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Sample records for critically ill-the time

  1. Time Critical

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covault, Craig

    2005-01-01

    NASA's decision to slip launch of the space shuttle return-to-flight mission to no earlier than May 22 will provide engineers more time to complete final, rigorous assessments before the orbiter Discovery's final Flight Readiness Review (FRR). That FRR is now planned for May 10-11. It will be used by NASA and contractor managers to reaffirm the readiness of all program elements to support the new target to return the U.S. space program to manned launch operations. It will also enable them to better raise any final issues that could slip the target again, if necessary, to complete more work and documentation.

  2. Stress Hyperglycemia in Pediatric Critical Illness: The Intensive Care Unit Adds to the Stress!

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Vijay

    2012-01-01

    Stress hyperglycemia (SH) commonly occurs during critical illness in children. The historical view that SH is beneficial has been questioned in light of evidence that demonstrates the association of SH with worse outcomes. In addition to intrinsic changes in glucose metabolism and development of insulin resistance, specific intensive care unit (ICU) practices may influence the development of SH during critical illness. Mechanical ventilation, vasoactive infusions, renal replacement therapies, cardiopulmonary bypass and extracorporeal life support, therapeutic hypothermia, prolonged immobility, nutrition support practices, and the use of medications are all known to mediate development of SH in critical illness. Tight glucose control (TGC) to manage SH has emerged as a promising therapy to improve outcomes in critically ill adults, but results have been inconclusive. Large variations in ICU practices across studies likely resulted in inconsistent results. Future studies of TGC need to take into account the impact of commonly used ICU practices and, ideally, standardize protocols in an attempt to improve the accuracy of conclusions from such studies. PMID:22401321

  3. Time-Critical Volume Rendering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Arie

    1998-01-01

    For the past twelve months, we have conducted and completed a joint research entitled "Time- Critical Volume Rendering" with NASA Ames. As expected, High performance volume rendering algorithms have been developed by exploring some new faster rendering techniques, including object presence acceleration, parallel processing, and hierarchical level-of-detail representation. Using our new techniques, initial experiments have achieved real-time rendering rates of more than 10 frames per second of various 3D data sets with highest resolution. A couple of joint papers and technique reports as well as an interactive real-time demo have been compiled as the result of this project.

  4. Erik Erikson: critical times, critical theory.

    PubMed

    Douvan, E

    1997-01-01

    The work and legacy of Erik Erikson are described in this brief outline of his career, his theories, and his impact on psychoanalysis, psychology, history, and the broader culture. His conception of the adolescent task-weaving internal tastes, talents, and values together with elements of one's life history and the demands of one's culture into a coherent identity-has had profound effects on developmental psychology and the way in which sophisticated youth construct and describe their lives. His extension of development through adulthood and old age established the field of life course development. His emphasis on the impact of history and culture on development was a critical element in the developing field of ego psychology. Many of his major contributions can be fruitfully understood in the context of his personal history and individual qualities.

  5. Stimulated Whole Blood Cytokine Release as a Biomarker of Immunosuppression in the Critically Ill: The Need for a Standardized Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Segre, Elisabetta; Fullerton, James N.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Reduced ex vivo lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated whole blood pro-inflammatory cytokine release is a hallmark of immunosuppression in the critically ill and predicts adverse clinical outcomes. No standard technique for performing the assay currently exists. The impact of methodological heterogeneity was determined. Design, Setting, Subjects, and Interventions: Clinical experimental study set in a research laboratory. Venous blood from 5 to 10 healthy volunteers/experiment (total participant group: 18 subjects, 72% men, mean age 32) was stimulated ex vivo to evaluate the effect of variables identified via literature review on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) release. These included sample handling, stimulation technique, and incubation conditions. Reporting convention was additionally assessed. Main Results: Measured TNFα release was significantly altered by source of LPS, concentration of LPS employed, duration and temperature of incubation prior to supernatant aspiration, and predilution of blood (repeated measures ANOVA, all P < 0.01). Sample handling prior to stimulation (anticoagulant employed, time to LPS addition, and storage temperature) also caused significant alterations in TNFα release. Considerable interindividual variation was observed (range 1,024–4,649 pg/mL, mean 2,339 pg/mL). Normalization by monocyte count and pretreatment with a cyclooxygenase inhibitor (indomethacin 10 μM) reduced the coefficient of variation from 47.17% to 32.09%. Conclusions: Inconsistency in interlaboratory methodology and reporting impairs interpretation, comparability, and reproducibility of the ex vivo LPS-stimulated whole blood cytokine release assay. A standardized validated technique is required. The advent of trials of immunoadjuvant agents renders this a clinical imperative. PMID:27089173

  6. A "Critical" Time for HRD?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sambrook, Sally

    2004-01-01

    Human resource development (HRD) is a concept associated with human resource management, and, by this association, one component of the broader concept of management. Much work has examined management practices from a critical stance and this article provides a brief review. However, HRD is a more recent concept, still emerging and finding space…

  7. Universal short-time quantum critical dynamics in imaginary time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Shuai; Mai, Peizhi; Zhong, Fan

    2014-04-01

    We propose a scaling theory for the universal imaginary-time quantum critical dynamics for both short and long times. We discover that there exists a universal critical initial slip related to a small initial order parameter M0. In this stage, the order parameter M increases with the imaginary time τ as M ∝M0τθ with a universal initial-slip exponent θ. For the one-dimensional transverse-field Ising model, we estimate θ to be 0.373, which is markedly distinct from its classical counterpart. Apart from the local order parameter, we also show that the entanglement entropy exhibits universal behavior in the short-time region. As the critical exponents in the early stage and in equilibrium are identical, we apply the short-time dynamics method to determine quantum critical properties. The method is generally applicable in both the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson paradigm and topological phase transitions.

  8. Non-Time-Critical Removal Actions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Removal responses are used to address contamination that poses an immediate threat to human health and the environment. The documents below are a partial list of EPA's guidance for removals, with a focus on Non-Time-Critical Removal Actions (NTCRA).

  9. Discrete Time Crystals: Rigidity, Criticality, and Realizations.

    PubMed

    Yao, N Y; Potter, A C; Potirniche, I-D; Vishwanath, A

    2017-01-20

    Despite being forbidden in equilibrium, spontaneous breaking of time translation symmetry can occur in periodically driven, Floquet systems with discrete time-translation symmetry. The period of the resulting discrete time crystal is quantized to an integer multiple of the drive period, arising from a combination of collective synchronization and many body localization. Here, we consider a simple model for a one-dimensional discrete time crystal which explicitly reveals the rigidity of the emergent oscillations as the drive is varied. We numerically map out its phase diagram and compute the properties of the dynamical phase transition where the time crystal melts into a trivial Floquet insulator. Moreover, we demonstrate that the model can be realized with current experimental technologies and propose a blueprint based upon a one dimensional chain of trapped ions. Using experimental parameters (featuring long-range interactions), we identify the phase boundaries of the ion-time-crystal and propose a measurable signature of the symmetry breaking phase transition.

  10. Discrete Time Crystals: Rigidity, Criticality, and Realizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, N. Y.; Potter, A. C.; Potirniche, I.-D.; Vishwanath, A.

    2017-01-01

    Despite being forbidden in equilibrium, spontaneous breaking of time translation symmetry can occur in periodically driven, Floquet systems with discrete time-translation symmetry. The period of the resulting discrete time crystal is quantized to an integer multiple of the drive period, arising from a combination of collective synchronization and many body localization. Here, we consider a simple model for a one-dimensional discrete time crystal which explicitly reveals the rigidity of the emergent oscillations as the drive is varied. We numerically map out its phase diagram and compute the properties of the dynamical phase transition where the time crystal melts into a trivial Floquet insulator. Moreover, we demonstrate that the model can be realized with current experimental technologies and propose a blueprint based upon a one dimensional chain of trapped ions. Using experimental parameters (featuring long-range interactions), we identify the phase boundaries of the ion-time-crystal and propose a measurable signature of the symmetry breaking phase transition.

  11. Generalized dynamic scaling for quantum critical relaxation in imaginary time.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuyi; Yin, Shuai; Zhong, Fan

    2014-10-01

    We study the imaginary-time relaxation critical dynamics of a quantum system with a vanishing initial correlation length and an arbitrary initial order parameter M0. We find that in quantum critical dynamics, the behavior of M0 under scale transformations deviates from a simple power law, which was proposed for very small M0 previously. A universal characteristic function is then suggested to describe the rescaled initial magnetization, similar to classical critical dynamics. This characteristic function is shown to be able to describe the quantum critical dynamics in both short- and long-time stages of the evolution. The one-dimensional transverse-field Ising model is employed to numerically determine the specific form of the characteristic function. We demonstrate that it is applicable as long as the system is in the vicinity of the quantum critical point. The universality of the characteristic function is confirmed by numerical simulations of models belonging to the same universality class.

  12. Scheduling time-critical graphics on multiple processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Tom W.; Hughes, John F.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes an algorithm for the scheduling of time-critical rendering and computation tasks on single- and multiple-processor architectures, with minimal pipelining. It was developed to manage scientific visualization scenes consisting of hundreds of objects, each of which can be computed and displayed at thousands of possible resolution levels. The algorithm generates the time-critical schedule using progressive-refinement techniques; it always returns a feasible schedule and, when allowed to run to completion, produces a near-optimal schedule which takes advantage of almost the entire multiple-processor system.

  13. Time-critical multirate scheduling using contemporary real-time operating system services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckhardt, D. E., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Although real-time operating systems provide many of the task control services necessary to process time-critical applications (i.e., applications with fixed, invariant deadlines), it may still be necessary to provide a scheduling algorithm at a level above the operating system in order to coordinate a set of synchronized, time-critical tasks executing at different cyclic rates. The scheduling requirements for such applications and develops scheduling algorithms using services provided by contemporary real-time operating systems.

  14. Managing critically Ill hematology patients: Time to think differently.

    PubMed

    Azoulay, Elie; Pène, Frédéric; Darmon, Michael; Lengliné, Etienne; Benoit, Dominique; Soares, Marcio; Vincent, Francois; Bruneel, Fabrice; Perez, Pierre; Lemiale, Virginie; Mokart, Djamel

    2015-11-01

    The number of patients living with hematological malignancies (HMs) has increased steadily over time. This is the result of intensive and effective treatments that also increase the probability of infiltrative, infectious or toxic life threatening event. Over the last two decades, the number of patients with HMs admitted to the ICU increased and their mortality has dropped sharply. ICU patients with HMs require an extensive diagnostic workup and the optimal use of ICU treatments to identify the reason for ICU admission and the nature of the complication that explains organ dysfunctions. Mortality of ARDS or septic shock is up to 50%, respectively. In this review, the authors share their experience with managing critically ill patients with HMs. They discuss the main aspects of the diagnostic and therapeutic management of critically ill patients with HMs and argue that outcomes have improved over time and that many classic determinants of mortality have become irrelevant.

  15. Critical Timing without a Timer for Embryonic Development

    PubMed Central

    Tufcea, Daniel E.; François, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Timing of embryonic development is precisely controlled, but the mechanisms underlying biological timers are still unclear. Here, a validated model for timing under control of Sonic Hedgehog is revisited and generalized to an arbitrary number of genes. The developmental dynamics where a temporal sequence of gene expression recapitulates a steady-state spatial pattern can be realized through a simple network close to criticality, controlled by the duration of exposure to a morphogen. Criticality simultaneously accounts for many observed biological properties, such as timing, multistability, and canalization of genetic expression. This process can be parsimoniously generalized in many dimensions with a minimum number of genes, all repressing each other with asymmetrical strengths, which also explains sequential activation of different fates. Separation of timescales allows for a simple analytical interpretation. Finally, it is shown that even in the presence of noise, coupling between cells preserves criticality and robust patterning. The model offers a simple theoretical framework for the study of emergent developmental timers. PMID:26488664

  16. Real Time Free Cortisol Quantification Among Critically Ill Children

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Jerry J.; Donaldson, Amy; Barker, Ruth M.; Meert, Kathleen L.; Harrison, Rick; Carcillo, Joseph A.; Anand, Kanwaljeet J. S.; Newth, Christopher J. L.; Berger, John; Willson, Douglas F.; Jack, Rhona; Nicholson, Carol; Dean, J. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Ascertainment of adrenal function assessing free (FC) rather that total (TC) cortisol may be beneficial for the diagnosis of critical illness related cortisol insufficiency (CIRCI). We hypothesized that centrifugal ultrafiltration (CUF) would provide timely FC data that highly correlated with the gold standard, but logistically cumbersome, equilibrium dialysis (EQD) technique when the FC fractions were identically quantified by chemiluminescence immunoassay. We also hypothesized that FC would correlate with illness severity in a large cohort of critically ill children. Design Prospective, multi-institutional, observational cohort investigation. Setting Seven pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) within the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network. Patients 165 critically ill children across the spectrum of illness severity. Interventions Blood sampling. Measurements and main results Time to derive plasma FC concentrations following CUF or EQD fractionation with chemiluminescence immunoassay was ~2 versus ~24 hours, respectively. Utilizing CUF, mean plasma FC was 4.1 ± 6.7 ug/dL (median 1.6, range 0.2-43.6), representing an average of 15.2 ± 9.4% of total cortisol. Nearly 60% of subjects exhibited FC < 2 and 30% < 0.8 ug/dL, previously suggested threshold concentrations for defining CIRCI. Plasma FC concentrations comparing CUF versus EQD fractionation demonstrated a strong correlation (R2 = 0.97). For FC < 2 ug/dL Bland-Altman analysis revealed minimal negative bias for the CUF technique. Illness severity assessed by PRISM III correlated moderately with FC and percent TC as FC. Conclusions Determination of CUF fractionated FC was fast and results correlated highly with EQD fractionated FC. Many children exhibited FC < 2 and < 0.8 ug/dL, but did not demonstrate clinical evidence of CIRCI. This study ascertains that real time FC quantification is feasible to

  17. Short-Time Behavior and Criticality of Driven Lattice Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Urna; Volpati, Valerio; Caracciolo, Sergio; Gambassi, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    The nonequilibrium short-time critical behaviors of driven and undriven lattice gases are investigated via Monte Carlo simulations in two spatial dimensions starting from a fully disordered initial configuration. In particular, we study the time evolution of suitably defined order parameters, which account for the strong anisotropy introduced by the homogeneous drive. We demonstrate that, at short times, the dynamics of all these models is unexpectedly described by an effective continuum theory in which transverse fluctuations, i.e., fluctuations averaged along the drive, are Gaussian, irrespective of this being actually the case in the stationary state. Strong numerical evidence is provided, in remarkable agreement with that theory, both for the driven and undriven lattice gases, which therefore turn out to display the same short-time dynamics.

  18. Exploring Gigabyte Datasets in Real Time: Architectures, Interfaces and Time-Critical Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Steve; Gerald-Yamasaki, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Architectures and Interfaces: The implications of real-time interaction on software architecture design: decoupling of interaction/graphics and computation into asynchronous processes. The performance requirements of graphics and computation for interaction. Time management in such an architecture. Examples of how visualization algorithms must be modified for high performance. Brief survey of interaction techniques and design, including direct manipulation and manipulation via widgets. talk discusses how human factors considerations drove the design and implementation of the virtual wind tunnel. Time-Critical Design: A survey of time-critical techniques for both computation and rendering. Emphasis on the assignment of a time budget to both the overall visualization environment and to each individual visualization technique in the environment. The estimation of the benefit and cost of an individual technique. Examples of the modification of visualization algorithms to allow time-critical control.

  19. Critical time scales for advection-diffusion-reaction processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellery, Adam J.; Simpson, Matthew J.; McCue, Scott W.; Baker, Ruth E.

    2012-04-01

    The concept of local accumulation time (LAT) was introduced by Berezhkovskii and co-workers to give a finite measure of the time required for the transient solution of a reaction-diffusion equation to approach the steady-state solution [A. M. Berezhkovskii, C. Sample, and S. Y. Shvartsman, Biophys. J.BIOJAU0006-349510.1016/j.bpj.2010.07.045 99, L59 (2010); A. M. Berezhkovskii, C. Sample, and S. Y. Shvartsman, Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.83.051906 83, 051906 (2011)]. Such a measure is referred to as a critical time. Here, we show that LAT is, in fact, identical to the concept of mean action time (MAT) that was first introduced by McNabb [A. McNabb and G. C. Wake, IMA J. Appl. Math.IJAMDM0272-496010.1093/imamat/47.2.193 47, 193 (1991)]. Although McNabb's initial argument was motivated by considering the mean particle lifetime (MPLT) for a linear death process, he applied the ideas to study diffusion. We extend the work of these authors by deriving expressions for the MAT for a general one-dimensional linear advection-diffusion-reaction problem. Using a combination of continuum and discrete approaches, we show that MAT and MPLT are equivalent for certain uniform-to-uniform transitions; these results provide a practical interpretation for MAT by directly linking the stochastic microscopic processes to a meaningful macroscopic time scale. We find that for more general transitions, the equivalence between MAT and MPLT does not hold. Unlike other critical time definitions, we show that it is possible to evaluate the MAT without solving the underlying partial differential equation (pde). This makes MAT a simple and attractive quantity for practical situations. Finally, our work explores the accuracy of certain approximations derived using MAT, showing that useful approximations for nonlinear kinetic processes can be obtained, again without treating the governing pde directly.

  20. Critical Slowing Down in Time-to-Extinction: An Example of Critical Phenomena in Ecology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gandhi, Amar; Levin, Simon; Orszag, Steven

    1998-01-01

    We study a model for two competing species that explicitly accounts for effects due to discreteness, stochasticity and spatial extension of populations. The two species are equally preferred by the environment and do better when surrounded by others of the same species. We observe that the final outcome depends on the initial densities (uniformly distributed in space) of the two species. The observed phase transition is a continuous one and key macroscopic quantities like the correlation length of clusters and the time-to-extinction diverge at a critical point. Away from the critical point, the dynamics can be described by a mean-field approximation. Close to the critical point, however, there is a crossover to power-law behavior because of the gross mismatch between the largest and smallest scales in the system. We have developed a theory based on surface effects, which is in good agreement with the observed behavior. The course-grained reaction-diffusion system obtained from the mean-field dynamics agrees well with the particle system.

  1. Critical Time Intervention: Model Description and Implications for the Significance of Timing in Social Work Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Daniel B.; Mandiberg, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Relatively little attention has been paid to the dimension of time in the design of social work interventions. Critical time intervention (CTI), an empirically supported psychosocial intervention intended to reduce the risk of homelessness by enhancing continuity of support for individuals with severe mental illness (SMI) during the transition…

  2. Scheduling Real-Time Mixed-Criticality Jobs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruah, Sanjoy K.; Bonifaci, Vincenzo; D'Angelo, Gianlorenzo; Li, Haohan; Marchetti-Spaccamela, Alberto; Megow, Nicole; Stougie, Leen

    Many safety-critical embedded systems are subject to certification requirements; some systems may be required to meet multiple sets of certification requirements, from different certification authorities. Certification requirements in such "mixed-criticality" systems give rise to interesting scheduling problems, that cannot be satisfactorily addressed using techniques from conventional scheduling theory. In this paper, we study a formal model for representing such mixed-criticality workloads. We demonstrate first the intractability of determining whether a system specified in this model can be scheduled to meet all its certification requirements, even for systems subject to two sets of certification requirements. Then we quantify, via the metric of processor speedup factor, the effectiveness of two techniques, reservation-based scheduling and priority-based scheduling, that are widely used in scheduling such mixed-criticality systems, showing that the latter of the two is superior to the former. We also show that the speedup factors are tight for these two techniques.

  3. Applying Cognitive Work Analysis to Time Critical Targeting Functionality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-01

    Target List/Dynamic Target Queue (DTL/ DTQ ) in the same place. Figure 4-27 shows the task steps involved in achieving Goal 7. 4- 30 Figure 4-27...GUI WG to brainstorm the order of columns in the DTL/ DTQ Table, a critical component of the TCTF CUI, with successful results, which were...Cognitive Work Analysis DTD Display Task Description DTL/ DTQ Dynamic Target List/Dynamic Target Queue FDO Fighter Duty Officer FEBA Forward Edge

  4. Time for Teacher Learning, Planning Critical for School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Eileen G.

    2017-01-01

    Teachers are dedicated, wise, and thoughtful change agents who need more time to identify problems they see in their schools or classrooms and work individually and collectively on solutions. They need both more time for individual planning and time to collaborate with colleagues who teach the same grades or the same subjects. A productive day of…

  5. Seeking worldwide professional consensus on the principles of end-of-life care for the critically ill. The Consensus for Worldwide End-of-Life Practice for Patients in Intensive Care Units (WELPICUS) study.

    PubMed

    Sprung, Charles L; Truog, Robert D; Curtis, J Randall; Joynt, Gavin M; Baras, Mario; Michalsen, Andrej; Briegel, Josef; Kesecioglu, Jozef; Efferen, Linda; De Robertis, Edoardo; Bulpa, Pierre; Metnitz, Philipp; Patil, Namrata; Hawryluck, Laura; Manthous, Constantine; Moreno, Rui; Leonard, Sara; Hill, Nicholas S; Wennberg, Elisabet; McDermid, Robert C; Mikstacki, Adam; Mularski, Richard A; Hartog, Christiane S; Avidan, Alexander

    2014-10-15

    Great differences in end-of-life practices in treating the critically ill around the world warrant agreement regarding the major ethical principles. This analysis determines the extent of worldwide consensus for end-of-life practices, delineates where there is and is not consensus, and analyzes reasons for lack of consensus. Critical care societies worldwide were invited to participate. Country coordinators were identified and draft statements were developed for major end-of-life issues and translated into six languages. Multidisciplinary responses using a web-based survey assessed agreement or disagreement with definitions and statements linked to anonymous demographic information. Consensus was prospectively defined as >80% agreement. Definitions and statements not obtaining consensus were revised based on comments of respondents, and then translated and redistributed. Of the initial 1,283 responses from 32 countries, consensus was found for 66 (81%) of the 81 definitions and statements; 26 (32%) had >90% agreement. With 83 additional responses to the original questionnaire (1,366 total) and 604 responses to the revised statements, consensus could be obtained for another 11 of the 15 statements. Consensus was obtained for informed consent, withholding and withdrawing life-sustaining treatment, legal requirements, intensive care unit therapies, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, shared decision making, medical and nursing consensus, brain death, and palliative care. Consensus was obtained for 77 of 81 (95%) statements. Worldwide consensus could be developed for the majority of definitions and statements about end-of-life practices. Statements achieving consensus provide standards of practice for end-of-life care; statements without consensus identify important areas for future research.

  6. Accessible high performance computing solutions for near real-time image processing for time critical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielski, Conrad; Lemoine, Guido; Syryczynski, Jacek

    2009-09-01

    High Performance Computing (HPC) hardware solutions such as grid computing and General Processing on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPGPU) are now accessible to users with general computing needs. Grid computing infrastructures in the form of computing clusters or blades are becoming common place and GPGPU solutions that leverage the processing power of the video card are quickly being integrated into personal workstations. Our interest in these HPC technologies stems from the need to produce near real-time maps from a combination of pre- and post-event satellite imagery in support of post-disaster management. Faster processing provides a twofold gain in this situation: 1. critical information can be provided faster and 2. more elaborate automated processing can be performed prior to providing the critical information. In our particular case, we test the use of the PANTEX index which is based on analysis of image textural measures extracted using anisotropic, rotation-invariant GLCM statistics. The use of this index, applied in a moving window, has been shown to successfully identify built-up areas in remotely sensed imagery. Built-up index image masks are important input to the structuring of damage assessment interpretation because they help optimise the workload. The performance of computing the PANTEX workflow is compared on two different HPC hardware architectures: (1) a blade server with 4 blades, each having dual quad-core CPUs and (2) a CUDA enabled GPU workstation. The reference platform is a dual CPU-quad core workstation and the PANTEX workflow total computing time is measured. Furthermore, as part of a qualitative evaluation, the differences in setting up and configuring various hardware solutions and the related software coding effort is presented.

  7. Oral transit time: a critical review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    SOARES, Thais Jacóe; MORAES, Danielle Pedroni; de MEDEIROS, Gisele Chagas; SASSI, Fernanda Chiarion; ZILBERSTEIN, Bruno; de ANDRADE, Claudia Regina Furquim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Oral transit time is one of the parameters observed during the clinical assessment of the swallowing function. The importance of this parameter is due to its impact on the total duration of a meal, whose consequence can be an unfavorable nutritional prognostic. Objective To document scientific papers that measure oral transit time in healthy subjects. Method The review followed the steps proposed by the Cochrane Handbook. The search was done via the PubMed database through the use of descriptors related to the oral phase of swallowing, as well as to types of food consistency. Results The articles on the theme had different definitions for oral transit time, as well as heterogeneity of tested volumes, age and gender of the participants. The times found varied from 0.35 s to 1.54 s for liquids, from 0.39 s to 1.05 s for pasty foods and from 1 s to 12.8 s for solid foods. Also, regardless of volume or consistency, oral transit time in elderly people is significantly longer than in adults. Conclusion There's no consensus in the literature about oral transit time in healthy subjects. However, this parameter should be valued during the assessment of the swallowing function due to its negative impact on the dynamics of swallowing, which can cause high energy expenditure during feeding. PMID:26176255

  8. Advancing critical care: time to kiss the right frog

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The greatest advances in critical care over the past two decades have been achieved through doing less to the patient. We have learnt through salutary experience that our burgeoning Master-of-the-Universe capabilities and the oh-so-obvious stratagems instilled in us from youth were often ineffective or even deleterious. This re-education process, however, is far from complete. We are now rightly agonizing over the need for better characterization of pathophysiology, earlier identification of disease processes and a more directed approach to therapeutic intervention. We need to delineate the point at which intrinsic and protective adaptation ends and true harmful pathology begins, and how our iatrogenic meddling either helps or hinders. We need to improve trial design in the heterogeneous populations we treat, and to move away from syndromic fixations that, while offering convenience, have generally proved counterproductive. Importantly, we need to discover a far more holistic approach to patient care, evolving from the prevailing overmedicalized, number-crunching perspective towards a true multidisciplinary effort that embraces psychological as well as physiological well-being, with appropriate pharmacological minimization or supplementation. Complacency, with an unfair apportion of blame on the patient for not getting better, is the biggest threat to continued improvement. PMID:23514321

  9. Time Critical Targeting Concept of Operations (CONOPS) Interactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    video.  1 Low Earth Orbit (LEO) SBR constellation overhead 40-80% of time with SAR and GMTI.  1 Rivet Joint orbit or Signals Intelligence (SIGINT...1217, Springer -Verlag 1997, 203-208. Keithley, H, “Space Based Radar Utility Analysis”, DSC FY02 Study Task 1 (DSC 02-1), Volume III Tracking

  10. Global Positioning System Timing Criticality Assessment - Preliminary Performance Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    average person doesn’t realize how much infrastructure is based on GPS and how vulnerable it is,” said Brent Ledvina of Virginia Tech, who helped...incorrect time or location appears on the intended receiver. “It looks exactly like a real GPS signal,” said Ledvina . “Everything looks completely

  11. A Critical Analysis of Time Allocation in Psychoeducational Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Gordon E.; Valentine, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This study provides results form a national survey examining school psychologists' allocation of time in psychoeducational evaluations. A total of 177 participants with an average of 13.45 years professional experience in school psychology, representing 39 states, participated in the survey. The results indicate that school psychologists spend the…

  12. Automatic Verification of Timing Constraints for Safety Critical Space Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Javier; Parra, Pablo; Sanchez Prieto, Sebastian; Polo, Oscar; Bernat, Guillem

    2015-09-01

    In this paper is presented an automatic process of verification. We focus in the verification of scheduling analysis parameter. This proposal is part of process based on Model Driven Engineering to automate a Verification and Validation process of the software on board of satellites. This process is implemented in a software control unit of the energy particle detector which is payload of Solar Orbiter mission. From the design model is generated a scheduling analysis model and its verification model. The verification as defined as constraints in way of Finite Timed Automatas. When the system is deployed on target the verification evidence is extracted as instrumented points. The constraints are fed with the evidence, if any of the constraints is not satisfied for the on target evidence the scheduling analysis is not valid.

  13. Application of queueing models to multiprogrammed computer systems operating in a time-critical environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckhardt, D. E., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A model of a central processor (CPU) which services background applications in the presence of time critical activity is presented. The CPU is viewed as an M/M/1 queueing system subject to periodic interrupts by deterministic, time critical process. The Laplace transform of the distribution of service times for the background applications is developed. The use of state of the art queueing models for studying the background processing capability of time critical computer systems is discussed and the results of a model validation study which support this application of queueing models are presented.

  14. Notification: Evaluation of Time-Critical Removal Actions for Superfund Sites

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OPE-FY15-0019, February 4, 2015. The EPA OIG plans to begin preliminary research on the evaluation of the effectiveness of time-critical removal actions for Superfund sites on February 24, 2015.

  15. Memo: Request for Approval of a Time-Critical Removal Action and $2 Million

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The purpose of this Action Memorandum is to request and document approval of a time-critical removal action described herein for the Mississippi Phosphates Corporation Site (Site) located at 601 Industrial Road, Pascagoula, Jackson County, Mississippi.

  16. Incubation time for sub-critical crack propagation in SiC-SiC composites

    SciTech Connect

    El-Azab, A.; Ghoniem, N.M.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate the time for sub-critical crack propagation is SiC-SiC composites at high temperatures. The effects of fiber thermal creep on the relaxation of crack bridging tractions in SiC-SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) is considered in the present work, with the objective of studying the time-to propagation of sub-critical matrix cracks in this material at high temperatures. Under the condition of fiber stress relaxation in the bridiging zone, it is found that the crack opening and the stress intensity factor increase with time for sub-critical matrix cracks. The time elapsed before the stress intensity reaches the critical value for crack propagation is calculated as a function of the initial crack length, applied stress and temperature. Stability domains for matrix cracks are defined, which provide guidelines for conducting high-temperature crack propagation experiments.

  17. Methods for Detecting Early Warnings of Critical Transitions in Time Series Illustrated Using Simulated Ecological Data

    PubMed Central

    Dakos, Vasilis; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Brock, William A.; Ellison, Aaron M.; Guttal, Vishwesha; Ives, Anthony R.; Kéfi, Sonia; Livina, Valerie; Seekell, David A.; van Nes, Egbert H.; Scheffer, Marten

    2012-01-01

    Many dynamical systems, including lakes, organisms, ocean circulation patterns, or financial markets, are now thought to have tipping points where critical transitions to a contrasting state can happen. Because critical transitions can occur unexpectedly and are difficult to manage, there is a need for methods that can be used to identify when a critical transition is approaching. Recent theory shows that we can identify the proximity of a system to a critical transition using a variety of so-called ‘early warning signals’, and successful empirical examples suggest a potential for practical applicability. However, while the range of proposed methods for predicting critical transitions is rapidly expanding, opinions on their practical use differ widely, and there is no comparative study that tests the limitations of the different methods to identify approaching critical transitions using time-series data. Here, we summarize a range of currently available early warning methods and apply them to two simulated time series that are typical of systems undergoing a critical transition. In addition to a methodological guide, our work offers a practical toolbox that may be used in a wide range of fields to help detect early warning signals of critical transitions in time series data. PMID:22815897

  18. Critical Issue Bibliography (CRIB) Sheet: Part-Time and Adjunct Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Higher Education, Washington, DC.

    This CRitical Issue Bibliography (CRIB) Sheet focuses on issues related to part-time and adjunct faculty. It is clear that part-time faculty are now a substantial entity within academe and need to be understood better. This CRIB sheet lists resources that address: (1) trends in contracts, numbers, or conditions of part-time faculty; (2) issues…

  19. Developmental critical windows and sensitive periods as three-dimensional constructs in time and space.

    PubMed

    Burggren, Warren W; Mueller, Casey A

    2015-01-01

    A critical window (sensitive period) represents a period during development when an organism's phenotype is responsive to intrinsic or extrinsic (environmental) factors. Such windows represent a form of developmental phenotypic plasticity and result from the interaction between genotype and environment. Critical windows have typically been defined as comprising discrete periods in development with a distinct starting time and end time, as identified by experiments following an on and an off protocol. Yet in reality, periods of responsiveness during development are likely more ambiguous that depicted. Our goal is to extend the concept of the developmental critical window by introducing a three-dimensional construct in which time during development, dose of the stressor applied, and the resultant phenotypic modification can be utilized to more realistically define a critical window. Using the example of survival of the brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) during exposure to different salinity levels during development, we illustrate that it is not just stressor dose or exposure time but the interaction of these two factors that results in the measured phenotypic change, which itself may vary within a critical window. We additionally discuss a systems approach to critical windows, in which the components of a developing system--whether they be molecular, physiological, or morphological--may show differing responses with respect to time and dose. Thus, the plasticity of each component may contribute to a broader overall system response.

  20. The general critical analysis for continuous-time UPPAM recurrent neural networks.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Chen; Jing, Wen-Feng; Fang, Jian; Wang, Yu-Ping

    2016-01-29

    The uniformly pseudo-projection-anti-monotone (UPPAM) neural network model, which can be considered as the unified continuous-time neural networks (CNNs), includes almost all of the known CNNs individuals. Recently, studies on the critical dynamics behaviors of CNNs have drawn special attentions due to its importance in both theory and applications. In this paper, we will present the analysis of the UPPAM network under the general critical conditions. It is shown that the UPPAM network possesses the global convergence and asymptotical stability under the general critical conditions if the network satisfies one quasi-symmetric requirement on the connective matrices, which is easy to be verified and applied. The general critical dynamics have rarely been studied before, and this work is an attempt to gain an meaningful assurance of general critical convergence and stability of CNNs. Since UPPAM network is the unified model for CNNs, the results obtained here can generalize and extend the existing critical conclusions for CNNs individuals, let alone those non-critical cases. Moreover, the easily verified conditions for general critical convergence and stability can further promote the applications of CNNs.

  1. Aircraft Alerting Systems Standardization Study. Volume I. Candidate System Validation and Time-Critical Display Evaluation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    provided by John Hendrickson, ARD 340, the contract monitor. V & VI TABLE OF CONTENTS legal... No. Tite Pegs No. L l s tort............................ vii...102 5.2.2-1 Summary Table for Time-Critical Response Time.................. 104 uWil LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ADI Attitude Director Indicator ALPA

  2. Supervisory-level interruption recovery in time-critical control tasks.

    PubMed

    Sasangohar, Farzan; Scott, Stacey D; Cummings, M L

    2014-07-01

    This paper investigates the effectiveness of providing interruption recovery assistance in the form of an interactive visual timeline of historical events on a peripheral display in support of team supervision in time-critical settings. As interruptions can have detrimental effects on task performance, particularly in time-critical work environments, there is growing interest in the design of tools to assist people in resuming their pre-interruption activity. A user study was conducted to evaluate the use of an interactive event timeline that provides assistance to human supervisors in time-critical settings. The study was conducted in an experimental platform that emulated a team of operators and a mission commander performing a time-critical unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) mission. The study results showed that providing interruption assistance enabled people to recover from interruptions faster and more accurately. These results have implications for interface design that could be adopted in similar time-critical environments such as air-traffic control, process control, and first responders.

  3. Universal time-dependent dispersion properties for diffusion in a one-dimensional critically tilted potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guérin, T.; Dean, D. S.

    2017-01-01

    We consider the time-dependent dispersion properties of overdamped tracer particles diffusing in a one-dimensional periodic potential under the influence of an additional constant tilting force F . The system is studied in the region where the force is close to the critical value Fc at which the barriers separating neighboring potential wells disappear. We show that, when F crosses the critical value, the shape of the mean-square displacement (MSD) curves is strongly modified. We identify a diffusive regime at intermediate-time scales with an effective diffusion coefficient which is much larger than the late-time diffusion coefficient for F >Fc , whereas for F time and intermediate-time diffusive regimes are indistinguishable. Explicit asymptotic regimes for the MSD curves are identified at all time scales.

  4. Real-time Determination of F-region Critical Frequencies Using SuperDARN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, J. M.; Bristow, W. A.

    2004-12-01

    In addition to detecting backscatter from ionospheric field-aligned irregularities, SuperDARN radars are sensitive to ground scatter returns. The profiles of these returns vary in a systematic manner with frequency and can be used to determine HF propagation characteristics and ionospheric critical frequencies. The large spatial coverage and good time resolution provided by the SuperDARN network make it possible to produce maps of high-latitude critical frequencies approximately every 15 minutes. Recent upgrades to the SuperDARN operating software provide the capability to receive the ground scatter profiles and angle of arrival information in real-time via the internet and we use these data to construct near real-time maps of F-region critical frequencies. In this paper, the technique will be described and representative data will be discussed.

  5. Modeling, Evaluation and Detection of Jamming Attacks in Time-Critical Wireless Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    the delivery of a time-critical message and the behavior of a gambler who intends to win a gambling game. Therefore, by gambling -based modeling and...attempts to disrupt the delivery of a time-critical message and the behavior of a gambler who intends to win a gambling game. Therefore, by gambling -based...as the behavior of a gambler who intends to win each play in a game to collect enough fortune to achieve his gambling goal of σ dollars. Motivated by

  6. Time-Critical Cooperative Path Following of Multiple UAVs over Time-Varying Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Contract No. W911NF-06-1-0330. †PhD Candidate, Department of Mechanical Science & Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; xar- gay ...vehicle is allowed to exchange only its coordination parameter ξi(t) with its neigh- bors Gi, which are defined by the possibly time-varying communications

  7. Critical ischemia time in a model of spinal cord section. A study performed on dogs

    PubMed Central

    Garcia Martinez, David; Rosales Corral, Sergio A.; Flores Soto, Mario E.; Velarde Silva, Gustavo; Portilla de Buen, Eliseo

    2006-01-01

    Vascular changes after acute spinal cord trauma are important factors that predispose quadriplegia, in most cases irreversible. Repair of the spinal blood flow helps the spinal cord recovery. The average time to arrive and perform surgery is 3 h in most cases. It is important to determine the critical ischemia time in order to offer better functional prognosis. A spinal cord section and vascular clamping of the spinal anterior artery at C5–C6 model was used to determine critical ischemia time. The objective was to establish a critical ischemia time in a model of acute spinal cord section. Four groups of dogs were used, anterior approach and vascular clamp of spinal anterior artery with 1, 2, 3, and 4 h of ischemia and posterior hemisection of spinal cord at C5–C6 was performed. Clinical evaluation was made during 12 weeks and morphological evaluation at the end of this period. We obtained a maximal neurological coordination at 23 days average. Two cases showed sequels of right upper limb paresis at 1 and 3 ischemia hours. There was nerve conduction delay of 56% at 3 h of ischemia. Morphological examination showed 25% of damaged area. The VIII and IX Rexed’s laminae were the most affected. The critical ischemia time was 3 h. Dogs with 4 h did not exhibit any recovery. PMID:17024402

  8. Critical time delay of the pineal melatonin rhythm in humans due to weak electromagnetic exposure.

    PubMed

    Halgamuge, Malka N

    2013-08-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) can increase free radicals, activate the stress response and alter enzyme reactions. Intracellular signalling is mediated by free radicals and enzyme kinetics is affected by radical pair recombination rates. The magnetic field component of an external EMF can delay the "recombination rate" of free radical pairs. Magnetic fields thus increase radical life-times in biological systems. Although measured in nanoseconds, this extra time increases the potential to do more damage. Melatonin regulates the body's sleep-wake cycle or circadian rhythm. The World Health Organization (WHO) has confirmed that prolonged alterations in sleep patterns suppress the body's ability to make melatonin. Considerable cancer rates have been attributed to the reduction of melatonin production as a result of jet lag and night shift work. In this study, changes in circadian rhythm and melatonin concentration are observed due to the external perturbation of chemical reaction rates. We further analyze the pineal melatonin rhythm and investigate the critical time delay or maturation time of radical pair recombination rates, exploring the impact of the mRNA degradation rate on the critical time delay. The results show that significant melatonin interruption and changes to the circadian rhythm occur due to the perturbation of chemical reaction rates, as also reported in previous studies. The results also show the influence of the mRNA degradation rate on the circadian rhythm's critical time delay or maturation time. The results support the hypothesis that exposure to weak EMFs via melatonin disruption can adversely affect human health.

  9. Online versus Face-to-Face Training of Critical Time Intervention: A Matching Cluster Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivet, Jeffrey; Zerger, Suzanne; Greene, R. Neil; Kenney, Rachael R.; Herman, Daniel B.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of online education to providers who serve people experiencing homelessness, comparing online and face-to-face training of Critical Time Intervention (CTI), an evidence-based case management model. The authors recruited 184 staff from nineteen homeless service agencies to participate in one of two training…

  10. Time Critical Targeting: Predictive Vs Reactionary Methods An Analysis For The Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    Chapter 5 Results & Conclusions Having investigated the different methods and techniques that can be used for time critical targeting in the......Targeting: Predictive Vs Reactionary Methods An Analysis For The Future 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  11. Identifying the Critical Time Period for Information Extraction when Recognizing Sequences of Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, Jamie S.; Williams, A. Mark

    2008-01-01

    The authors attempted to determine the critical time period for information extraction when recognizing play sequences in soccer. Although efforts have been made to identify the perceptual information underpinning such decisions, no researchers have attempted to determine "when" this information may be extracted from the display. The authors…

  12. Pedagogy in Catastrophic Times: Giroux and the Tasks of Critical Public Intellectuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Doug

    2012-01-01

    This article reflects on Henry Giroux's work as a critical public intellectual and the important role his work plays in fostering educated hope and insurgent possibilities during our present times of daily and longer term catastrophes. In addition to attempting to capture the experience of what it means and how it feels to read Giroux along with…

  13. Burst wait time simulation of CALIBAN reactor at delayed super-critical state

    SciTech Connect

    Humbert, P.; Authier, N.; Richard, B.; Grivot, P.; Casoli, P.

    2012-07-01

    In the past, the super prompt critical wait time probability distribution was measured on CALIBAN fast burst reactor [4]. Afterwards, these experiments were simulated with a very good agreement by solving the non-extinction probability equation [5]. Recently, the burst wait time probability distribution has been measured at CEA-Valduc on CALIBAN at different delayed super-critical states [6]. However, in the delayed super-critical case the non-extinction probability does not give access to the wait time distribution. In this case it is necessary to compute the time dependent evolution of the full neutron count number probability distribution. In this paper we present the point model deterministic method used to calculate the probability distribution of the wait time before a prescribed count level taking into account prompt neutrons and delayed neutron precursors. This method is based on the solution of the time dependent adjoint Kolmogorov master equations for the number of detections using the generating function methodology [8,9,10] and inverse discrete Fourier transforms. The obtained results are then compared to the measurements and Monte-Carlo calculations based on the algorithm presented in [7]. (authors)

  14. Critical moments in time: reflections on the development of orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sheil, Margaret M

    2012-08-01

    This paper reflects on the historical development of orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight analyzers that have been used routinely for high sensitivity analyses of biological molecules for more than a decade. In particular, the role of the late Michael Guilhaus from the University of New South Wales in Australia is highlighted. This account shows that like most advances in science, successful commercialization of new technology is not straightforward and is often the result of critical contributions of different people and organizations at different points in time.

  15. Critical capacity, travel time delays and travel time distribution of rapid mass transit systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legara, Erika Fille; Monterola, Christopher; Lee, Kee Khoon; Hung, Gih Guang

    2014-07-01

    We set up a mechanistic agent-based model of a rapid mass transit system. Using empirical data from Singapore's unidentifiable smart fare card, we validate our model by reconstructing actual travel demand and duration of travel statistics. We subsequently use this model to investigate two phenomena that are known to significantly affect the dynamics within the RTS: (1) overloading in trains and (2) overcrowding in the RTS platform. We demonstrate that by varying the loading capacity of trains, a tipping point emerges at which an exponential increase in the duration of travel time delays is observed. We also probe the impact on the rail system dynamics of three types of passenger growth distribution across stations: (i) Dirac delta, (ii) uniform and (iii) geometric, which is reminiscent of the effect of land use on transport. Under the assumption of a fixed loading capacity, we demonstrate the dependence of a given origin-destination (OD) pair on the flow volume of commuters in station platforms.

  16. Cyber-Critical Infrastructure Protection Using Real-Time Payload-Based Anomaly Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Düssel, Patrick; Gehl, Christian; Laskov, Pavel; Bußer, Jens-Uwe; Störmann, Christof; Kästner, Jan

    With an increasing demand of inter-connectivity and protocol standardization modern cyber-critical infrastructures are exposed to a multitude of serious threats that may give rise to severe damage for life and assets without the implementation of proper safeguards. Thus, we propose a method that is capable to reliably detect unknown, exploit-based attacks on cyber-critical infrastructures carried out over the network. We illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method by conducting experiments on network traffic that can be found in modern industrial control systems. Moreover, we provide results of a throughput measuring which demonstrate the real-time capabilities of our system.

  17. Characteristics of Real-Time, Non-Critical Incident Debriefing Practices in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Nadir, Nur-Ain; Bentley, Suzanne; Papanagnou, Dimitrios; Bajaj, Komal; Rinnert, Stephan; Sinert, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Benefits of post-simulation debriefings as an educational and feedback tool have been widely accepted for nearly a decade. Real-time, non-critical incident debriefing is similar to post-simulation debriefing; however, data on its practice in academic emergency departments (ED), is limited. Although tools such as TeamSTEPPS® (Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety) suggest debriefing after complicated medical situations, they do not teach debriefing skills suited to this purpose. Anecdotal evidence suggests that real-time debriefings (or non-critical incident debriefings) do in fact occur in academic EDs;, however, limited research has been performed on this subject. The objective of this study was to characterize real-time, non-critical incident debriefing practices in emergency medicine (EM). Methods We conducted this multicenter cross-sectional study of EM attendings and residents at four large, high-volume, academic EM residency programs in New York City. Questionnaire design was based on a Delphi panel and pilot testing with expert panel. We sought a convenience sample from a potential pool of approximately 300 physicians across the four sites with the goal of obtaining >100 responses. The survey was sent electronically to the four residency list-serves with a total of six monthly completion reminder emails. We collected all data electronically and anonymously using SurveyMonkey.com; the data were then entered into and analyzed with Microsoft Excel. Results The data elucidate various characteristics of current real-time debriefing trends in EM, including its definition, perceived benefits and barriers, as well as the variety of formats of debriefings currently being conducted. Conclusion This survey regarding the practice of real-time, non-critical incident debriefings in four major academic EM programs within New York City sheds light on three major, pertinent points: 1) real-time, non-critical incident debriefing

  18. Service oriented architecture to support real-time implementation of artifact detection in critical care monitoring.

    PubMed

    Nizami, Shermeen; Green, James Robert; McGregor, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    The quality of automated real-time critical care monitoring is impacted by the degree of signal artifact present in clinical data. This is further complicated when different clinical rules applied for disease detection require source data at different frequencies and different signal quality. This paper proposes a novel multidimensional framework based on service oriented architecture to support real-time implementation of clinical artifact detection in critical care settings. The framework is instantiated through a Neonatal Intensive Care case study which assesses signal quality of physiological data streams prior to detection of late-onset neonatal sepsis. In this case study requirements and provisions of artifact and clinical event detection are determined for real-time clinical implementation, which forms the second important contribution of this paper.

  19. Universal time fluctuations in near-critical out-of-equilibrium quantum dynamics.

    PubMed

    Campos Venuti, Lorenzo; Zanardi, Paolo

    2014-02-01

    Out-of-equilibrium quantum systems display complex temporal patterns. Such time fluctuations are generically exponentially small in the system volume and therefore can be safely ignored in most of the cases. However, if one consider small quench experiments, time fluctuations can be greatly enhanced. We show that time fluctuations may become stronger than other forms of equilibrium quantum fluctuations if the quench is performed close to a critical point. For sufficiently relevant operators the full distribution function of dynamically evolving observable expectation values becomes a universal function uniquely characterized by the critical exponents and the boundary conditions. At regular points of the phase diagram and for nonsufficiently relevant operators the distribution becomes Gaussian. Our predictions are confirmed by an explicit calculation on the quantum Ising model.

  20. Spinodals and critical point using short-time dynamics for a simple model of liquid.

    PubMed

    Loscar, Ernesto S; Ferrara, C Gastón; Grigera, Tomás S

    2016-04-07

    We have applied the short-time dynamics method to the gas-liquid transition to detect the supercooled gas instability (gas spinodal) and the superheated liquid instability (liquid spinodal). Using Monte Carlo simulation, we have obtained the two spinodals for a wide range of pressure in sub-critical and critical conditions and estimated the critical temperature and pressure. Our method is faster than previous approaches and allows studying spinodals without needing equilibration of the system in the metastable region. It is thus free of the extrapolation problems present in other methods, and in principle could be applied to systems such as glass-forming liquids, where equilibration is very difficult even far from the spinodal. We have also done molecular dynamics simulations, where we find the method again able to detect the both spinodals. Our results are compared with different previous results in the literature and show a good agreement.

  1. The Role of Time-Limited Trials in Dialysis Decision Making in Critically Ill Patients.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Jennifer S; Holley, Jean L

    2016-02-05

    Technologic advances, such as continuous RRT, provide lifesaving therapy for many patients. AKI in the critically ill patient, a fatal diagnosis in the past, is now often a survivable condition. Dialysis decision making for the critically ill patient with AKI is complex. What was once a question solely of survival now is nuanced by an individual's definition of quality of life, personal values, and short- and long-term prognoses. Clinical evaluation of AKI in the critically ill is multifaceted. Treatment decision making requires consideration of the natural evolution of the patient's AKI within the context of the global prognosis. Situations are often marked by prognostic uncertainty and clinical unknowns. In the face of these uncertainties, establishment of patient-directed therapies is imperative. A time-limited trial of continuous RRT in this setting is often appropriate but difficult to execute. Using patient preferences as a clinical guide, a proper time-limited trial requires assessment of prognosis, elicitation of patient values, strong communication skills, clear documentation, and often, appropriate integration of palliative care services. A well conducted time-limited trial can avoid interprofessional conflict and provide support for the patient, family, and staff.

  2. Self-organized criticality, long-time correlations, and the standard transport paradigm

    SciTech Connect

    Krommes, J.A.

    2000-02-11

    Some aspects of low-frequency, long-wavelength fluctuations are considered. A stochastic model is used to show that power-law time correlations need not arise from self-organized criticality. A formula for the frequency spectrum of uncorrelated, overlapping avalanches is shown to be a special case of the spectral balance equation of renormalized statistical turbulence theory. It is argued that there need be no contradiction between the presence of long-time correlations and the existence of local transport coefficients.

  3. Time delay of critical images of a point source near the gravitational lens fold-caustic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, A.; Zhdanov, V.

    2016-06-01

    Within the framework of the analytical theory of the gravitational lensing we derive asymptotic formula for the time delay of critical images of apoint source, which is situated near a fold-caustic. We found corrections of the first and second order in powers of a parameter, which describescloseness of the source to the caustic. Our formula modifies earlier result by Congdon, Keeton &Nordgren (MNRAS, 2008) obtained in zero-orderapproximation. We have proved the hypothesis put forward by these authors that the first-order correction to the relative time delay of two criticalmages is identically zero. The contribution of the corrections is illustrated in model example by comparison with exact expression.

  4. Critical Spaces for Critical Times: Global Conversations in Literacy Research as an Open Professional Development and Practices Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albers, Peggy; Cho, A. Ram; Shin, Ji Hye; Pang, Myoung Eun; Angay-Crowder, Tuba; Jung, Jin Kyeong; Pace, Christi L.; Sena, Mandi; Turnbull, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This paper reflects an OER (Open Educational Resources) critical literacy project, Global Conversations in Literacy Research (GCLR), (www.globalconversationsinliteracy.wordpress.com), now in its fourth year. GCLR annually hosts seven web seminars presented by internationally recognized literacy and education scholars. We outline key dimensions of…

  5. Critical Keller-Segel meets Burgers on {{{S}}^{1}} : large-time smooth solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burczak, Jan; Granero-Belinchón, Rafael

    2016-12-01

    We show that solutions to the parabolic-elliptic Keller-Segel system on {{{S}}1} with critical fractional diffusion (- Δ ){{}\\frac{1{2}}} remain smooth for any initial data and any positive time. This disproves, at least in the periodic setting, the large-data-blowup conjecture by Bournaveas and Calvez [15]. As a tool, we show smoothness of solutions to a modified critical Burgers equation via a generalization of the ingenious method of moduli of continuity by Kiselev, Nazarov and Shterenberg [35] over a setting where the considered equation has no scaling. This auxiliary result may be interesting by itself. Finally, we study the asymptotic behavior of global solutions corresponding to small initial data, improving the existing results.

  6. Influence of time-dependent factors in the evaluation of critical infrastructure protection measures.

    SciTech Connect

    Buehring, W. A.; Samsa, M. E.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-03-28

    The examination of which protective measures are the most appropriate to be implemented in order to prevent, protect against, respond to, and recover from attacks on critical infrastructures and key resources typically involves a comparison of the consequences that could occur when the protective measure is implemented to those that could occur when it is not. This report describes a framework for evaluation that provides some additional capabilities for comparing optional protective measures. It illustrates some potentially important time-dependent factors, such as the implementation rate, that affect the relative pros and cons associated with widespread implementation of protective measures. It presents example results from the use of protective measures, such as detectors and pretrained responders, for an illustrative biological incident. Results show that the choice of an alternative measure can depend on whether or not policy and financial support can be maintained for extended periods of time. Choice of a time horizon greatly influences the comparison of alternatives.

  7. Automated implementation of rule-based expert systems with neural networks for time-critical applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramamoorthy, P. A.; Huang, Song; Govind, Girish

    1991-01-01

    In fault diagnosis, control and real-time monitoring, both timing and accuracy are critical for operators or machines to reach proper solutions or appropriate actions. Expert systems are becoming more popular in the manufacturing community for dealing with such problems. In recent years, neural networks have revived and their applications have spread to many areas of science and engineering. A method of using neural networks to implement rule-based expert systems for time-critical applications is discussed here. This method can convert a given rule-based system into a neural network with fixed weights and thresholds. The rules governing the translation are presented along with some examples. We also present the results of automated machine implementation of such networks from the given rule-base. This significantly simplifies the translation process to neural network expert systems from conventional rule-based systems. Results comparing the performance of the proposed approach based on neural networks vs. the classical approach are given. The possibility of very large scale integration (VLSI) realization of such neural network expert systems is also discussed.

  8. Predicting critical transitions in dynamical systems from time series using nonstationary probability density modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwasniok, Frank

    2013-11-01

    A time series analysis method for predicting the probability density of a dynamical system is proposed. A nonstationary parametric model of the probability density is estimated from data within a maximum likelihood framework and then extrapolated to forecast the future probability density and explore the system for critical transitions or tipping points. A full systematic account of parameter uncertainty is taken. The technique is generic, independent of the underlying dynamics of the system. The method is verified on simulated data and then applied to prediction of Arctic sea-ice extent.

  9. Predicting critical transitions in dynamical systems from time series using nonstationary probability density modeling.

    PubMed

    Kwasniok, Frank

    2013-11-01

    A time series analysis method for predicting the probability density of a dynamical system is proposed. A nonstationary parametric model of the probability density is estimated from data within a maximum likelihood framework and then extrapolated to forecast the future probability density and explore the system for critical transitions or tipping points. A full systematic account of parameter uncertainty is taken. The technique is generic, independent of the underlying dynamics of the system. The method is verified on simulated data and then applied to prediction of Arctic sea-ice extent.

  10. Critical care in the near future: patient-centered, beyond space and time boundaries.

    PubMed

    Cabrini, L; Landoni, G; Antonelli, M; Bellomo, R; Colombo, S; Negro, A; Pelosi, P; Zangrillo, A

    2015-10-16

    Modern Critical Care aims at improving patient-centered outcomes, not limited to survival. Recently, along with traditional research evaluating single drugs or procedures, more elusive elements have been evaluated, like organizational and teamwork aspects, delivery of critical care before Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission and after discharge. The aim of this review is to offer an up-to-date, comprehensive, and maybe "visionary" big picture of Critical Care in the near future beyond its traditional boundaries. In particular, we wish to suggest key elements that will allow a leap forward in terms of quality of care. Patient-centeredness will be the main issue, taking the patient's wishes into account more than in the past. This means improving communication with patients and their relatives, and pursuing a holistic approach: we should pay more attention to natural light, noise reduction, music, prevention of sleep fragmentation, soft colors for walls, privacy, psychological support. An open visiting policy should be the standard. End-of-Life practices should become centered on patient wishes and dignity. Rapid response teams will bring timely critical care services to patients outside ICUs, preventing avoidable adverse events and unplanned ICU admission. In ICU, standardized protocols, checklists, daily goals sheets, advanced information technology and multidisciplinary rounds will improve quality of care and safety. Multicenter studies will be made easier and research should become part of daily practice in most ICU. Finally, the post ICU syndrome should be prevented and treated by a well-designed longitudinal care model taking care of patients from the ICU to the outpatient setting.

  11. Reinforcement learning using a continuous time actor-critic framework with spiking neurons.

    PubMed

    Frémaux, Nicolas; Sprekeler, Henning; Gerstner, Wulfram

    2013-04-01

    Animals repeat rewarded behaviors, but the physiological basis of reward-based learning has only been partially elucidated. On one hand, experimental evidence shows that the neuromodulator dopamine carries information about rewards and affects synaptic plasticity. On the other hand, the theory of reinforcement learning provides a framework for reward-based learning. Recent models of reward-modulated spike-timing-dependent plasticity have made first steps towards bridging the gap between the two approaches, but faced two problems. First, reinforcement learning is typically formulated in a discrete framework, ill-adapted to the description of natural situations. Second, biologically plausible models of reward-modulated spike-timing-dependent plasticity require precise calculation of the reward prediction error, yet it remains to be shown how this can be computed by neurons. Here we propose a solution to these problems by extending the continuous temporal difference (TD) learning of Doya (2000) to the case of spiking neurons in an actor-critic network operating in continuous time, and with continuous state and action representations. In our model, the critic learns to predict expected future rewards in real time. Its activity, together with actual rewards, conditions the delivery of a neuromodulatory TD signal to itself and to the actor, which is responsible for action choice. In simulations, we show that such an architecture can solve a Morris water-maze-like navigation task, in a number of trials consistent with reported animal performance. We also use our model to solve the acrobot and the cartpole problems, two complex motor control tasks. Our model provides a plausible way of computing reward prediction error in the brain. Moreover, the analytically derived learning rule is consistent with experimental evidence for dopamine-modulated spike-timing-dependent plasticity.

  12. Timing of (supplemental) parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bost, Rianne Bc; Tjan, Dave Ht; van Zanten, Arthur Rh

    2014-01-01

    Supplemental parenteral nutrition (SPN) is used in a step-up approach when full enteral support is contraindicated or fails to reach caloric targets. Recent nutrition guidelines present divergent advices regarding timing of SPN in critically ill patients ranging from early SPN (<48 h after admission; EPN) to postponing initiation of SPN until day 8 after Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission (LPN). This systematic review summarizes results of prospective studies among adult ICU patients addressing the best timing of (supplemental) parenteral nutrition (S)PN. A structured PubMed search was conducted to identify eligible articles. Articles were screened and selected using predetermined criteria and appraised for relevance and validity. After critical appraisal, four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and two prospective observational studies remained. One RCT found a higher percentage of alive discharge from the ICU at day 8 in the LPN group compared to EPN group (p = 0.007) but no differences in ICU and in-hospital mortality. None of the other RCTs found differences in ICU or in-hospital mortality rates. Contradicting or divergent results on other secondary outcomes were found for ICU length of stay, hospital length of stay, infection rates, nutrition targets, duration of mechanical ventilation, glucose control, duration of renal replacement therapy, muscle wasting and fat loss. Although the heterogeneity in quality and design of relevant studies precludes firm conclusions, it is reasonable to assume that in adult critically ill patients, there are no clinically relevant benefits of EPN compared with LPN with respect to morbidity or mortality end points, when full enteral support is contraindicated or fails to reach caloric targets. However, considering that infectious morbidity and resolution of organ failure may be negatively affected through mechanisms not yet clearly understood and acquisition costs of parenteral nutrition are higher, the early

  13. Self-organized criticality in COADS temperature time series: Implications for climate prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Selvam, A.M.; Joshi, R.R.; Vijayakumar, R.

    1994-12-31

    Continuous periodogram spectral analyses of global COADS seasonal (Sept.--Nov.) mean surface (air and sea) temperature time series for the 28-year period 1961--1988 show that the spectra follow the universal inverse power law form of the statistical normal distribution. The inverse power law form for power spectra of temporal fluctuations is ubiquitous to real-world dynamical systems and was recently identified as the temporal signature of self-organized criticality. Self-organized criticality implies long range temporal correlations (persistence or memory). The periodogram analyses also give the following results: (1) Periodicities up to 5 years contribute up to 50% of the total variance. (2) The spectra are broad-band with embedded dominant wavebands, the dominant bandwidth increasing with period length. (3) Spiral-like structure of atmospheric flows is seen in the continuous smooth rotation of the phase angle with increase in period length. The above results are consistent with a recently developed nondeterministic cell dynamical system model for atmospheric flows. Identification of a universal spectrum for temperature time series rules out linear secular trends in global surface (air and sea) temperatures The man-made greenhouse gas warming effect will result in energy propagation to all scales of weather and will be manifested immediately in the intensification of high-frequency fluctuations such as the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycles.

  14. A Phosphorus Index that Combines Critical Source Areas and Transport Pathways using a Travel Time Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchanan, B. P.; Walter, T.; Shaw, S. B.; Easton, Z. M.

    2012-12-01

    Spatially distributed nonpoint source (NPS) pollution indices are used to identify areas in a watershed where potential pollutant loading coincides with runoff generating areas. However, most such indices either ignore the degree of hydrologic connectivity to the stream network or they estimate it based simply on the distance of the pollution generating area from an open channel. We propose an NPS pollution index based on runoff travel times from saturated variable source areas (VSA) to the natural stream network as a means for including hydrologic connectivity between source areas and streams. Although this method could be generalized to any pollutant transported by storm runoff, here we focus on phosphorus and refer to the index as the travel-time phosphorus index (TTPI). The TTPI was applied to a 38 km2 agricultural watershed in central New York and shown to yield realistic, spatially explicit predictions of critical phosphorus loading areas and routing pathways. One interesting finding is the potential role of man-made drainage networks (e.g., road- or agricultural-ditches) in NPS pollution and the possibilities of targeting water quality protection practices around or within these networks. Because the technique is GIS-based, relatively simple to apply, uses readily available geospatial data, and the theoretical underpinnings are transparent, it can provide a useful screening tool for water resource managers charged with the identification and remediation of critical NPS pollution source areas.

  15. A phosphorus index that combines critical source areas and transport pathways using a travel time approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchanan, Brian P.; Archibald, Josephine A.; Easton, Zachary M.; Shaw, Stephen B.; Schneider, Rebecca L.; Todd Walter, M.

    2013-04-01

    SummarySpatially distributed nonpoint source (NPS) pollution indices are used to identify areas in a watershed where potential pollutant loading coincides with runoff generating areas. However, most such indices either ignore the degree of hydrologic connectivity to the stream network or they estimate it based simply on the distance of the pollution generating area from an open channel. We propose an NPS pollution index based on runoff travel times from saturated variable source areas (VSAs) to the natural stream network as a means for including hydrologic connectivity between source areas and streams. Although this method could be generalized to any pollutant transported by storm runoff, here we focus on phosphorus and refer to the index as the travel-time phosphorus index (TTPI). The TTPI was applied to a 38 km2 agricultural watershed in central New York and shown to yield realistic, spatially explicit predictions of critical phosphorus loading areas and routing pathways. One interesting finding is the potential role of man-made drainage networks (e.g., road- or agricultural-ditches) in NPS pollution and the possibilities of targeting water quality protection practices around or within these networks. Because the technique is GIS-based, relatively simple to apply, uses readily available geospatial data, and the theoretical underpinnings are transparent, it can provide a useful screening tool for water resource managers charged with the identification and remediation of critical NPS pollution source areas.

  16. A perception experiment with time-critical graphics animation on the World-Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Hecht, H; Oesker, M; Kaiser, A; Civelek, H; Stecker, T

    1999-08-01

    The World-Wide Web offers a potentially interesting tool to collect data from a large and heterogeneous audience. While questionnaires have become rather common on the Internet, its potential reaches far beyond text processing. In principle, it is possible not only to perform interactive, dynamic experiments on the Web, but also to include graphical animation and time-critical responses, such as reaction times. We implemented a visual motion extrapolation task on the Web using the programming language Java, which can be interpreted by standard Web browsers such as Netscape or Internet Explorer. The data collected with this method turned out to be reliable and differed little from data obtained in a controlled laboratory setting, with the exception of conditions with fixation instruction. Thus, the Web can, generally speaking, be used for data collection of large sample sizes. The strengths and weaknesses of dynamic visual simulation experiments on the Internet are discussed.

  17. Time delay of critical images in the vicinity of cusp point of gravitational-lens systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, A.; Zhdanov, V.

    2016-12-01

    We consider approximate analytical formulas for time-delays of critical images of a point source in the neighborhood of a cusp-caustic. We discuss zero, first and second approximations in powers of a parameter that defines the proximity of the source to the cusp. These formulas link the time delay with characteristics of the lens potential. The formula of zero approximation was obtained by Congdon, Keeton & Nordgren (MNRAS, 2008). In case of a general lens potential we derived first order correction thereto. If the potential is symmetric with respect to the cusp axis, then this correction is identically equal to zero. For this case, we obtained second order correction. The relations found are illustrated by a simple model example.

  18. Real-time data system: Incorporating new technology in mission critical environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muratore, John F.; Heindel, Troy A.

    1990-01-01

    If the Space Station Freedom is to remain viable over its 30-year life span, it must be able to incorporate new information systems technologies. These technologies are necessary to enhance mission effectiveness and to enable new NASA missions, such as supporting the Lunar-Mars Initiative. Hi-definition television (HDTV), neural nets, model-based reasoning, advanced languages, CPU designs, and computer networking standards are areas which have been forecasted to make major strides in the next 30 years. A major challenge to NASA is to bring these technologies online without compromising mission safety. In past programs, NASA managers have been understandably reluctant to rely on new technologies for mission critical activities until they are proven in noncritical areas. NASA must develop strategies to allow inflight confidence building and migration of technologies into the trusted tool base. NASA has successfully met this challenge and developed a winning strategy in the Space Shuttle Mission Control Center. This facility, which is clearly among NASA's most critical, is based on 1970's mainframe architecture. Changes to the mainframe are very expensive due to the extensive testing required to prove that changes do not have unanticipated impact on critical processes. Systematic improvement efforts in this facility have been delayed due to this 'risk to change.' In the real-time data system (RTDS) we have introduced a network of engineering computer workstations which run in parallel to the mainframe system. These workstations are located next to flight controller operating positions in mission control and, in some cases, the display units are mounted in the traditional mainframe consoles. This system incorporates several major improvements over the mainframe consoles including automated fault detection by real-time expert systems and color graphic animated schematics of subsystems driven by real-time telemetry. The workstations have the capability of recording

  19. Light-scattering signal may indicate critical time zone to rescue brain tissue after hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Kawauchi, Satoko; Sato, Shunichi; Uozumi, Yoichi; Nawashiro, Hiroshi; Ishihara, Miya; Kikuchi, Makoto

    2011-02-01

    A light-scattering signal, which is sensitive to cellular/subcellular structural integrity, is a potential indicator of brain tissue viability because metabolic energy is used in part to maintain the structure of cells. We previously observed a unique triphasic scattering change (TSC) at a certain time after oxygen/glucose deprivation for blood-free rat brains; TSC almost coincided with the cerebral adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion. We examine whether such TSC can be observed in the presence of blood in vivo, for which transcranial diffuse reflectance measurement is performed for rat brains during hypoxia induced by nitrogen gas inhalation. At a certain time after hypoxia, diffuse reflectance intensity in the near-infrared region changes in three phases, which is shown by spectroscopic analysis to be due to scattering change in the tissue. During hypoxia, rats are reoxygenated at various time points. When the oxygen supply is started before TSC, all rats survive, whereas no rats survive when the oxygen supply is started after TSC. Survival is probabilistic when the oxygen supply is started during TSC, indicating that the period of TSC can be regarded as a critical time zone for rescuing the brain. The results demonstrate that light scattering signal can be an indicator of brain tissue reversibility.

  20. Analysis of locality-sensitive hashing for fast critical event prediction on physiological time series.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yongwook Bryce; O'Reilly, Una-May

    2016-08-01

    We apply the sublinear time, scalable locality-sensitive hashing (LSH) and majority discrimination to the problem of predicting critical events based on physiological waveform time series. Compared to using the linear exhaustive k-nearest neighbor search, our proposed method vastly speeds up prediction time up to 25 times while sacrificing only 1% of accuracy when demonstrated on an arterial blood pressure dataset extracted from the MIMIC2 database. We compare two widely used variants of LSH, the bit sampling based (L1LSH) and the random projection based (E2LSH) methods to measure their direct impact on retrieval and prediction accuracy. We experimentally show that the more sophisticated E2LSH performs worse than L1LSH in terms of accuracy, correlation, and the ability to detect false negatives. We attribute this to E2LSH's simultaneous integration of all dimensions when hashing the data, which actually makes it more impotent against common noise sources such as data misalignment. We also demonstrate that the deterioration of accuracy due to approximation at the retrieval step of LSH has a diminishing impact on the prediction accuracy as the speed up gain accelerates.

  1. Light-scattering signal may indicate critical time zone to rescue brain tissue after hypoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawauchi, Satoko; Sato, Shunichi; Uozumi, Yoichi; Nawashiro, Hiroshi; Ishihara, Miya; Kikuchi, Makoto

    2011-02-01

    A light-scattering signal, which is sensitive to cellular/subcellular structural integrity, is a potential indicator of brain tissue viability because metabolic energy is used in part to maintain the structure of cells. We previously observed a unique triphasic scattering change (TSC) at a certain time after oxygen/glucose deprivation for blood-free rat brains; TSC almost coincided with the cerebral adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion. We examine whether such TSC can be observed in the presence of blood in vivo, for which transcranial diffuse reflectance measurement is performed for rat brains during hypoxia induced by nitrogen gas inhalation. At a certain time after hypoxia, diffuse reflectance intensity in the near-infrared region changes in three phases, which is shown by spectroscopic analysis to be due to scattering change in the tissue. During hypoxia, rats are reoxygenated at various time points. When the oxygen supply is started before TSC, all rats survive, whereas no rats survive when the oxygen supply is started after TSC. Survival is probabilistic when the oxygen supply is started during TSC, indicating that the period of TSC can be regarded as a critical time zone for rescuing the brain. The results demonstrate that light scattering signal can be an indicator of brain tissue reversibility.

  2. Actor-critic-based optimal tracking for partially unknown nonlinear discrete-time systems.

    PubMed

    Kiumarsi, Bahare; Lewis, Frank L

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a partially model-free adaptive optimal control solution to the deterministic nonlinear discrete-time (DT) tracking control problem in the presence of input constraints. The tracking error dynamics and reference trajectory dynamics are first combined to form an augmented system. Then, a new discounted performance function based on the augmented system is presented for the optimal nonlinear tracking problem. In contrast to the standard solution, which finds the feedforward and feedback terms of the control input separately, the minimization of the proposed discounted performance function gives both feedback and feedforward parts of the control input simultaneously. This enables us to encode the input constraints into the optimization problem using a nonquadratic performance function. The DT tracking Bellman equation and tracking Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) are derived. An actor-critic-based reinforcement learning algorithm is used to learn the solution to the tracking HJB equation online without requiring knowledge of the system drift dynamics. That is, two neural networks (NNs), namely, actor NN and critic NN, are tuned online and simultaneously to generate the optimal bounded control policy. A simulation example is given to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. Time scales of critical events around the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary.

    PubMed

    Renne, Paul R; Deino, Alan L; Hilgen, Frederik J; Kuiper, Klaudia F; Mark, Darren F; Mitchell, William S; Morgan, Leah E; Mundil, Roland; Smit, Jan

    2013-02-08

    Mass extinctions manifest in Earth's geologic record were turning points in biotic evolution. We present (40)Ar/(39)Ar data that establish synchrony between the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary and associated mass extinctions with the Chicxulub bolide impact to within 32,000 years. Perturbation of the atmospheric carbon cycle at the boundary likely lasted less than 5000 years, exhibiting a recovery time scale two to three orders of magnitude shorter than that of the major ocean basins. Low-diversity mammalian fauna in the western Williston Basin persisted for as little as 20,000 years after the impact. The Chicxulub impact likely triggered a state shift of ecosystems already under near-critical stress.

  4. High critical temperature nodal superconductors as building block for time-reversal invariant topological superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trani, F.; Campagnano, G.; Tagliacozzo, A.; Lucignano, P.

    2016-10-01

    We study possible applications of high critical temperature nodal superconductors for the search for Majorana bound states in the DIII class. We propose a microscopic analysis of the proximity effect induced by d -wave superconductors on a semiconductor wire with strong spin-orbit coupling. We characterize the induced superconductivity on the wire employing a numerical self-consistent tight-binding Bogoliubov-de Gennes approach, and analytical considerations on the Green's function. The order parameter induced on the wire, the pair correlation function, and the renormalization of the Fermi points are analyzed in detail, as well as the topological phase diagram in the case of weak coupling. We highlight optimal Hamiltonian parameters to access the nontrivial topological phase which could display time-reversal invariant Majorana doublets at the boundaries of the wire.

  5. Static Analysis of Run-Time Errors in Embedded Critical Parallel C Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miné, Antoine

    We present a static analysis by Abstract Interpretation to check for run-time errors in parallel C programs. Following our work on Astrée, we focus on embedded critical programs without recursion nor dynamic memory allocation, but extend the analysis to a static set of threads. Our method iterates a slightly modified non-parallel analysis over each thread in turn, until thread interferences stabilize. We prove the soundness of the method with respect to a sequential consistent semantics and a reasonable weakly consistent memory semantics. We then show how to take into account mutual exclusion and thread priorities through partitioning over the scheduler state. We present preliminary experimental results analyzing a real program with our prototype, Thésée, and demonstrate the scalability of our approach.

  6. Infrared Sensor on Unmanned Aircraft Transmits Time-Critical Wildfire Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pestana, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Since 2006, NASA fs Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) and Ames Research Center have been perfecting and demonstrating a new capability for geolocation of wildfires and the real-time delivery of data to firefighters. Managed for the Western States Fire Mission, the Ames-developed Autonomous Modular Scanner (AMS), mounted beneath a wing of DFRC fs MQ-9 Ikhana remotely piloted aircraft, contains an infrared sensor capable of discriminating temperatures within 0.5 F (approx. = 0.3 C), up to 1,000 F (approx. = 540 C). The AMS operates like a digital camera with specialized filters to detect light energy at visible, infrared, and thermal wavelengths. By placing the AMS aboard unmanned aircraft, one can gather information and imaging for thousands of square miles, and provide critical information about the location, size, and terrain around fires to commanders in the field. In the hands of operational agencies, the benefits of this NASA research and development effort can support nationwide wildfire fighting efforts. The sensor also provides data for post-burn and vegetation regrowth analyses. The MQ-9 Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS), a version of the Predator-B, can operate over long distances, staying aloft for over 24 hours, and controlled via a satellite-linked command and control system. This same link is used to deliver the fire location data directly to fire incident commanders, in less than 10 minutes from the time of overflight. In the current method, similarly equipped short-duration manned aircraft, with limited endurance and range, must land, hand-carry, and process data, and then deliver information to the firefighters, sometimes taking several hours in the process. Meanwhile, many fires would have moved over great distances and changed direction. Speed is critical. The fire incident commanders must assess a very dynamic situation, and task resources such as people, ground equipment, and retardant-dropping aircraft, often in mountainous terrain obscured by

  7. Report: EPA Is Documenting How It Addresses Time-Critical Public Health Risks Under Its Superfund Authority

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #16-P-0059, December 9, 2015. We found that the EPA can provide documentation that imminent and substantial endangerment threats to public health at Superfund time-critical removal sites have been addressed.

  8. The role of buoyancy orientation on bubble residence times and the related critical heat flux

    SciTech Connect

    Brusstar, M.J.; Merte, H. Jr.; Keller, R.B.

    1995-12-31

    Measurements of the effects of buoyancy orientation on the critical heat flux (CHF) in subcooled forced convection boiling of R113 are presented, examining the motion of the vapor above the heater surface and its possible influence on the feed of liquid to the surface. At the low flow velocity of 4 cm/s used, the buoyancy force acting on the vapor dominates over the flow inertia, and the measured CHF values show a strong dependence on the orientation of the heater surface with respect to gravity. The transient and time-averaged behavior of the vapor above the surface at heat flux levels close to the CHF is characterized using hot wire anemometry. Through this, a description of the behavior of the largest vapor bubbles is obtained, which is considered to be of primary importance to the processes by which liquid is fed to the heater surface at these high heat flux levels. The mean residence time of the largest bubbles above the heater surface at a given heater orientation is also determined from the hot wire data. The reciprocal of the mean residence time is found to correlate directly with the measured CHF values for the different orientations and subcoolings, showing that the amount of energy absorbed in the vapor formation process during the bubble residence time is constant for all heater orientations at a given subcooling, and demonstrates that the motion of the largest bubbles determines the CHF. This suggests that the relative effects of buoyancy orientation on the CHF can be modeled by considering only the motion of the largest bubbles in the immediate vicinity of the heater surface.

  9. Analyzing the waiting time pattern for non-critical patients in the emergency department using six sigma approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majid, Noriza; Mohd Suradi, Nur Riza; Ahmad Sabri, Safura

    2013-04-01

    This study was conducted to examine the waiting time of non-critical patients in the Emergency Department (ED) of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) using the approach of six sigma (6σ). The define phase is completed by obtaining customers' critical to quality in UKMMC using survey. In measure phase, data on patients to the ED of UKMMC in May 2009 were gathered. Subsequently, analysis phase is performed using cause-and-effect diagram to identify root causes of the problems. Finally, improvements are proposed based on the identified problems. Results show that waiting time is critical to quality for health services in the ED.

  10. [Organ transplantation in Germany: Critical examination in times of scarce resources].

    PubMed

    Haverich, A; Haller, H

    2016-01-01

    Organ transplantation over the last 40 years has developed into a standardized successful procedure for the replacement of heart, kidney liver, lung, and pancreas. During this time, treatment strategies have greatly improved and novel procedures such as living related organ donation have been introduced. Despite these improvements, the number of organ transplants has stalled in recent years. In the face of increasing numbers of patients on the waiting list for organ transplantation, this situation is unacceptable and ways to improve the situation of organ transplantation have to be found.The reasons for the stagnant situation in organ transplantation are manifold and include lack of awareness in the general population, insufficient organ procurement in hospitals as well as problems in organ allocation. The criteria for organ allocation have been unfairly reported to EUROTRANSPLANT by some of the presently 44 centers in order of more rapidly receive an organ for their patients on the waiting list. The evolving discussions around this so-called transplantation scandal has further eroded support for organ transplantation in Germany. A critical assessment and a well-defined plan are necessary to improve the situation, increase the number of transplanted organs, and reduce the unacceptably long waiting time for patients in Germany.

  11. Real-time threat assessment for critical infrastructure protection: data incest and conflict in evidential reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandon, R.; Page, S.; Varndell, J.

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a novel application of Evidential Reasoning to Threat Assessment for critical infrastructure protection. A fusion algorithm based on the PCR5 Dezert-Smarandache fusion rule is proposed which fuses alerts generated by a vision-based behaviour analysis algorithm and a-priori watch-list intelligence data. The fusion algorithm produces a prioritised event list according to a user-defined set of event-type severity or priority weightings. Results generated from application of the algorithm to real data and Behaviour Analysis alerts captured at London's Heathrow Airport under the EU FP7 SAMURAI programme are presented. A web-based demonstrator system is also described which implements the fusion process in real-time. It is shown that this system significantly reduces the data deluge problem, and directs the user's attention to the most pertinent alerts, enhancing their Situational Awareness (SA). The end-user is also able to alter the perceived importance of different event types in real-time, allowing the system to adapt rapidly to changes in priorities as the situation evolves. One of the key challenges associated with fusing information deriving from intelligence data is the issue of Data Incest. Techniques for handling Data Incest within Evidential Reasoning frameworks are proposed, and comparisons are drawn with respect to Data Incest management techniques that are commonly employed within Bayesian fusion frameworks (e.g. Covariance Intersection). The challenges associated with simultaneously dealing with conflicting information and Data Incest in Evidential Reasoning frameworks are also discussed.

  12. Critical space-time networks and geometric phase transitions from frustrated edge antiferromagnetism.

    PubMed

    Trugenberger, Carlo A

    2015-12-01

    Recently I proposed a simple dynamical network model for discrete space-time that self-organizes as a graph with Hausdorff dimension d(H)=4. The model has a geometric quantum phase transition with disorder parameter (d(H)-d(s)), where d(s) is the spectral dimension of the dynamical graph. Self-organization in this network model is based on a competition between a ferromagnetic Ising model for vertices and an antiferromagnetic Ising model for edges. In this paper I solve a toy version of this model defined on a bipartite graph in the mean-field approximation. I show that the geometric phase transition corresponds exactly to the antiferromagnetic transition for edges, the dimensional disorder parameter of the former being mapped to the staggered magnetization order parameter of the latter. The model has a critical point with long-range correlations between edges, where a continuum random geometry can be defined, exactly as in Kazakov's famed 2D random lattice Ising model but now in any number of dimensions.

  13. Climatic and landscape controls on water transit times and silicate mineral weathering in the critical zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata-Rios, Xavier; McIntosh, Jennifer; Rademacher, Laura; Troch, Peter A.; Brooks, Paul D.; Rasmussen, Craig; Chorover, Jon

    2015-08-01

    The critical zone (CZ) can be conceptualized as an open system reactor that is continually transforming energy and water fluxes into an internal structural organization and dissipative products. In this study, we test a controlling factor on water transit times (WTT) and mineral weathering called Effective Energy and Mass Transfer (EEMT). We hypothesize that EEMT, quantified based on local climatic variables, can effectively predict WTT within—and mineral weathering products from—the CZ. This study tests whether EEMT or static landscape characteristics are good predictors of WTT, aqueous phase solutes, and silicate weathering products. Our study site is located around Redondo Peak, a rhyolitic volcanic resurgent dome, in northern New Mexico. At Redondo Peak, springs drain slopes along an energy gradient created by differences in terrain aspect. This investigation uses major solute concentrations, the calculated mineral mass undergoing dissolution, and the age tracer tritium and relates them quantitatively to EEMT and landscape characteristics. We found significant correlations between EEMT, WTT, and mineral weathering products. Significant correlations were observed between dissolved weathering products (Na+ and DIC), 3H concentrations, and maximum EEMT. In contrast, landscape characteristics such as contributing area of spring, slope gradient, elevation, and flow path length were not as effective predictive variables of WTT, solute concentrations, and mineral weathering products. These results highlight the interrelationship between landscape, hydrological, and biogeochemical processes and suggest that basic climatic data embodied in EEMT can be used to scale hydrological and hydrochemical responses in other sites.

  14. Critical space-time networks and geometric phase transitions from frustrated edge antiferromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trugenberger, Carlo A.

    2015-12-01

    Recently I proposed a simple dynamical network model for discrete space-time that self-organizes as a graph with Hausdorff dimension dH=4 . The model has a geometric quantum phase transition with disorder parameter (dH-ds) , where ds is the spectral dimension of the dynamical graph. Self-organization in this network model is based on a competition between a ferromagnetic Ising model for vertices and an antiferromagnetic Ising model for edges. In this paper I solve a toy version of this model defined on a bipartite graph in the mean-field approximation. I show that the geometric phase transition corresponds exactly to the antiferromagnetic transition for edges, the dimensional disorder parameter of the former being mapped to the staggered magnetization order parameter of the latter. The model has a critical point with long-range correlations between edges, where a continuum random geometry can be defined, exactly as in Kazakov's famed 2D random lattice Ising model but now in any number of dimensions.

  15. Locked-in syndrome: a critical and time-dependent diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Barbic, David; Levine, Zachary; Tampieri, Donatella; Teitelbau, Jeanne

    2012-09-01

    Locked-in syndrome (LIS) is the combination of quadriplegia and anarthria (inability to speak), with the preservation of consciousness. The majority of cases are caused by basilar artery occlusion leading to brainstem infarction in the ventral pons, yet numerous other etiologies have been described. The diagnosis of LIS is completely dependent on the physician's ability to know that these manifestations originate in the brainstem and the posterior circulation that supplies it. This knowledge hinges on the ability of the examining physician to conduct a rapid, yet appropriately thorough neurologic examination. With recent advances in interventional neuroradiology leading to improved patient outcomes, LIS has evolved into a critical, time-dependent diagnosis. Herein, we present the case of a male patient who initially presented to the emergency department of a community hospital with coma of unknown cause. By presenting this case and focusing on the importance of the occulomotor exam, we hope to help in the rapid identification and treatment of patients with LIS in the emergency room and avoid outcomes similar to that of our patient.

  16. Broadcast-quality-stereoscopic video in a time-critical entertainment and corporate environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, Jean-Philippe

    1995-03-01

    `reality present: Peter Gabrial and Cirque du Soleil' is a 12 minute original work directed and produced by Doug Brown, Jean-Philippe Gay & A. Coogan, which showcases creative content applications of commercial stereoscopic video equipment. For production, a complete equipment package including a Steadicam mount was used in support of the Ikegami LK-33 camera. Remote production units were fielded in the time critical, on-stage and off-stage environments of 2 major live concerts: Peter Gabriel's Secret World performance at the San Diego Sports Arena, and Cirque du Soleil's Saltimbanco performance in Chicago. Twin 60 Hz video channels were captured on Beta SP for maximum post production flexibility. Digital post production and field sequential mastering were effected in D-2 format at studio facilities in Los Angeles. The program was world premiered to a large public at the World of Music, Arts and Dance festivals in Los Angeles and San Francisco, in late 1993. It was presented to the artists in Los Angeles, Montreal and Washington D.C. Additional presentations have been made using a broad range of commercial and experimental stereoscopic video equipment, including projection systems, LCD and passive eyewear, and digital signal processors. Technical packages for live presentation have been fielded on site and off, through to the present.

  17. A critical time window for organismal interactions in a pelagic ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Benoit-Bird, Kelly J; McManus, Margaret A

    2014-01-01

    To measure organismal coherence in a pelagic ecosystem, we used moored sensors to describe the vertical dynamics of each step in the food chain in shelf waters off the west shore of Oahu, Hawaii. Horizontally extensive, intense aggregations of phytoplankton, zooplankton, and micronekton exhibited strong diel patterns in abundance and vertical distribution, resulting in a highly variable potential for interaction amongst trophic levels. Only around dusk did zooplankton layers overlap with phytoplankton layers. Shortly after sunset, micronekton ascended from the deep, aggregating on the island's shelf. Short-lived departures in migration patterns were detected in depth, vertical distribution, density, and total abundance of micronekton when zooplankton layers were present with typical patterns resuming within one hour. Layers of zooplankton began to disappear within 20 minutes of the arrival of micronekton with no layers present after 50 minutes. The effects of zooplankton layers cascaded even further up the food chain, affecting many behaviors of dolphins observed at dusk including their depth, group size, and inter-individual spacing. As a result of these changes in behavior, during a 30-minute window just after dusk, the number of feeding events observed for each dolphin and consequently the feeding time for each individual more than doubled when zooplankton layers were present. Dusk is a critical period for interactions amongst species in this system from phytoplankton to top predators. Our observations that short time windows can drive the structure and function of a complex suite of organisms highlight the importance of explicitly adding a temporal dimension at a scale relevant to individual organisms to our descriptions of heterogeneity in ocean ecosystems.

  18. A Critical Time Window for Organismal Interactions in a Pelagic Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Benoit-Bird, Kelly J.; McManus, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    To measure organismal coherence in a pelagic ecosystem, we used moored sensors to describe the vertical dynamics of each step in the food chain in shelf waters off the west shore of Oahu, Hawaii. Horizontally extensive, intense aggregations of phytoplankton, zooplankton, and micronekton exhibited strong diel patterns in abundance and vertical distribution, resulting in a highly variable potential for interaction amongst trophic levels. Only around dusk did zooplankton layers overlap with phytoplankton layers. Shortly after sunset, micronekton ascended from the deep, aggregating on the island's shelf. Short-lived departures in migration patterns were detected in depth, vertical distribution, density, and total abundance of micronekton when zooplankton layers were present with typical patterns resuming within one hour. Layers of zooplankton began to disappear within 20 minutes of the arrival of micronekton with no layers present after 50 minutes. The effects of zooplankton layers cascaded even further up the food chain, affecting many behaviors of dolphins observed at dusk including their depth, group size, and inter-individual spacing. As a result of these changes in behavior, during a 30-minute window just after dusk, the number of feeding events observed for each dolphin and consequently the feeding time for each individual more than doubled when zooplankton layers were present. Dusk is a critical period for interactions amongst species in this system from phytoplankton to top predators. Our observations that short time windows can drive the structure and function of a complex suite of organisms highlight the importance of explicitly adding a temporal dimension at a scale relevant to individual organisms to our descriptions of heterogeneity in ocean ecosystems. PMID:24844981

  19. Time-dependent modelling of extended thin decretion disks of critically rotating stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurfurst, Petr

    2013-06-01

    Gradually contracting massive stars may during their early evolution reach the phase of critical rotation when the further increase in rotational speed is no longer possible. The ejection of matter in the equatorial region can form the gaseous outflowing disk, which allows the star to remove the excess of its angular momentum. The outer part of the disk can extend up to very large distance from parent star, the size, structure and mass-loss rate as well as the time of the disk evolution depends on various physical parameters. We study the evolution of density, radial and azimuthal velocity and angular momentum loss rate of equatorial decretion disk even in very distant outer regions. We investigate how the physical characteristics of the disk depend on parameterized distribution of temperature and viscosity. We developed the numerical code for time-dependent hydrodynamical modelling based on explicit finite difference scheme on an Eulerian grid including viscosity and angular momentum. Advection steps are taken into account using van Leer's monotonic advection algorithm, in the source steps we apply the so-called ``operator-splitting'' method. According to parameterized disk temperature and viscosity distribution we calculate in various models the evolution of density, radial and azimuthal velocity and the angular momentum loss rate from the initial Keplerian state until the disk approaches the final stationary state. Consequently we obtain the corresponding locations of the disk outer radius and also the corresponding times of the disk evolution. From the models follows that for steeper outward decrease of temperature the sonic point radius and thus the angular momentum loss rate as well as the outer disk radius and the disk evolution time substantially increase. The similar dependence applies also in case of suggested outward decrease of viscosity. The model shows that rotational velocity of gaseous segments in the inner parts of disk remains nearly Keplerian

  20. Time-dependent Monte Carlo simulations of critical and Lifshitz points of the axial-next-nearest-neighbor Ising model.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Roberto; Alves, Nelson; Drugowich de Felício, Jose Roberto

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we study the critical behavior of second-order points, specifically the Lifshitz point (LP) of a three-dimensional Ising model with axial competing interactions [the axial-next-nearest-neighbor Ising (ANNNI) model], using time-dependent Monte Carlo simulations. We use a recently developed technique that helps us localize the critical temperature corresponding to the best power law for magnetization decay over time: (m(0)=1)~t(-β/νz), which is expected of simulations starting from initially ordered states. We obtain original results for the dynamic critical exponent z, evaluated from the behavior of the ratio F(2)(t)=(m(0)=0)/(2)(m(0)=1)~t(3/z), along the critical line up to the LP. We explore all the critical exponents of the LP in detail, including the dynamic critical exponent θ that characterizes the initial slip of magnetization and the global persistence exponent θ(g) associated with the probability P(t) that magnetization keeps its signal up to time t. Our estimates for the dynamic critical exponents at the Lifshitz point are z=2.34(2) and θ(g)=0.336(4), values that are very different from those of the three-dimensional Ising model (the ANNNI model without the next-nearest-neighbor interactions at the z axis, i.e., J(2)=0), i.e., z≈2.07 and θ(g)≈0.38. We also present estimates for the static critical exponents β and ν, obtained from extended time-dependent scaling relations. Our results for static exponents are in good agreement with previous works.

  1. Hospitalizations, Costs, and Mortality among Infants with Critical Congenital Heart Disease: How Important Is Timely Detection?

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Cora; Dawson, April; Grosse, Scott D.; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Olney, Richard S.; Tanner, Jean Paul; Kirby, Russell S.; Correia, Jane A.; Watkins, Sharon M.; Cassell, Cynthia H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) was recently added to the U.S. Recommended Uniform Screening Panel for newborns. States considering screening requirements may want more information about the potential impact of screening. This study examined potentially avoidable mortality among infants with late detected CCHD and assessed whether late detection was associated with increased hospital resource use during infancy. METHODS This was a state-wide, population-based, observational study of infants with CCHD (n =3603) born 1998 to 2007 identified by the Florida Birth Defects Registry. We examined 12 CCHD conditions that are targets of newborn screening. Late detection was defined as CCHD diagnosis after the birth hospitalization. Deaths potentially avoidable through screening were defined as those that occurred outside a hospital following birth hospitalization discharge and those that occurred within 3 days of an emergency readmission. RESULTS For 23% (n =825) of infants, CCHD was not detected during the birth hospitalization. Death occurred among 20% (n =568/2,778) of infants with timely detected CCHD and 8% (n =66/825) of infants with late detected CCHD, unadjusted for clinical characteristics. Potentially preventable deaths occurred in 1.8% (n =15/825) of infants with late detected CCHD (0.4% of all infants with CCHD). In multivariable models adjusted for selected characteristics, late CCHD detection was significantly associated with 52% more admissions, 18% more hospitalized days, and 35% higher inpatient costs during infancy. CONCLUSION Increased CCHD detection at birth hospitals through screening may lead to decreased hospital costs and avoid some deaths during infancy. Additional studies conducted after screening implementation are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24000201

  2. The Ideal Time Interval for Critical Care Severity-of-Illness Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Pollack, Murray M.; Dean, J. Michael; Butler, Jerry; Holubkov, Richard; Doctor, Allan; Meert, Kathleen L.; Newth, Christopher J. L.; Berg, Robert A.; Moler, Frank; Dalton, Heidi; Wessel, David L.; Berger, John; Harrison, Rick E.; Carcillo, Joseph A.; Shanley, Thomas P.; Nicholson, Carol E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Determine if the shortest sampling interval for laboratory variables used to estimate baseline severity of illness in pediatric critical care is equivalently sensitive across multiple sites without site-specific bias, while accounting for the vast majority of dysfunction compared to the standard 0 hour to 12 hour Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM) III score. Design Prospective, random patient selection. Setting General/Medical and Cardiac/Cardiovascular pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) in 8 hospitals. Patients Patients < 18 years admitted to the PICU. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results A total of 376 patients were included. Measurements for PRISM III laboratory variables (pH, PCO2, total CO2, PaO2, glucose, potassium, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, total (WBC) count, platelet count, PT/PTT) were recorded from 2 hours prior to the PICU admission through 12 hours of the PICU care except for data in the operating room. Decreasing the observation period from the 0 hour to 12 hours post-PICU admission resulted in progressive decreases in the PRISM III laboratory variables measured. However, allowing the observation period to start 2 hours prior to PICU admission to 4 hours reduced this loss to only 3.4%. Similar trends existed for each of the individual laboratory PRISM III variables. There was a nearly identical distribution of laboratory PRISM III points within the −2 hour to 4 hour period compared to the standard period. We did not detect any institutional bias using the −2 hour to 4 hour time period compared to the baseline. Conclusions Prognostically important laboratory physiologic data collected within the interval from two hours prior to PICU to admission through four hours after admission account for the vast majority of dysfunction that these variables would contribute to PRISM III scores. There was no institutional bias associated with this sampling period. PMID:23628831

  3. The Association of Fever with Total Mechanical Ventilation Time in Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to investigate the impact of fever on total mechanical ventilation time (TVT) in critically ill patients. Subgroup analysis was conducted using a previous prospective, multicenter observational study. We included mechanically ventilated patients for more than 24 hours from 10 Korean and 15 Japanese intensive care units (ICU), and recorded maximal body temperature under the support of mechanical ventilation (MAXMV). To assess the independent association of MAXMV with TVT, we used propensity-matched analysis in a total of 769 survived patients with medical or surgical admission, separately. Together with multiple linear regression analysis to evaluate the association between the severity of fever and TVT, the effect of MAXMV on ventilator-free days was also observed by quantile regression analysis in all subjects including non-survivors. After propensity score matching, a MAXMV ≥ 37.5°C was significantly associated with longer mean TVT by 5.4 days in medical admission, and by 1.2 days in surgical admission, compared to those with MAXMV of 36.5°C to 37.4°C. In multivariate linear regression analysis, patients with three categories of fever (MAXMV of 37.5°C to 38.4°C, 38.5°C to 39.4°C, and ≥ 39.5°C) sustained a significantly longer duration of TVT than those with normal range of MAXMV in both categories of ICU admission. A significant association between MAXMV and mechanical ventilator-free days was also observed in all enrolled subjects. Fever may be a detrimental factor to prolong TVT in mechanically ventilated patients. These findings suggest that fever in mechanically ventilated patients might be associated with worse mechanical ventilation outcome. PMID:27822946

  4. Real time evolution of non-Gaussian cumulants in the QCD critical regime

    DOE PAGES

    Mukherjee, Swagato; Venugopalan, Raju; Yin, Yi

    2015-09-23

    In this study, we derive a coupled set of equations that describe the nonequilibrium evolution of cumulants of critical fluctuations for spacetime trajectories on the crossover side of the QCD phase diagram. In particular, novel expressions are obtained for the nonequilibrium evolution of non-Gaussian skewness and kurtosis cumulants. UBy utilizing a simple model of the spacetime evolution of a heavy-ion collision, we demonstrate that, depending on the relaxation rate of critical fluctuations, skewness and kurtosis can differ significantly in magnitude as well as in sign from equilibrium expectations. Memory effects are important and shown to persist even for trajectories thatmore » skirt the edge of the critical regime. We use phenomenologically motivated parametrizations of freeze-out curves and of the beam-energy dependence of the net baryon chemical potential to explore the implications of our model study for the critical-point search in heavy-ion collisions.« less

  5. Real time evolution of non-Gaussian cumulants in the QCD critical regime

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, Swagato; Venugopalan, Raju; Yin, Yi

    2015-09-23

    In this study, we derive a coupled set of equations that describe the nonequilibrium evolution of cumulants of critical fluctuations for spacetime trajectories on the crossover side of the QCD phase diagram. In particular, novel expressions are obtained for the nonequilibrium evolution of non-Gaussian skewness and kurtosis cumulants. UBy utilizing a simple model of the spacetime evolution of a heavy-ion collision, we demonstrate that, depending on the relaxation rate of critical fluctuations, skewness and kurtosis can differ significantly in magnitude as well as in sign from equilibrium expectations. Memory effects are important and shown to persist even for trajectories that skirt the edge of the critical regime. We use phenomenologically motivated parametrizations of freeze-out curves and of the beam-energy dependence of the net baryon chemical potential to explore the implications of our model study for the critical-point search in heavy-ion collisions.

  6. Tumultuous Times of Education Reform: A Critical Reflection on Caring in Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Mary G.; Tucker, Janice L.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines "caring" in the context of radical education reform in one Canadian province and school district. Historical provincial policy documents set the context for the district analysis. Drawing on our experiences both as participants and researchers, we use theories of care, critical policy, and the tools of critical…

  7. Critical Pedagogy in Uncertain Times: Hope and Possibilities. Education, Politics and Public Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macrine, Sheila L., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book provides comprehensive analyses of issues related to the struggle against the forces of imperial-induced privatization, not just in education, but in all of social life. It situates Critical Pedagogy in the twenty-first century and offers not only critiques but also practical applications, suggestions, and strategies on how attacks can…

  8. Optimal Time-decay Estimates for the Compressible Navier-Stokes Equations in the Critical L p Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danchin, Raphaël; Xu, Jiang

    2017-04-01

    The global existence issue for the isentropic compressible Navier-Stokes equations in the critical regularity framework was addressed in Danchin (Invent Math 141(3):579-614, 2000) more than 15 years ago. However, whether (optimal) time-decay rates could be shown in critical spaces has remained an open question. Here we give a positive answer to that issue not only in the L 2 critical framework of Danchin (Invent Math 141(3):579-614, 2000) but also in the general L p critical framework of Charve and Danchin (Arch Ration Mech Anal 198(1):233-271, 2010), Chen et al. (Commun Pure Appl Math 63(9):1173-1224, 2010), Haspot (Arch Ration Mech Anal 202(2):427-460, 2011): we show that under a mild additional decay assumption that is satisfied if, for example, the low frequencies of the initial data are in {L^{p/2}(Rd)}, the L p norm (the slightly stronger dot B^0_{p,1} norm in fact) of the critical global solutions decays like t^{-d(1/p - 1/4} for {tto+∞,} exactly as firstly observed by Matsumura and Nishida in (Proc Jpn Acad Ser A 55:337-342, 1979) in the case p = 2 and d = 3, for solutions with high Sobolev regularity. Our method relies on refined time weighted inequalities in the Fourier space, and is likely to be effective for other hyperbolic/parabolic systems that are encountered in fluid mechanics or mathematical physics.

  9. The Infeasibility of Quantifying the Reliability of Life-Critical Real-Time Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Finelli, George B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper affirms that the quantification of life-critical software reliability is infeasible using statistical methods whether applied to standard software or fault-tolerant software. The classical methods of estimating reliability are shown to lead to exhorbitant amounts of testing when applied to life-critical software. Reliability growth models are examined and also shown to be incapable of overcoming the need for excessive amounts of testing. The key assumption of software fault tolerance separately programmed versions fail independently is shown to be problematic. This assumption cannot be justified by experimentation in the ultrareliability region and subjective arguments in its favor are not sufficiently strong to justify it as an axiom. Also, the implications of the recent multiversion software experiments support this affirmation.

  10. CoR-MAC: Contention over Reservation MAC Protocol for Time-Critical Services in Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jeongseok; Park, Laihyuk; Park, Junho; Cho, Sungrae; Keum, Changsup

    2016-05-09

    Reserving time slots for urgent data, such as life-critical information, seems to be very attractive to guarantee their deadline requirements in wireless body area sensor networks (WBASNs). On the other hand, this reservation imposes a negative impact on performance for the utilization of a channel. This paper proposes a new channel access scheme referred to as the contention over reservation MAC (CoR-MAC) protocol for time-critical services in wireless body area sensor networks. CoR-MAC uses the dual reservation; if the reserved time slots are known to be vacant, other nodes can access the time slots by contention-based reservation to maximize the utilization of a channel and decrease the delay of the data. To measure the effectiveness of the proposed scheme against IEEE 802.15.4 and IEEE 802.15.6, we evaluated their performances with various performance indexes. The CoR-MAC showed 50% to 850% performance improvement in terms of the delay of urgent and time-critical data according to the number of nodes.

  11. CoR-MAC: Contention over Reservation MAC Protocol for Time-Critical Services in Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jeongseok; Park, Laihyuk; Park, Junho; Cho, Sungrae; Keum, Changsup

    2016-01-01

    Reserving time slots for urgent data, such as life-critical information, seems to be very attractive to guarantee their deadline requirements in wireless body area sensor networks (WBASNs). On the other hand, this reservation imposes a negative impact on performance for the utilization of a channel. This paper proposes a new channel access scheme referred to as the contention over reservation MAC (CoR-MAC) protocol for time-critical services in wireless body area sensor networks. CoR-MAC uses the dual reservation; if the reserved time slots are known to be vacant, other nodes can access the time slots by contention-based reservation to maximize the utilization of a channel and decrease the delay of the data. To measure the effectiveness of the proposed scheme against IEEE 802.15.4 and IEEE 802.15.6, we evaluated their performances with various performance indexes. The CoR-MAC showed 50% to 850% performance improvement in terms of the delay of urgent and time-critical data according to the number of nodes. PMID:27171085

  12. Neuregulin-Dependent Regulation of Fast-Spiking Interneuron Excitability Controls the Timing of the Critical Period.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yu; Tran, Trinh; Murase, Sachiko; Borrell, Andrew; Kirkwood, Alfredo; Quinlan, Elizabeth M

    2016-10-05

    Maturation of excitatory drive onto fast-spiking interneurons (FS INs) in the visual cortex has been implicated in the control of the timing of the critical period for ocular dominance plasticity. However, the mechanisms that regulate the strength of these synapses over cortical development are not understood. Here we use a mouse model to show that neuregulin (NRG) and the receptor tyrosine kinase erbB4 regulate the timing of the critical period. NRG1 enhanced the strength of excitatory synapses onto FS INs, which inhibited ocular dominance plasticity during the critical period but rescued plasticity in transgenics with hypoexcitable FS INs. Blocking the effects of endogenous neuregulin via inhibition of erbBs rescued ocular dominance plasticity in postcritical period adults, allowing recovery from amblyopia induced by chronic monocular deprivation. Thus, the strength of excitation onto FS INs is a key determinant of critical period plasticity and is maintained at high levels by NRG-erbB4 signaling to constrain plasticity in adulthood.

  13. Real-Time Monitoring of Critical Care Analytes in the Bloodstream with Chemical Sensors: Progress and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Megan C.; Meyerhoff, Mark E.

    2015-07-01

    We review approaches and challenges in developing chemical sensor-based methods to accurately and continuously monitor levels of key analytes in blood related directly to the status of critically ill hospitalized patients. Electrochemical and optical sensor-based technologies have been pursued to measure important critical care species in blood [i.e., oxygen, carbon dioxide, pH, electrolytes (K+, Na+, Cl-, etc.), glucose, and lactate] in real-time or near real-time. The two main configurations examined to date for achieving this goal have been intravascular catheter sensors and patient attached ex vivo sensors with intermittent blood sampling via an attached indwelling catheter. We discuss the status of these configurations and the main issues affecting the accuracy of the measurements, including cell adhesion and thrombus formation on the surface of the sensors, sensor drift, sensor selectivity, etc. Recent approaches to mitigate these nagging performance issues that have prevented these technologies from clinical use are also discussed.

  14. Optimal Time-decay Estimates for the Compressible Navier-Stokes Equations in the Critical L p Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danchin, Raphaël; Xu, Jiang

    2016-11-01

    The global existence issue for the isentropic compressible Navier-Stokes equations in the critical regularity framework was addressed in Danchin (Invent Math 141(3):579-614, 2000) more than 15 years ago. However, whether (optimal) time-decay rates could be shown in critical spaces has remained an open question. Here we give a positive answer to that issue not only in the L 2 critical framework of Danchin (Invent Math 141(3):579-614, 2000) but also in the general L p critical framework of Charve and Danchin (Arch Ration Mech Anal 198(1):233-271, 2010), Chen et al. (Commun Pure Appl Math 63(9):1173-1224, 2010), Haspot (Arch Ration Mech Anal 202(2):427-460, 2011): we show that under a mild additional decay assumption that is satisfied if, for example, the low frequencies of the initial data are in {L^{p/2}({R}d)} , the L p norm (the slightly stronger {dot B^0_{p,1}} norm in fact) of the critical global solutions decays like {t^{-d(1/p-1/4)}} for {tto+∞,} exactly as firstly observed by Matsumura and Nishida in (Proc Jpn Acad Ser A 55:337-342, 1979) in the case p = 2 and d = 3, for solutions with high Sobolev regularity. Our method relies on refined time weighted inequalities in the Fourier space, and is likely to be effective for other hyperbolic/parabolic systems that are encountered in fluid mechanics or mathematical physics.

  15. The Evolution of Television Criticism in the New York "Times": 1949-1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Richard C.

    1980-01-01

    Shows that "The New York Times" devoted a significant portion of its television-related articles to personality features from 1949 to 1977 and that only recently has this trend showed signs of changing. (FL)

  16. Heart rate time series characteristics for early detection of infections in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Tambuyzer, T; Guiza, F; Boonen, E; Meersseman, P; Vervenne, H; Hansen, T K; Bjerre, M; Van den Berghe, G; Berckmans, D; Aerts, J M; Meyfroidt, G

    2017-04-01

    It is difficult to make a distinction between inflammation and infection. Therefore, new strategies are required to allow accurate detection of infection. Here, we hypothesize that we can distinguish infected from non-infected ICU patients based on dynamic features of serum cytokine concentrations and heart rate time series. Serum cytokine profiles and heart rate time series of 39 patients were available for this study. The serum concentration of ten cytokines were measured using blood sampled every 10 min between 2100 and 0600 hours. Heart rate was recorded every minute. Ten metrics were used to extract features from these time series to obtain an accurate classification of infected patients. The predictive power of the metrics derived from the heart rate time series was investigated using decision tree analysis. Finally, logistic regression methods were used to examine whether classification performance improved with inclusion of features derived from the cytokine time series. The AUC of a decision tree based on two heart rate features was 0.88. The model had good calibration with 0.09 Hosmer-Lemeshow p value. There was no significant additional value of adding static cytokine levels or cytokine time series information to the generated decision tree model. The results suggest that heart rate is a better marker for infection than information captured by cytokine time series when the exact stage of infection is not known. The predictive value of (expensive) biomarkers should always be weighed against the routinely monitored data, and such biomarkers have to demonstrate added value.

  17. Critical Care Admissions following Total Laryngectomy: Is It Time to Change Our Practice?

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Alexandria; Gibson, Bethan; Berry, Sandeep; Jaffery, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Critical Care Unit (CCU) beds are a limited resource and in increasing demand. Studies have shown that complex head and neck patients can be safely managed on a ward setting given the appropriate staffing and support. This retrospective case series aims to quantify the CCU care received by patients following total laryngectomy (TL) at a District General Hospital (DGH) and compare patient outcomes in an attempt to inform current practice. Data relating to TL were collected over a 5-year period from 1st January 2010 to 31st December 2015. A total of 22 patients were included. All patients were admitted to CCU postoperatively for an average length of stay of 25.5 hours. 95% of these patients were admitted to CCU for the purpose of close monitoring only, not requiring any active treatment prior to discharge to the ward. 73% of total complications were encountered after the first 24 hours postoperatively at which point patients had been stepped down to ward care. Avoiding the use of CCU beds and instead providing the appropriate level of care on the ward would result in a potential cost saving of approximately £8,000 with no influence on patient morbidity and mortality. PMID:27752264

  18. Moments of action provide insight into critical times for advection-diffusion-reaction processes.

    PubMed

    Ellery, Adam J; Simpson, Matthew J; McCue, Scott W; Baker, Ruth E

    2012-09-01

    Berezhkovskii and co-workers introduced the concept of local accumulation time as a finite measure of the time required for the transient solution of a reaction-diffusion equation to effectively reach steady state [Biophys J. 99, L59 (2010); Phys. Rev. E 83, 051906 (2011)]. Berezhkovskii's approach is a particular application of the concept of mean action time (MAT) that was introduced previously by McNabb [IMA J. Appl. Math. 47, 193 (1991)]. Here, we generalize these previous results by presenting a framework to calculate the MAT, as well as the higher moments, which we call the moments of action. The second moment is the variance of action time, the third moment is related to the skew of action time, and so on. We consider a general transition from some initial condition to an associated steady state for a one-dimensional linear advection-diffusion-reaction partial differential equation (PDE). Our results indicate that it is possible to solve for the moments of action exactly without requiring the transient solution of the PDE. We present specific examples that highlight potential weaknesses of previous studies that have considered the MAT alone without considering higher moments. Finally, we also provide a meaningful interpretation of the moments of action by presenting simulation results from a discrete random-walk model together with some analysis of the particle lifetime distribution. This work shows that the moments of action are identical to the moments of the particle lifetime distribution for certain transitions.

  19. Adaptive critic designs for discrete-time zero-sum games with application to H(infinity) control.

    PubMed

    Al-Tamimi, Asma; Abu-Khalaf, Murad; Lewis, Frank L

    2007-02-01

    In this correspondence, adaptive critic approximate dynamic programming designs are derived to solve the discrete-time zero-sum game in which the state and action spaces are continuous. This results in a forward-in-time reinforcement learning algorithm that converges to the Nash equilibrium of the corresponding zero-sum game. The results in this correspondence can be thought of as a way to solve the Riccati equation of the well-known discrete-time H(infinity) optimal control problem forward in time. Two schemes are presented, namely: 1) a heuristic dynamic programming and 2) a dual-heuristic dynamic programming, to solve for the value function and the costate of the game, respectively. An H(infinity) autopilot design for an F-16 aircraft is presented to illustrate the results.

  20. A Paradox within the Time Value of Money: A Critical Thinking Exercise for Finance Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaney, Charles J.; Rich, Steven P.; Rose, John T.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a paradox within the time value of money (TVM), namely, that the interest-principal sequence embedded in the payment stream of an amortized loan is exactly the opposite of the interest-principal sequence implicit in the present value of a matching annuity. We examine this inverse sequence, both mathematically and intuitively,…

  1. Eye Colour and Reaction Time: An Opportunity for Critical Statistical Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane

    2008-01-01

    This author was surprised to read a short article in "The Mercury" newspaper in Hobart about blue-eyed people being more intelligent and brown-eyed people having faster reaction times. Such an article invites immediate scepticism from the statistically literate. The lack of data in the article should lead the interested reader to a…

  2. Health Monitor for Multitasking, Safety-Critical, Real-Time Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoerner, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Health Manager can detect Bad Health prior to a failure occurring by periodically monitoring the application software by looking for code corruption errors, and sanity-checking each critical data value prior to use. A processor s memory can fail and corrupt the software, or the software can accidentally write to the wrong address and overwrite the executing software. This innovation will continuously calculate a checksum of the software load to detect corrupted code. This will allow a system to detect a failure before it happens. This innovation monitors each software task (thread) so that if any task reports "bad health," or does not report to the Health Manager, the system is declared bad. The Health Manager reports overall system health to the outside world by outputting a square wave signal. If the square wave stops, this indicates that system health is bad or hung and cannot report. Either way, "bad health" can be detected, whether caused by an error, corrupted data, or a hung processor. A separate Health Monitor Task is started and run periodically in a loop that starts and stops pending on a semaphore. Each monitored task registers with the Health Manager, which maintains a count for the task. The registering task must indicate if it will run more or less often than the Health Manager. If the task runs more often than the Health Manager, the monitored task calls a health function that increments the count and verifies it did not go over max-count. When the periodic Health Manager runs, it verifies that the count did not go over the max-count and zeroes it. If the task runs less often than the Health Manager, the periodic Health Manager will increment the count. The monitored task zeroes the count, and both the Health Manager and monitored task verify that the count did not go over the max-count.

  3. Is it time to drop the 'knowledge translation' metaphor? A critical literature review.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Wieringa, Sietse

    2011-12-01

    The literature on 'knowledge translation' presents challenges for the reviewer because different terms have been used to describe the generation, sharing and application of knowledge and different research approaches embrace different philosophical positions on what knowledge is. We present a narrative review of this literature which deliberately sought to highlight rather than resolve tensions between these different framings. Our findings suggest that while 'translation' is a widely used metaphor in medicine, it constrains how we conceptualise and study the link between knowledge and practice. The 'translation' metaphor has, arguably, led to particular difficulties in the fields of 'evidence-based management' and 'evidence-based policymaking' - where it seems that knowledge obstinately refuses to be driven unproblematically into practice. Many non-medical disciplines such as philosophy, sociology and organization science conceptualise knowledge very differently, as being (for example) 'created', 'constructed', 'embodied', 'performed' and 'collectively negotiated' - and also as being value-laden and tending to serve the vested interests of dominant élites. We propose that applying this wider range of metaphors and models would allow us to research the link between knowledge and practice in more creative and critical ways. We conclude that research should move beyond a narrow focus on the 'know-do gap' to cover a richer agenda, including: (a) the situation-specific practical wisdom (phronesis) that underpins clinical judgement; (b) the tacit knowledge that is built and shared among practitioners ('mindlines'); (c) the complex links between power and knowledge; and (d) approaches to facilitating macro-level knowledge partnerships between researchers, practitioners, policymakers and commercial interests.

  4. Is it time to drop the ‘knowledge translation’ metaphor? A critical literature review

    PubMed Central

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Wieringa, Sietse

    2011-01-01

    The literature on ‘knowledge translation’ presents challenges for the reviewer because different terms have been used to describe the generation, sharing and application of knowledge and different research approaches embrace different philosophical positions on what knowledge is. We present a narrative review of this literature which deliberately sought to highlight rather than resolve tensions between these different framings. Our findings suggest that while ‘translation’ is a widely used metaphor in medicine, it constrains how we conceptualise and study the link between knowledge and practice. The ‘translation’ metaphor has, arguably, led to particular difficulties in the fields of ‘evidence-based management’ and ‘evidence-based policymaking’ – where it seems that knowledge obstinately refuses to be driven unproblematically into practice. Many non-medical disciplines such as philosophy, sociology and organization science conceptualise knowledge very differently, as being (for example) ‘created’, ‘constructed’, ‘embodied’, ‘performed’ and ‘collectively negotiated’ – and also as being value-laden and tending to serve the vested interests of dominant élites. We propose that applying this wider range of metaphors and models would allow us to research the link between knowledge and practice in more creative and critical ways. We conclude that research should move beyond a narrow focus on the ‘know–do gap’ to cover a richer agenda, including: (a) the situation-specific practical wisdom (phronesis) that underpins clinical judgement; (b) the tacit knowledge that is built and shared among practitioners (‘mindlines’); (c) the complex links between power and knowledge; and (d) approaches to facilitating macro-level knowledge partnerships between researchers, practitioners, policymakers and commercial interests. PMID:22179293

  5. Moments of action provide insight into critical times for advection-diffusion-reaction processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellery, Adam J.; Simpson, Matthew J.; McCue, Scott W.; Baker, Ruth E.

    2012-09-01

    Berezhkovskii and co-workers introduced the concept of local accumulation time as a finite measure of the time required for the transient solution of a reaction-diffusion equation to effectively reach steady state [Biophys J.BIOJAU0006-349510.1016/j.bpj.2010.07.045 99, L59 (2010); Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.83.051906 83, 051906 (2011)]. Berezhkovskii's approach is a particular application of the concept of mean action time (MAT) that was introduced previously by McNabb [IMA J. Appl. Math.IJAMDM0272-496010.1093/imamat/47.2.193 47, 193 (1991)]. Here, we generalize these previous results by presenting a framework to calculate the MAT, as well as the higher moments, which we call the moments of action. The second moment is the variance of action time, the third moment is related to the skew of action time, and so on. We consider a general transition from some initial condition to an associated steady state for a one-dimensional linear advection-diffusion-reaction partial differential equation (PDE). Our results indicate that it is possible to solve for the moments of action exactly without requiring the transient solution of the PDE. We present specific examples that highlight potential weaknesses of previous studies that have considered the MAT alone without considering higher moments. Finally, we also provide a meaningful interpretation of the moments of action by presenting simulation results from a discrete random-walk model together with some analysis of the particle lifetime distribution. This work shows that the moments of action are identical to the moments of the particle lifetime distribution for certain transitions.

  6. CA1 neurons in the human hippocampus are critical for autobiographical memory, mental time travel, and autonoetic consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Bartsch, Thorsten; Döhring, Juliane; Rohr, Axel; Jansen, Olav; Deuschl, Günther

    2011-01-01

    Autobiographical memories in our lives are critically dependent on temporal lobe structures. However, the contribution of CA1 neurons in the human hippocampus to the retrieval of episodic autobiographical memory remains elusive. In patients with a rare acute transient global amnesia, highly focal lesions confined to the CA1 field of the hippocampus can be detected on MRI. We studied the effect of these lesions on autobiographical memory using a detailed autobiographical interview including the remember/know procedure. In 14 of 16 patients, focal lesions in the CA1 sector of the hippocampal cornu ammonis were detected. Autobiographical memory was significantly affected over all time periods, including memory for remote periods. Impairment of episodic memory and autonoetic consciousness exhibited a strong temporal gradient extending 30 to 40 y into the past. These results highlight the distinct and critical role of human hippocampal CA1 neurons in autobiographical memory retrieval and for re-experiencing detailed episodic memories. PMID:21987814

  7. miRNAs are required for generating a time-delay critical for the circadian oscillator

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rongmin; D’Alessandro, Matthew; Lee, Choogon

    2013-01-01

    Background Circadian clocks coordinate an organism’s activities and regulate metabolic homeostasis in relation to daily environmental changes, most notably light/dark cycles. As in other organisms, the timekeeping mechanism in mammals depends on a self-sustaining transcriptional negative feedback loop with a built-in time delay in feedback inhibition. Although the time delay is essential for generating a slow, self-sustaining negative feedback loop with a period close to 24 hours, the exact mechanisms underlying the time delay are not known. Results We show here that RNA interference mediated by microRNAs (miRNAs) is an essential mechanism in generating the time delay. In Dicer-deficient (and thus miRNA-deficient) cells and mice, circadian rhythms were dramatically shortened (by ~2 hours), although the rhythms remained robust. The period shortening was caused by faster PER1 and PER2 translation in the Dicer-deficient cells. We also identified three specific miRNAs that regulate Per expression, and showed that knockdown of these miRNAs in wild-type cells also shortened the circadian period. Conclusions Consistent with the canonical function of miRNAs as translational modulators of target genes and their widespread roles in cell physiology, circadian rhythms are also modulated by miRNA-mediated RNA interference acting on posttranscriptional regulation of key clock genes. Our present study definitively shows that RNA interference is an important modulator of circadian rhythms by controlling the pace of PER synthesis, and presents a novel layer of regulation for the clock. PMID:24094851

  8. Fractal, entropic and chaotic approaches to complex physiological time series analysis: a critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng; Ding, Guang-Hong; Wu, Guo-Qiang; Poon, Chi-Sang

    2009-01-01

    A wide variety of methods based on fractal, entropic or chaotic approaches have been applied to the analysis of complex physiological time series. In this paper, we show that fractal and entropy measures are poor indicators of nonlinearity for gait data and heart rate variability data. In contrast, the noise titration method based on Volterra autoregressive modeling represents the most reliable currently available method for testing nonlinear determinism and chaotic dynamics in the presence of measurement noise and dynamic noise.

  9. Task-oriented quality assessment and adaptation in real-time mission critical video streaming applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nightingale, James; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos

    2015-02-01

    In recent years video traffic has become the dominant application on the Internet with global year-on-year increases in video-oriented consumer services. Driven by improved bandwidth in both mobile and fixed networks, steadily reducing hardware costs and the development of new technologies, many existing and new classes of commercial and industrial video applications are now being upgraded or emerging. Some of the use cases for these applications include areas such as public and private security monitoring for loss prevention or intruder detection, industrial process monitoring and critical infrastructure monitoring. The use of video is becoming commonplace in defence, security, commercial, industrial, educational and health contexts. Towards optimal performances, the design or optimisation in each of these applications should be context aware and task oriented with the characteristics of the video stream (frame rate, spatial resolution, bandwidth etc.) chosen to match the use case requirements. For example, in the security domain, a task-oriented consideration may be that higher resolution video would be required to identify an intruder than to simply detect his presence. Whilst in the same case, contextual factors such as the requirement to transmit over a resource-limited wireless link, may impose constraints on the selection of optimum task-oriented parameters. This paper presents a novel, conceptually simple and easily implemented method of assessing video quality relative to its suitability for a particular task and dynamically adapting videos streams during transmission to ensure that the task can be successfully completed. Firstly we defined two principle classes of tasks: recognition tasks and event detection tasks. These task classes are further subdivided into a set of task-related profiles, each of which is associated with a set of taskoriented attributes (minimum spatial resolution, minimum frame rate etc.). For example, in the detection class

  10. Platelets are not critical effector cells for the time course of murine passive crescentic glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Hohenstein, Bernd; Daniel, Christoph; Johnson, Richard J; Amann, Kerstin U; Hugo, Christian P M

    2013-01-01

    Although platelets are well-known effector cells of inflammatory renal disease, clinical studies were not able to establish platelet inhibition as an effective therapy. Our previous studies using Vasodilator stimulated Phosphoprotein- and P2Y1-deficient mice suggested some early, but no long-term effects of platelets in passive crescentic glomerulonephritis. To define the role of platelets for this disease model, passive crescentic glomerulonephritis was induced in 72 C57Bl/6 mice by intraperitoneal injection of sheep anti-rabbit glomerular basement membrane antibody on 2 consecutive days. Platelets were depleted using anti-glycoprotein Ibα antibodies (p0p3/p0p4) every 4th day. Mice treated with equal amounts of sterile Phosphate buffered solution or rat-IgG served as controls. Blood, urine, and tissues were harvested on days 3 and 28. Renal tissue sections were evaluated after immunostaining using (semi)quantitative and computer-assisted image analysis. Compared to controls, efficient depletion was achieved as indicated by a markedly prolonged bleeding time and a more than 90% reduction in platelet counts (800/nl vs. 42/nl; P < 0.001). Functional (creatinine-clearance and proteinuria) parameters demonstrated no significant differences between the groups. Neither parameters of renal injury (glomerulosclerosis and fibrosis) nor glomerular/tubulointerstitial matrix expansion (by collagen IV staining), glomerular capillary rarefaction (lectin staining), and the glomerular/tubulointerstitial proliferative response (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) demonstrated any differences between platelet-depleted mice and PBS- or rat-IgG-treated nephritic mice at any time point. Despite effective platelet inhibition/depletion, neither the short- nor long-term course of passive crescentic nephrotoxic nephritis was affected. These data indicate that platelets play a minor role during the time course of this disease model in the mouse.

  11. Mechanical diagnosis of human erythrocytes by ultra-high speed manipulation unraveled critical time window for global cytoskeletal remodeling.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiroaki; Murakami, Ryo; Sakuma, Shinya; Tsai, Chia-Hung Dylan; Gutsmann, Thomas; Brandenburg, Klaus; Pöschl, Johannes M B; Arai, Fumihito; Kaneko, Makoto; Tanaka, Motomu

    2017-02-24

    Large deformability of erythrocytes in microvasculature is a prerequisite to realize smooth circulation. We develop a novel tool for the three-step "Catch-Load-Launch" manipulation of a human erythrocyte based on an ultra-high speed position control by a microfluidic "robotic pump". Quantification of the erythrocyte shape recovery as a function of loading time uncovered the critical time window for the transition between fast and slow recoveries. The comparison with erythrocytes under depletion of adenosine triphosphate revealed that the cytoskeletal remodeling over a whole cell occurs in 3 orders of magnitude longer timescale than the local dissociation-reassociation of a single spectrin node. Finally, we modeled septic conditions by incubating erythrocytes with endotoxin, and found that the exposure to endotoxin results in a significant delay in the characteristic transition time for cytoskeletal remodeling. The high speed manipulation of erythrocytes with a robotic pump technique allows for high throughput mechanical diagnosis of blood-related diseases.

  12. Mechanical diagnosis of human erythrocytes by ultra-high speed manipulation unraveled critical time window for global cytoskeletal remodeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Hiroaki; Murakami, Ryo; Sakuma, Shinya; Tsai, Chia-Hung Dylan; Gutsmann, Thomas; Brandenburg, Klaus; Pöschl, Johannes M. B.; Arai, Fumihito; Kaneko, Makoto; Tanaka, Motomu

    2017-02-01

    Large deformability of erythrocytes in microvasculature is a prerequisite to realize smooth circulation. We develop a novel tool for the three-step “Catch-Load-Launch” manipulation of a human erythrocyte based on an ultra-high speed position control by a microfluidic “robotic pump”. Quantification of the erythrocyte shape recovery as a function of loading time uncovered the critical time window for the transition between fast and slow recoveries. The comparison with erythrocytes under depletion of adenosine triphosphate revealed that the cytoskeletal remodeling over a whole cell occurs in 3 orders of magnitude longer timescale than the local dissociation-reassociation of a single spectrin node. Finally, we modeled septic conditions by incubating erythrocytes with endotoxin, and found that the exposure to endotoxin results in a significant delay in the characteristic transition time for cytoskeletal remodeling. The high speed manipulation of erythrocytes with a robotic pump technique allows for high throughput mechanical diagnosis of blood-related diseases.

  13. On the time to reach a critical number of infections in epidemic models with infective and susceptible immigrants.

    PubMed

    Almaraz, E; Gómez-Corral, A; Rodríguez-Bernal, M T

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we examine the time T to reach a critical number K0 of infections during an outbreak in an epidemic model with infective and susceptible immigrants. The underlying process X, which was first introduced by Ridler-Rowe (1967), is related to recurrent diseases and it appears to be analytically intractable. We present an approximating model inspired from the use of extreme values, and we derive formulae for the Laplace-Stieltjes transform of T and its moments, which are evaluated by using an iterative procedure. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the effects of the contact and removal rates on the expected values of T and the threshold K0, when the initial time instant corresponds to an invasion time. We also study the exact reproduction number Rexact,0 and the population transmission number Rp, which are random versions of the basic reproduction number R0.

  14. Frequency and Time Domain Analysis of Foetal Heart Rate Variability with Traditional Indexes: A Critical Survey

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Maria; Iuppariello, Luigi; Ponsiglione, Alfonso Maria; Improta, Giovanni; Bifulco, Paolo; Cesarelli, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring of foetal heart rate and its variability (FHRV) covers an important role in assessing health of foetus. Many analysis methods have been used to get quantitative measures of FHRV. FHRV has been studied in time and in frequency domain and interesting clinical results have been obtained. Nevertheless, a standardized definition of FHRV and a precise methodology to be used for its evaluation are lacking. We carried out a literature overview about both frequency domain analysis (FDA) and time domain analysis (TDA). Then, by using simulated FHR signals, we defined the methodology for FDA. Further, employing more than 400 real FHR signals, we analysed some of the most common indexes, Short Term Variability for TDA and power content of the spectrum bands and sympathovagal balance for FDA, and evaluated their ranges of values, which in many cases are a novelty. Finally, we verified the relationship between these indexes and two important parameters: week of gestation, indicator of foetal growth, and foetal state, classified as active or at rest. Our results indicate that, according to literature, it is necessary to standardize the procedure for FHRV evaluation and to consider week of gestation and foetal state before FHR analysis. PMID:27195018

  15. Critical analysis of rhinovirus RNA load quantification by real-time reverse transcription-PCR.

    PubMed

    Schibler, Manuel; Yerly, Sabine; Vieille, Gaël; Docquier, Mylène; Turin, Lara; Kaiser, Laurent; Tapparel, Caroline

    2012-09-01

    Rhinoviruses are the most frequent cause of human respiratory infections, and quantitative rhinovirus diagnostic tools are needed for clinical investigations. Although results obtained by real-time reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) assays are frequently converted to viral RNA loads, this presents several limitations regarding accurate virus RNA quantification, particularly given the need to reliably quantify all known rhinovirus genotypes with a single assay. Using an internal extraction control and serial dilutions of an in vitro-transcribed rhinovirus RNA reference standard, we validated a quantitative one-step real-time PCR assay. We then used chimeric rhinovirus genomes with 5'-untranslated regions (5'UTRs) originating from the three rhinovirus species and from one enterovirus to estimate the impact of the 5'UTR diversity. Respiratory specimens from infected patients were then also analyzed. The assay quantification ability ranged from 4.10 to 9.10 log RNA copies/ml, with an estimated error margin of ±10%. This variation was mainly linked to target variability and interassay variability. Taken together, our results indicate that our assay can reliably estimate rhinovirus RNA load, provided that the appropriate error margin is used. In contrast, due to the lack of a universal rhinovirus RNA standard and the variability related to sample collection procedures, accurate absolute rhinovirus RNA quantification in respiratory specimens is currently hardly feasible.

  16. Critical role of sorafenib exposure over time for its antitumor activity in thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Bellesoeur, Audrey; Carton, Edith; Mir, Olivier; Groussin, Lionel; Blanchet, Benoit; Billemont, Bertrand; Clerc, Jérôme; Goldwasser, François

    2014-06-01

    Sorafenib, a multi-kinase inhibitor that targets the VEGF, PDGF and BRAF pathways, has demonstrated significant clinical activity in metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer. However, all patients eventually experience disease progression with a median progression-free survival close to 10 months. Since sorafenib exposure is known to decrease over time, we hypothesized that dose adjustments aiming to restore adequate exposure could lead to further clinical activity. We report, as a proof of concept on a patient with radio-iodine resistant metastatic thyroid cancer, who experienced disease progression after an initial response to sorafenib (400 mg twice daily). Whereas the thyroglobulin-progression-free survival at standard doses was 6 months, iterative dose optimization led to a prolonged progression-free survival up to 41 months. Sorafenib doses were increased up to 1600 mg bid, in order to maintain clinical activity, and to restore active plasma concentration, since sorafenib exposure had decreased over the time. Toxicity was mild and manageable for more than 2 years. However, the patient eventually experienced grade 3 proteinuria leading to treatment discontinuation. This observation opens up new horizons for daily management of radioactive iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer patients progressing under standard doses of sorafenib, and stress the need to monitor its plasma concentration.

  17. Critical review on Bhaishajya Kaala (time of drug administration) in Ayurveda

    PubMed Central

    Junjarwad, Ashwini V.; Savalgi, Pavan B.; Vyas, Mahesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Bhaishajya Kaala (time of drug administration) is an important principle to be considered while treating a disease. Still hardly a handful of physicians are seen, who account for this. To highlight its imperial role in Chikitsa, there is an immense necessity to analyze this concept, which is the need of the hour. Bhaishajya Kaala is mainly explained in relation with Bala of Roga, Rogi, particular Dosha, Dooshya, and various other factors. The comprehensive understanding of this concept involves so many questions as, why there is a difference in the number of Aushdha Kaala? What is the logic behind their indications as well as contraindications? The present paper focuses on the above points to find out the convincing answers. PMID:24049398

  18. Timing of Environmental Exposures as a Critical Element in Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Birnbaum, Linda S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The role of the chemical environment in disease initiation or progression is becoming more evident. Endocrine disruption via environmental chemicals is now well documented in humans, rodent research models, and wildlife. Breast cancer is an endocrine-based disease whose risk may be modified by environmental exposures. Our purpose is to encourage more investigation into early life environmental exposures as they relate to breast cancer risk factors and disease over a lifetime. Evidence: The 2009 President's Cancer Panel, 2012 Institute of Medicine, 2013 Interagency Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Coordinating Committee reports, and research publications dated ≥2012 in PubMed were used to inform our perspective. Consensus Process: Literature was reviewed and evidence gathered on the effects of the environment on risk of breast cancer or mammary tumor development in animal research models as it pertained to the influence of timing of exposure on later-life outcomes. Conclusions: Evidence has accumulated for several chemicals that environmental factors have a stronger effect on breast cancer risk when exposure occurred early in life. The insecticide, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, is an excellent example and is just one of several chemicals for which there seems to be both animal and human evidence for the developmental basis of adult disease. The developing breast undergoes many changes in early life, leaving it vulnerable to the effects of epigenetic marks, endocrine disruption, and carcinogens. More research is needed in the area of early beginnings of breast cancer, with prevention of the disease as the ultimate goal. PMID:26214118

  19. Closed-loop glucose control in critically ill patients using continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) in real time.

    PubMed

    Chee, Frederick; Fernando, Tyrone; van Heerden, P Vernon

    2003-03-01

    A study was conducted to determine if continuous subcutaneous glucose monitoring (from MiniMed CGMS) could be used in real-time to control blood sugar level (BSL) in patients with critical illness. A closed-loop control system was constructed to use CGMS in a real-time manner, coupled with a proportional integral (PI) control algorithm based on a sliding scale approach, for automatic intravenous infusion of insulin to patients. A total of five subjects with high BSL (> 10 mmol/L) participated in formal studies of the closed-loop control system. Subjects were recruited from critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) after informed consent was obtained. Error grid analysis showed that 64.6% of the BSL readings as determined in real time using CGMS sensor, when compared to conventional BSL measurements on blood drawn from an arterial line, was clinically accurate (i.e., < 20% deviation from glucometer value). In the five patients who underwent closed-loop control, the controller managed to control only one patient's glycaemia without any manual intervention. Manual intervention was required due to the real-time sensor reading deviating more than 20% from the glucometer value, and also as a safety mechanism. Test on equality of mean and variance for BSL attained prior to, during, and post trial showed that the controller's performance was comparable to manual control. We conclude that the automatic sliding scale approach of closed-loop BSL control is feasible in patients in intensive care. More work is needed in the refinement of the algorithm and the improvement of real-time sensor accuracy.

  20. Estimation of ground water residence times in the Critical zone: insight from U activity ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabaux, Francois; Ackerer, Julien; Lucas, Yann; viville, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The use of radioactive disequilibria as tracers and chronometers of weathering processes and related mass transfers has been recognized since the 60'. The development, over the last two decades, of analytical methods for measuring very precisely U-series nuclides (especially, 234U, 230Th and 226Ra) in environmental samples has opened up new scientific applications in Earth Surface Sciences. Here, we propose to present the potential of U activity ratios in surface waters as chronometer of water transfers at a watershed scale. This will be illustrated from studies performed at different scales, with the analysis of U activity ratios in surface waters from small watersheds (Strengbach and Ringelbach watersheds in the Vosges Mountain, France) but also from watersheds of much more regional extension (e.g., the Upper Rhine basin or the Ganges basin). These various studies show that variations of U activity ratios in surface waters are mainly associated with 234U-238U fractionations occurring during the water transfer within the bedrock, which intensity depends on two main parameters: the petro-physical characteristics of the aquifer, principally the geometry of water-rock interfaces and the duration of the water-rock interactions. This readily explains why different U activity ratios (UAR) can be observed in the different aquifers of a continental hydrosystem and hence why UAR can be used to trace the source of river waters. For a hydrological system developed on a substratum marked by fairly homogeneous petro-physical characteristics, the main parameter controlling the UAR in waters draining such a system would be the duration of the water-rock interactions. Variations of UAR in stream or spring waters of such a system can therefore be modeled using simple reactive transport model, which allows the estimation of both the dissolution rate of the bedrock and the residence time of the waters within the aquifer.

  1. A decision-theoretic approach to the display of information for time-critical decisions: The Vista project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvitz, Eric; Ruokangas, Corinne; Srinivas, Sampath; Barry, Matthew

    1993-01-01

    We describe a collaborative research and development effort between the Palo Alto Laboratory of the Rockwell Science Center, Rockwell Space Operations Company, and the Propulsion Systems Section of NASA JSC to design computational tools that can manage the complexity of information displayed to human operators in high-stakes, time-critical decision contexts. We shall review an application from NASA Mission Control and describe how we integrated a probabilistic diagnostic model and a time-dependent utility model, with techniques for managing the complexity of computer displays. Then, we shall describe the behavior of VPROP, a system constructed to demonstrate promising display-management techniques. Finally, we shall describe our current research directions on the Vista 2 follow-on project.

  2. Is timing of prescribed fire critical for limiting post-fire erosion? Lessons from Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakesby, Richard A.; Ferreira, Carla S. S.; Walsh, Rory P. D.; Ferreira, António J. D.; Urbanek, Emilia; Stoof, Cathelijne R.

    2010-05-01

    before summer 2009 indicated soil losses generally lower than those collected from similar terrain affected by wildfire. However, rainfall events during the 2009-10 autumn - winter period have been large and have included some intense storms sufficiently erosive to increase erosion rates relative to those recorded in the early post-fire months of spring and early summer 2009. Despite a relatively moist post-fire spring and the rapid appearance of new shoots from resprouting vegetation in particular, the thin degraded nature of the soil has been in large part responsible for the slow establishment of a vegetation cover sufficiently dense to be very effective at protecting the soil. Pre-fire and post-fire erosion and indicative nutrient content of soil collected from the sediment fences are considered and compared with results from the wildfire site and from the literature to assess whether timing of prescribed fire within the window of opportunity matters to any great extent.

  3. Decision Modeling in Sleep Apnea: The Critical Roles of Pretest Probability, Cost of Untreated Obstructive Sleep Apnea, and Time Horizon

    PubMed Central

    Moro, Marilyn; Westover, M. Brandon; Kelly, Jessica; Bianchi, Matt T.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, and treatment with positive airway pressure (PAP) is cost-effective. However, the optimal diagnostic strategy remains a subject of debate. Prior modeling studies have not consistently supported the widely held assumption that home sleep testing (HST) is cost-effective. Methods: We modeled four strategies: (1) treat no one; (2) treat everyone empirically; (3) treat those testing positive during in-laboratory polysomnography (PSG) via in-laboratory titration; and (4) treat those testing positive during HST with auto-PAP. The population was assumed to lack independent reasons for in-laboratory PSG (such as insomnia, periodic limb movements in sleep, complex apnea). We considered the third-party payer perspective, via both standard (quality-adjusted) and pure cost methods. Results: The preferred strategy depended on three key factors: pretest probability of OSA, cost of untreated OSA, and time horizon. At low prevalence and low cost of untreated OSA, the treat no one strategy was favored, whereas empiric treatment was favored for high prevalence and high cost of untreated OSA. In-laboratory backup for failures in the at-home strategy increased the preference for the at-home strategy. Without laboratory backup in the at-home arm, the in-laboratory strategy was increasingly preferred at longer time horizons. Conclusion: Using a model framework that captures a broad range of clinical possibilities, the optimal diagnostic approach to uncomplicated OSA depends on pretest probability, cost of untreated OSA, and time horizon. Estimating each of these critical factors remains a challenge warranting further investigation. Citation: Moro M, Westover MB, Kelly J, Bianchi MT. Decision modeling in sleep apnea: the critical roles of pretest probability, cost of untreated obstructive sleep apnea, and time horizon. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(3):409–418. PMID:26518699

  4. Riding the Lexical Speedway: A Critical Review on the Time Course of Lexical Selection in Speech Production

    PubMed Central

    Strijkers, Kristof; Costa, Albert

    2011-01-01

    Speech requires time. How much time often depends on the amount of labor the brain has to perform in order to retrieve the linguistic information related to the ideas we want to express. Although most psycholinguistic research in the field of language production has focused on the net result of time required to utter words in various experimental conditions, over the last years more and more researchers pursued the objective to flesh out the time course of particular stages implicated in language production. Here we critically review these studies, with particular interest for the time course of lexical selection. First, we evaluate the data underlying the estimates of an influential temporal meta-analysis on language production (Indefrey and Levelt, 2004). We conclude that those data alone are not sufficient to provide a reliable time frame of lexical selection. Next, we discuss recent neurophysiological evidence which we argue to offer more explicit insights into the time course of lexical selection. Based on this evidence we suggest that, despite the absence of a clear time frame of how long lexical selection takes, there is sufficient direct evidence to conclude that the brain initiates lexical access within 200 ms after stimulus presentation, hereby confirming Indefrey and Levelt’s estimate. In a final section, we briefly review the proposed mechanisms which could lead to this rapid onset of lexical access, namely automatic spreading activation versus specific concept selection, and discuss novel data which support the notion of spreading activation, but indicate that the speed with which this principle takes effect is driven by a top-down signal in function of the intention to engage in a speech act. PMID:22144973

  5. Variability of Residence Time tracer Concentrations at the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory during the California Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, A.; Thaw, M.; Stacy, E.; Hunsaker, C. T.; Bibby, R. K.; Deinhart, A.; Schorzman, K.; Egnatuk, C. M.; Conklin, M. H.; Esser, B.

    2015-12-01

    California water supply from high elevation snow melt is vulnerable to climate change and prolonged drought conditions. Reduced snow pack and earlier snow melt will result in a greater reliance on man-made reservoirs and subsurface catchment storage. To gain insight into the subsurface storage volume of high elevation catchments, we studied the residence time distribution of surface water leaving the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory. Since October 2014, we have collected monthly samples of two residence time tracers with contrasting half-lives: sulfur-35 (87.5 days) and tritium (12.32 years). Upstream catchment area at the three nested sampling locations is 1 km2 (P301 sub-catchment), 4 km2 (Providence Creek) and ~50 km2 (Big Creek). Samples were analyzed at LLNL by low level liquid scintillation counting and noble gas mass spectrometry after helium accumulation. Variations in tracer concentrations in precipitation, both for tritium (11-24 pCi/L) and sulfur-35 (24-100 mBq/L), complicate straightforward interpretation of residence times. Sulfur-35 concentrations show that last year precipitation contributes 1% - 10% of total stream flow, even during peak snowmelt. Tritium concentrations in stream flow vary between 40% and 60% of the initial concentration in precipitation (15.5 pCi/L), indicating that water leaving the catchment has a residence time on the order of years to decades. Additional analyses of sodium-22 (2.6 year half-life) will aid in deconvoluting the residence time distribution. These low tracer concentrations can be attributed to current severe drought conditions, resulting in low discharge rates and longer residence times. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-675107

  6. Mechanical diagnosis of human erythrocytes by ultra-high speed manipulation unraveled critical time window for global cytoskeletal remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiroaki; Murakami, Ryo; Sakuma, Shinya; Tsai, Chia-Hung Dylan; Gutsmann, Thomas; Brandenburg, Klaus; Pöschl, Johannes M. B.; Arai, Fumihito; Kaneko, Makoto; Tanaka, Motomu

    2017-01-01

    Large deformability of erythrocytes in microvasculature is a prerequisite to realize smooth circulation. We develop a novel tool for the three-step “Catch-Load-Launch” manipulation of a human erythrocyte based on an ultra-high speed position control by a microfluidic “robotic pump”. Quantification of the erythrocyte shape recovery as a function of loading time uncovered the critical time window for the transition between fast and slow recoveries. The comparison with erythrocytes under depletion of adenosine triphosphate revealed that the cytoskeletal remodeling over a whole cell occurs in 3 orders of magnitude longer timescale than the local dissociation-reassociation of a single spectrin node. Finally, we modeled septic conditions by incubating erythrocytes with endotoxin, and found that the exposure to endotoxin results in a significant delay in the characteristic transition time for cytoskeletal remodeling. The high speed manipulation of erythrocytes with a robotic pump technique allows for high throughput mechanical diagnosis of blood-related diseases. PMID:28233788

  7. Scaling in Omori law Waiting Time Distributions and Implications for Earthquakes as a Self-Organized Critical Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonsdottir, K.; Lindman, M.; Roberts, R.; Lund, B.

    2006-12-01

    Observed power law distributions of earthquake magnitudes, locations and aftershock waiting time distributions are often taken as a support for earthquakes being a phenomena of self-organized criticality (SOC), implying that earthquakes cannot be predicted. Here we study the scaling behaviour of waiting time distributions for aftershock sequences obeying the Omori law (dn/dt=K/(c+t)^p) in order to investigate the implications for the SOC hypothesis. We show that the Omori waiting time distribution is constant in the range [0, (2c)^p/K], exhibit power law decay with exponent 2-1/p in the range [(2c)^p/K, (c+T)^p/K] and falls off rapidly for waiting times larger than (c+T)^p/K, where K, c and p are the Omori law parameters and T the length of the aftershock sequence. The bounded range of the power law regime implies that we cannot immediately regard empirical Omori waiting time distributions as evidence of SOC. For a given value of K and p the scaling of the upper bound is essentially an effect of a finite time series and does not contradict SOC. The scaling of the lower bound controlled by c, however, implies that a non-zero c cannot support SOC as the power law regime is bounded at short waiting times. It is therefore important to deduce whether c, reflecting a roughly constant rate in the beginning of aftershock sequences, only represents incomplete detection of earthquakes, or, is a true description of the physics of the aftershock process. For a given aftershock sequence, we can estimate the number of missed events if the true value of c is zero. Removing the number of missed events from a simulation of the sequence with c=0 results in a sequence deviating significantly from that described by a non-zero c. We illustrate this using simulations and investigations of real aftershock sequences. We can show, for the aftershock sequences we have studied, that it is highly probable that the roughly constant rate during the initial c seconds do not represent incomplete

  8. Methionine splanchnic uptake is increased in critically ill children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During critical illness the splanchnic area is profoundly affected. There is no information on splanchnic uptake of amino acids in vivo, in critically ill children. Methionine splanchnic uptake in critically ill children will differ from estimates in healthy adults. We studied 24 critically ill chil...

  9. Critical review of real-time methods for solid waste characterisation: Informing material recovery and fuel production.

    PubMed

    Vrancken, C; Longhurst, P J; Wagland, S T

    2017-03-01

    Waste management processes generally represent a significant loss of material, energy and economic resources, so legislation and financial incentives are being implemented to improve the recovery of these valuable resources whilst reducing contamination levels. Material recovery and waste derived fuels are potentially valuable options being pursued by industry, using mechanical and biological processes incorporating sensor and sorting technologies developed and optimised for recycling plants. In its current state, waste management presents similarities to other industries that could improve their efficiencies using process analytical technology tools. Existing sensor technologies could be used to measure critical waste characteristics, providing data required by existing legislation, potentially aiding waste treatment processes and assisting stakeholders in decision making. Optical technologies offer the most flexible solution to gather real-time information applicable to each of the waste mechanical and biological treatment processes used by industry. In particular, combinations of optical sensors in the visible and the near-infrared range from 800nm to 2500nm of the spectrum, and different mathematical techniques, are able to provide material information and fuel properties with typical performance levels between 80% and 90%. These sensors not only could be used to aid waste processes, but to provide most waste quality indicators required by existing legislation, whilst offering better tools to the stakeholders.

  10. Addressing critical environmental data gaps via low-cost, real-time, cellular-based environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caylor, K. K.; Wolf, A.; Siegfried, B.

    2014-12-01

    Models in the environmental sciences are repositories in a sense of the current state of understanding of critical processes. However, as our understanding of these processes (and their accompanying models) become more granular, the data requirements to parameterize them become more limiting. In addition, as these models become more useful, they are often pressed into service for decision support, meaning that they cannot accept the data latency typical of most environmental observations. Finally, the vast majority of environmental data is generated at highly-instrumented, infrastructure-rich "mega sites" in the US/Europe, while many of the most pressing environmental issues are in rural locales and in the developing world. Cellular-based environmental sensing is a promising means to provide granular data in real time from remote locales to improve model-based forecasting using data assimilation. Applications we are working on include drought forecasting and food security; forest and crop responses to weather and climate change; and rural water usage. Over the past two years, we have developed a suite of integrated hardware, firmware, and backend APIs that accommodates an unlimited variety of sensors, and propagates these data onto the internet over mobile networks. Scientific data holds a unique role for demanding well-characterized information on sensor error and our design attempts to balance error reduction with low costs. The result is a deployment system that undercuts competing commercial products by as much as 90%, allowing more ubiquitous deployment with lower risks associated with sensor loss. Enclosure design and power management are critical ingredients for remote deployments under variable environmental conditions. Sensors push data onto cloud storage and make this data available via public API's via a backend server that accommodates additional metadata essential for interpreting observations, particularly their measurement errors. The data these pods

  11. No Critical Peripheral Fatigue Threshold during Intermittent Isometric Time to Task Failure Test with the Knee Extensors

    PubMed Central

    Froyd, Christian; Beltrami, Fernando G.; Millet, Guillaume Y.; Noakes, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that group III and IV muscle afferents provide inhibitory feedback from locomotor muscles to the central nervous system, setting an absolute threshold for the development of peripheral fatigue during exercise. The aim of this study was to test the validity of this theory. Thus, we asked whether the level of developed peripheral fatigue would differ when two consecutive exercise trials were completed to task failure. Ten trained sport students performed two exercise trials to task failure on an isometric dynamometer, allowing peripheral fatigue to be assessed 2 s after maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) post task failure. The trials, separated by 8 min, consisted of repeated sets of 10 × 5-s isometric knee extension followed by 5-s rest between contractions. In each set, the first nine contractions were performed at a target force at 60% of the pre-exercise MVC, while the 10th contraction was a MVC. MVC and evoked force responses to supramaximal electrical femoral nerve stimulation on relaxed muscles were assessed during the trials and at task failure. Stimulations at task failure consisted of single stimulus (SS), paired stimuli at 10 Hz (PS10), paired stimuli at 100 Hz (PS100), and 50 stimuli at 100 Hz (tetanus). Time to task failure for the first trial (12.84 ± 5.60 min) was longer (P < 0.001) than for the second (5.74 ± 1.77 min). MVC force was significantly lower at task failure for both trials compared with the pre-exercise values (both P < 0.001), but there were no differences in MVC at task failure in the first and second trials (P = 1.00). However, evoked peak force for SS, PS100, and tetanus were all reduced more at task failure in the second compared to the first trial (P = 0.014 for SS, P < 0.001 for PS100 and tetanus). These results demonstrate that subjects do not terminate exercise at task failure because they have reached a critical threshold in peripheral fatigue. The present data therefore question the existence of a

  12. A national study of plasma use in critical care: clinical indications, dose and effect on prothrombin time

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Fresh frozen plasma (FFP) is widely used, but few studies have described patterns of plasma use in critical care. We carried out a multicentre study of coagulopathy in intensive care units (ICUs) and here describe overall FFP utilisation in adult critical care, the indications for transfusions, factors indicating the doses used and the effects of FFP use on coagulation. Methods We conducted a prospective, multicentre, observational study of all patients sequentially admitted to 29 adult UK general ICUs over 8 weeks. Daily data throughout ICU admission were collected concerning coagulation, relevant clinical outcomes (including bleeding), coagulopathy (defined as international normalised ratio (INR) >1.5, or equivalent prothrombin time (PT)), FFP and cryoprecipitate use and indications for transfusion. Results Of 1,923 admissions, 12.7% received FFP in the ICU during 404 FFP treatment episodes (1,212 FFP units). Overall, 0.63 FFP units/ICU admission were transfused (0.11 units/ICU day). Reasons for FFP transfusion were bleeding (48%), preprocedural prophylaxis (15%) and prophylaxis without planned procedure (36%). Overall, the median FFP dose was 10.8 ml kg-1, but doses varied widely (first to third quartile, 7.2 to 14.4 ml kg-1). Thirty-one percent of FFP treatments were to patients without PT prolongation, and 41% were to patients without recorded bleeding and only mildly deranged INR (<2.5). Higher volumes of FFP were administered when the indication was bleeding (median doses: bleeding 11.1 ml kg-1, preprocedural prophylaxis 9.8 ml kg-1, prophylaxis without procedure 8.9 ml kg-1; P = 0.009 across groups) and when the pretransfusion INR was higher (ranging from median dose 8.9 ml kg-1 at INR ≤1.5 to 15.7 ml kg-1 at INR >3; P < 0.001 across ranges). Regression analyses suggested bleeding was the strongest predictor of higher FFP dose. Pretransfusion INR was more frequently normal when the transfusion indication was bleeding. Overall, posttransfusion

  13. Effects of time and day of admission on the outcome of critically ill patients admitted to ICU

    PubMed Central

    Orsini, Jose; Rajayer, Salil; Ahmad, Noeen; Din, Nanda; Morante, Joaquin; Malik, Ryan; Shim, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that patients admitted to hospitals on weekends and after-hours experience worse outcome than those admitted on weekdays and daytime hours. Although admissions of patients to intensive care units (ICUs) occur 24 hours a day, not all critical care units maintain the same level of staffing during nighttime, weekends, and holidays. This raises concerns in view of evidence showing that the organizational structure of an ICU influences the outcome of critically ill patients. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of day and time of admission to ICU on patients’ outcome. Methods A single-center, prospective, observational study was conducted among all consecutive admissions to ICU in a community teaching hospital during a 4-month period. Results A total of 282 patients were admitted during the study period. Their mean age was 59.5 years (median 59, range 17–96), and the majority were male (157, 55.7%). Mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE)-II score was 18.9 (median 33, range 1–45), and mean ICU length of stay was 3.1 days (median 2, range 1–19). Of the patients, 104 patients (36.9%) were admitted during weekends and 178 (63.1%) during weekdays. A total of 122 patients (43.3%) were admitted after-hours, constituting 68.5% of all admissions during weekdays. Fifty-six patients (19.9%) were admitted during daytime hours, representing 31.5% of all weekday admissions. Forty-five patients (15.9%) died in ICU. Compared to patients admitted on weekends, those admitted on weekdays had increased ICU mortality (operating room (OR)=0.437; 95% confidence interval=0.2054–0.9196; p=0.0293). Conclusion Admissions to ICU during weekends were not independently associated with increased mortality. A linear relationship between weekdays and after-hours admissions to ICU with mortality was observed at our institution. PMID:27987290

  14. Real-time determination of critical quality attributes using near-infrared spectroscopy: a contribution for Process Analytical Technology (PAT).

    PubMed

    Rosas, Juan G; Blanco, Marcel; González, Josep M; Alcalà, Manel

    2012-08-15

    Process Analytical Technology (PAT) is playing a central role in current regulations on pharmaceutical production processes. Proper understanding of all operations and variables connecting the raw materials to end products is one of the keys to ensuring quality of the products and continuous improvement in their production. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been successfully used to develop faster and non-invasive quantitative methods for real-time predicting critical quality attributes (CQA) of pharmaceutical granulates (API content, pH, moisture, flowability, angle of repose and particle size). NIR spectra have been acquired from the bin blender after granulation process in a non-classified area without the need of sample withdrawal. The methodology used for data acquisition, calibration modelling and method application in this context is relatively inexpensive and can be easily implemented by most pharmaceutical laboratories. For this purpose, Partial Least-Squares (PLS) algorithm was used to calculate multivariate calibration models, that provided acceptable Root Mean Square Error of Predictions (RMSEP) values (RMSEP(API)=1.0 mg/g; RMSEP(pH)=0.1; RMSEP(Moisture)=0.1%; RMSEP(Flowability)=0.6 g/s; RMSEP(Angle of repose)=1.7° and RMSEP(Particle size)=2.5%) that allowed the application for routine analyses of production batches. The proposed method affords quality assessment of end products and the determination of important parameters with a view to understanding production processes used by the pharmaceutical industry. As shown here, the NIRS technique is a highly suitable tool for Process Analytical Technologies.

  15. Experiencing Art with the Ill, the Elderly, and Their Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Terry

    2011-01-01

    This article is a personal narrative of a teaching artist reaching out to persons ill, elderly, and their caregivers because of his own experiences with cancer. As a teaching artist, the author serves schools and communities as an art critic, that is, one who facilitates discussions about works of art made by the learners or by established…

  16. Critical Length Criterion and the Arc Chain Model for Calculating the Arcing Time of the Secondary Arc Related to AC Transmission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Haoxi; Li, Qingmin; Xing, Jinyuan; Li, Jinsong; Chen, Qiang

    2015-06-01

    The prompt extinction of the secondary arc is critical to the single-phase reclosing of AC transmission lines, including half-wavelength power transmission lines. In this paper, a low-voltage physical experimental platform was established and the motion process of the secondary arc was recorded by a high-speed camera. It was found that the arcing time of the secondary arc rendered a close relationship with its arc length. Through the input and output power energy analysis of the secondary arc, a new critical length criterion for the arcing time was proposed. The arc chain model was then adopted to calculate the arcing time with both the traditional and the proposed critical length criteria, and the simulation results were compared with the experimental data. The study showed that the arcing time calculated from the new critical length criterion gave more accurate results, which can provide a reliable criterion in term of arcing time for modeling and simulation of the secondary arc related with power transmission lines. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51277061 and 51420105011)

  17. Part-Time Learners in Open and Distance Learning: Revisiting the Critical Importance of Choice, Flexibility and Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, John; Rose-Adams, John

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we argue that, if open learning seeks to (re)assert a social justice mission, issues of openness and flexibility are more critical than ever. Drawing on qualitative data from a National Union of Students Wales/Open University study, which explored, in the voices of Welsh students, the identity, motivation and barriers faced by…

  18. Clarification to 1998 Agreement Regarding the National Remedy Review Board Review Criteria for Department of Energy Non-Time Critical Removal Actions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The purpose of this memorandum is to provide additional clarification on the applicability of the October 5, 1998, joint Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Energy (DOE) agreement on DOE decommissioning projects titled Review of Department of Energy Non-Time Critical Removal Actions by the National Remedy Review Board.

  19. A Critical Challenge: The Engagement and Assessment of Contingent, Part-Time Adjunct Faculty Professors in United States Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolley, Michael R.; Cross, Emily; Bryant, Miles

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, according to a National Center for Education Statistics report, part-time instructional staff in all higher education institutions exceeded full-time faculty members for the first time, accounting for 50% of all instructional staff (National Center for Education Statistics [NCES], 2012). The same report indicates part-time faculty in…

  20. Field-induced quantum critical point in planar Heisenberg ferromagnets with long-range interactions: Two-time Green's function framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campana, L. S.; de Cesare, L.; Esposito, U.; Mercaldo, M. T.; Rabuffo, I.

    2010-07-01

    The two-time Green’s function method is used to study the critical properties and crossover phenomena near the field-induced quantum critical point (QCP) of a d -dimensional spin- S planar Heisenberg ferromagnet with long-range interactions decaying as r-α (with α>d ) with the distance r between spins. We adopt the Callen scheme for spin S and the Tyablikov decoupling procedure which is expected to provide suitable results at low temperatures. Different quantum critical regimes are found in the (α,d) plane and the global structure of the phase diagram is determined showing the typical V-shaped region close to the QCP. Depending on the values of α , we find that also for dimensionalities d⩽2 a finite-temperature critical line, ending in the QCP, exists with asymptotic behaviors and crossovers which can be employed as a useful guide for experimental studies. Moreover, these crossovers are shown to be suitably described in terms of (α,d) -dependent scaling functions and effective critical exponents.

  1. P- v criticality in the extended phase space of a noncommutative geometry inspired Reissner-Nordström black hole in AdS space-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jun; Guan, Zhi-Hua; Liu, Yan-Chun; Liu, Bo

    2017-02-01

    The P- v criticality and phase transition in the extended phase space of a noncommutative geometry inspired Reissner-Nordström (RN) black hole in Anti-de Sitter (AdS) space-time are studied, where the cosmological constant appears as a dynamical pressure and its conjugate quantity is thermodynamic volume of the black hole. It is found that the P- v criticality and the small black hole/large black hole phase transition appear for the noncommutative RN-AdS black hole. Numerical calculations indicate that the noncommutative parameter affects the phase transition as well as the critical temperature, horizon radius, pressure and ratio. The critical ratio is no longer universal, which is different from the result in the van de Waals liquid-gas system. The nature of phase transition at the critical point is also discussed. Especially, for the noncommutative geometry inspired RN-AdS black hole, a new thermodynamic quantity Ψ conjugate to the noncommutative parameter θ has to be defined further, which is required for consistency of both the first law of thermodynamics and the corresponding Smarr relation.

  2. A proposed procedure for expressing the behavior of a full engine cycle by identifying its critical load timings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marius Andrei, Mihalache; Gheorghe, Nagit; Gavril, Musca; Vasile, Merticaru, Jr.; Marius Ionut, Ripanu

    2016-11-01

    In the present study the authors propose a new algorithm for identifying the right loads that act upon a functional connecting rod during a full engine cycle. The loads are then divided into three categories depending on the results they produce, as static, semi-dynamic and dynamic ones Because an engine cycle extends up to 720°, the authors aim to identify a method of substitution of values that produce the same effect as a previous value of a considered angle did. In other words, the proposed method aims to pin point the critical values that produce an effect different as the one seen before during a full engine cycle. Only those values will then be considered as valid loads that act upon the connecting rod inside FEA analyses. This technique has been applied to each of the three categories mentioned above and did produced different critical values for each one of them. The whole study relies on a theoretical mechanical project which was developed in order to identify the right values that correspond to each degree of the entire engine cycle of a Daewoo Tico automobile.

  3. Late-onset bipolar illness: the geriatric bipolar type VI.

    PubMed

    Azorin, Jean-Michel; Kaladjian, Arthur; Adida, Marc; Fakra, Eric

    2012-03-01

    In parallel to considerable progress in understanding and treatment of bipolarity and despite growing interest in old age psychiatry, late-onset bipolar illness (LOBI) has remained relatively understudied so far, probably in reason of its complexity. To update available data, a systematic review was conducted, focusing on the main issues addressed in literature in regard to this topic. In addition to data on epidemiology, clinical features and treatment, five main issues could be identified: LOBI as secondary disorder, LOBI as expression of a lower vulnerability to the disease, LOBI as subform of pseudodementia, LOBI as risk factor for developing dementia, and LOBI as bipolar type VI (bipolarity in the context of dementia like processes). Levels of available evidence were found to vary according to the addressed issue. Although the concept of bipolar type VI could be criticized for subsuming under one single heading all the four other issues, this concept may be of pragmatic value in helping clinicians to orientate both diagnosis process and treatment decisions. Among others, the question as to whether some forms of bipolar type VI could constitute a special risk factor for developing dementia deserves further investigation. More studies are also needed to better disentangle the effects of age at onset from those of age itself.

  4. Examination of silicate limitation of primary production in Jiaozhou Bay, China. II. Critical value and time of silicate limitation and satisfaction of the phytoplankton growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dongfang, Yang; Jing, Zhang; Zhenhui, Gao; Yu, Chen; Peiyan, Sun

    2003-03-01

    Analysis and comparison of Jiaozhou Bay data collected from May 1991 to February 1994 revealed the spatiotemporal variations of the ambient Si(OH)4:NO3 (Si:N) concentration rations and the seasonal variations of (Si:N) ratios in Jiaozhou Bay and showed that the Si:N ratios were <1 throughout Jiaozhou Bay in spring, autumn, and winter. These results provide further evidence that silicate limits the growth of phytoplankton (i.e. diatoms) in spring, autumn and winter. Moreover, comparison of the spatiotemporal variations of the Si:N ratio and primary production in Jiaozhou Bay suggested their close relationship. The spatiotemporal pattern of dissolved silicate matched well that of primary production in Jiaozhou Bay. Along with the environmental change of Jiaozhou Bay in the last thirty years, the N and P concentrations tended to rise, whereas Si concentration showed cyclic seasonal variations. With the variation of nutrient Si limiting the primary production in mind, the authors found that the range of values of primary production is divided into three parts: the basic value of Si limited primary production, the extent of Si limited primary production and the critical value of Si limited primary production, which can be calculated for Jiaozhou Bay by Equations (1), (2) and (3), showing that the time of the critical value of Si limitation of phytoplankton growth in Jiaozhou Bay is around November 3 to November 13 in autumn; and that the time of the critical value of Si satisfaction of phytoplankton growth in Jiaozhou Bay is around May 22 to June 7 in spring. Moreover, the calculated critical value of Si satisfactory for phytoplankton growth is 2.15-0.76 μmol/L and the critical value of Si limitation of phytoplankton growth is 1.42-0.36 μmol/L; so that the time period of Si limitation of phytoplankton growth is around November 13 to May 22 in the next year; the time period of Si satisfactory for phytoplankton growth is around June 7 to November 3. This result also

  5. Examination of silicate limitation of primary production in Jiaozhou Bay, China. II. Critical value and time of silicate limitation and satisfaction of the phytoplankton growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dongfang; Zhang, Jing; Gao, Zhenhui; Chen, Yu; Sun, Peiyan

    2003-03-01

    Analysis and comparison of Jiaozhou Bay data collected from May 1991 to February 1994 revealed the spatiotemporal variations of the ambient Si(OH)4:NO3 (Si:N) concentration rations and the seasonal variations of (Si:N) ratios in Jiaozhou Bay and showed that the Si:N ratios were <1 throughout Jiaozhou Bay in spring, autumn, and winter. These results provide further evidence that silicate limits the growth of phytoplankton (i.e. diatoms) in spring, autumn and winter. Moreover, comparison of the spatiotemporal variations of the Si:N ratio and primary production in Jiaozhou Bay suggested their close relationship. The spatiotemporal pattern of dissolved silicate matched well that of primary production in Jiaozhou Bay. Along with the environmental change of Jiaozhou Bay in the last thirty years, the N and P concentrations tended to rise, whereas Si concentration showed cyclic seasonal variations. With the variation of nutrient Si limiting the primary production in mind, the authors found that the range of values of primary production is divided into three parts: the basic value of Si limited primary production, the extent of Si limited primary production and the critical value of Si limited primary production, which can be calculated for Jiaozhou Bay by Equations (1), (2) and (3), showing that the time of the critical value of Si limitation of phytoplankton growth in Jiaozhou Bay is around November 3 to November 13 in autumn; and that the time of the critical value of Si satisfaction of phytoplankton growth in Jiaozhou Bay is around May 22 to June 7 in spring. Moreover, the calculated critical value of Si satisfactory for phytoplankton growth is 2.15 0.76 μmol/L and the critical value of Si limitation of phytoplankton growth is 1.42 0.36 μmol/L; so that the time period of Si limitation of phytoplankton growth is around November 13 to May 22 in the next year; the time period of Si satisfactory for phytoplankton growth is around June 7 to November 3. This result also

  6. Investigating critical effects of variegated lubricants, glidants and hydrophilic additives on lag time of press coated ethylcellulose tablets.

    PubMed

    Patadia, Riddhish; Vora, Chintan; Mittal, Karan; Mashru, Rajashree

    2016-01-01

    The research envisaged focuses on vital impacts of variegated lubricants, glidants and hydrophilic additives on lag time of press coated ethylcellulose (EC) tablets using prednisone as a model drug. Several lubricants and glidants such as magnesium stearate, colloidal SiO2, sodium stearyl fumarate, talc, stearic acid, polyethylene glycol (6000) and glyceryl behenate were investigated to understand their effects on lag time by changing their concentrations in outer coat. Further, the effects of hydrophilic additives on lag time were examined for hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (E5), hydroxypropylcellulose (EF and SSL), povidone (K30), copovidone, polyethylene glycol (4000), lactose and mannitol. In vitro drug release testing revealed that each selected lubricant/glidant, if present even at concentration of 0.25% w/w, significantly reduced the lag time of press coated tablets. Specifically, colloidal SiO2 and/or magnesium stearate were detrimental while other lubricants/glidants were relatively less injurious. Among hydrophilic additives, freely water soluble fillers had utmost influence in lag time, whereas, comparatively less impact was observed with polymeric binders. Concisely, glidant and lubricant should be chosen to have minimal impact on lag time and further judicious selection of hydrophilic additives should be exercised for modulating lag time of pulsatile release formulations.

  7. Ebola Virus Disease: Rapid Diagnosis and Timely Case Reporting are Critical to the Early Response for Outbreak Control

    PubMed Central

    Stamm, Lola V.

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a life-threatening zoonosis caused by infection with the Ebola virus. Since the first reported EVD outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, several small outbreaks have been reported in central Africa with about 2,400 cases occurring between 1976 and 2013. The 2013–2015 EVD outbreak in west Africa is the first documented outbreak in this region and the largest ever with over 27,000 cases and more than 11,000 deaths. Although EVD transmission rates have recently decreased in west Africa, this crisis continues to threaten global health and security, particularly since infected travelers could spread EVD to other resource-limited areas of the world. Because vaccines and drugs are not yet licensed for EVD, outbreak control is dependent on the use of non-pharmaceutical interventions (e.g., infection control practices, isolation of EVD cases, contact tracing with follow-up and quarantine, sanitary burial, health education). However, delays in diagnosing and reporting EVD cases in less accessible rural areas continue to hamper control efforts. New advances in rapid diagnostics for identifying presumptive EVD cases and in mobile-based technologies for communicating critical health-related information should facilitate deployment of an early response to prevent the amplification of sporadic EVD cases into large-scale outbreaks. PMID:26175026

  8. "I Just Didn't Have Enough Time..." Assisting the Busy Adult Learner Develop Critical Reading and Thinking Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz-Lefebvre, Rene

    Several factors are related to adult students' completion or noncompletion of reading assignments before class--lack of study time, their motivation for taking college classes, their need to feel involved in the learning process, and their expectations for success in the classroom. One of the biggest fears of adults returning to a school…

  9. Utilizing Social Networks in Times of Crisis: Understanding, Exploring and Analyzing Critical Incident Management at Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asselin, Martha Jo

    2012-01-01

    With the rising number of major crises on college campuses today (Security on Campus Inc., 2009), institutions of higher education can benefit from understanding of how social networks may be used in times of emergency. What is currently known about the usage of social networks is not integral to the current practices of crisis management that are…

  10. Design, Development and Evaluation of Collaborative Team Training Method in Virtual Worlds for Time-Critical Medical Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khanal, Prabal

    2014-01-01

    Medical students acquire and enhance their clinical skills using various available techniques and resources. As the health care profession has move towards team-based practice, students and trainees need to practice team-based procedures that involve timely management of clinical tasks and adequate communication with other members of the team.…

  11. Act Fast as Time Is Less: High Faecal Carriage of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Critical Care Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Manisa; Pathrose, Edwin Joseph; Shivdas, Sarita

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are drug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria that are present in the community as well as in hospitals. Their infection and colonisation puts critically ill patients at high risk due to the drug-resistant nature of the strains and possible spreading of these organisms, even in a hospital environment. Aim To examine the presence and types of Enterobacteriaceae species in patients admitted directly from the community. Materials and Methods The present study was a one-month pilot conducted in the ICU of a tertiary care hospital in Mumbai, India in 2015. Faecal samples of patients admitted from the community directly to the ICU were analysed using tests like MHT (Modified Hodge) and EDTA for the presence of IMP (action on Imipenem) and KPC (Klebsiella Test Pneumoniae Carbapenemase) producing strains of Enterobacteriaceae. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was performed to look for VIM, IMP, NDM1, OXA, and KPC genes. Antibiotic Sensitivity Test was carried out as per CLSI guidelines. Results The results showed an alarming level of faecal carriage rates in adult ICU patients. Klebsiella pneumonia was the most common carbapenem-resistant isolate, closely followed by Escherichia coli. PCR results revealed nine strains were positive for bla(KPC) gene, from which 7 were Klebsiella pneumoniae and one each of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella oxytoca was observed. Antibiotic Sensitivity Test results showed that the isolates had maximum sensitivity to Colistin (100%) and Tigecycline (95%). Conclusion These levels indicate that in the absence of CRE screenings, proper isolation of carrier patients is not possible, leading to possible spreading of these resistant bacteria strains in ICUs. A longer period of study is required to obtain more substantial data to validate the results of this pilot. PMID:27790429

  12. Time and Demand are Two Critical Dimensions of Immunometabolism: The Process of Macrophage Activation and the Pentose Phosphate Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Csörsz; Haschemi, Arvand

    2015-01-01

    A process is a function of time; in immunometabolism, this is reflected by the stepwise adaptation of metabolism to sustain the bio-energetic demand of an immune-response in its various states and shades. This perspective article starts by presenting an early attempt to investigate the physiology of inflammation, in order to illustrate one of the basic concepts of immunometabolism, wherein an adapted metabolism of infiltrating immune cells affects tissue function and inflammation. We then focus on the process of macrophage activation and aim to delineate the factor time within the current molecular context of metabolic-rewiring important for adapting primary carbohydrate metabolism. In the last section, we will provide information on how the pentose phosphate pathway may be of importance to provide both nucleotide precursors and redox-equivalents, and speculate how carbon-scrambling events in the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway might be regulated within cells by demand. We conclude that the adapted metabolism of inflammation is specific in respect to the effector-function and appears as a well-orchestrated event, dynamic by nature, and based on a functional interplay of signaling- and metabolic-pathways. PMID:25904920

  13. Critical elements in implementations of just-in-time management: empirical study of cement industry in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Muhammad Imran; Iftikhar, Mehwish; Bhatti, Mansoor Nazir; Shams, Tauqeer; Zaman, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, inventory management is continuous challenge for all organizations not only due to heavy cost associated with inventory holding, but also it has a great deal to do with the organizations production process. Cement industry is a growing sector of Pakistan's economy which is now facing problems in capacity utilization of their plants. This study attempts to identify the key strategies for successful implementation of just-in-time (JIT) management philosophy on the cement industry of Pakistan. The study uses survey responses from four hundred operations' managers of cement industry in order to know about the advantages and benefits that cement industry have experienced by Just in time (JIT) adoption. The results show that implementing the quality, product design, inventory management, supply chain and production plans embodied through the JIT philosophy which infect enhances cement industry competitiveness in Pakistan. JIT implementation increases performance by lower level of inventory, reduced operations & inventory costs was reduced eliminates wastage from the processes and reduced unnecessary production which is a big challenge for the manufacturer who are trying to maintain the continuous flow processes. JIT implementation is a vital manufacturing strategy that reaches capacity utilization and minimizes the rate of defect in continuous flow processes. The study emphasize the need for top management commitment in order to incorporate the necessary changes that need to take place in cement industry so that JIT implementation can take place in an effective manner.

  14. Time Series miRNA-mRNA integrated analysis reveals critical miRNAs and targets in macrophage polarization

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Liangqun; McCurdy, Sara; Huang, Sijia; Zhu, Xun; Peplowska, Karolina; Tiirikainen, Maarit; Boisvert, William A.; Garmire, Lana X.

    2016-01-01

    Polarization of macrophages is regulated through complex signaling networks. Correlating miRNA and mRNA expression over time after macrophage polarization has not yet been investigated. We used paired RNA-Seq and miRNA-Seq experiments to measure the mRNA and miRNA expression in bone marrow-derived macrophages over a time-series of 8 hours. Bioinformatics analysis identified 31 differentially expressed miRNAs between M1 and M2 polarized macrophages. The top 4 M1 miRNAs (miR-155-3p, miR-155-5p, miR-147-3p and miR-9-5p) and top 4 M2 miRNAs (miR-27a-5p, let-7c-1-3p, miR-23a-5p and miR-23b-5p) were validated by qPCR. Interestingly, M1 specific miRNAs could be categorized to early- and late-response groups, in which three new miRNAs miR-1931, miR-3473e and miR-5128 were validated as early-response miRNAs. M1 polarization led to the enrichment of genes involved in immune responses and signal transduction, whereas M2 polarization enriched genes involved in cell cycle and metabolic processes. C2H2 zinc-finger family members are key targets of DE miRNAs. The integrative analysis between miRNAs and mRNAs demonstrates the regulations of miRNAs on nearly four thousand differentially expressed genes and most of the biological pathways enriched in macrophage polarization. In summary, this study elucidates the expression profiles of miRNAs and their potential targetomes during macrophage polarization. PMID:27981970

  15. Verification and Validation of Neutronic/Thermalhydraulic 3D-Time Dependent Model for Treatment of Super-critical States of Light water Research Reactors Accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Khaled, S.M.

    2015-07-01

    This work presents the Verification and testing both the neutronic and thermal-hydraulics response of the positive reactivity-initiated power excursion accidents in small light water research reactors. Some research reactors have to build its own severe accidents code system. In this sense, a 3D space-time-dependent neutron diffusion models with thermal hydraulic feedback have been introduced, compared and tested both experimentally at criticality 14-cent and theoretically up to 1.5 $ with a number of similar codes. The results shows that no expected core failure or moderator boiling. (author)

  16. Decision solution, data manipulation and trust: The (un-)willingness to donate organs in Germany in critical times.

    PubMed

    Schwettmann, Lars

    2015-07-01

    In 2011 and 2012 a change of rules and a data-manipulation scandal focused German public attention on organ donation. This increased citizens' background knowledge as well as their willingness to respond to surveys. The present study is an effort to seize this research opportunity and to create evidence on which policy recommendations can be conceivably based. It uses data from two major representative surveys from 2011 to 2012 to address four central questions: Which characteristics, experiences and attitudes correlate with the written or unwritten willingness of individuals to donate (WTD) their own organs post-mortem? How has the WTD changed over time? To what extent does the WTD depend on normative trust? Which factors correlate with trust? The data is analyzed through summary statistics and regression models. Several hypotheses regarding factors connected with the WTD are confirmed in the survey results. Altruistic motives, relevant knowledge and trust are decisive. The special role of trust is corroborated by the data. As current German politics prevents the introduction of post-mortem donation incentives, potential policy making proposals are restricted to institutional changes to regain trust including the implementation of an organ donor registry and the advancement of counselling talks with general practitioners.

  17. A complexity basis for phenomenology: How information states at criticality offer a new approach to understanding experience of self, being and time.

    PubMed

    Hankey, Alex

    2015-12-01

    In the late 19th century Husserl studied our internal sense of time passing, maintaining that its deep connections into experience represent prima facie evidence for it as the basis for all investigations in the sciences: Phenomenology was born. Merleau-Ponty focused on perception pointing out that any theory of experience must accord with established aspects of biology i.e. be embodied. Recent analyses suggest that theories of experience require non-reductive, integrative information, together with a specific property connecting them to experience. Here we elucidate a new class of information states with just such properties found at the loci of control of complex biological systems, including nervous systems. Complexity biology concerns states satisfying self-organized criticality. Such states are located at critical instabilities, commonly observed in biological systems, and thought to maximize information diversity and processing, and hence to optimize regulation. Major results for biology follow: why organisms have unusually low entropies; and why they are not merely mechanical. Criticality states form singular self-observing systems, which reduce wave packets by processes of perfect self-observation associated with feedback gain g = 1. Analysis of their information properties leads to identification of a new kind of information state with high levels of internal coherence, and feedback loops integrated into their structure. The major idea presented here is that the integrated feedback loops are responsible for our 'sense of self', and also the feeling of continuity in our sense of time passing. Long-range internal correlations guarantee a unique kind of non-reductive, integrative information structure enabling such states to naturally support phenomenal experience. Being founded in complexity biology, they are 'embodied'; they also fulfill the statement that 'The self is a process', a singular process. High internal correlations and René Thom

  18. Molecular and morphological phylogenetics of chelonine parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), with a critical assessment of divergence time estimations.

    PubMed

    Kittel, Rebecca N; Austin, Andrew D; Klopfstein, Seraina

    2016-08-01

    Parasitoid wasps of the subfamily Cheloninae are both species rich and poorly known. Although the taxonomy of Cheloninae appears to be relatively stable, there is no clear understanding of relationships among higher-level taxa. We here applied molecular phylogenetic analyses using three markers (COI, EF1α, 28S) and 37 morphological characters to elucidate the evolution and systematics of these wasps. Analyses were based on 83 specimens representing 13 genera. All genera except Ascogaster, Phanerotoma, and Pseudophanerotoma formed monophyletic groups; Furcidentia (stat. rev.) is raised to generic rank. Neither Chelonus (Chelonus) nor Chelonus (Microchelonus) were recovered as monophyletic, but together formed a monophyletic lineage. The tribes Chelonini and Odontosphaeropygini formed monophyletic groups, but the Phanerotomini sensu Zettel and Pseudophanerotomini were retrieved as either para- or polyphyletic. The genera comprising the former subfamily Adeliinae were confirmed as being nested within the Cheloninae. To estimate the age of the subfamily, we used 16 fossil taxa. Three approaches were compared: fixed-rate dating, node dating, and total-evidence dating, with age estimates differing greatly between the three methods. Shortcomings of each approach in relation to our dataset are discussed, and none of the age estimates is deemed sufficiently reliable. Given that most dating studies use a single method only, in most cases without presenting analyses on the sensitivity to priors, it is likely that numerous age estimates in the literature suffer from a similar lack of robustness. We argue for a more rigorous approach to dating analyses and for a faithful presentation of uncertainties in divergence time estimates. Given the results of the phylogenetic analysis the following taxonomic changes are proposed: Furcidentia Zettel (stat. rev.), previously treated as a subgenus of Pseudophanerotoma Zettel is raised to generic rank; Microchelonus Szépligeti (syn. nov

  19. Development of Electronic Nose and Near Infrared Spectroscopy Analysis Techniques to Monitor the Critical Time in SSF Process of Feed Protein

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hui; Chen, Quansheng

    2014-01-01

    In order to assure the consistency of the final product quality, a fast and effective process monitoring is a growing need in solid state fermentation (SSF) industry. This work investigated the potential of non-invasive techniques combined with the chemometrics method, to monitor time-related changes that occur during SSF process of feed protein. Four fermentation trials conducted were monitored by an electronic nose device and a near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) spectrometer. Firstly, principal component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA) were respectively applied to the feature extraction and information fusion. Then, the BP_AdaBoost algorithm was used to develop the fused model for monitoring of the critical time in SSF process of feed protein. Experimental results showed that the identified results of the fusion model are much better than those of the single technique model both in the training and validation sets, and the complexity of the fusion model was also less than that of the single technique model. The overall results demonstrate that it has a high potential in online monitoring of the critical moment in SSF process by use of integrating electronic nose and NIRS techniques, and data fusion from multi-technique could significantly improve the monitoring performance of SSF process. PMID:25330048

  20. Development of electronic nose and near infrared spectroscopy analysis techniques to monitor the critical time in SSF process of feed protein.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hui; Chen, Quansheng

    2014-10-17

    In order to assure the consistency of the final product quality, a fast and effective process monitoring is a growing need in solid state fermentation (SSF) industry. This work investigated the potential of non-invasive techniques combined with the chemometrics method, to monitor time-related changes that occur during SSF process of feed protein. Four fermentation trials conducted were monitored by an electronic nose device and a near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) spectrometer. Firstly, principal component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA) were respectively applied to the feature extraction and information fusion. Then, the BP_AdaBoost algorithm was used to develop the fused model for monitoring of the critical time in SSF process of feed protein. Experimental results showed that the identified results of the fusion model are much better than those of the single technique model both in the training and validation sets, and the complexity of the fusion model was also less than that of the single technique model. The overall results demonstrate that it has a high potential in online monitoring of the critical moment in SSF process by use of integrating electronic nose and NIRS techniques, and data fusion from multi-technique could significantly improve the monitoring performance of SSF process.

  1. Phase transitions and critical phenomena in the two-dimensional Ising model with dipole interactions: A short-time dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, C M; Bab, M A; Mazzini, M; Rubio Puzzo, M L; Saracco, G P

    2015-10-01

    The ferromagnetic Ising model with antiferromagnetic dipole interactions is investigated by means of Monte Carlo simulations, focusing on the characterization of the phase transitions between the tetragonal liquid and stripe of width h phases. The dynamic evolution of the physical observables is analyzed within the short-time regime for 0.5≤δ≤1.3, where δ is the ratio between the short-range exchange and the long-range dipole interaction constants. The obtained results for the interval 0.5≤δ≤1.2 indicate that the phase transition line between the h=1 stripe and tetragonal liquid phases is continuous. This finding contributes to clarifying the controversy about the order of this transition. This controversy arises from the difficulties introduced in the simulations due to the presence of long-range dipole interactions, such as an important increase in the simulation times that limits the system size used, strong finite size effects, as well as to the existence of multiple metastable states at low temperatures. The study of the short-time dynamics of the model allows us to avoid these hindrances. Moreover, due to the fact that the finite-size effects do not significantly affect the power-law behavior exhibited in the observables within the short-time regime, the results could be attributed to those corresponding to the thermodynamic limit. As a consequence of this, a careful characterization of the critical behavior for the whole transition line is performed by giving the complete set of critical exponents.

  2. Critical evaluation of a simple retention time predictor based on LogKow as a complementary tool in the identification of emerging contaminants in water.

    PubMed

    Bade, Richard; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Sancho, Juan V; Hernández, Felix

    2015-07-01

    There has been great interest in environmental analytical chemistry in developing screening methods based on liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) for emerging contaminants. Using HRMS, compound identification relies on the high mass resolving power and mass accuracy attainable by these analyzers. When dealing with wide-scope screening, retention time prediction can be a complementary tool for the identification of compounds, and can also reduce tedious data processing when several peaks appear in the extracted ion chromatograms. There are many in silico, Quantitative Structure-Retention Relationship methods available for the prediction of retention time for LC. However, most of these methods use commercial software to predict retention time based on various molecular descriptors. This paper explores the applicability and makes a critical discussion on a far simpler and cheaper approach to predict retention times by using LogKow. The predictor was based on a database of 595 compounds, their respective LogKow values and a chromatographic run time of 18min. Approximately 95% of the compounds were found within 4.0min of their actual retention times, and 70% within 2.0min. A predictor based purely on pesticides was also made, enabling 80% of these compounds to be found within 2.0min of their actual retention times. To demonstrate the utility of the predictors, they were successfully used as an additional tool in the identification of 30 commonly found emerging contaminants in water. Furthermore, a comparison was made by using different mass extraction windows to minimize the number of false positives obtained.

  3. Time-critical social mobilization.

    PubMed

    Pickard, Galen; Pan, Wei; Rahwan, Iyad; Cebrian, Manuel; Crane, Riley; Madan, Anmol; Pentland, Alex

    2011-10-28

    The World Wide Web is commonly seen as a platform that can harness the collective abilities of large numbers of people to accomplish tasks with unprecedented speed, accuracy, and scale. To explore the Web's ability for social mobilization, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) held the DARPA Network Challenge, in which competing teams were asked to locate 10 red weather balloons placed at locations around the continental United States. Using a recursive incentive mechanism that both spread information about the task and incentivized individuals to act, our team was able to find all 10 balloons in less than 9 hours, thus winning the Challenge. We analyzed the theoretical and practical properties of this mechanism and compared it with other approaches.

  4. Testing the Critical Window Hypothesis of Timing and Duration of Estradiol Treatment on Hypothalamic Gene Networks in Reproductively Mature and Aging Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Weiling; Maguire, Sean M.; Pham, Brian; Garcia, Alexandra N.; Dang, Nguyen-Vy; Liang, Jingya; Wolfe, Andrew; Hofmann, Hans A.

    2015-01-01

    At menopause, the dramatic loss of ovarian estradiol (E2) necessitates the adaptation of estrogen-sensitive neurons in the hypothalamus to an estrogen-depleted environment. We developed a rat model to test the “critical window” hypothesis of the effects of timing and duration of E2 treatment after deprivation on the hypothalamic neuronal gene network in the arcuate nucleus and the medial preoptic area. Rats at 2 ages (reproductively mature or aging) were ovariectomized and given E2 or vehicle replacement regimes of differing timing and duration. Using a 48-gene quantitative low-density PCR array and weighted gene coexpression network analysis, we identified gene modules differentially regulated by age, timing, and duration of E2 treatment. Of particular interest, E2 status differentially affected suites of genes in the hypothalamus involved in energy balance, circadian rhythms, and reproduction. In fact, E2 status was the dominant factor in determining gene modules and hormone levels; age, timing, and duration had more subtle effects. Our results highlight the plasticity of hypothalamic neuroendocrine systems during reproductive aging and its surprising ability to adapt to diverse E2 replacement regimes. PMID:26018250

  5. Thinking Critically about Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulnix, Jennifer Wilson

    2012-01-01

    As a philosophy professor, one of my central goals is to teach students to think critically. However, one difficulty with determining whether critical thinking can be taught, or even measured, is that there is widespread disagreement over what critical thinking actually is. Here, I reflect on several conceptions of critical thinking, subjecting…

  6. Assessment of critical exposure and outcome windows in time-to-event analysis with application to air pollution and preterm birth study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Howard H; Warren, Joshua L; Darrow, Lnydsey A; Reich, Brian J; Waller, Lance A

    2015-07-01

    In reproductive epidemiology, there is a growing interest to examine associations between air pollution exposure during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth (PTB). One important research objective is to identify critical periods of exposure and estimate the associated effects at different stages of pregnancy. However, population studies have reported inconsistent findings. This may be due to limitations from the standard analytic approach of treating PTB as a binary outcome without considering time-varying exposures together over the course of pregnancy. To address this research gap, we present a Bayesian hierarchical model for conducting a comprehensive examination of gestational air pollution exposure by estimating the joint effects of weekly exposures during different vulnerable periods. Our model also treats PTB as a time-to-event outcome to address the challenge of different exposure lengths among ongoing pregnancies. The proposed model is applied to a dataset of geocoded birth records in the Atlanta metropolitan area between 1999-2005 to examine the risk of PTB associated with gestational exposure to ambient fine particulate matter [Formula: see text]m in aerodynamic diameter (PM[Formula: see text]). We find positive associations between PM[Formula: see text] exposure during early and mid-pregnancy, and evidence that associations are stronger for PTBs occurring around week 30.

  7. Criticality in epidemiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stollenwerk, Nico; Jansen, Vincent A. A.

    For a long time criticality has been considered in epidemiological models. We review the body of theory developed over the last twenty five years for the simplest models. It is at first glance difficult to imagine that an epidemiological system operates at a very fine tuned critical state as opposed to any other parameter region. However, the advent of self-organized criticality has given hints in how to interpret large fluctuations observed in many natural systems including epidemiological systems. We show some scenarios where criticality has been observed (e.g., measles under vaccination) and where evolution towards a critical state can explain fluctuations (e.g., meningococcal disease.)

  8. Critical Care

    MedlinePlus

    Critical care helps people with life-threatening injuries and illnesses. It might treat problems such as complications from surgery, ... attention by a team of specially-trained health care providers. Critical care usually takes place in an ...

  9. Archetypal Criticism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesebro, James W.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Argues that archetypal criticism is a useful way of examining universal, historical, and cross-cultural symbols in classrooms. Identifies essential features of an archetype; outlines operational and critical procedures; illustrates archetypal criticism as applied to the cross as a symbol; and provides a synoptic placement for archetypal criticism…

  10. Being Critical of Criticality in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Beggs, John M.; Timme, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Relatively recent work has reported that networks of neurons can produce avalanches of activity whose sizes follow a power law distribution. This suggests that these networks may be operating near a critical point, poised between a phase where activity rapidly dies out and a phase where activity is amplified over time. The hypothesis that the electrical activity of neural networks in the brain is critical is potentially important, as many simulations suggest that information processing functions would be optimized at the critical point. This hypothesis, however, is still controversial. Here we will explain the concept of criticality and review the substantial objections to the criticality hypothesis raised by skeptics. Points and counter points are presented in dialog form. PMID:22701101

  11. [Determination of the critical time point for efficacy of L-arginine infusion therapy in a case of MELAS with frequent stroke-like episodes].

    PubMed

    Sudo, Akira; Sano, Hitomi; Kawamura, Nobuaki

    2014-01-01

    MELAS (mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes) is the most representative subtype of mitochondrial diseases. Administration of L-arginine (L-Arg) or a precursor of nitric oxide (NO) has been proposed as a promising medication for MELAS because one of the pathophysiological mechanisms is supposedly a decreased capacity for NO-dependent vasodilation. We experienced a girl with MELAS and frequent stroke-like episodes who was treated with L-Arg infusion. We evaluated the efficacy of L-Arg infusion therapy based on whether her headache and nausea were disappeared and neurological symptoms were improved within 24 hours of L-Arg administration. L-Arg infusions were effective in all four episodes when the treatment was started within 4 hours of the onset of stroke-like episodes. On the other hand, the infusion was effective in only one out of five episodes when the medication was delayed by more than 4 hours after the onset. Furthermore, the early administration of L-Arg resulted in better outcomes regarding new lesions determined by brain MRI. Our data suggest that L-Arg infusion may be most effective when it is started within 4 hours of the onset of neurological symptoms in the acute phase of MELAS. The study of a large number of episodes in many patients will be needed to determine the critical time point of L-Arg administration after the onset of the acute phase of MELAS.

  12. How Critical Is Critical Thinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Ryan D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent educational discourse is full of references to the value of critical thinking as a 21st-century skill. In music education, critical thinking has been discussed in relation to problem solving and music listening, and some researchers suggest that training in critical thinking can improve students' responses to music. But what exactly is…

  13. Critically Thinking about Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissberg, Robert

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author states that "critical thinking" has mesmerized academics across the political spectrum and that even high school students are now being called upon to "think critically." He furthers adds that it is no exaggeration to say that "critical thinking" has quickly evolved into a scholarly…

  14. Critical Thinking vs. Critical Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Howard A.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores four kinds of critical thinking. The first is found in Socratic dialogues, which employ critical thinking mainly to reveal logical fallacies in common opinions, thus cleansing superior minds of error and leaving philosophers free to contemplate universal verities. The second is critical interpretation (hermeneutics) which…

  15. Criticality Model

    SciTech Connect

    A. Alsaed

    2004-09-14

    The ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2003) presents the methodology for evaluating potential criticality situations in the monitored geologic repository. As stated in the referenced Topical Report, the detailed methodology for performing the disposal criticality analyses will be documented in model reports. Many of the models developed in support of the Topical Report differ from the definition of models as given in the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management procedure AP-SIII.10Q, ''Models'', in that they are procedural, rather than mathematical. These model reports document the detailed methodology necessary to implement the approach presented in the Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report and provide calculations utilizing the methodology. Thus, the governing procedure for this type of report is AP-3.12Q, ''Design Calculations and Analyses''. The ''Criticality Model'' is of this latter type, providing a process evaluating the criticality potential of in-package and external configurations. The purpose of this analysis is to layout the process for calculating the criticality potential for various in-package and external configurations and to calculate lower-bound tolerance limit (LBTL) values and determine range of applicability (ROA) parameters. The LBTL calculations and the ROA determinations are performed using selected benchmark experiments that are applicable to various waste forms and various in-package and external configurations. The waste forms considered in this calculation are pressurized water reactor (PWR), boiling water reactor (BWR), Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Training Research Isotope General Atomic (TRIGA), Enrico Fermi, Shippingport pressurized water reactor, Shippingport light water breeder reactor (LWBR), N-Reactor, Melt and Dilute, and Fort Saint Vrain Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The scope of this analysis is to document the criticality computational method. The criticality

  16. Critical Chain Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, John Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Critical Chains project management focuses on holding buffers at the project level vs. task level, and managing buffers as a project resource. A number of studies have shown that Critical Chain project management can significantly improve organizational schedule fidelity (i.e., improve the proportion of projects delivered on time) and reduce…

  17. Real-time application of critical dimension measurement of TFT-LCD pattern using a newly proposed 2D image-processing algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeong-Ho; Kim, You-Sik; Kim, Sung-Ryoung; Lee, Il-Hwan; Pahk, Heui-Jae

    2008-07-01

    A critical dimension measurement system for TFT-LCD patterns has been implemented in this study. To improve the measurement accuracy, an imaging auto-focus algorithm, fast pattern-matching algorithm, and precise edge detection algorithm with subpixel accuracy have been developed and implemented in the system. The optimum focusing position can be calculated using the image focus estimator. The two-step auto-focusing technique has been newly proposed for various LCD patterns, and various focus estimators have been compared to select a stable and accurate one. Fast pattern matching and subpixel edge detection have been developed for measurement. The new approach, called NEMC, is based on edge detection for the selection of influential points; in this approach, points having a strong edge magnitude are only used in the matching procedure. To accelerate pattern matching, point correlation and an image pyramid structure are combined. Edge detection is the most important technique in a vision inspection system. A two-stage edge detection algorithm has been introduced. In the first stage, a first order derivative operator such as the Sobel operator is used to place the edge points and to find the edge directions using a least-square estimation method with pixel accuracy. In the second stage, an eight-connected neighborhood of the estimated edge points is convolved with the LoG (Laplacian of Gaussian) operator, and the LoG-filtered image can be modeled as a continuous function using the facet model. The measurement results of the various patterns are finally presented. The developed system has been successfully used in the TFT-LCD manufacturing industry, and repeatability of less than 30 nm (3 σ) can be obtained with a very fast inspection time.

  18. Critical thinking.

    PubMed

    Price, A; Price, B

    1996-05-01

    Critical thinking is a process applied to midwifery theory, research and experience. It is a positive activity, responsive to context, drawing on negative and positive triggers and emotions to suggest ways of acting in future. Practice-based and reflective midwifery assignments should reflect the midwifery goals of critical thinking. This may require adjustments in assessment criteria and a questioning of standard academic conventions.

  19. Critical Muralism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosette, Arturo

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on the development and practices of Critical Muralists--community-educator-artist-leader-activists--and situates these specifically in relation to the Mexican mural tradition of los Tres Grandes and in relation to the history of public art more generally. The study examines how Critical Muralists address artistic and…

  20. CISN Display - Reliable Delivery of Real-time Earthquake Information, Including Rapid Notification and ShakeMap to Critical End Users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rico, H.; Hauksson, E.; Thomas, E.; Friberg, P.; Given, D.

    2002-12-01

    The California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) Display is part of a Web-enabled earthquake notification system alerting users in near real-time of seismicity, and also valuable geophysical information following a large earthquake. It will replace the Caltech/USGS Broadcast of Earthquakes (CUBE) and Rapid Earthquake Data Integration (REDI) Display as the principal means of delivering graphical earthquake information to users at emergency operations centers, and other organizations. Features distinguishing the CISN Display from other GUI tools are a state-full client/server relationship, a scalable message format supporting automated hyperlink creation, and a configurable platform-independent client with a GIS mapping tool; supporting the decision-making activities of critical users. The CISN Display is the front-end of a client/server architecture known as the QuakeWatch system. It is comprised of the CISN Display (and other potential clients), message queues, server, server "feeder" modules, and messaging middleware, schema and generators. It is written in Java, making it platform-independent, and offering the latest in Internet technologies. QuakeWatch's object-oriented design allows components to be easily upgraded through a well-defined set of application programming interfaces (APIs). Central to the CISN Display's role as a gateway to other earthquake products is its comprehensive XML-schema. The message model starts with the CUBE message format, but extends it by provisioning additional attributes for currently available products, and those yet to be considered. The supporting metadata in the XML-message provides the data necessary for the client to create a hyperlink and associate it with a unique event ID. Earthquake products deliverable to the CISN Display are ShakeMap, Ground Displacement, Focal Mechanisms, Rapid Notifications, OES Reports, and Earthquake Commentaries. Leveraging the power of the XML-format, the CISN Display provides prompt access to

  1. Critics and Criticism of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein, Allan C.

    1977-01-01

    Radical educational critics, such as Edgar Friedenberg, Paul Goodman, A. S. Neill, John Holt, Jonathan Kozol, Herbert Kohl, James Herndon, and Ivan Illich, have few constructive goals, no strategy for broad change, and a disdain for modernization and compromise. Additionally, these critics, says the author, fail to consider social factors related…

  2. Critical power derived from a 3-min all-out test predicts 16.1-km road time-trial performance.

    PubMed

    Black, Matthew I; Durant, Jacob; Jones, Andrew M; Vanhatalo, Anni

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown that the critical power (CP) in cycling estimated using a novel 3-min all-out protocol is reliable and closely matches the CP derived from conventional procedures. The purpose of this study was to assess the predictive validity of the all-out test CP estimate. We hypothesised that the all-out test CP would be significantly correlated with 16.1-km road time-trial (TT) performance and more strongly correlated with performance than the gas exchange threshold (GET), respiratory compensation point (RCP) and VO2 max. Ten club-level male cyclists (mean±SD: age 33.8±8.2 y, body mass 73.8±4.3 kg, VO2 max 60±4 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed a 10-mile road TT, a ramp incremental test to exhaustion, and two 3-min all-out tests, the first of which served as familiarisation. The 16.1-km TT performance (27.1±1.2 min) was significantly correlated with the CP (309±34 W; r = -0.83, P<0.01) and total work done during the all-out test (70.9±6.5 kJ; r = -0.86, P<0.01), the ramp incremental test peak power (433±30 W; r = -0.75, P<0.05) and the RCP (315±29 W; r = -0.68, P<0.05), but not with GET (151±32 W; r = -0.21) or the VO2 max (4.41±0.25 L·min(-1); r = -0.60). These data provide evidence for the predictive validity and practical performance relevance of the 3-min all-out test. The 3-min all-out test CP may represent a useful addition to the battery of tests employed by applied sport physiologists or coaches to track fitness and predict performance in atheletes.

  3. Techniques and standards in intraoperative graft verification by transit time flow measurement after coronary artery bypass graft surgery: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Niclauss, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Transit time flow measurement (TTFM) is a quality control tool for intraoperative graft evaluation in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. A critical review of the literature available using TTFM in CABG surgery is the focus of this article. The main objectives will be to detail precise parameters for flow evaluation, to show limitations of TTFM and to prove its predictive impact on postoperative graft failure rate. Publications listed in the PubMed database were reviewed, searching for intraoperative graft verification in coronary surgery by TTFM, with postoperative imaging follow-up (FU) modality and with a special focus on publications released after European guidelines from 2010. Nine included publications revealed an overall graft failure rate of ∼12%. Mean graft flow had a positive predictive value in the largest study, and cut-offs, of at least 20 ml/min for internal mammary artery (IMA) grafts, therein partially confirming guidelines, and 30-40 ml/min for saphenous venous grafts (SVGs) were proposed. An explicit correlation between graft flow, patency rate and severity of coronary stenosis, by indicating the fractional flow reserve, was found for IMA grafts. Increased pulsatility index and increased systolic reverse flow probably predict worse outcome and may help identifying competitive flow. Diastolic filling, rarely indicated, could not be confirmed as the predictive marker. No significant correlation of TTFM and graft failure rate for radial and other arterial grafts could be found, partially due to the small number of these types of grafts analysed. Larger target vessels and lower postoperative CK-MB levels may predict better graft patency rates. Low sensitivity for TTFM to reliably detect graft failure is certainly a major issue, as found in randomized analyses. However, methodical limitations and varying threshold values for TTFM render a general consensus difficult. Influence of quantity (vessel territory distribution) and quality

  4. Critical Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, Roger A.

    2001-01-01

    Reports the critical shortage of qualified equipment technicians, especially in biomedical equipment. Cites the importance of encouraging careers in this field and describes a source of occupational information. (SK)

  5. Effectiveness of a sediment time critical removal action-PCB reduction in fish tissue, surface water, and sediment via wet excavation.

    PubMed

    Santini, Andrew D; King, Todd; Krawczyk, Keith; Kern, John W

    2015-01-01

    Documenting successful remediation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated sediments is limited; potentially due to inadequate monitoring methods, complexities associated with the environment, and selected remedial techniques. At some sites, absence of appropriate baseline and postremoval monitoring limits proper evaluation of remedial efficacy. Accurate interpretation of interactions between media, space, time, species, lipid content, and remedial technique requires robust study design and data. This article presents baseline and postremoval data documenting reduced PCB concentrations in fish tissue, surface water, and sediment in response to the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) time-critical removal action (TCRA) that was conducted at the former Bryant Mill Pond (BMP) on Portage Creek in Kalamazoo, Michigan. The BMP is part of an operable unit (OU) within the Allied Paper, Inc./Portage Creek/Kalamazoo River Superfund Site. PCBs discharged to the creek as a byproduct of carbonless copy paper recycling are the primary contaminant of concern. Paper waste residuals commonly appear as gray to light gray clays in river sediments and floodplain soils. The cleanup criterion was 10 mg/kg, with a residual PCB concentration goal of 1 mg/kg. Because the PCB-containing waste is (generally) associated with readily visible light gray clay, excavation of all visibly contaminated current or formerly impounded sediment served as a surrogate for the cleanup criteria and goal. Sediment was wet excavated and backfilled after diversion of the creek. After confirmation that PCB concentrations met cleanup criteria, the stream was diverted to the excavated side, and excavation and backfilling were completed. Overall, 146000 cubic yards of material including PCB-contaminated sediments were removed from the BMP. The long-term monitoring (LTM) program implemented by the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), and historic data from a variety of sources

  6. In-Network Processing for Mission-Critical Wireless Networked Sensing and Control: A Real-Time, Efficiency, and Resiliency Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiang, Qiao

    2014-01-01

    As wireless cyber-physical systems (WCPS) are increasingly being deployed in mission-critical applications, it becomes imperative that we consider application QoS requirements in in-network processing (INP). In this dissertation, we explore the potentials of two INP methods, packet packing and network coding, on improving network performance while…

  7. Rethinking Creative Teaching and Teaching as Research: Mapping the Critical Phases that Mark Times of Change and Choosing as Learners and Teachers of Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnard, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the use of a visual-based construct elicitation tool developed from the use of critical incident charting for the purpose of reflecting on our creative learning journeys either at significant points as music learners in childhood, in adult life, or as preservice or experienced teachers. In this article, I introduce diverse…

  8. Quantum criticality of a spin-1 XY model with easy-plane single-ion anisotropy via a two-time Green function approach avoiding the Anderson-Callen decoupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercaldo, M. T.; Rabuffo, I.; De Cesare, L.; Caramico D'Auria, A.

    2016-04-01

    In this work we study the quantum phase transition, the phase diagram and the quantum criticality induced by the easy-plane single-ion anisotropy in a d-dimensional quantum spin-1 XY model in absence of an external longitudinal magnetic field. We employ the two-time Green function method by avoiding the Anderson-Callen decoupling of spin operators at the same sites which is of doubtful accuracy. Following the original Devlin procedure we treat exactly the higher order single-site anisotropy Green functions and use Tyablikov-like decouplings for the exchange higher order ones. The related self-consistent equations appear suitable for an analysis of the thermodynamic properties at and around second order phase transition points. Remarkably, the equivalence between the microscopic spin model and the continuous O(2) -vector model with transverse-Ising model (TIM)-like dynamics, characterized by a dynamic critical exponent z=1, emerges at low temperatures close to the quantum critical point with the single-ion anisotropy parameter D as the non-thermal control parameter. The zero-temperature critic anisotropy parameter Dc is obtained for dimensionalities d > 1 as a function of the microscopic exchange coupling parameter and the related numerical data for different lattices are found to be in reasonable agreement with those obtained by means of alternative analytical and numerical methods. For d > 2, and in particular for d=3, we determine the finite-temperature critical line ending in the quantum critical point and the related TIM-like shift exponent, consistently with recent renormalization group predictions. The main crossover lines between different asymptotic regimes around the quantum critical point are also estimated providing a global phase diagram and a quantum criticality very similar to the conventional ones.

  9. Effectiveness of Automated Notification and Customer Service Call Centers for Timely and Accurate Reporting of Critical Values: A Laboratory Medicine Best Practices Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liebow, Edward B.; Derzon, James H.; Fontanesi, John; Favoretto, Alessandra M.; Baetz, Rich Ann; Shaw, Colleen; Thompson, Pamela; Mass, Diana; Christenson, Robert; Epner, Paul; Snyder, Susan R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To conduct a systematic review of automatic notification methods and consider evidence-based recommendations for best practices in improving the timeliness and accuracy of critical value reporting. Results 196 bibliographic records were identified, with nine meeting review inclusion criteria. Four studies examined automated notification systems and five assessed call center performance. Average improvement from implementing automated notification systems is d = 0.42 (95% CI = 0.2 – 0.62) while the average odds ratio for call centers is OR = 22.1 (95% CI = 17.1 – 28.6). Conclusions The evidence, though suggestive, is not sufficient to make a recommendation for or against using automated notification systems as a best practice to improve the timeliness and accuracy of critical value reporting in an in-patient care setting. Call centers, however, are effective in improving the timeliness and accuracy of critical value reporting in an in-patient care setting, and are recommended as an “evidence-based best practice.” PMID:22750773

  10. Critical chemotactic collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lushnikov, Pavel M.

    2010-04-01

    A Keller-Segel model describes macroscopic dynamics of bacterial colonies and biological cells as well as dynamics of a gas of self-gravitating Brownian particles. Bacteria secret chemical which attracts other bacteria so that they move towards chemical gradient creating nonlocal attraction between bacteria. If bacterial (or Brownian particle) density exceeds a critical value then the density collapses (blows up) in a finite time which corresponds to bacterial aggregation or gravitational collapse. Collapse in the Keller-Segel model has striking qualitative similarities with a nonlinear Schrödinger equation including critical collapse in two dimensions and supercritical collapse in three dimensions. A self-similar solution near blow up point is studied in the critical two-dimensional case and it has a form of a rescaled steady state solution which contains a critical number of bacteria. Time dependence of scaling of that solution has square root scaling law with logarithmic modification.

  11. Mission Critical Networking

    SciTech Connect

    Eltoweissy, Mohamed Y.; Du, David H.C.; Gerla, Mario; Giordano, Silvia; Gouda, Mohamed; Schulzrinne, Henning; Youssef, Moustafa

    2010-06-01

    Mission-Critical Networking (MCN) refers to networking for application domains where life or livelihood may be at risk. Typical application domains for MCN include critical infrastructure protection and operation, emergency and crisis intervention, healthcare services, and military operations. Such networking is essential for safety, security and economic vitality in our complex world characterized by uncertainty, heterogeneity, emergent behaviors, and the need for reliable and timely response. MCN comprise networking technology, infrastructures and services that may alleviate the risk and directly enable and enhance connectivity for mission-critical information exchange among diverse, widely dispersed, mobile users.

  12. Greening critical care

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Climate change and environmental stewardship are phrases that have been defining the past few decades and promoting change in our societies. The sensitivities of intensive care as a specialty make the process of greening an intensive care unit a challenge, but not one that is insurmountable. This paper discusses opportunities for critical care to reduce its environmental impact and provide a framework change. The article includes suggestions of what can be done as an individual, as a unit and as a hospital. Generally, practices in critical care are accepted without questioning the environmental consequences. We believe it is time for change, and critical care should give environmental stewardship a higher priority. PMID:21635700

  13. Altered gonadal steroidogenesis in critical illness: is treatment with anabolic steroids indicated?

    PubMed

    Spratt, D I

    2001-12-01

    The physiology of the reproductive system changes dramatically with the onset of major illness. The serum testosterone concentrations fall to pre-pubertal levels secondary to a decreased secretion of gonadotropins and a decreased Leydig cell response to luteinizing hormone. At the same time, the serum oestrogen concentration rises as the result of an increased rate of peripheral aromatization. The clinical consequences of these marked changes are not yet well understood. One line of evidence argues for the administration of anabolic steroids (derivatives of testosterone) to critically ill patients to improve their catabolic state. Another line of evidence in animal models suggests that testosterone may suppress the immune system and myocardial function in critical illness. No clinical trials of oestrogen administration to critically ill patients have been reported, although two animal studies suggest that oestrogen may have a positive effect on survival. This chapter reviews changes in the physiology of the reproductive system in major illness as well as current evidence regarding the clinical effects of androgens and oestrogens in critical illness and their potential therapeutic roles.

  14. Critical Information at Critical Moments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fierman, Ben; Thrower, Raymond H., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    On a daily basis, administrators are reminded of the potential, perhaps the likelihood, of violence or natural crises on their campuses. Comprehensive studies have been conducted and point to recommendations and best practices for planning, preparing, responding to, and recovering from critical incidents. The International Association of Campus…

  15. Heavy fermion quantum criticality.

    PubMed

    Nazario, Zaira; Santiago, David I

    2008-09-26

    During the last few years, investigations of rare-earth materials have made clear that heavy fermion quantum criticality exhibits novel physics not fully understood. In this work, we write for the first time the effective action describing the low energy physics of the system. The f fermions are replaced by a dynamical scalar field whose nonzero expected value corresponds to the heavy fermion phase. The effective theory is amenable to numerical studies as it is bosonic, circumventing the fermion sign problem. Via effective action techniques, renormalization group studies, and Callan-Symanzik resummations, we describe the heavy fermion criticality and predict the heavy fermion critical dynamical susceptibility and critical specific heat. The specific heat coefficient exponent we obtain (0.39) is in excellent agreement with the experimental result at low temperatures (0.4).

  16. [Critical incidents].

    PubMed

    Scheidegger, D

    2005-03-01

    In medicine real severe mishaps are rare. On the other hand critical incidents are frequent. Anonymous critical incident reporting systems allow us to learn from these mishaps. This learning process will make our daily clinical work safer Unfortunately, before these systems can be used efficiently our professional culture has to be changed. Everyone in medicine has to admit that errors do occur to see the need for an open discussion. If we really want to learn from errors, we cannot punish the individual, who reported his or her mistake. The interest is primarily in what has happened and why it has happened and not who has committed this mistake. The cause for critical incidents in medicine is in over 80% the human factor Poor communication, work under enormous stress, conflicts and hierarchies are the main cause. This has been known for many years, therefore have already 15 years ago high-tech industries, like e.g. aviation, started to invest in special courses on team training. Medicine is a typical profession were until now only the individual performance decided about the professional career Communication, conflict management, stress management, decision making, risk management, team and team resource management were subjects that have never been taught during our preor postgraduate education. These points are the most important ones for an optimal teamwork. A multimodular course designed together with Swissair (Human Aspect Development medical, HADmedical) helps to cover, as in aviation, the soft factor and behavioural education in medicine and to prepare professionals in health care to work as a real team.

  17. Applying critical thinking to nursing.

    PubMed

    Price, Bob

    2015-08-19

    Critical thinking and writing are skills that are not easy to acquire. The term 'critical' is used differently in social and clinical contexts. Nursing students need time to master the inquisitive and ruminative aspects of critical thinking that are required in academic environments. This article outlines what is meant by critical thinking in academic settings, in relation to both theory and reflective practice. It explains how the focus of a question affects the sort of critical thinking required and offers two taxonomies of learning, to which students can refer when analysing essay requirements. The article concludes with examples of analytical writing in reference to theory and reflective practice.

  18. The effect of the time dependent angular distribution of the intergrain magnetic field on the transport critical current in Ag-(Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glowacki, B. A.; Noji, H.; Oota, A.

    1996-08-01

    Changes in the energy dissipation of the tape form Ag-(Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox conductor have been interpreted in terms of magnetic flux movement from, or into, the intergrain regions of the highly textured plate like grain structure. The time dependent increase or decrease of the transport critical current (Ic), originates from time dependent angular superposition of the current induced self field (HSF), and external magnetic field [field cooling (HFC), and zero-field cooling (HZFC)] at the intergrain regions. The existence of time dependent changes of Ic can be explained in terms of the time dependent flux redistribution in grains and grain boundaries caused by thermal relaxation processes.

  19. Uncommon Teaching in Commonsense Times: A Case Study of a Critical Multicultural Educator and the Academic Success of Diverse Student Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Emilie M.; Oesterreich, Heather A.

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to explore the complexity of how teachers develop and sustain the ability to teach uncommonly in commonsense times, the authors conducted a life history case study of Rae, a fifth grade teacher at a local elementary school in the Southwest United States who has practiced and sustained uncommon teaching for four years. Combining…

  20. Reviews/Essays: School Start Times and the Sleep-Wake Cycle of Adolescents--A Review and Critical Evaluation of Available Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Matthew; Maggi, Stefania; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2011-01-01

    The authors have integrated the major findings on the sleep-wake cycle and its performance correlates in adolescents. Basic research shows that lack of synchronicity between early school start times and the circadian rhythm of adolescents (and the sleep debt accumulated as a result) involves several cognitive correlates that may harm the academic…

  1. PRACTICAL: Planning and Resource Allocation in C2-Domains With Time Critical Algorithms (PRACTICAL: Planning en Allocatie in C2-Domeinen Met Tijdkritische Algoritmen)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-01

    entities 18 3.1.2 Time map 18 3.2 Tcmporal query interface language ( Tequila ) 18 3.3 Calculating path distances 19 3.4 Implementation approache, 22 3.4.1...a possibility to query the temporal database. 3.2 Temporal query interface language ( Tequila ) There are two interesting query types: * Determination

  2. A Critical Analysis of the Role of Wait Time in Classroom Interactions and the Effects on Student and Teacher Interactional Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, Jenni; Elliott, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Extending the pauses between teachers' and students' turns (wait time) has been recommended as a way of improving classroom learning. Drawing on the Conversation Analysis literature on classroom interactions alongside extracts of classroom interactions, the relationship between these pauses and the interactional behaviour of teachers and students…

  3. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dynamic-Tracking Directional Wireless Antennas for Low Powered Applications that Require Reliable Extended Range Operations in Time Critical Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Scott G. Bauer; Matthew O. Anderson; James R. Hanneman

    2005-10-01

    The proven value of DOD Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) will ultimately transition to National and Homeland Security missions that require real-time aerial surveillance, situation awareness, force protection, and sensor placement. Public services first responders who routinely risk personal safety to assess and report a situation for emergency actions will likely be the first to benefit from these new unmanned technologies. ‘Packable’ or ‘Portable’ small class UAVs will be particularly useful to the first responder. They require the least amount of training, no fixed infrastructure, and are capable of being launched and recovered from the point of emergency. All UAVs require wireless communication technologies for real- time applications. Typically on a small UAV, a low bandwidth telemetry link is required for command and control (C2), and systems health monitoring. If the UAV is equipped with a real-time Electro-Optical or Infrared (EO/Ir) video camera payload, a dedicated high bandwidth analog/digital link is usually required for reliable high-resolution imagery. In most cases, both the wireless telemetry and real-time video links will be integrated into the UAV with unity gain omni-directional antennas. With limited on-board power and payload capacity, a small UAV will be limited with the amount of radio-frequency (RF) energy it transmits to the users. Therefore, ‘packable’ and ‘portable’ UAVs will have limited useful operational ranges for first responders. This paper will discuss the limitations of small UAV wireless communications. The discussion will present an approach of utilizing a dynamic ground based real-time tracking high gain directional antenna to provide extend range stand-off operation, potential RF channel reuse, and assured telemetry and data communications from low-powered UAV deployed wireless assets.

  4. Lung ultrasound in the critically ill

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Lung ultrasound is a basic application of critical ultrasound, defined as a loop associating urgent diagnoses with immediate therapeutic decisions. It requires the mastery of ten signs: the bat sign (pleural line), lung sliding (yielding seashore sign), the A-line (horizontal artifact), the quad sign, and sinusoid sign indicating pleural effusion, the fractal, and tissue-like sign indicating lung consolidation, the B-line, and lung rockets indicating interstitial syndrome, abolished lung sliding with the stratosphere sign suggesting pneumothorax, and the lung point indicating pneumothorax. Two more signs, the lung pulse and the dynamic air bronchogram, are used to distinguish atelectasis from pneumonia. All of these disorders were assessed using CT as the “gold standard” with sensitivity and specificity ranging from 90% to 100%, allowing ultrasound to be considered as a reasonable bedside “gold standard” in the critically ill. The BLUE-protocol is a fast protocol (<3 minutes), which allows diagnosis of acute respiratory failure. It includes a venous analysis done in appropriate cases. Pulmonary edema, pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and pneumothorax yield specific profiles. Pulmonary edema, e.g., yields anterior lung rockets associated with lung sliding, making the “B-profile.” The FALLS-protocol adapts the BLUE-protocol to acute circulatory failure. It makes sequential search for obstructive, cardiogenic, hypovolemic, and distributive shock using simple real-time echocardiography (right ventricle dilatation, pericardial effusion), then lung ultrasound for assessing a direct parameter of clinical volemia: the apparition of B-lines, schematically, is considered as the endpoint for fluid therapy. Other aims of lung ultrasound are decreasing medical irradiation: the LUCIFLR program (most CTs in ARDS or trauma can be postponed), a use in traumatology, intensive care unit, neonates (the signs are the same than

  5. Science education in Africa; A critical time for critical thinking.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murabona, S.; Daka, O.; Chileshi, M.; Darrow, J.; Tung, A.; Wanless, E.; Hand, K.

    2005-12-01

    The change toward industrialization and a technologically advanced society is occurring at an ever increasing rate in developing regions of the world. Such change brings with it both the benefits of access to medicine, water, and food, and the negative effects of pollution, the destruction of natural resources, and the loss of both cultural and biological diversity. In many developing regions the human population is uneducated and incapable of playing an active role in the changes occurring around them. Here we discuss the work of our small non-profit, Cosmos Education, and our efforts to improve basic science education in sub-Saharan Africa. The mission of Cosmos Education is to foster global sustainable development through improved science and technology education in developing regions of the world. Our guiding vision is quite simple: Youth are the future. Education is the key. Cosmos Education aims to make a sustained and effective difference by working from the ground up - reaching individual students and teachers and making a difference in the classroom. We focus on science and technology education and the role of science and technology in health, the environment, and sustainable development. Our model is grassroots development from within; we want the youth in developing regions of the world to decide how their nations develop. In order to be able to do this, the youth must have the knowledge and skills needed to understand the rapidly changing world around them. They must be inspired, empowered, and engaged in their education. By working directly in classrooms, making learning fun with hands-on experiments, and providing the students with talented role-models from their own geographic region, we hope to excite students about their potential drive development from within and to catalyze development that will have a positive effect on the biosphere.

  6. Real-Time 3D Fluoroscopy-Guided Large Core Needle Biopsy of Renal Masses: A Critical Early Evaluation According to the IDEAL Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Kroeze, Stephanie G. C.; Huisman, Merel; Verkooijen, Helena M.; Diest, Paul J. van; Ruud Bosch, J. L. H.; Bosch, Maurice A. A. J. van den

    2012-06-15

    Introduction: Three-dimensional (3D) real-time fluoroscopy cone beam CT is a promising new technique for image-guided biopsy of solid tumors. We evaluated the technical feasibility, diagnostic accuracy, and complications of this technique for guidance of large-core needle biopsy in patients with suspicious renal masses. Methods: Thirteen patients with 13 suspicious renal masses underwent large-core needle biopsy under 3D real-time fluoroscopy cone beam CT guidance. Imaging acquisition and subsequent 3D reconstruction was done by a mobile flat-panel detector (FD) C-arm system to plan the needle path. Large-core needle biopsies were taken by the interventional radiologist. Technical success, accuracy, and safety were evaluated according to the Innovation, Development, Exploration, Assessment, Long-term study (IDEAL) recommendations. Results: Median tumor size was 2.6 (range, 1.0-14.0) cm. In ten (77%) patients, the histological diagnosis corresponded to the imaging findings: five were malignancies, five benign lesions. Technical feasibility was 77% (10/13); in three patients biopsy results were inconclusive. The lesion size of these three patients was <2.5 cm. One patient developed a minor complication. Median follow-up was 16.0 (range, 6.4-19.8) months. Conclusions: 3D real-time fluoroscopy cone beam CT-guided biopsy of renal masses is feasible and safe. However, these first results suggest that diagnostic accuracy may be limited in patients with renal masses <2.5 cm.

  7. Characterization of attenuated food motivation in high-fat diet-induced obesity: Critical roles for time on diet and reinforcer familiarity.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Andrea L; Wee, Colin J M; Hazeltine, Grace E; Carter, Rebecca A

    2015-03-15

    Prior work using animal models to study the effects of obesogenic diets on food motivation have generated inconsistent results, with some reporting increases and others reporting decreases in responding on food-reinforced tasks. Here, we identified two specific variables that may account for these discrepant outcomes - the length of time on the obesigenic diet and the familiarity of the food reinforcer - and examined the independent roles of these factors. Time on diet was found to be inversely related to food motivation, as rats consuming a 40% high-fat diet (HFD) for only 3weeks did not differ from chow-fed rats when responding for a sucrose reinforcer on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule, but responding was suppressed after 6weeks of ad lib HFD consumption. Explicitly manipulating experience with the sucrose reinforcer by pre-exposing half the rats prior to 10weeks of HFD consumption attenuated the motivational deficit seen in the absence of this familiarity, resulting in obese rats performing at the same level as lean rats. Finally, after 8weeks on a HFD, rats did not express a conditioned place preference for sucrose, indicating a decrement in reward value independent of motivation. These findings are consistent with prior literature showing an increase in food motivation for rats with a shorter time consuming the obesigenic diet, and for those with more prior experience with the reinforcer. This account also helps reconcile these findings with increased food motivation in obese humans due to extensive experience with palatable food and suggests that researchers engaging in non-human animal studies of obesity would better model the conditions under which human obesity develops by using a varied, cafeteria-style diet to increase the breadth of food experiences.

  8. The cryoprotectant used, its concentration, and the equilibration time are critical for the successful cryopreservation of rabbit sperm: DIMETHylacetamide versus dimethylsulfoxide.

    PubMed

    Iaffaldano, N; Di Iorio, M; Rosato, M Pina

    2012-10-01

    This study was designed to identify a suitable freezing protocol for rabbit semen by comparing the effects of different concentrations and equilibration times of dimethylacetamide (DMA) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) on the postthaw quality of the semen. After establishing the best protocols for each cryoprotectant, their efficacy was compared by examining the in vivo fertilizing capacity of the semen samples. Pooled semen samples diluted in freezing medium containing 4%, 6%, or 8% DMA or DMSO (all combined with 1% sucrose as a nonpermeating cryoprotectant) were loaded in straws and equilibrated for 5, 15, or 45 min before freezing in liquid nitrogen vapor. The variables assessed after thawing were sperm motility, viability, osmotic resistance, and acrosome and DNA integrity. Marked effects on these variables were shown by the cryoprotectant concentration and equilibration time, with best results obtained using DMA 6% or DMSO 8% and equilibration times of 45 min. These freezing protocols were selected to compare the two cryoprotectants in an insemination trial. Three groups of 114 rabbit does (28 nulliparous and 86 multiparous in each group) were inseminated with fresh semen or with semen frozen using the optimized DMA or DMSO protocols. Fertility rates and numbers of kids born were similar, respectively for the DMSO-frozen (79.8% and 7.7 ± 0.3 young per kindling) and fresh semen (81.6% and 8.6 ± 0.3) yet higher (P ≤ 0.05) than the rates returned using the DMA-frozen semen (47.4% and 6.7 ± 0.4). Moreover, the numbers of rabbits born alive when DMSO was used in the freezing protocol, despite being lower than those recorded using fresh semen, were higher than when DMA was used as the cryoprotectant (P < 0.05). The physiological status of the does (nulliparous or multiparous) had no influence on the fertility and prolificacy results. Our findings indicate that the cryosurvival of rabbit sperm frozen using DMSO or DMA as the cryoprotectant is highly influenced by

  9. CISN Display Progress to Date - Reliable Delivery of Real-Time Earthquake Information, and ShakeMap to Critical End Users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rico, H.; Hauksson, E.; Thomas, E.; Friberg, P.; Frechette, K.; Given, D.

    2003-12-01

    The California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) has collaborated to develop a next-generation earthquake notification system that is nearing its first operations-ready release. The CISN Display actively alerts users of seismic data, and vital earthquake hazards information following a significant event. It will primarily replace the Caltech/USGS Broadcast of Earthquakes (CUBE) and Rapid Earthquake Data Integration (REDI) Display as the principal means of delivering geographical seismic data to emergency operations centers, utility companies and media outlets. A subsequent goal is to provide automated access to the many Web products produced by regional seismic networks after an earthquake. Another aim is to create a highly configurable client, allowing user organizations to overlay infrastructure data critical to their roles as first-responders, or lifeline operators. And the final goal is to integrate these requirements, into a package offering several layers of reliability to ensure delivery of services. Central to the CISN Display's role as a gateway to Web-based earthquake products is its comprehensive XML-messaging schema. The message model uses many of the same attributes in the CUBE format, but extends the old standard by provisioning additional elements for products currently available, and others yet to be considered. The client consumes these XML-messages, sorts them through a resident Quake Data Merge filter, and posts updates that also include hyperlinks associated to specific event IDs on the display map. Earthquake products available for delivery to the CISN Display are ShakeMap, focal mechanisms, waveform data, felt reports, aftershock forecasts and earthquake commentaries. By design the XML-message schema can evolve as products and information needs change, without breaking existing applications that rely on it. The latest version of the CISN Display can also automatically download ShakeMaps and display shaking intensity within the GIS system. This

  10. Frequency of Pathogenic Paediatric Bacterial Meningitis in Mozambique: The Critical Role of Multiplex Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction to Estimate the Burden of Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nhantumbo, Aquino Albino; Cantarelli, Vlademir Vicente; Caireão, Juliana; Munguambe, Alcides Moniz; Comé, Charlotte Elizabeth; Pinto, Gabriela do Carmo; Zimba, Tomás Francisco; Mandomando, Inácio; Semá, Cynthia Baltazar; Dias, Cícero; Moraes, Milton Ozório; Gudo, Eduardo Samo

    2015-01-01

    Background In Sub-Saharan Africa, including Mozambique, acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) represents a main cause of childhood mortality. The burden of ABM is seriously underestimated because of the poor performance of culture sampling, the primary method of ABM surveillance in the region. Low quality cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples and frequent consumption of antibiotics prior to sample collection lead to a high rate of false-negative results. To our knowledge, this study is the first to determine the frequency of ABM in Mozambique using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and to compare results to those of culture sampling. Method Between March 2013 and March 2014, CSF samples were collected at 3 regional hospitals from patients under 5 years of age, who met World Health Organization case definition criteria for ABM. Macroscopic examination, cytochemical study, culture, and qPCR were performed on all samples. Results A total of 369 CSF samples were collected from children clinically suspected of ABM. qPCR showed a significantly higher detection rate of ABM-causing pathogens when compared to culture (52.3% [193/369] versus 7.3% [27/369], p = 0.000). The frequency of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, group B Streptococci, and Neisseria meningitidis were 32.8% (121⁄369), 12.2%, (45⁄369), 3.0% (16⁄369) and 4.3% (11⁄369), respectively, significantly higher compared to that obtained on culture (p < 0.001 for each). Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that culture is less effective for the diagnosis of ABM than qPCR. The common use of culture rather than qPCR to identify ABM results in serious underestimation of the burden of the disease, and our findings strongly suggest that qPCR should be incorporated into surveillance activities for ABM. In addition, our data showed that S. pneumoniae represents the most common cause of ABM in children under 5 years of age. PMID:26393933

  11. Critical Assessment of Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory for Excited States of Open-Shell Systems: II. Doublet-Quartet Transitions.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhendong; Liu, Wenjian

    2016-06-14

    Compared with closed-shell systems, open-shell systems place three additional challenges to time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) for electronically excited states: (a) the spin-contamination problem is a serious issue; (b) the exchange-correlation (XC) kernel may be numerically instable; and (c) the single-determinant description of open-shell ground states readily becomes energetically instable. Confined to flip-up single excitations, the spin-contamination problem can largely be avoided by using the spin-flip TD-DFT (SF-TD-DFT) formalism, provided that a noncollinear XC kernel is employed. As for the numerical instabilities associated with such a kernel, only an ad hoc scheme has been proposed so far, viz., the ALDA0 kernel, which amounts to setting the divergent components (arising from density gradients and kinetic energy density) simply to zero. The ground-state instability problem can effectively be avoided by introducing the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA) to TD-DFT. Therefore, on a general basis, the SF-TDA/ALDA0 Ansatz is so far the only promising means within the TD-DFT framework for flip-up single excitations of open-shell systems. To assess systematically the performance of SF-TDA/ALDA0, in total 61 low-lying quartet excited states of the benchmark set of 11 small radicals [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2016, 12, 238] are investigated with various XC functionals. Taking the MRCISD+Q (multireference configuration interaction with singles and doubles plus the Davidson correction) results as benchmark, it is found that the mean absolute errors of SF-TDA/ALDA0 with the SAOP (statistical averaging of model orbital potentials), global hybrid, and range-separated hybrid functionals are in the range of 0.2-0.4 eV. This is in line not only with the typical accuracy of TD-DFT for singlet and triplet excited states of closed-shell systems but also with the gross accuracy of spin-adapted TD-DFT for spin-conserving excited states of open-shell systems.

  12. Perinatal undernutrition modifies cell proliferation and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels during critical time-windows for hypothalamic and hippocampal development in the male rat.

    PubMed

    Coupé, B; Dutriez-Casteloot, I; Breton, C; Lefèvre, F; Mairesse, J; Dickes-Coopman, A; Silhol, M; Tapia-Arancibia, L; Lesage, J; Vieau, D

    2009-01-01

    Maternal perinatal undernutrition (MPU) modifies the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sensitises to the development of metabolic and cognitive adult diseases. Because the hypothalamus and hippocampus are involved in the regulation of neuroendocrine activity, energy metabolism and cognition, we hypothesised that a maternal 50% food restriction (FR50) from day 14 of pregnancy (E14) until postnatal day 21 (P21) would affect the development of these structures in male rat offspring. Protein and mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cell proliferation [analysed by 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation] were compared in both control and FR50 rats from E21 to P22. Although the pattern of the evolution of BDNF concentration and cell proliferation throughout development was not strikingly different between groups, several disturbances at specific developmental stages were observed. FR50 rats exhibited a delayed increase of hippocampal BDNF content whereas, in the hypothalamus, BDNF level was augmented from E21 to P14 and associated, at this latter stage, with an increased mRNA expression of TRkB-T2. In both groups, a correlation between BDNF content and the number of BrdU positive cells was noted in the dentate gyrus, whereas opposite variations were observed in CA1, CA2 and CA3 layers, and in the arcuate and ventromedial nuclei. In the hippocampus, P15-FR50 rats showed an increased number of BrdU positive cells in all regions, whereas, at P22, a decrease was observed in the CA2. In the hypothalamus, between E21 and P8, MPU increases the number of BrdU positive cells in all regions analysed and, until P15, marked differences were noticed in the median eminence, the paraventricular nucleus and the arcuate nucleus. Taken together, the results obtained in the present study show that MPU changes the time course of production of BDNF and cell proliferation in specific hippocampal and hypothalamic areas during sensitive

  13. An introduction to critical paths.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Richard J; Richards, Janet S; Remmert, Carl S; LeRoy, Sarah S; Schoville, Rhonda R; Baldwin, Phyllis J

    2005-01-01

    A critical path defines the optimal sequencing and timing of interventions by physicians, nurses, and other staff for a particular diagnosis or procedure. Critical paths are developed through collaborative efforts of physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and others to improve the quality and value of patient care. They are designed to minimize delays and resource utilization and to maximize quality of care. Critical paths have been shown to reduce variation in the care provided, facilitate expected outcomes, reduce delays, reduce length of stay, and improve cost-effectiveness. The approach and goals of critical paths are consistent with those of total quality management (TQM) and can be an important part of an organization's TQM process.

  14. Deconfined Quantum Critical Points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthi, T.; Vishwanath, Ashvin; Balents, Leon; Sachdev, Subir; Fisher, Matthew P. A.

    The theory of second-order phase transitions is one of the foundations of modern statistical mechanics and condensed-matter theory. A central concept is the observable order parameter, whose nonzero average value characterizes one or more phases. At large distances and long times, fluctuations of the order parameter(s) are described by a continuum field theory, and these dominate the physics near such phase transitions. We show that near second-order quantum phase transitions, subtle quantum interference effects can invalidate this paradigm, and we present a theory of quantum critical points in a variety of experimentally relevant two-dimensional antiferromagnets. The critical points separate phases characterized by conventional "confining" order parameters. Nevertheless, the critical theory contains an emergent gauge field and "deconfined" degrees of freedom associated with fractionalization of the order parameters. We propose that this paradigm for quantum criticality may be the key to resolving a number of experimental puzzles in correlated electron systems and offer a new perspective on the properties of complex materials.

  15. CCSDS Time-Critical Onboard Networking Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkes, Steve; Schnurr, Rick; Marquart, Jane; Menke, Greg; Ciccone, Massimiliano

    2006-01-01

    The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) is developing recommendations for communication services onboard spacecraft. Today many different communication buses are used on spacecraft requiring software with the same basic functionality to be rewritten for each type of bus. This impacts on the application software resulting in custom software for almost every new mission. The Spacecraft Onboard Interface Services (SOIS) working group aims to provide a consistent interface to various onboard buses and sub-networks, enabling a common interface to the application software. The eventual goal is reusable software that can be easily ported to new missions and run on a range of onboard buses without substantial modification. The system engineer will then be able to select a bus based on its performance, power, etc and be confident that a particular choice of bus will not place excessive demands on software development. This paper describes the SOIS Intra-Networking Service which is designed to enable data transfer and multiplexing of a variety of internetworking protocols with a range of quality of service support, over underlying heterogeneous data links. The Intra-network service interface provides users with a common Quality of Service interface when transporting data across a variety of underlying data links. Supported Quality of Service (QoS) elements include: Priority, Resource Reservation and Retry/Redundancy. These three QoS elements combine and map into four TCONS services for onboard data communications: Best Effort, Assured, Reserved, and Guaranteed. Data to be transported is passed to the Intra-network service with a requested QoS. The requested QoS includes the type of service, priority and where appropriate, a channel identifier. The data is de-multiplexed, prioritized, and the required resources for transport are allocated. The data is then passed to the appropriate data link for transfer across the bus. The SOIS supported data links may inherently provide the quality of service support requested by the intra-network layer. In the case where the data link does not have the required level of support, the missing functionality is added by SOIS. As a result of this architecture, re-usable software applications can be designed and used across missions thereby promoting common mission operations. In addition, the protocol multiplexing function enables the blending of multiple onboard networks. This paper starts by giving an overview of the SOIS architecture in section 11, illustrating where the TCONS services fit into the overall architecture. It then describes the quality of service approach adopted, in section III. The prototyping efforts that have been going on are introduced in section JY. Finally, in section V the current status of the CCSDS recommendations is summarized.

  16. Critical Choices in a Time of Austerity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-30

    Martin’s Automatic Identification Technology implementation, including RFID and UID. After successfully completing eight pilot projects, Kratz is now...guiding Lockheed Martin’s enterprise implementation of RFID . He also guides Lockheed Martin’s logistics strategic planning, performance-based

  17. Time Critical Conventional Strike from Strategic Standoff

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    issue of where the booster stages will land. There will also be some potential concerns about accidental launch, if both nuclear and conventional...vehicle(s) along a parabolic suborbital trajectory for eventual reentry into the atmosphere to hit the target. Booster propellant is a mature...design trade at the missile system level is between booster size, range, and the weight of the warhead. At intercontinental ranges, the missile

  18. Critical care unit organization and patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hass, Brian D

    2005-01-01

    The delivery of critical care medicine has seen many advances and changes over a relatively short period of time. This article explores some of the models of critical care delivery and the implications of these models on patient outcomes.

  19. The use of health care services: is illness the only motivator?

    PubMed

    Gould, S J

    1989-01-01

    Increasingly, consumer researchers and marketers have turned their attention to the marketing of health care services. In that vein, this paper addresses the question of what determines a consumer's use of these services. Through a review of relevant studies, an examination is made of such factors as illness, social and behavioral variables, and changing attitudes toward health, which have been prompted by various social movements. It is concluded that while illness is a critical factor in the use of health care services, other factors are playing an increasingly important role. Strategic marketing implications are offered as to how health care marketers should address the illness factor in the promotion and delivery of care services. Finally, future research directions are suggested which would help to define and gauge the role of illness in the consumption and strategic marketing of health care services.

  20. Critical Viewing: Stimulant to Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Kevin; Splaine, John

    This document is intended to improve the critical viewing skills and increase the understanding and appreciation of what is viewed. Included are the chapters: (1) "Critical Thinking: The Parts of an Argument," intended to develop a process to help a person judge arguments in what is read, seen, and heard; (2) "Critical Viewing:…

  1. The Sick and the Weak: Neuropathies/Myopathies in the Critically Ill

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, O.; Reid, M. B.; Van den Berghe, G.; Vanhorebeek, I.; Hermans, G.; Rich, M. M.; Larsson, L.

    2015-01-01

    Critical illness polyneuropathies (CIP) and myopathies (CIM) are common complications of critical illness. Several weakness syndromes are summarized under the term intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICUAW). We propose a classification of different ICUAW forms (CIM, CIP, sepsis-induced, steroid-denervation myopathy) and pathophysiological mechanisms from clinical and animal model data. Triggers include sepsis, mechanical ventilation, muscle unloading, steroid treatment, or denervation. Some ICUAW forms require stringent diagnostic features; CIM is marked by membrane hypoexcitability, severe atrophy, preferential myosin loss, ultrastructural alterations, and inadequate autophagy activation while myopathies in pure sepsis do not reproduce marked myosin loss. Reduced membrane excitability results from depolarization and ion channel dysfunction. Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to energy-dependent processes. Ubiquitin proteasome and calpain activation trigger muscle proteolysis and atrophy while protein synthesis is impaired. Myosin loss is more pronounced than actin loss in CIM. Protein quality control is altered by inadequate autophagy. Ca2+ dysregulation is present through altered Ca2+ homeostasis. We highlight clinical hallmarks, trigger factors, and potential mechanisms from human studies and animal models that allow separation of risk factors that may trigger distinct mechanisms contributing to weakness. During critical illness, altered inflammatory (cytokines) and metabolic pathways deteriorate muscle function. ICUAW prevention/treatment is limited, e.g., tight glycemic control, delaying nutrition, and early mobilization. Future challenges include identification of primary/secondary events during the time course of critical illness, the interplay between membrane excitability, bioenergetic failure and differential proteolysis, and finding new therapeutic targets by help of tailored animal models. PMID:26133937

  2. Critical thinking in nurse managers.

    PubMed

    Zori, Susan; Morrison, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Formal education and support is needed for nurse managers to effectively function in their role in the current health care environment. Many nurse managers assume their positions based on expertise in a clinical role with little expertise in managerial and leadership skills. Operating as a manager and leader requires ongoing development of critical thinking skills and the inclination to use those skills. Critical thinking can have a powerful influence on the decision making and problem solving that nurse managers are faced with on a daily basis. The skills that typify critical thinking include analysis, evaluation, inference, and deductive and inductive reasoning. It is intuitive that nurse managers require both the skills and the dispositions of critical thinking to be successful in this pivotal role at a time of transformation in health care. Incorporating critical thinking into education and support programs for the nurse manager is necessary to position the nurse manager for success.

  3. Self-organized criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turcotte, Donald L.

    1999-10-01

    The concept of self-organized criticality was introduced to explain the behaviour of the sandpile model. In this model, particles are randomly dropped onto a square grid of boxes. When a box accumulates four particles they are redistributed to the four adjacent boxes or lost off the edge of the grid. Redistributions can lead to further instabilities with the possibility of more particles being lost from the grid, contributing to the size of each avalanche. These model 'avalanches' satisfied a power-law frequency-area distribution with a slope near unity. Other cellular-automata models, including the slider-block and forest-fire models, are also said to exhibit self-organized critical behaviour. It has been argued that earthquakes, landslides, forest fires, and species extinctions are examples of self-organized criticality in nature. In addition, wars and stock market crashes have been associated with this behaviour. The forest-fire model is particularly interesting in terms of its relation to the critical-point behaviour of the site-percolation model. In the basic forest-fire model, trees are randomly planted on a grid of points. Periodically in time, sparks are randomly dropped on the grid. If a spark drops on a tree, that tree and adjacent trees burn in a model fire. The fires are the `avalanches' and they are found to satisfy power-law frequency-area distributions with slopes near unity. This forest-fire model is closely related to the site-percolation model, that exhibits critical behaviour. In the forest-fire model there is an inverse cascade of trees from small clusters to large clusters, trees are lost primarily from model fires that destroy the largest clusters. This quasi steady-state cascade gives a power-law frequency-area distribution for both clusters of trees and smaller fires. The site-percolation model is equivalent to the forest-fire model without fires. In this case there is a transient cascade of trees from small to large clusters and a power

  4. Gradient liquid chromatographic retention time prediction for suspect screening applications: A critical assessment of a generalised artificial neural network-based approach across 10 multi-residue reversed-phase analytical methods.

    PubMed

    Barron, Leon P; McEneff, Gillian L

    2016-01-15

    For the first time, the performance of a generalised artificial neural network (ANN) approach for the prediction of 2492 chromatographic retention times (tR) is presented for a total of 1117 chemically diverse compounds present in a range of complex matrices and across 10 gradient reversed-phase liquid chromatography-(high resolution) mass spectrometry methods. Probabilistic, generalised regression, radial basis function as well as 2- and 3-layer multilayer perceptron-type neural networks were investigated to determine the most robust and accurate model for this purpose. Multi-layer perceptrons most frequently yielded the best correlations in 8 out of 10 methods. Averaged correlations of predicted versus measured tR across all methods were R(2)=0.918, 0.924 and 0.898 for the training, verification and test sets respectively. Predictions of blind test compounds (n=8-84 cases) resulted in an average absolute accuracy of 1.02±0.54min for all methods. Within this variation, absolute accuracy was observed to marginally improve for shorter runtimes, but was found to be relatively consistent with respect to analyte retention ranges (~5%). Finally, optimised and replicated network dependency on molecular descriptor data is presented and critically discussed across all methods. Overall, ANNs were considered especially suitable for suspects screening applications and could potentially be utilised in bracketed-type analyses in combination with high resolution mass spectrometry.

  5. Critical Materials Institute

    ScienceCinema

    Alex King

    2016-07-12

    Ames Laboratory Director Alex King talks about the goals of the Critical Materials Institute in diversifying the supply of critical materials, developing substitute materials, developing tools and techniques for recycling critical materials, and forecasting materials needs to avoid future shortages.

  6. Critical Materials Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Alex King

    2013-01-09

    Ames Laboratory Director Alex King talks about the goals of the Critical Materials Institute in diversifying the supply of critical materials, developing substitute materials, developing tools and techniques for recycling critical materials, and forecasting materials needs to avoid future shortages.

  7. Critical Pedagogy for Transformative Optimism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This essay critically highlights the main features of a study that attaches importance to the concepts of time and optimism and their effects on the achievement and goals of high and low achievers in a North American and a Brazilian context. The focus on the time factor that serves as a leitmotif throughout the study gives this work its…

  8. Nuclear criticality safety guide

    SciTech Connect

    Pruvost, N.L.; Paxton, H.C.

    1996-09-01

    This technical reference document cites information related to nuclear criticality safety principles, experience, and practice. The document also provides general guidance for criticality safety personnel and regulators.

  9. Critical Access Hospitals (CAH)

    MedlinePlus

    ... use requirements for Critical Access Hospitals related to Electronic Health Records (EHRs)? Critical Access Hospital (CAH) are eligible for Electronic Health Record (EHR) incentive payments and can receive ...

  10. Critical Learning Skills for Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jance, Marsha; Morgan, Anita

    2013-01-01

    A survey addressing critical skills for business students was developed and disseminated. Sixteen critical skills (such as critical thinking and time management) were identified as skills that need to be acquired in order for business students to be successful in their advanced courses and careers. The survey was disseminated and taken by several…

  11. Productive criticism. Part 1: Criticism that works.

    PubMed

    Weisinger, H D

    1995-01-01

    Criticism affects almost all aspects of your job: the quality of work you do, how you feel about your performance, and your relationships with your boss, coworkers, and subordinates. Used productively, criticism is a powerful tool that helps you improve your work, enhance your working relationships, increase your job satisfaction, and achieve better overall results. Improperly used, it impedes performance, demoralizes you, discourages you from wanting to try again, and creates friction in the workplace. In short, the ability to give and take criticism significantly determines how well you do on the job. In Part I, we will examine the traditional negative approach to criticism and develop new management tools to turn criticism into an opportunity for growth and education. By explaining new evaluation and communication techniques, we will show the reader how to use productive criticism to increase job performance and satisfaction.

  12. Social class, ethnicity, and mental illness: the importance of being more than earnest.

    PubMed Central

    Vander Stoep, A; Link, B

    1998-01-01

    This paper revisits a landmark study of the prevalence of mental illness in the state of Massachusetts conducted by Edward Jarvis in the 19th century. Jarvis drew an improper conclusion about the relationship between social class, ethnicity, and insanity, asserting that the Irish foreign-born had a higher prevalence of insanity in each social stratum. A reanalysis of Jarvis' data shows that in both the pauper and independent social classes in Massachusetts, the prevalence of insanity was significantly lower among foreign-born persons than among native-born persons. On the basis of his misperception, Jarvis constructed elaborate etiological theories. These theories made a strong impact on the mental health service policies of his day. The effects of incomplete examination of data on etiological theories and mental health policy in current times are highlighted in this article. PMID:9736887

  13. Design of Critical Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    2001-01-01

    Critical component design is based on minimizing product failures that results in loss of life. Potential catastrophic failures are reduced to secondary failures where components removed for cause or operating time in the system. Issues of liability and cost of component removal become of paramount importance. Deterministic design with factors of safety and probabilistic design address but lack the essential characteristics for the design of critical components. In deterministic design and fabrication there are heuristic rules and safety factors developed over time for large sets of structural/material components. These factors did not come without cost. Many designs failed and many rules (codes) have standing committees to oversee their proper usage and enforcement. In probabilistic design, not only are failures a given, the failures are calculated; an element of risk is assumed based on empirical failure data for large classes of component operations. Failure of a class of components can be predicted, yet one can not predict when a specific component will fail. The analogy is to the life insurance industry where very careful statistics are book-kept on classes of individuals. For a specific class, life span can be predicted within statistical limits, yet life-span of a specific element of that class can not be predicted.

  14. Charles Darwin's (1809-1882) illness - the role of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Heyse-Moore, Louis

    2016-09-15

    During most of his adult life, in counterpoint to his fame in describing the theory of evolution, Charles Darwin was chronically ill. He consulted many doctors with only limited and temporary success. His symptoms were many and varied. His doctors favoured dyspepsia or suppressed gout as the diagnosis. The Water Cure was only effective initially. Many diagnoses have been proposed by physicians since then. Perhaps he suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), not instead of but as well as other physical problems. His symptoms match with criteria for PTSD. Traumatic episodes from his life are considered in this paper: his mother's painful, sudden death from an acute abdominal event when he was eight; his reaction to seeing operations without anaesthetic; the deaths of three of his children, including his beloved daughter, Annie, aged ten; and being overwhelmed by his chronic, unrelenting symptoms. Trauma had not been conceptualised as a diagnosis in Darwin's time. Rather, hysteria and, in war, irritable heart were names given to what is now called PTSD.

  15. [Stigmatization on the way to recovery in mental illness - the factors associated with social functioning].

    PubMed

    Podogrodzka-Niell, Magdalena; Tyszkowska, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Persons with mental disorders often experience stigmatization. There is a number of social factors that may affect the process of recovery and at the same time, in certain circumstances, could be a source of stigma. Mentally ill may find strength in themselves to fight against the disease or the opposite - can internalize the negative attitudes of the society and become self-stigmatized. The patient's family, on the one hand, is often the only source of social support, on the other hand, can experience a destructive influence of courtesy-stigma. Mentally ill have to face social reluctance which is reinforced by stereotypical media coverage of mental disorders. The social network of patients is poor and often limited to a family system. Negative views about persons diagnosed with mental illness are most visible in the labour market. Patients experience many types of discrimination at work,have lower employment rates and lower mean wages than healthy ones. Structural discrimination is a form of stigma which is revealed in underfunded and inefficient system of mental health care. All the social factors mentioned above are necessary for recovery (positive stimulation of functioning), but can also increase stigma and become a significant barrier in the recovery of psychiatric patients. This paper highlights the complex and ambiguous nature of the relationship between social factors and the recovery of the mentally ill basing on the data from the literature.

  16. Heat-related illnesses: the role of the occupational and environmental health nurse.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Bonnie; Stiehl, Kristin; Borst, Jennifer; Hess, Andrea; Hutchins, Shauna

    2007-07-01

    Heat-related illnesses can occur in workplaces where hot environments pose a threat to at-risk workers. Operations involving high air temperatures and humidity, radiant heat sources, direct physical contact with hot objects, or strenuous physical activities have potential for inducing heat stress in employees engaged in job functions in specific industries. Exposure to high temperatures can lead to a progression of symptoms in the body, which can result in widespread tissue damage, organ damage, and even death if not treated in a timely and effective manner. Strategies to reduce the effects of heat in the workplace include engineering controls, administrative controls, and personal protective equipment. Occupational and environmental health nurses must be able to recognize and treat the broad range of symptoms that can result from exposure to high temperatures. They must work together with interdisciplinary teams to provide training and education to the work force so that workers are able to take appropriate measures to prevent the onset of a heat-related illness, recognize the early symptoms, and seek treatment. Interdisciplinary teams must ensure that appropriate controls in the work environment reduce the risk of heat exposure and related heat stress disorders. Education and early intervention are key to avoiding heat-induced illness and eliminating or minimizing the effects of high temperature environments.

  17. Critical Thinking Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Word's Worth: A Quarterly Newsletter of the Lifelong Learning Network, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue of a quarterly newsletter focuses on the theme of critical thinking skills. "Critical Thinking Skills: An Interview with Dr. Richard Paul" (Barbara Christopher) is the text of an interview in which the director of research at Sonoma State University's Center for Critical Thinking examines the meaning of critical thinking and…

  18. A Critical Humanist Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magill, Kevin; Rodriguez, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    This essay is a critical humanist discussion of curriculum; a departure from the technicist view of education [education meant to support a global capitalist economy] and an analysis of curriculum considering critical humanism, political economy and critical race theory among other modes of critical analysis and inquiry. Our discussion supports a…

  19. Revalorizing the Critical Attitude for Critical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amsler, Sarah S.

    2011-01-01

    This article argues that at a moment of crisis in education, the defence of critical pedagogy is vitally important. However, it also suggests that such a defence should be more than a "cri de coeur" that asserts principles and methods of criticality against those of neoliberal or conservative education policy. Narratives of a totalising "crisis of…

  20. Autism: a "critical period" disorder?

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Jocelyn J; Fagiolini, Michela

    2011-01-01

    Cortical circuits in the brain are refined by experience during critical periods early in postnatal life. Critical periods are regulated by the balance of excitatory and inhibitory (E/I) neurotransmission in the brain during development. There is now increasing evidence of E/I imbalance in autism, a complex genetic neurodevelopmental disorder diagnosed by abnormal socialization, impaired communication, and repetitive behaviors or restricted interests. The underlying cause is still largely unknown and there is no fully effective treatment or cure. We propose that alteration of the expression and/or timing of critical period circuit refinement in primary sensory brain areas may significantly contribute to autistic phenotypes, including cognitive and behavioral impairments. Dissection of the cellular and molecular mechanisms governing well-established critical periods represents a powerful tool to identify new potential therapeutic targets to restore normal plasticity and function in affected neuronal circuits.

  1. Safety Critical Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Brandan

    2008-01-01

    Spaceflight mechanisms have a reputation for being difficult to develop and operate successfully. This reputation is well earned. Many circumstances conspire to make this so: the environments in which the mechanisms are used are extremely severe, there is usually limited or no maintenance opportunity available during operation due to this environment, the environments are difficult to replicate accurately on the ground, the expense of the mechanism development makes it impractical to build and test many units for long periods of time before use, mechanisms tend to be highly specialized and not prone to interchangeability or off-the-shelf use, they can generate and store a lot of energy, and the nature of mechanisms themselves, as a combination of structures, electronics, etc. designed to accomplish specific dynamic performance, makes them very complex and subject to many unpredictable interactions of many types. In addition to their complexities, mechanism are often counted upon to provide critical vehicle functions that can result in catastrophic events should the functions not be performed. It is for this reason that mechanisms are frequently subjected to special scrutiny in safety processes. However, a failure tolerant approach, along with good design and development practices and detailed design reviews, can be developed to allow such notoriously troublesome mechanisms to be utilized confidently in safety-critical applications.

  2. Antibiotic dose optimization in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Cotta, M O; Roberts, J A; Lipman, J

    2015-12-01

    The judicious use of existing antibiotics is essential for preserving their activity against infections. In the era of multi-drug resistance, this is of particular importance in clinical areas characterized by high antibiotic use, such as the ICU. Antibiotic dose optimization in critically ill patients requires sound knowledge not only of the altered physiology in serious infections - including severe sepsis, septic shock and ventilator-associated pneumonia - but also of the pathogen-drug exposure relationship (i.e. pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic index). An important consideration is the fact that extreme shifts in organ function, such as those seen in hyperdynamic patients or those with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, can have an impact upon drug exposure, and constant vigilance is required when reviewing antibiotic dosing regimens in the critically ill. The use of continuous renal replacement therapy and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation remain important interventions in these patients; however, both of these treatments can have a profound effect on antibiotic exposure. We suggest placing emphasis on the use of therapeutic drug monitoring and dose individualization when optimizing therapy in these settings.

  3. Critical Infrastructure Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    2004-10-01

    The Critical Infrastructure Modeling System (CIMS) is a 3D modeling and simulation environment designed to assist users in the analysis of dependencies within individual infrastructure and also interdependencies between multiple infrastructures. Through visual cuing and textual displays, a use can evaluate the effect of system perturbation and identify the emergent patterns that evolve. These patterns include possible outage areas from a loss of power, denial of service or access, and disruption of operations. Method of Solution: CIMS allows the user to model a system, create an overlay of information, and create 3D representative images to illustrate key infrastructure elements. A geo-referenced scene, satellite, aerial images or technical drawings can be incorporated into the scene. Scenarios of events can be scripted, and the user can also interact during run time to alter system characteristics. CIMS operates as a discrete event simulation engine feeding a 3D visualization.

  4. [Nutrition in critical illness].

    PubMed

    Ökrös, Ilona

    2014-12-21

    Critically ill patients are often unable to eat by themselves over a long period of time, sometimes for weeks. In the acute phase, serious protein-energy malnutrition may develop with progressive muscle weakness, which may result in assisted respiration of longer duration as well as longer stay in intensive care unit and hospital. In view of the metabolic processes, energy and protein intake targets should be defined and the performance of metabolism should be monitored. Enteral nutrition is primarily recommended. However, parenteral supplementation is often necessary because of the disrupted tolerance levels of the gastrointestinal system. Apparently, an early parenteral supplementation started within a week would be of no benefit. Some experts believe that muscle loss can be reduced by increased target levels of protein. Further studies are needed on the effect of immune system feeding, fatty acids and micronutrients.

  5. Innovations and Organizations: Critical Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van de Ven, Andrew H.; Rogers, Everett M.

    1988-01-01

    Presents an overview of research on innovations and organizations. Criticizes past research and calls for a focus on process research in future investigations, moving from a stage-by-stage conception of the innovation process to a dynamic, continuous conception in which the variables involved are sequenced and analyzed through time. (SR)

  6. Man and Machines: Three Criticisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Edward F.

    As machines have become a more common part of daily life through the passage of time, the idea that the line separating man and machine is slowly fading has become more popular as well. This paper examines three critics of change through their most famous works. One of the most popular views of Mary Shelley's "Frankenstein" is that it is a…

  7. Anomalous critical fields in quantum critical superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Putzke, C.; Walmsley, P.; Fletcher, J. D.; Malone, L.; Vignolles, D.; Proust, C.; Badoux, S.; See, P.; Beere, H. E.; Ritchie, D. A.; Kasahara, S.; Mizukami, Y.; Shibauchi, T.; Matsuda, Y.; Carrington, A.

    2014-01-01

    Fluctuations around an antiferromagnetic quantum critical point (QCP) are believed to lead to unconventional superconductivity and in some cases to high-temperature superconductivity. However, the exact mechanism by which this occurs remains poorly understood. The iron-pnictide superconductor BaFe2(As1−xPx)2 is perhaps the clearest example to date of a high-temperature quantum critical superconductor, and so it is a particularly suitable system to study how the quantum critical fluctuations affect the superconducting state. Here we show that the proximity of the QCP yields unexpected anomalies in the superconducting critical fields. We find that both the lower and upper critical fields do not follow the behaviour, predicted by conventional theory, resulting from the observed mass enhancement near the QCP. Our results imply that the energy of superconducting vortices is enhanced, possibly due to a microscopic mixing of antiferromagnetism and superconductivity, suggesting that a highly unusual vortex state is realized in quantum critical superconductors. PMID:25477044

  8. Toward critical bioethics.

    PubMed

    Árnason, Vilhjálmur

    2015-04-01

    This article deals with the question as to what makes bioethics a critical discipline. It considers different senses of criticism and evaluates their strengths and weaknesses. A primary method in bioethics as a philosophical discipline is critical thinking, which implies critical evaluation of concepts, positions, and arguments. It is argued that the type of analytical criticism that restricts its critical role to critical thinking of this type often suffers from other intellectual flaws. Three examples are taken to demonstrate this: premature criticism, uncritical self-understanding of theoretical assumptions, and narrow framing of bioethical issues. Such flaws can lead both to unfair treatment of authors and to uncritical discussion of topics. In this context, the article makes use of Häyry's analysis of different rationalities in bioethical approaches and argues for the need to recognize the importance of communicative rationality for critical bioethics. A radically different critical approach in bioethics, rooted in social theory, focuses on analyses of power relations neglected in mainstream critical thinking. It is argued that, although this kind of criticism provides an important alternative in bioethics, it suffers from other shortcomings that are rooted in a lack of normative dimensions. In order to complement these approaches and counter their shortcomings, there is a need for a bioethics enlightened by critical hermeneutics. Such hermeneutic bioethics is aware of its own assumptions, places the issues in a wide context, and reflects critically on the power relations that stand in the way of understanding them. Moreover, such an approach is dialogical, which provides both a critical exercise of speech and a normative dimension implied in the free exchange of reasons and arguments. This discussion is framed by Hedgecoe's argument that critical bioethics needs four elements: to be empirically rooted, theory challenging, reflexive, and politely skeptical.

  9. Poetry: Sources for Criticism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Noate, Judith, Comp.

    This handout is a guide to library resources in the J. Murrey Atkins Library at the University of North Carolina-Charlotte for the criticism of poetry. The guide enables the reader to find sources of criticism on poetry, including critical articles and essays about single poems, or writings on the work of a single author. The guide's sections…

  10. Teaching Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Despite long-standing commitment to the notion of critical reflection across the healthcare professions it is unusual for critical theory and practice to be taught as explicit subjects in healthcare higher education. There is evidence to show that reflective techniques such as critical portfolios and reflective diaries can help students to…

  11. Creating a Critical Thinker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piergiovanni, Polly R.

    2014-01-01

    A college education is expected to improve students' critical thinking skills. Keeping students active in class--through writing activities and class discussion--has been shown to help students think critically. In this article, creative hands-on activities, which are common in engineering courses, are shown to improve students' critical thinking…

  12. Foundations for Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bers, Trudy; Chun, Marc; Daly, William T.; Harrington, Christine; Tobolowsky, Barbara F.

    2015-01-01

    "Foundations for Critical Thinking" explores the landscape of critical-thinking skill development and pedagogy through foundational chapters and institutional case studies involving a range of students in diverse settings. By establishing a link between active learning and improved critical thinking, this resource encourages all higher…

  13. Reconceptualising Critical Digital Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pangrazio, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    While it has proved a useful concept during the past 20 years, the notion of "critical digital literacy" requires rethinking in light of the fast-changing nature of young people's digital practices. This paper contrasts long-established notions of "critical digital literacy" (based primarily around the critical consumption of…

  14. Reimagining Critical Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rexhepi, Jevdet; Torres, Carlos Alberto

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses Critical Theory, a model of theorizing in the field of the political sociology of education. We argue for a "reimagined" Critical Theory to herald an empowering, liberatory education that fosters curiosity and critical thinking, and a means for successful bottom-up, top-down political engagement. We present arguments…

  15. Critical percolation in bidimensional coarsening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cugliandolo, Leticia F.

    2016-11-01

    I discuss a recently unveiled feature in the dynamics of two dimensional coarsening systems on the lattice with Ising symmetry: they first approach a critical percolating state via the growth of a new length scale, and only later enter the usual dynamic scaling regime. The time needed to reach the critical percolating state diverges with the system size. These observations are common to Glauber, Kawasaki, and voter dynamics in pure and weakly disordered systems. An extended version of this account appeared in 2016 C. R. Phys. . I refer to the relevant publications for details.

  16. Criticality measurements for SNM accountability

    SciTech Connect

    Bohman, J.; Martin, E.R.; Butterfield, K.; Paternoster, R.

    1998-03-01

    Based on extensive operating experience with the Godiva IV fast metal burst assembly at Los Alamos National Laboratory, the authors were able to create data plots for reactivity worths of standard configurations at various temperatures and room return locations. These plots show that the material uncertainties in criticality measurements are within {+-} 20 grams out of the 65.4 kilogram HEU Godiva core. This is superior to active neutron well coincidence counter (AWCC) measurements. The criticality measurements have the additional advantage of not requiring disassembly of the reactor. No disassembly means the measurement takes less time--it can be done during each operation--and there is less dose to measurement personnel.

  17. Pitfalls in the determination of common analytes in the critically ill.

    PubMed

    Delanghe, J

    2000-01-01

    In the critically ill, the pre-analytical aspects of blood gas analysis still require attention from the clinician. Sampling and transport remain critical factors. Use of drugs may create analytical interferences for common analytes like glucose and protein. Icterus may falsely reduce creatinine and albumin values. Changes in the serum or plasma matrix (reduction of protein, increased covolume of solutes, ...) may furthermore cause important effects on the distribution of electrolytes. Enzyme activity measurements may be erroneous due to lack of essential oligoelements or reducing substances. Immunoassays may suffer from interferences caused by auto-antibodies. In case of hemolysis, a careful interpretation of test results is mandatory.

  18. Teaching critical thinking.

    PubMed

    Holmes, N G; Wieman, Carl E; Bonn, D A

    2015-09-08

    The ability to make decisions based on data, with its inherent uncertainties and variability, is a complex and vital skill in the modern world. The need for such quantitative critical thinking occurs in many different contexts, and although it is an important goal of education, that goal is seldom being achieved. We argue that the key element for developing this ability is repeated practice in making decisions based on data, with feedback on those decisions. We demonstrate a structure for providing suitable practice that can be applied in any instructional setting that involves the acquisition of data and relating that data to scientific models. This study reports the results of applying that structure in an introductory physics laboratory course. Students in an experimental condition were repeatedly instructed to make and act on quantitative comparisons between datasets, and between data and models, an approach that is common to all science disciplines. These instructions were slowly faded across the course. After the instructions had been removed, students in the experimental condition were 12 times more likely to spontaneously propose or make changes to improve their experimental methods than a control group, who performed traditional experimental activities. The students in the experimental condition were also four times more likely to identify and explain a limitation of a physical model using their data. Students in the experimental condition also showed much more sophisticated reasoning about their data. These differences between the groups were seen to persist into a subsequent course taken the following year.

  19. Teaching critical thinking

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, N. G.; Wieman, Carl E.; Bonn, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to make decisions based on data, with its inherent uncertainties and variability, is a complex and vital skill in the modern world. The need for such quantitative critical thinking occurs in many different contexts, and although it is an important goal of education, that goal is seldom being achieved. We argue that the key element for developing this ability is repeated practice in making decisions based on data, with feedback on those decisions. We demonstrate a structure for providing suitable practice that can be applied in any instructional setting that involves the acquisition of data and relating that data to scientific models. This study reports the results of applying that structure in an introductory physics laboratory course. Students in an experimental condition were repeatedly instructed to make and act on quantitative comparisons between datasets, and between data and models, an approach that is common to all science disciplines. These instructions were slowly faded across the course. After the instructions had been removed, students in the experimental condition were 12 times more likely to spontaneously propose or make changes to improve their experimental methods than a control group, who performed traditional experimental activities. The students in the experimental condition were also four times more likely to identify and explain a limitation of a physical model using their data. Students in the experimental condition also showed much more sophisticated reasoning about their data. These differences between the groups were seen to persist into a subsequent course taken the following year. PMID:26283351

  20. Sarcopenia and critical illness: a deadly combination in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Joseph S

    2015-03-01

    Sarcopenia is the age-associated loss of lean skeletal muscle mass. It is the result of multiple physiologic derangements, ultimately resulting in an insidious functional decline. Frailty, the clinical manifestation of sarcopenia and physical infirmity, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in the elderly population. The underlying pathology results in a disruption of the individual's ability to tolerate internal and external stressors such as injury or illness. This infirmity results in a markedly increased risk of falls and subsequent morbidity and mortality from the resulting traumatic injury, as well as an inability to recover from medical insults, resulting in critical illness. The increasing prevalence of sarcopenia and critical illness in the elderly has resulted in a deadly intersection of disease processes. The lethality of this combination appears to be the result of altered muscle metabolism, decreased mitochondrial energetics needed to survive critical illness, and a chronically activated catabolic state likely mediated by tumor necrosis factor-α. Furthermore, these underlying derangements are independently associated with an increased incidence of critical illness, resulting in a progressive downward spiral. Considerable evidence has been gathered supporting the role of aggressive nutrition support and physical therapy in improving outcomes. Critical care practitioners must consider sarcopenia and the resulting frailty phenotype a comorbid condition so that the targeted interventions can be instituted and research efforts focused.

  1. Transthoracic echocardiography in obstetric anaesthesia and obstetric critical illness.

    PubMed

    Dennis, A T

    2011-04-01

    Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is a powerful non-invasive diagnostic, monitoring and measurement device in medicine. In addition to cardiologists, many other specialised groups, including emergency and critical care physicians and cardiac anaesthetists, have recognised its ability to provide high quality information and utilise TTE in the care of their patients. In obstetric anaesthesia and management of obstetric critical illness, the favourable characteristics of pregnant women facilitate TTE examination. These include anterior and left lateral displacement of the heart, frequent employment of the left lateral tilted position to avoid aortocaval compression, spontaneous ventilation and wide acceptance of ultrasound technology by women. Of relevance to obstetric anaesthetists is that maternal morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular disease is significant worldwide. This makes TTE an appropriate, important and applicable device in pregnant women. Clinician-performed TTE enables differentiation between the life-threatening causes of hypotension. In the critically ill woman this improves diagnostic accuracy and allows treatment interventions to be instituted and monitored at the point of patient care. This article outlines the application of TTE in the specialty of obstetric anaesthesia and in the management of obstetric critical illness. It describes the importance of TTE education, quality assurance and outcome recording. It also discusses how barriers to the routine implementation of TTE in obstetric anaesthesia and management of obstetric critical illness can be overcome.

  2. Critical Psychologies for Critical Health Literacies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Health education is largely informed by psychological theories and practices that pursue reductionist views of people learning. However, critical attention is moving to understand health in ways that reconsider relationships to context and the forms of life within which everyday living takes place. This shift is apparent in theoretical…

  3. Critical Literacy for Xenophobia: A Wake-Up Call

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Lisa Patel; Stovall, David Omotoso

    2010-01-01

    Critical literacy has been on the map of literacy pedagogy internationally since the time of Freire, and more commonplace in the United States in the last few decades. However, in this column the authors argue that the common practices of critical literacy are insufficient for critical engagement with texts. The tools of critical literacy are…

  4. Criticality Model Report

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Scaglione

    2003-03-12

    The purpose of the ''Criticality Model Report'' is to validate the MCNP (CRWMS M&O 1998h) code's ability to accurately predict the effective neutron multiplication factor (k{sub eff}) for a range of conditions spanned by various critical configurations representative of the potential configurations commercial reactor assemblies stored in a waste package may take. Results of this work are an indication of the accuracy of MCNP for calculating eigenvalues, which will be used as input for criticality analyses for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) storage at the proposed Monitored Geologic Repository. The scope of this report is to document the development and validation of the criticality model. The scope of the criticality model is only applicable to commercial pressurized water reactor fuel. Valid ranges are established as part of the validation of the criticality model. This model activity follows the description in BSC (2002a).

  5. Critical incident reporting systems.

    PubMed

    Ahluwalia, Jag; Marriott, Lin

    2005-02-01

    Approximately 10% of all hospital admissions are complicated by critical incidents in which harm is caused to the patient - this amounts to more than 850,000 incidents annually. Critical incident reporting (CIR) systems refer to the structured reporting, collation and analysis of such incidents. This article describes the attributes required for an effective CIR system. Example neonatal trigger events and a management pathway for handling a critical incident report are described. The benefits and limitations of CIR systems, reactive and prospective approaches to the analysis of actual or potential critical incidents and the assessment of risk are also reviewed. Individual human error is but one contributor in the majority of critical incidents. Recognition of this and the fostering of an organisational culture that views critical incident reports as an opportunity to learn and to improve future patient care is vital if CIR systems are to be effective.

  6. Vulnerability of critical infrastructures : identifying critical nodes.

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Roger Gary; Robinson, David Gerald

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this research was the development of tools and techniques for the identification of critical nodes within critical infrastructures. These are nodes that, if disrupted through natural events or terrorist action, would cause the most widespread, immediate damage. This research focuses on one particular element of the national infrastructure: the bulk power system. Through the identification of critical elements and the quantification of the consequences of their failure, site-specific vulnerability analyses can be focused at those locations where additional security measures could be effectively implemented. In particular, with appropriate sizing and placement within the grid, distributed generation in the form of regional power parks may reduce or even prevent the impact of widespread network power outages. Even without additional security measures, increased awareness of sensitive power grid locations can provide a basis for more effective national, state and local emergency planning. A number of methods for identifying critical nodes were investigated: small-world (or network theory), polyhedral dynamics, and an artificial intelligence-based search method - particle swarm optimization. PSO was found to be the only viable approach and was applied to a variety of industry accepted test networks to validate the ability of the approach to identify sets of critical nodes. The approach was coded in a software package called Buzzard and integrated with a traditional power flow code. A number of industry accepted test networks were employed to validate the approach. The techniques (and software) are not unique to power grid network, but could be applied to a variety of complex, interacting infrastructures.

  7. Critical Viscosity of Xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. Because xenon near the critical point will collapse under its own weight, experiments on Earth (green line) are limited as they get closer (toward the left) to the critical point. CVX in the microgravity of space (red line) moved into unmeasured territory that scientists had not been able to reach.

  8. The Intellectual Landscape of Critical Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diem, Sarah; Young, Michelle D.; Welton, Anjalé D.; Mansfield, Katherine Cumings; Lee, Pei-Ling

    2014-01-01

    What counts as critical policy analysis in education? Over the past 30 years, a tightening of national educational policies can be seen in the USA and across the globe. Over this same period of time, a growing number of educational policy scholars, dissatisfied with traditional frameworks, have used critical frameworks in their analyses. Their…

  9. Cohort: critical science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digney, Bruce L.

    2007-04-01

    Unmanned vehicle systems is an attractive technology for the military, but whose promises have remained largely undelivered. There currently exist fielded remote controlled UGVs and high altitude UAV whose benefits are based on standoff in low complexity environments with sufficiently low control reaction time requirements to allow for teleoperation. While effective within there limited operational niche such systems do not meet with the vision of future military UxV scenarios. Such scenarios envision unmanned vehicles operating effectively in complex environments and situations with high levels of independence and effective coordination with other machines and humans pursing high level, changing and sometimes conflicting goals. While these aims are clearly ambitious they do provide necessary targets and inspiration with hopes of fielding near term useful semi-autonomous unmanned systems. Autonomy involves many fields of research including machine vision, artificial intelligence, control theory, machine learning and distributed systems all of which are intertwined and have goals of creating more versatile broadly applicable algorithms. Cohort is a major Applied Research Program (ARP) led by Defence R&D Canada (DRDC) Suffield and its aim is to develop coordinated teams of unmanned vehicles (UxVs) for urban environments. This paper will discuss the critical science being addressed by DRDC developing semi-autonomous systems.

  10. Putting the Critical Back in Critical Infrastructure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    anonymous online survey to capture the perceptions and views of critical infrastructure professionals across the nation. The survey included an evaluation...on the perceptions and views of the business process, program maturity and implementation, as well as the current state of outcomes. This thesis...foundational nature of this work. A formative program evaluation was conducted through an anonymous online survey to capture the perceptions and views of

  11. Robust Critical Point Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatia, Harsh

    2016-07-28

    Robust Critical Point Detection is a software to compute critical points in a 2D or 3D vector field robustly. The software was developed as a part of the author's work at the lab as a Phd student under Livermore Scholar Program (now called Livermore Graduate Scholar Program).

  12. CRITICAL LOADS METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    I summarize the results of an interagency project that 1) defines a generic approach to quantifying and reporting critical loads, and 2) exercises that generic approach by examining a data rich system -- the critical loads of sulfur deposition and it's effect on the chronic acidi...

  13. Critical Care Team

    MedlinePlus

    ... patient, the family and the care team. A registered nurse (RN) who is certified in critical care is ... certified by the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses. Pharmacist: An expert in ... Registered dietitian: A caregiver trained and licensed in nutrition ...

  14. Criticism and the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Paul; Foulke, Robert D.

    1964-01-01

    A revised English curriculum, based upon different kinds of literary criticism, is counseled in this two-part paper. Part 1 identifies four kinds of criticism--formalist, synoptic, extrinsic, and stylistic. A conventional English Curriculum is briefly outlined. Curricular theories are discussed and positive and negative attempts to define…

  15. Against Critical Thinking Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, David

    2015-01-01

    Critical thinking pedagogy is misguided. Ostensibly a cure for narrowness of thought, by using the emotions appropriate to conflict, it names only one mode of relation to material among many others. Ostensibly a cure for fallacies, critical thinking tends to dishonesty in practice because it habitually leaps to premature ideas of what the object…

  16. The Need for Critics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purves, Alan C.

    1994-01-01

    Responds to an article in the same issue of this journal about educational criticism as a form of qualitative inquiry. Argues that research in education has become a dead end. Agrees in the main with the article, but finds its view of criticism somewhat limited. Discusses the classroom itself as hypertext. (SR)

  17. Rethinking Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Christopher J.

    2008-01-01

    Critical thinking is of primary importance in higher education, yet the concept remains slippery and the skill elusive. The author argues that most current critical thinking textbooks are out of line with the seminal work of John Dewey. Rather than logical argument and justification, it is suggested that carefulness, open-mindedness and creativity…

  18. Critical Pedagogy and Faith

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Jacob W.

    2011-01-01

    Critical pedagogy has often been linked in the literature to faith traditions such as liberation theology, usually with the intent of improving or redirecting it. While recognizing and drawing from those previous linkages, Jacob Neumann goes further in this essay and develops the thesis that critical pedagogy can not just benefit from a connection…

  19. Critical Literacy: Foundational Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luke, Allan

    2012-01-01

    The term "critical literacy" refers to use of the technologies of print and other media of communication to analyze, critique, and transform the norms, rule systems, and practices governing the social fields of everyday life (A. Luke, 2004). Since Freire's (1970) educational projects in Brazil, approaches to critical literacy have been…

  20. A Passage into Critical Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Steven

    1990-01-01

    Shows how a single passage might be handled by New Criticism, structuralism, deconstructionism, psychological criticism, and feminist criticism. Concludes that a plurality of critical approaches is better than a unity of approach. (RS)

  1. The Possibility of Film Criticism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poague, Leland; Cadbury, William

    1989-01-01

    Examines the role of critical language in film criticism. Compares and contrasts Monroe Beardsley's philosophy on film aesthetics with the New Criticism. Outlines some of the contributions Beardsley has made to the study of film criticism. (KM)

  2. An updated nuclear criticality slide rule

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, C.M.; Broadhead, B.L.

    1998-04-01

    This Volume 2 contains the functional version of the updated nuclear criticality slide rule (more accurately, sliding graphs) that is referenced in An Updated Nuclear Criticality Slide Rule: Technical Basis, NUREG/CR-6504, Vol. 1 (ORNL/TM-13322/V1). This functional slide rule provides a readily usable {open_quotes}in-hand{close_quotes} method for estimating pertinent nuclear criticality accident information from sliding graphs, thereby permitting (1) the rapid estimation of pertinent criticality accident information without laborious or sophisticated calculations in a nuclear criticality emergency situation, (2) the appraisal of potential fission yields and external personnel radiation exposures for facility safety analyses, and (3) a technical basis for emergency preparedness and training programs at nonreactor nuclear facilities. The slide rule permits the estimation of neutron and gamma dose rates and integrated doses based upon estimated fission yields, distance from the fission source, and time-after criticality accidents for five different critical systems. Another sliding graph permits the estimation of critical solution fission yields based upon fissile material concentration, critical vessel geometry, and solution addition rate. Another graph provides neutron and gamma dose-reduction factors for water, steel, and concrete. Graphs from historic documents are provided as references for estimating critical parameters of various fissile material systems. Conversion factors for various English and metric units are provided for quick reference.

  3. Critical points of metal vapors

    SciTech Connect

    Khomkin, A. L. Shumikhin, A. S.

    2015-09-15

    A new method is proposed for calculating the parameters of critical points and binodals for the vapor–liquid (insulator–metal) phase transition in vapors of metals with multielectron valence shells. The method is based on a model developed earlier for the vapors of alkali metals, atomic hydrogen, and exciton gas, proceeding from the assumption that the cohesion determining the basic characteristics of metals under normal conditions is also responsible for their properties in the vicinity of the critical point. It is proposed to calculate the cohesion of multielectron atoms using well-known scaling relations for the binding energy, which are constructed for most metals in the periodic table by processing the results of many numerical calculations. The adopted model allows the parameters of critical points and binodals for the vapor–liquid phase transition in metal vapors to be calculated using published data on the properties of metals under normal conditions. The parameters of critical points have been calculated for a large number of metals and show satisfactory agreement with experimental data for alkali metals and with available estimates for all other metals. Binodals of metals have been calculated for the first time.

  4. A holographic critical point

    SciTech Connect

    DeWolfe, Oliver; Rosen, Christopher; Gubser, Steven S.

    2011-04-15

    We numerically construct a family of five-dimensional black holes exhibiting a line of first-order phase transitions terminating at a critical point at finite chemical potential and temperature. These black holes are constructed so that the equation of state and baryon susceptibilities approximately match QCD lattice data at vanishing chemical potential. The critical end point in the particular model we consider has temperature 143 MeV and chemical potential 783 MeV. Critical exponents are calculated, with results that are consistent with mean-field scaling relations.

  5. Complexity, contingency, and criticality.

    PubMed Central

    Bak, P; Paczuski, M

    1995-01-01

    Complexity originates from the tendency of large dynamical systems to organize themselves into a critical state, with avalanches or "punctuations" of all sizes. In the critical state, events which would otherwise be uncoupled become correlated. The apparent, historical contingency in many sciences, including geology, biology, and economics, finds a natural interpretation as a self-organized critical phenomenon. These ideas are discussed in the context of simple mathematical models of sandpiles and biological evolution. Insights are gained not only from numerical simulations but also from rigorous mathematical analysis. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:11607561

  6. Semiholographic Quantum Criticality

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Kristan

    2011-12-02

    We identify the near-critical effective theory (EFT) for a wide class of low-temperature phase transitions found via holography. The EFT is of the semiholographic type and describes both holographic Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless and second-order transitions with nontrivial scaling. It is a simple generalization of the Ginzburg-Landau-Wilson paradigm to systems with an emergent (or hidden) conformal sector. Having identified the near-critical EFT, we explore its basic phenomenology by computing critical exponents and low-frequency correlators.

  7. Nutrition in critical care.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Robert H; Dechert, Ronald E

    2011-06-01

    Critical care has evolved from a prolonged recovery room stay for cardiac surgery patients to a full medical and nursing specialty in the last 5 decades. The ability to feed patients who cannot eat has evolved from impossible to routine clinical practice in the last 4 decades. Nutrition in critically ill patients based on measurement of metabolism has evolved from a research activity to clinical practice in the last 3 decades. The authors have been involved in this evolution and this article discusses past, present, and likely future practices in nutrition in critically ill patients.

  8. Investigating Cell Criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra, R.; Villani, M.; Damiani, C.; Graudenzi, A.; Ingrami, P.; Colacci, A.

    Random Boolean networks provide a way to give a precise meaning to the notion that living beings are in a critical state. Some phenomena which are observed in real biological systems (distribution of "avalanches" in gene knock-out experiments) can be modeled using random Boolean networks, and the results can be analytically proven to depend upon the Derrida parameter, which also determines whether the network is critical. By comparing observed and simulated data one can then draw inferences about the criticality of biological cells, although with some care because of the limited number of experimental observations. The relationship between the criticality of a single network and that of a set of interacting networks, which simulate a tissue or a bacterial colony, is also analyzed by computer simulations.

  9. Critical Care Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... in critically ill patient groups, such as Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) IV for adult ... unit length of stay: benchmarking based on Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) IV. Crit Care ...

  10. About critical thinking.

    PubMed

    Hynes, Patricia; Bennett, Jocelyn

    2004-01-01

    Although a universally accepted definition of critical thinking has yet to be determined, there is much discussion in the literature about its meaning and, in particular, how it can be expressed in professional nursing practice. The simultaneous use of related terms such as reflective thinking, problem solving and clinical decision-making contributes to the lack of clarity around exactly what critical thinking is and, subsequently, how it can be taught and evaluated in the clinical setting. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the various components of critical thinking and to discuss barriers, facilitators and strategies that can enhance nurses' attainment of this core competency. Few would argue that registered nurses today must be able to think critically in order to effectively communicate a nursing perspective that reflects a meaningful clinical grasp and preparedness to act.

  11. The Critical Thinking Workout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, Terry McDaniel

    1991-01-01

    Presents a critical thinking exercise program, modeled on a physical exercise workout, for elementary teachers to use in the classroom. It includes warm-up exercises, a more strenuous workout, and a cool-down period for the brain. (SM)

  12. Art Criticism and Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Edmund Burke; Woods, Don

    1981-01-01

    The authors review a body of theory and accumulating evidence which suggests that critical study of the arts facilitates the development of cognitive skills, including those essential to reading. (Author/SJL)

  13. Chronic Critical Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... ICU) on a breathing machine (mechanical ventilator or respirator) for many days, this information about chronic critical ... a Tracheotomy? A breathing machine (mechanical ventilator or respirator) helps the lungs breathe and provides oxygen. When ...

  14. Critical Limb Ischemia (CLI)

    MedlinePlus

    ... High blood pressure Family history of vascular disease Warning Signs You may have critical limb ischemia if ... blood flow to the limb. Other treatments include laser atherectomy, where small bits of plaque are vaporized ...

  15. Critical Viscosity of Xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. Shear thirning will cause a normally viscous fluid -- such as pie filling or whipped cream -- to deform and flow more readily under high shear conditions. In shear thinning, a pocket of fluid will deform and move one edge forward, as depicted here.

  16. Degenerate and critical Bloch branes

    SciTech Connect

    Souza Dutra, A. de; Amaro de Faria, A. C. Jr.; Hott, M.

    2008-08-15

    In the last few years a number of works reported the appearance of thick branes with internal structure, induced by the parameter which controls the interaction between two scalar fields coupled to gravity in (4,1) dimensions in warped space-time with one extra dimension. Here we show that one can implement the control over the brane thickness without needing to change the potential parameter. On the contrary, this is going to be done by means of the variation of a parameter associated with the domain wall degeneracy. We also report the existence of novel and qualitatively different solutions for a critical value of the degeneracy parameter, which could be called critical Bloch branes.

  17. From Self-Organized to Extended Criticality

    PubMed Central

    Lovecchio, Elisa; Allegrini, Paolo; Geneston, Elvis; West, Bruce J.; Grigolini, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    We address the issue of criticality that is attracting the attention of an increasing number of neurophysiologists. Our main purpose is to establish the specific nature of some dynamical processes that although physically different, are usually termed as “critical,” and we focus on those characterized by the cooperative interaction of many units. We notice that the term “criticality” has been adopted to denote both noise-induced phase transitions and Self-Organized Criticality (SOC) with no clear connection with the traditional phase transitions, namely the transformation of a thermodynamic system from one state of matter to another. We notice the recent attractive proposal of extended criticality advocated by Bailly and Longo, which is realized through a wide set of critical points rather than emerging as a singularity from a unique value of the control parameter. We study a set of cooperatively firing neurons and we show that for an extended set of interaction couplings the system exhibits a form of temporal complexity similar to that emerging at criticality from ordinary phase transitions. This extended criticality regime is characterized by three main properties: (i) In the ideal limiting case of infinitely large time period, temporal complexity corresponds to Mittag-Leffler complexity; (ii) For large values of the interaction coupling the periodic nature of the process becomes predominant while maintaining to some extent, in the intermediate time asymptotic region, the signature of complexity; (iii) Focusing our attention on firing neuron avalanches, we find two of the popular SOC properties, namely the power indexes 2 and 1.5 respectively for time length and for the intensity of the avalanches. We derive the main conclusion that SOC emerges from extended criticality, thereby explaining the experimental observation of Plenz and Beggs: avalanches occur in time with surprisingly regularity, in apparent conflict with the temporal complexity of physical

  18. A primer on criticality safety

    DOE PAGES

    Costa, David A.; Cournoyer, Michael E.; Merhege, James F.; ...

    2017-05-01

    Criticality is the state of a nuclear chain reacting medium when the chain reaction is just self-sustaining (or critical). Criticality is dependent on nine interrelated parameters. Moreover, we design criticality safety controls in order to constrain these parameters to minimize fissions and maximize neutron leakage and absorption in other materials, which makes criticality more difficult or impossible to achieve. We present the consequences of criticality accidents are discussed, the nine interrelated parameters that combine to affect criticality are described, and criticality safety controls used to minimize the likelihood of a criticality accident are presented.

  19. A primer on criticality safety

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, David Alan; Cournoyer, Michael Edward; Garcia, Vincent Elmer; Sandoval, Arnold M.; Merhege, James Fidel Jr.

    2016-12-24

    Criticality is the state of a nuclear chain reacting medium when the chain reaction is just self-sustaining (or critical). Criticality is dependent on nine interrelated parameters. Moreover, we design criticality safety controls in order to constrain these parameters to minimize fissions and maximize neutron leakage and absorption in other materials, which makes criticality more difficult or impossible to achieve. We present the consequences of criticality accidents are discussed, the nine interrelated parameters that combine to affect criticality are described, and criticality safety controls used to minimize the likelihood of a criticality accident are presented.

  20. Minimum Critical Values Study

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, P.B.

    2005-07-11

    This report provides minimum critical values for various 30-cm water-reflected uranium and plutonium oxide and nitrate aqueous mixtures as calculated by the SCALE CSAS1X sequence using the 238-group ENDF/B-V neutron cross-section library. The minimum values were determined through parametric searches in one-dimensional geometry. The calculations have been performed to obtain the minimum values: critical volume and mass for spheres, critical radius for cylinders, critical thickness for slabs, and minimum critical concentration (infinite geometry) for the following homogeneous mixtures: (1) UO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O for 3, 4, 5, 20, and 100 wt % {sup 235}U; (2) UNH for 3, 4, 5, 20, and 100 wt % {sup 235}U; (3) PuO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O for 100/0/0, 95/5/0, 90/5/5, 80/10/10, and 71/17/11/1 wt % of {sup 239}Pu/{sup 240}Pu/{sup 241}Pu(/{sup 242}Pu); and (4) PuNH for 100/0/0, 95/5/0, 90/5/5, 80/10/10, and 71/17/11/1 wt % of {sup 239}Pu/{sup 240}Pu/{sup 241}Pu(/{sup 242}Pu). All bounding surfaces were fully reflected by 30 cm of H{sub 2}O.

  1. Predictability of critical transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaozhu; Kuehn, Christian; Hallerberg, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    Critical transitions in multistable systems have been discussed as models for a variety of phenomena ranging from the extinctions of species to socioeconomic changes and climate transitions between ice ages and warm ages. From bifurcation theory we can expect certain critical transitions to be preceded by a decreased recovery from external perturbations. The consequences of this critical slowing down have been observed as an increase in variance and autocorrelation prior to the transition. However, especially in the presence of noise, it is not clear whether these changes in observation variables are statistically relevant such that they could be used as indicators for critical transitions. In this contribution we investigate the predictability of critical transitions in conceptual models. We study the quadratic integrate-and-fire model and the van der Pol model under the influence of external noise. We focus especially on the statistical analysis of the success of predictions and the overall predictability of the system. The performance of different indicator variables turns out to be dependent on the specific model under study and the conditions of accessing it. Furthermore, we study the influence of the magnitude of transitions on the predictive performance.

  2. Critical Management in Knowledge Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macpherson, Reynold

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to invite educational managers and management educators to reflect critically on practice. Design/methodology/approach: Using the point of Socrates' death, the paper suggests ways of reflecting on actions using ethically-critical, socially-critical, environmentally-critical, politically-critical and…

  3. The Anatomy of Critical Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfield, Lawrence W.

    1968-01-01

    Critical discourse is best understood when its logical features are identified. An examination of the basic elements and modes of rhetorical criticism (a form of critical discourse) produces a finite set of options for the critic, thus enabling him to develop a system of alternatives in his critical efforts. For example, by selecting from among…

  4. Surface Hold Advisor Using Critical Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, Caleb Hoi Kei (Inventor); Hsiao, Thomas Kun-Lung (Inventor); Mittler, Nathan C. (Inventor); Couluris, George J. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The Surface Hold Advisor Using Critical Sections is a system and method for providing hold advisories to surface controllers to prevent gridlock and resolve crossing and merging conflicts among vehicles traversing a vertex-edge graph representing a surface traffic network on an airport surface. The Advisor performs pair-wise comparisons of current position and projected path of each vehicle with other surface vehicles to detect conflicts, determine critical sections, and provide hold advisories to traffic controllers recommending vehicles stop at entry points to protected zones around identified critical sections. A critical section defines a segment of the vertex-edge graph where vehicles are in crossing or merging or opposite direction gridlock contention. The Advisor detects critical sections without reference to scheduled, projected or required times along assigned vehicle paths, and generates hold advisories to prevent conflicts without requiring network path direction-of-movement rules and without requiring rerouting, rescheduling or other network optimization solutions.

  5. Critical Machine Based Scheduling -A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivek, P.; Saravanan, R.; Chandrasekaran, M.; Pugazhenthi, R.

    2017-03-01

    This article aims to identify the natural occurrence of the critical machines in scheduling. The exciting scheduling in the real time manufacturing environment is focused on considering equal weight-age of all the machines, but very few researchers were considered the real time constraint(s) like processor/ machine/ workstation availability, etc.,. This article explores the gap between the theory and practices by identifying the critical machine in scheduling and helps the researcher to find the suitable problem in their case study environment. Through the literature survey, it is evident that, in scheduling the occurrence of the critical machine is in nature. The critical machine is found in various names and gives a various range of weight-age based on the particular manufacturing environment and it plays a vital role in scheduling which includes one or more circumstances of occurrence in the production environment. Very few researchers were reported that in manufacturing environment, the critical machine occurrence is in nature, but most of the researchers were focused to optimize the manufacturing environment by only reducing the cycle time. In real-time manufacturing environment, the scheduling of critical machine(s) was keenly monitored and some weight-age was considered.

  6. Why Mission-Critical Systems Are Critical to the Future of Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberlander, Cyril

    2012-01-01

    A mission-critical system is one that is so intertwined with the operation of an organization that the organization can scarcely function without it. Just as in corporations, mission-critical library systems offer the capability to unlock talent and time. They are essential to the transformation of higher education and the learning environment. A…

  7. Two critical tests for the Critical Point earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzanis, A.; Vallianatos, F.

    2003-04-01

    It has been credibly argued that the earthquake generation process is a critical phenomenon culminating with a large event that corresponds to some critical point. In this view, a great earthquake represents the end of a cycle on its associated fault network and the beginning of a new one. The dynamic organization of the fault network evolves as the cycle progresses and a great earthquake becomes more probable, thereby rendering possible the prediction of the cycle’s end by monitoring the approach of the fault network toward a critical state. This process may be described by a power-law time-to-failure scaling of the cumulative seismic release rate. Observational evidence has confirmed the power-law scaling in many cases and has empirically determined that the critical exponent in the power law is typically of the order n=0.3. There are also two theoretical predictions for the value of the critical exponent. Ben-Zion and Lyakhovsky (Pure appl. geophys., 159, 2385-2412, 2002) give n=1/3. Rundle et al. (Pure appl. geophys., 157, 2165-2182, 2000) show that the power-law activation associated with a spinodal instability is essentially identical to the power-law acceleration of Benioff strain observed prior to earthquakes; in this case n=0.25. More recently, the CP model has gained support from the development of more dependable models of regional seismicity with realistic fault geometry that show accelerating seismicity before large events. Essentially, these models involve stress transfer to the fault network during the cycle such, that the region of accelerating seismicity will scale with the size of the culminating event, as for instance in Bowman and King (Geophys. Res. Let., 38, 4039-4042, 2001). It is thus possible to understand the observed characteristics of distributed accelerating seismicity in terms of a simple process of increasing tectonic stress in a region already subjected to stress inhomogeneities at all scale lengths. Then, the region of

  8. Morphogenesis at criticality?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krotov, Dmitry; Dubuis, Julien; Gregor, Thomas; Bialek, William

    2014-03-01

    Spatial patterns in the early fruit fly embryo emerge from a network of interactions among transcription factors, the gap genes, driven by maternal inputs. Such networks can exhibit many qualitatively different behaviors, separated by critical surfaces. At criticality, we should observe strong correlations in the fluctuations of different genes around their mean expression levels, a slowing of the dynamics along some but not all directions in the space of possible expression levels, correlations of expression fluctuations over long distances in the embryo, and departures from a Gaussian distribution of these fluctuations. Analysis of recent experiments on the gap genes shows that all these signatures are observed, and that the different signatures are related in ways predicted by theory. While there might be other explanations for these individual phenomena, the confluence of evidence suggests that this genetic network is tuned to criticality.

  9. Critical Viscosity of Xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. The sample cell at the heart of CVX-2 will sit inside a thermostat providing three layers of insulation. The cell itself comprises a copper body that conducts heat efficiently and smoothes out thermal variations that that would destroy the xenon's uniformity. Inside the cell, the oscillating screen viscometer element is supported between two pairs of electrodes that deflect the screen and then measure screen motion.

  10. Critical Viscosity of Xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2001 will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. The thermostat for CVX sits inside the white cylinder on a support structure that is placed inside a pressure canister. A similar canister holds the electronics and control systems. The CVX-2 arrangement is identical. The principal investigator is Dr. Robert F. Berg (not shown) of the National Institutes of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD. This is a detail view of MSFC 0100143.

  11. Emergency responders' critical infrared (ERCI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konsin, Larry S.

    2004-08-01

    Emergency Responders (Fire, Police, Medical, and Emergency Management) face a high risk of injury or death. Even before September 11, 2001, public and private organizations have been driven to better protect Emergency Responders through education, training and improved technology. Recent research on Emergency Responder safety, health risks, and personal protective requirements, shows infrared (IR) imaging as a critical need. Today"s Emergency Responders are increasingly challenged to do more, facing demands requiring technological assistance and/or solutions. Since the introduction of Fire Service IR imaging in the mid 1990s, applications have increased. Emergency response IR is no longer just seeing through smoke to find victims or the seat of a fire. Many more mission critical needs now exist across the broad spectrum of emergency response. At the same time, Emergency Responder injuries and deaths are increasing. The Office of Domestic Preparedness (ODP) has also recognized IR imaging as critical in protecting our communities -- and in preventing many of the injuries and deaths of Emergency Responders. Currently, only 25% of all fire departments (or less than 7% of individual firefighters) have IR imaging. Availability to Police, EMS and Emergency Management is even lower. Without ERCI, Emergency Responders and our communities are at risk.

  12. Evolutionary game theory and criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoodi, Korosh; Grigolini, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    We study a regular two-dimensional network of individuals playing the Prisonner’s Dilemma game with their neighbors, assigning to each individual the adoption of two different criteria to make a choice between cooperation and defection. For a fraction q  <  1 of her time the individual makes her choice by imitating those done by the nearest neighbors, with no payoff consideration. For a fraction ε =1-q the choice between cooperation and defection of an individual depends on the payoff difference between the most successful neighbor and her payoff. When q  =  1 for a special value of the imitation strength K, denoted as K c, the model of social pressure generates criticality. When q  =  0 a large incentive to cheat yields the extinction of cooperation and a modest one leads to the survival of cooperation. We show that for K={{K}\\text{c}} the adoption of a very small value of ɛ exerts a bias in favor of either cooperation or defection, as a form of criticality-induced intelligence, which leads the system to select either the cooperation or the defection branch, when K>{{K}\\text{c}} . Intermediate values of ɛ annihilated criticality-induced cognition and, as consequence, may favor defection choice even in the case when a wise payoff consideration is expected to yield the emergence of cooperation.

  13. Communication and Critical Thinking Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Elizabeth H.

    2011-03-01

    This talk will discuss how faculty can help graduate students (and even postdocs) improve non-technical professional skills required for success in scientific careers. Examples to be covered will include a) planning and delivering high-quality presentations b) listening critically to others' presentations c) writing grant proposals, cover letters, and CV's d) reviewing manuscripts and responding to referee reports. The faculty member(s) involved must be prepared to project a welcoming attitude, to convey the importance of these skills, and to make a consistent investment of time.

  14. A critical evaluation of glycated protein parameters in advanced nephropathy: a matter of life or death: time to dispense with the hemoglobin A1C in end-stage kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Barry I

    2012-07-01

    Chronic kidney disease remains as one of the major complications for individuals with diabetes and contributes to considerable morbidity. Individuals subjected to dialysis therapy, half of whom are diabetic, experience a mortality of ~20% per year. Understanding factors related to mortality remains a priority. Outside of dialysis units, A1C is unquestioned as the "gold standard" for glycemic control. In the recent past, however, there is evidence in large cohorts of diabetic dialysis patients that A1C at both the higher and lower levels was associated with mortality. Given the unique conditions associated with the metabolic dysregulation in dialysis patients, there is a critical need to identify accurate assays to monitor glycemic control to relate to cardiovascular endpoints. In this two-part point-counterpoint narrative, Drs. Freedman and Kalantar-Zadeh take opposing views on the utility of A1C in relation to cardiovascular disease and survival and as to consideration of use of other short-term markers in glycemia. In the narrative below, Dr. Freedman suggests that glycated albumin may be the preferred glycemic marker in dialysis subjects. In the counterpoint narrative following Dr. Freedman's contribution, Dr. Kalantar-Zadeh defends the use of A1C as the unquestioned gold standard for glycemic management in dialysis subjects.

  15. Psychological implications of admission to critical care.

    PubMed

    Pattison, Natalie

    Admission to critical care can have far-reaching psychological effects because of the distinct environment. Critical care services are being re-shaped to address long-term sequelae, including post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression. The long-term consequences of critical illness not only cost the individual, but also have implications for society, such as diminished areas of health-related quality-of-life in sleep, reduced ability to return to work and enjoy recreational activities (Audit Commission, 1999; Hayes et al, 2000). The debate around the phenomenon of intensive care unit (ICU) syndrome is discussed with reference to current thinking. After critical care, patients may experience amnesia, continued hallucinations or flashbacks, anxiety, depression, and dreams and nightmares. Nursing care for patients while in the critical care environment can have a positive effect on psychological well-being. Facilitating communication, explaining care and rationalizing interventions, ensuring patients are oriented as to time and place, reassuring patients about transfer, providing patients,where possible, with information about critical care before admission and considering anxiolytic use, are all practices that have a beneficial effect on patient care. Follow-up services can help patients come to terms with their experiences of critical illness and provide the opportunity for them to access further intervention if desired. Working towards providing optimal psychological care will have a positive effect on patients' psychological recovery and may also help physical recuperation after critical care.

  16. Reliability of assessment of critical thinking.

    PubMed

    Allen, George D; Rubenfeld, M Gaie; Scheffer, Barbara K

    2004-01-01

    Although clinical critical thinking skills and behaviors are among the most highly sought characteristics of BSN graduates, they remain among the most difficult to teach and assess. Three reasons for this difficulty have been (1) lack of agreement among nurse educators as to the definition of critical thinking, (2) low correlation between clinical critical thinking and existing standardized tests of critical thinking, and (3) poor reliability in scoring other evidences of critical thinking, such as essays. This article first describes a procedure for teaching critical thinking that is based on a consensus definition of 17 dimensions of critical thinking in clinical nursing practice. This procedure is easily taught to nurse educators and can be flexibly and inexpensively incorporated into any undergraduate nursing curriculum. We then show that students' understanding and use of these dimensions can be assessed with high reliability (coefficient alpha between 0.7 and 0.8) and with great time efficiency for both teachers and students. By using this procedure iteratively across semesters, students can develop portfolios demonstrating attainment of competence in clinical critical thinking, and educators can obtain important summary evaluations of the degree to which their graduates have succeeded in this important area of their education.

  17. Critical market crashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sornette, D.

    2003-04-01

    This review presents a general theory of financial crashes and of stock market instabilities that his co-workers and the author have developed over the past seven years. We start by discussing the limitation of standard analyses for characterizing how crashes are special. The study of the frequency distribution of drawdowns, or runs of successive losses shows that large financial crashes are “outliers”: they form a class of their own as can be seen from their statistical signatures. If large financial crashes are “outliers”, they are special and thus require a special explanation, a specific model, a theory of their own. In addition, their special properties may perhaps be used for their prediction. The main mechanisms leading to positive feedbacks, i.e., self-reinforcement, such as imitative behavior and herding between investors are reviewed with many references provided to the relevant literature outside the narrow confine of Physics. Positive feedbacks provide the fuel for the development of speculative bubbles, preparing the instability for a major crash. We demonstrate several detailed mathematical models of speculative bubbles and crashes. A first model posits that the crash hazard drives the market price. The crash hazard may sky-rocket at some times due to the collective behavior of “noise traders”, those who act on little information, even if they think they “know”. A second version inverses the logic and posits that prices drive the crash hazard. Prices may skyrocket at some times again due to the speculative or imitative behavior of investors. According the rational expectation model, this entails automatically a corresponding increase of the probability for a crash. We also review two other models including the competition between imitation and contrarian behavior and between value investors and technical analysts. The most important message is the discovery of robust and universal signatures of the approach to crashes. These precursory

  18. Concept mapping: a road to critical thinking.

    PubMed

    St Cyr, Sheila K; All, Anita C

    2009-01-01

    Graduate nurses entering the workforce today are, at times, lacking in the area of critical thinking. Giving graduate nurses a concept map would provide a tool to guide their critical thinking until it becomes inherent or second nature. The concept map, a graphic illustration of key points, guides the focus of patient problems using a body system approach. This article details the use of a concept map in the application of knowledge to practice.

  19. Translation as Literary Criticism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    di Stefano, B. Follkart

    1982-01-01

    It is proposed that literary translation is intrinsically an act of literary criticism. This theory is illustrated by discussion of specific problems in translating Sartre's "La Nausee" and Leonard Forest's "Le pays de la Sagouine," especially the use of verb tense. (MSE)

  20. Critical Skills Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2010

    2010-01-01

    As the U.S. economy begins to show signs of improvement, executives say they need a workforce fully equipped with skills beyond just the basics of reading, writing, and arithmetic (the three Rs). Skills such as critical thinking and problem solving, communication, collaboration, and creativity and innovation (the four Cs) will become even more…

  1. The Failure of Criticism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodheart, Eugene

    Presenting the argument that contemporary criticism has lost its moral authority (and blaming modernism for that loss), Goodheart focuses on contending spiritual views. In particular he analyzes the dialectic between the Protestant-inspired humanist tradition of Carlyle, Arnold, Ruskin, and Lawrence and the decay of Catholicism represented by…

  2. Talking Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Facione, Peter A.; Facione, Noreen C.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a scenario in which the dean of the faculty of a fictional college discusses the issue of critical thinking (CT) with other school officials, using their insights into its nature and roots to prepare a course of action to present to the board of trustees. She learns that college graduates need to have strong CT…

  3. Replies to Criticisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, James R.

    2009-01-01

    In this essay, Hamilton responds to criticisms of his book "The Art of Theater" (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2007). Acknowledging that he expected that the central proposals in "The Art of Theater" would seem a little strange to philosophers, he reiterates his belief that the three general facts of any theatrical performance are its presentation, its…

  4. Stateline: Critical Mass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    In Physics "critical mass" refers to the minimum amount of fissionable material required to sustain a chain reaction. The adoption of state education policy isn't often equated with this concept, but occasionally solutions and ideas seem to gather around a common problem. If the solution at hand is simple, easily understood, and…

  5. Audience, Style and Criticism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimm, David; Sinclair, Nathalie

    2009-01-01

    The primary focus for this article involves aspects of professional mathematical writing and examines the possibility of a form of literary criticism in relation to it. By means of examples from contemporary style guides for academic articles in mathematics (AMS, MAA), as well as the writing of mathematicians (Hamilton, Dedekind) from earlier…

  6. Critical Technology Accessibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In 2003, the Defense Intelligence Agency asked the NRC to form a standing committee to help develop study topics about technology warning. One issue that was identified was the growing dependence on foreign suppliers of critical technology as a result of the increase in globalization of economic activity. Two important questions emerged for study:…

  7. Critical Practice: Teaching "Shakespeare."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellor, Bronwyn; Patterson, Annette

    2000-01-01

    Describes how the authors taught their students to read "Hamlet" from a critical literacy perspective, analyzing how particular readings of texts and characters are constructed or produced; how they are determined by historical and cultural conventions; analyzing values that various readings support or challenge--rather than trying to…

  8. Critical Thinking Concept Reconstructed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minter, Mary Kennedy

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the proposition that teaching of critical thinking (CT) should include: (1) identifying and addressing the many environmental variables acting as barriers to our human thinking, i.e., an open system approach, and (2) utilizing the interrelatedness of the CT building blocks, i.e., creative thinking techniques, levels of…

  9. Quantum Critical Higgs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellazzini, Brando; Csáki, Csaba; Hubisz, Jay; Lee, Seung J.; Serra, Javi; Terning, John

    2016-10-01

    The appearance of the light Higgs boson at the LHC is difficult to explain, particularly in light of naturalness arguments in quantum field theory. However, light scalars can appear in condensed matter systems when parameters (like the amount of doping) are tuned to a critical point. At zero temperature these quantum critical points are directly analogous to the finely tuned standard model. In this paper, we explore a class of models with a Higgs near a quantum critical point that exhibits non-mean-field behavior. We discuss the parametrization of the effects of a Higgs emerging from such a critical point in terms of form factors, and present two simple realistic scenarios based on either generalized free fields or a 5D dual in anti-de Sitter space. For both of these models, we consider the processes g g →Z Z and g g →h h , which can be used to gain information about the Higgs scaling dimension and IR transition scale from the experimental data.

  10. SEMANTICS AND CRITICAL READING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FLANIGAN, MICHAEL C.

    PROFICIENCY IN CRITICAL READING CAN BE ACCELERATED BY MAKING STUDENTS AWARE OF VARIOUS SEMANTIC DEVICES THAT HELP CLARIFY MEANINGS AND PURPOSES. EXCERPTS FROM THE ARTICLE "TEEN-AGE CORRUPTION" FROM THE NINTH-GRADE SEMANTICS UNIT WRITTEN BY THE PROJECT ENGLISH DEMONSTRATION CENTER AT EUCLID, OHIO, ARE USED TO ILLUSTRATE HOW SEMANTICS RELATE TO…

  11. Platelets in Critical Illness.

    PubMed

    Levi, Marcel

    2016-04-01

    In patients with critical illness, thrombocytopenia is a frequent laboratory abnormality. However frequent this may occur, a low platelet count is not an epiphenomenon, but a marker with further significance. It is always important to assess the proper cause for thrombocytopenia in critically ill patients because different underlying disorders may precipitate different diagnostic and therapeutic management strategies. Platelets are part of the first-line defense of the body against bleeding; hence, thrombocytopenia may increase the risk of hemorrhage. In case of systemic inflammatory syndromes, such as the response to sepsis, disseminated intravascular platelet activation may occur. This will contribute to microvascular failure and thereby play a role in the development of organ dysfunction. Platelets are circulating blood cells that will normally not interact with the intact vessel wall but that may swiftly respond to endothelial disruption (which is often part of the pathogenesis of critical illness) by adhering to subendothelial structures, followed by interaction with each other, thereby forming a platelet aggregate. The activated platelet (phospholipid) membrane may form a suitable surface on which further coagulation activation may occur. A low platelet count is a strong and independent predictor of an adverse outcome in critically ill patients, thereby facilitating a simple and practically risk assessment in these patients and potentially guiding the use of complex or expensive treatment strategies.

  12. Conductive Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paetkau, Mark

    2007-01-01

    One of my goals as an instructor is to teach students critical thinking skills. This paper presents an example of a student-led discussion of heat conduction at the first-year level. Heat loss from a human head is calculated using conduction and radiation models. The results of these plausible (but wrong) models of heat transfer contradict what…

  13. Does College Teach Critical Thinking? A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Christopher R.; Kuncel, Nathan R.

    2016-01-01

    Educators view critical thinking as an essential skill, yet it remains unclear how effectively it is being taught in college. This meta-analysis synthesizes research on gains in critical thinking skills and attitudinal dispositions over various time frames in college. The results suggest that both critical thinking skills and dispositions improve…

  14. Critical thinking in clinical nurse education: application of Paul's model of critical thinking.

    PubMed

    Andrea Sullivan, E

    2012-11-01

    Nurse educators recognize that many nursing students have difficulty in making decisions in clinical practice. The ability to make effective, informed decisions in clinical practice requires that nursing students know and apply the processes of critical thinking. Critical thinking is a skill that develops over time and requires the conscious application of this process. There are a number of models in the nursing literature to assist students in the critical thinking process; however, these models tend to focus solely on decision making in hospital settings and are often complex to actualize. In this paper, Paul's Model of Critical Thinking is examined for its application to nursing education. I will demonstrate how the model can be used by clinical nurse educators to assist students to develop critical thinking skills in all health care settings in a way that makes critical thinking skills accessible to students.

  15. AVLIS Criticality risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Brereton, S.J., LLNL

    1998-04-29

    Evaluation of criticality safety has become an important task in preparing for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) uranium enrichment runs that will take place during the Integrated Process Demonstration (IPD) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This integrated operation of AVLIS systems under plant-like conditions will be used to verify the performance of process equipment and to demonstrate the sustained integrated enrichment performance of these systems using operating parameters that are similar to production plant specifications. Because of the potential criticality concerns associated with enriched uranium, substantial effort has been aimed towards understanding the potential system failures of interest from a criticality standpoint, and evaluating them in detail. The AVLIS process is based on selective photoionization of uranium atoms of atomic weight 235 (U-235) in a vapor stream, followed by electrostatic extraction. The process is illustrated in Figure 1. Two major subsystems are involved: the uranium separator and the laser system. In the separator, metallic uranium is fed into a crucible where it is heated and vaporized by an electron beam. The atomic U-235/U-238 vapor stream moves away from the molten uranium and is illuminated by precisely tuned beams of dye laser light. Upon absorption of the tuned dye laser light, the U-235 atoms become excited and eject electrons (become photoionized), giving them a net positive charge. The ions of U-235 are moved preferentially by an electrostatic field to condense on the product collector, forming the enriched uranium product. The remaining vapor, which is depleted in U-235 (tails), passes unaffected through the photoionization/extractor zone and accumulates on collectors in the top of the separator. Tails and product collector surfaces operate at elevated temperatures so that deposited materials flow as segregated liquid streams. The separated uranium condensates (uranium enriched in

  16. Critical care nursing.

    PubMed

    Dracup, K

    1987-01-01

    The research pertaining to the delivery of nursing care in the ICU was reviewed to describe: the impact of the unit structure and organization, including policies and procedures, on patients, nurses, and families; the process of critical care nursing; the outcomes of critical care nursing; some of the ethical issues germane to the care of the critically ill patient. Although these areas of inquiry are quite diverse, a number of similarities can be identified. The most obvious of the similarities was that, with few exceptions, the studies pertaining to delivery of nursing care were performed by researchers from a variety of disciplines other than nursing, including medicine, psychology, public health, and economics. In many instances, such as the studies of patients' stress experiences in ICUs, these efforts enhanced our knowledge of the phenomena and complemented or replicated the efforts of nurse researchers. Unfortunately, in some areas nurse researchers were quite absent, with the result that the studies lacked a nursing perspective. For example, the large body of knowledge related to the effects of critical care on patient outcome reflected medicine's orientation toward cure. While it is important to measure the effect of nursing care in the ICU on patient survival, the effect of nursing efforts on short- and long-term quality of life, functional status, and health maintenance is also critical and remains unknown. Nurse researchers need to build on the data base already acquired about critical care. Even more important, they need to fashion programs of research focused on the concepts central to the discipline of nursing. A second similarity relates to the increasing quality of the reported research over the past decade. In general, early descriptive studies were conducted in a single critical care unit with a small and often biased sample. These gave way to more carefully designed, multicenter studies, although lack of randomization procedures continued to be

  17. Critical care nursing: Embedded complex systems.

    PubMed

    Trinier, Ruth; Liske, Lori; Nenadovic, Vera

    2016-01-01

    Variability in parameters such as heart rate, respiratory rate and blood pressure defines healthy physiology and the ability of the person to adequately respond to stressors. Critically ill patients have lost this variability and require highly specialized nursing care to support life and monitor changes in condition. The critical care environment is a dynamic system through which information flows. The critical care unit is typically designed as a tree structure with generally one attending physician and multiple nurses and allied health care professionals. Information flow through the system allows for identification of deteriorating patient status and timely interventionfor rescue from further deleterious effects. Nurses provide the majority of direct patient care in the critical care setting in 2:1, 1:1 or 1:2 nurse-to-patient ratios. The bedside nurse-critically ill patient relationship represents the primary, real-time feedback loop of information exchange, monitoring and treatment. Variables that enhance information flow through this loop and support timely nursing intervention can improve patient outcomes, while barriers can lead to errors and adverse events. Examining patient information flow in the critical care environment from a dynamic systems perspective provides insights into how nurses deliver effective patient care and prevent adverse events.

  18. Redefining critical in critical dimension metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askary, Farid; Sullivan, Neal T.

    2001-08-01

    Critical dimension (CD) metrology as practiced in semiconductor industry displays characteristics not observed in other metrology disciplines. This paper will present some of the unusual aspects of CD metrology and attempt to elucidate the causes for the observed behavior. Through an examination of the characteristics of measurement accuracy, it is possible to observe these situations where CD metrology departs from the ideal. The typical process for achieving accuracy involves the use of certified standards in a well-defined calibration procedure. However, calibrating CD instruments with linewidth standards will not necessarily guarantee sufficient accuracy of subsequent measurements of production samples. This well-known result follows from lack of physical models to relate the detected signal to sample shape in combination with the many-to-one nature of the mathematical mapping that describes the process of obtaining CD from feature shape. Despite this limitation, monitoring tools such as CD-SEM systems have demonstrated to be useful for process control and are extensively used in semiconductor manufacturing. The requisites for a well-behaved measurement process will be described in detail. The unusual characteristics of CD metrology will be identified, as will the underlying reasons for the behavior. These results will be examined in the light of common process control techniques to explain how CD-SEM measurements still add value despite the flaws. In conclusion the role and value of certified standards in feature shape determination will be placed in the context of CD metrology. Reference Measurement Systems in conjunction with calibration standards are recommended to characterize process variations and determine feature shapes across a variety of samples. In order to ensure that the high throughput monitoring metrology tools flag process excursions for not meeting specifications, feature shapes must be quantified with additional metrics besides a single

  19. Stress-Induced Accumulation of DcAOX1 and DcAOX2a Transcripts Coincides with Critical Time Point for Structural Biomass Prediction in Carrot Primary Cultures (Daucus carota L.)

    PubMed Central

    Campos, M. Doroteia; Nogales, Amaia; Cardoso, Hélia G.; Kumar, Sarma R.; Nobre, Tânia; Sathishkumar, Ramalingam; Arnholdt-Schmitt, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Stress-adaptive cell plasticity in target tissues and cells for plant biomass growth is important for yield stability. In vitro systems with reproducible cell plasticity can help to identify relevant metabolic and molecular events during early cell reprogramming. In carrot, regulation of the central root meristem is a critical target for yield-determining secondary growth. Calorespirometry, a tool previously identified as promising for predictive growth phenotyping has been applied to measure the respiration rate in carrot meristem. In a carrot primary culture system (PCS), this tool allowed identifying an early peak related with structural biomass formation during lag phase of growth, around the 4th day of culture. In the present study, we report a dynamic and correlated expression of carrot AOX genes (DcAOX1 and DcAOX2a) during PCS lag phase and during exponential growth. Both genes showed an increase in transcript levels until 36 h after explant inoculation, and a subsequent down-regulation, before the initiation of exponential growth. In PCS growing at two different temperatures (21°C and 28°C), DcAOX1 was also found to be more expressed in the highest temperature. DcAOX genes’ were further explored in a plant pot experiment in response to chilling, which confirmed the early AOX transcript increase prior to the induction of a specific anti-freezing gene. Our findings point to DcAOX1 and DcAOX2a as being reasonable candidates for functional marker development related to early cell reprogramming. While the genomic sequence of DcAOX2a was previously described, we characterize here the complete genomic sequence of DcAOX1. PMID:26858746

  20. Time resolved study of three ruthenium(II) complexes at micellar surfaces: A new long excited state lifetime probe for determining critical micelle concentration of surfactant nano-aggregates.

    PubMed

    Patra, Digambara; Chaaban, Ahmad H; Darwish, Shaza; Saad, Huda A; Nehme, Ali S; Ghaddar, Tarek H

    2016-02-01

    Three different ruthenium complexes have been synthesized and their luminescence properties in different solvent environments are reported. Luminescence intensities and excited state lifetimes of Ru-I, Ru-II and Ru-III vary with solvent viscosity. The excited state lifetime of Ru-I linearly increases in the viscosity range 1.76-12,100cP. Ru-II shows two linear increases: one in the low and another in the high viscosity ranges, whereas Ru-III illustrates a linear enhancement only in the low viscosity range. Interestingly, luminescence intensities and excited state lifetimes of Ru-I, Ru-II and Ru-III are found to be sensitive to nano-aggregation. However, the surfactant head charge and that of the ruthenium center as well as the hydrophobic tail of the ancillary ligand of the complexes have a great role in deciding the nature of the interaction and on the excited state properties at micellar surfaces. It is proposed that the long lifetime of Ru-III in water could be due to the coiling of the carbon chain of the ancillary ligand around the ruthenium center. At micelle surface, this coiling of the carbon chain is lost due to the parallel alignment with surfactants and thus quenching of the excited state lifetime is seen. Furthermore, it is shown that the variation of the excited state lifetime with respect to the change in surfactant concentration is a result of the formation of micelles from the surfactant monomer, thus, a novel technique for the determination of the critical micelle concentration (cmc) based on the long excited state lifetime of Ru-III located at the micellar nano-aggregates is reported.

  1. Critical Education, Critical Pedagogies, Marxist Education in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Jean Ann; Morris, Doug; Gounari, Panayota; Agostinone-Wilson, Faith

    2015-01-01

    As critical pedagogy becomes more mainstream on the educational landscape in the United States, it is important to revisit the original tenets of critical pedagogy and explore their current manifestations. Since the beginning of "criticalism" from the theoretical/foundational work of the Frankfurt School of Critical Social Theory,…

  2. Critical Viewing: Stimulant to Critical Thinking. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Kevin; Splaine, John

    The purpose of this guide is to implement the teaching of "Critical Viewing: Stimulant to Critical Thinking," a guide for students. Part one of the guide is an overview of the organization, methodologies, and evaluation procedures used in "Critical Viewing." Suggestions and activities for teaching the six chapters in "Critical Viewing" are given…

  3. Abnormalities of Thyroid Hormone Metabolism during Systemic Illness: The Low T3 Syndrome in Different Clinical Settings

    PubMed Central

    Zantut-Wittmann, Denise Engelbrecht

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormone abnormalities are common in critically ill patients. For over three decades, a mild form of these abnormalities has been described in patients with several diseases under outpatient care. These alterations in thyroid hormone economy are a part of the nonthyroidal illness and keep an important relationship with prognosis in most cases. The main feature of this syndrome is a fall in free triiodothyronine (T3) levels with normal thyrotropin (TSH). Free thyroxin (T4) and reverse T3 levels vary according to the underlying disease. The importance of recognizing this condition in such patients is evident to physicians practicing in a variety of specialties, especially general medicine, to avoid misdiagnosing the much more common primary thyroid dysfunctions and indicating treatments that are often not beneficial. This review focuses on the most common chronic diseases already known to present with alterations in serum thyroid hormone levels. A short review of the common pathophysiology of the nonthyroidal illness is followed by the clinical and laboratorial presentation in each condition. Finally, a clinical case vignette and a brief summary on the evidence about treatment of the nonthyroidal illness and on the future research topics to be addressed are presented. PMID:27803712

  4. Implementing Essentials of Critical Care Orientation: one hospital's experience with an online critical care course.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Kristine J; Van Buren, Krystal

    2006-01-01

    Critical care is a specialty area that requires a significant investment of time and money for clinical and classroom learning. One solution for learning that is flexible and cost-effective is the American Association of Critical Care Nurses' Essentials of Critical Care Orientation (ECCO). ECCO lays the theoretical groundwork for nurses to practice safely in critical care. Utilization of ECCO in one community hospital has been a 3-year process, which is continually refined by the critical care education team. Advantages to using ECCO include that it is self-paced, maintained by the American Association of Critical Care Nurses, and allows learners to flex their time and location for learning. Obstacles encountered include difficulties associated with computer learning, lack of hard copy notes, lack of face-to-face time interaction between orientees and education staff, increased work load for one education staff member, and keeping learners on track with their time and orientation. This article describes one hospital's experience with implementation of ECCO as the classroom portion of orientation to several critical care units.

  5. Prognosis in critical care.

    PubMed

    Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Resnic, Frederic S; Matheny, Michael E

    2006-01-01

    Prognostic risk prediction models have been employed in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting since the 1980s and provide health care providers with important information to help inform decisions related to treatment and prognosis, as well as to compare outcomes across institutions. Prognostic models for critical care are among the most widely utilized and tested predictive models in healthcare. In this article, we review and compare mortality prediction models, including the APACHE (1981), SAPS (1984), APACHE-II (1985), MPM (1987), APACHE-III (1991), SAPS-II (1993), and MPM-II (1993). We emphasize the importance of model calibration in this domain. In addition, we present a brief review of the statistical methodology, multiple logistic regression, which underlies most of the models currently used in critical care.

  6. Critical Viscosity of Xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 will measure the viscous behavior of liquid xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. Resembling a tiny bit of window screen, the oscillator at the heart of CVX-2 will vibrate between two pairs of paddle-like electrodes. The slight bend in the shape of the mesh has no effect on the data. What counts are the mesh's displacement in the xenon fluid and the rate at which the displacement dampens. The unit shown here is encased in a small test cell and capped with a sapphire windown to contain the xenon at high pressure.

  7. Generic criticality safety issues

    SciTech Connect

    Hively, L.M.

    1991-01-01

    An independent group has been designated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., (MMES) to internally review Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging (SARPs) that describe containers for shipment of radioactive material. This group is called the Energy Systems Independent Review Group (ESIRG), reporting to the MMES Transportation Safety Manager as part of a central staff function. The ESIRG focus is Y-12 Plant packages, with additional review responsibilities for the Paducah Tiger UF{sub 6} overpack and 6M package. Review questions are posed directly to the SARP preparers. This paper addresses three generic issues that arose during the ESIRG criticality reviews: analysis tools, uncertainties in results, and resulting (finite) probability of criticality. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  8. Challenges in Critical Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pessoa, Rosane Rocha; de Urzeda Freitas, Marco Tulio

    2012-01-01

    This article is based on the conception of language teaching as a liberatory practice. Drawing on some principles of critical pedagogy (Ellsworth, 1992; Freire, 2005; hooks, 1994; Norton & Toohey, 2004), critical applied linguistics (Pennycook, 1990, 2001), critical language teaching (Ferreira, 2006; Pennycook, 1999), and critical language…

  9. Toward a Gramscian Critical Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zompetti, Joseph P.

    1997-01-01

    Contends A. Gramsci can provide a perspective on the cultural dominance of rhetoric and formation of a critical "telos"--his work can contribute to understanding critical rhetoric. Demonstrates that Gramscian notions can extend critical rhetoric into an enterprise that permits critical self-reflexivity and praxis and create new…

  10. Affecting Critical Thinking through Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, Virginia P.

    Intended for teachers, this booklet shows how spoken language can affect student thinking and presents strategies for teaching critical thinking skills. The first section discusses the theoretical and research bases for promoting critical thinking through speech, defines critical thinking, explores critical thinking as abstract thinking, and tells…

  11. Hypermedia Authoring as Critical Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Jamie; Beach, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Discusses three pedagogical frameworks in which students have used hypermedia authoring tools to generate a practice of critical literacy, including critical inquiry into social worlds, critical response to literature, and knowledge construction in the classroom through hypermedia. Discusses how, in hypermedia authoring for critical literacy,…

  12. Early-life experiences and the development of adult diseases with a focus on mental illness: The Human Birth Theory.

    PubMed

    Maccari, Stefania; Polese, Daniela; Reynaert, Marie-Line; Amici, Tiziana; Morley-Fletcher, Sara; Fagioli, Francesca

    2017-02-07

    In mammals, early adverse experiences, including mother-pup interactions, shape the response of an individual to chronic stress or to stress-related diseases during adult life. This has led to the elaboration of the theory of the developmental origins of health and disease, in particular adult diseases such as cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. In addition, in humans, as stated by Massimo Fagioli's Human Birth Theory, birth is healthy and equal for all individuals, so that mental illness develop exclusively in the postnatal period because of the quality of the relationship in the first year of life. Thus, this review focuses on the importance of programming during the early developmental period on the manifestation of adult diseases in both animal models and humans. Considering the obvious differences between animals and humans we cannot systematically move from animal models to humans. Consequently, in the first part of this review, we will discuss how animal models can be used to dissect the influence of adverse events occurring during the prenatal and postnatal periods on the developmental trajectories of the offspring, and in the second part, we will discuss the role of postnatal critical periods on the development of mental diseases in humans. Epigenetic mechanisms that cause reversible modifications in gene expression, driving the development of a pathological phenotype in response to a negative early postnatal environment, may lie at the core of this programming, thereby providing potential new therapeutic targets. The concept of the Human Birth Theory leads to a comprehension of the mental illness as a pathology of the human relationship immediately after birth and during the first year of life.

  13. Critical care cardiology.

    PubMed

    Marks, S L; Abbott, J A

    1998-11-01

    Emergency management of the patient with cardiac disease is an important part of veterinary practice. Although the causes of cardiac disease may be diverse, the understanding of basic pathophysiology will enable the clinician to formulate a rational diagnostic and therapeutic plan. The veterinary clinician must be able to triage the emergency patient, assess the clinical condition, and provide appropriate therapy. Close monitoring of the critically ill patient is crucial to patient survival and will help tailor therapy.

  14. Education for Critical Thinking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    leaders are dissatisfied with their Professional Military Education ( PME ), particularly in the areas of critical thinking and problem solving. This...very distinct from what it means to a mid-career finance officer), and they hit an impasse. Few are able to provide an effective defense of their views...years of PME . Our common understanding of what to do often fails us when we try to apply our knowledge in a real-world setting. In their excellent

  15. Carahunge - A Critical Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-García, A. César

    Carahunge is a megalithic monument in southern Armenia that has often been acclaimed as the oldest observatory. The monument, composed of dozens of standing stones, has some perforated stones. The direction of the holes has been measured and their orientation is related to the sun, moon, and stars, obtaining a date for the construction of such devices. After a critical review of the methods and conclusions, these are shown as untenable.

  16. Criticality safety training

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, S.K.

    1997-06-01

    Criticality safety training is an important element of the Plutonium Facility safety program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Training consists of student self-study handbooks and hands-on performance-based training in a mock-up laboratory containing gloveboxes, trolley conveyor system, and self-monitoring instruments. A 10-minute video tape and lecture was presented to describe how training in this area is conducted.

  17. Horizon as critical phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sung-Sik

    2016-09-01

    We show that renormalization group flow can be viewed as a gradual wave function collapse, where a quantum state associated with the action of field theory evolves toward a final state that describes an IR fixed point. The process of collapse is described by the radial evolution in the dual holographic theory. If the theory is in the same phase as the assumed IR fixed point, the initial state is smoothly projected to the final state. If in a different phase, the initial state undergoes a phase transition which in turn gives rise to a horizon in the bulk geometry. We demonstrate the connection between critical behavior and horizon in an example, by deriving the bulk metrics that emerge in various phases of the U( N ) vector model in the large N limit based on the holographic dual constructed from quantum renormalization group. The gapped phase exhibits a geometry that smoothly ends at a finite proper distance in the radial direction. The geometric distance in the radial direction measures a complexity: the depth of renormalization group transformation that is needed to project the generally entangled UV state to a direct product state in the IR. For gapless states, entanglement persistently spreads out to larger length scales, and the initial state can not be projected to the direct product state. The obstruction to smooth projection at charge neutral point manifests itself as the long throat in the anti-de Sitter space. The Poincare horizon at infinity marks the critical point which exhibits a divergent length scale in the spread of entanglement. For the gapless states with non-zero chemical potential, the bulk space becomes the Lifshitz geometry with the dynamical critical exponent two. The identification of horizon as critical point may provide an explanation for the universality of horizon. We also discuss the structure of the bulk tensor network that emerges from the quantum renormalization group.

  18. Critical Path Web Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Judith L.; Charles, John B.; Rummel, John A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Approximately three years ago, the Agency's lead center for the human elements of spaceflight (the Johnson Space Center), along with the National Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) (which has the lead role in developing countermeasures) initiated an activity to identify the most critical risks confronting extended human spaceflight. Two salient factors influenced this activity: first, what information is needed to enable a "go/no go" decision to embark on extended human spaceflight missions; and second, what knowledge and capabilities are needed to address known and potential health, safety and performance risks associated with such missions. A unique approach was used to first define and assess those risks, and then to prioritize them. This activity was called the Critical Path Roadmap (CPR) and it represents an opportunity to develop and implement a focused and evolving program of research and technology designed from a "risk reduction" perspective to prevent or minimize the risks to humans exposed to the space environment. The Critical Path Roadmap provides the foundation needed to ensure that human spaceflight, now and in the future, is as safe, productive and healthy as possible (within the constraints imposed on any particular mission) regardless of mission duration or destination. As a tool, the Critical Path Roadmap enables the decisionmaker to select from among the demonstrated or potential risks those that are to be mitigated, and the completeness of that mitigation. The primary audience for the CPR Web Site is the members of the scientific community who are interested in the research and technology efforts required for ensuring safe and productive human spaceflight. They may already be informed about the various space life sciences research programs or they may be newcomers. Providing the CPR content to potential investigators increases the probability of their delivering effective risk mitigations. Others who will use the CPR Web Site and its content

  19. Critical Path Web Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Judith L.; Charles, John B.; Rummel, John A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Approximately three years ago, the Agency's lead center for the human elements of spaceflight (the Johnson Space Center), along with the National Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) (which has the lead role in developing countermeasures) initiated an activity to identify the most critical risks confronting extended human spaceflight. Two salient factors influenced this activity: first, what information is needed to enable a "go/no go" decision to embark on extended human spaceflight missions; and second, what knowledge and capabilities are needed to address known and potential health, safety and performance risks associated with such missions. A unique approach was used to first define and assess those risks, and then to prioritize them. This activity was called the Critical Path Roadmap (CPR) and it represents an opportunity to develop and implement a focused and evolving program of research and technology designed from a "risk reduction" perspective to prevent or minimize the risks to humans exposed to the space environment. The Critical Path Roadmap provides the foundation needed to ensure that human spaceflight, now and in the future, is as safe, productive and healthy as possible (within the constraints imposed on any particular mission) regardless of mission duration or destination. As a tool, the Critical Path Roadmap enables the decision maker to select from among the demonstrated or potential risks those that are to be mitigated, and the completeness of that mitigation. The primary audience for the CPR Web Site is the members of the scientific community who are interested in the research and technology efforts required for ensuring safe and productive human spaceflight. They may already be informed about the various space life sciences research programs or they may be newcomers. Providing the CPR content to potential investigators increases the probability of their delivering effective risk mitigations. Others who will use the CPR Web Site and its

  20. Morphogenesis at criticality?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krotov, Dmitry; Dubuis, Julien; Wieschaus, Eric; Gregor, Thomas; Bialek, William

    2013-03-01

    Embryonic development of many multicellular organisms begins with the generation of spatially varying patterns of morphogens that encode the body plan of the future organism. We study the spatial pattern formed by the gap gene proteins in the early fruit fly embryo, which is anchored by ``crossing points'' between expression levels of different genes; these are thought to result from mutual repression. We explore a broad class of models for such interacting genes and show that the parameters implied implied by recent quantitative measurements are non-generic, but rather tuned to certain values, so that the entire gap gene network operates close to the critical surface in its phase diagram. We develop a mean field description of this system as well as derive signatures of critical behavior in the structure of expression noise. One such signature is that fluctuations are dominated by a single ``massless'' mode, so that fluctuations of expression levels of different genes are highly correlated/anticorrelated. We find a surprisingly high degree of anticorrelation in the real experimental data. These results suggest an interesting possibility that the network of genes responsible for development is operating near criticality.

  1. Relative Critical Points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Debra

    2013-05-01

    Relative equilibria of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian systems with symmetry are critical points of appropriate scalar functions parametrized by the Lie algebra (or its dual) of the symmetry group. Setting aside the structures - symplectic, Poisson, or variational - generating dynamical systems from such functions highlights the common features of their construction and analysis, and supports the construction of analogous functions in non-Hamiltonian settings. If the symmetry group is nonabelian, the functions are invariant only with respect to the isotropy subgroup of the given parameter value. Replacing the parametrized family of functions with a single function on the product manifold and extending the action using the (co)adjoint action on the algebra or its dual yields a fully invariant function. An invariant map can be used to reverse the usual perspective: rather than selecting a parametrized family of functions and finding their critical points, conditions under which functions will be critical on specific orbits, typically distinguished by isotropy class, can be derived. This strategy is illustrated using several well-known mechanical systems - the Lagrange top, the double spherical pendulum, the free rigid body, and the Riemann ellipsoids - and generalizations of these systems.

  2. [The critical scientists' voice].

    PubMed

    Lewgoy, F

    2000-01-01

    The intricate debate over genetically modified organisms (GMOs) involves powerful economic interests, as well as ethical, legal, emotional and scientific aspects, some of which are dealt with in this paper.(It is possible to identify two main groups of scientists across the GMOs divide: the triumphalist and the critical group.) Scientists in the triumphalist group state that GMOs and their derivatives are safe for the environment and do not offer health hazards any more than similar, non-genetically modified, products. This view is disputed by the critical scientists, who are prompted by the scarcity of studies on the environmental impacts and toxicity of GMOs, and who point out flaws in tests performed by the same companies which hold the patents. They are also critical of the current state of the process of gene transference, lacking accuracy, a fact which, coupled with the scant knowledge available about 97% of the genome functions, may produce unforseeable effects with risks for the environment and public health yet to be assessed. Examples of such effects are: the transference of alien genes [??] to other species, the emergence of toxins, the creation of new viruses, the impacts on beneficial insects and on biodiversity in general.

  3. Amplitudes and time scales of picosecond-to-microsecond motion in proteins studied by solid-state NMR: a critical evaluation of experimental approaches and application to crystalline ubiquitin.

    PubMed

    Haller, Jens D; Schanda, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Solid-state NMR provides insight into protein motion over time scales ranging from picoseconds to seconds. While in solution state the methodology to measure protein dynamics is well established, there is currently no such consensus protocol for measuring dynamics in solids. In this article, we perform a detailed investigation of measurement protocols for fast motions, i.e. motions ranging from picoseconds to a few microseconds, which is the range covered by dipolar coupling and relaxation experiments. We perform a detailed theoretical investigation how dipolar couplings and relaxation data can provide information about amplitudes and time scales of local motion. We show that the measurement of dipolar couplings is crucial for obtaining accurate motional parameters, while systematic errors are found when only relaxation data are used. Based on this realization, we investigate how the REDOR experiment can provide such data in a very accurate manner. We identify that with accurate rf calibration, and explicit consideration of rf field inhomogeneities, one can obtain highly accurate absolute order parameters. We then perform joint model-free analyses of 6 relaxation data sets and dipolar couplings, based on previously existing, as well as new data sets on microcrystalline ubiquitin. We show that nanosecond motion can be detected primarily in loop regions, and compare solid-state data to solution-state relaxation and RDC analyses. The protocols investigated here will serve as a useful basis towards the establishment of a routine protocol for the characterization of ps-μs motions in proteins by solid-state NMR.

  4. CRITICALITY HAZOP EFFICIENTLY EVALUATING HAZARDS OF NEW OR REVISED CRITICALITY SAFETY EVALUATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    CARSON DM

    2008-04-15

    The 'Criticality HazOp' technique, as developed at Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP), has allowed for efficiencies enabling shortening of the time necessary to complete new or revised criticality safety evaluation reports (CSERs). For example, in the last half of 2007 at PFP, CSER revisions undergoing the 'Criticality HazOp' process were completed at a higher rate than previously achievable. The efficiencies gained through use of the 'Criticality HazOp' process come from the preliminary narrowing of potential scenarios for the Criticality analyst to fully evaluate in preparation of the new or revised CSER, and from the use of a systematized 'Criticality HazOp' group assessment of the relevant conditions to show which few parameter/condition/deviation combinations actually require analytical effort. The 'Criticality HazOp' has not only provided efficiencies of time, but has brought to criticality safety evaluation revisions the benefits of a structured hazard evaluation method and the enhanced insight that may be gained from direct involvement of a team in the process. In addition, involved personnel have gained a higher degree of confidence and understanding of the resulting CSER product.

  5. Assessment of critical thinking: a Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Paul, Sheila A

    2014-11-01

    Nurse educators are responsible for preparing nurses who critically analyze patient information and provide meaningful interventions in today's complex health care system. By using the Delphi research method, this study, utilized the specialized and experiential knowledge of Certified Nurse Educators. This original Delphi research study asked Certified Nurse Educators how to assess the critical-thinking ability of nursing students in the clinical setting. The results showed that nurse educators need time, during the clinical experience, to accurately assess each individual nursing student. This study demonstrated the need for extended student clinical time, and a variety of clinical learning assessment tools.

  6. Applicability of ZPR critical experiment data to criticality safety

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, R.W.; Aumeier, S.E.; McFarlane, H.F.

    1995-12-31

    More than a hundred zero power reactor (ZPR) critical assemblies were constructed, over a period of about three decades, at the Argonne National Laboratory ZPR-3, ZPR-6, ZPR-9 and ZPPR fast critical assembly facilities. To be sure, the original reason for performing these critical experiments was to support fast reactor development. Nevertheless, data from some of the assemblies are well suited to form the basis for valuable, new criticality safety benchmarks. The purpose of this paper is to describe the ZPR data that would be of benefit to the criticality safety community and to explain how these data could be developed into practical criticality safety benchmarks.

  7. The timing of the human circadian clock is accurately represented by the core body temperature rhythm following phase shifts to a three-cycle light stimulus near the critical zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewett, M. E.; Duffy, J. F.; Czeisler, C. A.

    2000-01-01

    A double-stimulus experiment was conducted to evaluate the phase of the underlying circadian clock following light-induced phase shifts of the human circadian system. Circadian phase was assayed by constant routine from the rhythm in core body temperature before and after a three-cycle bright-light stimulus applied near the estimated minimum of the core body temperature rhythm. An identical, consecutive three-cycle light stimulus was then applied, and phase was reassessed. Phase shifts to these consecutive stimuli were no different from those obtained in a previous study following light stimuli applied under steady-state conditions over a range of circadian phases similar to those at which the consecutive stimuli were applied. These data suggest that circadian phase shifts of the core body temperature rhythm in response to a three-cycle stimulus occur within 24 h following the end of the 3-day light stimulus and that this poststimulus temperature rhythm accurately reflects the timing of the underlying circadian clock.

  8. Criticality accident alarm system

    SciTech Connect

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The American National Standard ANSI/ANS-8.3-1986, Criticality Accident Alarm System provides guidance for the establishment and maintenance of an alarm system to initiate personnel evacuation in the event of inadvertent criticality. In addition to identifying the physical features of the components of the system, the characteristics of accidents of concern are carefully delineated. Unfortunately, this ANSI Standard has led to considerable confusion in interpretation, and there is evidence that the minimum accident of concern'' may not be appropriate. Furthermore, although intended as a guide, the provisions of the standard are being rigorously applied, sometimes with interpretations that are not consistent. Although the standard is clear in the use of absorbed dose in free air of 20 rad, at least one installation has interpreted the requirement to apply to dose in soft tissue. The standard is also clear in specifying the response to both neutrons and gamma rays. An assembly of uranyl fluoride enriched to 5% {sup 235}U was operated to simulate a potential accident. The dose, delivered in a free run excursion 2 m from the surface of the vessel, was greater than 500 rad, without ever exceeding a rate of 20 rad/min, which is the set point for activating an alarm that meets the standard. The presence of an alarm system would not have prevented any of the five major accidents in chemical operations nor is it absolutely certain that the alarms were solely responsible for reducing personnel exposures following the accident. Nevertheless, criticality alarm systems are now the subject of great effort and expense. 13 refs.

  9. Critical Manifestations of Pneumoscrotum

    PubMed Central

    Dagur, Gautam; Lee, Min Y.; Warren, Kelly; Imhof, Reese; Khan, Sardar A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pneumoscrotum is a critical, physical finding that may indicate significant morbidity and mortality. Accumulation of gas in the scrotum can be primary or secondary. Objective This paper discusses rapid diagnosis and treatment options. Material and Methods PubMed searches for pneumoscrotum, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Results: We review the historical perspective, classification, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment options of pneumoscrotum, as well as the presentation of pneumoscrotum in neonates/infants. Conclusion It is crucial to diagnose the etiology pneumoscrotum and designing a treatment option based off that. PMID:27390577

  10. Critically damped quantum search.

    PubMed

    Mizel, Ari

    2009-04-17

    Although measurement and unitary processes can accomplish any quantum evolution in principle, thinking in terms of dissipation and damping can be powerful. We propose a modification of Grover's algorithm in which the idea of damping plays a natural role. Remarkably, we find that there is a critical damping value that divides between the quantum O(sqrt[N]) and classical O(N) search regimes. In addition, by allowing the damping to vary in a fashion we describe, one obtains a fixed-point quantum search algorithm in which ignorance of the number of targets increases the number of oracle queries only by a factor of 1.5.

  11. Disposition toward critical thinking among occupational therapy students.

    PubMed

    Lederer, Jeffrey M

    2007-01-01

    The ability to think critically is an important outcome of education. The disposition, or internal motivation, to think critically strongly influences the development of critical thought. Students (N = 79) at three levels of education in one program were administered the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI). Results indicated no differences in the disposition to think critically related to length of time spent in the program. Differences in the dispositions of open-mindedness and maturity of judgment were found between undergraduate and graduate students. A difference also was found in the disposition to think critically between the two groups. The findings suggest that students, particularly undergraduates, can benefit from instruction designed to develop the disposition to think critically. The CCTDI appears to be a useful instrument for assessing the ability and disposition for critical thinking and could serve as a reliable baseline or outcome measure for use in programs.

  12. Critical Casimir forces from the equation of state of quantum critical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rançon, Adam; Henry, Louis-Paul; Rose, Félix; Cardozo, David Lopes; Dupuis, Nicolas; Holdsworth, Peter C. W.; Roscilde, Tommaso

    2016-10-01

    The mapping between a classical length and inverse temperature as imaginary time provides a direct equivalence between the Casimir force of a classical system in D dimensions and internal energy of a quantum system in d =D -1 dimensions. The scaling functions of the critical Casimir force of the classical system with periodic boundaries thus emerge from the analysis of the symmetry related quantum critical point. We show that both nonperturbative renormalization group and quantum Monte Carlo analysis of quantum critical points provide quantitative estimates for the critical Casimir force in the corresponding classical model, giving access to widely different aspect ratios for the geometry of confined systems. In light of these results, we propose protocols for the realization of critical Casimir forces for periodic boundaries through state-of-the-art cold-atom and solid-state experiments.

  13. Plant critical concept

    SciTech Connect

    O`Regan, P.J.

    1995-12-31

    The achievement of operation and maintenance (O&M) cost reductions is a prime concern for plant operators. Initiatives by the nuclear industry to address this concern are under way and/or in development. These efforts include plant reliability studies, reliability-centered maintenance, risk ranking and testing philosophies, performance-based testing philosophies, graded quality assurance, and so forth. This paper presents the results of an effort to develop a methodology that integrates and applies the common data and analysis requirements for a number of risk-based and performance-based initiatives. This initial phase of the effort applied the methodology and its results to two initiatives. These were the procurement function and the preventive maintenance function. This effort integrated multiple programs and functions to identify those components that are truly critical from an integrated plant performance perspective. The paper describes the scope of the effort, the development of a methodology to identify plant critical components, and the application of these results to the maintenance rule compliance, preventive maintenance, and procurement functions at the candidate plant.

  14. Optimal Management of the Critically Ill: Anaesthesia, Monitoring, Data Capture, and Point-of-Care Technological Practices in Ovine Models of Critical Care

    PubMed Central

    Shekar, Kiran; Tung, John-Paul; Dunster, Kimble R.; Platts, David; Watts, Ryan P.; Gregory, Shaun D.; Simonova, Gabriela; McDonald, Charles; Hayes, Rylan; Bellpart, Judith; Timms, Daniel; Fung, Yoke L.; Toon, Michael; Maybauer, Marc O.; Fraser, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Animal models of critical illness are vital in biomedical research. They provide possibilities for the investigation of pathophysiological processes that may not otherwise be possible in humans. In order to be clinically applicable, the model should simulate the critical care situation realistically, including anaesthesia, monitoring, sampling, utilising appropriate personnel skill mix, and therapeutic interventions. There are limited data documenting the constitution of ideal technologically advanced large animal critical care practices and all the processes of the animal model. In this paper, we describe the procedure of animal preparation, anaesthesia induction and maintenance, physiologic monitoring, data capture, point-of-care technology, and animal aftercare that has been successfully used to study several novel ovine models of critical illness. The relevant investigations are on respiratory failure due to smoke inhalation, transfusion related acute lung injury, endotoxin-induced proteogenomic alterations, haemorrhagic shock, septic shock, brain death, cerebral microcirculation, and artificial heart studies. We have demonstrated the functionality of monitoring practices during anaesthesia required to provide a platform for undertaking systematic investigations in complex ovine models of critical illness. PMID:24783206

  15. Optimal management of the critically ill: anaesthesia, monitoring, data capture, and point-of-care technological practices in ovine models of critical care.

    PubMed

    Chemonges, Saul; Shekar, Kiran; Tung, John-Paul; Dunster, Kimble R; Diab, Sara; Platts, David; Watts, Ryan P; Gregory, Shaun D; Foley, Samuel; Simonova, Gabriela; McDonald, Charles; Hayes, Rylan; Bellpart, Judith; Timms, Daniel; Chew, Michelle; Fung, Yoke L; Toon, Michael; Maybauer, Marc O; Fraser, John F

    2014-01-01

    Animal models of critical illness are vital in biomedical research. They provide possibilities for the investigation of pathophysiological processes that may not otherwise be possible in humans. In order to be clinically applicable, the model should simulate the critical care situation realistically, including anaesthesia, monitoring, sampling, utilising appropriate personnel skill mix, and therapeutic interventions. There are limited data documenting the constitution of ideal technologically advanced large animal critical care practices and all the processes of the animal model. In this paper, we describe the procedure of animal preparation, anaesthesia induction and maintenance, physiologic monitoring, data capture, point-of-care technology, and animal aftercare that has been successfully used to study several novel ovine models of critical illness. The relevant investigations are on respiratory failure due to smoke inhalation, transfusion related acute lung injury, endotoxin-induced proteogenomic alterations, haemorrhagic shock, septic shock, brain death, cerebral microcirculation, and artificial heart studies. We have demonstrated the functionality of monitoring practices during anaesthesia required to provide a platform for undertaking systematic investigations in complex ovine models of critical illness.

  16. What Makes Critical Thinking Critical for Adult ESL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miekley, Joshua P.

    2014-01-01

    Critical-thinking skills help to prepare adult education students for a successful transition to college degree programs and for job advancement. Yet fostering critical thinking poses a challenge to ESL instructors. Brookfield (2012) provides a way forward for adult educators when he explains that the crux of critical thinking is to discover one's…

  17. Writer, Reader, Critic: Comparing Critical Theories as Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Beaugrande, Robert

    1984-01-01

    Attempts to show how each of three influential critical theories--deconstructionism, reader response criticism, and authorial intention--implies a particular view of how literary discourse is or should be processed and indicates that each view is in part justified, but not to the extent claimed by the critics themselves. (CRH)

  18. Critical Literature Pedagogy: Teaching Canonical Literature for Critical Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borsheim-Black, Carlin; Macaluso, Michael; Petrone, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces Critical Literature Pedagogy (CLP), a pedagogical framework for applying goals of critical literacy within the context of teaching canonical literature. Critical literacies encompass skills and dispositions to understand, question, and critique ideological messages of texts; because canonical literature is often…

  19. NASA Critical Facilities Maintenance Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberhettinger, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Critical Facilities Maintenance Assessment (CFMA) was first implemented by NASA following the March 2000 overtest of the High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (HESSI) spacecraft. A sine burst dynamic test using a 40 year old shaker failed. Mechanical binding/slippage of the slip table imparted 10 times the planned force to the test article. There was major structural damage to HESSI. The mechanical "health" of the shaker had not been assessed and tracked to assure the test equipment was in good working order. Similar incidents have occurred at NASA facilities due to inadequate maintenance (e.g., rainwater from a leaky roof contaminated an assembly facility that housed a spacecraft). The HESSI incident alerted NASA to the urgent need to identify inadequacies in ground facility readiness and maintenance practices. The consequences of failures of ground facilities that service these NASA systems are severe due to the high unit value of NASA products.

  20. Critical phenomena in active matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paoluzzi, M.; Maggi, C.; Marini Bettolo Marconi, U.; Gnan, N.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the effect of self-propulsion on a mean-field order-disorder transition. Starting from a φ4 scalar field theory subject to an exponentially correlated noise, we exploit the unified colored-noise approximation to map the nonequilibrium active dynamics onto an effective equilibrium one. This allows us to follow the evolution of the second-order critical point as a function of the noise parameters: the correlation time τ and the noise strength D . Our results suggest that the universality class of the model remains unchanged. We also estimate the effect of Gaussian fluctuations on the mean-field approximation finding an Ornstein-Zernike-like expression for the static structure factor at long wavelengths. Finally, to assess the validity of our predictions, we compare the mean-field theoretical results with numerical simulations of active Lennard-Jones particles in two and three dimensions, finding good qualitative agreement at small τ values.

  1. Viruddha Ahara: A critical view

    PubMed Central

    Sabnis, Mukund

    2012-01-01

    Viruddha Ahara is a unique concept described in Ayurveda. The present article deals with the critical review of Viruddha Ahara referred in terms of food–food interactions, food processing interactions. Ayurveda clearly defines that certain diet and its combinations, which interrupts the metabolism of tissue, which inhibits the process of formation of tissue and which have the opposite property to the tissue are called as Viruddha Anna or incompatible diet. The food which is wrong in combination, which has undergone wrong processing, which is consumed in incorrect dose, which is consumed in incorrect time of day and in wrong season can lead to Viruddha Ahara. The article narrates the modern perspective of Samskar Viruddha, Veerya Viruddha, Samyoga Viruddha, and so on. It also enlists a variety of incompatible dietary articles consumed in today's day-to-day life and its hazardous effects on health. PMID:23723637

  2. Universal Postquench Prethermalization at a Quantum Critical Point.

    PubMed

    Gagel, Pia; Orth, Peter P; Schmalian, Jörg

    2014-11-28

    We consider an open system near a quantum critical point that is suddenly moved towards the critical point. The bath-dominated diffusive nonequilibrium dynamics after the quench is shown to follow scaling behavior, governed by a critical exponent that emerges in addition to the known equilibrium critical exponents. We determine this exponent and show that it describes universal prethermalized coarsening dynamics of the order parameter in an intermediate time regime. Implications of this quantum critical prethermalization are: (i) a power law rise of order and correlations after an initial collapse of the equilibrium state and (ii) a crossover to thermalization that occurs arbitrarily late for sufficiently shallow quenches.

  3. Direct Observation of Critical Point Wetting in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaukler, W. F.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this program is to observe the interface shape in single and multicomponent systems at the onset of critical wetting in microgravity using the MSFC drop tower and KC-135 aircraft. Test cells for the drop facility were built and tested up to critical point of CCl. Low temperature drops were conducted for two-component systems near the critical consolute point. Contact angle seems to approach 90 deg near the critical consolute temperature contrary to expectations. It is suspected that since the interfacial energy becomes vanishingly small at the critical consolute temperature, the interface shape has not reached equilibrium in the available low-gravity time.

  4. Controlling superconductivity by tunable quantum critical points.

    PubMed

    Seo, S; Park, E; Bauer, E D; Ronning, F; Kim, J N; Shim, J-H; Thompson, J D; Park, Tuson

    2015-03-04

    The heavy fermion compound CeRhIn5 is a rare example where a quantum critical point, hidden by a dome of superconductivity, has been explicitly revealed and found to have a local nature. The lack of additional examples of local types of quantum critical points associated with superconductivity, however, has made it difficult to unravel the role of quantum fluctuations in forming Cooper pairs. Here, we show the precise control of superconductivity by tunable quantum critical points in CeRhIn5. Slight tin-substitution for indium in CeRhIn5 shifts its antiferromagnetic quantum critical point from 2.3 GPa to 1.3 GPa and induces a residual impurity scattering 300 times larger than that of pure CeRhIn5, which should be sufficient to preclude superconductivity. Nevertheless, superconductivity occurs at the quantum critical point of the tin-doped metal. These results underline that fluctuations from the antiferromagnetic quantum criticality promote unconventional superconductivity in CeRhIn5.

  5. Critical laboratory values in hemostasis: toward consensus.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Adcock, Dorothy; Simundic, Ana-Maria; Tripodi, Armando; Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2017-02-10

    The term "critical values" can be defined to entail laboratory test results that significantly lie outside the normal (reference) range and necessitate immediate reporting to safeguard patient health, as well as those displaying a highly and clinically significant variation compared to previous data. The identification and effective communication of "highly pathological" values has engaged the minds of many clinicians, health care and laboratory professionals for decades, since these activities are vital to good laboratory practice. This is especially true in hemostasis, where a timely and efficient communication of critical values strongly impacts patient management. Due to the heterogeneity of available data, this paper is hence aimed to analyze the state of the art and provide an expert opinion about the parameters, measurement units and alert limits pertaining to critical values in hemostasis, thus providing a basic document for future consultation that assists laboratory professionals and clinicians alike. KEY MESSAGES Critical values are laboratory test results significantly lying outside the normal (reference) range and necessitating immediate reporting to safeguard patient health. A broad heterogeneity exists about critical values in hemostasis worldwide. We provide here an expert opinion about the parameters, measurement units and alert limits pertaining to critical values in hemostasis.

  6. Dehumanization: An Overview of Educational Technology's Critics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Geoff

    Almost since its inception, the word "dehumanization" has caused apprehension, especially as the words relate to educational technology. This paper is a brief analysis of educational technology's critics from the late 1950s through present time; it also serves as a study of how their rhetoric has affected the structure of elementary and…

  7. Critical Dispositions: Evidence and Expertise in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitriadis, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Set against the current proliferation of global "difference" and economic realignment, "Critical Dispositions" explores the notions of "evidence" and "expertise" in times of material scarcity. Both have come to the forefront of national and international debate in education as "evidence" and "evidence-based" research and pedagogical practices…

  8. Critical Instance Analysis of News English Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Hongmei; Wu, Sijun

    2009-01-01

    Critical discourse analysis (CDA) thought that the discourse was concrete social practice, and the language served for the potency, and the discourse embodied the ideology. Two presses about the case that the US Mattel Toy Company recalled toys "Made in China" in Washington Post (newspaper) and New York Times (newspaper) were taken as…

  9. A Critical Thinking Activity for Communication Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ann E.

    2017-01-01

    Courses: This semester long activity can be employed in any communication classroom and is designed particularly to provide first-time graduate student instructors (GSIs) with a theory-based assessment tool. As such, the article is appropriate for graduate-level pedagogy classes. Objective: To introduce a theory-based, critical thinking activity…

  10. Process Mapping: Tools, Techniques, & Critical Success Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalman, Howard K.

    2002-01-01

    Explains process mapping as an analytical tool and a process intervention that performance technologists can use to improve human performance by reducing error variance. Highlights include benefits of process mapping; and critical success factors, including organizational readiness, time commitment by participants, and the availability of a…

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF PROTOCOLS TO IDENTIFY CRITICAL ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Healthy, functioning ecosystems are critical to the sustainability of human and natural communities, but the identification of areas of healthy ecosystems in an area as large as Region 5 is difficult due to time and information constraints. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) a...

  12. Creative critical-thinking strategies.

    PubMed

    Chubinski, S

    1996-01-01

    Are you looking for strategies to teach critical thinking? The author presents a variety of quick, creative strategies to facilitate teaching critical-thinking skills. These strategies engage students in their learning and are adaptable to any nursing course.

  13. Critical Density Interaction Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Young, P; Baldis, H A; Cheung, P; Rozmus, W; Kruer, W; Wilks, S; Crowley, S; Mori, W; Hansen, C

    2001-02-14

    Experiments have been performed to study the propagation of intense laser pulses to high plasma densities. The issue of self-focusing and filamentation of the laser pulse as well as developing predictive capability of absorption processes and x-ray conversion efficiencies is important for numerous programs at the Laboratory, particularly Laser Program (Fast Ignitor and direct-drive ICF) and D&NT (radiography, high energy backlighters and laser cutting). Processes such as resonance absorption, profile modification, linear mode conversion, filamentation and stimulated Brillouin scattering can occur near the critical density and can have important effects on the coupling of laser light to solid targets. A combination of experiments have been used to study the propagation of laser light to high plasma densities and the interaction physics of intense laser pulses with solid targets. Nonparaxial fluid codes to study nonstationary behavior of filamentation and stimulated Brillouin scattering at high densities have also been developed as part of this project.

  14. Against the Bureaucratization of Criticism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nothstine, William L.; Copeland, Gary A.

    The proliferation of critics and critical approaches has produced a trend toward fragmentation and isolation among the practitioners involved. A suggestive counter-trend indicates that there is intense curiosity among critics to watch colleagues encounter texts, grapple with the preliminary questions of stance and method, and share the experience…

  15. Critical Quantitative Inquiry in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stage, Frances K.; Wells, Ryan S.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter briefly traces the development of the concept of critical quantitative inquiry, provides an expanded conceptualization of the tasks of critical quantitative research, offers theoretical explanation and justification for critical research using quantitative methods, and previews the work of quantitative criticalists presented in this…

  16. Utilization of specialty mental health care among persons with severe mental illness: the roles of demographics, need, insurance, and risk.

    PubMed Central

    McAlpine, D D; Mechanic, D

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the sociodemographic, need, risk, and insurance characteristics of persons with severe mental illness and the importance of these characteristics for predicting specialty mental health utilization among this group. DATA SOURCE: The Healthcare for Communities survey, a national study that tracks alcohol, drug, and mental health services utilization. Data come from a telephone survey of adults from 60 communities across the United States, and from a supplemental geographically dispersed sample. STUDY DESIGN: Respondents were categorized as having a severe mental disorder, other mental disorder, or no measured mental disorder. Differences among groups in sociodemographics (gender, marital status, race, education, and income), insurance coverage, need for mental health care (symptoms and perceived need), and risk indicators (suicide ideation, criminal involvement, and aggressive behavior) are examined. Measures of service use for mental health care include emergency room, inpatient, and specialty outpatient care. The importance of sociodemographics, need, insurance status, and risk indicators for specialty mental health care utilization are examined through logistic regression. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The severely mentally ill in this study are disproportionately African American, unmarried, male, less educated, and have lower family incomes than those with other disorders and those with no measured mental disorders. In a 12-month period almost three-fifths of persons with severe mental illness did not receive specialty mental health care. One in five persons with severe mental illness are uninsured, and Medicare or Medicaid insures 37 percent. Persons covered by these public programs are over six times more likely to have access to specialty care than the uninsured are. Involvement in the criminal justice system also increases the probability that a person will receive care by a factor of about four, independent of level of need. The average number

  17. Critical Care Nutrition: Where's the Evidence?

    PubMed

    Patel, Jayshil J; Hurt, Ryan T; McClave, Stephen A; Martindale, Robert G

    2017-04-01

    The surgical critically ill patient is subject to a variable and complex metabolic response, which has detrimental effects on immunity, wound healing, and preservation of lean body muscle. The concept of nutrition support has evolved into nutrition therapy, whereby the primary objectives are to prevent oxidative cell injury, modulate the immune response, and attenuate the metabolic response. This review outlines the metabolic response to critical illness, describes nutritional risk; reviews the evidence for the role, dose, and timing of enteral and parenteral nutrition, and reviews the evidence for immunonutrition in the surgical intensive care unit.

  18. Timing of Ethylene Modification Is Critical For Regeneration In Barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    : The plant hormone ethylene is important for higher rates of callus formation and green plant regeneration. Ethylene can have positive or negative effects on these traits depending on the genotype, type of explant and stage of application. Therefore, the effects of both ethylene precur...

  19. 1776 - A Critical Time in the American Revolution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-03

    2011), 100. 5 Don Higginbotham, The War Of American Independence. (Boston, Ma: Northeastern Univ. Press, 1971), 2. 6 James C. Alpin, Major...III’s Soldiers Lt. General Sir William Howe,” Liberty Tree Magazine, July 2006. 8 Richard Ketchum, The Battle For Bunker Hill, (New York: Holt...21 James Flexner, Washington, The Indispensable Man. (New York, NY: New American Library, 1974), 66. 22 Thomas Fleming, George Washington

  20. Timing of Acute Palliative Care Consultation in Critically Ill Patients

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-03

    Multiple Organ Failure; End Stage Cardiac Failure; End Stage Chronic Obstructive Airways Disease; Chronic Kidney Disease Stage 5; Hepatic Encephalopathy; Sepsis; Dementia; Multiple Sclerosis; Parkinson's Disease; In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest; Solid Organ Cancer

  1. Notes for a Dialogue on Art Education in Critical Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desai, Dipti; Chalmers, Graeme

    2007-01-01

    Schools have always been subject to an overwhelming variety of socio-political demands, which shift in response to the political climate--impacting art education in different ways. The current debate on social and political issues in art education is not new. Beginning with McFee (1966), and particularly since the 1970s, there has been a growing…

  2. Accelerationism: A Timely Provocation for the Critical Sociology of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellar, Sam; Cole, David R.

    2017-01-01

    Accelerationism is a theoretical movement that seeks to mobilise reason and technological development as a strategy for moving beyond capitalism. The first wave of accelerationism took the effects of capitalism at their most pernicious and suggested that they have not gone far enough. More recent work has complicated this project and explored…

  3. Human Supervision of Time Critical Control Systems. Addendum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-26

    statistical analysis via Granger causality , etc. The conducted studies indicate that the methods based on temporal trend detection in dimensionally reduced...varying levels of workload and stress conditions has been performed at AFRL/RHCP. The data includes psychophysiological indicators (5...targeting priorities. The baseline LL condition simply required the subject to monitor the UAVs flight paths until each waypoint, i.e. ML or HL

  4. The Use of Auditory Output for Time-Critical Information

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    that uses the auditory sense for alerts in the Combat Information Center (ClC). The immediate goal was to compare operator performance using voice ...tracking task on a scenario simulation of the ClC. Alerts were presented by voice , auditory icons, or buzzers. Four different causes for alerts were...alert so that three related sounds corresponded to three alerts of each alert cause. RESULTS 1. Overall, the results showed that both voice and

  5. Are Earthquakes a Critical Phenomenon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, O.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquakes, granular avalanches, superconducting vortices, solar flares, and even stock markets are known to evolve through power-law distributed events. During decades, the formalism of equilibrium phase transition has coined these phenomena as critical, which implies that they are also unpredictable. This work revises these ideas and uses earthquakes as the paradigm to demonstrate that slowly driven systems evolving through uncorrelated and power-law distributed avalanches (UPLA) are not necessarily critical systems, and therefore not necessarily unpredictable. By linking the correlation length to the pdf of the distribution, and comparing it with the one obtained at a critical point, a condition of criticality is introduced. Simulations in the classical Olami-Feder-Christensen (OFC) earthquake model confirm the findings, showing that earthquakes are not a critical phenomenon. However, one single catastrophic earthquake may show critical properties and, paradoxically, the emergence of this temporal critical behaviour may eventually carry precursory signs of catastrophic events.

  6. Chiropractic: a critical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Edzard

    2008-05-01

    Chiropractic was defined by D.D. Palmer as "a science of healing without drugs." About 60,000 chiropractors currently practice in North America, and, worldwide, billions are spent each year for their services. This article attempts to critically evaluate chiropractic. The specific topics include the history of chiropractic; the internal conflicts within the profession; the concepts of chiropractic, particularly those of subluxation and spinal manipulation; chiropractic practice and research; and the efficacy, safety, and cost of chiropractic. A narrative review of selected articles from the published chiropractic literature was performed. For the assessment of efficacy, safety, and cost, the evaluation relied on previously published systematic reviews. Chiropractic is rooted in mystical concepts. This led to an internal conflict within the chiropractic profession, which continues today. Currently, there are two types of chiropractors: those religiously adhering to the gospel of its founding fathers and those open to change. The core concepts of chiropractic, subluxation and spinal manipulation, are not based on sound science. Back and neck pain are the domains of chiropractic but many chiropractors treat conditions other than musculoskeletal problems. With the possible exception of back pain, chiropractic spinal manipulation has not been shown to be effective for any medical condition. Manipulation is associated with frequent mild adverse effects and with serious complications of unknown incidence. Its cost-effectiveness has not been demonstrated beyond reasonable doubt. The concepts of chiropractic are not based on solid science and its therapeutic value has not been demonstrated beyond reasonable doubt.

  7. Osteoarthritis: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Onishi, Kentaro; Utturkar, Amol; Chang, Eric; Panush, Richard; Hata, Justin; Perret-Karimi, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Patients with osteoarthritis (OA) are faced with a barrage of treatment options, from recommendations from friends and social media to medications prescribed by the primary care physician. The purpose of this article is to critically review current approaches to generalized or monoarticular OA based on available evidence and to illustrate multidisciplinary and multimodal treatment strategies for the management of OA. Treatment options assessed for efficacy include patient education; oral and topical pharmacological agents; complementary and alternative medicine; surgery; manual medicine; acupuncture; interventional procedures (corticosteroid injection, viscosupplementation, and pulsed radiofrequency); bracing; assistive devices; physical therapy; and physical modalities. Multidisciplinary and multimodal treatment strategies combined with early detection and prevention strategies provide the best benefit to patients. This review also illustrates that traditional and alternative modalities of treatment can be both synergistic and beneficial. Physicians should be aware of the variety of tools available for the management of OA and the associated symptoms. Those healthcare providers who can best individualize treatment plans for specific patients and inspire their patients to embrace healthy lifestyle modifications will achieve the best results. PMID:25750483

  8. Logic models used to enhance critical thinking.

    PubMed

    Ellermann, Caroline R; Kataoka-Yahiro, Merle R; Wong, Lorrie C

    2006-06-01

    Over time, various methods have been used to stimulate critical thinking in undergraduate nursing students, and although many have been successful in helping students integrate the essential knowledge, experiences, and clinical reasoning that support practice, it is also useful to explore new methods. Faculty at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, School of Nursing and Dental Hygiene have taken an innovative approach of using logic models to further enhance critical thinking. This article presents an application of varying experiences and methods of using logic models to support the development of critical thinking and reasoning skills in nursing students. The processes in which logic models are used in the curriculum are described. The models are used to connect concepts from concrete to abstract levels in diverse and often nonlinear diagrams, guided discourse, and written assignments. The specific instructional methods used include concept mapping, concept papers, conceptual linking, and substruction.

  9. Variable-Temperature Critical-Current Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    L. F. Goodrich; T. C. Stauffer

    2009-05-19

    This is the final report of a three year contract that covered 09/19/2005 to 07/14/2008. We requested and received a no cost time extension for the third year, 07/15/2007 to 07/14/2008, to allow DoE to send us funds if they became available during that year. It turned out that we did not receive any funding for the third year. The following paper covers our variable-temperature critical-current measurements. We made transport critical-current (Ic) measurements on commercial multifilamentary Nb3Sn strands at temperatures (T) from 4 to 17 K and magnetic fields (H) from 0 to 14 T. One of the unique features of our measurements is that we can cover a wide range of critical currents from less than 0.1 A to over 700 A.

  10. Critical coupling in plasmonic resonator arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balci, Sinan; Kocabas, Coskun; Aydinli, Atilla

    2011-08-01

    We report critical coupling of electromagnetic waves to plasmonic cavity arrays fabricated on Moiré surfaces. Dark field plasmon microscopy imaging and polarization dependent spectroscopic reflection measurements reveal the critical coupling conditions of the cavities. The critical coupling conditions depend on the superperiod of the Moiré surface, which also defines the coupling between the cavities. Complete transfer of the incident power can be achieved for traveling wave plasmonic resonators, which have a relatively short superperiod. When the superperiod of the resonators increases, the coupled resonators become isolated standing wave resonators in which complete transfer of the incident power is not possible. Analytical and finite difference time domain calculations support the experimental observations.

  11. T-Shaped Frame Critical and Post-Critical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doicheva, Albena

    2016-03-01

    The paper shows solution of a T-shaped frame, strength- ened with two linear springs, regarding critical and post-critical analysis. The solution is exact using the Euler elastic approach and the frame of reference, originated in the point of column axis inflexion. The derived Numerical results show the effect of the springs strengthening for the crit- ical and the post-critical system behaviour. The influence of the geometry change is analyzed, as well.

  12. Hypomagnesemia in Critically Ill Sepsis Patients.

    PubMed

    Velissaris, Dimitrios; Karamouzos, Vassilios; Pierrakos, Charalampos; Aretha, Diamanto; Karanikolas, Menelaos

    2015-12-01

    Magnesium (Mg), also known as "the forgotten electrolyte", is the fourth most abundant cation overall and the second most abundant intracellular cation in the body. Mg deficiency has been implicated in the pathophysiology of many diseases. This article is a review of the literature regarding Mg abnormalities with emphasis on the implications of hypomagnesemia in critical illness and on treatment options for hypomagnesemia in critically ill patients with sepsis. Hypomagnesemia is common in critically ill patients, and there is strong, consistent clinical evidence, largely from observational studies, showing that hypomagnesemia is significantly associated with increased need for mechanical ventilation, prolonged ICU stay and increased mortality. Although the mechanism linking hypomagnesemia with poor clinical outcomes is not known, experimental data suggest mechanisms contributing to such outcomes. However, at the present time, there is no clear evidence that magnesium supplementation improves outcomes in critically ill patients with hypomagnesemia. Large, well-designed clinical trials are needed to evaluate the role of magnesium therapy for improving outcomes in critically ill patients with sepsis.

  13. Do earthquakes exhibit self-organized criticality?

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaosong; Du, Shuming; Ma, Jin

    2004-06-04

    If earthquakes are phenomena of self-organized criticality (SOC), statistical characteristics of the earthquake time series should be invariant after the sequence of events in an earthquake catalog are randomly rearranged. In this Letter we argue that earthquakes are unlikely phenomena of SOC because our analysis of the Southern California Earthquake Catalog shows that the first-return-time probability PM(T) is apparently changed after the time series is rearranged. This suggests that the SOC theory should not be used to oppose the efforts of earthquake prediction.

  14. Computerized critical path scheduling of longwall moves

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, D.K.; Turley, R.E.; Zeller, W.

    1983-03-01

    The authors have developed a computer-assisted critical path planning and scheduling model to help reduce time required to move longwall mining units. The model includes time constraints and limited resource constraints, such as manpower, machinery, supplies, work space, and transportation routes. Outstanding results were achieved on the first move to which the computer-model was applied; e.g., downtime due to the move was cut by 50%. The model and the schedules developed using it provide an excellent blueprint for future moves and have led to significant savings in time and costs for one company.

  15. The microbiome and critical illness

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Robert P

    2016-01-01

    The central role of the microbiome in critical illness is supported by a half century of experimental and clinical study. The physiological effects of critical illness and the clinical interventions of intensive care substantially alter the microbiome. In turn, the microbiome predicts patients’ susceptibility to disease, and manipulation of the microbiome has prevented or modulated critical illness in animal models and clinical trials. This Review surveys the microbial ecology of critically ill patients, presents the facts and unanswered questions surrounding gut-derived sepsis, and explores the radically altered ecosystem of the injured alveolus. The revolution in culture-independent microbiology has provided the tools needed to target the microbiome rationally for the prevention and treatment of critical illness, holding great promise to improve the acute and chronic outcomes of the critically ill. PMID:26700442

  16. Television Criticism: A Deca-Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oseguera, A. Anthony

    Noting that one of the greatest criticisms of television is the lack of television criticism itself, this paper proposes a multidimensional approach to the subject, based on current forms of criticism and theory. The 10 forms of criticism or theory discussed in the paper are (1) rhetorical criticism, (2) dramatic criticism, (3) literary criticism,…

  17. Quantum criticality from Fisher information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hongting; Luo, Shunlong; Fu, Shuangshuang

    2017-04-01

    Quantum phase transition is primarily characterized by a qualitative sudden change in the ground state of a quantum system when an external or internal parameter of the Hamiltonian is continuously varied. Investigating quantum criticality using information-theoretic methods has generated fruitful results. Quantum correlations and fidelity have been exploited to characterize the quantum critical phenomena. In this work, we employ quantum Fisher information to study quantum criticality. The singular or extremal point of the quantum Fisher information is adopted as the estimated thermal critical point. By a significant model constructed in Quan et al. (Phys Rev Lett 96: 140604, 2006), the effectiveness of this method is illustrated explicitly.

  18. Protein requirement in critical illness.

    PubMed

    Hoffer, Leonard John

    2016-05-01

    How much protein do critically ill patients require? For the many decades that nutritional support has been used there was a broad consensus that critically ill patients need much more protein than required for normal health. Now, however, some clinical investigators recommend limiting all macronutrient provision during the early phase of critical illness. How did these conflicting recommendations emerge? Which of them is correct? This review explains the longstanding recommendation for generous protein provision in critical illness, analyzes the clinical trials now being claimed to refute it, and concludes with suggestions for clinical investigation and practice.

  19. Critical Viscosity of Xenon investigators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Dr. Dr. Robert F. Berg (right), principal investigator and Dr. Micheal R. Moldover (left), co-investigator, for the Critical Viscosity of Xenon (CVX/CVX-2) experiment. They are with the National Institutes of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD. The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. Although it does not easily combine with other chemicals, its viscosity at the critical point can be used as a model for a range of chemicals.

  20. Do Critical Thinking Exercises Improve Critical Thinking Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, Ellen M.; Tally, Carrie Sacco

    2009-01-01

    Although textbooks routinely include exercises to improve critical thinking skills, the effectiveness of these exercises has not been closely examined. Additionally, the connection between critical thinking skills and formal operational thought is also relatively understudied. In the study reported here, college students completed measures of…

  1. How Critical Is Critical Thinking? FACTC Focus, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerr, Mark, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "FACTC Focus" is a publication of Faculty Association of Community and Technical Colleges (FACTC) with the purpose of presenting diverse views on faculty issues. Included in this issue are: (1) LOL: The Easy ROUTE TO Critical Thinking (Barbara B. Parsons); (2) Critical Thinking: We Know It When We (Don't) See It (Jared Anthony); (3) Critical…

  2. Discipline-Based Art Education: Its Criticisms and Its Critics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisner, Elliot W.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the criticisms of discipline-based art education published in the March 1988 issue of "Art Education." Responds to the arguments of Peter London, Helen Muth, Norma K. Pittard, and Karen Hamblen. States that art education would be better served if the energy devoted to criticism was directed toward constructive ends. (GEA)

  3. A Critical "Critical Inquiry" Proposition in Health and Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, Deana; O'Flynn, Gabrielle; Wright, Jan

    2013-01-01

    A critical inquiry approach is one of five key characteristics that have shaped the development of the new Australian Curriculum: Health and Physical Education (AC: HPE). However, what this means is open to interpretation. In the various documents leading to the consultation draft AC: HPE and in this document itself, critical inquiry is used in…

  4. Fluid overload and survival in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury receiving continuous renal replacement therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Il Young; Kim, Joo Hui; Lee, Dong Won; Lee, Soo Bong; Rhee, Harin; Seong, Eun Young; Kwak, Ihm Soo

    2017-01-01

    Background Fluid overload is known to be associated with increased mortality in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) who are critically ill. In this study, we intended to uncover whether the adverse effect of fluid overload on survival could be applied to all of the patients with AKI who received continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Methods We analyzed 341 patients with AKI who received CRRT in our intensive care units. The presence of fluid overload was defined as a minimum 10% increase in body weight from the baseline. Demographics, comorbid diseases, clinical data, severity of illness [the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score, number of vasopressors, diagnosis of sepsis, use of ventilator] upon ICU admission, fluid overload status, and time elapsed from AKI diagnosis until CRRT initiation were reviewed from the medical charts. Results Patients with total fluid overload from 3 days before CRRT initiation to ICU discharge had a significantly lower survival rate after ICU admission, as compared to patients with no fluid overload (P < 0.001). Among patients with sepsis (P < 0.001) or with high SOFA scores (P < 0.001), there was a significant difference in survival of the patients with and without fluid overload. In patients without sepsis or with low SOFA score, there was no significant difference in survival of patients irrespective of fluid overload. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that the adverse effect of fluid overload on survival is more evident in patients with sepsis or with more severe illness, and that it might not apply to patients without sepsis or with less severe illness. PMID:28196107

  5. A Critical Literacy Perspective for Teaching and Learning Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soares, Lina Bell; Wood, Karen

    2010-01-01

    In a time of increasing plurality in today's public schools, it is essential that students become critically competent citizens by examining current and historical social justice issues. The purpose of this manuscript is to provide the research, theory, and practice for teachers to help students take a critical stance as they read and respond to…

  6. 14 CFR 45.14 - Identification of critical components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of critical components. 45.14 Section 45.14 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... critical components. Each person who produces a part for which a replacement time, inspection interval,...

  7. Action Research: The Development of Critical Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPoint-O'Brien, Tammy

    2013-01-01

    Critical thinking is the focal point missed in many students' educations. Students are taught memorization with little time left for the development of critical thinking skills which allows for a deeper understanding and a richer experience. Learning to ask appropriate questions and deduce information in order to build a deeper connection to the…

  8. Telling a Good Story: Origins of Broadcast Drama Criticism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kay D.

    To gain insight into how critical standards for broadcast drama evolved with time, this paper examines the critical response to the development of broadcast drama in the first two decades of radio (1920-1940), as reported in the periodical press. The paper is based on two underlying assumptions: (1) that the stories a society tells are indicative…

  9. A Critical Information Literacy Model: Library Leadership within the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Troy

    2011-01-01

    It is a time for a new model for teaching students to find, evaluate, and use information by drawing on critical pedagogy theory in the education literature. This critical information literacy model views the information world as a dynamic place where authors create knowledge for many reasons; it seeks to understand students as information users,…

  10. Critical Thinking: Why Is It so Hard to Teach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willingham, Daniel T.

    2008-01-01

    After more than 20 years of lamentation, exhortation, and little improvement, writes the author, perhaps it is time to ask a fundamental question: Can critical thinking actually be taught? People who have sought to teach critical thinking have assumed that it is a skill, like riding a bicycle, and that, like other skills, once learned, it can be…

  11. Unconventional Quantum Criticality Due to Critical Valence Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Kazumasa; Watanabe, Shinji

    2014-06-01

    Quantum criticality due to the valence transition in some Yb-based heavy fermion metals has gradually turned out to play a crucial role to understand the non-Fermi liquid properties that cannot be understood from the conventional quantum criticality theory due to magnetic transitions. Namely, critical exponents giving the temperature (T) dependence of the resistivity ρ(T), the Sommerfeld coefficient, C(T)/T, the magnetic susceptibility, χ(T), and the NMR relaxation rates, 1/(T1T), can be understood as the effect of the critical valence fluctuations of f electrons in Yb ion in a unified way. There also exist a series of Ce-based heavy fermion metals that exhibit anomalies in physical quantities, enhancements of the residual resistivity ρ0 and the superconducting critical temperature (Tc) around the pressure where the valence of Ce sharply changes. Here we review the present status of these problems both from experimental and theoretical aspects.

  12. Studying critical values: adverse event identification following a critical laboratory values study at the ohio state university medical center.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, James J; Mac Crawford, J; Bissell, Michael G

    2007-10-01

    No study to date has used laboratory critical values to evaluate variations in patient adverse events. We retrospectively analyzed a database of critical values to determine their distribution by hospital unit over time. The data were drawn from the Ohio State University Medical Center Information Warehouse (Columbus) for a 58-month period. Critical values were plotted over time on statistical control charts and analyzed for unusual peaks in monthly occurrence rates. Chart review of individual patient results yielded several predictor variables for the unusual peaks. Of these, occurrence of patient adverse events was the most relevant independent predictor variable for a month with an unusual number of critical values vs a normal month. This result epidemiologically confirms the basic premise of critical value reporting and suggests that the control-chart method of this type could be a new statistical tool to compare clinical activity of different hospital locations at different times.

  13. Crossover critical phenomena in fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrowicka Wyczalkowska, Anna Judyta

    In fluids the effects of critical density fluctuations remain significant over a large range of temperatures and densities. The nonanalytical behavior observed in real fluids in the vicinity of the critical point is well described by renormalization-group theory. This theory accounts properly for the influence of the critical fluctuations in density which are entirely neglected by the classical equations. Specifically, fluids asymptotically close to the critical point belong to the universality class of the 3-dimensional Ising model and their behavior near the critical point is governed by scaling laws with critical exponents appropriate for this universality class. The validity of the asymptotic power laws is, however, restricted to a very small region near the critical point. An approach to deal with the nonasymptotic behavior of fluids including the crossover from Ising behavior in the immediate vicinity of the critical point to classical behavior far away from the critical point has been developed by Chen and coworkers and is further improved in this thesis. This approach is based on earlier work of Nicoll and coworkers and it leads to a transformation of a classical Landau expansion to incorporate the effects of critical fluctuations. Here we show how this transformation applies to real fluids: water and sulfurhexafluoride. Nevertheless, even such a crossover Landau expansion still fails to make a connection with the behavior of the fluid very far away from the critical point like the ideal-gas limit at low densities. We demonstrate how a procedure, earlier developed to include the effects of critical fluctuations into a classical Landau expansion of the Helmholtz-energy density, can also be applied to a closed-form classical equation of state like the equation of van der Waals. One of the consequences of accounting for the presence of the critical fluctuations is a shift in the location of the critical point. The resulting equation incorporates the

  14. Equivalent damage: A critical assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laflen, J. R.; Cook, T. S.

    1982-01-01

    Concepts in equivalent damage were evaluated to determine their applicability to the life prediction of hot path components of aircraft gas turbine engines. Equivalent damage was defined as being those effects which influence the crack initiation life-time beyond the damage that is measured in uniaxial, fully-reversed sinusoidal and isothermal experiments at low homologous temperatures. Three areas of equivalent damage were examined: mean stress, cumulative damage, and multiaxiality. For each area, a literature survey was conducted to aid in selecting the most appropriate theories. Where possible, data correlations were also used in the evaluation process. A set of criteria was developed for ranking the theories in each equivalent damage regime. These criteria considered aspects of engine utilization as well as the theoretical basis and correlative ability of each theory. In addition, consideration was given to the complex nature of the loading cycle at fatigue critical locations of hot path components; this loading includes non-proportional multiaxial stressing, combined temperature and strain fluctuations, and general creep-fatigue interactions. Through applications of selected equivalent damage theories to some suitable data sets it was found that there is insufficient data to allow specific recommendations of preferred theories for general applications. A series of experiments and areas of further investigations were identified.

  15. [Critical limb ischemia--update].

    PubMed

    Melamed, Eitan; Kotyba, Baydousi; Galili, Offer; Karmeli, Ron

    2010-12-01

    Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is the most severe manifestation of peripheral artery occlusive disease. Without timely diagnosis and revascularization, patients with CLI are at risk of devastating complications including loss of limb and life. Therapeutic goals in treating patients with CLI include reducing cardiovascular risk factors, relieving ischemic pain, heating ulcers, preventing major amputation, improving quality of life and increasing survival. These aims may be achieved through medical therapy, revascularization or amputation. The past decade has seen substantial growth in endovascular therapies and options now exist for treating long segment occlusive disease, but surgical bypass may still yield more durable results. Patients who are younger, more active, and at low risk for surgery, may have better outcomes undergoing an operation. This is also indicated for endovascular failures, which may include technical failures or late occlusions after stents or other procedures. In contrast, frail patients with a limited life expectancy may experience better outcomes with endovascular therapy. For patients who are non-ambulatory, demented, or unfit to undergo revascularization, an amputation should be considered.

  16. The critical airway in adults: The facts

    PubMed Central

    Bonanno, Fabrizio Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    An algorithm on the indications and timing for a surgical airway in emergency as such cannot be drawn due to the multiplicity of variables and the inapplicability in the context of life-threatening critical emergency, where human brain elaborates decisions better in cluster rather than in binary fashion. In particular, in emergency or urgent scenarios, there is no clear or established consensus as to specifically who should receive a tracheostomy as a life-saving procedure; and more importantly, when. The two classical indications for emergency tracheostomy (laryngeal injury and failure to secure airway with endotracheal intubation or cricothyroidotomy) are too generic and encompass a broad spectrum of possibilities. In literature, specific indications for emergency tracheostomy are scattered and are biased, partially comprehensive, not clearly described or not homogeneously gathered. The review highlights the indications and timing for an emergency surgical airway and gives recommendations on which surgical airway method to use in critical airway. PMID:22787346

  17. An undulation theory for condensation in open end slit pores: critical hysteresis temperature & critical hysteresis pore size.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chunyan; Zeng, Yonghong; Do, D D; Nicholson, D

    2014-06-28

    A new theory of condensation in an open end slit pore, based on the concept of temperature dependent undulation, at the interface separating the adsorbed phase and the gas-like region, is presented. The theory, describes, for the first time, the microscopic origin of the critical hysteresis temperature and the critical hysteresis pore size, properties which are not accessible to any classical theories.

  18. Cultural Criticism: Past and Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poovey, Mary

    1990-01-01

    Argues that modern cultural and literary forces have altered the direction of literary criticism. Suggests that structuralist criticism has given way to poststructuralism. Asserts that poststructuralism represses differences between apparently separate things while holding that words assume meaning through the operation of language. Critiques…

  19. Education Studies: Issues & Critical Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassem, Derek; Mufti, Emmanuel; Robinson, John

    2006-01-01

    This major text for Education Studies students provides a critical account of key issues in education today. The text features: (1) A critical analysis of key issues in Education Studies to encourage students' thinking about education in the broadest terms; (2) Themed sections with introductions to link the issues discussed in each chapter; (3)…

  20. Critical thinking in physics education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadidi, Farahnaz

    2016-07-01

    We agree that training the next generation of leaders of the society, who have the ability to think critically and form a better judgment is an important goal. It is a long-standing concern of Educators and a long-term desire of teachers to establish a method in order to teach to think critically. To this end, many questions arise on three central aspects: the definition, the evaluation and the design of the course: What is Critical Thinking? How can we define Critical Thinking? How can we evaluate Critical Thinking? Therefore, we want to implement Critical Thinking in physics education. How can we teach for Critical Thinking in physics? What should the course syllabus and materials be? We present examples from classical physics and give perspectives for astro-particle physics. The main aim of this paper is to answer the questions and provide teachers with the opportunity to change their classroom to an active one, in which students are encouraged to ask questions and learn to reach a good judgment. Key words: Critical Thinking, evaluation, judgment, design of the course.

  1. Scrutiny of Critical Thinking Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atabaki, Ali Mohammad Siahi; Keshtiaray, Narges; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad H.

    2015-01-01

    Learning critical thinking skills are the goal of educational systems so the term "critical thinking" (CT) is frequently found in educational policy documents. Despite this frequency, however, precise understandings among teachers of what CT really means do not exit. The present study is designed to answer the following question. We can…

  2. Harnessing Critical Incidents for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patahuddin, Sitti Maesuri; Lowrie, Tom

    2015-01-01

    A critical incident is a situation or event that holds significance for learning, both for the students and teachers. This paper presents four examples of critical incidents from a Year 7 teacher's lesson excerpts in Indonesia involving teaching of fractions, to show how they shaped classroom situation, brought forward elements of conflict, and…

  3. Critical Thinking in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphries, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Changes in American education require that teachers are evaluated more often, and expectations increasingly include teaching to develop critical thinking skills. This article uses Bloom's taxonomy in describing ways physical educators can include critical thinking in their lessons, both to enhance their teaching and to meet expectations of…

  4. A Place for Critical Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Ann S.

    2005-01-01

    The critical literacy classroom is characterized by an emphasis on students' voices and on dialogue as a tool with which students reflect on and construct meanings from texts and discourses. Is it appropriate, however, to teach critical literacy in settings such as penal institutions where student voices are deliberately discouraged and silenced?…

  5. Critical Pedagogy in Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This review investigated how the three-phase model of critical pedagogy, based on the writings of Paulo Freire, can be put into practice in health education. Design: The study considers literature related to the fields of health education, health promotion and critical pedagogy. Setting: The study is a scholarly review completed as part…

  6. Teaching Students to Think Critically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author stresses that teachers need to teach their students to think critically and to reason their way. One prerequisite for teaching critical thinking is a classroom climate of high expectations, teacher warmth and encouragement, and pleasant physical surroundings. Schools should see to it that students become progressively…

  7. Critical Thinking: Schemata vs. Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandhorst, Allan R.

    1989-01-01

    Refutes the idea that critical thinking is not a skill by analyzing it from the phenomenological perspective of Edmund Husserl, and from the hermeneutic perspective of Martin Heidegger. Develops the thesis that critical thinking is a restructuring of schemata. Addresses the problem of attention or student engagement. (LS)

  8. Diagnosing Disputes in Film Criticism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Robert A.

    1979-01-01

    By classifying and analyzing actual disputes in film criticism, the author considers the following questions: Are there connections between film theory and film criticism? If so, which are healthy and which are diseased? If not, what alternative healthy function might film theory have? (Author/SJL)

  9. Cabbage Worms and Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braswell, Patricia

    1993-01-01

    Argues that an approach to composition instruction that emphasizes critical thinking skills produces a more analytical writer. Describes a school project that examined research on critical thinking, implemented changes in the teaching of thinking and composition, and assessed student learning. (HB)

  10. Angela: On a Critical Curve

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obenchain, Kathryn M.; Pennington, Julie L.; Orr, Angela

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative case study examines one secondary social studies teacher's enactment of her critical constructivist beliefs in teaching for democratic citizenship education. Results are organized around the knowledge, skills, and dispositions addressed, and their consistency with critical constructivism. The teacher's practices were consistent…

  11. Quantifying Learning in Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fliegel, Richard; Holland, John

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a three-year study assessing change in critical thinking demonstrated in essays written for regular class assignments. A rubric was designed and scorers trained to assess critical thinking holistically without knowledge of the writing prompt or author's status. The longitudinal improvement in scores earned by freshmen over…

  12. The Importance of Critical Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janks, Hilary

    2012-01-01

    This paper is divided into three parts. It begins by making an argument for the ongoing importance of critical literacy at a moment when there are mutterings about its being passe. The second part of the paper formulates the argument with the use of illustrative texts. It concludes with examples of critical literacy activities that I argue, are…

  13. Traditional Literacy and Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dando, Priscille

    2016-01-01

    How school librarians focus on activating critical thinking through traditional literacy development can proactively set the stage for the deep thinking that occurs in all literacy development. The critical-thinking skills students build while becoming accomplished readers and writers provide the foundation for learning in a variety of…

  14. Impediments to Implementing Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Saundra J.

    1988-01-01

    Highlighting the fact that little critical thinking actually occurs in secondary social studies education, McKee presents the findings from a three-year school district-university project to foster critical thinking in social studies classes. Addressing methodology and implications, McKee reports that, even with intensive training and teacher…

  15. Do-It-Yourself Critical Path Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Edward P., Jr.

    This report describes the critical path method (CPM), a system for planning and scheduling work to get the best time-cost combination for any particular job. With the use of diagrams, the report describes how CPM works on a step-by-step basis. CPM uses a network to show which parts of a job must be done and how they would eventually fit together…

  16. EEW Implementation into Critical Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulfikar, Can; Pinar, Ali

    2016-04-01

    In FP7 MARsite project WP9, the integration algorithm of existing strong motion networks with the critical infrastructures strong motion networks have been studied. In Istanbul, the existing Istanbul Earthquake Early Warning (IEEW) strong motion network consists of 15 stations including 10 on land and 5 ocean bottom stations. The system provides continuous online data and earthquake early warning alert depending on the exceedance of the threshold levels in ground motion acceleration in certain number of station within the certain time interval. The data transmission is provided through the fiber optic cable and satellite line alternatively. The early warning alert is transmitted to the critical infrastructures of Istanbul Natural Gas distribution line and Marmaray Tube Tunnel line in order to activate the local strong motion networks for the automatic shut-off mechanism. Istanbul Natural Gas distribution line has 1.800km steel and 15.200km polyethylene in total 18.000km gas pipeline in Istanbul. There are in total 750 district regulators in the city where the gas pressure is reduced from 20bar to 4bar and from there the gas is transmitted with polyethylene lines to service boxes. Currently, Istanbul Natural Gas Distribution Company (IGDAS) has its own strong motion network with 110 strong motion stations installed at the 110 of 750 district regulators. Once the IGDAS strong motion network is activated by the IEEW network, depending on the exceedance of the ground motion parameters threshold levels the gas flow is stopped at the district regulators. Other than the Earthquake Early Warning operation in IGDAS strong motion network, having the calculated ground motion parameters in the network provides damage maps for the buildings and natural gas pipeline network. The Marmaray Tube Tunnel connects the Europe and Asian sides of Istanbul City by a rail line. The tunnel is 1.4km length and consists of 13segments. There is strong motion monitoring network in the tunnel

  17. Enacting Critical Literacy in English Classrooms: How a Teacher Learning Community Supported Critical Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    In a time of increased standardization and top-down reform, teachers with democratic and social justice-oriented perspectives must work to create classroom spaces that value student voice and position them as knowledge holders. This article draws on a critical literacy framework to analyze the case study of one teacher working within a teacher…

  18. Critical behavior of k -core percolation: Numerical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Deokjae; Jo, Minjae; Kahng, B.

    2016-12-01

    k -core percolation has served as a paradigmatic model of discontinuous percolation for a long time. Recently it was revealed that the order parameter of k -core percolation of random networks additionally exhibits critical behavior. Thus k -core percolation exhibits a hybrid phase transition. Unlike the critical behaviors of ordinary percolation that are well understood, those of hybrid percolation transitions have not been thoroughly understood yet. Here, we investigate the critical behavior of k -core percolation of Erdős-Rényi networks. We find numerically that the fluctuations of the order parameter and the mean avalanche size diverge in different ways. Thus, we classify the critical exponents into two types: those associated with the order parameter and those with finite avalanches. The conventional scaling relations hold within each set, however, these two critical exponents are coupled. Finally we discuss some universal features of the critical behaviors of k -core percolation and the cascade failure model on multiplex networks.

  19. Criticality and Cancer Dormancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Amy; Liao, David; Kirlin, Vladimir; Tamita, Corina; Levin, Simon; Sturm, James; Austin, Robert

    The presence of driver mutations and subsequent clonal expansion by Darwinian evolution does not explain dormancy and re-emergence of cancer from a community of cancer and stromal cells. Dormancy appears to be a collective property of multiple cell communities including non-cancerous cells. At the simplest level, we view cancer cells interacting with stromal cells via complex, non-linear population dynamics, dynamics which can lead to very non-intuitive but perhaps deterministic and understandable progression dynamics of cancer. We explore here the dynamics of stromal-cancer cell populations in the presence of a chemotherapy drug gradient to determine to what extent the time-dependence of the populations can be quantitively understood in spite of the underlying complexity of the individual agents. The surprising result is that a basic understanding, in a quantitive and predictive manner, can be achieved. It will be intriguing to move to predictive drug dosages, the population dynamics presented here provide a model system for the clinic.

  20. Cytokines and Metabolic Patterns in Pediatric Patients with Critical Illness

    PubMed Central

    Briassoulis, George; Venkataraman, Shekhar; Thompson, Ann

    2010-01-01

    It is not known if cytokines, which are cell-derived mediators released during the host immune response to stress, affect metabolic response to stress during critical illness. The aim of this prospective study was to determine whether the metabolic response to stress is related to the inflammatory interleukin-6 (IL-6), 10 (IL-10), and other stress mediators' responses and to assess their relationships with different feeding patterns, nutritional markers, the severity of illness as assessed by the Multiple Organ System Failure (MOSF), the Pediatric Risk of Mortality Score (PRISM), systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), and mortality in critically ill children. Patients were classified as hypermetabolic, normometabolic, and hypometabolic when the measured resting energy expenditures (REE) were >110%, 90–110% and, <90% of the predicted basal metabolic rate, respectively. The initial predominance of the hypometabolic pattern (48.6%) declined within 1 week of acute stress (20%), and the hypermetabolic patterns dominated only after 2 weeks (60%). Only oxygen consumption (VO2) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) (P < .0001) but none of the cytokines and nutritional markers, were independently associated with a hypometabolic pattern. REE correlated with the IL-10 but not PRISM. In the presence of SIRS or sepsis, CRP, IL-6, IL-10, Prognostic Inflammatory and Nutritional Index (NI), and triglycerides—but not glucose, VO2, or VCO2 increased significantly. High IL-10 levels (P = .0000) and low measured REE (P = .0000) were independently associated with mortality (11.7%), which was higher in the hypometabolic compared to other metabolic patterns (P < .005). Our results showed that only VO2 and VCO2, but not IL-6 or IL-10, were associated with a hypometabolic pattern which predominated the acute phase of stress, and was associated with increased mortality. Although in SIRS or sepsis, the cytokine response was reliably reflected by increases in NI and

  1. Harmonic Measure of Critical Curves

    SciTech Connect

    Bettelheim, E.; Rushkin, I.; Gruzberg, I.A.; Wiegmann, P.

    2005-10-21

    Fractal geometry of critical curves appearing in 2D critical systems is characterized by their harmonic measure. For systems described by conformal field theories with central charge c{<=}1, scaling exponents of the harmonic measure have been computed by Duplantier [Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1363 (2000)] by relating the problem to boundary two-dimensional gravity. We present a simple argument connecting the harmonic measure of critical curves to operators obtained by fusion of primary fields and compute characteristics of the fractal geometry by means of regular methods of conformal field theory. The method is not limited to theories with c{<=}1.

  2. Critical behavior of gravitating sphalerons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millward, R. Steven; Hirschmann, Eric W.

    2003-07-01

    We examine the gravitational collapse of sphaleron type configurations in the Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs theory. Working in spherical symmetry, we investigate the critical behavior in this model. We provide evidence that for various initial configurations, there can be three different critical transitions between possible end states with different critical solutions sitting on the threshold between these outcomes. In addition, we show that within the dispersive and black hole regimes there are new possible end states: namely, a stable, regular sphaleron and a stable, hairy black hole.

  3. Time on Your Side.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Ross Arkell

    1989-01-01

    Six ways for development officers to handle overload are identified: distinguish between urgency and importance; selectively ignore time demands; focus on where to make the greatest contribution; delegate tasks; tend interpersonal relationships; and make progress on critical long-term objectives. (MLW)

  4. TUM Critical Zone Observatory, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Völkel, Jörg; Eden, Marie

    2014-05-01

    Founded 2011 the TUM Critical Zone Observatory run by the Technische Universität München and partners abroad is the first CZO within Germany. TUM CZO is both, a scientific as well as an education project. It is a watershed based observatory, but moving behind this focus. In fact, two mountainous areas are integrated: (1) The Ammer Catchment area as an alpine and pre alpine research area in the northern limestone Alps and forelands south of Munich; (2) the Otter Creek Catchment in the Bavarian Forest with a crystalline setting (Granite, Gneiss) as a mid mountainous area near Regensburg; and partly the mountainous Bavarian Forest National Park. The Ammer Catchment is a high energy system as well as a sensitive climate system with past glacial elements. The lithology shows mostly carbonates from Tertiary and Mesozoic times (e.g. Flysch). Source-to-sink processes are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment down to the last glacial Ammer Lake as the regional erosion and deposition base. The consideration of distal depositional environments, the integration of upstream and downstream landscape effects are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment as well. Long term datasets exist in many regards. The Otter Creek catchment area is developed in a granitic environment, rich in saprolites. As a mid mountainous catchment the energy system is facing lower stage. Hence, it is ideal comparing both of them. Both TUM CZO Catchments: The selected catchments capture the depositional environment. Both catchment areas include historical impacts and rapid land use change. Crosscutting themes across both sites are inbuilt. Questions of ability to capture such gradients along climosequence, chronosequence, anthroposequence are essential.

  5. Autoclave nuclear criticality safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    D`Aquila, D.M.; Tayloe, R.W. Jr.

    1991-12-31

    Steam-heated autoclaves are used in gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment plants to heat large cylinders of UF{sub 6}. Nuclear criticality safety for these autoclaves is evaluated. To enhance criticality safety, systems are incorporated into the design of autoclaves to limit the amount of water present. These safety systems also increase the likelihood that any UF{sub 6} inadvertently released from a cylinder into an autoclave is not released to the environment. Up to 140 pounds of water can be held up in large autoclaves. This mass of water is sufficient to support a nuclear criticality when optimally combined with 125 pounds of UF{sub 6} enriched to 5 percent U{sup 235}. However, water in autoclaves is widely dispersed as condensed droplets and vapor, and is extremely unlikely to form a critical configuration with released UF{sub 6}.

  6. The critics return to flight.

    PubMed

    Jones, Thomas D

    2005-08-01

    A former astronaut justifies human space exploration and provides a rebuttal to criticism of continued exploration. The discussion includes examples of skeptics' arguments and examples of NASA achievements that have had direct economic and social impacts on the United States.

  7. Mission Critical: Preventing Antibiotic Resistance

    MedlinePlus

    ... Button Past Emails CDC Features Mission Critical: Preventing Antibiotic Resistance Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Can ... spp. So, what can we do to prevent antibiotic resistance in healthcare settings? Patients, healthcare providers, healthcare ...

  8. Critical rolling angle of microparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farzi, Bahman; Vallabh, Chaitanya K. P.; Stephens, James D.; Cetinkaya, Cetin

    2016-03-01

    At the micrometer-scale and below, particle adhesion becomes particularly relevant as van der Waals force often dominates volume and surface proportional forces. The rolling resistance of microparticles and their critical rolling angles prior to the initiation of free-rolling and/or complete detachment are critical in numerous industrial processes and natural phenomenon involving particle adhesion and granular dynamics. The current work describes a non-contact measurement approach for determining the critical rolling angle of a single microparticle under the influence of a contact-point base-excitation generated by a transient displacement field of a prescribed surface acoustic wave pulse and reports the critical rolling angle data for a set of polystyrene latex microparticles.

  9. Nonadditivity of critical Casimir forces

    PubMed Central

    Paladugu, Sathyanarayana; Callegari, Agnese; Tuna, Yazgan; Barth, Lukas; Dietrich, Siegfried; Gambassi, Andrea; Volpe, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    In soft condensed matter physics, effective interactions often emerge due to the spatial confinement of fluctuating fields. For instance, microscopic particles dissolved in a binary liquid mixture are subject to critical Casimir forces whenever their surfaces confine the thermal fluctuations of the order parameter of the solvent close to its critical demixing point. These forces are theoretically predicted to be nonadditive on the scale set by the bulk correlation length of the fluctuations. Here we provide direct experimental evidence of this fact by reporting the measurement of the associated many-body forces. We consider three colloidal particles in optical traps and observe that the critical Casimir force exerted on one of them by the other two differs from the sum of the forces they exert separately. This three-body effect depends sensitively on the distance from the critical point and on the chemical functionalisation of the colloid surfaces. PMID:27097797

  10. Cooperative Learning and Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, James L.

    1995-01-01

    Contends that, in many ways, college teaching has remained largely unchanged since the days of the medieval university. Discusses the role of cooperative learning in higher education and maintains that the technique can enhance critical thinking skills. (CFR)

  11. Psychoanalytic Criticism and Teaching Shakespeare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Richard P.

    1987-01-01

    Presents a brief overview of previous psychoanalytically based theories of Shakespeare's plays, particularly "Hamlet," and defends the notion of introducing undergraduates to psychoanalytically based criticism because of the insights it may give students into their own lives. (JC)

  12. Television Criticism: A Multifarious Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oseguera, A. Anthony

    Recognizing the need for a multifarious approach to television, this paper provides the reader with the following multidimensional approaches to television criticism: rhetorical, dramatic, literary, cinematic, content analysis, myth, linguistics, semiotics, phenomenalism, phenomenology, interpersonal communication, public relations, image,…

  13. The Perceptual Criticism of Drama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styan, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Defines perceptual criticism as an act of verbalizing sight and sound perceptions and contends that this creative synthesizing gives a play its meaning. Speech and Drama, 205 Ashby Road, Loughborough, Leicestershire, England. Subscription Rate: $6.00 per year. (MH)

  14. Advanced Analytic Cognition: Critical Thinking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Published online ahead of print: 12/16/2010) 39 Beyer, B.K. Practical Strategies for the Teaching of Thinking, Allyn and Bacon , Boston, MA, 1987, p. 32...or critical thinking as such has no part in this linkage.78 David Schum and Francis Hume discussed critical reasoning within the context of...Teaching of Thinking, Allyn and Bacon , Boston, MA, 1987, p. 211. 110 Dewey, J. How We Think: A Restatement of the Relation of Reflective Thinking to

  15. Lecture notes for criticality safety

    SciTech Connect

    Fullwood, R.

    1992-03-01

    These lecture notes for criticality safety are prepared for the training of Department of Energy supervisory, project management, and administrative staff. Technical training and basic mathematics are assumed. The notes are designed for a two-day course, taught by two lecturers. Video tapes may be used at the options of the instructors. The notes provide all the materials that are necessary but outside reading will assist in the fullest understanding. The course begins with a nuclear physics overview. The reader is led from the macroscopic world into the microscopic world of atoms and the elementary particles that constitute atoms. The particles, their masses and sizes and properties associated with radioactive decay and fission are introduced along with Einstein`s mass-energy equivalence. Radioactive decay, nuclear reactions, radiation penetration, shielding and health-effects are discussed to understand protection in case of a criticality accident. Fission, the fission products, particles and energy released are presented to appreciate the dangers of criticality. Nuclear cross sections are introduced to understand the effectiveness of slow neutrons to produce fission. Chain reactors are presented as an economy; effective use of the neutrons from fission leads to more fission resulting in a power reactor or a criticality excursion. The six-factor formula is presented for managing the neutron budget. This leads to concepts of material and geometric buckling which are used in simple calculations to assure safety from criticality. Experimental measurements and computer code calculations of criticality are discussed. To emphasize the reality, historical criticality accidents are presented in a table with major ones discussed to provide lessons-learned. Finally, standards, NRC guides and regulations, and DOE orders relating to criticality protection are presented.

  16. Critical health literacy: a review and critical analysis.

    PubMed

    Chinn, Deborah

    2011-07-01

    Though there has been a considerable expansion of interest in the health literacy concept worldwide, there has also been criticism that this concept has been poorly defined, that it stretches the idea of "literacy" to an indefensible extent and more specifically, that it adds little to the existing concerns and intervention approaches of the better established discipline of health promotion. This paper takes as a starting point the expanded model of health literacy advanced by Nutbeam (2000) and addresses these concerns by interrogating the concept of "critical health literacy" in order to draw conclusions about its utility for advancing the health of individuals and communities. The constituent domains of critical health literacy are identified; namely information appraisal, understanding the social determinants of health, and collective action, and as far as possible each are clearly delineated, with links to related concepts made explicit. The paper concludes that an appreciation of work undertaken in a range of different disciplines, such as media studies, medical sociology, and evidence-based medicine can enhance our understanding of the critical health literacy construct and help us understand its usefulness as a social asset which helps individuals towards a critical engagement with health information. There is some evidence that aspects of critical health literacy have indeed been found to be a resource for better health outcomes, but more research is needed in this area, both to develop quantitative and qualitative approaches to evaluating health literacy skills, and to offer convincing evidence that investment in programmes designed to enhance critical health literacy are worthwhile.

  17. Markers of criticality in phase synchronization

    PubMed Central

    Botcharova, Maria; Farmer, Simon F.; Berthouze, Luc

    2014-01-01

    The concept of the brain as a critical dynamical system is very attractive because systems close to criticality are thought to maximize their dynamic range of information processing and communication. To date, there have been two key experimental observations in support of this hypothesis: (i) neuronal avalanches with power law distribution of size and (ii) long-range temporal correlations (LRTCs) in the amplitude of neural oscillations. The case for how these maximize dynamic range of information processing and communication is still being made and because a significant substrate for information coding and transmission is neural synchrony it is of interest to link synchronization measures with those of criticality. We propose a framework for characterizing criticality in synchronization based on an analysis of the moment-to-moment fluctuations of phase synchrony in terms of the presence of LRTCs. This framework relies on an estimation of the rate of change of phase difference and a set of methods we have developed to detect LRTCs. We test this framework against two classical models of criticality (Ising and Kuramoto) and recently described variants of these models aimed to more closely represent human brain dynamics. From these simulations we determine the parameters at which these systems show evidence of LRTCs in phase synchronization. We demonstrate proof of principle by analysing pairs of human simultaneous EEG and EMG time series, suggesting that LRTCs of corticomuscular phase synchronization can be detected in the resting state and experimentally manipulated. The existence of LRTCs in fluctuations of phase synchronization suggests that these fluctuations are governed by non-local behavior, with all scales contributing to system behavior. This has important implications regarding the conditions under which one should expect to see LRTCs in phase synchronization. Specifically, brain resting states may exhibit LRTCs reflecting a state of readiness facilitating

  18. Adaptive significance of critical weight for metamorphosis in holometabolous insects.

    PubMed

    Hironaka, Ken-Ichi; Morishita, Yoshihiro

    2017-03-21

    Holometabolous insect larvae become committed to metamorphosis when they reach a critical weight. Although the physiological mechanisms involved in this process have been well-studied, the adaptive significance of the critical weight remains unclear. Here, we developed a life history model for holometabolous insects and evaluated it from the viewpoint of optimal energy allocation. We found that, without a priori assumptions about critical weight, the optimal growth schedule is always biphasic: larval tissues grow predominately until they reach a certain threshold, after which the imaginal tissues begin rapid growth, suggesting that the emergence of a critical weight as a phase-transition point is a natural consequence of optimal growth scheduling. Our model predicts the optimal timing of critical-weight attainment, in agreement with observations in phylogenetically-distinct species. Furthermore, it also predicts the scaling of growth scheduling against environmental change, i.e., the relative value and timing of the critical weight should be constant, thus providing a general interpretation of observed phenotypic plasticity. This scaling relationship allows the classification of adaptive responses in critical weight into five possible types that reflect the ecological features of focal insects. In this manner, our theory and its consistency with experimental observations demonstrate the adaptive significance of critical weight.

  19. Slow Relaxation in Anderson Critical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Soonwon; Yao, Norman; Choi, Joonhee; Kucsko, Georg; Lukin, Mikhail

    2016-05-01

    We study the single particle dynamics in disordered systems with long range hopping, focusing on the critical cases, i.e., the hopping amplitude decays as 1 /rd in d-dimension. We show that with strong on-site potential disorder, the return probability of the particle decays as power-law in time. As on-site potential disorder decreases, the temporal profile smoothly changes from a simple power-law to the sum of multiple power-laws with exponents ranged from 0 to νmax. We analytically compute the decay exponents using a simple resonance counting argument, which quantitatively agrees with exact numerical results. Our result implies that the dynamics in Anderson Critical systems are dominated by resonances. Harvard-MIT CUA, Kwanjeong Educational Fellowship, AFOSR MURI, Samsung Scholarship.

  20. Critical international normalized ratio results after hours

    PubMed Central

    Korn, Darlene; Sean McMurtry, M.; George-Phillips, Kirsten; Bungard, Tammy J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine whether the timing of notification of critical international normalized ratio (INR) results (during or after clinic hours) altered the clinician’s ability to affect same-day patient care. Design Retrospective chart review. Setting The Anticoagulation Management Service at the University of Alberta Hospital in Edmonton. Participants A total of 276 patients with critical INR results (> 5.0) separated by at least 30 days were identified to have 200 critical INR results reported during clinic hours and 200 reported after hours. Main outcome measures Differences in the proportion of patients with critical INR results having same-day care altered (by changing warfarin dose, administering vitamin K, or referring for assessment) between those with results reported during clinic hours compared with those with results reported after clinic hours. Differences by highly critical INR results (> 9.0 vs ≤ 9.0) and whether patients experienced thromboembolism or bleeding within 30 days were also assessed. Results Same-day patient care was affected for 174 out of 200 (87.0%) critical INR results reported during clinic hours compared with 101 out of 200 (50.5%) reported after clinic hours (P < .001). The most common reason for not being able to intervene was that warfarin had already been taken. Warfarin dose alteration was the most frequent change (97.1% during clinic hours and 96.0% after hours). When patients with INRs greater than 9.0 were assessed separately, the ability to affect care increased for INRs reported both during and after clinic hours (92.9% and 63.6%, respectively), largely attributable to oral vitamin K use. Overall, thromboembolic and major bleeding event rates were low and were similar in both groups. Conclusion Same-day care was less likely to be affected by critical INR results communicated after hours, most commonly because the patient had already taken their daily warfarin dose. However, after-hours care was still