VPS34 promoted GRP78 transcription by modulating the GRP78 transcription factor ATF6. Moreover, VPS34 could enhance GRP78 protein stability by inhibiting GRP78 degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Collectively, the results revealed a positive feedback loop between GRP78 and VPS34 in tumor cells that might be important for autophagy during tumor development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Modeling and Simulation in the Army Intermediate Level Education Critical Thinking Curriculum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-12

    thinking lessons. Researching the effective use of models and simulations in education environments will establish precedents that can be applied...has had compounding limiting effects on the writing of this thesis. As an example, the use of surveys in researching the effectiveness of the current...assumption that current lessons were effective in instilling critical thinking skills in 7 student officers. The result is that there is very

  12. Self-aligned blocking integration demonstration for critical sub-40nm pitch Mx level patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raley, Angélique; Mohanty, Nihar; Sun, Xinghua; Farrell, Richard A.; Smith, Jeffrey T.; Ko, Akiteru; Metz, Andrew W.; Biolsi, Peter; Devilliers, Anton

    2017-04-01

    Multipatterning has enabled continued scaling of chip technology at the 28nm node and beyond. Selfaligned double patterning (SADP) and self-aligned quadruple patterning (SAQP) as well as Litho- Etch/Litho-Etch (LELE) iterations are widely used in the semiconductor industry to enable patterning at sub 193 immersion lithography resolutions for layers such as FIN, Gate and critical Metal lines. Multipatterning requires the use of multiple masks which is costly and increases process complexity as well as edge placement error variation driven mostly by overlay. To mitigate the strict overlay requirements for advanced technology nodes (7nm and below), a self-aligned blocking integration is desirable. This integration trades off the overlay requirement for an etch selectivity requirement and enables the cut mask overlay tolerance to be relaxed from half pitch to three times half pitch. Selfalignement has become the latest trend to enable scaling and self-aligned integrations are being pursued and investigated for various critical layers such as contact, via, metal patterning. In this paper we propose and demonstrate a low cost flexible self-aligned blocking strategy for critical metal layer patterning for 7nm and beyond from mask assembly to low -K dielectric etch. The integration is based on a 40nm pitch SADP flow with 2 cut masks compatible with either cut or block integration and employs dielectric films widely used in the back end of the line. As a consequence this approach is compatible with traditional etch, deposition and cleans tools that are optimized for dielectric etches. We will review the critical steps and selectivities required to enable this integration along with bench-marking of each integration option (cut vs. block).

  13. International overview of high-level simulation education initiatives in relation to critical care.

    PubMed

    Alinier, Guillaume; Platt, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The use of simulation in health care education has become very topical across all professions and specialties in order to improve patient safety and quality of care. In the last decade, the adoption of more realistic simulation-based teaching methodologies, which serves as a bridge between the acquisition and application of clinical skills, knowledge, and attributes, has been accompanied by the development of a multitude of international and national simulation societies. These serve as important exchange fora for educators, clinicians, researchers, and engineers who desire to learn and share their experience and knowledge around simulation-based education. Several countries have derived their own strategy in order to promote the use of such training methodology. Current key national strategies will be presented in this paper alongside a discussion of their expected impact. Various approaches have been adopted and each has their own place and the potential to be adopted by other nations depending on their political, economic or even geographic context. Within the critical care arena, simulation has generated considerable interest and there is a growing evidence base for its use as a learning and teaching strategy within this environment. A number of critical care-related associations and societies are now recognizing simulation as an appropriate pedagogical approach and acknowledging its potential to improve patient care and clinical outcomes. Its implementation should be carefully considered to ensure that developments are based on current best educational practice to maximize the efficiency of these educational interventions. © 2013 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  14. External Ventricular Catheters: Is It Appropriate to Use an Open/Monitor Position to Adequately Trend Intracranial Pressure in a Neuroscience Critical Care Environment?

    PubMed

    Sunderland, Nicole E; Villanueva, Nancy E; Pazuchanics, Susan J

    2016-10-01

    Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring can be an important assessment tool in critically and acutely ill patients. An external ventricular drain offers a comprehensive way to monitor ICP and drain cerebrospinal fluid. The Monro-Kellie hypothesis, Pascal's principle, and fluid dynamics were used to formulate an assumption that an open/monitor position on the stopcock is an adequate trending measure for ICP monitoring while concurrently draining cerebrospinal fluid. Data were collected from 50 patients and totaled 1053 separate number sets. The open/monitor position was compared with the clamped position every hour. An order for "open to drain" was needed for appropriate measurement and nursing care. Results showed the absolute average differences between open/monitor and clamped positions at 1.6268 mm Hg. This finding suggests that it is appropriate to use an open/monitor position via an external ventricular drain for adequate trending of patients' ICP.

  15. The positive aspects of caregiving for cancer patients: a critical review of the literature and directions for future research.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiuping; Loke, Alice Yuen

    2013-11-01

    Although there is a vast body of studies exploring the negative aspects of spousal caregiving for cancer patients, there have also been reports on the positive aspects. The objective of this review was to summarize and appraise the positive aspects of spousal caregiving and to identify directions for future research. A systematic search was conducted to identity articles published in English or Chinese from January 1996 to July 2012. Studies were located using an electronic search, a manual search, and an author search. A total of 35 articles were identified and included in this review. The focus of these studies and their results were described on the basis of the Conceptual Framework of the Positive Aspects of Caregiving. The findings revealed that spousal caregivers for cancer patients experienced various positive aspects of caregiving, such as an enhanced relationship with the care-receiver, the feeling of being rewarded, a sense of personal growth, and a perception of personal satisfaction. Daily enrichment events and self-efficacy on the part of the caregivers were identified as the determining factors in the positive aspects of caregiving. All of the three domains of the positive aspects of caregiving are interdependent and worked together to contribute to the positive outcomes experienced by spousal caregivers. An intervention program specially designed to enhance the positive aspects of caregiving will support spouses caring for cancer patients. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. What's Our Position? A Critical Media Literacy Study of Popular Culture Websites with Eighth-Grade Special Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesler, Ted; Tinio, Pablo P. L.; Nolan, Brian T.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on an action research project with 9 eighth-grade special education students in a self-contained classroom in an urban public school. The 1st author, in collaboration with the classroom teacher (3rd author), taught the students a critical media literacy framework to explore popular culture websites. Students learned to analyze…

  17. What's Our Position? A Critical Media Literacy Study of Popular Culture Websites with Eighth-Grade Special Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesler, Ted; Tinio, Pablo P. L.; Nolan, Brian T.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on an action research project with 9 eighth-grade special education students in a self-contained classroom in an urban public school. The 1st author, in collaboration with the classroom teacher (3rd author), taught the students a critical media literacy framework to explore popular culture websites. Students learned to analyze…

  18. Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma and Society of Trauma Nurses advanced practitioner position paper: Optimizing the integration of advanced practitioners in trauma and critical care.

    PubMed

    Messing, Jonathan; Garces-King, Jasmine; Taylor, Dennis; van Horn, Jonathan; Sarani, Babak; Christmas, A Britton

    2017-07-01

    Nurse practitioners and physician assistants, collectively known as advanced practitioners (APs), enhance the provision of care for the acutely injured patient. Despite their prevalence, institutions employ, train, and utilize these providers with significant variability. The Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma, the Society of Trauma Nurses, and the American Association of Surgical Physician Assistants acknowledge the value of APs and support their utilization in the management of injured and critically ill patients. This position paper offers insight into the history of, scope of practice for, and opportunities for optimal utilization of APs in trauma, critical care, and acute care surgery services.

  19. Radar based Ground Level Reconstruction Utilizing a Hypocycloid Antenna Positioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, Christoph; Musch, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution we introduce a novel radar positioning system. It makes use of a mathematical curve, called hypocycloid, for a slanting movement of the radar antenna. By means of a planetary gear, a ball, and a universal joint as well as a stepping motor, a two dimensional positioning is provided by a uniaxial drive shaft exclusively. The fundamental position calculation and different signal processing algorithms are presented. By means of an 80 GHz FMCW radar system we performed several measurements on objects with discrete heights as well as on objects with continuous surfaces. The results of these investigations are essential part of this contribution and are discussed in detail.

  20. Average Treatment Effect of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on School-Level Academic Achievement in Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gage, Nicholas A.; Leite, Walter; Childs, Karen; Kincaid, Don

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (SWPBIS) and school-level academic achievement has not been established. Most experimental research has found little to no evidence that SWPBIS has a distal effect on school-level achievement. Yet, an underlying assumption of SWPBIS is that improving social…

  1. Instantaneous Real-Time Kinematic Decimeter-Level Positioning with BeiDou Triple-Frequency Signals over Medium Baselines

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiyang; Zhang, Xiaohong; Tang, Long; Liu, Wanke

    2015-01-01

    Many applications, such as marine navigation, land vehicles location, etc., require real time precise positioning under medium or long baseline conditions. In this contribution, we develop a model of real-time kinematic decimeter-level positioning with BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) triple-frequency signals over medium distances. The ambiguities of two extra-wide-lane (EWL) combinations are fixed first, and then a wide lane (WL) combination is reformed based on the two EWL combinations for positioning. Theoretical analysis and empirical analysis is given of the ambiguity fixing rate and the positioning accuracy of the presented method. The results indicate that the ambiguity fixing rate can be up to more than 98% when using BDS medium baseline observations, which is much higher than that of dual-frequency Hatch-Melbourne-Wübbena (HMW) method. As for positioning accuracy, decimeter level accuracy can be achieved with this method, which is comparable to that of carrier-smoothed code differential positioning method. Signal interruption simulation experiment indicates that the proposed method can realize fast high-precision positioning whereas the carrier-smoothed code differential positioning method needs several hundreds of seconds for obtaining high precision results. We can conclude that a relatively high accuracy and high fixing rate can be achieved for triple-frequency WL method with single-epoch observations, displaying significant advantage comparing to traditional carrier-smoothed code differential positioning method. PMID:26703614

  2. County-level effects of prehospital regionalization of critically ill patients: a simulation study

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, Christopher W.; Alotaik, Osama; Wallace, David J.; Elhabashy, Ahmed E.; Chhatwal, Jagpreet; Rea, Thomas D; Angus, Derek C.; Nichol, Graham; Kahn, Jeremy M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Regionalization may improve critical care delivery, yet stakeholders cite concerns about its feasibility. We sought to determine the operational effects of prehospital regionalization of non-trauma, non-arrest critical illness. Design Discrete event simulation study Patients and setting All 2006 hospital discharge data from King County, Washington, linked to all adult, eligible patients transported by county EMS agencies. Methods We simulated active triage of high-risk patients to designated referral centers using a validated prehospital risk score; we studied three regionalization scenarios: (1) up triage, (2) up & down triage, (3) up & down triage after reducing intensive care unit (ICU) beds by 25%. We determined the effect on patient routing, ICU occupancy at referral and non-referral hospitals, and EMS transport times. Measurements and Main Results 119,117 patients were hospitalized at 11 non-referral centers and 76,817 patients were hospitalized at three referral centers. Among 20,835 EMS patients, 7,817 (43%) patients were eligible for up triage and 10,242 (57%) patients were eligible for down triage. At baseline mean daily ICU bed occupancy was 61% referral and 47% at non-referral hospitals. Up-triage increased referral ICU occupancy to 68%, up and down triage to 64%, and up and down triage with bed reduction to 74%. Mean daily non-referral ICU occupancy did not exceed 60%. Total EMS transport time increased by less than 3% with up and down triage. Conclusions Regionalization based on prehospital triage of the critically ill can allocate high-risk patients to referral hospitals without adversely affecting ICU occupancy or prehospital travel time. PMID:26102251

  3. Distant Metastasis in p16-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: A critical analysis of patterns and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, P; Thorstad, WT; Nussenbaum, B; Haughey, BH; Adkins, DR; Kallogjeri, D; Lewis, JS

    2014-01-01

    Objective With good loco-regional control, disease failure in p16-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) mainly results from distant metastasis (DM). Our objective was to characterize the patterns and clinical outcomes of DM in p16-positive OPSCC and compare these to patients with p16-negative disease. Methods Primary OPSCC patients who developed DM after completing surgical or non-surgical treatment were identified and p16 status was evaluated. Patterns of DM and post-DM progression-free (PFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) were assessed. Results Forty-one of the 66 (62%) patients with DM were p16-positive. DM patterns were not statistically different by p16 status. However, p16-positive patients developed DM later in their course and had longer survival. All p16-negative patients either had progression or died within 24 months of DM detection whereas the 2-year post-DM PFS in the p16-positive group was 20% (95% CI:8–32.5%,p=0.003). The 3-year post-DM disease-specific survival (DSS) estimate in the p16-positive patients was 16% (95%CI: 7–18%) while all p16-negative patients died within 34 months (p<0.001). p16-negativity, loco-regional disease, and no/palliative versus curative intent treatment were all associated with reduced post-DM DSS in multivariate analysis. Conclusions The DM pattern did not differ remarkably between p16-positive and negative OPSCC patients in our practice. In p16-positive OPSCC with pulmonary oligometastatic disease, curative intent treatment and optimized locoregional control for the index primary prolonged survival. PMID:24211084

  4. High levels of soluble CTLA-4 are present in anti-mitochondrial antibody positive, but not in antibody negative patients with primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Saverino, Daniele; Pesce, Giampaola; Antola, Princey; Porcelli, Brunetta; Brusca, Ignazio; Villalta, Danilo; Tampoia, Marilina; Tozzoli, Renato; Tonutti, Elio; Alessio, Maria Grazia; Bagnasco, Marcello; Bizzaro, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic autoimmune cholestatic liver disease frequently characterized by anti-mitochondrial autoantibodies (AMA). A minority of patients are AMA-negative. Cytotoxic-T-Lymphocyte-Antigen-4 (CTLA-4) is a surface molecule expressed on activated T-cells delivering a critical negative immunoregulatory signal. A soluble form of CTLA-4 (sCTLA-4) has been detected at high concentrations in several autoimmune diseases, and its possible functional meaning has been suggested. We aimed to evaluate sCTLA-4 concentration in sera of patients with PBC and to correlate it to immunological abnormalities associated with the disease. Blood samples were collected from 82 PBC-patients diagnosed according to international criteria (44 AMA-positive/MIT3-positive and 38 AMA-negative-MIT3-negative), and 65 controls. sCTLA-4 levels were evaluated by ELISA and Western blot. Increased sCTLA-4 concentrations were found in all AMA-positive PBC-patients, but in none of the AMA-negative ones, nor in normal controls or in controls with unrelated liver diseases. sCTLA-4 presence was associated with autoantibodies against MIT3, but not with nuclear autoantibodies (sp100, gp210). This is the first study to demonstrate that levels of sCTLA-4 are elevated in sera of PBC patients. However, they are clearly restricted to patients with AMA positivity, suggesting an immunological difference with respect to AMA-negative ones.

  5. High Levels of Soluble Ctla-4 Are Present in Anti-Mitochondrial Antibody Positive, but Not in Antibody Negative Patients with Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Saverino, Daniele; Pesce, Giampaola; Antola, Princey; Porcelli, Brunetta; Brusca, Ignazio; Villalta, Danilo; Tampoia, Marilina; Tozzoli, Renato; Tonutti, Elio; Alessio, Maria Grazia; Bagnasco, Marcello; Bizzaro, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic autoimmune cholestatic liver disease frequently characterized by anti-mitochondrial autoantibodies (AMA). A minority of patients are AMA-negative. Cytotoxic-T-Lymphocyte-Antigen-4 (CTLA-4) is a surface molecule expressed on activated T-cells delivering a critical negative immunoregulatory signal. A soluble form of CTLA-4 (sCTLA-4) has been detected at high concentrations in several autoimmune diseases, and its possible functional meaning has been suggested. We aimed to evaluate sCTLA-4 concentration in sera of patients with PBC and to correlate it to immunological abnormalities associated with the disease. Blood samples were collected from 82 PBC-patients diagnosed according to international criteria (44 AMA-positive/MIT3-positive and 38 AMA-negative-MIT3-negative), and 65 controls. sCTLA-4 levels were evaluated by ELISA and Western blot. Increased sCTLA-4 concentrations were found in all AMA-positive PBC-patients, but in none of the AMA-negative ones, nor in normal controls or in controls with unrelated liver diseases. sCTLA-4 presence was associated with autoantibodies against MIT3, but not with nuclear autoantibodies (sp100, gp210). This is the first study to demonstrate that levels of sCTLA-4 are elevated in sera of PBC patients. However, they are clearly restricted to patients with AMA positivity, suggesting an immunological difference with respect to AMA-negative ones. PMID:25383768

  6. Shifting the Paradigm of Trauma Medicine to Positively Influence Critical Mortality Rates Following a Mass Casualty Event

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    ground zero, while another 300 sought care at the next hospital which was within one mile ( Pesola , Dujar, & Wilson, 2002, pp. 220-2). On March 11, 2004...another 300 sought care at the next hospital over which was within one mile ( Pesola , 2002, p. 220). It is prudent that the lessons of military...logistics, injuries, sustained and clinical management of casualties treated at the closets hospitals. Critical Care, 9, 104-111. Pesola , G.R

  7. [Obesity and its respiratory effects detected through levels of partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the supine position].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Medina, América; Sánchez-Medina, Marcela Ma

    Obesity is a disease that is closely associated with deleterious respiratory effects such as the Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome which conventionally includes awake hypercapnia. There are studies addressing the detection of daytime hypercapnia with the patient either in sitting or standing position. However, there are no studies in obese subjects with a normal daytime PaCO2 in whom the detection of hypercapnia is made in the supine position. It is feasible that the physiopathological changes that occur in obese patients when they adopt the supine position lead to increased PaCO2 levels or hypercapnia. To determine the levels of PaCO2 in obese patients with a normal daytime PaCO2 in the supine position using arterial blood gas test. Fifty patients with BMI > 30 Kg/m², with a normal daytime PaCO2 were included. Daytime arterial blood gas test was performed first with the patient in a standing position along with pulmonary function test. A second arterial blood gas test was made 15 minutes after the patient adopted the supine position. Polisomnography was performed. Mean BMI was 40 kg/m2. PaCO2 levels in the standing position were less, statistically significant, than the PaCO2 levels in the supine position, 30.7 ± 2.5 mmHg vs 35.6 ± 6.7 mmH, p < 0.001. We can achieve an early detection of Obesity hipoventilation syndrome in obese patients with a normal daytime PaCO2 by performing the arterial blood gas test in the supine position before these patients develop severe complications.

  8. High level runners are able to maintain a VO2 steady-state below VO2max in an all-out run over their critical velocity.

    PubMed

    Billat, V; Binsse, V; Petit, B; Koralsztein, J P

    1998-02-01

    During prolonged and intense running exercises beyond the critical power level, a VO2 slow component elevates VO2 above predicted VO2-work rates calculated from exercise performed at intensities below the lactate threshold. In such cases, the actual VO2 value will increase over time until it reaches VO2max. The aims of the present study were to examine whether the VO2 slow component is a major determinant of VO2 over time when running at a speed beyond critical velocity, and whether the exhaustion latency period at such intensity correlates with the magnitude of the VO2 slow component. Fourteen highly trained long-distance runners performed four exhaustive runs, each separated by one week of light training. VO2 and the velocity at VO2max (vVO2max) were determined for each by a graded treadmill exercise. The critical velocity (86.1 +/- 1.5% vVO2max) of each runner was calculated from exhaustive treadmill runs at 90, 100 and 105% of vVO2max. During supra-critical velocity runs at 90% of vVO2max, there was no significant rise in VO2max (20.9 +/- 2.1 ml min-1 kg-1 between the third and last min of tlim 90), such that the runners reached a VO2 steady-state, but did not reach their vVO2max level over time (69.5 +/- 5.0 vs 74.9 +/- 3.0 ml min-1 kg-1). Thus, subjects' time to exhaustion at 90% of vVO2max was not correlated with the VO2max slow component (r = 0.11, P = 0.69), but significantly correlated with the lactate threshold (r = 0.54, P = 0.04) and the critical velocity (% vVO2max; r = 0.65, P = 0.01). In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that for highly trained long-distance runners performing exhaustive, supra-critical velocity runs at 90% of vVO2max, there was not a VO2 slow component tardily completing the rise of VO2. Instead, runners will maintain a VO2 steady-state below VO2max, such that the time to exhaustion at 90% of vVO2max for these runners is positively correlated with the critical velocity expressed as % of vVO2max.

  9. Positive correlation between the cyclotron line energy and luminosity in sub-critical X-ray pulsars: Doppler effect in the accretion channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushtukov, Alexander A.; Tsygankov, Sergey S.; Serber, Alexander V.; Suleimanov, Valery F.; Poutanen, Juri

    2015-12-01

    Cyclotron resonance scattering features observed in the spectra of some X-ray pulsars show significant changes of the line centroid energy with the pulsar luminosity. Whereas for bright sources above the so-called critical luminosity, these variations are established to be connected with the appearance of the high-accretion column above the neutron star surface, at low, sub-critical luminosities the nature of the variations (but with the opposite sign) has not been discussed widely. We argue here that the cyclotron line is formed when the radiation from a hotspot propagates through the plasma falling with a mildly relativistic velocity on to the neutron star surface. The position of the cyclotron resonance is determined by the Doppler effect. The change of the cyclotron line position in the spectrum with luminosity is caused by variations of the velocity profile in the line-forming region affected by the radiation pressure force. The presented model has several characteristic features: (i) the line centroid energy is positively correlated with the luminosity; (ii) the line width is positively correlated with the luminosity as well; (iii) the position and the width of the cyclotron absorption line are variable over the pulse phase; (iv) the line has a more complicated shape than widely used Lorentzian or Gaussian profiles; (v) the phase-resolved cyclotron line centroid energy and the width are negatively and positively correlated with the pulse intensity, respectively. The predictions of the proposed theory are compared with the variations of the cyclotron line parameters in the X-ray pulsar GX 304-1 over a wide range of sub-critical luminosities as seen by the INTEGRAL observatory.

  10. Lethal and sublethal effects of cadmium on marine organisms--a critical discussion about "safety levels".

    PubMed

    Sperling, K R

    1983-12-01

    The applicability of terms such as "safety level" and "safety factor" for the purpose of risk assessment in the frame of the marine dumping conventions is discussed. In view of a series of experiments on sublethal effects of cadmium on marine organisms it is stated that the dose-response relationships cover a range of 10(4), and that there is no indication that the lowest level found so far is actually just above a no-effect threshold.

  11. Lethal and sublethal effects of cadmium on marine organisms: a critical discussion about ''safety levels''

    SciTech Connect

    Sperling, K.R.

    1983-12-01

    The applicability of terms such as ''safety level'' and ''safety factor'' for the purpose of risk assessment in the frame of the marine dumping conventions is discussed. In view of a series of experiments on sublethal effects of cadmium on marine organisms it is stated that the dose-response relationships cover a range of 10(4), and that there is no indication that the lowest level found so far is actually just above a no-effect threshold.

  12. Critically Evaluated Energy Levels, Spectral Lines, Transition Probabilities, and Intensities of Singly Ionized Vanadium (V ii)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saloman, Edward B.; Kramida, Alexander

    2017-08-01

    The energy levels, observed spectral lines, and transition probabilities of singly ionized vanadium, V ii, have been compiled. The experimentally derived energy levels belong to the configurations 3d 4, 3d 3 ns (n = 4, 5, 6), 3d 3 np, and 3d 3 nd (n = 4, 5), 3d 34f, 3d 24s 2, and 3d 24s4p. Also included are values for some forbidden lines that may be of interest to the astrophysical community. Experimental Landé g-factors and leading percentages for the levels are included when available, as well as Ritz wavelengths calculated from the energy levels. Wavelengths and transition probabilities are reported for 3568 and 1896 transitions, respectively. From the list of observed wavelengths, 407 energy levels are determined. The observed intensities, normalized to a common scale, are provided. From the newly optimized energy levels, a revised value for the ionization energy is derived, 118,030(60) cm-1, corresponding to 14.634(7) eV. This is 130 cm-1 higher than the previously recommended value from Iglesias et al.

  13. Metamodeling and the Critic-based approach to multi-level optimization.

    PubMed

    Werbos, Ludmilla; Kozma, Robert; Silva-Lugo, Rodrigo; Pazienza, Giovanni E; Werbos, Paul J

    2012-08-01

    Large-scale networks with hundreds of thousands of variables and constraints are becoming more and more common in logistics, communications, and distribution domains. Traditionally, the utility functions defined on such networks are optimized using some variation of Linear Programming, such as Mixed Integer Programming (MIP). Despite enormous progress both in hardware (multiprocessor systems and specialized processors) and software (Gurobi) we are reaching the limits of what these tools can handle in real time. Modern logistic problems, for example, call for expanding the problem both vertically (from one day up to several days) and horizontally (combining separate solution stages into an integrated model). The complexity of such integrated models calls for alternative methods of solution, such as Approximate Dynamic Programming (ADP), which provide a further increase in the performance necessary for the daily operation. In this paper, we present the theoretical basis and related experiments for solving the multistage decision problems based on the results obtained for shorter periods, as building blocks for the models and the solution, via Critic-Model-Action cycles, where various types of neural networks are combined with traditional MIP models in a unified optimization system. In this system architecture, fast and simple feed-forward networks are trained to reasonably initialize more complicated recurrent networks, which serve as approximators of the value function (Critic). The combination of interrelated neural networks and optimization modules allows for multiple queries for the same system, providing flexibility and optimizing performance for large-scale real-life problems. A MATLAB implementation of our solution procedure for a realistic set of data and constraints shows promising results, compared to the iterative MIP approach. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Parental Education Level Positively Affects Self-Esteem of Turkish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Ertugrul; Barut, Yasar; Ersanli, Ercüment

    2013-01-01

    Although the literature on self-esteem has a long and prolific history in Turkey regarding which demographics may influence the self-esteem of adolescents. The research findings are intricate and undermine the need of further research in Turkey. This cross-sectional study re-examined the effects of age, grade level and education level of a mother…

  15. Nickel cadmium cell designs negative to positive material ratio and precharge levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, S.

    1977-01-01

    A review is made of the factors affecting the choices of negative-to-positive materials ratio and negative precharge in nickel-cadmium cells. The effects of these variables on performance are given, and the different methods for setting precharge are evaluated. The effects of special operating requirements on the design are also discussed.

  16. This We Believe: Developmentally Responsive Middle Level Schools. A Position Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Middle School Association, Columbus, OH.

    Following the introduction of the middle school in the 1960s with its advocacy of a 5-8 or 6-8 grade configuration, no comprehensive statement appeared to crystallize the educational beliefs inherent in this emerging educational reform effort. This paper is not just a revision of the 1982 position statement, but a "re-vision" of middle…

  17. Positive Feedback in Pairwork and its Association with ESL Course Level Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reigel, David

    2008-01-01

    What is the role of positive feedback in the adult English language classroom? This study applies ideas from complexity theory to explore the relation between frequency of oral feedback received and student language proficiency. The researcher collected data from digital recordings of adult students (N = 41) who attended classes for 30 weeks at…

  18. Investigating Teachers' Professional Life Quality Levels in Terms of the Positive Psychological Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yalçin, Sinan; Isgör, Isa Y.

    2017-01-01

    This study, which investigated the relationship between teachers' professional life qualities and positive psychological capital, was designed in a relational screening pattern in the quantitative research method. Teachers, who worked in primary, secondary and high school in Erzincan city centre of Turkey in 2014-2015 academic year, participated…

  19. Comparing the Level of Positive Tendency in a Life Satisfaction Evaluation between Chinese and Western People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shih-jung; Wu, Chia-huei

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate that people from Chinese cultural backgrounds have a smaller positive tendency in life evaluation compared to people in typical Western cultures. Participants first described their imagined best and worst life and then rated their current life on scale anchored by those imaginings (Mellor et al. "International Journal of Social…

  20. Comparing the Level of Positive Tendency in a Life Satisfaction Evaluation between Chinese and Western People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shih-jung; Wu, Chia-huei

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate that people from Chinese cultural backgrounds have a smaller positive tendency in life evaluation compared to people in typical Western cultures. Participants first described their imagined best and worst life and then rated their current life on scale anchored by those imaginings (Mellor et al. "International Journal of Social…

  1. Positive Feedback in Pairwork and its Association with ESL Course Level Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reigel, David

    2008-01-01

    What is the role of positive feedback in the adult English language classroom? This study applies ideas from complexity theory to explore the relation between frequency of oral feedback received and student language proficiency. The researcher collected data from digital recordings of adult students (N = 41) who attended classes for 30 weeks at…

  2. Colorado and North Dakota Strengthening Marriage and Family Programs Increase Positive Family Functioning Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetsch, Robert J.; Gebeke, Deb

    1995-01-01

    Five educational programs to strengthen marriage and family skills were delivered in 2 states to 244 participants. Two to 5 months later, 50-88% made positive behavioral changes; 73-100% approved of tax-dollar support for the programs. The communication program significantly increased self-esteem and family functioning. (SK)

  3. A critical review of recent US market level health care strategy literature.

    PubMed

    Wells, R; Banaszak-Holl, J

    2000-09-01

    In this review, we argue that it would be profitable if the neoclassical economic theories that have dominated recent US market level health care strategy research could be complemented by greater use of sociological frameworks. Sociological theory can address three central questions that neoclassical economic theories have tended to slight: (1) how decision-makers' preferences are determined; (2) who the decision-makers are; and (3) how decision-makers' plans are translated into organizational action. We suggest five sociological frameworks that would enable researchers to address these issues better relative to market level strategy in health care. The frameworks are (1) institutional theory, (2) organizational ecology, (3) social movements, (4) social networks, and (5) internal organizational change. A recent global trend toward privatization of health care provision makes US market level strategy research increasingly applicable to non-US readers.

  4. The 'nightmare' of wrong level in spine surgery: a critical appraisal

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The recent article published in the Journal by Lindley and colleagues (Patient Saf. Surg. 2011, 5:33) reported the successful surgical treatment of a persistent thoracic pain following a T7-8 microdiscectomy, truly performed at the ‘level immediately above’. The wrong level in spine surgery is a multi-factorial matter and several strategies have been designed and adopted to try decreasing its occurrence. We think that three of these factors are crucial: global strategy, attention, precision in level identification; and the actors we identified are the surgeon, the assistant nurse and the (neuro)radiologist respectively. Basing upon our experience, the role of the radiologist pre- and intraoperatively and the importance of the assistant nurse are briefly described. PMID:22713236

  5. The determination of critical rest interval from the intermittent critical velocity test in club-level collegiate hockey and rugby players.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, David H; Smith, Abbie E; Kendall, Kristina L; Cramer, Joel T; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2011-04-01

    The intermittent critical velocity (ICV) test is used to quantify the relationship between velocity and time to exhaustion, yielding an aerobic parameter (ICV), an anaerobic parameter (anaerobic running capacity [ARC]), and critical rest interval (CRI). Critical rest interval is the theoretical rest period needed to maintain repeated bouts of exercise for an extended period of time without inducing fatigue during intermittent treadmill running. Fourteen collegiate, club-level male participants (mean ± SD; age: 21.4 ± 1.8 years; weight: 82.8 ± 5.9 kg; body fat: 11.8 ± 5.4%; and VO2max: 51.2 ± 2.8 ml · kg · min), primarily hockey and rugby players, completed the ICV test, using 15-second repeated sprints to exhaustion during separate sessions of treadmill running at varying supramaximal intensities. The time and total distance for each running session were used to determine ICV and ARC via linear regression. The CRI was calculated using the relationship between total distance during the ICV test and the number of intervals completed. Mean ICV and ARC (± SD) values were calculated as 4.80 ± 0.3 m · s and 154.1 ± 36 m, respectively. The mean ICV values were significantly different from the mean peak velocity (± SD) (4.67 ± 0.17 m · s) achieved during the VO2max test (p = 0.011). The CRI was calculated as mean ± SD: 33.9 ± 1.9 seconds. Body fat percentage measured by air displacement plethysmography (BOD POD®; r = -0.649; p = 0.012), lean body mass (r = -0.556; p = 0.039), fat mass (r = -0.634; p = 0.015), body weight (r = -0.669; p = 0.006), and relative VO2max (r = 0.562; p = 0.036) were significantly correlated with ICV. The ARC (r = 0.804; p = 0.001) and velocity at ventilatory threshold (r = -0.630; p = 0.016) were significantly correlated with CRI. The ability to quantify CRI, an additional variable derived from the ICV test, provides a possible measure that can be used in the prescription and evaluation of training methods.

  6. Serum levels of copper, selenium and manganese in forestry workers testing IgG positive for Brucella, Borrelia, and Rickettsia.

    PubMed

    Abbate, Simona; Giorgianni, Concetto; D'Arrigo, Graziella; Brecciaroli, Renato; Catanoso, Rosaria; Alibrando, Carmela; Spatari, Giovanna; Gangemi, Silvia; Abbate, Carmelo

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study is to measure the alterations in the trace levels of serum copper (Cu), selenium (Se), and manganese (Mn) in forestry workers testing immunoglobulin G (IgG)-positive for Brucella, Borrelia, and Rickettsia. The study was conducted on a sample of 758 subjects (560 male and 198 female). All the subjects underwent medical examinations, which investigated particularly the presence of clinical signs compatible with zoonoses, and routine blood tests from venous blood sample, which tested previous immunisation versus cited microorganisms and serum concentration of Cu, Se, and Mn. The subjects were divided according to IgG positivity versus the cited microorganisms. The group of subjects with IgG positive versus Brucella showed statistically significant higher Cu levels than controls, while the Mn levels were not; the group of subjects with IgG positive versus Rickettsia showed higher levels of all three tested metals. The concentration of the examined metals did not show statistically significant difference between IgG-positive subjects versus subjects with Borrelia compared to controls. These data could confirm the role of both Cu and Se  in the regulation of immune response.

  7. Semi-recumbent position and body mass percentiles: effects on intra-abdominal pressure measurements in critically ill children.

    PubMed

    Ejike, Janeth Chiaka; Kadry, Jose; Bahjri, Khaled; Mathur, Mudit

    2010-02-01

    Patient position and body mass index (BMI) affect intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) measured by the intra-vesical method in adults. We sought to determine effects of patient position and BMI on IAP in children because accurate measurement and interpretation of IAP are important for patient management. Seventy-seven mechanically ventilated children (<18 years) admitted to a PICU were prospectively studied. IAP was taken with the head of the bed at 0 degrees and 30 degrees every 6 h over a 24-h period. Statistical methods included descriptives, univariate statistics to identify potential confounding variables and multivariable analysis to assess the impact of position on IAP after adjusting for the significant covariates. Seventy-seven patients had 290-paired IAP measurements. Mean IAP at 30 degrees was 10.6 +/- 4.0 compared to 8.4 +/- 4.0 at 0 degrees , which was significantly higher (p = 0.026) even after adjusting for age, gender and length. There was no correlation between IAP and actual BMI or BMI percentiles. Patient position should be considered when interpreting IAP. BMI did not influence IAP measurements in children.

  8. IUPAC critical evaluation of the rotational-vibrational spectra of water vapor, Part III: Energy levels and transition wavenumbers for H216O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennyson, Jonathan; Bernath, Peter F.; Brown, Linda R.; Campargue, Alain; Császár, Attila G.; Daumont, Ludovic; Gamache, Robert R.; Hodges, Joseph T.; Naumenko, Olga V.; Polyansky, Oleg L.; Rothman, Laurence S.; Vandaele, Ann Carine; Zobov, Nikolai F.; Al Derzi, Afaf R.; Fábri, Csaba; Fazliev, Alexander Z.; Furtenbacher, Tibor; Gordon, Iouli E.; Lodi, Lorenzo; Mizus, Irina I.

    2013-03-01

    This is the third of a series of articles reporting critically evaluated rotational-vibrational line positions, transition intensities, and energy levels, with associated critically reviewed labels and uncertainties, for all the main isotopologues of water. This paper presents experimental line positions, experimental-quality energy levels, and validated labels for rotational-vibrational transitions of the most abundant isotopologue of water, H216O. The latest version of the MARVEL (Measured Active Rotational-Vibrational Energy Levels) line-inversion procedure is used to determine the rovibrational energy levels of the electronic ground state of H216O from experimentally measured lines, together with their self-consistent uncertainties, for the spectral region up to the first dissociation limit. The spectroscopic network of H216O containstwo components, an ortho (o) and a para (p) one. For o-H216O and p-H216O, experimentally measured, assigned, and labeled transitions were analyzed from more than 100 sources. The measured lines come from one-photon spectra recorded at room temperature in absorption, from hot samples with temperatures up to 3000 K recorded in emission, and from multiresonance excitation spectra which sample levels up to dissociation. The total number of transitions considered is 184 667 of which 182 156 are validated: 68 027 between para states and 114 129 ortho ones. These transitions give rise to 18 486 validated energy levels, of which 10 446 and 8040 belong to o-H216O and p-H216O, respectively. The energy levels, including their labeling with approximate normal-mode and rigid-rotor quantum numbers, have been checked against ones determined from accurate variational nuclear motion computations employing exact kinetic energy operators as well as against previous compilations of energy levels. The extensive list of MARVEL lines and levels obtained are deposited in the supplementary data of this paper, as well as in a distributed information system

  9. Ending on a positive: Examining the role of safety leadership decisions, behaviours and actions in a safety critical situation.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Sarah-Louise; Salmon, Paul M; Horberry, Timothy; Lenné, Michael G

    2018-01-01

    Safety leadership is an important factor in supporting safe performance in the workplace. The present case study examined the role of safety leadership during the Bingham Canyon Mine high-wall failure, a significant mining incident in which no fatalities or injuries were incurred. The Critical Decision Method (CDM) was used in conjunction with a self-reporting approach to examine safety leadership in terms of decisions, behaviours and actions that contributed to the incidents' safe outcome. Mapping the analysis onto Rasmussen's Risk Management Framework (Rasmussen, 1997), the findings demonstrate clear links between safety leadership decisions, and emergent behaviours and actions across the work system. Communication and engagement based decisions featured most prominently, and were linked to different leadership practices across the work system. Further, a core sub-set of CDM decision elements were linked to the open flow and exchange of information across the work system, which was critical to supporting the safe outcome. The findings provide practical implications for the development of safety leadership capability to support safety within the mining industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor-Positive Pericytic Cells of White Adipose Tissue from Critical Limb Ischemia Patients Display Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Like Properties.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eo Jin; Seo, Sang Gyo; Shin, Hyuk Soo; Lee, Doo Jae; Kim, Ji Hye; Lee, Dong Yeon

    2017-06-01

    The pericytes in the blood vessel wall have recently been identified to be important in regulating vascular formation, stabilization, remodeling, and function. We isolated and identified pericyte-like platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta-positive (PDGFRβ+) cells from the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue from critical limb ischemia (CLI) patients and investigated their potential as a reliable source of stem cells for cell-based therapy. De-identified subcutaneous fat tissues were harvested after amputation in CLI patients. Freshly isolated SVF cells and culture-expanded adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) were quantified using flow cytometry. A matrigel tube formation assay and multi-lineage differentiation were performed to assess pericytic and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like characteristics of PDGFRβ+ ADSCs. PDGFRβ+ cells were located in the pericytic area of various sizes of blood vessels and coexpressed mesenchymal stem cell markers. PDGFRβ+ cells in freshly isolated SVF cells expressed a higher level of stem cell markers (CD34 and CXCR4) and mesenchymal markers (CD13, CD44, CD54, and CD90) than PDGFRβ- cells. In vitro expansion of PDGFRβ+ cells resulted in enrichment of the perivascular mesenchymal stem-like (PDGFRβ+/CD90+/CD45-/CD31-) cell fractions. The Matrigel tube formation assay revealed that PDGFRβ+ cells were located in the peritubular area. PDGFRβ+ ADSCs cells demonstrated a good multilineage differentiation potential. Pericyte-like PDGFRβ+ cells from the SVF of adipose tissue from CLI patients had MSC-like characteristics and could be amplified by in vitro culture with preservation of their cell characteristics. We believe PDGFRβ+ cells in the SVF of adipose tissue can be used as a reliable source of stem cells even in CLI patients.

  11. SU-E-T-346: Effect of Jaw Position On Dose to Critical Structures in 3-D Conformal Radiotherapy Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Paudel, N; Han, E; Liang, X; Morrill, S; Zhang, X; Hardee, M; Penagaricano, J; Ratanatharathorn, V

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Three-dimensional conformal therapy remains a valid and widely used modality for pancreatic radiotherapy treatment. It usually meets dose constraints on critical structures. However, careful positioning of collimation jaws can reduce dose to the critical structures. Here we investigate the dosimetric effect of jaw position in MLC-based 3-D conformal treatment planning on critical structures. Methods: We retrospectively selected seven pancreatic cancer patients treated with 3-D conformal radiotherapy. We started with treatment plans (Varian Truebeam LINAC, Eclipse TPS, AAA, 18MV) having both x and y jaws aligned with the farthest extent of the block outline (8mm around PTV). Then we subsequently moved either both x-jaws or all x and y jaws outwards upto 3 cm in 1 cm increments and investigated their effect on average and maximum dose to neighboring critical structures keeping the same coverage to treatment volume. Results: Lateral displacement of both x-jaws by 1cm each increased kidney and spleen mean dose by as much as 1.7% and 1.3% respectively and superior inferior displacement increased liver, right kidney, stomach and spleen dose by as much as 2.1%, 2%, 5.2% and 1.6% respectively. Displacement of all x and y-jaws away by 1cm increased the mean dose to liver, right kidney, left kidney, bowels, cord, stomach and spleen by as much as 4.9%, 5.9%, 2.1%, 2.8%, 7.4%, 10.4% and 4.2% respectively. Percentage increase in mean dose due to 2 and 3cm jaw displacement increased almost linearly with the displaced distance. Changes in maximum dose were much smaller (mostly negligible) than the changes in mean dose. Conclusion: Collimation jaw position affects dose mostly to critical structures adjacent to it. Though treatment plans with MLCs conforming the block margin usually meet dose constraints to critical structures, keeping jaws all the way in, to the edge of the block reduces dose to the critical structures during radiation treatment.

  12. The Use of Blended Learning to Facilitate Critical Thinking in Entry Level Occupational Therapy Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Eva L.

    2009-01-01

    The popularity of using online instruction (both in blended and complete distance learning) in higher education settings is increasing (Appana, 2008; Newton, 2006; Oh, 2006). Occupational therapy educators are using blended learning methods under the assumption that this learning platform will facilitate in their students the required level of…

  13. The Use of Blended Learning to Facilitate Critical Thinking in Entry Level Occupational Therapy Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Eva L.

    2009-01-01

    The popularity of using online instruction (both in blended and complete distance learning) in higher education settings is increasing (Appana, 2008; Newton, 2006; Oh, 2006). Occupational therapy educators are using blended learning methods under the assumption that this learning platform will facilitate in their students the required level of…

  14. A Critical Analysis of Conventional Descriptions of Levels Employed in the Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Ian; McElwee, John; Ming, Siri

    2010-01-01

    The Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities (ABLA) is a tabletop-based protocol employing manipulables that is used to gauge whether individuals with severe developmental disabilities can learn to perform a series of discrimination tasks of varying levels of difficulty. Empirical research suggests that the ABLA is useful in terms of predicting…

  15. A Critical Analysis of Conventional Descriptions of Levels Employed in the Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Ian; McElwee, John; Ming, Siri

    2010-01-01

    The Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities (ABLA) is a tabletop-based protocol employing manipulables that is used to gauge whether individuals with severe developmental disabilities can learn to perform a series of discrimination tasks of varying levels of difficulty. Empirical research suggests that the ABLA is useful in terms of predicting…

  16. Position 228 in Paenibacillus macerans cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase is critical for 2-O-d-glucopyranosyl-l-ascorbic acid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng; Xiong, Yanjun; Su, Lingqia; Wang, Lei; Wu, Jing

    2017-04-10

    The markedly stable l-ascorbic acid (L-AA) derivative 2-O-d-glucopyranosyl-l-ascorbic acid (AA-2G) has been widely used in the fields of food, medicine, cosmetics, and husbandry. Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) is considered suitable for the large-scale production of AA-2G. In this work, Paenibacillus macerans CGTase was used to produce AA-2G and the production was 13.5g/l. An amino-acid sequence alignment of α-, β-, and α⁄β-CGTase indicated that the Phe at position 228 of P. macerans CGTase was different from the amino acids at this position in other CGTases (Met, Val, or Ile). In addition, the CGTases from Anaerobranca gottschalkii and Bacillus circulans 251, which have Val and Met at position 228, were shown to produce 28.9 and 35.7g/l AA-2G, respectively, which verified the importance of this position for AA-2G synthesis. Subsequently, P. macerans CGTase mutants F228M and F228V were constructed and shown to produce 24.8g/l and 24.0g/l AA-2G, respectively, which are 84% and 78% higher than that of wild-type P. macerans CGTase, respectively. Kinetic analysis of AA-2G synthesis showed that affinities of the two mutants for L-AA and the catalytic efficiencies increased. Meanwhile, the mutants had lower cyclization activity but higher disproportionation activities, which is beneficial for AA-2G synthesis. All these results indicated that amino acid at position 228 of P. macerans CGTase is crucial to AA-2G synthesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. ClC-7 expression levels critically regulate bone turnover, but not gastric acid secretion.

    PubMed

    Supanchart, C; Wartosch, L; Schlack, C; Kühnisch, J; Felsenberg, D; Fuhrmann, J C; de Vernejoul, M-C; Jentsch, T J; Kornak, U

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the 2Cl(-)/1H(+)-exchanger ClC-7 impair osteoclast function and cause different types of osteoclast-rich osteopetrosis. However, it is unknown to what extent ClC-7 function has to be reduced to become rate-limiting for bone resorption. In osteoclasts from osteopetrosis patients expression of the mutated ClC-7 protein did not correlate with disease severity and resorption impairment. Therefore, a series of transgenic mice expressing ClC-7 in osteoclasts at different levels was generated. Crossing of these mice with Clcn7(-/-) mutants rescued the osteopetrotic phenotype to variable degrees. One resulting double transgenic line mimicked human autosomal dominant osteopetrosis. The trabecular bone of these mice showed a reduction of osteoblast numbers, osteoid, and osteoblast marker gene expression indicative of reduced osteoblast function. In osteoclasts from these mutants ClC-7 expression levels were 20 to 30% of wildtype levels. These reduced levels not only impaired resorptive activity, but also increased numbers, size and nucleus numbers of osteoclasts differentiated in vitro. Although ClC-7 was expressed in the stomach and PTH levels were high in Clcn7(-/-) mutants loss of ClC-7 did not entail a relevant elevation of gastric pH. In conclusion, we show that in our model a reduction of ClC-7 function by approximately 70% is sufficient to increase bone mass, but does not necessarily enhance bone formation. ClC-7 does not appear to be crucially involved in gastric acid secretion, which explains the absence of an osteopetrorickets phenotype in CLCN7-related osteopetrosis.

  18. Androgen and estradiol levels in plasma and amniotic fluid of late gestational male and female hamsters: uterine position effects.

    PubMed

    Vomachka, A J; Lisk, R D

    1986-06-01

    Using radioimmunoassay we have measured the plasma and amniotic fluid levels of androgen and estradiol in male and female hamster fetuses nearing parturition. On Days 14 and 15 of gestation (day of birth = Day 16), plasma levels of androgen are higher in males than females while estradiol levels are equal. Amniotic fluid levels of these hormones, while lower than plasma, reflect the difference in androgen and the similarity in estradiol between sexes. Uterine position analysis on Day 14 suggests that female siblings located caudally suppress amniotic fluid androgen and elevate estradiol levels of male siblings. Comparison of Day 18 gestation male and female rat amniotic fluid androgen to Day 14 hamsters reveals that male rats are bathed in high levels of androgen. Female rats have lower levels which are not different from those of male hamsters. Female hamsters are exposed to little androgen. Relevance to behavioral sexual differentiation and the display of adult behavior is discussed.

  19. B-DNA structure is intrinsically polymorphic: even at the level of base pair positions

    SciTech Connect

    Maehigashi, Tatsuya; Hsiao, Chiaolong; Woods, Kristen Kruger; Moulaei, Tinoush; Hud, Nicholas V.; Williams, Loren Dean

    2012-10-23

    Increasingly exact measurement of single crystal X-ray diffraction data offers detailed characterization of DNA conformation, hydration and electrostatics. However, instead of providing a more clear and unambiguous image of DNA, highly accurate diffraction data reveal polymorphism of the DNA atomic positions and conformation and hydration. Here we describe an accurate X-ray structure of B-DNA, painstakingly fit to a multistate model that contains multiple competing positions of most of the backbone and of entire base pairs. Two of ten base-pairs of CCAGGCCTGG are in multiple states distinguished primarily by differences in slide. Similarly, all the surrounding ions are seen to fractionally occupy discrete competing and overlapping sites. And finally, the vast majority of water molecules show strong evidence of multiple competing sites. Conventional resolution appears to give a false sense of homogeneity in conformation and interactions of DNA. In addition, conventional resolution yields an average structure that is not accurate, in that it is different from any of the multiple discrete structures observed at high resolution. Because base pair positional heterogeneity has not always been incorporated into model-building, even some high and ultrahigh-resolution structures of DNA do not indicate the full extent of conformational polymorphism.

  20. Expression Level of sarah, a Homolog of DSCR1, Is Critical for Ovulation and Female Courtship Behavior in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Ejima, Aki; Tsuda, Manabu; Takeo, Satomi; Ishii, Kunimasa; Matsuo, Takashi; Aigaki, Toshiro

    2004-01-01

    To better understand the genetic bases of postmating responses in Drosophila melanogaster females, we screened a collection of P{GS} insertion lines and identified two insertions in sarah (sra), whose misexpression in the nervous system induced high levels of ovulation in virgins. The gene sra encodes a protein similar to human Down syndrome critical region 1 (DSCR1). The ovulation phenotype was reproduced in transgenic virgins expressing UAS-sra in the nervous system. The flies also extruded the ovipositor toward courting males as seen in wild-type mated females, supporting the notion that ovulation and behavioral patterns are physiologically coupled. The sra insertions were found to be hypomorphic alleles with reduced expression levels. Females homozygous for these alleles show: (1) spontaneous ovulation in virgins, (2) sterility with impaired meiotic progression, and (3) compromised postmating responses with lower ovulation level, higher remating rate, and shorter period for restoration of receptivity. No obvious defects were observed in the homozygous males. The gene sra is predominantly expressed in oocytes, nurse cells, and the nervous system. Taken together, these results indicate that the expression level of sra is critical for ovulation and female courtship behavior, including their postmating changes. PMID:15611177

  1. Serum creatinine level, a surrogate of muscle mass, predicts mortality in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Thongprayoon, Charat; Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Kashani, Kianoush

    2016-05-01

    Serum creatinine (SCr) has been widely used to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Creatinine generation could be reduced in the setting of low skeletal muscle mass. Thus, SCr has also been used as a surrogate of muscle mass. Low muscle mass is associated with reduced survival in hospitalized patients, especially in the intensive care unit (ICU) settings. Recently, studies have demonstrated high mortality in ICU patients with low admission SCr levels, reflecting that low muscle mass or malnutrition, are associated with increased mortality. However, SCr levels can also be influenced by multiple GFR- and non-GFR-related factors including age, diet, exercise, stress, pregnancy, and kidney disease. Imaging techniques, such as computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound, have recently been studied for muscle mass assessment and demonstrated promising data. This article aims to present the perspectives of the uses of SCr and other methods for prediction of muscle mass and outcomes of ICU patients.

  2. Position-Related Differences in Selected Morphological Body Characteristics of Top-Level Female Handball Players.

    PubMed

    Bon, Marta; Pori, Primoz; Sibila, Marko

    2015-09-01

    The study aimed to establish the main morphological characteristics of Slovenian junior and senior female national handball team players. Morphological characteristics of various player subgroups (goalkeepers, wings, back players and pivots) were also determined so as to establish whether they had distinct profiles. The subjects were 87 handball players who were members of the Slovenian junior and senior female national teams in the period from 2003 to 2009. A standardised anthropometric protocol was used to assess the subjects' morphological characteristics. The measurements included 23 different anthropometric measures. First, basic statistical characteristics of anthropometric measures were obtained for all subjects together and then for each group separately. Somatotypes were determined using Heath-Carter's method. Endomorphic, mesomorphic and ectomorphic components were calculated by computer on the basis of formulas. In order to determine differences in the body composition and anthropometric data of the subjects playing in different positions, a one-way analysis of variance was employed. The results show that, on average, the wings differed the most from the other player groups in terms of their morphological body characteristics. The wings differed most prominently from the other player groups in terms of their morphological body parameters as they were significantly smaller and had a statistically significantly lower body mass than the other groups. In terms of transversal measures of the skeleton and the circumferences, the wings significantly differed mainly from the pivots and goalkeepers and less from the backs. The goalkeepers were the tallest, with high values of body mass and low values of transversal measures compared to P. Their skin folds were the most pronounced among all the groups on average and their share of subcutaneous fat in total body mass was the highest. Consequently, their endomorphic component of the somatotype was pronounced

  3. Critical review of the analysis of brominated flame retardants and their environmental levels in Africa.

    PubMed

    Brits, Martin; de Vos, Jayne; Weiss, Jana M; Rohwer, Egmont R; de Boer, Jacob

    2016-12-01

    World-wide, the prevalence of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) is well documented for routine analysis of environmental and biological matrices. There is, however, limited information on these compounds in the African environment and insufficient information on the analytical approaches used to obtain data. This paper presents a review on BFR levels in the African environment and the various analytical methodologies specifically applied in Africa for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls and alternative-BFRs. The analyses include liquid sample preparation using liquid-liquid and solid phase extraction and solid sample preparation involving Soxhlet extraction, with ultrasound-assisted extraction increasingly being applied. Instrumental detection techniques were limited to gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detector and electron impact ionisation with single quadrupole mass spectrometers. Information on congener profile prevalence in indoor dust, soil, aquatic environment (water, sediment, and aquatic organisms), eggs, wastewater treatment plant compartments, landfills (leachate and sediment) and breast milk are presented. Although PBDEs were inconsistently detected, contamination was reported for all investigated matrices in the African environment. The manifestation in remote regions indicates the ubiquitous prevalence and long-range transport of these compounds. Levels in sediment, and breast milk from some African countries were higher than reported for Asia and Europe. Due to limited data or non-detection of alternative-BFRs, it is unclear whether banned formulations were replaced in Africa. Most of the data reported for BFR levels in Africa were obtained in non-African laboratories or in South Africa and formed the basis for our discussion of reported contamination levels and related methodologies.

  4. Kilohertz laser wakefield accelerator using near critical density plasmas and millijoule-level drive pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goers, Andy

    2016-10-01

    Laser wakefield accelerators operating in the so-called bubble or blowout regime are typically driven by Joule-class femtosecond laser systems driving plasma waves in highly underdense plasmas (1017 -1019cm-3). While these accelerators are very promising for accelerating GeV scale, low emittance electron beams, the large energy requirements of the laser systems have so far limited them to repetition rates below 10 Hz. However, there are a variety of applications, such as ultrafast electron diffraction or high repetition rate gamma ray sources for materials characterization or medical radiography, which would benefit from lower energy (1-10 MeV) but higher repetition rate ( 1 kHz) sources of relativistic electrons. This talk will describe relativistic wakefield acceleration of electron bunches in the range 1-10 MeV, driven by a 1 kHz, 30 fs, 1-12 mJ laser system. Our results are made possible by the use of very high density cryogenic H2 and He gas jet targets yielding electron densities >1021cm-3 in thin 100 μm gas flows. At these high densities the critical power for relativistic self-focusing and the plasma wave phase velocity are greatly reduced, leading to pulse collapse and self-injection even with 1 mJ drive laser pulses. Applications of this source to ultrafast electron diffraction and gamma ray radiography will be discussed. This research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Science Foundation, and Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  5. Serum Uric Acid Level in Relation to Severity of the Disease and Mortality of Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Aminiahidashti, Hamed; Bozorgi, Farzad; Mousavi, Seyed Jaber; Sedighi, Omid; Gorji, Ali Morad Heidari; Rashidian, Hale

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the validity of serum uric acid (UA) in prediction of mortality among patients in the emergency department. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective cohort study which was conducted during 2014. In this study, 120 critically ill patients who required Intensive Care Unit care services were included. For evaluation of severity of the disease, mortality in emergency department score (MEDS) in the first 24 h of admission, the requirement of using mechanical ventilation, taking vasopressor during the hospitalization time and severity of the disease based on MEDS score were measured. The patients were divided into two groups: Patients with serum UA level lower than 7.3 mg/dl and patients with serum UA level of equal or more than 7.3 mg/dl. For comparison of the mortality rate in groups, Chi-square and fisher exact tests were applied. Results: In patients, who needed mechanical ventilation, average of serum UA was 7.82 ± 2.82; however, in the patients who did not need mechanical ventilation this amount was 6.16 ± 2.7, a difference was statically significant. We found a statically meaningful difference between serum UA level with requiring mechanical ventilation and the predictive level of UA 6.95 ± 0.73 (F = 8.52; P ≤ 0.004). In the evaluation of MEDS, most patients with serum UA levels lower than 7.3 mg/dl had lower MEDS points (on average 4.6 ± 3.21) in compared to patients with serum UA level higher than 7.3 mg/dl (on average 12 ± 2.99). This difference was found to be statistically significant which indicates the patients whose serum UA was 7.3 mg/dl or higher, were at higher risk of mortality. Conclusion: The serum UA level in the 1st day of hospitalization of a critically ill patient is not an independent indicative factor in relation to mortality. High level of UA reveals critical status of the patient and requires mechanical ventilation. PMID:28042216

  6. Development and testing of a multi-level chevron actuator based positioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawool, Sandesh; Sivakumar, Ganapathy; Hendriske, Johan; Buscarello, Daniel; Purushothaman, Immanuel; Dallas, Tim E.

    2010-02-01

    We present the design, fabrication, and testing of a micro-scale positioning system. The SUMMiT V™ processed design allows an in-plane, bi-directional, micron-scale linear motion of a shuttle using a ratcheting mechanism and multilayered chevron actuators. A single latching system with oppositely faced ratchet teeth on either side of the shuttle is used for achieving the actuation. The design is intended to reduce the footprint and number of electrical connections needed, compared to similar devices. A LabVIEW based optical characterization setup was developed for automated testing of the device. The device produced a maximum displacement of ~180μm.

  7. Experimental demonstration of interaction region beam waist position knob for luminosity leveling

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Yue; Bai, Mei; Duan, Zhe; Luo, Yun; Marusic, Aljosa; Robert-Demolaize, Guillaume; Shen, Xiaozhe

    2015-05-03

    In this paper, we report the experimental implementation of the model-dependent control of the interaction region beam waist position (s* knob) at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The s* adjustment provides an alternative way of controlling the luminosity and is only known method to control the luminosity and reduce the pinch effect of the future eRHIC. In this paper, we will first demonstrate the effectiveness of the s* knob in luminosity controlling and its application in the future electron ion collider, eRHIC, followed by the detail experimental demonstration of such knob in RHIC.

  8. Impact of fill-level in twin-screw granulation on critical quality attributes of granules and tablets.

    PubMed

    Meier, Robin; Moll, Klaus-Peter; Krumme, Markus; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2017-02-15

    In a previous study a change of the fill-level in the barrel exerted a huge influence on the twin-screw granulation (TSG) process of a high drug loaded, simplified formulation. The present work investigated this influence systematically. The specific feed load (SFL) indicating the mass per revolution as surrogate parameter for the fill-level was applied and the correlation to the real volumetric fill level of an extruder could be demonstrated by a newly developed method. A design of experiments was conducted to examine the combined influence of SFL and screw speed on the process and on critical quality attributes of granules and tablets. The same formulation was granulated at constant liquid level with the same screw configuration and led to distinctively different results by only changing the fill-level and the screw speed. The power consumption of the extruder increased at higher SFLs with hardly any influence of screw speed. At low SFL the median residence time was mainly fill-level dependent and at higher SFL mainly screw speed dependent. Optimal values for the product characteristics were found at medium values for the SFL. Granule size distributions shifted from mono-modal and narrow shape to broader and even bimodal distributions of larger median granule sizes, when exceeding or falling below a certain fill-level. Deviating from the optimum fill-level, tensile strength of tablets decreased by about 25 % and disintegration times of tablets increased for more than one third. At low fill-levels, material accumulation in front of the kneading zone was detected by pressure measurements and was assumed to be responsible for the unfavored product performance. At high fill-levels, granule consolidation due to higher propensity of contact with the result of higher material temperature was accounted for inferior product performance. The fill-level was found to be an important factor in assessment and development of twin-screw granulation processes as it impacted

  9. RADIOACTIVE HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANK PITTING PREDICTIONS: AN INVESTIGATION INTO CRITICAL SOLUTION CONCENTRATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E.

    2012-11-08

    A series of cyclic potentiodynamic polarization tests was performed on samples of ASTM A537 carbon steel in support of a probability-based approach to evaluate the effect of chloride and sulfate on corrosion the steel's susceptibility to pitting corrosion. Testing solutions were chosen to systemically evaluate the influence of the secondary aggressive species, chloride, and sulfate, in the nitrate based, high-level wastes. The results suggest that evaluating the combined effect of all aggressive species, nitrate, chloride, and sulfate, provides a consistent response for determining corrosion susceptibility. The results of this work emphasize the importance for not only nitrate concentration limits, but also chloride and sulfate concentration limits.

  10. Critical assessment of day time traffic noise level at curbside open-air microenvironment of Kolkata City, India.

    PubMed

    Kundu Chowdhury, Anirban; Debsarkar, Anupam; Chakrabarty, Shibnath

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the research work is to assess day time traffic noise level at curbside open-air microenvironment of Kolkata city, India under heterogeneous environmental conditions. Prevailing traffic noise level in terms of A-weighted equivalent noise level (Leq) at the microenvironment was in excess of 12.6 ± 2.1 dB(A) from the day time standard of 65 dB(A) for commercial area recommended by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) of India. Noise Climate and Traffic Noise Index of the microenvironment were accounted for 13 ± 1.8 dB(A) and 88.8 ± 6.1 dB(A) respectively. A correlation analysis explored that prevailing traffic noise level of the microenvironment had weak negative (-0.21; p < 0.01) and very weak positive (0.19; p < 0.01) correlation with air temperature and relative humidity. A Varimax rotated principal component analysis explored that motorized traffic volume had moderate positive loading with background noise component (L90, L95, L99) and prevailing traffic noise level had very strong positive loading with peak noise component (L1, L5, L10). Background and peak noise component cumulatively explained 80.98 % of variance in the data set. Traffic noise level at curbside open-air microenvironment of Kolkata City was higher than the standard recommended by CPCB of India. It was highly annoying also. Air temperature and relative humidity had little influence and the peak noise component had the most significant influence on the prevailing traffic noise level at curbside open-air microenvironment. Therefore, traffic noise level at the microenvironment of the city can be reduced with careful honking and driving.

  11. The Effect of the Position of Educational Organizations within the Social Network on Their Collaboration Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugurlu, Zeynep

    2016-01-01

    In this research, it has been aimed to determine the opinions of administrators serving in the public education organizations at the central districts of Sinop on inter-organizations collaboration (collaboration levels). The study, in the descriptive survey model, has been carried out by a mixed research approach where qualitative, quantitative…

  12. Academic stress levels were positively associated with sweet food consumption among Korean high-school students.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeonsoo; Yang, Hye Young; Kim, Ae-Jung; Lim, Yunsook

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to identify the association among levels of persistent academic stress, appetite, and dietary habits and to determine the specific types of sweet foods consumed by Korean high-school students according to their academic stress levels. The study participants included 333 high-school students in the 10th to 12th grades in Kyunggi Province, Korea. The level of academic stress was scored with a 75-item academic stress scale and was categorized as high, medium, or low. A food-frequency questionnaire was used to measure the sugar intake from sweet foods. Korean high-school students with a high academic stress level had larger meals than the other students. Compared with students with low academic stress, the students with high academic stress had a higher frequency of sugar intake from the following food types: confectionaries, candies and chocolates, breads, and flavored milk. Moreover, compared with students with low academic stress, the students with high academic stress had a higher total intake of sugar from the following food types: confectionaries, candies, chocolates, flavored milk, traditional Korean beverages, and spicy, sweet, and fried rice cakes. Unhealthy stress-related food choices may compromise high-school students' health and contribute to their morbidity. The findings of the present study could be used to help nutritionists develop effective strategies for nutritional education and counseling to improve adolescent health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. 76 FR 80268 - Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific or Professional Positions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... performance management system activities, as needed, and its written procedures to show how such factors were...) employees. The Senior Professional Performance Act of 2008 changes pay for these employees by providing for... employee is under a certified performance appraisal system, the rate payable for level II of the Executive...

  14. The Lilead Survey: A National Study of District-Level Library Supervisors: The Position, Office, and Characteristics of the Supervisor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Ann Carlson; DiScala, Jeffrey; Barlow, Diane L.; Massey, Sheri A.; Kodama, Christie; Jarrell, Kelsey; Jacobs, Leah; Moses, Alexandra; Follman, Rebecca; Hall, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    The school district library supervisor occupies a pivotal position in library and information services programs that support and enhance the instructional efforts of a school district: providing leadership; advocating for the programs; supporting, advising, and providing professional development to building-level librarians; and representing…

  15. Workforce Diversity in Higher Education: Career Support Factors Influencing Ascendancy of African American Women to Senior-Level Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackstone, Tondelaya K.

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this study was how knowledge of the barriers to advancement for African American women (AAW) and key career support factors (KCSFs) influence the career advancement of African American women (AAW) to senior-level positions in higher education. The research method for this study consisted of the triangulation of evidence from multiple…

  16. The Level of the Use of Positive Behavioral Support Strategies by Teachers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Amman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amer, Anas Abdul Fattah

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the level of the use of positive behavioral support strategies (PBS) by teachers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Amman, the study sample consisted of 100 teachers (male, female) work at centers that provide services for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) distributed on the variables (sex, the…

  17. Splitting of the zero-energy Landau level and universal dissipative conductivity at critical points in disordered graphene.

    PubMed

    Ortmann, Frank; Roche, Stephan

    2013-02-22

    We report on robust features of the longitudinal conductivity (σ(xx)) of the graphene zero-energy Landau level in the presence of disorder and varying magnetic fields. By mixing an Anderson disorder potential with a low density of sublattice impurities, the transition from metallic to insulating states is theoretically explored as a function of Landau-level splitting, using highly efficient real-space methods to compute the Kubo conductivities (both σ(xx) and Hall σ(xy)). As long as valley degeneracy is maintained, the obtained critical conductivity σ(xx) =/~ 1.4e(2)/h is robust upon an increase in disorder (by almost 1 order of magnitude) and magnetic fields ranging from about 2 to 200 T. When the sublattice symmetry is broken, σ(xx) eventually vanishes at the Dirac point owing to localization effects, whereas the critical conductivities of pseudospin-split states (dictating the width of a σ(xy) = 0 plateau) change to σ(xx) =/~ e(2)/h, regardless of the splitting strength, superimposed disorder, or magnetic strength. These findings point towards the nondissipative nature of the quantum Hall effect in disordered graphene in the presence of Landau level splitting.

  18. Melatonin Pharmacological Blood Levels Increase Total Antioxidant Capacity in Critically Ill Patients.

    PubMed

    Mistraletti, Giovanni; Paroni, Rita; Umbrello, Michele; D'Amato, Lara; Sabbatini, Giovanni; Taverna, Martina; Formenti, Paolo; Finati, Elena; Favero, Gaia; Bonomini, Francesca; Rezzani, Rita; Reiter, Russel J; Iapichino, Gaetano

    2017-04-03

    In this study, the aim was to test the biochemical effects of melatonin supplementation in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients, since their blood levels are decreased. Sixty-four patients were enrolled in the study. From the evening of the 3rd ICU day, patients were randomized to receive oral melatonin (3 mg, group M) or placebo (group P) twice daily, at 20:00 and 24:00, until discharged. Blood was taken (at 00:00 and 14:00), on the 3rd ICU day to assess basal nocturnal melatonin values, and then during the treatment period on the 4th and 8th ICU days. Melatonin, total antioxidant capacity, and oxidative stress were evaluated in serum. Melatonin circadian rhythm before treatment was similar in the two groups, with a partial preservation of the cycle. Four hours from the 1st administration (4th ICU day, 00:00), melatonin levels increased to 2514 (982.3; 7148) pg·mL(-1) in group M vs. 20.3 (14.7; 62.3) pg·mL(-1) in group P (p < 0.001). After five treatment days (8th ICU day), melatonin absorption showed a repetitive trend in group M, while in group P nocturnal secretion (00:00) was impaired: 20 (11.5; 34.5) pg·mL(-1) vs. 33.8 (25.0; 62.2) on the 3rd day (p = 0.029). Immediately from the beginning of treatment, the total antioxidant capacity was significantly higher in melatonin treated subjects at 00:00; a significant correlation was found between total antioxidant capacity and blood melatonin values (ρ = 0.328; p < 0.001). The proposed enteral administration protocol was adequate, even in the early phase, to enhance melatonin blood levels and to protect the patients from oxidative stress. The antioxidant effect of melatonin could play a meaningful role in the care and well-being of these patients.

  19. Maternal salivary cortisol levels during pregnancy are positively associated with overweight children.

    PubMed

    Hohwü, Lena; Henriksen, Tine B; Grønborg, Therese K; Hedegaard, Morten; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Obel, Carsten

    2015-02-01

    Animal and human studies suggest that programing of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may be involved in the development of obesity, but human studies of biological indicators of HPA axis activity are lacking. We studied the association between levels of the stress hormone cortisol during pregnancy and overweight offspring during childhood into adolescence. Salivary samples from 655 Danish pregnant women with singleton pregnancies (1989-1991) were collected once in the morning and once in the evening in their second and third trimester. We followed the offspring from two to 16 years of age with at least one measurement of height and weight, and classified their body mass index into overweight and normal weight. The adjusted relative difference in median salivary cortisol (with 95% confidence interval (CI)) during pregnancy (the four samples), in second and third trimester (morning and evening samples) between overweight and normal weight offspring was estimated. Furthermore, the adjusted median ratio between morning and evening maternal salivary cortisol level was estimated for normal weight and overweight children. All the analyses were stratified into the equal age groups: 2-6, 7-11, and 12-16 years. We found non-significant higher maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy in offspring that were overweight at the age of 2-6, 7-11 and 12-16 years than in normal weight peers; adjusted relative difference in median salivary cortisol 11% (95% CI: -2; 25), 6% (95% CI: -7; 20), and 9% (95% CI: -4; 24), respectively. A statistically significantly higher level of maternal cortisol was found in the second trimester in 2-6-year-old and 12-16-year-old overweight offspring; relative difference 19% (95% CI: 3; 37), and 20% (95% CI: 3; 41), respectively. The median ratio between morning and evening maternal salivary cortisol level was similar for overweight and normal weight children; e.g. at age 2-6 years in third trimester 4.31 (95% CI: 4.05; 4.60)nmol/l and 4

  20. Critical Infrastructures as Complex Systems: A Multi-level Protection Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assogna, Pierluigi; Bertocchi, Glauco; Dicarlo, Antonio; Milicchio, Franco; Paoluzzi, Alberto; Scorzelli, Giorgio; Vicentino, Michele; Zollo, Roberto

    This paper describes a security platform as a complex system of holonic communities, that are hierarchically organized, but self-reconfigurable when some of them are detached or cannot otherwise operate. Furthermore, every possible subset of holons may work autonomously, while maintaining self-conscience of its own mission, action lines and goals. Each holonic unit, either elementary or composite, retains some capabilities for sensing (perception), transmissive apparatus (communication), computational processes (elaboration), authentication/authorization (information security), support for data exchange (visualization & interaction), actuators (mission), ambient representation (geometric reasoning), knowledge representation (logic reasoning), situation representation and forecasting (simulation), intelligent feedback (command & control). The higher the organizational level of the holonic unit, the more complex and sophisticated each of its characteristic features.

  1. Critical thinking.

    PubMed

    Price, A; Price, B

    1996-05-01

    Critical thinking is a process applied to midwifery theory, research and experience. It is a positive activity, responsive to context, drawing on negative and positive triggers and emotions to suggest ways of acting in future. Practice-based and reflective midwifery assignments should reflect the midwifery goals of critical thinking. This may require adjustments in assessment criteria and a questioning of standard academic conventions.

  2. Generating Safety-Critical PLC Code From a High-Level Application Software Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The benefits of automatic-application code generation are widely accepted within the software engineering community. These benefits include raised abstraction level of application programming, shorter product development time, lower maintenance costs, and increased code quality and consistency. Surprisingly, code generation concepts have not yet found wide acceptance and use in the field of programmable logic controller (PLC) software development. Software engineers at Kennedy Space Center recognized the need for PLC code generation while developing the new ground checkout and launch processing system, called the Launch Control System (LCS). Engineers developed a process and a prototype software tool that automatically translates a high-level representation or specification of application software into ladder logic that executes on a PLC. All the computer hardware in the LCS is planned to be commercial off the shelf (COTS), including industrial controllers or PLCs that are connected to the sensors and end items out in the field. Most of the software in LCS is also planned to be COTS, with only small adapter software modules that must be developed in order to interface between the various COTS software products. A domain-specific language (DSL) is a programming language designed to perform tasks and to solve problems in a particular domain, such as ground processing of launch vehicles. The LCS engineers created a DSL for developing test sequences of ground checkout and launch operations of future launch vehicle and spacecraft elements, and they are developing a tabular specification format that uses the DSL keywords and functions familiar to the ground and flight system users. The tabular specification format, or tabular spec, allows most ground and flight system users to document how the application software is intended to function and requires little or no software programming knowledge or experience. A small sample from a prototype tabular spec application is

  3. What Is the Critical Value of Glenoid Bone Loss at Which Soft Tissue Bankart Repair Does Not Restore Glenohumeral Translation, Restricts Range of Motion, and Leads to Abnormal Humeral Head Position?

    PubMed

    Shin, Sang-Jin; Koh, Yong Won; Bui, Christopher; Jeong, Woong Kyo; Akeda, Masaki; Cho, Nam Su; McGarry, Michelle H; Lee, Thay Q

    2016-11-01

    A general consensus has been formed that glenoid bone loss greater than 20% to 25% is the critical amount at which bony augmentation procedures are needed; however, recent clinical results suggest that the critical levels must be reconsidered to lower values. This study aimed to find the critical value of anterior glenoid bone loss when a soft tissue repair is not adequate to restore anterior-inferior glenohumeral translation, rotational range of motion, or humeral head position using a biomechanical anterior shoulder instability model. Controlled laboratory study. Eight cadaveric shoulders were tested with a customized shoulder testing system. Range of motion, translation, and humeral head position were measured at 60° of glenohumeral abduction in the scapular plane under a total of 40-N rotator cuff muscle loading in the following 11 conditions: intact; soft tissue Bankart lesion and repair; Bankart lesion with 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% glenoid bone defects based on the largest anteroposterior width of the glenoid; and soft tissue Bankart repair for each respective glenoid defect. Serial osteotomies for each percentage of bone loss were made parallel to the long axis of the glenoid. There was significantly decreased external rotation (121.2° ± 2.8° to 113.5° ± 3.3°; P = .004), increased anteroinferior translation with an externally applied load (3.0 ± 1.2 mm to 7.5 ± 1.1 mm at 20 N; P = .008), and increased posterior (0.2 ± 0.6 mm to 2.7 ± 0.8 mm; P = .049) and inferior shift (2.9 ± 0.7 mm to 6.6 ± 1.1 mm; P = .018) of the humeral head apex in the position of maximum external rotation after soft tissue Bankart repair of a 15% glenoid defect compared with the repair of a Bankart lesion without a glenoid defect, respectively. Glenoid defects of 15% or more of the largest anteroposterior glenoid width should be considered the critical bone loss amount at which soft tissue repair cannot restore glenohumeral translation, restricts rotational range of motion

  4. A 3-SYNAPSE POSITIVE FEEDBACK LOOP REGULATES THE EXCITABILITY OF AN INTERNEURON CRITICAL FOR SENSITIZATION IN THE LEECH

    PubMed Central

    Crisp, Kevin M.; Muller, Kenneth J.

    2007-01-01

    Sensitization of reflexive shortening in the leech has been linked to serotonin (5-HT)-induced changes in the excitability of a single interneuron, the S cell. This neuron is necessary for sensitization and complete dishabituation of reflexive shortening, during which it contributes to the sensory-motor reflex. The S cell does not contain 5-HT, which is released primarily from the Retzius (R) cells, whose firing enhances S-cell excitability. Here we show that the S cell excites the R cells, mainly via a fast disynaptic pathway in which the first synapse is the electrical junction between the S cell and the coupling interneurons, and the second synapse is a glutamatergic synapse of the coupling interneurons onto the R cells. The S cell-triggered excitatory postsynaptic potential in the R cell diminishes and nearly disappears in elevated concentrations of divalent cations because the coupling interneurons become inexcitable under these conditions. Serotonin released from the R cells feeds back upon the S cell and increases its excitability by activating a 5-HT7-like receptor; 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MeOT; 10 μM) mimics the effects of 5-HT on S cell excitability, and effects of both 5-HT and 5-MeOT are blocked by pimozide (10 μM) and SB-269970 (5 μM). This feedback loop may be critical for the full expression of sensitization of reflexive shortening. PMID:16571760

  5. Positive Psychology and Positive Education: Old Wine in New Bottles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Kristjan

    2012-01-01

    The recently fashionable theories of positive psychology have educational ramifications at virtually every level of engagement, culminating in the model of positive education. In this critical review, I scrutinize positive education as a potential theory in educational psychology. Special attention is given to conceptual controversies and…

  6. Positive Psychology and Positive Education: Old Wine in New Bottles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Kristjan

    2012-01-01

    The recently fashionable theories of positive psychology have educational ramifications at virtually every level of engagement, culminating in the model of positive education. In this critical review, I scrutinize positive education as a potential theory in educational psychology. Special attention is given to conceptual controversies and…

  7. Childhood and Adult Socioeconomic Position, Cumulative Lead Levels, and Pessimism in Later Life

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Junenette L.; Kubzansky, Laura D.; Ikeda, Ai; Spiro, Avron; Wright, Robert O.; Weisskopf, Marc G.; Kim, Daniel; Sparrow, David; Nie, Linda H.; Hu, Howard; Schwartz, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Pessimism, a general tendency toward negative expectancies, is a risk factor for depression and also heart disease, stroke, and reduced cancer survival. There is evidence that individuals with higher lead exposure have poorer health. However, low socioeconomic status (SES) is linked with higher lead levels and greater pessimism, and it is unclear whether lead influences psychological functioning independently of other social factors. The authors considered interrelations among childhood and adult SES, lead levels, and psychological functioning in data collected on 412 Boston area men between 1991 and 2002 in a subgroup of the VA Normative Aging Study. Pessimism was measured by using the Life Orientation Test. Cumulative (tibia) lead was measured by x-ray fluorescence. Structural equation modeling was used to quantify the relations as mediated by childhood and adult SES, controlling for age, health behaviors, and health status. An interquartile range increase in lead quartile was associated with a 0.37 increase in pessimism score (P < 0.05). Low childhood and adult SES were related to higher tibia lead levels, and both were also independently associated with higher pessimism. Lead maintained an independent association with pessimism even after childhood and adult SES were considered. Results demonstrate an interrelated role of lead burden and SES over the life course in relation to psychological functioning in older age. PMID:22071587

  8. Increased levels of serum Wisteria floribunda agglutinin-positive Mac-2 binding protein in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Kono, Masato; Nakamura, Yutaro; Oyama, Yoshiyuki; Mori, Kazutaka; Hozumi, Hironao; Karayama, Masato; Hashimoto, Dai; Enomoto, Noriyuki; Fujisawa, Tomoyuki; Inui, Naoki; Yamada, Masaomi; Hamada, Etsuko; Colby, Thomas V; Maekawa, Masato; Suda, Takafumi

    2016-06-01

    Mac-2 binding protein (M2BP) is a cell-adhesive glycoprotein of the extracellular matrix secreted as a ligand of galectin-3 (Mac-2). Recently, a Wisteria floribunda agglutinin positive-M2BP (WFA(+)-M2BP) assay developed using a lectin-antibody sandwich immunoassay has shown promise as a new fibrotic marker in liver fibrosis to detect unique fibrosis-related glycoalteration. The aim of this study is to evaluate the utility of serum WFA(+)-M2BP levels in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We measured serum WFA(+)-M2BP levels in 116 patients with IPF and 42 healthy volunteers. We examined the relationship between serum WFA(+)-M2BP levels and clinical parameters and further investigated the prognostic significance of serum WFA(+)-M2BP levels in patients with IPF. Serum WFA(+)-M2BP levels were significantly higher in patients with IPF than in healthy controls (1.09 ± 0.89 cutoff index [COI], 0.57 ± 0.24 COI, respectively; P < 0.001). In patients with IPF, a significant positive correlation was found between serum WFA(+)-M2BP levels and age, KL-6, neutrophils in BAL, reticulation and honeycombing scores in HRCT, and fibrotic foci scores in pathological findings, and a significant negative correlation was found between serum WFA(+)-M2BP levels and FVC, %DLco and macrophages in BAL. Furthermore, patients with high serum WFA(+)-M2BP levels had a significantly worse prognosis than those with low levels (log-rank test, P = 0.0209), and a high serum WFA(+)-M2BP level was a significant prognostic factor in Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Our results suggest that the serum WFA(+)-M2BP level is a potential biomarker in patients with IPF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Single-needle celiac plexus block: is needle tip position critical in patients with no regional anatomic distortions?

    PubMed

    De Cicco, M; Matovic, M; Balestreri, L; Fracasso, A; Morassut, S; Testa, V

    1997-12-01

    The "single-needle" celiac plexus block is becoming a popular technique. Despite different approaches and methods used to place the needle, the success of the block depends on adequate spread of the injectate in the celiac area. In the present retrospective study, the influence of needle tip position in relation to the celiac artery on injectate spread was evaluated. Among 138 cancer patients subjected, via an anterior approach, to computed tomography (CT)-guided single-needle neurolytic celiac plexus block, a radiologist, blinded to the aim of the study, retrospectively selected 53 cases with normal anatomy of the celiac area as judged by CT. The decision was based on images obtained before the block. Patients were then classified into either group A (29 patients), in whom the needle tip was caudad to the celiac artery, and group B (24 patients), in whom it was cephalad. To evaluate CT patterns of neurolytic (mixed with contrast) spread, the celiac area was divided on the frontal plane into four quadrants: upper right and left and lower right and left, as related to the celiac artery. Patient assessments by visual analog scale were reviewed to evaluate the degree of pain relief. Pain relief 30 days after block was judged as long-lasting. The patterns of contrast spread in relation to the needle position and pain relief according to the number of quadrants with contrast were analyzed. The percentage of cases with four quadrants with contrast was higher when the needle tip was cephalad (58%, group B) than when it was caudad (14%, group A) to the celiac artery (P < 0.01). The percentage of patients with four and three quadrants with contrast was also higher in group B at 79% than in group A at 38% (P < 0.01). A significant difference in long-lasting pain relief was observed between patients with four quadrants with contrast (18 of 18, 100%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 81-100%) and patients with three quadrants with contrast (5 of 12, 42%; 95% CI, 15-72%) (P < 0

  10. Exposure to air pollution in critical prenatal time windows and IgE levels in newborns.

    PubMed

    Herr, Caroline E W; Ghosh, Rakesh; Dostal, Miroslav; Skokanova, Venuse; Ashwood, Paul; Lipsett, Michael; Joad, Jesse P; Pinkerton, Kent E; Yap, Poh-Sin; Frost, Joshua D; Sram, Radim; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the mechanisms by which exposure to ambient air pollutants influences respiratory health may include altered prenatal immune development. To analyze associations between elevated cord serum Immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels and maternal air pollution exposure during each month of gestation. Total cord serum IgE was determined by the CAP system and mothers' total IgE levels by nephelometry for 459 births in the Czech Republic from May 1994 to mid-January 1997. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and particulate matter <2.5 microns in diameter (PM(2.5) ) were measured in ambient air, and arithmetic means were calculated for each gestational month. Log binomial regression models were used to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) for elevated cord serum IgE (≥0.9 IU/ml) adjusting for district of residence, year of birth, and in further models, for maternal IgE (a surrogate for atopy) and gestational season. Heterogeneity by maternal atopy status was evaluated for associations of air pollution and of cigarette smoke. In adjusted models, PAH and PM(2.5) exposures in the second month of gestation were each associated with a lower prevalence of elevated cord serum IgE. For an average increase of 100 ng/m(3) of PAHs, the PR was 0.69 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50, 0.95); for 25 μg/m(3) increase in PM(2.5) , the PR was 0.77 (95% CI: 0.55, 1.07). Conversely, exposures later in gestation were associated with a higher prevalence of elevated cord IgE: in the fifth month, the PR for PAH exposure was 1.64 (95% CI: 1.29, 2.08), while for PM(2.5) in the sixth month, it was 1.66 (95% CI: 1.30, 2.13). In analyses stratified by maternal atopy, air pollutants were associated with altered cord serum IgE only among neonates with non-atopic mothers. Similarly, an association of cigarette smoke with elevated cord serum IgE was found only in non-atopic mothers. PAHs and PM(2.5) , constituents of both ambient air pollution and

  11. Balanced levels of Espin are critical for stereociliary growth and length maintenance.

    PubMed

    Rzadzinska, Agnieszka; Schneider, Mark; Noben-Trauth, Konrad; Bartles, James R; Kachar, Bechara

    2005-11-01

    Hearing and balance depend on microvilli-like actin-based projections of sensory hair cells called stereocilia. Their sensitivity to mechanical displacements on the nanometer scale requires a highly organized hair bundle in which the physical dimension of each stereocilium is tightly controlled. The length and diameter of each stereocilium are established during hair bundle maturation and maintained by life-long continuing dynamic regulation. Here, we studied the role of the actin-bundling protein Espin in stereociliary growth by examining the hair cell stereocilia of Espin-deficient jerker mice (Espn(je)), and the effects of transiently overexpressing Espin in the neuroepithelial cells of the organ of Corti cultures. Using fluorescence scanning confocal and electron microscopy, we found that a lack of Espin results in inhibition of stereociliary growth followed by progressive degeneration of the hair bundle. In contrast, overexpression of Espin induced lengthening of stereocilia and microvilli that mirrored the elongation of the actin filament bundle at their core. Interestingly, Espin deficiency also appeared to influence the localization of Myosin XVa, an unconventional myosin that is normally present at the stereocilia tip at levels proportional to stereocilia length. These results indicate that Espin is important for the growth and maintenance of the actin-based protrusions of inner ear neuroepithelial cells.

  12. Cut-Point Levels of Phosphatidylethanol to Identify Alcohol Misuse in a Mixed Cohort Including Critically Ill Patients.

    PubMed

    Afshar, Majid; Burnham, Ellen L; Joyce, Cara; Clark, Brendan J; Yong, Meagan; Gaydos, Jeannette; Cooper, Richard S; Smith, Gordon S; Kovacs, Elizabeth J; Lowery, Erin M

    2017-10-01

    Although alcohol misuse is associated with deleterious outcomes in critically ill patients, its detection by either self-report or examination of biomarkers is difficult to obtain consistently. Phosphatidylethanol (PEth) is a direct alcohol biomarker that can characterize alcohol consumption patterns; however, its diagnostic accuracy in identifying misuse in critically ill patients is unknown. PEth values were obtained in a mixed cohort comprising 122 individuals from medical and burn intensive care units (n = 33), alcohol detoxification unit (n = 51), and healthy volunteers (n = 38). Any alcohol misuse and severe misuse were referenced by Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and AUDIT-C scores separately. Mixed-effects logistic regression analysis was performed, and the discrimination of PEth was evaluated using the area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The area under the ROC curve for PEth was 0.927 (95% CI: 0.877, 0.977) for any misuse and 0.906 (95% CI: 0.850, 0.962) for severe misuse defined by AUDIT. By AUDIT-C, the area under the ROC curves was 0.948 (95% CI: 0.910, 0.956) for any misuse and 0.913 (95% CI: 0.856, 0.971) for severe misuse. The PEth cut-points of ≥250 and ≥400 ng/ml provided optimal discrimination for any misuse and severe misuse, respectively. The positive predictive value for ≥250 ng/ml was 88.7% (95% CI: 77.5, 95.0), and the negative predictive value was 86.7% (95% CI: 74.9, 93.7). PEth ≥ 400 ng/ml achieved similar values, and similar results were shown for AUDIT-C. In a subgroup analysis of critically ill patients only, test characteristics were similar to the mixed cohort. PEth is a strong predictor and has good discrimination for any and severe alcohol misuse in a mixed cohort that includes critically ill patients. Cut-points at 250 ng/ml for any, and 400 ng/ml for severe, are favorable. External validation will be required to establish these cut-points in critically ill patients

  13. Licensing of alternative methods of disposal of low-level radioactive waste: Branch technical position, Low-Level Waste Licensing Branch

    SciTech Connect

    Higginbotham, L.B.; Dragonette, K.S.; Pittiglio, C.L. Jr.

    1986-12-01

    This branch technical position statement identifies and describes specific methods of disposal currently being considered as alternatives to shallow land burial, provides general guidance on these methods of disposal, and recommends procedures that will improve and simplify the licensing process. The statement provides answers to certain questions that have arisen regarding the applicability of 10 CFR 61 to near-surface disposal of waste, using methods that incorporate engineered barriers or structures, and other alternatives to conventional shallow land burial disposal practices. This position also identifies a recently published NRC contractor report that addresses the applicability of 10 CFR 61 to a range of generic disposal concepts and which provides technical guidance that the staff intends to use for these concepts. This position statement combined with the above-mentioned NRC contractor report fulfills the requirements of Section 8(a) of Public Law 99-240, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985.

  14. Potential for and consequences of criticality resulting from hydrogeochemically concentrated fissile uranium blended with soil in low-level waste disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, C.M.; Parks, C.V.

    1997-08-01

    Evaluations were done to determine conditions that could permit nuclear criticality with fissile uranium in low-level-waste (LLW) facilities and to estimate potential radiation exposures to personnel if there were such an accident. Simultaneous hydrogeochemical and nuclear criticality studies were done (1) to identify some realistic scenarios for uranium migration and concentration increase at LLW disposal facilities, (2) to model groundwater transport and subsequent concentration via sorption or precipitation of uranium, (3) to evaluate the potential for nuclear criticality resulting from potential increases in uranium concentration over disposal limits, and (4) to estimate potential radiation exposures to personnel resulting from criticality consequences. The scope of the referenced work was restricted to uranium at an assumed 100 wt% {sup 235}U enrichment. Three outcomes of uranium concentration are possible: uranium concentration is increased to levels that do pose a criticality safety concern; uranium concentration is increased, but levels do not pose a criticality safety concern; or uranium concentration does not increase.

  15. Serum vitamin D levels are positively associated with varicella zoster immunity in chronic dialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Chia-Ter; Lee, Szu-Ying; Yang, Wei-Shun; Yen, Chung-Jen; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Huang, Jenq-Wen; Hung, Kuan-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Uremia results in a relatively immunocompromised status, and patients under chronic dialysis have an elevated risk of developing herpes zoster (HZ). We sought to investigate the relationship between vitamin D status and immunity to varicella-zoster virus (VZV). A multicenter prevalent hemodialysis cohort was assembled between 2012 and 2013. We assayed the biochemical parameters, 25-hydroxy- (25-OH-D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, vitamin D-binding protein levels in the sera. VZV immunity was quantitated using VZV-specific glycoprotein IgG and IgM titers. Eighty-eight patients were enrolled and their sera were analyzed. Chronic hemodialysis patients with 25-OH-D < 30 ng/ml (insufficiency or deficiency) had significantly lower VZV-IgG than those with sufficient 25-OH-D (p = 0.04). This discrepancy became more prominent if active vitamin D users alone were analyzed (p = 0.01). Generalized additive modeling showed that those with 25-OH-D higher than 27.8 ng/ml or bioavailable 25-OH-D higher than 3.88 ng/ml had significantly higher VZV-IgG levels than those with lower values. Linear regression suggested that both total and bioavailable 25-OH-D were significantly associated with higher VZV-IgG levels (p = 0.003 [total] and 0.01 [bioavailable]), whereas patients with cancer had lower VZV-IgG. Vitamin D may therefore be a potentially useful choice for raising VZV immunity in chronic dialysis patients. PMID:25487609

  16. Urinary N-acetyl-β-d-Glucosaminidase Levels are Positively Correlated With 2-Hr Plasma Glucose Levels During Oral Glucose Tolerance Testing in Prediabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ouchi, Motoshi; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Masao; Motoyama, Masayuki; Ohara, Makoto; Suzuki, Kazunari; Igari, Yoshimasa; Watanabe, Kentaro; Nakano, Hiroshi; Oba, Kenzo

    2012-01-01

    Background Urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) excretion is increased in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). This study investigated when during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) the plasma glucose, urine glucose, and insulin levels correlate most strongly with urinary N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG) levels in prediabetic subjects. Methods The OGTT was administered to 80 subjects who had not yet received a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (DM) and in whom HbA1c levels were ≤6.8% and fasting plasma glucose levels were <7.0 mmol/l. Forty-two subjects had normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 31 had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and 7 had DM according to World Health Organization criteria. Serum levels of cystatin C, the estimated glomerular filtration rate, the urinary albumin-to-creatinine (Cr) ratio, urinary and serum β2-microglobulin, and urinary NAG were measured as markers of renal function. Results NAG levels were significantly higher in subjects with DM and in subjects with IGT than in subjects with NGT. No significant associations were observed between glycemic status and other markers of renal function. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the NAG level was positively correlated with plasma glucose levels at 120 min of the OGTT and was associated with the glycemic status of prediabetic patients. Conclusion These results suggest that postprandial hyperglycemia is an independent factor that causes renal tubular damage in prediabetes patients. PMID:23143631

  17. Evaluation of constructivist pedagogy: Influence on critical thinking skills, science fair participation and level of performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foxx, Robbie Evelyn

    Science education reform, driven by a rapidly advancing technological society, demands the attention of both elementary and middle school curriculum-developers. Science education training in current standards (National Research Council [NRC] Standards 1996) emphasize inquiry, which is reported to be a basic tenet of the theory known as constructivism (NAASP, 1996; Cohen, 1988; Conley, 1993; Friedman, 1999; Newman, Marks, & Gamoran, 1996; Smerdon & Burkam 1999; Sizer 1992; Talbert & McLaughlin 1993; Tobin & Gallagher, 1987; Yager, 1991, 2000). Pedagogy focusing on the tenets of constructivist theory, at the intermediate level, can address current science standards. Many science educators believe participation in science fairs helps students develop the attitudes, skills, and knowledge that will help them to be comfortable and successful in the scientific and technological society (Czerniak, 1996). Competing in science fairs is one vehicle which allows students to apply science to societal issues, solve problems and model those things scientists do. Moreover, constructing a science fair project is suggested as being an excellent means to foster the development of concepts necessary in promoting scientific literacy (Czerniak, 1996). Research further suggests that through science fairs or other inquiry activities, students construct their knowledge with fewer misconceptions as they explore and discover the nature of science (NRC 1996). Tohn 's study (as cited in Bellipanni, 1994) stated that science fairs are a major campaign to increase student skills and to allow students a chance to have fun with science. The purpose of this research was twofold: (1) to assess science problem solving skills of students instructed using constructivist pedagogy, and (2) to explore the effects of constructivist pedagogy's influence(s) on science fair participation/placement. Students' attitudes resulting from these experiences were examined as well.

  18. Validity of the running repeated sprint ability test among playing positions and level of competitiveness in trained soccer players.

    PubMed

    Aziz, A R; Mukherjee, S; Chia, M Y H; Teh, K C

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the construct validity of the running repeated sprint ability (rRSA) test to discriminate performances between: i) various playing positions (Study 1), and ii) teams of different level of competitiveness (Study 2), in trained soccer players. Study 1 comprised clubs' players participating in the top local professional league. Study 2 comprised professional and semiprofessional players from the National Under-23 and Youth squads respectively, and amateur-level players from a University team. The rRSA test protocol consisted of either 6 or 8 repetitions of 20-m all-out sprints, interspersed with a 20-s active recovery period. There were significant differences in the rRSA performance between goalkeepers and outfield-positions (p < 0.01). Forwards had significantly better rRSA performance compared to defenders and midfielders (F ratio = 4.147, p = 0.02). Performance in the rRSA was superior in teams with relatively higher competitiveness (F ratio = 3.973, p = 0.02). The rRSA is a specific physical or fitness attribute of an outfield-position player, and may be of greater importance to the forwards' position. Performance in the rRSA also seems to be associated with a higher level of competitiveness and/or adaptation to resistance training. These data support the construct validity of the rRSA test in trained soccer players.

  19. Anthropometric characteristics, physical fitness and technical performance of under-19 soccer players by competitive level and field position.

    PubMed

    Rebelo, A; Brito, J; Maia, J; Coelho-e-Silva, M J; Figueiredo, A J; Bangsbo, J; Malina, R M; Seabra, A

    2013-04-01

    Anthropometric characteristics, physical fitness and technical skills of under-19 (U19) soccer players were compared by competitive level (elite, n=95; non-elite, n=85) and playing position (goalkeeper, central defender, fullback, midfield, forward). Fitness tests included 5- and 30-m sprints, agility, squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ), strength and Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test level 2 (Yo-Yo IE2). Soccer-specific skills included ball control and dribbling. Independent of position, elite players presented more hours of training per year than non-elite players (d>1.2). Stature and body mass discriminated elite from non-elite players among goalkeepers and central defenders (d>0.6). Major differences were noted between elite and non-elite goalkeepers for SJ, CMJ, Yo-Yo IE2, and ball control (d>1.2). Elite central defenders performed better than their non-elite counterparts in SJ and ball control tests (d>1.2). Elite players presented better agility and Yo-Yo IE2 performances than non-elite players within all positional roles (d>0.6). In conclusion, U19 players differed in anthropometric characteristics, physical fitness and technical skills by competitive level within field positions.

  20. Analysis of speed performance in soccer by a playing position and a sports level using a laser system.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Amelia; Villacieros, Jorge; Floría, Pablo; Graupera, Jose L

    2014-12-09

    The purpose of this study was to determine the kinematic variables that identify the quality of velocity in soccer players at different competitive levels and playing positions. This study had two independent variables: 1) a competitive level (competitive and non-competitive players); and 2) a playing position, with four levels (central defenders, wide defenders/midfielders, central midfielders and forwards). Forty-two soccer players took part in a 30 m sprint-test, which was measured using a laser sensor-type 1 (LDM301-Jenoptik) at 2000 Hz. Absolute and relative times, average velocities and absolute and relative maximum velocities over 10 m sections were analyzed at 200 Hz with BioLaserSport(®). There were no significant differences in average velocity between competitive and non-competitive players; however, the former reached a greater maximum velocity in the 10-20 m section. Average velocity in the 0-10 m section identified specificity among playing positions in competitive players. The forwards were the fastest followed by the central midfielders, the wide defenders/midfielders and the central defenders. No differences were found among the non-competitive players. Average velocity over the 0-10 meter section may be an important indicator when assigning a playing position for competitive players. These results support the use of more accurate systems, such as a laser system, to identify soccer players' speed qualities (including maximum velocity) during short sprints.

  1. Analysis of Speed Performance In Soccer by a Playing Position and a Sports Level Using a Laser System

    PubMed Central

    Ferro, Amelia; Villacieros, Jorge; Floría, Pablo; Graupera, Jose L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the kinematic variables that identify the quality of velocity in soccer players at different competitive levels and playing positions. This study had two independent variables: 1) a competitive level (competitive and non-competitive players); and 2) a playing position, with four levels (central defenders, wide defenders/midfielders, central midfielders and forwards). Forty-two soccer players took part in a 30 m sprint-test, which was measured using a laser sensor-type 1 (LDM301-Jenoptik) at 2000 Hz. Absolute and relative times, average velocities and absolute and relative maximum velocities over 10 m sections were analyzed at 200 Hz with BioLaserSport®. There were no significant differences in average velocity between competitive and non-competitive players; however, the former reached a greater maximum velocity in the 10–20 m section. Average velocity in the 0–10 m section identified specificity among playing positions in competitive players. The forwards were the fastest followed by the central midfielders, the wide defenders/midfielders and the central defenders. No differences were found among the non-competitive players. Average velocity over the 0–10 meter section may be an important indicator when assigning a playing position for competitive players. These results support the use of more accurate systems, such as a laser system, to identify soccer players’ speed qualities (including maximum velocity) during short sprints. PMID:25713675

  2. Serum free thyroxine levels are positively associated with arterial stiffness in the SardiNIA study.

    PubMed

    Delitala, Alessandro P; Orrù, Marco; Filigheddu, Fabiana; Pilia, Maria Grazia; Delitala, Giuseppe; Ganau, Antonello; Saba, Pier Sergio; Decandia, Federica; Scuteri, Angelo; Marongiu, Michele; Lakatta, Edward G; Strait, James; Cucca, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    Thyroid dysfunction may accelerate atherosclerosis. Aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) is an early index of arterial stiffness and an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and might therefore be linked to changes in thyroid activity. We investigated the relationship between thyroid function and carotid-femoral PWV, as an index of arterial stiffness. Cross-sectional cohort study. Participants from the SardiNIA study. Those being treated for thyroid diseases were excluded, yielding a sample of 5875 aged 14-102. Clinical parameters, blood tests including serum TSH and serum FT4, and carotid-femoral PWV were measured. After adjusting for confounders, a direct and linear association between FT4 and PWV was shown (multiple regression analysis). The model containing age, mean blood pressure, body mass index, heart rate, FT4, hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidaemia accounted for 55% of the variation in PWV. Like several other known risk factors, serum FT4 levels are associated with carotid-femoral PWV, suggesting that high FT4 levels have a detrimental effect on aortic stiffness and may contribute to ageing process of the vascular system. This finding may help to understand the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease and contribute to improve prevention therapy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Measurement of position-specific 13C isotopic composition of propane at the nanomole level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Alexis; Yamada, Keita; Suda, Konomi; Ueno, Yuichiro; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2016-03-01

    We have developed a novel method for analyzing intramolecular carbon isotopic distribution of propane as a potential new tracer of its origin. The method is based on on-line pyrolysis of propane followed by analysis of carbon isotope ratios of the pyrolytic products methane, ethylene and ethane. Using propane samples spiked with 13C at the terminal methyl carbon, we characterize the origin of the pyrolytic fragments. We show that the exchange between C-atoms during the pyrolytic process is negligible, and thus that relative intramolecular isotope composition can be calculated. Preliminary data from 3 samples show that site-preference (SP) values, defined as the difference of δ13C values between terminal and sub-terminal C-atom positions of propane, range from -1.8‰ to -12.9‰. In addition, SP value obtained using our method for a thermogenic natural gas sample is consistent with that expected from theoretical models of thermal cracking, suggesting that the isotope fractionation associated with propane pyrolysis is negligible. The method will provide novel insights into the characterization of the origin of propane and will help better understand the biogeochemistry of natural gas deposits.

  4. Positive Attitude toward Healthy Eating Predicts Higher Diet Quality at All Cost Levels of Supermarkets☆

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Anju; Monsivais, Pablo; Cook, Andrea J.; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Shopping at low-cost supermarkets has been associated with higher obesity rates. This study examined whether attitudes toward healthy eating are independently associated with diet quality among shoppers at low-cost, medium-cost, and high-cost supermarkets. Data on socioeconomic status (SES), attitudes toward healthy eating, and supermarket choice were collected using a telephone survey of a representative sample of adult residents of King County, WA. Dietary intake data were based on a food frequency questionnaire. Thirteen supermarket chains were stratified into three categories: low, medium, and high cost, based on a market basket of 100 commonly eaten foods. Diet-quality measures were energy density, mean adequacy ratio, and total servings of fruits and vegetables. The analytical sample consisted of 963 adults. Multivariable regressions with robust standard error examined relations between diet quality, supermarket type, attitudes, and SES. Shopping at higher-cost supermarkets was associated with higher-quality diets. These associations persisted after adjusting for SES, but were eliminated after taking attitudinal measures into account. Supermarket shoppers with positive attitudes toward healthy eating had equally higher-quality diets, even if they shopped at low-, medium-, or high-cost supermarkets, independent of SES and other covariates. These findings imply that shopping at low-cost supermarkets does not prevent consumers from having high-quality diets, as long as they attach importance to good nutrition. Promoting nutrition-education strategies among supermarkets, particularly those catering to low-income groups, can help to improve diet quality. PMID:23916974

  5. Positive attitude toward healthy eating predicts higher diet quality at all cost levels of supermarkets.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Anju; Monsivais, Pablo; Cook, Andrea J; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-02-01

    Shopping at low-cost supermarkets has been associated with higher obesity rates. This study examined whether attitudes toward healthy eating are independently associated with diet quality among shoppers at low-cost, medium-cost, and high-cost supermarkets. Data on socioeconomic status (SES), attitudes toward healthy eating, and supermarket choice were collected using a telephone survey of a representative sample of adult residents of King County, WA. Dietary intake data were based on a food frequency questionnaire. Thirteen supermarket chains were stratified into three categories: low, medium, and high cost, based on a market basket of 100 commonly eaten foods. Diet-quality measures were energy density, mean adequacy ratio, and total servings of fruits and vegetables. The analytical sample consisted of 963 adults. Multivariable regressions with robust standard error examined relations between diet quality, supermarket type, attitudes, and SES. Shopping at higher-cost supermarkets was associated with higher-quality diets. These associations persisted after adjusting for SES, but were eliminated after taking attitudinal measures into account. Supermarket shoppers with positive attitudes toward healthy eating had equally higher-quality diets, even if they shopped at low-, medium-, or high-cost supermarkets, independent of SES and other covariates. These findings imply that shopping at low-cost supermarkets does not prevent consumers from having high-quality diets, as long as they attach importance to good nutrition. Promoting nutrition-education strategies among supermarkets, particularly those catering to low-income groups, can help to improve diet quality.

  6. D-dimer levels in maintenance hemodialysis patients: High prevalence of positive values also in the group without predisposing diseases.

    PubMed

    Gubensek, Jakob; Lolic, Matea; Ponikvar, Rafael; Buturovic-Ponikvar, Jadranka

    2016-04-01

    We aimed to estimate the prevalence of elevated D-dimer levels in all chronic hemodialysis patients and those without additional disease, and to identify factors associated with increased D-dimer. In 167 chronic hemodialysis patients from our center, D-dimer was measured before dialysis. The effects of age, C-reactive protein (CRP), recent acute illness, vascular access, anticoagulation type, dialysis vintage, and chronic diseases, considered to predispose for increased D-dimer levels, were analyzed. The median D-dimer in the whole group was 966 (inter-quartile range [IQR] 524-1947) μg/L and was positive (>500 μg/L) in 75% of cases. D-dimer was positive in 91% of patients with acute illness, 76% of those with predisposing chronic diseases, but was still positive in 52% of patients without additional disease (i.e., acute illness or predisposing chronic diseases) - median D-dimer was 538.5 (IQR 359-966) μg/L. D-dimer was correlated to patients' age, but not dialysis vintage. In univariate analysis, the D-dimer levels were significantly higher in patients with atrial fibrillation, ischemic heart disease, recent acute illness, increased CRP, dialyzed over a catheter, and on citrate anticoagulation. Multivariate logistic regression showed that only age >65 years (odds ratio [OR] 2.93), catheter (OR 4.86), and positive CRP (OR 4.07) were independently associated with positive D-dimer at 500 μg/L cut-off, while the significance of age disappeared at 2000 μg/L cut-off. To conclude, the high prevalence of positive D-dimer values even in hemodialysis patients without additional disease limits the use of D-dimer for exclusion of thromboembolic diseases in hemodialysis patients.

  7. Anthropometric and physical characteristics allow differentiation of young female volleyball players according to playing position and level of expertise

    PubMed Central

    Milić, M; Grgantov, Z; Chamari, K; Bianco, A; Padulo, J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the differences in some anthropometric and physical performance variables of young Croatian female volleyball players (aged 13 to 15) in relation to playing position (i.e., independent variable) and performance level within each position (i.e., independent variable). Players were categorized according to playing position (i.e., role) as middle blockers (n=28), opposite hitters (n=41), passer-hitters (n=54), setters (n=30), and liberos (n=28). Within each position, players were divided into a more successful group and a less successful group according to team ranking in the latest regional championship and player quality within the team. Height and body mass, somatotype by the Heath-Carter method, and four tests of lower body power, speed, agility and upper body power (i.e., dependent variables) were assessed. Players in different positions differed significantly in height and all three somatotype components, but no significant differences were found in body mass, body mass index or measured physical performance variables. Players of different performance level differed significantly in both anthropometric and physical performance variables. Generally, middle blockers were taller, more ectomorphic, less mesomorphic and endomorphic, whereas liberos were shorter, less ectomorphic, more mesomorphic and endomorphic than players in other positions. More successful players in all positions had a lower body mass index, were less mesomorphic and endomorphic, and more ectomorphic than less successful players. Furthermore, more successful players showed better lower body power, speed, agility and upper body power. The results of this study can potentially provide coaches with useful indications about the use of somatotype selection and physical performance assessment for talent identification and development. PMID:28416892

  8. Towards population-level conservation in the critically endangered Antarctic blue whale: the number and distribution of their populations

    PubMed Central

    Attard, Catherine R. M.; Beheregaray, Luciano B.; Möller, Luciana M.

    2016-01-01

    Population-level conservation is required to prevent biodiversity loss within a species, but it first necessitates determining the number and distribution of populations. Many whale populations are still depleted due to 20th century whaling. Whales are one of the most logistically difficult and expensive animals to study because of their mobility, pelagic lifestyle and often remote habitat. We tackle the question of population structure in the Antarctic blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus intermedia) – a critically endangered subspecies and the largest extant animal – by capitalizing on the largest genetic dataset to date for Antarctic blue whales. We found evidence of three populations that are sympatric in the Antarctic feeding grounds and likely occupy separate breeding grounds. Our study adds to knowledge of population structure in the Antarctic blue whale. Future research should invest in locating the breeding grounds and migratory routes of Antarctic blue whales through satellite telemetry to confirm their population structure and allow population-level conservation. PMID:26951747

  9. Towards population-level conservation in the critically endangered Antarctic blue whale: the number and distribution of their populations.

    PubMed

    Attard, Catherine R M; Beheregaray, Luciano B; Möller, Luciana M

    2016-03-08

    Population-level conservation is required to prevent biodiversity loss within a species, but it first necessitates determining the number and distribution of populations. Many whale populations are still depleted due to 20th century whaling. Whales are one of the most logistically difficult and expensive animals to study because of their mobility, pelagic lifestyle and often remote habitat. We tackle the question of population structure in the Antarctic blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus intermedia) - a critically endangered subspecies and the largest extant animal - by capitalizing on the largest genetic dataset to date for Antarctic blue whales. We found evidence of three populations that are sympatric in the Antarctic feeding grounds and likely occupy separate breeding grounds. Our study adds to knowledge of population structure in the Antarctic blue whale. Future research should invest in locating the breeding grounds and migratory routes of Antarctic blue whales through satellite telemetry to confirm their population structure and allow population-level conservation.

  10. The critical size is set at a single-cell level by growth rate to attain homeostasis and adaptation.

    PubMed

    Ferrezuelo, Francisco; Colomina, Neus; Palmisano, Alida; Garí, Eloi; Gallego, Carme; Csikász-Nagy, Attila; Aldea, Martí

    2012-01-01

    Budding yeast cells are assumed to trigger Start and enter the cell cycle only after they attain a critical size set by external conditions. However, arguing against deterministic models of cell size control, cell volume at Start displays great individual variability even under constant conditions. Here we show that cell size at Start is robustly set at a single-cell level by the volume growth rate in G1, which explains the observed variability. We find that this growth-rate-dependent sizer is intimately hardwired into the Start network and the Ydj1 chaperone is key for setting cell size as a function of the individual growth rate. Mathematical modelling and experimental data indicate that a growth-rate-dependent sizer is sufficient to ensure size homeostasis and, as a remarkable advantage over a rigid sizer mechanism, it reduces noise in G1 length and provides an immediate solution for size adaptation to external conditions at a population level.

  11. Towards population-level conservation in the critically endangered Antarctic blue whale: the number and distribution of their populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attard, Catherine R. M.; Beheregaray, Luciano B.; Möller, Luciana M.

    2016-03-01

    Population-level conservation is required to prevent biodiversity loss within a species, but it first necessitates determining the number and distribution of populations. Many whale populations are still depleted due to 20th century whaling. Whales are one of the most logistically difficult and expensive animals to study because of their mobility, pelagic lifestyle and often remote habitat. We tackle the question of population structure in the Antarctic blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus intermedia) - a critically endangered subspecies and the largest extant animal - by capitalizing on the largest genetic dataset to date for Antarctic blue whales. We found evidence of three populations that are sympatric in the Antarctic feeding grounds and likely occupy separate breeding grounds. Our study adds to knowledge of population structure in the Antarctic blue whale. Future research should invest in locating the breeding grounds and migratory routes of Antarctic blue whales through satellite telemetry to confirm their population structure and allow population-level conservation.

  12. Methionine and S-Adenosylmethionine levels are critical regulators of PP2A activity modulating lipophagy during steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Zubiete-Franco, Imanol; García-Rodríguez, Juan Luis; Martínez-Uña, Maite; Martínez-Lopez, Nuria; Woodhoo, Ashwin; Juan, Virginia Gutiérrez-De; Beraza, Naiara; Lage-Medina, Sergio; Andrade, Fernando; Fernandez, Marta Llarena; Aldámiz-Echevarría, Luis; Fernández-Ramos, David; Falcon-Perez, Juan Manuel; Lopitz-Otsoa, Fernando; Fernandez-Tussy, Pablo; Barbier-Torres, Lucía; Luka, Zigmund; Wagner, Conrad; García-Monzón, Carmelo; Lu, Shelly C.; Aspichueta, Patricia; Mato, José María; Martínez-Chantar, María Luz; Varela-Rey, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) expression is decreased in some patients with severe NAFLD. Gnmt deficiency in mice (Gnmt-KO) results in abnormally elevated serum levels of methionine and its metabolite S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), and this leads to rapid liver steatosis development. Autophagy plays a critical role in lipid catabolism (lipophagy), and defects in autophagy have been related to liver steatosis development. Since methionine and its metabolite SAMe are well known inactivators of autophagy, we aimed to examine whether high levels of both metabolites could block autophagy-mediated lipid catabolism. Methods We examined methionine levels in a cohort of 358 serum samples from steatotic patients. We used hepatocytes cultured with methionine and SAMe, and hepatocytes and livers from Gnmt-KO mice. Results We detected a significant increase in serum methionine levels in steatotic patients. We observed that autophagy and lipophagy were impaired in hepatocytes cultured with high methionine and SAMe, and that Gnmt-KO livers were characterized by an impairment in autophagy functionality, likely caused by defects at the lysosomal level. Elevated levels of methionine and SAMe activated PP2A by methylation, while blocking PP2A activity restored autophagy flux in Gnmt-KO hepatocytes, and in hepatocytes treated with SAMe and Methionine. Finally, normalization of methionine and SAMe levels in Gnmt-KO mice using a methionine deficient diet normalized the methylation capacity, PP2A methylation, autophagy, and ameloriated liver steatosis. Conclusions These data suggest that elevated levels of methionine and SAMe can inhibit autophagic catabolism of lipids contributing to liver steatosis. PMID:26394163

  13. Handgrip Strength Is Positively Associated with Mildly Elevated Serum Bilirubin Levels among Community-Dwelling Adults.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Ninomiya, Daisuke; Kumagi, Teru

    2016-11-01

    Handgrip strength (HGS) is a useful measure of health-related quality of life and general muscle strength. Serum total bilirubin (T-B) may present potential beneficial effects in preventing oxidative changes which are associated with a risk of metabolic syndrome and the development of cardiovascular disease. Limited information is available regarding whether HGS is an independent confounding factor for serum T-B. The study participants were 214 men aged 71 ± 8 (mean ± standard deviation) years and 302 women aged 71 ± 7 years that were enrolled consecutively from among paticipants aged ≥ 50 years through an annual check-up process. We evaluated the relationship between serum T-B and confounding factors within each sex. HGS related significantly with serum T-B in both men (r = 0.156, p = 0.023) and women (r = 0.173, p = 0.003). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that in men, HGS (β = 0.173) as well as smoking status (β = -0.147), exercise habit (β = 0.138), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (β = 0.146), and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (β = -0.198) were significantly and independently associated with serum T-B. In women, HGS (β = 0.159) as well as smoking status (β = -0.116), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (β = 0.159), and HbA1c (β = -0.161) were significantly and independently associated with serum T-B. Multivariate-adjusted serum T-B levels were significantly lower in subjects with the lowest HGS level in both sexes. Increased HGS is strongly associated with increased serum T-B, independent of confounding factors in both sexes.

  14. Viewing brain processes as Critical State Transitions across levels of organization: Neural events in Cognition and Consciousness, and general principles.

    PubMed

    Werner, Gerhard

    2009-04-01

    In this theoretical and speculative essay, I propose that insights into certain aspects of neural system functions can be gained from viewing brain function in terms of the branch of Statistical Mechanics currently referred to as "Modern Critical Theory" [Stanley, H.E., 1987. Introduction to Phase Transitions and Critical Phenomena. Oxford University Press; Marro, J., Dickman, R., 1999. Nonequilibrium Phase Transitions in Lattice Models. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK]. The application of this framework is here explored in two stages: in the first place, its principles are applied to state transitions in global brain dynamics, with benchmarks of Cognitive Neuroscience providing the relevant empirical reference points. The second stage generalizes to suggest in more detail how the same principles could also apply to the relation between other levels of the structural-functional hierarchy of the nervous system and between neural assemblies. In this view, state transitions resulting from the processing at one level are the input to the next, in the image of a 'bucket brigade', with the content of each bucket being passed on along the chain, after having undergone a state transition. The unique features of a process of this kind will be discussed and illustrated.

  15. Serum fetuin-A concentrations are positively associated with serum VEGF levels in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhongwei; Ju, Huixiang; Sun, Mingzhong; Chen, Hongmei; Ji, Hongbin; Jiang, Dongmei; Ji, Yuqiao; Ji, Jianwei

    2015-01-01

    Fetuin-A was considered to be involved in pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. On the other hand, higher vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression is associated with diabetes and its vascular complications, but the mechanisms leading to higher VEGF levels are still not clear. To the best of our knowledge, there are no data to show the associations between fetuin-A and VEGF in patients with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between serum fetuin-A concentrations and serum VEGF levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. We recruited 345 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Serum fetuin-A concentrations and serum VEGF levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. In this study, there was a significant positive correlation between serum fetuin-A concentrations and serum VEGF levels (r=0.223, P<0.001), and the correlation remained significant even after adjustment for other confounding factors in the multivariate regression model (β=0.151, P=0.006). Mantel-Haenszel (M-H) stratified analysis showed that the degree of association of high concentrations of fetuin-A with high levels of VEGF is higher than that with low levels of VEGF (odds ratio of M-H [ORM-H], 2.938; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.896-4.553). In addition, this study showed that both fetuin-A and VEGF were positively associated with fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and C-reactive protein (CRP). These data suggested that serum fetuin-A concentrations were positively associated with serum VEGF levels in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

  16. Critical peripheral ischemia precipitated by severe episode of Raynaud's phenomenon in a patient with aPL-positive systemic lupus erythematosus, upon high titer anti-RNP seroconversion.

    PubMed

    Levy, O; Maslakov, I; Vosco, S; Markov, A; Amit-Vazina, M; Tishler, M

    2015-03-01

    A 35-year-old female with long standing aPL-positive lupus without history of thromboembolic events, who has developed critical peripheral ischemia (CPI) is described. An episode of severe Raynaud's phenomenon rapidly progressed to an extensive digit-threatening ischemia, involving bilateral hands and feet. She was successfully treated with corticosteroids, anticoagulation, iloprost, sildenafil, and nifedipine. Her serological studies were remarkable for the emergence of high titer anti-RNP seroconversion and an increase in aPL titer, suggesting that these autoantibodies played a role in the pathogenesis of CPI. It is important to note that such observation should herald this potentially devastating complication of systemic lupus erythematosus.

  17. Solubility at the molecular level: development of a critical aggregation concentration (CAC) assay for estimating compound monomer solubility.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Matayoshi, Edmund

    2012-07-01

    In drug discovery research the formation of soluble compound aggregates is a major cause of false positives, false negatives, and distorted values in High-Throughput Screening assays that measure either binding or functional activity. These aggregation-based artifacts lead to serious distortions in the SAR which are critical to successful lead optimization. In this work we introduce a new approach by which the "critical aggregation concentration" (CAC) is determined, thereby overcoming limitations inherent to traditional solubility methods and enabling estimation of small molecule monomer solubility. The theoretical and experimental basis of a new confocal Static Light Scattering plate reader assay is presented. Tests conducted with model systems, commercial compounds, and Abbott library compounds show that the CAC assay can measure aqueous monomer solubilities reproducibly and reliably, achieving a sensitivity of ~0.2 μm, which is an improvement of approximately two orders of magnitude over nephelometry. Determination of compound monomer solubilities in a screening format is possible for the first time with the cSLS-CAC methodology. It is currently in routine use in Abbott's drug discovery program, and has enabled identification of many compound induced artifacts in binding or activity assays that are missed by traditional kinetic solubility measurements.

  18. Plasma ω-3 fatty acid levels negatively and ω-6 fatty acid levels positively associated with other cardiovascular risk factors including homocysteine in severe obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Mehmetoglu, Idris; Yerlikaya, F Hümeyra; Kurban, Sevil; Polat, Hakkı

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and homocysteine (tHcy) are important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Plasma omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3 FAs) and omega-6 fatty acids (ω-6 FAs) are essential fatty acids with diverse biological effects in human health and disease. We have investigated the relation of plasma ω-3 FAs and ω-6 FAs levels with other cardiovascular risk factors including tHcy in severe obese subjects. This study was performed on 96 severe obese and 65 normal weight subjects. Plasma fatty acid composition was measured by GC/MS and serum tHcy level was measured by HPLC methods. There were no differences between groups in terms of concentrations of serum tHcy, plasma ω-3 FAs, ω-6 FAs and ω-3/ω-6 ratio, whereas serum vitamin B-12 (p<0.01) and folic acid (p<0.05) levels were lower than those of the normal weight subjects. Homocysteine positively correlated with ω-6 FAs and negatively correlated with ω-3 FAs in severe obese and normal weight subjects. Serum vitamin B-12 positively correlated with ω-3 FAs (p<0.01) and ω-3/ω-6 ratio (p<0.01) and negatively correlated with ω-6 FAs (p<0.05) in severe obese subjects. Serum folic acid positively correlated with ω-3 FAs (p<0.01) in severe obese subjects. Our results suggest an association between the plasma ω-3 FAs and ω-6 FAs and serum tHcy concentrations in severe obese and normal weight subjects. Low levels vitamin B-12 and folic acid may have been responsible for the elevated tHcy levels in severe obese subjects, increasing the risk for future development of cardiovascular diseases.

  19. Evaluation of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation after extubation from moderate positive end-expiratory pressure level in patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery: a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takeshi; Kurazumi, Takuya; Toyonaga, Shinya; Masuda, Yuya; Morita, Yoshihisa; Masuda, Junichi; Kosugi, Shizuko; Katori, Nobuyuki; Morisaki, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    It remains to be clarified if the application of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) is effective after extubation in patients with hypoxemic respiratory failure who require the sufficient level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). This study was aimed at examining the effect and the safety of NPPV application following extubation in patients requiring moderate PEEP level for sufficient oxygenation after cardiovascular surgery. With institutional ethic committee approval, the patients ventilated invasively for over 48 h after cardiovascular surgery were enrolled in this study. The patients who failed the first spontaneous breathing trial (SBT) at 5 cmH2O of PEEP, but passed the second SBT at 8 cmH2O of PEEP, received NPPV immediately after extubation following our weaning protocol. Respiratory parameters (partial pressure of arterial oxygen tension to inspiratory oxygen fraction ratio: P/F ratio, respiratory ratio, and partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide: PaCO2) 2 h after extubation were evaluated with those just before extubation as the primary outcome. The rate of re-intubation, the frequency of respiratory failure and intolerance of NPPV, the duration of NPPV, and the length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay were also recorded. While 51 postcardiovascular surgery patients were screened, 6 patients who met the criteria received NPPV after extubation. P/F ratio was increased significantly after extubation compared with that before extubation (325 ± 85 versus 245 ± 55 mmHg, p < 0.05). The other respiratory parameters did not change significantly. Re-intubation, respiratory failure, and intolerance of NPPV never occurred. The duration of NPPV and the length of ICU stay were 2.7 ± 0.7 (SD) and 7.5 (6 to 10) (interquartile range) days, respectively. While further investigation should be warranted, NPPV could be applied effectively and safely after extubation in patients requiring the moderate PEEP level after

  20. Impact of the introduction of a specialist critical care pharmacist on the level of pharmaceutical care provided to the critical care unit.

    PubMed

    Richter, Anja; Bates, Ian; Thacker, Meera; Jani, Yogini; O'Farrell, Bryan; Edwards, Caroline; Taylor, Helen; Shulman, Rob

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the impact of a dedicated specialist critical care pharmacist service on patient care at a UK critical care unit (CCU). Pharmacist intervention data was collected in two phases. Phase 1 was with the provision of a non-specialist pharmacist chart review service and Phase 2 was after the introduction of a specialist dedicated pharmacy service. Two CCUs with established critical care pharmacist services were used as controls. The impact of pharmacist interventions on optimising drug therapy or preventing harm from medication errors was rated on a 4-point scale. There was an increase in the mean daily rate of pharmacist interventions after the introduction of the specialist critical care pharmacist (5.45 versus 2.69 per day, P < 0.0005). The critical care pharmacist intervened on more medication errors preventing potential harm and optimised more medications. There was no significant change to intervention rates at the control sites. Across all study sites the majority of pharmacist interventions were graded to have at least moderate impact on patient care. The introduction of a specialist critical care pharmacist resulted in an increased rate of pharmacist interventions compared to a non-specialist pharmacist service thus improving the quality of patient care. © 2016 The Authors. IJPP © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  1. Direct damage to vegetation caused by acid rain and polluted cloud: definition of critical levels for forest trees.

    PubMed

    Cape, J N

    1993-01-01

    The concept of critical levels was developed in order to define short-term and long-term average concentrations of gaseous pollutants above which plants may be damaged. Although the usual way in which pollutants in precipitation (wet deposition) influence vegetation is by affecting soil processes, plant foliage exposed to fog and cloud, which often contain much greater concentrations of pollutant ions than rain, may be damaged directly. The idea of a critical level has been extended to define concentrations of pollutants in wet deposition above which direct damage to plants is likely. Concentrations of acidity and sulphate measured in mountain and coastal cloud are summarised. Vegetation at risk of injury is identified as montane forest growing close to the cloud base, where ion concentrations are highest. The direct effects of acidic precipitation on trees are reviewed, based on experimental exposure of plants to simulated acidic rain, fog or mist. Although most experiments have reported results in terms of pH (H(+) concentration), the accompanying anion is important, with sulphate being more damaging than nitrate. Both conifers and broadleaved tree seedlings showing subtle changes in the structural characteristics of leaf surfaces after exposure to mist or rain at or about pH 3.5, or sulphate concentration of 150 micromol litre(-1). Visible lesions on leaf surfaces occur at around pH 3 (500 micromol litre(-1) sulphate), broadleaved species tending to be more sensitive than conifers. Effects on photosynthesis and water relations, and interactions with other stresses (e.g. frost), have usually been observed only for treatments which have also caused visible injury to the leaf surface. Few experiments on the direct effects of polluted cloud have been conducted under field conditions with mature trees, which unlike seedlings in controlled conditions, may suffer a growth reduction in the absence of visible injury. Although leaching of cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+)) is

  2. Antigenicity of UV radiation-induced murine tumors correlates positively with the level of adenosine deaminase activity.

    PubMed

    Aukerman, S L; Fidler, I J

    1987-01-01

    The specific activities of adenosine deaminase (ADA) in 16 murine tumor cell lines derived from seven UV light-induced neoplasms (melanoma and fibrosarcoma) were determined. In each case, the specific activity of ADA correlated positively with the antigenicity of the tumor cells. Highly antigenic cell lines that regress upon introduction into syngeneic hosts had on average 4- to 6-fold higher ADA specific activities than cell lines of low antigenicity that grow progressively in syngeneic hosts. The antigenic differences are probably not related to intracellular cAMP levels, as the level of cAMP differed only 2-fold between the two groups of cell lines.

  3. Levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in the critically endangered Iberian lynx and other sympatric carnivores in Spain.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Rafael; Millán, Javier; Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime; Camarero, Pablo R; Palomares, Francisco; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E

    2012-02-01

    Accumulation of organochlorine compounds is well studied in aquatic food chains whereas little information is available from terrestrial food chains. This study presents data of organochlorine levels in tissue and plasma samples of 15 critically endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) and other 55 wild carnivores belonging to five species from three natural areas of Spain (Doñana National Park, Sierra Morena and Lozoya River) and explores their relationship with species diet. The Iberian lynx, with a diet based on the consumption of rabbit, had lower PCB levels (geometric means, plasma: <0.01 ng mL(-1), liver: 0.4ngg(-1) wet weight, fat: 87 ng g(-1)lipid weight) than other carnivores with more anthropic and opportunistic foraging behavior, such as the red fox (Vulpes vulpes; plasma: 1.11 ng mL(-1), liver: 459 ng g(-1), fat: 1984 ng g(-1)), or with diets including reptiles at higher proportion, such as the Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon; plasma: 7.15 ng mL(-1), liver: 216 ng g(-1), fat: 540 ng g(-1)), or the common genet (Genetta genetta; liver: 466 ng g(-1), fat: 3854 ng g(-1)). Chlorinated pesticides showed interspecific variations similar to PCBs. Organochlorine levels have declined since the 80s in carnivores from Doñana National Park, but PCB levels are still of concern in Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra; liver: 3873-5426 ng g(-1)) from the industrialized region of Madrid.

  4. The prognostic role of non-critical lactate levels for in-hospital survival time among ED patients with sepsis.

    PubMed

    Aluisio, Adam R; Jain, Ashika; Baron, Bonny J; Sarraf, Saman; Sinert, Richard; Legome, Eric; Zehtabchi, Shahriar

    2016-02-01

    This study describes emergency department (ED) sepsis patients with non-critical serum venous lactate (LAC) levels (LAC <4.0 mmol/L) who suffered in-hospital mortality and examines LAC in relation to survival times. An ED based retrospective cohort study accrued September 2010 to August 2014. Inclusion criteria were ED admission, LAC sampling, >2 systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria with an infectious source (sepsis), and in-hospital mortality. Kaplan-Meier curves were used for survival estimates. An a priori sub-group analysis for patients with repeat LAC within 6 hours of initial sampling was undertaken. The primary outcome was time to in-hospital death evaluated using rank-sum tests and regression models. One hundred ninety-seven patients met inclusion criteria. Pulmonary infections were the most common (44%) and median LAC was 1.9 mmol/L (1.5, 2.5). Thirteen patients (7%) died within 24 hours and 79% by ≤28 days. Median survival was 11 days (95% CI, 8.0-13). Sixty-two patients had repeat LAC sampling with 14 (23%) and 48 (77%) having decreasing increasing levels, respectively. No significant differences were observed in treatment requirements between the LAC subgroups. Among patients with decreasing LAC, median survival was 24 days (95% CI, 5-32). For patients with increasing LAC median survival was significantly shorter (7 days; 95% CI, 4-11, P = .04). Patients with increasing LAC had a non-significant trend toward reduced survival (HR = 1.6 95% CI, 0.90-3.0, P = .10). In septic ED patients experiencing in-hospital death, non-critical serum venous lactate may be utilized as a risk-stratifying tool for early mortality, while increasing LAC levels may identify those in danger of more rapid deterioration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Joint positioning sense, perceived force level and two-point discrimination tests of young and active elderly adults

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Priscila G.; Santos, Karini B.; Rodacki, André L. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Changes in the proprioceptive system are associated with aging. Proprioception is important to maintaining and/or recovering balance and to reducing the risk of falls. Objective: To compare the performance of young and active elderly adults in three proprioceptive tests. Method: Twenty-one active elderly participants (66.9±5.5 years) and 21 healthy young participants (24.6±3.9 years) were evaluated in the following tests: perception of position of the ankle and hip joints, perceived force level of the ankle joint, and two-point discrimination of the sole of the foot. Results: No differences (p>0.05) were found between groups for the joint position and perceived force level. On the other hand, the elderly participants showed lower sensitivity in the two-point discrimination (higher threshold) when compared to the young participants (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Except for the cutaneous plantar sensitivity, the active elderly participants had maintained proprioception. Their physical activity status may explain similarities between groups for the joint position sense and perceived force level, however it may not be sufficient to prevent sensory degeneration with aging. PMID:26443978

  6. A lane-level LBS system for vehicle network with high-precision BDS/GPS positioning.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chi; Guo, Wenfei; Cao, Guangyi; Dong, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, research on vehicle network location service has begun to focus on its intelligence and precision. The accuracy of space-time information has become a core factor for vehicle network systems in a mobile environment. However, difficulties persist in vehicle satellite positioning since deficiencies in the provision of high-quality space-time references greatly limit the development and application of vehicle networks. In this paper, we propose a high-precision-based vehicle network location service to solve this problem. The major components of this study include the following: (1) application of wide-area precise positioning technology to the vehicle network system. An adaptive correction message broadcast protocol is designed to satisfy the requirements for large-scale target precise positioning in the mobile Internet environment; (2) development of a concurrence service system with a flexible virtual expansion architecture to guarantee reliable data interaction between vehicles and the background; (3) verification of the positioning precision and service quality in the urban environment. Based on this high-precision positioning service platform, a lane-level location service is designed to solve a typical traffic safety problem.

  7. A Lane-Level LBS System for Vehicle Network with High-Precision BDS/GPS Positioning

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Chi; Guo, Wenfei; Cao, Guangyi; Dong, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, research on vehicle network location service has begun to focus on its intelligence and precision. The accuracy of space-time information has become a core factor for vehicle network systems in a mobile environment. However, difficulties persist in vehicle satellite positioning since deficiencies in the provision of high-quality space-time references greatly limit the development and application of vehicle networks. In this paper, we propose a high-precision-based vehicle network location service to solve this problem. The major components of this study include the following: (1) application of wide-area precise positioning technology to the vehicle network system. An adaptive correction message broadcast protocol is designed to satisfy the requirements for large-scale target precise positioning in the mobile Internet environment; (2) development of a concurrence service system with a flexible virtual expansion architecture to guarantee reliable data interaction between vehicles and the background; (3) verification of the positioning precision and service quality in the urban environment. Based on this high-precision positioning service platform, a lane-level location service is designed to solve a typical traffic safety problem. PMID:25755665

  8. Hepatic Tissue Environment in NEMO-Deficient Mice Critically Regulates Positive Selection of Donor Cells after Hepatocyte Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kaldenbach, Michaela; Cubero, Francisco Javier; Erschfeld, Stephanie; Liedtke, Christian; Trautwein, Christian; Streetz, Konrad

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatocyte transplantation (HT) is a promising alternative treatment strategy for end-stage liver diseases compared with orthotopic liver transplantation. A limitation for this approach is the low engraftment of donor cells. The deletion of the I-kappa B kinase-regulatory subunit IKKγ/NEMO in hepatocytes prevents nuclear factor (NF)-kB activation and triggers spontaneous liver apoptosis, chronic hepatitis and the development of liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. We hypothesized that NEMOΔhepa mice may therefore serve as an experimental model to study HT. Methods Pre-conditioned NEMOΔhepa mice were transplanted with donor-hepatocytes from wildtype (WT) and mice deficient for the pro-apoptotic mediator Caspase-8 (Casp8Δhepa). Results Transplantation of isolated WT-hepatocytes into pre-conditioned NEMOΔhepa mice resulted in a 6-7 fold increase of donor cells 12 weeks after HT, while WT-recipients showed no liver repopulation. The use of apoptosis-resistant Casp8Δhepa-derived donor cells further enhanced the selection 3-fold after 12-weeks and up to 10-fold increase after 52 weeks compared with WT donors. While analysis of NEMOΔhepa mice revealed strong liver injury, HT-recipient NEMOΔhepa mice showed improved liver morphology and decrease in serum transaminases. Concomitant with these findings, the histological examination elicited an improved liver tissue architecture associated with significantly lower levels of apoptosis, decreased proliferation and a lesser amount of liver fibrogenesis. Altogether, our data clearly support the therapeutic benefit of the HT procedure into NEMOΔhepa mice. Conclusion This study demonstrates the feasibility of the NEMOΔhepa mouse as an in vivo tool to study liver repopulation after HT. The improvement of the characteristic phenotype of chronic liver injury in NEMOΔhepa mice after HT suggests the therapeutic potential of HT in liver diseases with a chronic inflammatory phenotype and opens a new door for

  9. Deriving nitrogen critical levels and loads based on the responses of acidophytic lichen communities on boreal urban Pinus sylvestris trunks.

    PubMed

    Manninen, Sirkku

    2017-09-19

    The deposition of reactive nitrogen (N) compounds currently predominates over sulphur (S) deposition in most of the cities in Europe and North America. Acidophytic lichens growing on tree trunks are known to be sensitive to both N and S deposition. Given that tree species and climatic factors affect the composition of epiphytic lichen communities and modify lichen responses to air pollution, this study focused on the impact of urban air pollution on acidophytes growing on boreal conifer trunks. The study was performed in the Helsinki metropolitan area, southern Finland, where annual mean nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations range from 4-5μgm(-3) to >50μgm(-3). In addition, background forest sites in southern and northern Finland were included. The results demonstrated elevated N contents (≥0.7%) in Hypogymnia physodes and Platismatia glauca at all the sites where the species occurred. In the Helsinki metropolitan area, a higher frequency of green algae+Scoliociosporum chlorococcum and reduced numerical frequencies of other indicator lichen species (e.g. Pseudevernia furfuracea, Bryoria spp., Usnea spp.) were associated with elevated atmospheric concentrations of NO2 and particulate matter containing N, as well as elevated concentrations of inorganic N in bark. The N isotope values (δ(15)N) of lichens supported the uptake of oxidized N mainly originating from road traffic. Sulphur dioxide (SO2) also negatively affected the most sensitive species, despite the current low levels (1-4μgm(-3)yr(-1)). Critical levels of 5μgNO2m(-3)yr(-1) and 0.5μgNH3m(-3)yr(-1), and a critical load of 2-3kgNha(-1)yr(-1) are proposed for protecting the diversity of boreal acidophytes. This study calls for measurements of the throughfall of various N fractions in urban forest ecosystems along precipitation and temperature gradients to verify the proposed critical levels and loads. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of Basketball-Specific Agility: Applicability of Preplanned and Nonplanned Agility Performances for Differentiating Playing Positions and Playing Levels.

    PubMed

    Sekulic, Damir; Pehar, Miran; Krolo, Ante; Spasic, Miodrag; Uljevic, Ognjen; Calleja-González, Julio; Sattler, Tine

    2017-08-01

    Sekulic, D, Pehar, M, Krolo, A, Spasic, M, Uljevic, O, Calleja-González, J, and Sattler, T. Evaluation of basketball-specific agility: applicability of preplanned and nonplanned agility performances for differentiating playing positions and playing levels. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2278-2288, 2017-The importance of agility in basketball is well known, but there is an evident lack of studies examining basketball-specific agility performances in high-level players. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and discriminative validity of 1 standard agility test (test of preplanned agility [change-of-direction speed] over T course, T-TEST), and 4 newly developed basketball-specific agility tests, in defining playing positions and performance levels in basketball. The study comprised 110 high-level male basketball players (height: 194.92 ± 8.09 cm; body mass: 89.33 ± 10.91 kg; age: 21.58 ± 3.92 years). The variables included playing position (Guard, Forward, Center), performance level (first division vs. second division), anthropometrics (body height, body mass, and percentage of body fat), T-TEST, nonplanned basketball agility test performed on dominant (BBAGILdom) and nondominant sides (BBAGILnond), and a preplanned (change-of-direction speed) basketball agility test performed on dominant (BBCODSdom) and nondominant sides (BBCODSnond). The reliability of agility tests was high (intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.81-0.95). Forwards were most successful in the T-TEST (F test: 13.57; p = 0.01). Guards outperformed Centers in BBCODSdom, BBCODSndom, BBAGILdom, and BBAGILnond (F test: 5.06, p = 0.01; 6.57, 0.01; 6.26, 0.01; 3.37, 0.04, respectively). First division Guards achieved better results than second division Guards in BBCODSdom (t: 2.55; p = 0.02; moderate effect size differences), BBAGILdom, and BBAGILnond (t: 3.04 and 3.06, respectively; both p = 0.01 and moderate effect size differences). First division Centers outperformed second division

  11. Assessment of mangrove response to projected relative sea-level rise and recent historical reconstruction of shoreline position.

    PubMed

    Gilman, Eric; Ellison, Joanna; Coleman, Richard

    2007-01-01

    We predict the decadal change in position of three American Samoa mangroves from analysis of a time series of remotely sensed imagery, a geographic information system, tide gauge data, and projections for change in sea-level relative to the mangrove surface. Accurate predictions of changes to coastal ecosystem boundaries, including in response to projected relative sea-level rise, enable advanced planning to minimize and offset anticipated losses and minimize social disruption and cost of reducing threats to coastal development and human safety. The observed mean landward migration of three mangroves' seaward margins over four decades was 25, 64, and 72 mma(-1), 12 to 37 times the observed relative sea-level rise rate. Two of the sites had clear trends in reductions in mangrove area, where there was a highly significant correlation between the change in position of the seaward mangrove margin and change in relative sea-level. Here it can be inferred that the force of sea-level rise relative to the mangrove surface is causing landward migration. Shoreline movement was variable at a third site and not significantly correlated with changing sea-level, where it is likely that forces other than change in relative sea-level are predominant. Currently, 16.5%, 23.4%, and 68.0% of the three mangroves' landward margins are obstructed by coastal development from natural landward migration. The three mangroves could experience as high as a 50.0% reduction in area by the year 2100. A 12% reduction in mangrove area by the year 2100 is possible in the Pacific islands region.

  12. Sverdrup revisited: Critical depths, maximum chlorophyll levels, and the control of Southern Ocean productivity by the irradiance-mixing regime

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, D.M. ); Smith, W.O. Jr. )

    1991-12-01

    A reformulation of Sverdrup's critical-depth calculation, using recent optical and physiological information, is developed and applied to data from the Southern Ocean. Comparisons between calculated critical depths (Z{sub c}) and mixed-layer depths (Z{sub m}) indicate that both the marginal ice zone and the open waters of the antarctic Circumpolar Current provide favorable irradiance-mixing regimes for the initiation and early development of phytoplankton blooms in summer (i.e.) Z{sub c} > Z{sub m} when phytoplankton biomass is low and the water clear; that when ice-edge blooms develop, Z{sub c} shoals to depths about equal to Z{sub m}, implying the phytoplankton standing stocks in ice-edge blooms may be self-limiting as a result of reduced penetration of irradiance; and that the highest chlorophyll levels that can be sustained in summer in open waters not stabilized by meltwater are {approximately}1.0 {mu}g liter{sup {minus}1} in the Weddell and Scotia Seas and may be less in areas that experience stronger winds.

  13. Coupled sensor/platform control design for low-level chemical detection with position-adaptive micro-UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, Thomas; Carr, Ryan; Mitra, Atindra K.; Selmic, Rastko R.

    2009-05-01

    We discuss the development of Position-Adaptive Sensors [1] for purposes for detecting embedded chemical substances in challenging environments. This concept is a generalization of patented Position-Adaptive Radar Concepts developed at AFRL for challenging conditions such as urban environments. For purposes of investigating the detection of chemical substances using multiple MAV (Micro-UAV) platforms, we have designed and implemented an experimental testbed with sample structures such as wooden carts that contain controlled leakage points. Under this general concept, some of the members of a MAV swarm can serve as external position-adaptive "transmitters" by blowing air over the cart and some of the members of a MAV swarm can serve as external position-adaptive "receivers" that are equipped with chemical or biological (chem/bio) sensors that function as "electronic noses". The objective can be defined as improving the particle count of chem/bio concentrations that impinge on a MAV-based position-adaptive sensor that surrounds a chemical repository, such as a cart, via the development of intelligent position-adaptive control algorithms. The overall effect is to improve the detection and false-alarm statistics of the overall system. Within the major sections of this paper, we discuss a number of different aspects of developing our initial MAV-Based Sensor Testbed. This testbed includes blowers to simulate position-adaptive excitations and a MAV from Draganfly Innovations Inc. with stable design modifications to accommodate our chem/bio sensor boom design. We include details with respect to several critical phases of the development effort including development of the wireless sensor network and experimental apparatus, development of the stable sensor boom for the MAV, integration of chem/bio sensors and sensor node onto the MAV and boom, development of position-adaptive control algorithms and initial tests at IDCAST (Institute for the Development and

  14. Improved optimization of perturbation theory: Applications to the oscillator energy levels and Bose-Einstein condensate critical temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneur, Jean-Loïc; Neveu, André; Pinto, Marcus B.

    2004-05-01

    Improving perturbation theory via a variational optimization has generally produced in higher orders an embarrassingly large set of solutions, most of them unphysical (complex). We introduce an extension of the optimized perturbation method which leads to a drastic reduction of the number of acceptable solutions. The properties of this method are studied and it is then applied to the calculation of relevant quantities in different ϕ4 models, such as the anharmonic oscillator energy levels and the critical Bose-Einstein condensation temperature shift Δ Tc recently investigated by various authors. Our present estimates of Δ Tc , incorporating the most recently available six and seven loop perturbative information, are in excellent agreement with all the available lattice numerical simulations. This represents a very substantial improvement over previous treatments.

  15. Chromosome aberration analysis in persons exposed to low-level radiation from the JCO criticality accident in Tokai-mura.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, M S; Hayata, I; Kamada, N; Kodama, Y; Kodama, S

    2001-09-01

    Chromosome aberrations were studied in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 43 persons who were exposed to low-level radiation of mixed neutrons and gamma-rays resulting from the JCO criticality accident. When the age-adjusted frequencies of dicentric and ring chromosomes were compared with the dose calibration curve established in vitro for 60Co gamma-rays as a reference radiation, a significant correlation was observed between the chromosomally estimated doses and the documented doses evaluated by physical means. The regression coefficient of the chromosomal doses against the documented doses, 1.47 +/- 0.33, indicates that the relative biological effectiveness of fission neutrons at low doses is considerably higher than that currently adopted in the radiation protection standard.

  16. A novel piezoelectrically actuated 2-DoF compliant micro/nano-positioning stage with multi-level amplification.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wu-Le; Zhu, Zhiwei; Shi, Yi; Chen, Xiangfan; He, Yu; Ehmann, Kornel F; Ju, Bing-Feng

    2016-10-01

    This article presents a novel two-degrees-of-freedom (2-DoF) piezo-actuated parallel-kinematic micro/nano-positioning stage with multi-level amplification. The mirror symmetric stage consists of four leverage mechanisms, two Scott-Russell mechanisms, and a Z-shaped flexure hinge (ZFH) mechanism. Taking advantage of the ZFH mechanism, 2-DoF motions with final-level flexural amplification and decoupled motion guidance are achieved. Analytical models of the stage are developed and validated through finite element analysis to characterize its working performance. Practical testing of a prototype stage is conducted to demonstrate the design process and to quantify its response characteristics. Due to the utilized multi-level amplification, a practical amplification ratio of 13.0 is realized by the prototype. The decoupled output motion guidance feature of the stage makes it amenable for implementation in raster scanning type of measurements.

  17. On the positive correlation between education and fertility intentions in Europe: Individual- and country-level evidence☆

    PubMed Central

    Testa, Maria Rita

    2014-01-01

    Increasing shares of European women are making large investments in their human capital. Whether and to what extent these investments are in conflict with reproductive behaviour are issues that have repercussions for fertility levels. Using two Eurobarometer survey data (2006 and 2011) on individuals clustered in the 27 EU countries, I investigate the relationship between women's education and lifetime fertility intentions. Results suggest that a positive association between women's level of education and lifetime fertility intentions exists at both the individual and country levels, as well as in a micro–macro integrated framework. The main explanation for these findings—which remains to be proven by future research—is that, in institutional contexts allowing highly educated women to have large families, women of reproductive ages are more prone to make investments in both human capital and family size, because these choices are not seen as incompatible alternatives. PMID:26047540

  18. A novel piezoelectrically actuated 2-DoF compliant micro/nano-positioning stage with multi-level amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wu-Le; Zhu, Zhiwei; Shi, Yi; Chen, Xiangfan; He, Yu; Ehmann, Kornel F.; Ju, Bing-Feng

    2016-10-01

    This article presents a novel two-degrees-of-freedom (2-DoF) piezo-actuated parallel-kinematic micro/nano-positioning stage with multi-level amplification. The mirror symmetric stage consists of four leverage mechanisms, two Scott-Russell mechanisms, and a Z-shaped flexure hinge (ZFH) mechanism. Taking advantage of the ZFH mechanism, 2-DoF motions with final-level flexural amplification and decoupled motion guidance are achieved. Analytical models of the stage are developed and validated through finite element analysis to characterize its working performance. Practical testing of a prototype stage is conducted to demonstrate the design process and to quantify its response characteristics. Due to the utilized multi-level amplification, a practical amplification ratio of 13.0 is realized by the prototype. The decoupled output motion guidance feature of the stage makes it amenable for implementation in raster scanning type of measurements.

  19. On the positive correlation between education and fertility intentions in Europe: Individual- and country-level evidence.

    PubMed

    Testa, Maria Rita

    2014-09-01

    Increasing shares of European women are making large investments in their human capital. Whether and to what extent these investments are in conflict with reproductive behaviour are issues that have repercussions for fertility levels. Using two Eurobarometer survey data (2006 and 2011) on individuals clustered in the 27 EU countries, I investigate the relationship between women's education and lifetime fertility intentions. Results suggest that a positive association between women's level of education and lifetime fertility intentions exists at both the individual and country levels, as well as in a micro-macro integrated framework. The main explanation for these findings--which remains to be proven by future research--is that, in institutional contexts allowing highly educated women to have large families, women of reproductive ages are more prone to make investments in both human capital and family size, because these choices are not seen as incompatible alternatives.

  20. Foraging rates of larval dragonfly colonists are positively related to habitat isolation: results from a landscape-level experiment.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Shannon J; Brodin, Tomas; Hammond, John

    2010-03-01

    There is increasing evidence of intraspecific variation in dispersal behavior. Individual differences in dispersal behavior may be correlated with other traits that determine the impact individuals have on patches they colonize. We established habitat patches-artificial pools-across a landscape, and these pools were naturally colonized by dragonfly larvae. Larvae were collected from pools at different levels of isolation and held under common lab conditions for 5 months. We then compared larval foraging rates. Foraging rate was positively related to habitat isolation, and colonists from the most isolated artificial pools had significantly higher foraging rates than individuals from the least isolated pools. Our results indicate that spatial patterns in colonist behavior can develop across a landscape independent of species-level dispersal limitation. This finding suggests that studies of community structure across space should include an assessment of the distribution of phenotypes as well as species-level dispersal limitation patterns.

  1. Evidence for increased levels of positive and negative selection on the X chromosome versus autosomes in humans.

    PubMed

    Veeramah, Krishna R; Gutenkunst, Ryan N; Woerner, August E; Watkins, Joseph C; Hammer, Michael F

    2014-09-01

    Partially recessive variants under positive selection are expected to go to fixation more quickly on the X chromosome as a result of hemizygosity, an effect known as faster-X. Conversely, purifying selection is expected to reduce substitution rates more effectively on the X chromosome. Previous work in humans contrasted divergence on the autosomes and X chromosome, with results tending to support the faster-X effect. However, no study has yet incorporated both divergence and polymorphism to quantify the effects of both purifying and positive selection, which are opposing forces with respect to divergence. In this study, we develop a framework that integrates previously developed theory addressing differential rates of X and autosomal evolution with methods that jointly estimate the level of purifying and positive selection via modeling of the distribution of fitness effects (DFE). We then utilize this framework to estimate the proportion of nonsynonymous substitutions fixed by positive selection (α) using exome sequence data from a West African population. We find that varying the female to male breeding ratio (β) has minimal impact on the DFE for the X chromosome, especially when compared with the effect of varying the dominance coefficient of deleterious alleles (h). Estimates of α range from 46% to 51% and from 4% to 24% for the X chromosome and autosomes, respectively. While dependent on h, the magnitude of the difference between α values estimated for these two systems is highly statistically significant over a range of biologically realistic parameter values, suggesting faster-X has been operating in humans.

  2. Critical coupling layer thickness for positive or negative Goos-Hänchen shifts near the excitation of backward surface polaritons in Otto-ATR systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeller, Mariana A.; Cuevas, Mauro; Depine, Ricardo A.

    2015-05-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of the lateral displacement (Goos-Hänchen shift) of spatially limited beams reflected from attenuated total reflection (ATR) devices in the Otto configuration when backward surface plasmon polaritons are excited at the interface between a positive refractive index slab and a semi-infinite metamaterial with a negative refractive index. First, the stationary phase approximation and a phenomenological model based on the properties of the complex poles and zeroes of the reflection coefficient are used to demonstrate that: (i) the excitation of backward surface waves can lead to both negative and positive (and not exclusively negative) Goos-Hänchen shifts, and (ii) the sign of the shift depends on whether the value of the coupling layer thickness is higher or lower than a critical value characteristic of the ATR structure. Then, these findings are verified through rigorous calculations of the spatial structure of the reflected beam. For incident beams with a Gaussian profile, the lateral shift calculated as the first moment of the field distribution of the reflected beam agrees quite well with the predictions of approximate analysis. Near the resonant excitation of the backward surface plasmon polariton, large (negative or positive) Goos-Hänchen shifts are obtained, along with a splitting of the reflected beam.

  3. Levels of heavy metals and metalloids in critically endangered Iberian lynx and other wild carnivores from Southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Millán, J; Mateo, R; Taggart, M A; López-Bao, J V; Viota, M; Monsalve, L; Camarero, P R; Blázquez, E; Jiménez, B

    2008-07-25

    The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is the most endangered felid in the world with a wild population which probably stands at less than 200 individuals inhabiting two areas in Southern Spain (Doñana and Sierra Morena) that are known to have been contaminated by heavy metals and metalloids due to a long history of mining activities. This contamination may pose a threat to long term conservation efforts and hence, the concentrations of seven elements (As, Se, Cd, Zn, Cu, Pb, Hg) were determined in the liver, muscle and bone of 9 lynx, as well as 17 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 11 Egyptian mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon), 4 common genets (Genetta genetta) and 1 Eurasian badger (Meles meles). The mean concentrations found were below the threshold levels indicative of chronic intoxication in all the species studied. In general, genet and red fox were species with the highest concentrations of several elements in Doñana, whilst Iberian lynx had the lowest levels of most of them. Lynx from Sierra Morena had significantly higher concentrations of bone Pb (2.05 microg/g d.w.) than those from Doñana (0.13 microg/g d.w.), probably due to the mineralised underlying geology and/or the abandoned mine workings in Sierra Morena. Egyptian mongoose presented liver concentrations of Hg up to 9.7 microg/g d.w. A strong relationship between Hg and Se levels was found in liver and muscle samples of all the studied species, especially in mongoose. In conclusion, levels of the studied elements do not appear to represent a significant threat for the lynx or for the other carnivores studied. However, given the critical status of the Iberian lynx, a continuous monitoring scheme remains necessary.

  4. Diacylglycerol kinase ζ (DGKζ) is a critical regulator of bone homeostasis via modulation of c-Fos levels in osteoclasts†

    PubMed Central

    Zamani, Ali; Decker, Corinne; Cremasco, Viviana; Hughes, Lindsey; Novack, Deborah V.; Faccio, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Increased diacylglycerol (DAG) levels are observed in numerous pathologies, including conditions associated with bone loss. However, the effects of DAG accumulation on the skeleton have never been directly examined. Because DAG is strictly controlled by tissue specific diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs), we sought to examine the biological consequences of DAG accumulation on bone homeostasis by genetic deletion of DGKζ, a highly expressed DGK isoform in osteoclasts (OCs). Strikingly, DGKζ−/− mice are osteoporotic due to a marked increase in OC numbers. In vitro, DGKζ−/− bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) form more numerous, larger and highly resorptive OCs. Surprisingly, while increased DAG levels do not alter RANK/RANKL osteoclastogenic pathway, DGKζ deficiency increases responsiveness to the proliferative and pro-survival cytokine M-CSF. We find that M-CSF is responsible for increased DGKζ−/− OC differentiation by promoting higher expression of the transcription factor c-Fos, and c-Fos knockdown in DGKζ−/− cultures dose-dependently reduces OC differentiation. Using a c-Fos luciferase reporter assay lacking the TRE responsive element, we also demonstrate that M-CSF induces optimal c-Fos expression through DAG production. Finally, to demonstrate the importance of the M-CSF/DGKζ/DAG axis on regulation of c-Fos during osteoclastogenesis, we turned to PLCγ2+/− BMMs, which have reduced DAG levels and form fewer OCs due to impaired expression of the master regulator of osteoclastogenesis NFATc1 and c-Fos. Strikingly, genetic deletion of DGKζ in PLCγ2+/− mice rescues OC formation and normalizes c-Fos levels without altering NFATc1 expression. To our knowledge, this is the first report implicating M-CSF/DGKζ/DAG axis as a critical regulator of bone homeostasis via its actions on OC differentiation and c-Fos expression. PMID:25891971

  5. The Relative Age Effect in Spanish Female Soccer Players. Influence of the Competitive Level and a Playing Position

    PubMed Central

    Sedano, Silvia; Vaeyens, Roel; Redondo, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to examine relative age effects (RAEs) in Spanish female soccer and to identify the influence of a playing position. The sample comprised all female players (n=4035) of five different competitive levels in the 2010–2013 seasons: First, Second and Third divisions (n=936, n=1711 and n=870, respectively), and National and Regional (n=232 and n=286, respectively) teams were included. Differences between the observed and expected birth-date distributions were tested based on data from the general Spanish population, using the chi-square statistic followed up by calculating odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results revealed that the birth-date distributions of almost all groups of football players showed an overrepresentation of players born in the first quartile. Only in the lowest level was age distribution not significantly different from that of the general population. Moreover, the RAE risk progressively increased with a higher level of involvement. It was also observed that at some playing positions the birth-date distributions were significantly biased. That was the case for goalkeepers and defenders. It could be concluded that in the current structure of Spanish female soccer there is a relative age effect, probably due to the early processes of talent identification. PMID:26240656

  6. Positive association of serum interleukin-1beta and CRH levels in women with pre-term labor.

    PubMed

    Vitoratos, N; Mastorakos, G; Kountouris, A; Papadias, K; Creatsas, G

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) might be involved in the increase of the circulating levels of placental-derived CRH leading to the initiation of pre-term labor. Forty-eight primigravidae with a singleton viable pregnancy between 28 and 34 weeks of gestation were studied. The subjects were divided in two groups: group A consisted of 30 pregnant women (mean age+/-SD; 22+/-1.1 yr old) presented with pre-term labor (mean gestational age+/-SD; 30.6+/-2.3 weeks) and group B consisted of 18 pregnant women (24+/-2.6 yr old) with normal pregnancies (29.8+/-3.1 weeks). CRH and IL-1beta levels were measured in blood specimens collected from all the study subjects on admission. Women of group A presented significantly higher serum CRH levels (mean+/-SE; 1.18+/-1.83 ng/ml) compared to those of group B (0.48+/-0.67 ng/ml) (p<0.01). Similarly, serum IL-1beta levels were significantly higher in women of group A (0.45+/-0.12 pg/ml) compared to those of group B (0.31+/-0.08 pg/ml) (p<0.01). A positive correlation was found between serum IL-1beta and CRH (r=0.68, p=0.001) in women of group A (pre-term labor). Our findings suggest that the increased levels of IL-1beta and CRH found in pregnant women presented with pre-term labor might be involved in the pathophysiologic mechanism of the latter. Furthermore, a positive interaction might exist between IL-1beta and placental CRH which might lead to enhanced production of the second, facilitating, thus, the onset of labor.

  7. GRIK1 Genotype Moderates Topiramate's Effects on Daily Drinking Level, Expectations of Alcohol's Positive Effects, and Desire to Drink

    PubMed Central

    Kranzler, Henry R.; Armeli, Stephen; Feinn, Richard; Tennen, Howard; Gelernter, Joel; Covault, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    We (Kranzler et al. 2014) reported that topiramate 200 mg/day reduced heavy drinking days and increased abstinent days in 138 heavy drinkers whose treatment goal was to reduce drinking to safe levels. In that 12-week, placebo-controlled study, we measured drinking using the Timeline Follow-back method at each treatment visit. In addition to the intent-to-treat effects of topiramate, we found that a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs2832407) in GRIK1, encoding the GluK1 subunit of the kainate receptor, moderated the treatment effect in European Americans (EAs; n=122). Topiramate reduced heavy drinking only in rs2832407*C allele homozygotes. Here, we augment those analyses by using patients’ daily reports obtained using interactive voice response technology (a) to validate the interactive effects of GRIK1 and topiramate as predictors of drinking level and (b) to examine changes in expected positive effects of drinking (i.e., positive outcome expectancies) and desire to drink. We found that rs2832407*C allele homozygotes treated with topiramate drank less overall during treatment than those receiving placebo, validating our earlier findings for heavy drinking days (Kranzler et al. 2014). There was also a study day × medication group × genotype group interaction that predicted both positive alcohol expectancies and desire to drink, with rs2832407*C-allele homozygotes treated with topiramate showing the largest decreases in these outcomes during the study period. Changes in positive alcohol expectancies or desire to drink did not mediate the effects on drinking. These findings validate and extend our previous pharmacogenetic findings with topiramate. PMID:24786948

  8. Determination of land subsidence related to ground-water-level declines using Global Positioning System and leveling surveys in Antelope Valley, Los Angeles and Kern counties, California, 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ikehara, M.E.; Phillips, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    A large-scale, land-subsidence monitoring network for Antelope Valley, California, was established, and positions and elevations for 85 stations were measured using Global Positioning System geodetic surveying in spring 1992. The 95-percent confidence (2@) level of accuracy for the elevations calculated for a multiple-constraint adjustment generally ranged from +0.010 meter (0.032 foot) to +0.024 meter (0.078 foot). The magnitudes and rates of land subsidence as of 1992 were calculated for several periods for 218 bench marks throughout Antelope Valley. The maximum measured magnitude of land subsidence that occurred between 1926 and 1992 was 6.0 feet (1.83 meters) at BM 474 near Avenue I and Sierra Highway. Measured or estimated subsidence of 2-7 feet (.61-2.l3 meters) had occurred in a 210- square-mile (542-square-kilometer) area of Antelope Valley, generally bounded by Avenue K, Avenue A, 90th Street West, and 120th Street East, during the same period. Land subsidence in Antelope Valley is caused by aquifer-system compaction, which is related to ground-water-level declines and the presence of fine-grained, compressible sediments. Comparison of potentiomethric-surface, water-level decline, and subsidence-rate maps for several periods indicated a general correlation between water-level declines and the distribution and rate of subsidence in the Lancaster ground-water subbasin. A conservative estimate of the amount of the reduction in storage capacity of the aquifer system in the Lancaster subbasin is about 50,000 acre-feet in the area that has been affected by more than one foot (.30 meters) of subsidence as of 1992. Information on the history of ground-water levels and the distribution and thickness of fine-grained compressible sediments can be used to mitigate continued land subsidence. Future monitoring of ground-water levels and land-surface elevations in subsidence-sensitive regions of Antelope Valley may be an effective means to manage land subsidence.

  9. An epidemiological assessment of stomatal ozone flux-based critical levels for visible ozone injury in Southern European forests.

    PubMed

    Sicard, Pierre; De Marco, Alessandra; Dalstein-Richier, Laurence; Tagliaferro, Francesco; Renou, Camille; Paoletti, Elena

    2016-01-15

    Southern forests are at the highest ozone (O3) risk in Europe where ground-level O3 is a pressing sanitary problem for ecosystem health. Exposure-based standards for protecting vegetation are not representative of actual field conditions. A biologically-sound stomatal flux-based standard has been proposed, although critical levels for protection still need to be validated. This innovative epidemiological assessment of forest responses to O3 was carried out in 54 plots in Southeastern France and Northwestern Italy in 2012 and 2013. Three O3 indices, namely the accumulated exposure AOT40, and the accumulated stomatal flux with and without an hourly threshold of uptake (POD1 and POD0) were compared. Stomatal O3 fluxes were modeled (DO3SE) and correlated to measured forest-response indicators, i.e. crown defoliation, crown discoloration and visible foliar O3 injury. Soil water content, a key variable affecting the severity of visible foliar O3 injury, was included in DO3SE. Based on flux-effect relationships, we developed species-specific flux-based critical levels (CLef) for forest protection against visible O3 injury. For O3 sensitive conifers, CLef of 19 mmol m(-2) for Pinus cembra (high O3 sensitivity) and 32 mmol m(-2) for Pinus halepensis (moderate O3 sensitivity) were calculated. For broadleaved species, we obtained a CLef of 25 mmol m(-2) for Fagus sylvatica (moderate O3 sensitivity) and of 19 mmol m(-2) for Fraxinus excelsior (high O3 sensitivity). We showed that an assessment based on PODY and on real plant symptoms is more appropriated than the concentration-based method. Indeed, POD0 was better correlated with visible foliar O3 injury than AOT40, whereas AOT40 was better correlated with crown discoloration and defoliation (aspecific indicators). To avoid an underestimation of the real O3 uptake, we recommend the use of POD0 calculated for hours with a non-null global radiation over the 24-h O3 accumulation window.

  10. Raising the Level of Awareness of Nurse-to-Nurse Lateral Violence in a Critical Access Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Embree, Jennifer L.; Bruner, Deborah A.; White, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Background/Significance of Problem. Nurse-to-nurse lateral violence (NNLV) has been internationally reported for greater than two decades and results in new nurse turnover and serious negative outcomes. Clinical Question/Project Objective. Will NNLV and cognitive rehearsal (CR) education result in a decrease in perceived nurse-to-nurse lateral violence in a critical access hospital (CAH)? The scope of this project was to determine perceived extent and increase awareness of NNLV through an educational project about NNLV and CR. Clinical Appraisal of Literature/Best Evidence. Trends of NNLV were assessed through an extensive literature review from Health Source, CINAHL, ProQuest Health, and Medical Complete. An educational forum about NNLV with CR was advocated for newly licensed nurses and current nurses (potential perpetrators of NNLV) with the goal of liberation of oppressed individuals. Integration into Practice/Discussion of Results. An interventional study with one group and pre-/postintervention was used to determine NNLV and CR education on perceived levels of lateral violence. Evidence-based measurement occurred through use of the Nurse Workplace Scale and the Silencing the Self-Work Scale. Outcomes were analyzed quantitatively through independent t-tests. Awareness of NNLV was increased. Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practice/Implications. Organizations must learn to eliminate NNLV. With increased levels of awareness of NNLV, nurses requested additional assistance in dealing with inappropriate behavior. PMID:23991337

  11. Relationship between antipsychotic medication, serum prolactin levels and osteoporosis/osteoporotic fractures in patients with schizophrenia: a critical literature review.

    PubMed

    De Hert, Marc; Detraux, Johan; Stubbs, Brendon

    2016-06-01

    Using an antipsychotic medication can increase prolactin (PRL) levels, causing hyperprolactinemia (HPRL). Although the occurrence of osteoporosis within the population of patients with schizophrenia has been recognized, the precise nature of the association between antipsychotic treatment, PRL, osteoporosis, and the disease itself seems to be elusive. The aim of this review is to critically review the literature regarding the association between osteoporosis and PRL and to summarize the available evidence with respect to the impact of PRL-elevating antipsychotics on bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures in non-elderly patients with schizophrenia. Although long-standing HPRL can have an impact on the rate of bone metabolism and, when associated with hypogonadism, may lead to decreased bone density in both female and male subjects, the relative contribution of antipsychotic-induced HPRL in bone mineral loss in patients with schizophrenia remains unclear. Methodological shortcomings of existing studies, including the lack of prospective data and the focus on measurements of BMD instead of bone turnover markers, preclude definitive conclusions regarding the relationship between PRL-raising antipsychotics and BMD loss in patients with schizophrenia. Therefore, more well conducted prospective trials of these biomarkers are necessary to establish the precise relationship between antipsychotics, PRL levels and osteoporosis/osteoporotic risk.

  12. Effect of Ganciclovir on IL-6 Levels Among Cytomegalovirus-Seropositive Adults With Critical Illness: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Limaye, Ajit P; Stapleton, Renee D; Peng, Lili; Gunn, Scott R; Kimball, Louise E; Hyzy, Robert; Exline, Matthew C; Files, D Clark; Morris, Peter E; Frankel, Stephen K; Mikkelsen, Mark E; Hite, Duncan; Enfield, Kyle B; Steingrub, Jay; O'Brien, James; Parsons, Polly E; Cuschieri, Joseph; Wunderink, Richard G; Hotchkin, David L; Chen, Ying Q; Rubenfeld, Gordon D; Boeckh, Michael

    2017-08-22

    The role of cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation in mediating adverse clinical outcomes in nonimmunosuppressed adults with critical illness is unknown. To determine whether ganciclovir prophylaxis reduces plasma interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels in CMV-seropositive adults who are critically ill. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial (conducted March 10, 2011-April 29, 2016) with a follow-up of 180 days (November 10, 2016) that included 160 CMV-seropositive adults with either sepsis or trauma and respiratory failure at 14 university intensive care units (ICUs) across the United States. Patients were randomized (1:1) to receive either intravenous ganciclovir (5 mg/kg twice daily for 5 days), followed by either intravenous ganciclovir or oral valganciclovir once daily until hospital discharge (n = 84) or to receive matching placebo (n = 76). The primary outcome was change in IL-6 level from day 1 to 14. Secondary outcomes were incidence of CMV reactivation in plasma, mechanical ventilation days, incidence of secondary bacteremia or fungemia, ICU length of stay, mortality, and ventilator-free days (VFDs) at 28 days. Among 160 randomized patients (mean age, 57 years; women, 43%), 156 patients received 1or more dose(s) of study medication, and 132 patients (85%) completed the study. The mean change in plasma IL-6 levels between groups was -0.79 log10 units (-2.06 to 0.48) in the ganciclovir group and -0.79 log10 units (-2.14 to 0.56) in the placebo group (point estimate of difference, 0 [95% CI, -0.3 to 0.3]; P > .99). Among secondary outcomes, CMV reactivation in plasma was significantly lower in the ganciclovir group (12% [10 of 84 patients] vs 39% [28 of 72 patients]); absolute risk difference, -27 (95% CI, -40 to -14), P < .001. The ganciclovir group had more median VFDs in both the intention-to-treat (ITT) group and in the prespecified sepsis subgroup (ITT group: 23 days in ganciclovir group vs 20 days in the placebo group, P = .05

  13. Arabidopsis LIP5, a Positive Regulator of Multivesicular Body Biogenesis, Is a Critical Target of Pathogen-Responsive MAPK Cascade in Plant Basal Defense

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Shang, Yifen; Fan, Baofang; Yu, Jing-Quan; Chen, Zhixiang

    2014-01-01

    Multivesicular bodies (MVBs) play essential roles in many cellular processes. The MVB pathway requires reversible membrane association of the endosomal sorting complexes required for transports (ESCRTs) for sustained protein trafficking. Membrane dissociation of ESCRTs is catalyzed by the AAA ATPase SKD1, which is stimulated by LYST-INTERACTING PROTEIN 5 (LIP5). We report here that LIP5 is a target of pathogen-responsive mitogen-activated protein kinases (MPKs) and plays a critical role in plant basal resistance. Arabidopsis LIP5 interacts with MPK6 and MPK3 and is phosphorylated in vitro by activated MPK3 and MPK6 and in vivo upon expression of MPK3/6-activating NtMEK2DD and pathogen infection. Disruption of LIP5 has little effects on flg22-, salicylic acid-induced defense responses but compromises basal resistance to Pseudomonas syringae. The critical role of LIP5 in plant basal resistance is dependent on its ability to interact with SKD1. Mutation of MPK phosphorylation sites in LIP5 does not affect interaction with SKD1 but reduces the stability and compromises the ability to complement the lip5 mutant phenotypes. Using the membrane-selective FM1–43 dye and transmission electron microscopy, we demonstrated that pathogen infection increases formation of both intracellular MVBs and exosome-like paramural vesicles situated between the plasma membrane and the cell wall in a largely LIP5-dependent manner. These results indicate that the MVB pathway is positively regulated by pathogen-responsive MPK3/6 through LIP5 phosphorylation and plays a critical role in plant immune system likely through relocalization of defense-related molecules. PMID:25010425

  14. Oxygen saturation/FiO2 ratio is a simple predictor of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation failure in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Spada, Carol; Gandhi, Rikesh; Patel, Sanjay R.; Nuccio, Paul; Weinhouse, Gerald L.; Lee, Po-Shun

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) can improve outcomes of critically ill patients. Early and simple predictors of NPPV outcome could improve clinical management of patients with respiratory failure. Materials and Methods A prospective observational study was conducted in a medical intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary medical center. Patients requiring NPPV were included and followed. Clinical data including respiratory mechanics at the time of NPPV initiation, and clinical outcomes were recorded. Data were analyzed to identify variables that distinguished NPPV success or failure. Results A total of 133 patients were included in the study. NPPV success rate was 41%. Patients diagnosed with malignancy had only 29% NPPV success rate. Among patients without malignancy, higher oxygen saturation, oxygen saturation/FiO2 (SF) ratios, and SF/minute ventilation (MV) ratios were associated with NPPV success. Receiver operating curve analyses identify SF < 98.5 to be a specific (89% specificity, P=0.013) predictor of NPPV failure. Furthermore, for patients requiring at least 24hr of NPPV support, tidal volume (TV)/predicted body weight (PBW) ratio inversely correlated with respiratory improvement. Conclusions For patients without malignancy, SF ratios at the time of NPPV initiation discriminated NPPV success and failure, and could be used to help guide the management of critically ill patients who require ventilatory support. PMID:21036535

  15. Estimation of the critical effect level for pollution prevention based on oyster embryonic development toxicity test: the search for reliability.

    PubMed

    da Cruz, A C S; Couto, B C; Nascimento, I A; Pereira, S A; Leite, M B N L; Bertoletti, E; Zagatto, P

    2007-05-01

    In spite of the consideration that toxicity testing is a reduced approach to measure the effects of pollutants on ecosystems, the early-life-stage (ELS) tests have evident ecological relevance because they reflect the possible reproductive impairment of the natural populations. The procedure and validation of Crassostrea rhizophorae embryonic development test have shown that it meets the same precision as other U.S. EPA tests, where EC(50) is generally used as a toxicological endpoint. However, the recognition that EC(50) is not the best endpoint to assess contaminant effects led U.S. EPA to recently suggest EC(25) as an alternative to estimate xenobiotic effects for pollution prevention. To provide reliability to the toxicological test results on C. rhizophorae embryos, the present work aimed to establish the critical effect level for this test organism, based on its reaction to reference toxicants, by using the statistical method proposed by Norberg-King (Inhibition Concentration, version 2.0). Oyster embryos were exposed to graded series of reference toxicants (ZnSO(4) x 7H(2)O; AgNO(3); KCl; CdCl(2)H(2)O; phenol, 4-chlorophenol and dodecyl sodium sulphate). Based on the obtained results, the critical value for C. rhizophorae embryonic development test was estimated as EC(15). The present research enhances the emerging consensus that ELS tests data would be adequate for estimating the chronic safe concentrations of pollutants in the receiving waters. Based on recommended criteria and on the results of the present research, zinc sulphate and 4-chlorophenol have been pointed out, among the inorganic and organic compounds tested, as the best reference toxicants for C. rhizophorae ELS-test.

  16. An antisense microwalk reveals critical role of an intronic position linked to a unique long-distance interaction in pre-mRNA splicing

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Natalia N.; Hollinger, Katrin; Bhattacharya, Dhruva; Singh, Ravindra N.

    2010-01-01

    Here we report a novel finding of an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) microwalk in which we examined the position-specific role of intronic residues downstream from the 5′ splice site (5′ ss) of SMN2 exon 7, skipping of which is associated with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a leading genetic cause of infant mortality. Our results revealed the inhibitory role of a cytosine residue at the 10th intronic position (10C), which is neither conserved nor associated with any known splicing motif. Significance of 10C emerged from the splicing pattern of SMN2 exon 7 in presence of a 14-mer ASO (L14) that sequestered two adjacent hnRNP A1 motifs downstream from 10C and yet promoted SMN2 exon 7 skipping. Another 14-mer ASO (F14) that sequestered both, 10C and adjacent hnRNP A1 motifs, led to a strong stimulation of SMN2 exon 7 inclusion. The inhibitory role of 10C was found to be tightly linked to its unpaired status and specific positioning immediately upstream of a RNA:RNA helix formed between the targeting ASO and its intronic target. Employing a heterologous context as well as changed contexts of SMN2 intron 7, we show that the inhibitory effect of unpaired 10C is dependent upon a long-distance interaction involving downstream intronic sequences. Our report furnishes one of the rare examples in which an ASO-based approach could be applied to unravel the critical role of an intronic position that may not belong to a linear motif and yet play significant role through long-distance interactions. PMID:20413618

  17. Prophylactic dissection of level V in primary mucosal SCC in the clinically N positive neck: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    McLean, Timothy; Kerr, Stephen J; Giddings, Charles E B

    2017-09-01

    To review the evidence for level V dissection in the management of previously untreated mucosal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the head and neck presenting with nodal metastasis when level V is clinically uninvolved. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) were used to conduct a systematic review of the current literature, including all English language articles published after 1990. A literature search was performed on November 29, 2015, of Medline, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and the Cochrane Library. The search yielded a total of 270 papers. Strict inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, leaving 20 eligible papers. Overall prevalence was calculated using random effect meta-analysis. The overall prevalence of level V occult disease in the node (N)-positive neck, irrespective of subsite, was 2.56% (95% confidence interval 1.29-3.84) (2,368 patients and 2,533 necks). The prevalence of occult level V metastasis was up to 7.7% for oral cavity and 8.3% for oropharyngeal tumors. Five studies reported regional recurrence rates over variable time periods. There is exceedingly limited data on outcomes, such as spinal accessory nerve function, quality of life, and perioperative complications. Mucosal head and neck SCC presenting with nodal metastasis but with level V clinically uninvolved has a low prevalence of occult level V disease. Routine dissection of level V does not appear to be warranted; however, a definitive conclusion is unable to be drawn due to limited data on morbidity and oncological outcomes. Laryngoscope, 127:2074-2080, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. The effectiveness of expatriate coping strategies: the moderating role of cultural distance, position level, and time on the international assignment.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Günter K; Caligiuri, Paula

    2005-07-01

    On the basis of the stress and coping literature, the authors examined the diverse coping strategies used by expatriate managers in response to the problems encountered while on international assignments. It was hypothesized that although problem-focused coping strategies may be more effective than are emotion-focused coping strategies in affecting cross-cultural adjustment and intention to remain on the international assignment, the relationship is moderated by contextual factors such as hierarchical level in the organization, time on the assignment, and cultural distance. Coded semistructured interview responses from 116 German expatriates on assignment in either Japan or the United States were analyzed with moderated regression analyses. The results suggest that the effectiveness of problem-focused coping strategies in predicting cross-cultural adjustment is moderated by cultural distance and position level but not by time on the assignment. The use of problem-focused coping strategies was not related to expatriates' intention to remain on the assignment.

  19. Salvianolic acid A positively regulates PTEN protein level and inhibits growth of A549 lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    BI, LEI; CHEN, JIANPING; YUAN, XIAOJING; JIANG, ZEQUN; CHEN, WEIPING

    2013-01-01

    Salvianolic acid A (Sal A) is an effective compound extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza which has been used in the treatment of various diseases. Preliminary data indicate that Sal A treatment has a specific anti-lung cancer effect. However, the manner in which Sal A regulates cancer growth remains unknown. In this study, the A549 lung cancer cell line and its response to Sal A treatment was examined. Results showed that Sal A treatment significantly decreased A549 cell growth, promoted partial apoptosis and increased mitochondrial membrane permeability. Western blot analysis showed that Sal A upregulated the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) protein level, while consistently downregulating Akt phosphorylation. These results indicate that Sal A negatively mediates A549 lung cancer cell line growth or apoptosis, most likely by positively regulating PTEN protein level. PMID:24648921

  20. Level and position of substituents in cross-linked and hydroxypropylated sweet potato starches using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianwei; Chen, Zhenghong; Jin, Zhengyu; de Waard, Pieter; Buwalda, Piet; Gruppen, Harry; Schols, Henk A

    2015-10-20

    Sweet potato starch was cross-linked using sodium trimetaphosphate and hydroxypropylated using propylene oxide. The level and position of phosphorus and hydroxypropyl groups within cross-linked and hydroxypropylated sweet potato starch was investigated by phosphorus and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P, (1)H NMR). The cross-linking reaction produced monostarch monophosphate and distarch monophosphate in a molar ratio of 1:1.03, indicating that only half of the introduced phosphorus resulted in a possible cross-link. One cross-link per approximately 2900 glucose residues was found. Phosphorylation leading to monostarch monophosphate mainly occurred at O-3 and O-6 (ratio 1:1). It was inferred that the majority of the cross-links formed in distarch monophosphate were between two glucose residues positioned in different starch chains, while a minor part of the cross-links may be formed between two glucose residues within the same starch chain. Hydroxypropylation under alkaline conditions resulted in the formation of intra-molecular phosphorus cross-links, subsequent hydroxypropylation following cross-linking lowered both the level of intra- and inter-molecular cross-linking. Using (1)H NMR the molar substitution of hydroxypropylation was determined to be 0.155-0.165. The hydroxypropylation predominantly occurred at O-2 (61%), and the level of substitution at O-6 (21%) was slightly higher than that at O-3 (17%). In dual modified starch, the preceding cross-linking procedure resulted in a slightly lower level of hydroxypropylation, where the substitution at O-6 decreased more compared to the substitution at O-2 and O-3. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Plasma sE-selectin level is positively correlated with neutrophil count and diastolic blood pressure in Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Kazuki; Inoue, Seiya; Miyauchi, Rie; Misaki, Yasumi; Shimada, Masaya; Kasezawa, Nobuhiko; Tohyama, Kazushige; Goda, Toshinao

    2013-01-01

    Increased levels of circulating soluble type of E-selectin (sE-selectin), neutrophil counts and blood pressure are associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In this study, we conducted a cross-sectional study of men who participated in health check-ups, and selected those who were not diagnosed with or being treated for metabolic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and lipid abnormality according to the health check-ups. We measured their basic clinical parameters including blood pressure and neutrophil count, plasma sE-selectin concentration and lifestyle factors, and assessed their interrelations by multivariate linear regression (MLR) analysis. A total of 351 subjects aged 47.5±8.41 (range, 30-64) y were recruited. Significantly correlated with sE-selectin concentration were neutrophil count, diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (Pearson's correlation coefficient, 0.194, 0.220 and 0.175, respectively). MLR analysis showed that sE-selectin concentration was independently positively related with DBP and neutrophil count, whereas neutrophil count was positively associated with sE-selectin concentration but not DBP. DBP, but not SBP, was independently positively correlated with sE-selectin concentration but not neutrophil count. These results indicate that circulating sE-selectin concentration may be a biomarker for indicating subsequent development of metabolic diseases, in particular CVD, from a healthy state.

  2. Optimal level of continuous positive airway pressure: auto-adjusting titration versus titration with a predictive equation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji Ho; Jun, Young Joon; Oh, Jeong In; Jung, Jong Yoon; Hwang, Gyu Ho; Kwon, Soon Young; Lee, Heung Man; Kim, Tae Hoon; Lee, Sang Hag; Lee, Seung Hoon

    2013-05-01

    The aims of the present study were twofold. We sought to compare two methods of titrating the level of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) - auto-adjusting titration and titration using a predictive equation - with full-night manual titration used as the benchmark. We also investigated the reliability of the two methods in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Twenty consecutive adult patients with OSAS who had successful, full-night manual and auto-adjusting CPAP titration participated in this study. The titration pressure level was calculated with a previously developed predictive equation based on body mass index and apnea-hypopnea index. The mean titration pressure levels obtained with the manual, auto-adjusting, and predictive equation methods were 9.0 +/- 3.6, 9.4 +/- 3.0, and 8.1 +/- 1.6 cm H2O,respectively. There was a significant difference in the concordance within the range of +/- 2 cm H2O (p = 0.019) between both the auto-adjusting titration and the titration using the predictive equation compared to the full-night manual titration. However, there was no significant difference in the concordance within the range of +/- 1 cm H2O (p > 0.999). When compared to full-night manual titration as the standard method, auto-adjusting titration appears to be more reliable than using a predictive equation for determining the optimal CPAP level in patients with OSAS.

  3. Soluble transferrin receptor levels are positively associated with insulin resistance but not with the metabolic syndrome or its individual components.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Ortegón, Milton Fabian; McLachlan, Stela; Wild, Sarah H; Fernández-Real, José Manuel; Hayward, Caroline; Polašek, Ozren

    2016-10-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is known to be associated with elevated serum ferritin levels. The possible association with other Fe markers has been less well studied. We aimed to investigate the cross-sectional association of soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) and ferritin levels with the MetS components, insulin resistance and glycosylated Hb (HbA1C). The sample consisted of 725 adults, aged 19-93 years (284 men, 151 premenopausal and 290 postmenopausal women), from the Croatian island of Vis. Serum sTfR and ferritin levels were measured by immunoturbidimetry and electrochemiluminescence assays, respectively. The MetS was defined using modified international consensus criteria. Logistic and linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate the associations adjusting for age, fibrinogen, smoking status, alcohol consumption and BMI. Prevalence of the MetS was 48·7 %. Standardised values of ferritin were positively associated with all of the MetS components (except high blood pressure and waist circumference) in men (P0·05). sTfR levels could be spuriously elevated in subjects with insulin resistance and without association with the MetS or its components. We conclude that different markers of Fe metabolism are not consistently associated with cardiometabolic risk.

  4. ZIC1 LEVELS REGULATE MOSSY FIBER NEURON POSITION AND AXON LATERALITY CHOICE IN THE VENTRAL BRAIN STEM

    PubMed Central

    DiPietrantonio, Heather J.; Dymecki, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    Pontine gray neurons of the brain stem are a major source of mossy fiber (MF) afferents to granule cells of the cerebellum. Achieving this connectivity involves an early regionalization of pontine gray neuron cell bodies within the brainstem pontine nuclei, as well as establishing the proper ratio of crossed versus uncrossed MF projections to contralateral versus ipsilateral cerebellar territories. Here, we report expression of the transcription factor Zic1 in newly postmitotic pontine gray neurons and present functional experiments in embryonic and postnatal mice that implicate Zic1 levels as a key determinant of pontine neuron cell body position within the pons and axon laterality. Reducing Zic1 levels embryonically via in utero electroporation of short hairpin RNA interference (shRNAi) vectors shifted the postnatal distribution of pontine neurons from caudolateral to rostromedial territories; by contrast, increasing Zic1 levels resulted in the reciprocal shift, with electroporated cells redistributing caudolaterally. Associated with the latter was a change in axon laterality, with a greater proportion of marked projections now targeting the ipsilateral instead of contralateral cerebellum. Zic1 levels in pontine gray neurons, therefore, play an important role in the development of pontocerebellar circuitry. PMID:19303920

  5. Positive association between serum silicon levels and bone mineral density in female rats following oral silicon supplementation with monomethylsilanetriol.

    PubMed

    Jugdaohsingh, R; Watson, A I E; Bhattacharya, P; van Lenthe, G H; Powell, J J

    2015-04-01

    Observational (epidemiological) studies suggest the positive association between dietary silicon intake and bone mineral density may be mediated by circulating estradiol level. Here, we report the results of a silicon supplementation study in rats that strongly support these observations and suggest an interaction between silicon and estradiol. Epidemiological studies report strong positive associations between dietary silicon (Si) intake and bone mineral density (BMD) in premenopausal women and indicate that the association may be mediated by estradiol. We have tested this possibility in a mixed-gender rodent intervention study. Tissue samples were obtained from three groups of 20-week-old Sprague Dawley rats (five males and five females per group) that had been supplemented ad libitum for 90 days in their drinking water with (i) <0.1 mg Si/L (vehicle control), (ii) 115 mg Si/L (moderate dose) or (iii) 575 mg Si/L (high dose). All rats received conventional laboratory feed, whilst supplemental Si was in the form of monomethylsilanetriol, increasing dietary Si intakes by 18 and 99 %, for the moderate- and high-dose groups, respectively. Fasting serum and tissue Si concentrations were increased with Si supplementation (p < 0.05), regardless of gender. However, only for female rats was there (i) a trend for a dose-responsive increase in serum osteocalcin concentration with Si intervention and (ii) strong significant associations between serum Si concentrations and measures of bone quality (p < 0.01). Correlations were weaker or insignificant for tibia Si levels and absent for other serum or tibia elemental concentrations and bone quality measures. Our findings support the epidemiological observations that dietary Si positively impacts BMD in younger females, and this may be due to a Si-estradiol interaction. Moreover, these data suggest that the Si effect is mediated systemically, rather than through its incorporation into bone.

  6. Vertical jump performance of professional male and female volleyball players: effects of playing position and competition level.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Tine; Hadžić, Vedran; Dervišević, Edvin; Markovic, Goran

    2015-06-01

    Vertical jump (VJ) performance is an important element for successful volleyball practice. The aims of the study were (a) to explore the overall VJ performance of elite volleyball players of both sexes, (b) to explore the differences in VJ performance among different competition levels and different playing positions, and (c) to evaluate the sex-related differences in the role of the arm swing and 3-step approach with arm swing on the jump height. We assessed the VJ capacity in 253 volleyball players (113 males and 140 females) from Slovenian first and second Volleyball Division. The height of squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump, block jump, and attack jump was tested using an Optojump system. We observed significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in VJ height between different levels of play that were most pronounced in the SJ. Position-related differences in VJ performance were observed in male players between receivers and setters (p ≤ 0.05), whereas in females, VJ performance across different playing positions seems equal. Finally, we found that male players significantly better use the arm swing during VJ than females (p ≤ 0.05), whereas the use of eccentric part of the jump and approach before the spike to improve VJ performance seem to be equally mastered activity in both sexes. These results could assist coaches in the development of jumping performance in volleyball players. Furthermore, presented normative data for jump heights of elite male and female volleyball players could be useful in selection and profiling of young volleyball players.

  7. Canadian Cardiovascular Society/Canadian Pediatric Cardiology Association Position Statement on Pulse Oximetry Screening in Newborns to Enhance Detection of Critical Congenital Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kenny K; Fournier, Anne; Fruitman, Deborah S; Graves, Lisa; Human, Derek G; Narvey, Michael; Russell, Jennifer L

    2017-02-01

    Congenital heart disease is the most common congenital malformation and approximately 3 in 1000 newborns have critical congenital heart disease (CCHD). Timely diagnosis affects morbidity, mortality, and disability, and newborn pulse oximetry screening has been studied to enhance detection of CCHD. In this position statement we present an evaluation of the literature for pulse oximetry screening. Current detection strategies including prenatal ultrasound examination and newborn physical examination are limited by low diagnostic sensitivity. Pulse oximetry screening is safe, noninvasive, easy to perform, and widely available with a high specificity (99.9%) and moderately high sensitivity (76.5%). When an abnormal saturation is obtained, the likelihood of having CCHD is 5.5 times greater than when a normal result is obtained. The use of pulse oximetry combined with current strategies has shown sensitivities of up to 92% for detecting CCHD. False positive results can be minimized by screening after 24 hours, and testing the right hand and either foot might further increase sensitivity. Newborns with abnormal screening results should undergo a comprehensive assessment and echocardiography performed if a cardiac cause cannot be excluded. Screening has been studied to be cost neutral to cost effective. We recommend that pulse oximetry screening should be routinely performed in all healthy newborns to enhance the detection of CCHD in Canada. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A synthesis of AOT40-based response functions and critical levels of ozone for agricultural and horticultural crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, G.; Buse, A.; Gimeno, B.; Bermejo, V.; Holland, M.; Emberson, L.; Pleijel, H.

    Crop-response data from over 700 published papers and conference proceedings have been analysed with the aim of establishing ozone dose-response functions for a wide range of European agricultural and horticultural crops. Data that met rigorous selection criteria (e.g. field-based, ozone concentrations within European range, full season exposure period) were used to derive AOT40-yield response functions for 19 crops by first converting the published ozone concentration data into AOT40 (AOT40 is the hourly mean ozone concentration accumulated over a threshold ozone concentration of 40 ppb during daylight hours, units ppm h). For any individual crop, there were no significant differences in the linear response functions derived for experiments conducted in the USA or Europe, or for individual cultivars. Three statistically independent groups were identified: ozone sensitive crops (wheat, water melon, pulses, cotton, turnip, tomato, onion, soybean and lettuce); moderately sensitive crops (sugar beet, potato, oilseed rape, tobacco, rice, maize, grape and broccoli) and ozone resistant (barley and fruit represented by plum and strawberry). Critical levels of a 3 month AOT40 of 3 ppm h and a 3.5 month AOT40 of 6 ppm h were derived from the functions for wheat and tomato, respectively.

  9. Determination of critical levels of residual oxygen to minimize discoloration of sliced packaged Norwegian salami under light display.

    PubMed

    Sørheim, Oddvin; Måge, Ingrid; Larsen, Hanne

    2017-07-01

    Discoloration of sliced packaged salami is contributing to rejection of the product, food waste and economical loss. A combination of residual O2 in the headspace of packages and light is causing photooxidation and deterioration of colour. The aim of this study was to establish maximum tolerable concentrations of residual O2 in packages of salami slices with 100% N2 under light display at 4 and 20°C. Salami sausages had variable inherent O2 consumption rate. Storage of salami in 1% O2 in darkness did not induce discoloration. The upper limits for O2 for avoiding discoloration under light were variable in the range 0.1-1.0%, depending on temperature and type of salami. Display at 20°C increased the rate of O2 depletion compared to 4°C. To minimize discoloration, sliced and packaged salami should be stored in darkness at approximately 20°C until the level of residual O2 is reduced below a critical limit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Homologous Recombination and Translesion DNA Synthesis Play Critical Roles on Tolerating DNA Damage Caused by Trace Levels of Hexavalent Chromium

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Youjun; Zhou, Yi-Hui; Neo, Dayna; Clement, Jean; Takata, Minoru; Takeda, Shunichi; Sale, Julian; Wright, Fred A.; Swenberg, James A.; Nakamura, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of potentially carcinogenic hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in the drinking water is a major public health concern worldwide. However, little information is available regarding the biological effects of a nanomoler amount of Cr(VI). Here, we investigated the genotoxic effects of Cr(VI) at nanomoler levels and their repair pathways. We found that DNA damage response analyzed based on differential toxicity of isogenic cells deficient in various DNA repair proteins is observed after a three-day incubation with K2CrO4 in REV1-deficient DT40 cells at 19.2 μg/L or higher as well as in TK6 cells deficient in polymerase delta subunit 3 (POLD3) at 9.8 μg/L or higher. The genotoxicity of Cr(VI) decreased ~3000 times when the incubation time was reduced from three days to ten minutes. TK mutation rate also significantly decreased from 6 day to 1 day exposure to Cr(VI). The DNA damage response analysis suggest that DNA repair pathways, including the homologous recombination and REV1- and POLD3-mediated error-prone translesion synthesis pathways, are critical for the cells to tolerate to DNA damage caused by trace amount of Cr(VI). PMID:27907204

  11. Oxygen Level and LFP in Task-Positive and Task-Negative Areas: Bridging BOLD fMRI and Electrophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, William J.; Li, Jingfeng M.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Raichle, Marcus E.; Snyder, Lawrence H.

    2016-01-01

    The human default mode network (DMN) shows decreased blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signals in response to a wide range of attention-demanding tasks. Our understanding of the specifics regarding the neural activity underlying these “task-negative” BOLD responses remains incomplete. We paired oxygen polarography, an electrode-based oxygen measurement technique, with standard electrophysiological recording to assess the relationship of oxygen and neural activity in task-negative posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), a hub of the DMN, and visually responsive task-positive area V3 in the awake macaque. In response to engaging visual stimulation, oxygen, LFP power, and multi-unit activity in PCC showed transient activation followed by sustained suppression. In V3, oxygen, LFP power, and multi-unit activity showed an initial phasic response to the stimulus followed by sustained activation. Oxygen responses were correlated with LFP power in both areas, although the apparent hemodynamic coupling between oxygen level and electrophysiology differed across areas. Our results suggest that oxygen responses reflect changes in LFP power and multi-unit activity and that either the coupling of neural activity to blood flow and metabolism differs between PCC and V3 or computing a linear transformation from a single LFP band to oxygen level does not capture the true physiological process. PMID:25385710

  12. HIV infection duration, social support and the level of trauma symptoms in a sample of HIV-positive Polish individuals.

    PubMed

    Rzeszutek, Marcin; Oniszczenko, Włodzimierz; Żebrowska, Magdalena; Firląg-Burkacka, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the average HIV infection duration and the level of quantitatively rated post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and social support dimensions in a sample of 562 Polish HIV+ adults. Possible moderating effects of social support on the relationship between the average HIV infection duration and the level of PTSD symptoms were also analysed. The results of this study suggest that the average HIV infection duration may intensify PTSD symptoms and deteriorate the perceived availability of social support in HIV+ individuals. However, a positive relationship between HIV infection duration and the level of trauma symptoms was observed only in the group of HIV+ individuals with low perceived available social support, but not in the group of HIV-infected individuals with high perceived available social support. This research provided some new insight into the psychological and social aspects of living with HIV. In particular, our results suggest that although HIV infection duration may intensify trauma symptoms and deteriorate social support, perceived available social support may act as a buffer against HIV-related trauma symptoms.

  13. Oxygen Level and LFP in Task-Positive and Task-Negative Areas: Bridging BOLD fMRI and Electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Bentley, William J; Li, Jingfeng M; Snyder, Abraham Z; Raichle, Marcus E; Snyder, Lawrence H

    2016-01-01

    The human default mode network (DMN) shows decreased blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signals in response to a wide range of attention-demanding tasks. Our understanding of the specifics regarding the neural activity underlying these "task-negative" BOLD responses remains incomplete. We paired oxygen polarography, an electrode-based oxygen measurement technique, with standard electrophysiological recording to assess the relationship of oxygen and neural activity in task-negative posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), a hub of the DMN, and visually responsive task-positive area V3 in the awake macaque. In response to engaging visual stimulation, oxygen, LFP power, and multi-unit activity in PCC showed transient activation followed by sustained suppression. In V3, oxygen, LFP power, and multi-unit activity showed an initial phasic response to the stimulus followed by sustained activation. Oxygen responses were correlated with LFP power in both areas, although the apparent hemodynamic coupling between oxygen level and electrophysiology differed across areas. Our results suggest that oxygen responses reflect changes in LFP power and multi-unit activity and that either the coupling of neural activity to blood flow and metabolism differs between PCC and V3 or computing a linear transformation from a single LFP band to oxygen level does not capture the true physiological process.

  14. Forward operation of adenine nucleotide translocase during F0F1-ATPase reversal: critical role of matrix substrate-level phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Chinopoulos, Christos; Gerencser, Akos A.; Mandi, Miklos; Mathe, Katalin; Töröcsik, Beata; Doczi, Judit; Turiak, Lilla; Kiss, Gergely; Konràd, Csaba; Vajda, Szilvia; Vereczki, Viktoria; Oh, Richard J.; Adam-Vizi, Vera

    2010-01-01

    In pathological conditions, F0F1-ATPase hydrolyzes ATP in an attempt to maintain mitochondrial membrane potential. Using thermodynamic assumptions and computer modeling, we established that mitochondrial membrane potential can be more negative than the reversal potential of the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) but more positive than that of the F0F1-ATPase. Experiments on isolated mitochondria demonstrated that, when the electron transport chain is compromised, the F0F1-ATPase reverses, and the membrane potential is maintained as long as matrix substrate-level phosphorylation is functional, without a concomitant reversal of the ANT. Consistently, no cytosolic ATP consumption was observed using plasmalemmal KATP channels as cytosolic ATP biosensors in cultured neurons, in which their in situ mitochondria were compromised by respiratory chain inhibitors. This finding was further corroborated by quantitative measurements of mitochondrial membrane potential, oxygen consumption, and extracellular acidification rates, indicating nonreversal of ANT of compromised in situ neuronal and astrocytic mitochondria; and by bioluminescence ATP measurements in COS-7 cells transfected with cytosolic- or nuclear-targeted luciferases and treated with mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibitors in the presence of glycolytic plus mitochondrial vs. only mitochondrial substrates. Our findings imply the possibility of a rescue mechanism that is protecting against cytosolic/nuclear ATP depletion under pathological conditions involving impaired respiration. This mechanism comes into play when mitochondria respire on substrates that support matrix substrate-level phosphorylation.—Chinopoulos, C., Gerencser, A. A., Mandi, M., Mathe, K., Töröcsik, B., Doczi, J., Turiak, L., Kiss, G., Konràd, C., Vajda, S., Vereczki, V., Oh, R. J., Adam-Vizi, V. Forward operation of adenine nucleotide translocase during F0F1-ATPase reversal: critical role of matrix substrate-level phosphorylation. PMID

  15. Optimal level of the reference transducer for central venous pressure and pulmonary artery occlusion pressure monitoring in supine, prone, and sitting position.

    PubMed

    Song, In-Kyung; Park, Han-Seul; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Eun-Hee; Kim, Hee-Soo; Bahk, Jae-Hyon; Kim, Jin-Tae

    2017-04-01

    To guarantee accurate measurement of central venous pressure (CVP) or pulmonary artery occlusion pressure (PAOP), proper positioning of a reference transducer is a prerequisite. We investigated ideal transducer levels in supine, prone, and sitting position in adults. Chest computed tomography images of 113 patients, taken in supine or prone position were reviewed. For supine position, distances between the back and the uppermost blood level of both atria and their ratios to the largest anteroposterior (AP) diameter of thorax were calculated. For prone position, same distances and ratios were calculated from the anterior chest. For sitting position, distances between the mid-sternoclavicular joint and the most cephalad blood level of both atria and their ratios to the sternal length were calculated. The ratio of the uppermost blood level of right atrium (RA) and left atrium (LA) to the largest AP diameter of thorax was 0.81 ± 0.04 and 0.59 ± 0.03 from the back in supine position. That calculated from the anterior chest in prone position was 0.54 ± 0.03 and 0.46 ± 0.03. The ratio of the most cephalad blood level of RA and LA to the sternal length was 0.70 ± 0.10 and 0.68 ± 0.09 from the mid-sternoclavicular joint in sitting position, which corresponded to the upper border of 4th rib. Optimal CVP transducer levels are at four-fifths of the AP diameter of thorax in supine position, at a half of that in prone position, and at upper border of the 4th sternochondral joint in sitting position. PAOP transducer levels are similar in prone and sitting position, except for supine position which is at three-fifths of the AP diameter of thorax.

  16. Dynamic Characteristics of Mechanical Ventilation System of Double Lungs with Bi-Level Positive Airway Pressure Model

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Dongkai; Zhang, Qian

    2016-01-01

    In recent studies on the dynamic characteristics of ventilation system, it was considered that human had only one lung, and the coupling effect of double lungs on the air flow can not be illustrated, which has been in regard to be vital to life support of patients. In this article, to illustrate coupling effect of double lungs on flow dynamics of mechanical ventilation system, a mathematical model of a mechanical ventilation system, which consists of double lungs and a bi-level positive airway pressure (BIPAP) controlled ventilator, was proposed. To verify the mathematical model, a prototype of BIPAP system with a double-lung simulators and a BIPAP ventilator was set up for experimental study. Lastly, the study on the influences of key parameters of BIPAP system on dynamic characteristics was carried out. The study can be referred to in the development of research on BIPAP ventilation treatment and real respiratory diagnostics. PMID:27660646

  17. Gingival Zenith Positions and Levels of Maxillary Anterior Dentition in Cases of Bimaxillary Protrusion: A Morphometric Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gowd, Snigdha; Shankar, T; Chatterjee, Suravi; Mohanty, Pritam; Sahoo, Nivedita; Baratam, Srinivas

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the two clinical parameters, such as gingival zenith positions (GZPs) and gingival zenith levels (GZLs), of maxillary anterior dentition in bimaxillary protrusion cases and collate it with severiety of crown inclination. Gingival zenith position and GZL in 40 healthy patients (29 females and 11 males) with an average age of 21.5 years were assessed. Inclusion criteria involved absence of periodontal diseases, Angle's class I molar relationship, and upper anterior proclination within 25 to 45° based on Steiner's analysis; exclusion criteria included spacing, crowding, anterior restoration and teeth with incisor attrition or rotation. The GZP was evaluated using digital calipers from voxel-based morphometry (VBM), and GZL was assessed from the tangent drawn from GZP of central incisor and canines to the linear vertical distance of GZP of lateral incisor. All the central incisors showed a GZP distal to VBM with a mean average of 1 mm. Severe proclination between 40 and 45° showed a statistically significant variation. Lateral incisors displayed a mean of 0.5 mm deviation of GZP from the vertically bisected midline. In 80% of canine population, GZP was centralized. We conclude that the degree of proclination of maxillary anterior dentition was correlated to the gingival contour in bimaxillary cases. The investigation revealed that there is a variation in the location of GZP as the severity of proclination increases. This study highlights the importance of microesthetics in fixed orthodontic treatment. The gingival contour should be unaltered while retraction during management of bimaxillary protrusion.

  18. Level of visual acuity necessary to avoid false-positives on the HRR and Ishihara color vision tests.

    PubMed

    Ng, Jason S; Shih, Brian

    2017-05-11

    Minimizing false-positives (FPs) when evaluating color vision is important in eye care. Identification of plate 1 (demonstration plate) is often considered a way to avoid FPs. However, few studies have quantified the minimum level of visual acuity (VA) that would minimize FPs for the Ishihara and HRR color tests. Threshold levels of optical defocus were obtained from 25 color normal subjects. Blur levels were obtained for Ishihara (38 plate) plates 1, 10, and 15 and 4th edition HRR plates 1, 7, 10, and 20 using the method of limits. Corresponding VAs were measured through these blur levels at 40 centimeters after adjusting for the dioptric distance difference. Analysis of variance testing was used to analyze the data. Mean optical defocus values in diopters (mean ± SD) for HRR plates 1, 7, 10, and 20 were 6.23 ± 1.61, 1.23 ± 1.16, 2.41 ± 1.31, and 7.96 ± 2.03, respectively, and for Ishihara plates 1, 10, and 15 were 5.70 ± 1.52, 3.68 ± 1.71, and 4.62 ± 1.56, respectively. There was a significant difference between the screening and demonstration plates for both tests (p<0.001). Based on the plate in each test that was found to be the least tolerant to blur, the average minimum VAs needed to identify the screening plates were approximately 20/180 for the Ishihara test and 20/50 for the HRR test. Identifying the demonstration plate in the Ishihara and HRR tests does not ensure FPs will be avoided.

  19. Childhood Socioeconomic Position and Objectively Measured Physical Capability Levels in Adulthood: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Richard M.; Kuh, Diana; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Alvarado, Beatriz E.; Bayer, Antony; Christensen, Kaare; Cho, Sung-il; Cooper, Cyrus; Corley, Janie; Craig, Leone; Deary, Ian J.; Demakakos, Panayotes; Ebrahim, Shah; Gallacher, John; Gow, Alan J.; Gunnell, David; Haas, Steven; Hemmingsson, Tomas; Inskip, Hazel; Jang, Soong-nang; Noronha, Kenya; Osler, Merete; Palloni, Alberto; Rasmussen, Finn; Santos-Eggimann, Brigitte; Spagnoli, Jacques; Starr, John; Steptoe, Andrew; Syddall, Holly; Tynelius, Per; Weir, David; Whalley, Lawrence J.; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Hardy, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Background Grip strength, walking speed, chair rising and standing balance time are objective measures of physical capability that characterise current health and predict survival in older populations. Socioeconomic position (SEP) in childhood may influence the peak level of physical capability achieved in early adulthood, thereby affecting levels in later adulthood. We have undertaken a systematic review with meta-analyses to test the hypothesis that adverse childhood SEP is associated with lower levels of objectively measured physical capability in adulthood. Methods and Findings Relevant studies published by May 2010 were identified through literature searches using EMBASE and MEDLINE. Unpublished results were obtained from study investigators. Results were provided by all study investigators in a standard format and pooled using random-effects meta-analyses. 19 studies were included in the review. Total sample sizes in meta-analyses ranged from N = 17,215 for chair rise time to N = 1,061,855 for grip strength. Although heterogeneity was detected, there was consistent evidence in age adjusted models that lower childhood SEP was associated with modest reductions in physical capability levels in adulthood: comparing the lowest with the highest childhood SEP there was a reduction in grip strength of 0.13 standard deviations (95% CI: 0.06, 0.21), a reduction in mean walking speed of 0.07 m/s (0.05, 0.10), an increase in mean chair rise time of 6% (4%, 8%) and an odds ratio of an inability to balance for 5s of 1.26 (1.02, 1.55). Adjustment for the potential mediating factors, adult SEP and body size attenuated associations greatly. However, despite this attenuation, for walking speed and chair rise time, there was still evidence of moderate associations. Conclusions Policies targeting socioeconomic inequalities in childhood may have additional benefits in promoting the maintenance of independence in later life. PMID:21297868

  20. Species-level view of population structure and gene flow for a critically endangered primate (Varecia variegata)

    PubMed Central

    Baden, Andrea L; Holmes, Sheila M; Johnson, Steig E; Engberg, Shannon E; Louis, Edward E; Bradley, Brenda J

    2014-01-01

    Lemurs are among the world's most threatened mammals. The critically endangered black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata), in particular, has recently experienced rapid population declines due to habitat loss, ecological sensitivities to habitat degradation, and extensive human hunting pressure. Despite this, a recent study indicates that ruffed lemurs retain among the highest levels of genetic diversity for primates. Identifying how this diversity is apportioned and whether gene flow is maintained among remnant populations will help to diagnose and target conservation priorities. We sampled 209 individuals from 19 sites throughout the remaining V. variegata range. We used 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci and ∼550 bp of mtDNA sequence data to evaluate genetic structure and population dynamics, including dispersal patterns and recent population declines. Bayesian cluster analyses identified two distinct genetic clusters, which optimally partitioned data into populations occurring on either side of the Mangoro River. Localities north of the Mangoro were characterized by greater genetic diversity, greater gene flow (lower genetic differentiation) and higher mtDNA haplotype and nucleotide diversity than those in the south. Despite this, genetic differentiation across all sites was high, as indicated by high average FST (0.247) and ΦST (0.544), and followed a pattern of isolation-by-distance. We use these results to suggest future conservation strategies that include an effort to maintain genetic diversity in the north and restore connectivity in the south. We also note the discordance between patterns of genetic differentiation and current subspecies taxonomy, and encourage a re-evaluation of conservation management units moving forward. PMID:25077019

  1. Temporal trends in BMI in Argentina by socio-economic position and province-level economic development, 2005-2009.

    PubMed

    Christine, Paul J; Diez Roux, Ana V; Wing, Jeffrey J; Alazraqui, Marcio; Spinelli, Hugo

    2015-04-01

    We investigated temporal trends in BMI, and assessed hypothesized predictors of trends including socio-economic position (SEP) and province-level economic development, in Argentina. Using multivariable linear regression, we evaluated cross-sectional patterning and temporal trends in BMI and examined heterogeneity in these associations by SEP and province-level economic development with nationally representative samples from Argentina in 2005 and 2009. We calculated mean annual changes in BMI for men and women to assess secular trends. Women, but not men, exhibited a strong cross-sectional inverse association between SEP and BMI, with the lowest-SEP women having an average BMI 2.55 kg/m(2) greater than the highest-SEP women. Analysis of trends revealed a mean annual increase in BMI of 0.19 kg/m(2) and 0.15 kg/m(2) for women and men, respectively, with slightly greater increases occurring in provinces with greater economic growth. No significant heterogeneity in trends existed by individual SEP. BMI is increasing rapidly over time in Argentina irrespective of various sociodemographic characteristics. Higher BMI remains more common in women of lower SEP compared with those of higher SEP.

  2. Berberine reverses lapatinib resistance of HER2-positive breast cancer cells by increasing the level of ROS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruohan; Qiao, Hongyu; Chen, Suning; Chen, Xu; Dou, Kefeng; Wei, Li; Zhang, Jian

    2016-09-01

    Lapatinib, a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor of HER2/EGFR, is used to treat HER2-positive breast cancer. However, acquired drug resistance has limited the clinical therapeutic efficacy of lapatinib. Our previous study found that inhibition of autophagy can reduce the proliferation, DNA synthesis, and colony-forming capacity of lapatinib-resistant cells. Berberine has attracted extensive attention due to its wide range of biochemical and pharmacological effects in breast cancer treatment. It has been reported that berberine can induce oxidative stress and the mitochondrial-related apoptotic pathway in human breast cancer cells. In our current study, we found that a new combination therapy of berberine with lapatinib overcame lapatinib resistance. Furthermore, we found that berberine induced apoptosis of lapatinib-resistant cells through upregulating the level of ROS. Specially, lapatinib activated both the c-Myc/pro-Nrf2 pathway and GSK-3β signaling to stabilize Nrf2 and maintain a low level of ROS in resistant cells. However, berberine can upset the ROS balance by downregulating c-Myc to reverse the lapatinib resistance. Our finding provides a novel strategy of using berberine to overcome lapatinib resistance.

  3. Forkhead transcription factor FOXO3a levels are increased in Huntington disease because of overactivated positive autofeedback loop.

    PubMed

    Kannike, Kaja; Sepp, Mari; Zuccato, Chiara; Cattaneo, Elena; Timmusk, Tõnis

    2014-11-21

    Huntington disease (HD) is a fatal autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by an increased number of CAG repeats in the HTT gene coding for huntingtin. Decreased neurotrophic support and increased mitochondrial and excitotoxic stress have been reported in HD striatal and cortical neurons. The members of the class O forkhead (FOXO) transcription factor family, including FOXO3a, act as sensor proteins that are activated upon decreased survival signals and/or increased cellular stress. Using immunocytochemical screening in mouse striatal Hdh(7/7) (wild type), Hdh(7/109) (heterozygous for HD mutation), and Hdh(109/109) (homozygous for HD mutation) cells, we identified FOXO3a as a differentially regulated transcription factor in HD. We report increased nuclear FOXO3a levels in mutant Hdh cells. Additionally, we show that treatment with mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionic acid results in enhanced nuclear localization of FOXO3a in wild type Hdh(7/7) cells and in rat primary cortical neurons. Furthermore, mRNA levels of Foxo3a are increased in mutant Hdh cells compared with wild type cells and in 3-nitropropionic acid-treated primary neurons compared with untreated neurons. A similar increase was observed in the cortex of R6/2 mice and HD patient post-mortem caudate tissue compared with controls. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation and reporter assays, we demonstrate that FOXO3a regulates its own transcription by binding to the conserved response element in Foxo3a promoter. Altogether, the findings of this study suggest that FOXO3a levels are increased in HD cells as a result of overactive positive feedback loop.

  4. Forkhead Transcription Factor FOXO3a Levels Are Increased in Huntington Disease Because of Overactivated Positive Autofeedback Loop*

    PubMed Central

    Kannike, Kaja; Sepp, Mari; Zuccato, Chiara; Cattaneo, Elena; Timmusk, Tõnis

    2014-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a fatal autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by an increased number of CAG repeats in the HTT gene coding for huntingtin. Decreased neurotrophic support and increased mitochondrial and excitotoxic stress have been reported in HD striatal and cortical neurons. The members of the class O forkhead (FOXO) transcription factor family, including FOXO3a, act as sensor proteins that are activated upon decreased survival signals and/or increased cellular stress. Using immunocytochemical screening in mouse striatal Hdh7/7 (wild type), Hdh7/109 (heterozygous for HD mutation), and Hdh109/109 (homozygous for HD mutation) cells, we identified FOXO3a as a differentially regulated transcription factor in HD. We report increased nuclear FOXO3a levels in mutant Hdh cells. Additionally, we show that treatment with mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionic acid results in enhanced nuclear localization of FOXO3a in wild type Hdh7/7 cells and in rat primary cortical neurons. Furthermore, mRNA levels of Foxo3a are increased in mutant Hdh cells compared with wild type cells and in 3-nitropropionic acid-treated primary neurons compared with untreated neurons. A similar increase was observed in the cortex of R6/2 mice and HD patient post-mortem caudate tissue compared with controls. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation and reporter assays, we demonstrate that FOXO3a regulates its own transcription by binding to the conserved response element in Foxo3a promoter. Altogether, the findings of this study suggest that FOXO3a levels are increased in HD cells as a result of overactive positive feedback loop. PMID:25271153

  5. Is there an optimal level of positive expiratory pressure (PEP) to improve walking tolerance in patients with severe COPD?

    PubMed

    Russo, Davide; Simonelli, Carla; Paneroni, Mara; Saleri, Manuela; Piroddi, Ines Maria Grazia; Cardinale, Francesco; Vitacca, Michele; Nicolini, Antonello

    2016-07-01

    The application of positive expiratory pressure (PEP) devices during exercise had been proposed in order to counteract the pulmonary hyperinflation, reduce the dyspnea and thus increase the exercise tolerance in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This randomized controlled crossover trial investigated the effect of two different levels of PEP (1 cmH2O and 10 cmH2O) on distance covered at 6minute walk test (6MWT) in patients with severe COPD. Secondary outcomes were the evaluation of PEP effects on physiological and pulmonary function variables. Seventy-two severe COPD patients, referred to our hospitals as in and out patients, were recruited. A basal 6MWT without devices was performed on the first day, and then repeated with PEP 1 cmH2O (PEP1) and 10 cmH2O (PEP10), with a randomized crossover design. Slow and forced spirometries, including the inspiratory capacity measure, were repeated before and after each 6MWT. 50 patients (average age 69,92 year, mean FEV1 41,42% of predicted) concluded the trial. The 6MWT improved significantly among both PEP levels and baseline (323,8 mt at baseline vs. 337,8 PEP1 and 341,8 PEP10; p<.002 and p<.018, respectively). The difference between PEP10 and PEP1 did not reach the significance. No improvements were found in pulmonary function, symptoms and physiological variables after the 6MWT. In patients with severe COPD, the application of 1 cmH2O of PEP seems to improve the exercise tolerance as 10 cmH2O, with similar dyspnea. Further studies should investigate the effects of low levels of PEP on aerobic training programs. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Negative pressure ventilation and positive pressure ventilation promote comparable levels of ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction in rats.

    PubMed

    Bruells, Christian S; Smuder, Ashley J; Reiss, Lucy K; Hudson, Matthew B; Nelson, William Bradley; Wiggs, Michael P; Sollanek, Kurt J; Rossaint, Rolf; Uhlig, Stefan; Powers, Scott K

    2013-09-01

    Mechanical ventilation is a life-saving intervention for patients with respiratory failure. Unfortunately, a major complication associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation is ventilator-induced diaphragmatic atrophy and contractile dysfunction, termed ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction (VIDD). Emerging evidence suggests that positive pressure ventilation (PPV) promotes lung damage (ventilator-induced lung injury [VILI]), resulting in the release of signaling molecules that foster atrophic signaling in the diaphragm and the resultant VIDD. Although a recent report suggests that negative pressure ventilation (NPV) results in less VILI than PPV, it is unknown whether NPV can protect against VIDD. Therefore, the authors tested the hypothesis that compared with PPV, NPV will result in a lower level of VIDD. Adult rats were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups (n = 8 each): (1) acutely anesthetized control (CON), (2) 12 h of PPV, and (3) 12 h of NPV. Dependent measures included indices of VILI, diaphragmatic muscle fiber cross-sectional area, diaphragm contractile properties, and the activity of key proteases in the diaphragm. Our results reveal that no differences existed in the degree of VILI between PPV and NPV animals as evidenced by VILI histological scores (CON = 0.082 ± 0.001; PPV = 0.22 ± 0.04; NPV = 0.25 ± 0.02; mean ± SEM). Both PPV and NPV resulted in VIDD. Importantly, no differences existed between PPV and NPV animals in diaphragmatic fiber cross-sectional area, contractile properties, and the activation of proteases. These results demonstrate that NPV and PPV result in similar levels of VILI and that NPV and PPV promote comparable levels of VIDD in rats.

  7. Rituximab activates Syk and AKT in CD20-positive B cell lymphoma cells dependent on cell membrane cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    Nozaki, Yumi; Mitsumori, Toru; Yamamoto, Takeo; Kawashima, Ichiro; Shobu, Yuki; Hamanaka, Satoshi; Nakajima, Kei; Komatsu, Norio; Kirito, Keita

    2013-08-01

    The introduction of rituximab, an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, has dramatically improved the treatment outcomes of patients with B cell lymphoma. Nevertheless, the clinical response to rituximab varies, and a subpopulation of patients does not respond well to this antibody. Although several molecular events have been shown to be involved in the mechanism of action of rituximab, recent studies have demonstrated that intracellular signaling pathways and the direct effects of rituximab on cell membrane components are responsible for the antilymphoma action of this drug. In the present study, we demonstrated that rituximab activated Syk and Akt, molecules with antiapoptotic functions, in several CD20-positive lymphoma cell lines. Notably, rituximab activated Syk and Akt in all the tested primary lymphoma samples from six patients. Our results show that the cholesterol levels in lymphoma cell membranes have a crucial role in the regulation of Syk and Akt. The depletion of cholesterol from the cell membrane completely blocked rituximab-induced Syk and Akt activation. Simvastatin, an inhibitor of cholesterol synthesis, also abrogated rituximab-mediated Syk and Akt activation. Finally, we report that rituximab inhibited the apoptosis induced by chemotherapeutic drugs, which was observed solely in Akt-activated cells. This work demonstrates for the first time that rituximab paradoxically works to suppress apoptosis under certain conditions in a manner that is dependent on the cell membrane cholesterol level. Our observations provide novel insights and suggest that the cell membrane cholesterol level represents a new biomarker for predicting patient response to rituximab. Furthermore, the modulation of lipid rafts could provide a new strategy for enhancing the antilymphoma action of rituximab. Copyright © 2013 ISEH - Society for Hematology and Stem Cells. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of Critical Knowledge on Maternal and Newborn care Services among Primary Level Nurse Mid-wives in Kapilvastu District of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Acharya, D; Paudel, R

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite greater emphasis on maternal and neonatal health through policy and programming in Nepal, maternal and neonatal health is still not impressive. Health care providers' knowledge assessment on maternal and neonatal care has been well documented elsewhere, but it is very little understood in Nepal. Objective The primary objective of this study was to assess the critical knowledge of primary level nurse- midwives on maternal and newborn care in Kapilvastu District of Nepal. Method This was an Institution based cross-sectional study, conducted in Kapilvastu district, Nepal among sixty eight nurse-midwives. The participants were selected using simple random sampling technique. For collecting the data, health institutions were visited by enumerators for a month from 1st October to 1st November 2012. Data were entered into Microsoft Excel, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Result More than 3/4th of the nurse-midwives had 10-20 years of experience. Majority of them (89.7%) had poor knowledge in taking action to prevent mother to child transmission for HIV positive women. More than half of them (54.4%) had some knowledge in performing the active management of third stage of labor whereas almost half (51.5%) had poor knowledge to actions needed on post-partum haemorrhage (PPH). Similarly, more than two third (69.1%) had poor knowledge in newborn care. Conclusion Majority of the nurse-midwives were found to have either poor or some level of knowledge in most of the components of maternal and newborn care services. So, greater emphasis should be given to upgrade the knowledge of nurse mid-wives.

  9. Susceptibility of HPV16 and 18 to high level disinfectants indicated for semi‐critical ultrasound probes

    PubMed Central

    Ryndock, Eric; Robison, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound probes used in endocavitary procedures have been shown to be contaminated with high‐risk HPV after routine use and HPV is also known to be resistant to some high level disinfectants (HLDs). This study compared efficacy of two leading ultrasound probe HLD methods; liquid ortho‐phthalaldehyde (Cidex® OPA) and an automated device using sonicated hydrogen peroxide (trophon® EPR) against HPV16 and HPV18 in a hard‐surface carrier test. Native HPV16 and HPV18 virions were generated in organotypic epithelial raft cultures. Viral lysates were dried onto carriers with a 5% (v/v) protein soil. Efficacy tests were performed against the automated device at 35% and 31.5% H2O2 and 0.55% OPA in quadruplicate with matched input, neutralization, and cytotoxicity controls. Hypochlorite was included as a positive control. Infectivity was determined by the abundance (qRT‐PCR) of the spliced E1^E4 transcript in infected recipient cells. The automated HLD device showed excellent efficacy against HPV16 and HPV18 (>5 log10 reductions in infectivity) whereas OPA showed minimal efficacy (<0.6 log10 reductions). While HPV is highly resistant to OPA, sonicated hydrogen peroxide offers an effective disinfection solution for ultrasound probes. Disinfection methods that are effective against HPV should be adopted where possible. J. Med. Virol. 88:1076–1080, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Medical Virology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26519866

  10. Susceptibility of HPV16 and 18 to high level disinfectants indicated for semi-critical ultrasound probes.

    PubMed

    Ryndock, Eric; Robison, Richard; Meyers, Craig

    2016-06-01

    Ultrasound probes used in endocavitary procedures have been shown to be contaminated with high-risk HPV after routine use and HPV is also known to be resistant to some high level disinfectants (HLDs). This study compared efficacy of two leading ultrasound probe HLD methods; liquid ortho-phthalaldehyde (Cidex® OPA) and an automated device using sonicated hydrogen peroxide (trophon® EPR) against HPV16 and HPV18 in a hard-surface carrier test. Native HPV16 and HPV18 virions were generated in organotypic epithelial raft cultures. Viral lysates were dried onto carriers with a 5% (v/v) protein soil. Efficacy tests were performed against the automated device at 35% and 31.5% H2 O2 and 0.55% OPA in quadruplicate with matched input, neutralization, and cytotoxicity controls. Hypochlorite was included as a positive control. Infectivity was determined by the abundance (qRT-PCR) of the spliced E1^E4 transcript in infected recipient cells. The automated HLD device showed excellent efficacy against HPV16 and HPV18 (>5 log10 reductions in infectivity) whereas OPA showed minimal efficacy (<0.6 log10 reductions). While HPV is highly resistant to OPA, sonicated hydrogen peroxide offers an effective disinfection solution for ultrasound probes. Disinfection methods that are effective against HPV should be adopted where possible. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Medical Virology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Erectile Dysfunction and Sexual Hormone Levels in Men With Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Efficacy of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Bin; Lin, Qi-Chang; Zeng, Hui-Qing; Jiang, Xing-Tang; Chen, Bo; Chen, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) and serum sexual hormone levels were evaluated in men with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In these patients, the efficacy of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) was determined. The 207 men (mean age 44.0 ± 11.1 years) enrolled in the study were stratified within four groups based on their apnea-hypopnea index score: simple snoring (n = 32), mild OSA (n = 29), moderate OSA (n = 38), and severe OSA (n = 108). The International Index of Erectile Dysfunction-5 (IIEF-5) score was obtained from each patient, and blood samples for the analysis of sexual hormones (prolactin, luteotropin, follicle-stimulating hormone, estradiol, progestin, and testosterone) were drawn in the morning after polysomnography. The IIEF-5 test and serum sexual hormone measurements were repeated after 3 months of CPAP treatment in 53 men with severe OSA. The prevalence of ED was 60.6 % in OSA patients overall and 72.2 % in those with severe OSA. Compared with the simple snoring group, patients with severe OSA had significantly lower testosterone levels (14.06 ± 5.62 vs. 17.02 ± 4.68, p = .018) and lower IIEF-5 scores (16.33 ± 6.50 vs. 24.09 ± 1.94, p = .001). The differences in the other sexual hormones between groups were not significant. After 3 months of CPAP treatment, there were no significant changes in sexual hormone levels, but the IIEF-5 score had improved significantly (18.21 ± 4.05 vs. 19.21 ± 3.86, p = .001). Severe OSA patients have low testosterone concentration and high ED prevalence. IIEF-5 scores increased significantly after CPAP treatment, but there was no effect on serum testosterone levels.

  12. Demographic and clinical factors correlating with high levels of psychological distress in HIV-positive women living in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Anita C; Light, Lucia; Burchell, Ann N; Gardner, Sandra; Rourke, Sean B; Wobeser, Wendy; Loutfy, Mona R

    2014-01-01

    The concept of psychological distress includes a range of emotional states with symptoms of depression and anxiety and has yet to be reported in HIV-positive women living in Ontario, Canada, who are known to live with contributing factors. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, severity, and correlates of psychological distress among women accessing HIV care participating in the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). The K10 is a 10-item, five-level response scale. K10 values range from 10 to 50 with values less than or equal to 19 categorized as not clinically significant, scores between 20 and 24 as moderate levels, 25-29 as high, and 30-50 as very high psychological distress. Correlates of psychological distress were assessed using the Pearson's chi-square test and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Moderate, high, and very high levels of psychological distress were experienced by 16.9, 10.4, and 15.1% of the 337 women in our cohort, respectively, with 57.6% reporting none. Psychological distress levels greater than 19, correlated with being unemployed (vs. employed/student/retired; AOR = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.13-0.83), living in a household without their child/children (AOR = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.33-4.52), CD4 counts < 200 cells/mm(3) (AOR = 2.07, 95% CI: 0.89-4.80), and to a lesser degree an education of some college or less (vs. completed college or higher; AOR=1.71, 95% CI: 0.99-2.95). Age and ethnicity, a priori variables of interest, did not correlate with psychological distress. Findings suggest that socioeconomic factors which shape the demography of women living with HIV in Ontario, low CD4 counts, and losing the opportunity to care for their child/children has a significant relationship with psychological distress. Approaches to manage psychological distress should address and make considerations for the lived experiences of women since they can act as potential barriers to

  13. Impact of fire, landscape position, aspect, and soil depth on microbial extracellular enzyme activities in the Jemez River Basin Critical Zone Observatory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairbanks, D.; Murphy, M. A.; Frost, G.; Chorover, J.; Gallery, R. E.; Rich, V. I.

    2014-12-01

    Fire frequency and severity are increasing across the western US, and post-fire recovery and effects on critical zone structure are not fully understood. Resident microbiota (bacteria and fungi) transform the majority of carbon in ecosystems, and the structure of these communities influence seedling establishment and the trajectory of vegetative recovery as well as biogeochemical cycling. We surveyed changes in microbial composition and activity after wildfire to better understand soil microbial resilience and fire ecology. Specifically, we assessed potential extracellular enzyme activities in response to fire severity across landscape position and aspect. We sampled 18 days after containment of the June 2013 Thompson Ridge Fire in the Jemez River Basin Critical Zone Observatory, across a gradient of burn severities in a mixed-conifer zero order basin. We subsampled six depths through the surface soil profile and measured potential activities of seven hydrolytic enzymes using established fluorometric techniques. Four of these enzymes hydrolyze C-rich substrates (β-glucosidase [BG], β-D-cellubiosidase [CB], xylosidase [XYL], and α-glucosidase [AG], two hydrolyze N-rich substrates N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase [NAG] and leucine aminopeptidase [LAP]), and one hydrolyzes a P-rich substrate (acid phosphatase [PHOS]). Results showed decreased activities with depth for BG, CB, and LAP. Significantly higher potential enzyme activity was observed for convergent sites relative to planar or divergent sites across all depths sampled. Additionally, we looked at shifts in enzyme nutrient acquisition ratios that correspond with resource limitations relative to microbial stoichiometric demands. Higher acquisition potential is interpreted as greater resource allocation towards nutrient acquisition. Results showed a variance in resource acquisition potential with depth for C relative to N, with greater resources being allocated towards acquiring C at shallower depth. Conversely

  14. Low frequency of positive skin tests in asthmatic patients infected with Schistosoma mansoni exposed to high levels of mite allergens.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Manoel; Almeida, Maria C; Figueiredo, Joanemile P; Atta, Ajax M; Mendes, Carlos M C; Araújo, Maria I; Taketomi, Ernesto A; Terra, Silvia A; Silva, Deise A O; Carvalho, Edgar M

    2004-04-01

    Helminthic infections and allergic diseases are highly prevalent in many parts of the world. Although skin reactivity to indoor allergens is decreased in subjects from helminthic endemic areas, the degree of exposure to mite allergens has not yet been investigated in these areas. This study evaluated the association between exposure to dust mites and skin reactivity to mite allergens in subjects with a history of wheezing in the last 12 months selected from a rural endemic area for schistosomiasis (group I, n = 21), and two non-Schistosoma mansoni endemic locale, a rural area (group II, n = 21) and a urban slum area (group III, n = 21). All subjects were evaluated by skin prick tests with mite allergens, and for total and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) against dust mites, antibodies for S. mansoni, and for intestinal parasites. Dust samples from each subjects' home were quantified for mite allergen and species of the mite identification. Except for S. mansoni infection which was more prevalent in group I than in groups II and III (p < 0.0001), the prevalence of intestinal parasites, and total and specific IgE levels were similar for all groups. Despite the levels of mite allergens and specifically to Der p 1 detected in dust samples of subjects home from all three areas, the frequency of positive skin reactivity to mite antigens was significantly lower (19.0%) in subjects from group I relative to group II (76.2%) and group III (57.1%; p < 0.001). This result suggests that S. mansoni infection could modulate the immediate hypersensitivity skin response to mite allergens in highly exposed subjects.

  15. A unified methodology based on sparse field level sets and boosting algorithms for false positives reduction in lung nodules detection.

    PubMed

    Saien, Soudeh; Moghaddam, Hamid Abrishami; Fathian, Mohsen

    2017-08-09

    This work aims to develop a unified methodology for the false positives reduction in lung nodules computer-aided detection schemes. The 3D region of each detected nodule candidate is first reconstructed using the sparse field method for accurately segmenting