Science.gov

Sample records for crop year

  1. 7 CFR 981.19 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Crop year. 981.19 Section 981.19 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.19 Crop year. Crop year means the twelve month period from August 1 to... applied to the next crop year for marketing order purposes. The first crop year after the...

  2. 7 CFR 981.19 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Crop year. 981.19 Section 981.19 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.19 Crop year. Crop year means the twelve month period from August 1 to... applied to the next crop year for marketing order purposes. The first crop year after the...

  3. 7 CFR 981.19 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Crop year. 981.19 Section 981.19 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.19 Crop year. Crop year means the twelve month period from August 1 to... applied to the next crop year for marketing order purposes. The first crop year after the...

  4. 7 CFR 981.19 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crop year. 981.19 Section 981.19 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.19 Crop year. Crop year means the twelve month period from August 1 to... applied to the next crop year for marketing order purposes. The first crop year after the...

  5. 7 CFR 981.19 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Crop year. 981.19 Section 981.19 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.19 Crop year. Crop year means the twelve month period from August 1 to... applied to the next crop year for marketing order purposes. The first crop year after the...

  6. 7 CFR 993.20 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Crop year. 993.20 Section 993.20 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.20 Crop year. Crop year means the 12-month period beginning August 1 of any year and ending July 31 of the following year....

  7. 7 CFR 993.20 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Crop year. 993.20 Section 993.20 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.20 Crop year. Crop year means the 12-month period beginning August 1 of any year and ending July 31 of the following year....

  8. 7 CFR 930.4 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crop year. 930.4 Section 930.4 Agriculture Regulations... Definitions § 930.4 Crop year. Crop year means the 12-month period beginning on July 1 of any year and ending on June 30 of the following year, or such other period as the Board, with the approval of...

  9. 7 CFR 987.6 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Crop year. 987.6 Section 987.6 Agriculture Regulations... RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 987.6 Crop year. Crop year means the 12-month period beginning October 1 of each year and ending September 30 of the following year....

  10. 7 CFR 930.4 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Crop year. 930.4 Section 930.4 Agriculture Regulations... Definitions § 930.4 Crop year. Crop year means the 12-month period beginning on July 1 of any year and ending on June 30 of the following year, or such other period as the Board, with the approval of...

  11. 7 CFR 930.4 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Crop year. 930.4 Section 930.4 Agriculture Regulations... Definitions § 930.4 Crop year. Crop year means the 12-month period beginning on July 1 of any year and ending on June 30 of the following year, or such other period as the Board, with the approval of...

  12. 7 CFR 987.6 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crop year. 987.6 Section 987.6 Agriculture Regulations... RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 987.6 Crop year. Crop year means the 12-month period beginning October 1 of each year and ending September 30 of the following year....

  13. 7 CFR 1219.5 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crop year. 1219.5 Section 1219.5 Agriculture..., AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.5 Crop year. Crop year means the period from November 1 of one year through October 31 of the following year,...

  14. 7 CFR 1219.5 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Crop year. 1219.5 Section 1219.5 Agriculture..., AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.5 Crop year. Crop year means the period from November 1 of one year through October 31 of the following year,...

  15. 7 CFR 1219.5 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Crop year. 1219.5 Section 1219.5 Agriculture..., AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.5 Crop year. Crop year means the period from November 1 of one year through October 31 of the following year,...

  16. 7 CFR 993.20 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crop year. 993.20 Section 993.20 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.20 Crop year. Crop year means the 12-month period beginning August 1 of any year and ending July 31 of the following year....

  17. 7 CFR 987.6 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Crop year. 987.6 Section 987.6 Agriculture Regulations... RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 987.6 Crop year. Crop year means the 12-month period beginning October 1 of each year and ending September 30 of the following year....

  18. 7 CFR 930.4 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Crop year. 930.4 Section 930.4 Agriculture Regulations... Definitions § 930.4 Crop year. Crop year means the 12-month period beginning on July 1 of any year and ending on June 30 of the following year, or such other period as the Board, with the approval of...

  19. 7 CFR 930.4 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Crop year. 930.4 Section 930.4 Agriculture Regulations... Definitions § 930.4 Crop year. Crop year means the 12-month period beginning on July 1 of any year and ending on June 30 of the following year, or such other period as the Board, with the approval of...

  20. 7 CFR 993.20 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Crop year. 993.20 Section 993.20 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.20 Crop year. Crop year means the 12-month period beginning August 1 of any year and ending July 31 of the following year....

  1. 7 CFR 1219.5 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Crop year. 1219.5 Section 1219.5 Agriculture..., AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.5 Crop year. Crop year means the period from November 1 of one year through October 31 of the following year,...

  2. 7 CFR 993.20 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Crop year. 993.20 Section 993.20 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.20 Crop year. Crop year means the 12-month period beginning August 1 of any year and ending July 31 of the following year....

  3. 7 CFR 989.21 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Crop year. 989.21 Section 989.21 Agriculture... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 989.21 Crop year. Crop year means the 12-month period beginning with August 1 of any year and ending with July 31 of the following year....

  4. 7 CFR 1219.5 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Crop year. 1219.5 Section 1219.5 Agriculture..., AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.5 Crop year. Crop year means the period from November 1 of one year through October 31 of the following year,...

  5. 7 CFR 987.6 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Crop year. 987.6 Section 987.6 Agriculture Regulations... RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 987.6 Crop year. Crop year means the 12-month period beginning October 1 of each year and ending September 30 of the following year....

  6. 7 CFR 987.6 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Crop year. 987.6 Section 987.6 Agriculture Regulations... RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 987.6 Crop year. Crop year means the 12-month period beginning October 1 of each year and ending September 30 of the following year....

  7. 7 CFR 1218.4 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crop year. 1218.4 Section 1218.4 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.4 Crop year. Crop year means the 12-month period from November 1 through October 31 of the following year or such...

  8. 7 CFR 996.3 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Crop year. 996.3 Section 996.3 Agriculture Regulations... DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.3 Crop year. Crop year means the 12-month period beginning with July 1 of any year and ending with June 30 of the following...

  9. 7 CFR 1218.4 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Crop year. 1218.4 Section 1218.4 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.4 Crop year. Crop year means the 12-month period from November 1 through October 31 of the following year or such...

  10. 7 CFR 996.3 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Crop year. 996.3 Section 996.3 Agriculture Regulations... DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.3 Crop year. Crop year means the 12-month period beginning with July 1 of any year and ending with June 30 of the following...

  11. 7 CFR 1218.4 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Crop year. 1218.4 Section 1218.4 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.4 Crop year. Crop year means the 12-month period from November 1 through October 31 of the following year or such...

  12. 7 CFR 1218.4 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Crop year. 1218.4 Section 1218.4 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.4 Crop year. Crop year means the 12-month period from November 1 through October 31 of the following year or such...

  13. 7 CFR 1218.4 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Crop year. 1218.4 Section 1218.4 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.4 Crop year. Crop year means the 12-month period from November 1 through October 31 of the following year or such...

  14. 7 CFR 996.3 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Crop year. 996.3 Section 996.3 Agriculture Regulations... DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.3 Crop year. Crop year means the 12-month period beginning with July 1 of any year and ending with June 30 of the following...

  15. 7 CFR 996.3 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINIMUM QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.3 Crop year. Crop year...

  16. 7 CFR 996.3 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINIMUM QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.3 Crop year. Crop year...

  17. 7 CFR 1208.3 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Crop year. 1208.3 Section 1208.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... § 1208.3 Crop year. Crop year means the 12-month period from April 1 to March 31 or such other...

  18. 7 CFR 1208.3 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Crop year. 1208.3 Section 1208.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... § 1208.3 Crop year. Crop year means the 12-month period from April 1 to March 31 or such other...

  19. 7 CFR 1221.6 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.6 Crop year. Crop year means the time period by which the USDA reports crop production for sorghum and is indicated by...

  20. 7 CFR 1221.6 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.6 Crop year. Crop year means the time period by which the USDA reports crop production for sorghum and is indicated by...

  1. 7 CFR 1221.6 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.6 Crop year. Crop year means the time period by which the USDA reports crop production for sorghum and is indicated by...

  2. 7 CFR 1221.6 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.6 Crop year. Crop year means the time period by which the USDA reports crop production for sorghum and is indicated by...

  3. 7 CFR 1221.6 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.6 Crop year. Crop year means the time period by which the USDA reports crop production for sorghum and is indicated by...

  4. 9 CFR 205.107 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Crop year. 205.107 Section 205.107... Regulations § 205.107 Crop year. (a) The crop year, according to which subsection (c)(2)(C)(ii)(IV) requires... calendar year in which it is harvested or to be harvested; (2) For animals, the calendar year in which...

  5. 9 CFR 205.107 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Crop year. 205.107 Section 205.107... Regulations § 205.107 Crop year. (a) The crop year, according to which subsection (c)(2)(C)(ii)(IV) requires... calendar year in which it is harvested or to be harvested; (2) For animals, the calendar year in which...

  6. 9 CFR 205.107 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Crop year. 205.107 Section 205.107... Regulations § 205.107 Crop year. (a) The crop year, according to which subsection (c)(2)(C)(ii)(IV) requires... calendar year in which it is harvested or to be harvested; (2) For animals, the calendar year in which...

  7. 9 CFR 205.107 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crop year. 205.107 Section 205.107... Regulations § 205.107 Crop year. (a) The crop year, according to which subsection (c)(2)(C)(ii)(IV) requires... calendar year in which it is harvested or to be harvested; (2) For animals, the calendar year in which...

  8. 9 CFR 205.107 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Crop year. 205.107 Section 205.107... Regulations § 205.107 Crop year. (a) The crop year, according to which subsection (c)(2)(C)(ii)(IV) requires... calendar year in which it is harvested or to be harvested; (2) For animals, the calendar year in which...

  9. 7 CFR 989.21 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Crop year. 989.21 Section 989.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  10. 7 CFR 989.21 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Crop year. 989.21 Section 989.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  11. 7 CFR 989.21 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crop year. 989.21 Section 989.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  12. 7 CFR 989.21 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Crop year. 989.21 Section 989.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  13. 7 CFR 932.19 - Crop year and fiscal year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Crop year and fiscal year. 932.19 Section 932.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  14. 7 CFR 932.19 - Crop year and fiscal year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Crop year and fiscal year. 932.19 Section 932.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  15. 7 CFR 932.19 - Crop year and fiscal year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Crop year and fiscal year. 932.19 Section 932.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  16. 7 CFR 932.19 - Crop year and fiscal year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crop year and fiscal year. 932.19 Section 932.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  17. 7 CFR 932.19 - Crop year and fiscal year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Crop year and fiscal year. 932.19 Section 932.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  18. Evaluation of spring wheat and barley crop calender models for the 1979 crop year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nazare, C. V.; Carnes, J. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    During the Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment, spring wheat planting date and crop development stage estimates based on historical normals were improved by the use of the Feyerherm planting date and Robertson spring wheat crop calendar models. The Supporting Research Crop Calendar Project element modified the Robertson model to reduce bias at cardinal growth stages within the growing season. These models were tested in 1980 along with a state-of-the-art barley model (Williams) against a ground-truth data set from 49 calendar year 1979 segments in the U.S. Great Plains spring wheat and barley region.

  19. Adaptability of soybean cultivars in different crop years.

    PubMed

    Soares, I O; Rezende, P M; Bruzi, A T; Zambiazzi, E V; Zuffo, A M; Silva, K B; Gwinner, R

    2015-08-07

    Soybean is one of the main sources of foreign exchange credits for Brazil in the agricultural sector. There is increasing interest in growing this leguminous crop, especially in the southern region of Minas Gerais, due to its importance as an alternative for crop rotation with maize. In this respect, the study of the adaptability of new cultivars to the region is indispensable so as to obtain high yields. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of 38 soybean cultivars for growing in the summer season in the municipality of Lavras, MG, Brazil, in the 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 crop years. The experiments were conducted in a randomized block design with 3 replications and the treatments consisted of 38 cultivars. At the time of harvest, the following assessments were made: grain yield (kg/ha), height of the lowest pod (cm), plant height (cm), and lodging. The data were subjected to individual and combined analysis of variance. The phenotypic mean values were clustered, adopting the Scott and Knott test. For simultaneous selection of multiple traits, the sum of rank index of Mulamba and Mock was adopted. The cultivar TMG 801 RR had the best yield performance; the cultivars Monsoy 8001, MGBR-46 (Conquista), and BRSMG 68 (Vencedora) also stood out. Considering simultaneous selection for grain yield, plant height, height of the lowest pod, and lodging, the cultivar TMG 801 RR is recommended for growing in the summer season in the southern region of Minas Gerais.

  20. Adaptability of soybean cultivars in different crop years.

    PubMed

    Soares, I O; Rezende, P M; Bruzi, A T; Zambiazzi, E V; Zuffo, A M; Silva, K B; Gwinner, R

    2015-01-01

    Soybean is one of the main sources of foreign exchange credits for Brazil in the agricultural sector. There is increasing interest in growing this leguminous crop, especially in the southern region of Minas Gerais, due to its importance as an alternative for crop rotation with maize. In this respect, the study of the adaptability of new cultivars to the region is indispensable so as to obtain high yields. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of 38 soybean cultivars for growing in the summer season in the municipality of Lavras, MG, Brazil, in the 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 crop years. The experiments were conducted in a randomized block design with 3 replications and the treatments consisted of 38 cultivars. At the time of harvest, the following assessments were made: grain yield (kg/ha), height of the lowest pod (cm), plant height (cm), and lodging. The data were subjected to individual and combined analysis of variance. The phenotypic mean values were clustered, adopting the Scott and Knott test. For simultaneous selection of multiple traits, the sum of rank index of Mulamba and Mock was adopted. The cultivar TMG 801 RR had the best yield performance; the cultivars Monsoy 8001, MGBR-46 (Conquista), and BRSMG 68 (Vencedora) also stood out. Considering simultaneous selection for grain yield, plant height, height of the lowest pod, and lodging, the cultivar TMG 801 RR is recommended for growing in the summer season in the southern region of Minas Gerais. PMID:26345831

  1. Effects of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant cropping systems on weed seedbanks in two years of following crops.

    PubMed

    Firbank, L G; Rothery, P; May, M J; Clark, S J; Scott, R J; Stuart, R C; Boffey, C W H; Brooks, D R; Champion, G T; Haughton, A J; Hawes, C; Heard, M S; Dewar, A M; Perry, J N; Squire, G R

    2006-03-22

    The Farm Scale Evaluations (FSEs) showed that genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) cropping systems could influence farmland biodiversity because of their effects on weed biomass and seed production. Recently published results for winter oilseed rape showed that a switch to GMHT crops significantly affected weed seedbanks for at least 2 years after the crops were sown, potentially causing longer-term effects on other taxa. Here, we seek evidence for similar medium-term effects on weed seedbanks following spring-sown GMHT crops, using newly available data from the FSEs. Weed seedbanks following GMHT maize were significantly higher than following conventional varieties for both the first and second years, while by contrast, seedbanks following GMHT spring oilseed rape were significantly lower over this period. Seedbanks following GMHT beet were smaller than following conventional crops in the first year after the crops had been sown, but this difference was much reduced by the second year for reasons that are not clear. These new data provide important empirical evidence for longer-term effects of GMHT cropping on farmland biodiversity.

  2. Effects of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant cropping systems on weed seedbanks in two years of following crops.

    PubMed

    Firbank, L G; Rothery, P; May, M J; Clark, S J; Scott, R J; Stuart, R C; Boffey, C W H; Brooks, D R; Champion, G T; Haughton, A J; Hawes, C; Heard, M S; Dewar, A M; Perry, J N; Squire, G R

    2006-03-22

    The Farm Scale Evaluations (FSEs) showed that genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) cropping systems could influence farmland biodiversity because of their effects on weed biomass and seed production. Recently published results for winter oilseed rape showed that a switch to GMHT crops significantly affected weed seedbanks for at least 2 years after the crops were sown, potentially causing longer-term effects on other taxa. Here, we seek evidence for similar medium-term effects on weed seedbanks following spring-sown GMHT crops, using newly available data from the FSEs. Weed seedbanks following GMHT maize were significantly higher than following conventional varieties for both the first and second years, while by contrast, seedbanks following GMHT spring oilseed rape were significantly lower over this period. Seedbanks following GMHT beet were smaller than following conventional crops in the first year after the crops had been sown, but this difference was much reduced by the second year for reasons that are not clear. These new data provide important empirical evidence for longer-term effects of GMHT cropping on farmland biodiversity. PMID:17148348

  3. 7 CFR 800.188 - Crop year, variety, and origin statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crop year, variety, and origin statements. 800.188... REGULATIONS Duties and Conduct of Licensed and Authorized Personnel § 800.188 Crop year, variety, and origin statements. No official personnel shall certify or otherwise state in writing (a) the year of production...

  4. 7 CFR 800.188 - Crop year, variety, and origin statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Crop year, variety, and origin statements. 800.188 Section 800.188 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION... REGULATIONS Duties and Conduct of Licensed and Authorized Personnel § 800.188 Crop year, variety, and...

  5. 7 CFR 800.188 - Crop year, variety, and origin statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Crop year, variety, and origin statements. 800.188 Section 800.188 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION... REGULATIONS Duties and Conduct of Licensed and Authorized Personnel § 800.188 Crop year, variety, and...

  6. 7 CFR 800.188 - Crop year, variety, and origin statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Crop year, variety, and origin statements. 800.188 Section 800.188 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION... REGULATIONS Duties and Conduct of Licensed and Authorized Personnel § 800.188 Crop year, variety, and...

  7. 7 CFR 800.188 - Crop year, variety, and origin statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Crop year, variety, and origin statements. 800.188 Section 800.188 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION... REGULATIONS Duties and Conduct of Licensed and Authorized Personnel § 800.188 Crop year, variety, and...

  8. 7 CFR 760.105 - Waiver for certain crop years; buy-in.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Waiver for certain crop years; buy-in. 760.105 Section... Agricultural Disaster Assistance Programs § 760.105 Waiver for certain crop years; buy-in. (a) For the 2008... eligible producer paid a fee (buy-in fee) equal to the applicable NAP service fee or catastrophic...

  9. 7 CFR 760.105 - Waiver for certain crop years; buy-in.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Waiver for certain crop years; buy-in. 760.105 Section... Agricultural Disaster Assistance Programs § 760.105 Waiver for certain crop years; buy-in. (a) For the 2008... eligible producer paid a fee (buy-in fee) equal to the applicable NAP service fee or catastrophic...

  10. 7 CFR 760.105 - Waiver for certain crop years; buy-in.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Waiver for certain crop years; buy-in. 760.105 Section... Agricultural Disaster Assistance Programs § 760.105 Waiver for certain crop years; buy-in. (a) For the 2008... eligible producer paid a fee (buy-in fee) equal to the applicable NAP service fee or catastrophic...

  11. 7 CFR 760.105 - Waiver for certain crop years; buy-in.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Waiver for certain crop years; buy-in. 760.105 Section... Agricultural Disaster Assistance Programs § 760.105 Waiver for certain crop years; buy-in. (a) For the 2008... eligible producer paid a fee (buy-in fee) equal to the applicable NAP service fee or catastrophic...

  12. 7 CFR 760.105 - Waiver for certain crop years; buy-in.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Waiver for certain crop years; buy-in. 760.105 Section... Agricultural Disaster Assistance Programs § 760.105 Waiver for certain crop years; buy-in. (a) For the 2008... eligible producer paid a fee (buy-in fee) equal to the applicable NAP service fee or catastrophic...

  13. Energy balance in rainfed herbaceous crops in a semiarid environment for a 15-year experiment. 2. Impact of crop rotations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, M. C.; Moreno, M. M.; Lacasta, C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Meco, R.

    2012-04-01

    Energy balances in agriculture production have been widely studied since the 1970s. Researchers have performed detailed energy balances for different crops and farm management systems all over the world in attempts to assess the efficiency and environmental impact of production systems. This work is part of a larger study assessing the effects of three farming systems (conventional, conservation with zero tillage, and organic) and four barley-based crop rotations (barley followed by fallow [B-F], barley in rotation with vetch for hay production [B-V] or sunflower [B-S], and barley monoculture [B-B]), on the energy balance of crop production under the semi-arid conditions over a 15 year period. However, the present work is focused on the crop rotation effect, so farming systems and years are averaged. Experiments were conducted at "La Higueruela" Experimental Farm (4°26' W, 40°04' N, altitude 450 m) (Spanish National Research Council, Santa Olalla, Toledo, central Spain). The climate is semi-arid Mediterranean, with an average seasonal rainfall of 480 mm irregularly distributed. The rotations were simultaneously duplicated to have all phases of each rotation present every year. Results were expressed with respect to one hectare and year for a complete rotation. The energy balance method used required the identification and quantification of all the inputs and outputs implied, and the conversion to energy values by corresponding coefficients. The parameters considered were (i) energy inputs (EI) (diesel, machines, fertilizers, herbicides, seeds) (ii) energy outputs (EO) (energy in the harvested biomass), (iii) net energy produced (NE) (EI - EO), (iv) the energy output/input ratio (O/I), and (v) energy productivity (EP) (Crop yield/EI). Total EI varied from 6.19 GJ ha-1 year-1 for B-F to 11.7 GJ ha-1 year-1 for B-B, that indicates that the energy requirements of barley monoculture (B-B) are almost double those when a fallow period is included in the rotation

  14. Soil-profile distribution of inorganic N during 6 years of integrated crop-livestock management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessive accumulation of soil nitrate-N can threaten water and air quality. How integrated crop-livestock systems might influence soil-profile nitrate-N accumulation has not been investigated. Therefore, we determined soil nitrate-N accumulation during 6 years of evaluation of diverse cropping sy...

  15. 7 CFR 981.57 - Application of salable and reserve percentages after end of crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Volume Regulation § 981.57... established for any crop year shall continue in effect with respect to all almonds for which the reserve... requirements for all such almonds theretofore received for his own account or handled during that crop...

  16. 7 CFR 981.57 - Application of salable and reserve percentages after end of crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Volume Regulation § 981.57... established for any crop year shall continue in effect with respect to all almonds for which the reserve... requirements for all such almonds theretofore received for his own account or handled during that crop...

  17. 7 CFR 981.57 - Application of salable and reserve percentages after end of crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Volume Regulation § 981.57... established for any crop year shall continue in effect with respect to all almonds for which the reserve... requirements for all such almonds theretofore received for his own account or handled during that crop...

  18. 7 CFR 981.57 - Application of salable and reserve percentages after end of crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Volume Regulation § 981.57... established for any crop year shall continue in effect with respect to all almonds for which the reserve... requirements for all such almonds theretofore received for his own account or handled during that crop...

  19. 7 CFR 981.57 - Application of salable and reserve percentages after end of crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Volume Regulation § 981.57... established for any crop year shall continue in effect with respect to all almonds for which the reserve... requirements for all such almonds theretofore received for his own account or handled during that crop...

  20. Taking stock of herbicide-resistant crops ten years after introduction.

    PubMed

    Duke, Stephen O

    2005-03-01

    Since transgenic, bromoxynil-resistant cotton and glufosinate-resistant canola were introduced in 1995, planting of transgenic herbicide-resistant crops has grown substantially, revolutionizing weed management where they have been available. Before 1995, several commercial herbicide-resistant crops were produced by biotechnology through selection for resistance in tissue culture. However, non-transgenic herbicide-resistant crops have had less commercial impact. Since the introduction of glyphosate-resistant soybean in 1996, and the subsequent introduction of other glyphosate-resistant crops, where available, they have taken a commanding share of the herbicide-resistant crop market, especially in soybean, cotton and canola. The high level of adoption of glyphosate-resistant crops by North American farmers has helped to significantly reduce the value of the remaining herbicide market. This has resulted in reduced investment in herbicide discovery, which may be problematic for addressing future weed-management problems. Introduction of herbicide-resistant crops that can be used with selective herbicides has apparently been hindered by the great success of glyphosate-resistant crops. Evolution of glyphosate-resistant weeds and movement of naturally resistant weed species into glyphosate-resistant crop fields will require increases in the use of other herbicides, but the speed with which these processes compromise the use of glyphosate alone is uncertain. The future of herbicide-resistant crops will be influenced by many factors, including alternative technologies, public opinion and weed resistance. Considering the relatively few recent approvals for field testing new herbicide-resistant crops and recent decisions not to grow glyphosate-resistant sugarbeet and wheat, the introduction and adoption of herbicide-resistant crops during the next 10 years is not likely to be as dramatic as in the past 10 years.

  1. Australia ground data collection 1981-82 crop year, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinones, C. R.

    1982-01-01

    Under AgRISTARS management, ground data were collected at 20 agricultural sites within Australia during the crop year 1981-82. The data collection activity is summarized. Specifically, the following information is provided: discussion of data procedures, methods, and products; crop production results; photographs of the Australia agriculture scene, map sheets of segments, LANDSAT full frames, and aerial photographs of data collection areas; and summarizations of district agronomist reports.

  2. Policy Design of Multi-Year Crop Insurance Contracts with Partial Payments.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Erh; Goodwin, Barry K

    2015-01-01

    Current crop insurance is designed to mitigate monetary fluctuations resulting from yield losses for a specific year. However, yield realization tendency can vary from year to year and may depend on the correlation of yield realizations across years. When the current single-year Yield Protection (YP) and Area Risk Protection Insurance (ARPI) contracts are extended to multiple periods, actuarially fair premium rate is expected to decrease as poor yield realizations in a year can be offset by another year's better yield realizations. In this study, we first use simulations to demonstrate how significant premium savings are possible when coverage is based on the sum of yields across years rather than on a year-by-year basis. We then describe the design of a multi-year framework of crop insurance and model the insurance using a copula approach. Insurance terms are extended to more than a year and the premium, liability, and indemnity are determined by a multi-year term. Moreover, partial payment is provided at the end of each term to offset the possibility of significant loss in a single term. County-level data obtained from the U.S. Department of Agriculture are used to demonstrate the implementations of the proposed multi-year crop insurance. The proposed multi-year plan would benefit farmers by offering insurance guarantees across years for significantly lower costs. PMID:26695074

  3. Policy Design of Multi-Year Crop Insurance Contracts with Partial Payments.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Erh; Goodwin, Barry K

    2015-01-01

    Current crop insurance is designed to mitigate monetary fluctuations resulting from yield losses for a specific year. However, yield realization tendency can vary from year to year and may depend on the correlation of yield realizations across years. When the current single-year Yield Protection (YP) and Area Risk Protection Insurance (ARPI) contracts are extended to multiple periods, actuarially fair premium rate is expected to decrease as poor yield realizations in a year can be offset by another year's better yield realizations. In this study, we first use simulations to demonstrate how significant premium savings are possible when coverage is based on the sum of yields across years rather than on a year-by-year basis. We then describe the design of a multi-year framework of crop insurance and model the insurance using a copula approach. Insurance terms are extended to more than a year and the premium, liability, and indemnity are determined by a multi-year term. Moreover, partial payment is provided at the end of each term to offset the possibility of significant loss in a single term. County-level data obtained from the U.S. Department of Agriculture are used to demonstrate the implementations of the proposed multi-year crop insurance. The proposed multi-year plan would benefit farmers by offering insurance guarantees across years for significantly lower costs.

  4. Policy Design of Multi-Year Crop Insurance Contracts with Partial Payments

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Erh; Goodwin, Barry K.

    2015-01-01

    Current crop insurance is designed to mitigate monetary fluctuations resulting from yield losses for a specific year. However, yield realization tendency can vary from year to year and may depend on the correlation of yield realizations across years. When the current single-year Yield Protection (YP) and Area Risk Protection Insurance (ARPI) contracts are extended to multiple periods, actuarially fair premium rate is expected to decrease as poor yield realizations in a year can be offset by another year’s better yield realizations. In this study, we first use simulations to demonstrate how significant premium savings are possible when coverage is based on the sum of yields across years rather than on a year-by-year basis. We then describe the design of a multi-year framework of crop insurance and model the insurance using a copula approach. Insurance terms are extended to more than a year and the premium, liability, and indemnity are determined by a multi-year term. Moreover, partial payment is provided at the end of each term to offset the possibility of significant loss in a single term. County-level data obtained from the U.S. Department of Agriculture are used to demonstrate the implementations of the proposed multi-year crop insurance. The proposed multi-year plan would benefit farmers by offering insurance guarantees across years for significantly lower costs. PMID:26695074

  5. A 5-year analysis of crop phenologies from the United States Heartland (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, D. M.

    2010-12-01

    Time series imagery data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was intersected with annually updated field-level crop data from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Farm Service Agency (FSA). Phenological metrics were derived for major crop types found in the United States (US) Heartland region. The specific MODIS data consisted of the 16-day composited Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) 250 meter spatial resolution imagery from the Terra satellite. Crops evaluated included corn, soybeans, wheat, cotton, sorghum, rice, and other small grains. Charts showing the annual average state-level NDVI phenologies by crop were constructed for the five years between 2006 and 2010. The states of interest covered the intensively cultivated regions in the US Great Plains, Corn Belt, and Mississippi River Alluvial Plain. Results demonstrated the recent biophysical growth cycles of prevalent and widespread US crops and how they varied by geography and year. Linkages between the time series data and planting practices, weather impacts, crop progress reports, and yields were also investigated.

  6. Perspectives on transgenic, herbicide-resistant crops in the United States almost 20 years after introduction.

    PubMed

    Duke, Stephen O

    2015-05-01

    Herbicide-resistant crops have had a profound impact on weed management. Most of the impact has been by glyphosate-resistant maize, cotton, soybean and canola. Significant economic savings, yield increases and more efficacious and simplified weed management have resulted in widespread adoption of the technology. Initially, glyphosate-resistant crops enabled significantly reduced tillage and reduced the environmental impact of weed management. Continuous use of glyphosate with glyphosate-resistant crops over broad areas facilitated the evolution of glyphosate-resistant weeds, which have resulted in increases in the use of tillage and other herbicides with glyphosate, reducing some of the initial environmental benefits of glyphosate-resistant crops. Transgenic crops with resistance to auxinic herbicides, as well as to herbicides that inhibit acetolactate synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase and hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase, stacked with glyphosate and/or glufosinate resistance, will become available in the next few years. These technologies will provide additional weed management options for farmers, but will not have all of the positive effects (reduced cost, simplified weed management, lowered environmental impact and reduced tillage) that glyphosate-resistant crops had initially. In the more distant future, other herbicide-resistant crops (including non-transgenic ones), herbicides with new modes of action and technologies that are currently in their infancy (e.g. bioherbicides, sprayable herbicidal RNAi and/or robotic weeding) may affect the role of transgenic, herbicide-resistant crops in weed management. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Perspectives on transgenic, herbicide-resistant crops in the United States almost 20 years after introduction.

    PubMed

    Duke, Stephen O

    2015-05-01

    Herbicide-resistant crops have had a profound impact on weed management. Most of the impact has been by glyphosate-resistant maize, cotton, soybean and canola. Significant economic savings, yield increases and more efficacious and simplified weed management have resulted in widespread adoption of the technology. Initially, glyphosate-resistant crops enabled significantly reduced tillage and reduced the environmental impact of weed management. Continuous use of glyphosate with glyphosate-resistant crops over broad areas facilitated the evolution of glyphosate-resistant weeds, which have resulted in increases in the use of tillage and other herbicides with glyphosate, reducing some of the initial environmental benefits of glyphosate-resistant crops. Transgenic crops with resistance to auxinic herbicides, as well as to herbicides that inhibit acetolactate synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase and hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase, stacked with glyphosate and/or glufosinate resistance, will become available in the next few years. These technologies will provide additional weed management options for farmers, but will not have all of the positive effects (reduced cost, simplified weed management, lowered environmental impact and reduced tillage) that glyphosate-resistant crops had initially. In the more distant future, other herbicide-resistant crops (including non-transgenic ones), herbicides with new modes of action and technologies that are currently in their infancy (e.g. bioherbicides, sprayable herbicidal RNAi and/or robotic weeding) may affect the role of transgenic, herbicide-resistant crops in weed management. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:25052888

  8. CO2 fluxes exchanged by a 4-year crop rotation cycle.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubinet, M.; Moureaux, C.; Bodson, B.; Dufranne, D.; Heinesch, B.; Suleau, M.; Vancutsem, F.; Vilret, A.

    2009-04-01

    This study analyses carbon fluxes exchanged by a production crop during a four year cycle. Between 2004 and 2008, the successive crops were sugar beet, winter wheat, potato and again winter wheat. Eddy covariance, automatic and manual soil chamber, leaf diffusion and biomass measurements were performed continuously in order to obtain the daily and seasonal Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE), Gross Primary Productivity (GPP), Total Ecosystem Respiration (TER), Net Primary Productivity (NPP), Autotrophic Respiration, Heterotrophic Respiration and Net Biome Production (NBP). The whole cycle budget showed that NEE was negative and the rotation behaved as a sink of 1.59 kgC m-2 over the 4-year rotation. However, if exports were deducted from the budget, the crop would become a small source of 0.22 (+/- 0.14) kgC m-2, which also suggests that the crop soil carbon content decreased. This could partly be explained by the crop management, as neither farmyard manure nor slurry had been applied to the crop for more than 10 years and as cereal straw had been systematically exported for livestock. This result is also strongly dependent on climate: the fluxes were subjected to a large inter-annual variability due to differences between crops but also to climate variability. In particular, the mild winter and the dry spring underwent in 2007 induced an increase of the biomass fraction that returned to the soil, at the expense of harvested biomass. If 2007 had been a ‘normal' year, the carbon emission by the crop rotation would have been twice as great. This is analysed more in detail in a companion presentation (Dufranne et al., this session). The impacts of some farmer interventions were quantified. In particular, the impact of ploughing was found to be limited both in intensity (1 to 2 micromol m-2 s-1) and duration (not more than 1 day). Seasonal budgets showed that, during cropping periods, the TER/GPP ratio varied between 40 and 60% and that TER was dominated mainly by the

  9. 7 CFR 993.409 - Undersized prune regulation for the 2002-03 crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Undersized prune regulation for the 2002-03 crop year. 993.409 Section 993.409 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... AGRICULTURE DRIED PRUNES PRODUCED IN CALIFORNIA Undersized Prune Regulation § 993.409 Undersized...

  10. Unintended compositional changes in genetically modified (GM) crops: 20 years of research.

    PubMed

    Herman, Rod A; Price, William D

    2013-12-01

    The compositional equivalency between genetically modified (GM) crops and nontransgenic comparators has been a fundamental component of human health safety assessment for 20 years. During this time, a large amount of information has been amassed on the compositional changes that accompany both the transgenesis process and traditional breeding methods; additionally, the genetic mechanisms behind these changes have been elucidated. After two decades, scientists are encouraged to objectively assess this body of literature and determine if sufficient scientific uncertainty still exists to continue the general requirement for these studies to support the safety assessment of transgenic crops. It is concluded that suspect unintended compositional effects that could be caused by genetic modification have not materialized on the basis of this substantial literature. Hence, compositional equivalence studies uniquely required for GM crops may no longer be justified on the basis of scientific uncertainty.

  11. An overview of the last 10 years of genetically engineered crop safety research.

    PubMed

    Nicolia, Alessandro; Manzo, Alberto; Veronesi, Fabio; Rosellini, Daniele

    2014-03-01

    The technology to produce genetically engineered (GE) plants is celebrating its 30th anniversary and one of the major achievements has been the development of GE crops. The safety of GE crops is crucial for their adoption and has been the object of intense research work often ignored in the public debate. We have reviewed the scientific literature on GE crop safety during the last 10 years, built a classified and manageable list of scientific papers, and analyzed the distribution and composition of the published literature. We selected original research papers, reviews, relevant opinions and reports addressing all the major issues that emerged in the debate on GE crops, trying to catch the scientific consensus that has matured since GE plants became widely cultivated worldwide. The scientific research conducted so far has not detected any significant hazards directly connected with the use of GE crops; however, the debate is still intense. An improvement in the efficacy of scientific communication could have a significant impact on the future of agricultural GE. Our collection of scientific records is available to researchers, communicators and teachers at all levels to help create an informed, balanced public perception on the important issue of GE use in agriculture.

  12. Detection of anomalous crop condition and soil variability mapping using a 26 year Landsat record and the Palmer crop moisture index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venteris, E. R.; Tagestad, J. D.; Downs, J. L.; Murray, C. J.

    2015-07-01

    Cost-effective and reliable vegetation monitoring methods are needed for applications ranging from traditional agronomic mapping, to verifying the safety of geologic injection activities. A particular challenge is defining baseline crop conditions and subsequent anomalies from long term imagery records (Landsat) in the face of large spatiotemporal variability. We develop a new method for defining baseline crop response (near peak growth) using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from 26 years (1986-2011) of Landsat data for 400 km2 surrounding a planned geologic carbon sequestration site near Jacksonville, Illinois. The normal score transform (yNDVI) was applied on a field by field basis to accentuate spatial patterns and level differences due to planting times. We tested crop type and soil moisture (Palmer crop moisture index (CMI)) as predictors of expected crop condition. Spatial patterns in yNDVI were similar between corn and soybeans - the two major crops. Linear regressions between yNDVI and the cumulative CMI (CCMI) exposed complex interactions between crop condition, field location (topography and soils), and annual moisture. Wet toposequence positions (depressions) were negatively correlated to CCMI and dry positions (crests) positively correlated. However, only 21% of the landscape showed a statistically significant (p < 0.05) linear relationship. To map anomalous crop conditions, we defined a tolerance interval based on yNDVI statistics. Tested on an independent image (2013), 63 of 1483 possible fields showed unusual crop condition. While the method is not directly suitable for crop health assessment, the spatial patterns in correlation between yNDVI and CCMI have potential applications for pest damage detection and edaphological soil mapping, especially in the developing world.

  13. Developing and normalizing average corn crop water production functions across years and locations using a system model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop water production functions (CWPFs) are often expressed as crop yield vs. consumptive water use or irrigation water applied. CWPFs are helpful for optimizing management of limited water resources, but are site-specific and vary from year to year, especially when yield is expressed as a function ...

  14. Crop-tree release thinning in 65-year-old commercial cherry-maple stands (5-year results). Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.C.; Miller, G.W.; Lamson, N.I.

    1994-09-01

    The report includes a crop-tree release plan which was applied to a 65-year-old cherry-maple stand in north central West Virginia. Criteria were developed for selecting crop trees for high quality sawtimber and veneer products. Five-year stand growth, mortality, and ingrowth using basal areas, volume, relative density, and number of trees were discussed for the treatments.

  15. Climatic and management drivers of CO2 exchanges by a production crop: analysis over three successive 4-year cycles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buysse, Pauline; Moureaux, Christine; Bodson, Bernard; Aubinet, Marc

    2016-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) exchanges between crops and the atmosphere are influenced by both climatic and crop management drivers. The investigated crop, situated at the Lonzée Terrestrial Observatory (candidate ICOS site) in the Hesbaye region in Belgium and managed for more than 70 years using conventional farming practices, was monitored over three complete sugar beet/winter wheat/potato/winter wheat rotation cycles from 2004 to 2016. Eddy covariance, automatic and manual soil chambers, leaf diffusion and biomass measurements were performed continuously in order to obtain the daily and seasonal Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE), Gross Primary Productivity (GPP), total Ecosystem Respiration (TER), Net Primary Productivity (NPP), autotrophic respiration, heterotrophic respiration and Net Biome Production (NBP). Meteorological data and crop management practices were also recorded. Climatic and seasonal evolutions of the carbon balance components were studied and crop carbon budgets were computed both at the yearly and crop rotation cycle scales. On average over the 12 years, NEE was negative but NBP was positive, i.e. as far as carbon exportation by harvest are included in the budget, the site behaved as a carbon source. Impacts of both meteorological drivers and crop management operations on CO2 exchanges were analyzed and compared between crop types, years, and rotation cycles. The uncertainties associated to the carbon fluxes were also evaluated and discussed.

  16. Effects of sewage sludge compost application on crops and cropland in a 3-year field study.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yongjie; Liu, Yangsheng

    2005-06-01

    Composted sewage sludge can be applied to cropland to supply nutrients and improve soil physical properties. However, farmers are much concerned about heavy metal accumulation in cropland and heavy metal availability for crops. A 3-year field study was carried out in this study to investigate the effects of sewage sludge compost (SSC) application on the heavy metal accumulation in cropland soil, rapeseed germination and plumelet development, and yields of barley and Chinese cabbage, compared with conventional mineral fertilization. In addition, the availability of heavy metals for barley and Chinese cabbage was examined. Experimental results showed that SSC application produced little effects on rapeseed germination and stimulated the rape plumelet development at lower application rates (<150 ton ha(-1)). Heavy metals (Cu and Zn) were accumulated in the topsoil (0-20 cm), the barley grains and the cabbage leaves. The yields of barley and Chinese cabbage generated positive response to the SSC application. Addition of mineral N-P-K fertilizers into SSC could further increase the crop yield. Considering the heavy metals accumulation in cropland soil and their availability for crops, SSC should be applied to cropland at a limited application rate (<150 ton ha(-1)).

  17. Second-year growth and productivity for potential herbaceous energy crops in the southeast and midwest/lake states

    SciTech Connect

    Turhollow, A.F.

    1988-07-01

    The results of the second year of the lignocellulosic energy crop screening projects in the Southeast and Midwest/Lake States of the Herbaceous Energy Crops Program are summarized. Most species being screened are grasses, both annual and perennials, and legumes. Establishment of perennial crops was completed during the second year. Yields were quite variable, ranging from 0 for flatpea at a drought-stricken site in Virginia to as high as 31.0 Mg/ha for a sweet sorghum-rye double crop at a site in Indiana. The yield data collected - along with agronomic input, machinery, and labor requirements - will be combined in the future to help select the best species for further development as energy crops. 3 refs., 1 fig. 14 tabs.

  18. Root standing crop and chemistry after six years of soil warming in a temperate forest.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yumei; Tang, Jianwu; Melillo, Jerry M; Butler, Sarah; Mohan, Jacqueline E

    2011-07-01

    Examining the responses of root standing crop (biomass and necromass) and chemistry to soil warming is crucial for understanding root dynamics and functioning in the face of global climate change. We assessed the standing crop, total nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) compounds in tree roots and soil net N mineralization over the growing season after 6 years of experimental soil warming in a temperate deciduous forest in 2008. Roots were sorted into four different categories: live and dead fine roots (≤1mm in diameter) and live and dead coarse roots (1-4 mm in diameter). Total root standing crop (live plus dead) in the top 10 cm of soil in the warmed area was 42.5% (378.4 vs. 658.5 g m(-2)) lower than in the control area, while live root standing crop in the warmed area was 62% lower than in the control area. Soil net N mineralization over the growing season increased by 79.4% in the warmed relative to the control area. Soil warming did not significantly change the concentrations of C and C compounds (sugar, starch, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin) in the four root categories. However, total N concentration in the live fine roots in the warmed area was 10.5% (13.7 vs. 12.4 mg g(-1)) higher and C:N ratio was 8.6% (38.5 vs. 42.1) lower than in the control area. The increase in N concentration in the live fine roots could be attributed to the increase in soil N availability due to soil warming. Net N mineralization was negatively correlated with both live and dead fine roots in the mineral soil that is home to the majority of roots, suggesting that soil warming increases N mineralization, decreases fine root biomass and thus decreases C allocation belowground. PMID:21813516

  19. Root standing crop and chemistry after six years of soil warming in a temperate forest.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yumei; Tang, Jianwu; Melillo, Jerry M; Butler, Sarah; Mohan, Jacqueline E

    2011-07-01

    Examining the responses of root standing crop (biomass and necromass) and chemistry to soil warming is crucial for understanding root dynamics and functioning in the face of global climate change. We assessed the standing crop, total nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) compounds in tree roots and soil net N mineralization over the growing season after 6 years of experimental soil warming in a temperate deciduous forest in 2008. Roots were sorted into four different categories: live and dead fine roots (≤1mm in diameter) and live and dead coarse roots (1-4 mm in diameter). Total root standing crop (live plus dead) in the top 10 cm of soil in the warmed area was 42.5% (378.4 vs. 658.5 g m(-2)) lower than in the control area, while live root standing crop in the warmed area was 62% lower than in the control area. Soil net N mineralization over the growing season increased by 79.4% in the warmed relative to the control area. Soil warming did not significantly change the concentrations of C and C compounds (sugar, starch, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin) in the four root categories. However, total N concentration in the live fine roots in the warmed area was 10.5% (13.7 vs. 12.4 mg g(-1)) higher and C:N ratio was 8.6% (38.5 vs. 42.1) lower than in the control area. The increase in N concentration in the live fine roots could be attributed to the increase in soil N availability due to soil warming. Net N mineralization was negatively correlated with both live and dead fine roots in the mineral soil that is home to the majority of roots, suggesting that soil warming increases N mineralization, decreases fine root biomass and thus decreases C allocation belowground.

  20. Illustration of year-to-year variation in wheat spectral profile crop growth curves. [Kansas, Oklahoma, North Dakota and South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, P.; Jones, C. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Data previously compiled on the year to year variability of spectral profile crop growth parameters for spring and winter wheat in Kansas, Oklahoma, and the Dakotas were used with a profile model to develop graphs illustrating spectral profile crop growth curves for a number of years and a number of spring and winter wheat segments. These curves show the apparent variability in spectral profiles for wheat from one year to another within the same segment and from one segment to another within the same year.

  1. Effects of 30 Years of Crop Rotation and Tillage on Bacterial and Archaeal Ammonia Oxidizers.

    PubMed

    Munroe, Jake W; McCormick, Ian; Deen, William; Dunfield, Kari E

    2016-05-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) both mediate soil nitrification and may have specialized niches in the soil. Little is understood of how these microorganisms are affected by long-term crop rotation and tillage practices. In this study, we assessed abundance and gene expression of AOB and AOA under two contrasting crop rotations and tillage regimes at a 30-yr-old long-term experiment on a Canadian silt loam soil. Continuous corn ( L.) (CC) was compared with a corn-corn-soybean [ (L.) Merr.]-winter wheat ( L.) rotation under-seeded with red clover ( L.) (RC), with conventional tillage (CT) and no-till (NT) as subplot treatments. Soil sampling was performed during the first corn year at four time points throughout the 2010 season and at three discrete depths (0-5, 5-15, and 15-30 cm). Overall, AOA abundance was found to be more than 10 times that of AOB, although AOA transcriptional activity was below detectable levels across all treatments. Crop rotation had a marginally significant effect on AOB abundance, with 1.3 times as many gene copies under the simpler CC rotation than under the more diverse RC rotation. More pronounced effects of depth on AOB abundance and gene expression were observed under NT versus CT management, and NT supported higher abundances of total archaea and AOA than CT across the growing season. We suggest that AOB may be more functionally important than AOA in this high-input agricultural soil but that NT management can promote enhanced soil archaeal populations. PMID:27136161

  2. Effects of 30 Years of Crop Rotation and Tillage on Bacterial and Archaeal Ammonia Oxidizers.

    PubMed

    Munroe, Jake W; McCormick, Ian; Deen, William; Dunfield, Kari E

    2016-05-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) both mediate soil nitrification and may have specialized niches in the soil. Little is understood of how these microorganisms are affected by long-term crop rotation and tillage practices. In this study, we assessed abundance and gene expression of AOB and AOA under two contrasting crop rotations and tillage regimes at a 30-yr-old long-term experiment on a Canadian silt loam soil. Continuous corn ( L.) (CC) was compared with a corn-corn-soybean [ (L.) Merr.]-winter wheat ( L.) rotation under-seeded with red clover ( L.) (RC), with conventional tillage (CT) and no-till (NT) as subplot treatments. Soil sampling was performed during the first corn year at four time points throughout the 2010 season and at three discrete depths (0-5, 5-15, and 15-30 cm). Overall, AOA abundance was found to be more than 10 times that of AOB, although AOA transcriptional activity was below detectable levels across all treatments. Crop rotation had a marginally significant effect on AOB abundance, with 1.3 times as many gene copies under the simpler CC rotation than under the more diverse RC rotation. More pronounced effects of depth on AOB abundance and gene expression were observed under NT versus CT management, and NT supported higher abundances of total archaea and AOA than CT across the growing season. We suggest that AOB may be more functionally important than AOA in this high-input agricultural soil but that NT management can promote enhanced soil archaeal populations.

  3. Assessment of crop yield losses in Punjab and Haryana using two years of continuous in-situ ozone measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, B.; Singh Sangwan, K.; Maurya, Y.; Kumar, V.; Sarkar, C.; Chandra, B. P.; Sinha, V.

    2015-01-01

    In this study we use a high quality dataset of in-situ ozone measurements at a suburban site called Mohali in the state of Punjab to estimate ozone related crop yield losses for wheat, rice, cotton and maize for Punjab and the neighbouring state Haryana for the years 2011-2013. We inter-compare crop yield loss estimates according to different exposure metrics such as AOT40 and M7 for the two major crop growing seasons of Kharif (June-October) and Rabi (November-April) and establish a new crop yield exposure relationship for South Asian wheat and rice cultivars. These are a factor of two more sensitive to ozone induced crop yield losses compared to their European and American counterparts. Relative yield losses based on the AOT40 metrics ranged from 27-41% for wheat, 21-26% for rice, 9-11% for maize and 47-58% for cotton. Crop production losses for wheat amounted to 20.8 million t in fiscal year 2012-2013 and 10.3 million t in fiscal year 2013-2014 for Punjab and Haryana jointly. Crop production losses for rice totalled 5.4 million t in fiscal year 2012-2013 and 3.2 million t year 2013-2014 for Punjab and Haryana jointly. The Indian National Food Security Ordinance entitles ~ 820 million of India's poor to purchase about 60 kg of rice/wheat per person annually at subsidized rates. The scheme requires 27.6 Mt of wheat and 33.6 Mt of rice per year. Mitigation of ozone related crop production losses in Punjab and Haryana alone could provide >50% of the wheat and ~10% of the rice required for the scheme. The total economic cost losses in Punjab and Haryana amounted to USD 6.5 billion in the fiscal year 2012-2013 and USD 3.7 billion in the fiscal year 2013-2014. This economic loss estimate represents a very conservative lower limit based on the minimum support price of the crop, which is lower than the actual production costs. The upper limit for ozone related crop yield losses in entire India currently amounts to 3.5-20% of India's GDP. Mitigation of high surface ozone

  4. Micrometeorological measurements over 3 years reveal differences in N2 O emissions between annual and perennial crops.

    PubMed

    Abalos, Diego; Brown, Shannon E; Vanderzaag, Andrew C; Gordon, Robert J; Dunfield, Kari E; Wagner-Riddle, Claudia

    2016-03-01

    Perennial crops can deliver a wide range of ecosystem services compared to annual crops. Some of these benefits are achieved by lengthening the growing season, which increases the period of crop water and nutrient uptake, pointing to a potential role for perennial systems to mitigate soil nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions. Employing a micrometeorological method, we tested this hypothesis in a 3-year field experiment with a perennial grass-legume mixture and an annual corn monoculture. Given that N2 O emissions are strongly dependent on the method of fertilizer application, two manure application options commonly used by farmers for each crop were studied: injection vs. broadcast application for the perennial; fall vs. spring application for the annual. Across the 3 years, lower N2 O emissions (P < 0.001) were measured for the perennial compared to the annual crop, even though annual N2 O emissions increased tenfold for the perennial after ploughing. The percentage of N2 O lost per unit of fertilizer applied was 3.7, 3.1 and 1.3 times higher for the annual for each consecutive year. Differences in soil organic matter due to the contrasting root systems of these crops are probably a major factor behind the N2 O reduction. We found that a specific manure management practice can lead to increases or reductions in annual N2 O emissions depending on environmental variables. The number of freeze-thaw cycles during winter and the amount of rainfall after fertilization in spring were key factors. Therefore, general manure management recommendations should be avoided because interannual weather variability has the potential to determine if a specific practice is beneficial or detrimental. The lower N2 O emissions of perennial crops deserve further research attention and must be considered in future land-use decisions. Increasing the proportion of perennial crops in agricultural landscapes may provide an overlooked opportunity to regulate N2 O emissions. PMID:26491961

  5. Recharge and Groundwater Use in the North China Plain for Six Irrigated Crops for an Eleven Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaolin; Chen, Yuanquan; Pacenka, Steven; Gao, Wangsheng; Zhang, Min; Sui, Peng; Steenhuis, Tammo S.

    2015-01-01

    Water tables are dropping by approximately one meter annually throughout the North China Plain mainly due to water withdrawals for irrigating winter wheat year after year. In order to examine whether the drawdown can be reduced we calculate the net water use for an 11 year field experiment from 2003 to 2013 where six irrigated crops (winter wheat, summer maize, cotton, peanuts, sweet potato, ryegrass) were grown in different crop rotations in the North China Plain. As part of this experiment moisture contents were measured each at 20 cm intervals in the top 1.8 m. Recharge and net water use were calculated based on these moisture measurement. Results showed that winter wheat and ryegrass had the least recharge with an average of 27 mm/year and 39 mm/year, respectively; cotton had the most recharge with an average of 211 mm/year) followed by peanuts with 118 mm/year, sweet potato with 76 mm/year, and summer maize with 44 mm/year. Recharge depended on the amount of irrigation water pumped from the aquifer and was therefore a poor indicator of future groundwater decline. Instead net water use (recharge minus irrigation) was found to be a good indicator for the decline of the water table. The smallest amount of net (ground water) used was cotton with an average of 14 mm/year, followed by peanut with 32 mm/year, summer maize with 71 mm/year, sweet potato with 74 mm/year. Winter wheat and ryegrass had the greatest net water use with the average of 198 mm/year and 111 mm/year, respectively. Our calculations showed that any single crop would use less water than the prevalent winter wheat summer maize rotation. This growing one crop instead of two will reduce the decline of groundwater and in some rain rich years increase the ground water level, but will result in less income for the farmers. PMID:25625765

  6. Recharge and groundwater use in the North China Plain for six irrigated crops for an eleven year period.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaolin; Chen, Yuanquan; Pacenka, Steven; Gao, Wangsheng; Zhang, Min; Sui, Peng; Steenhuis, Tammo S

    2015-01-01

    Water tables are dropping by approximately one meter annually throughout the North China Plain mainly due to water withdrawals for irrigating winter wheat year after year. In order to examine whether the drawdown can be reduced we calculate the net water use for an 11 year field experiment from 2003 to 2013 where six irrigated crops (winter wheat, summer maize, cotton, peanuts, sweet potato, ryegrass) were grown in different crop rotations in the North China Plain. As part of this experiment moisture contents were measured each at 20 cm intervals in the top 1.8 m. Recharge and net water use were calculated based on these moisture measurement. Results showed that winter wheat and ryegrass had the least recharge with an average of 27 mm/year and 39 mm/year, respectively; cotton had the most recharge with an average of 211 mm/year) followed by peanuts with 118 mm/year, sweet potato with 76 mm/year, and summer maize with 44 mm/year. Recharge depended on the amount of irrigation water pumped from the aquifer and was therefore a poor indicator of future groundwater decline. Instead net water use (recharge minus irrigation) was found to be a good indicator for the decline of the water table. The smallest amount of net (ground water) used was cotton with an average of 14 mm/year, followed by peanut with 32 mm/year, summer maize with 71 mm/year, sweet potato with 74 mm/year. Winter wheat and ryegrass had the greatest net water use with the average of 198 mm/year and 111 mm/year, respectively. Our calculations showed that any single crop would use less water than the prevalent winter wheat summer maize rotation. This growing one crop instead of two will reduce the decline of groundwater and in some rain rich years increase the ground water level, but will result in less income for the farmers.

  7. Farming the planet: 2. Geographic distribution of crop areas, yields, physiological types, and net primary production in the year 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monfreda, Chad; Ramankutty, Navin; Foley, Jonathan A.

    2008-03-01

    Croplands cover ~15 million km2 of the planet and provide the bulk of the food and fiber essential to human well-being. Most global land cover data sets from satellites group croplands into just a few categories, thereby excluding information that is critical for answering key questions ranging from biodiversity conservation to food security to biogeochemical cycling. Information about agricultural land use practices like crop selection, yield, and fertilizer use is even more limited. Here we present land use data sets created by combining national, state, and county level census statistics with a recently updated global data set of croplands on a 5 min by 5 min (~10 km by 10 km) latitude-longitude grid. The resulting land use data sets depict circa the year 2000 the area (harvested) and yield of 175 distinct crops of the world. We aggregate these individual crop maps to produce novel maps of 11 major crop groups, crop net primary production, and four physiologically based crop types: annuals/perennials, herbaceous/shrubs/trees, C3/C4, and leguminous/nonleguminous.

  8. Identification of saline soils with multi-year remote sensing of crop yields

    SciTech Connect

    Lobell, D; Ortiz-Monasterio, I; Gurrola, F C; Valenzuela, L

    2006-10-17

    Soil salinity is an important constraint to agricultural sustainability, but accurate information on its variation across agricultural regions or its impact on regional crop productivity remains sparse. We evaluated the relationships between remotely sensed wheat yields and salinity in an irrigation district in the Colorado River Delta Region. The goals of this study were to (1) document the relative importance of salinity as a constraint to regional wheat production and (2) develop techniques to accurately identify saline fields. Estimates of wheat yield from six years of Landsat data agreed well with ground-based records on individual fields (R{sup 2} = 0.65). Salinity measurements on 122 randomly selected fields revealed that average 0-60 cm salinity levels > 4 dS m{sup -1} reduced wheat yields, but the relative scarcity of such fields resulted in less than 1% regional yield loss attributable to salinity. Moreover, low yield was not a reliable indicator of high salinity, because many other factors contributed to yield variability in individual years. However, temporal analysis of yield images showed a significant fraction of fields exhibited consistently low yields over the six year period. A subsequent survey of 60 additional fields, half of which were consistently low yielding, revealed that this targeted subset had significantly higher salinity at 30-60 cm depth than the control group (p = 0.02). These results suggest that high subsurface salinity is associated with consistently low yields in this region, and that multi-year yield maps derived from remote sensing therefore provide an opportunity to map salinity across agricultural regions.

  9. Bonanza Club: 35 Years of Maximum Crop Production and Extension Education in Southwestern Kansas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henson, D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes the success of a county extension crops program, the Bonanza Club, in providing timely and useful information regarding new and successful agronomic practices. The program is cited for its beneficial influence on changing crop-production practices in southwestern Kansas. (MCO)

  10. Aggregate Carbon Pools after 13 Years of Integrated Crop-Livestock Management in Semiarid Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Semi-arid regions have the potential to sequester soil organic carbon (SOC) but the magnitude and rate of sequestration is highly management specific. Integrated crop-livestock (ICL) systems that utilize perennial or high-residue no-till annual forage crops as part of the overall agronomic system ma...

  11. Food and nutritional security requires adequate protein as well as energy, delivered from whole-year crop production

    PubMed Central

    Wratten, Stephen D.; Porter, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Human food security requires the production of sufficient quantities of both high-quality protein and dietary energy. In a series of case-studies from New Zealand, we show that while production of food ingredients from crops on arable land can meet human dietary energy requirements effectively, requirements for high-quality protein are met more efficiently by animal production from such land. We present a model that can be used to assess dietary energy and quality-corrected protein production from various crop and crop/animal production systems, and demonstrate its utility. We extend our analysis with an accompanying economic analysis of commercially-available, pre-prepared or simply-cooked foods that can be produced from our case-study crop and animal products. We calculate the per-person, per-day cost of both quality-corrected protein and dietary energy as provided in the processed foods. We conclude that mixed dairy/cropping systems provide the greatest quantity of high-quality protein per unit price to the consumer, have the highest food energy production and can support the dietary requirements of the highest number of people, when assessed as all-year-round production systems. Global food and nutritional security will largely be an outcome of national or regional agroeconomies addressing their own food needs. We hope that our model will be used for similar analyses of food production systems in other countries, agroecological zones and economies. PMID:27478691

  12. Food and nutritional security requires adequate protein as well as energy, delivered from whole-year crop production.

    PubMed

    Coles, Graeme D; Wratten, Stephen D; Porter, John R

    2016-01-01

    Human food security requires the production of sufficient quantities of both high-quality protein and dietary energy. In a series of case-studies from New Zealand, we show that while production of food ingredients from crops on arable land can meet human dietary energy requirements effectively, requirements for high-quality protein are met more efficiently by animal production from such land. We present a model that can be used to assess dietary energy and quality-corrected protein production from various crop and crop/animal production systems, and demonstrate its utility. We extend our analysis with an accompanying economic analysis of commercially-available, pre-prepared or simply-cooked foods that can be produced from our case-study crop and animal products. We calculate the per-person, per-day cost of both quality-corrected protein and dietary energy as provided in the processed foods. We conclude that mixed dairy/cropping systems provide the greatest quantity of high-quality protein per unit price to the consumer, have the highest food energy production and can support the dietary requirements of the highest number of people, when assessed as all-year-round production systems. Global food and nutritional security will largely be an outcome of national or regional agroeconomies addressing their own food needs. We hope that our model will be used for similar analyses of food production systems in other countries, agroecological zones and economies. PMID:27478691

  13. Food and nutritional security requires adequate protein as well as energy, delivered from whole-year crop production.

    PubMed

    Coles, Graeme D; Wratten, Stephen D; Porter, John R

    2016-01-01

    Human food security requires the production of sufficient quantities of both high-quality protein and dietary energy. In a series of case-studies from New Zealand, we show that while production of food ingredients from crops on arable land can meet human dietary energy requirements effectively, requirements for high-quality protein are met more efficiently by animal production from such land. We present a model that can be used to assess dietary energy and quality-corrected protein production from various crop and crop/animal production systems, and demonstrate its utility. We extend our analysis with an accompanying economic analysis of commercially-available, pre-prepared or simply-cooked foods that can be produced from our case-study crop and animal products. We calculate the per-person, per-day cost of both quality-corrected protein and dietary energy as provided in the processed foods. We conclude that mixed dairy/cropping systems provide the greatest quantity of high-quality protein per unit price to the consumer, have the highest food energy production and can support the dietary requirements of the highest number of people, when assessed as all-year-round production systems. Global food and nutritional security will largely be an outcome of national or regional agroeconomies addressing their own food needs. We hope that our model will be used for similar analyses of food production systems in other countries, agroecological zones and economies.

  14. Assessment of crop yield losses in Punjab and Haryana using 2 years of continuous in situ ozone measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, B.; Singh Sangwan, K.; Maurya, Y.; Kumar, V.; Sarkar, C.; Chandra, B. P.; Sinha, V.

    2015-08-01

    In this study we use a high-quality data set of in situ ozone measurements at a suburban site called Mohali in the state of Punjab to estimate ozone-related crop yield losses for wheat, rice, cotton and maize for Punjab and the neighbouring state Haryana for the years 2011-2013. We intercompare crop yield loss estimates according to different exposure metrics, such as AOT40 (accumulated ozone exposure over a threshold of 40) and M7 (mean 7-hour ozone mixing ratio from 09:00 to 15:59), for the two major crop growing seasons of kharif (June-October) and rabi (November-April) and establish a new crop-yield-exposure relationship for southern Asian wheat, maize and rice cultivars. These are a factor of 2 more sensitive to ozone-induced crop yield losses compared to their European and American counterparts. Relative yield losses based on the AOT40 metrics ranged from 27 to 41 % for wheat, 21 to 26 % for rice, 3 to 5 % for maize and 47 to 58 % for cotton. Crop production losses for wheat amounted to 20.8 ± 10.4 million t in the fiscal year of 2012-2013 and 10.3 ± 4.7 million t in the fiscal year of 2013-2014 for Punjab and Haryana taken together. Crop production losses for rice totalled 5.4 ± 1.2 million t in the fiscal year of 2012-2013 and 3.2 ± 0.8 million t in the year 2013-2014 for Punjab and Haryana taken together. The Indian National Food Security Ordinance entitles ~ 820 million of India's poor to purchase about 60 kg of rice or wheat per person annually at subsidized rates. The scheme requires 27.6 Mt of wheat and 33.6 Mt of rice per year. The mitigation of ozone-related crop production losses in Punjab and Haryana alone could provide > 50 % of the wheat and ~ 10 % of the rice required for the scheme. The total economic cost losses in Punjab and Haryana amounted to USD 6.5 ± 2.2 billion in the fiscal year of 2012-2013 and USD 3.7 ± 1.2 billion in the fiscal year of 2013-2014. This economic loss estimate represents a very conservative lower limit based on

  15. Greenhouse gas flux and crop productivity after 10 years of reduced and no tillage in a wheat-maize cropping system.

    PubMed

    Tian, Shenzhong; Wang, Yu; Ning, Tangyuan; Zhao, Hongxiang; Wang, Bingwen; Li, Na; Li, Zengjia; Chi, Shuyun

    2013-01-01

    Appropriate tillage plays an important role in mitigating the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) in regions with higher crop yields, but the emission situations of some reduced tillage systems such as subsoiling, harrow tillage and rotary tillage are not comprehensively studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the emission characteristics of GHG (CH4 and N2O) under four reduced tillage systems from October 2007 to August 2009 based on a 10-yr tillage experiment in the North China Plain, which included no-tillage (NT) and three reduced tillage systems of subsoil tillage (ST), harrow tillage (HT) and rotary tillage (RT), with the conventional tillage (CT) as the control. The soil under the five tillage systems was an absorption sink for CH4 and an emission source for N2O. The soil temperature positive impacted on the CH4 absorption by the soils of different tillage systems, while a significant negative correlation was observed between the absorption and soil moisture. The main driving factor for increased N2O emission was not the soil temperature but the soil moisture and the content of nitrate. In the two rotation cycle of wheat-maize system (10/2007-10/2008 and 10/2008-10/2009), averaged cumulative uptake fluxes of CH4 under CT, ST, HT, RT and NT systems were approximately 1.67, 1.72, 1.63, 1.77 and 1.17 t ha(-1) year(-1), respectively, and meanwhile, approximately 4.43, 4.38, 4.47, 4.30 and 4.61 t ha(-1) year(-1) of N2O were emitted from soil of these systems, respectively. Moreover, they also gained 33.73, 34.63, 32.62, 34.56 and 27.54 t ha(-1) yields during two crop-rotation periods, respectively. Based on these comparisons, the rotary tillage and subsoiling mitigated the emissions of CH4 and N2O as well as improving crop productivity of a wheat-maize cropping system.

  16. Greenhouse gas flux and crop productivity after 10 years of reduced and no tillage in a wheat-maize cropping system.

    PubMed

    Tian, Shenzhong; Wang, Yu; Ning, Tangyuan; Zhao, Hongxiang; Wang, Bingwen; Li, Na; Li, Zengjia; Chi, Shuyun

    2013-01-01

    Appropriate tillage plays an important role in mitigating the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) in regions with higher crop yields, but the emission situations of some reduced tillage systems such as subsoiling, harrow tillage and rotary tillage are not comprehensively studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the emission characteristics of GHG (CH4 and N2O) under four reduced tillage systems from October 2007 to August 2009 based on a 10-yr tillage experiment in the North China Plain, which included no-tillage (NT) and three reduced tillage systems of subsoil tillage (ST), harrow tillage (HT) and rotary tillage (RT), with the conventional tillage (CT) as the control. The soil under the five tillage systems was an absorption sink for CH4 and an emission source for N2O. The soil temperature positive impacted on the CH4 absorption by the soils of different tillage systems, while a significant negative correlation was observed between the absorption and soil moisture. The main driving factor for increased N2O emission was not the soil temperature but the soil moisture and the content of nitrate. In the two rotation cycle of wheat-maize system (10/2007-10/2008 and 10/2008-10/2009), averaged cumulative uptake fluxes of CH4 under CT, ST, HT, RT and NT systems were approximately 1.67, 1.72, 1.63, 1.77 and 1.17 t ha(-1) year(-1), respectively, and meanwhile, approximately 4.43, 4.38, 4.47, 4.30 and 4.61 t ha(-1) year(-1) of N2O were emitted from soil of these systems, respectively. Moreover, they also gained 33.73, 34.63, 32.62, 34.56 and 27.54 t ha(-1) yields during two crop-rotation periods, respectively. Based on these comparisons, the rotary tillage and subsoiling mitigated the emissions of CH4 and N2O as well as improving crop productivity of a wheat-maize cropping system. PMID:24019923

  17. Influence of a Second Crop Plucking and Subsequent Trimming on Canopy Structure in Autumn and on the First Crop of Subsequent Year for Mature Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) Bush

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayuki, Nakano

    I performed 3 experiments at Shizuoka Tea Experiment Station to study the influence of trimming after the plucking of a second crop on the canopy structure in autumn and on the first crop of the subsequent year. Almost all my data revealed that the trimming reduced the number of new shoots but increased the weight of 100 new shoots in the first crop of the subsequent year. However, low trimming after late plucking of a second crop with a large yield remarkably reduced the tea canopy biomass and the number of buds on the skiffing surface in autumn, and it often led to a low yield in the first crop of the subsequent year. An excessively high yield in the second crop and low trimming might induce poor reverse of shoot growth in summer. A combination of low trimming and high skiffing in autumn delayed the growth of new shoots and reduced the free amino acid concentrations in new shoots in the first crop of the subsequent year. These results can be extrapolated for the main temperate zone of Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan.

  18. 50 year trends in nitrogen use efficiency of world cropping systems: the relationship between yield and nitrogen input to cropland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lassaletta, Luis; Billen, Gilles; Grizzetti, Bruna; Anglade, Juliette; Garnier, Josette

    2014-10-01

    Nitrogen (N) is crucial for crop productivity. However, nowadays more than half of the N added to cropland is lost to the environment, wasting the resource, producing threats to air, water, soil and biodiversity, and generating greenhouse gas emissions. Based on FAO data, we have reconstructed the trajectory followed, in the past 50 years, by 124 countries in terms of crop yield and total nitrogen inputs to cropland (manure, synthetic fertilizer, symbiotic fixation and atmospheric deposition). During the last five decades, the response of agricultural systems to increased nitrogen fertilization has evolved differently in the different world countries. While some countries have improved their agro-environmental performances, in others the increased fertilization has produced low agronomical benefits and higher environmental losses. Our data also suggest that, in general, those countries using a higher proportion of N inputs from symbiotic N fixation rather than from synthetic fertilizer have a better N use efficiency.

  19. The effect of within-year variation in acorn crop size on seed harvesting by avian hoarders.

    PubMed

    Pesendorfer, Mario B; Koenig, Walter D

    2016-05-01

    Spatial and temporal variation in resource distribution affect the movement and foraging behavior of many animals. In the case of animal-dispersed trees, numerous studies have addressed masting-the synchronized variation in seed production between years-but the fitness consequences of spatial variation in seed production within a year are unclear. We investigated the effects of variable acorn production in a population of valley oaks (Quercus lobata) on the composition and behavior of the avian-disperser community. We found that western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica), high-quality dispersers that store seeds in the ground, were attracted to, and exhibited increased per capita dispersal rates from, trees with large acorn crops. In contrast, acorn woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus), low-quality dispersers that store acorns in trees where they are unlikely to germinate, increased per capita hoarding rates but did not attend trees with large seed crops in higher numbers, suggesting that the two species responded to resources on different spatial scales. Antagonistic interactions within and between species increased with the number of birds attending a tree, resulting in a potential cost for foraging birds, but did not reduce dispersal rates. Using a simulation model, we estimated that trees with large initial crops experienced a greater proportion (77 %) of high-quality seed dispersal events than trees with small crops (62 %). Our findings provide support for a mechanistic link between seed production and foraging behavior of seed dispersers as predicted by the predator dispersal hypothesis for the functional consequences of variable seed production in hoarder-dispersed trees.

  20. Energy balance in rainfed herbaceous crops in a semiarid environment for a 15-year experiment. 1. Impact of farming systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, M. M.; Moreno, C.; Lacasta, C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Meco, R.

    2012-04-01

    During the last years, agricultural practices have led to increase yields by means of the massive consumption on non-renewable fossil energy. However, the viability of a production system does not depend solely on crop yield, but also on its efficiency in the use of available resources. This work is part of a larger study assessing the effects of three farming systems (conventional, conservation with zero tillage, and organic) and four barley-based crop rotations (barley monoculture and in rotation with vetch, sunflower and fallow) on the energy balance of crop production under the semi-arid conditions over a 15 year period. However, the present work is focused on the farming system effect, so crop rotations and years are averaged. Experiments were conducted at "La Higueruela" Experimental Farm (4°26' W, 40°04' N, altitude 450 m) (Spanish National Research Council, Santa Olalla, Toledo, central Spain). The climate is semi-arid Mediterranean, with an average seasonal rainfall of 480 mm irregularly distributed and a 4-month summer drought period. Conventional farming included the use of moldboard plow for tillage, chemical fertilizers and herbicides. Conservation farming was developed with zero tillage, direct sowing and chemical fertilizers and herbicides. Organic farming included the use of cultivator and no chemical fertilizers or herbicides. The energy balance method used required the identification and quantification of all the inputs and outputs implied, and the conversion to energy values by corresponding coefficients. The parameters considered were (i) energy inputs (EI) (diesel, machines, fertilizers, herbicides, seeds) (ii) energy outputs (EO) (energy in the harvested biomass), (iii) net energy produced (NE) (EI - EO), (iv) the energy output/input ratio (O/I), and (v) energy productivity (EP) (Crop yield/EI). EI was 3.0 and 3.5 times higher in conservation (10.4 GJ ha-1 year-1) and conventional (11.7 GJ ha-1 year-1) than in organic farming (3.41 GJ ha-1

  1. Water Erosion in Relation with Soil Management System and Crop Sequence during 20 Years on an Inceptisol in South Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertol, I.; Schick, J.; Barbosa, F. T.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.; Flores, M. T.; Paz González, A.

    2012-04-01

    Soil erosion still remains persistent at the world scale, even if big efforts have been done to control and reduce it, mainly using soil crop residues to protect soil surface. Although in South Brazil the main management system for most crops is no tillage and direct drilling, water erosion prevails as the most important soil erosion type, which is due both, to the high erosivity and the evenly distribution of rainfall over the year. Moreover, some crops are still grown under soil tillage systems consisting of ploughing, harrowing and less frequently chiselling. Starting 1992, a field experiment under natural rainfall has been conducted on an Inceptisol located in Lages, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, which objective was to assess rainfall water erosion. Two soil cover conditions and four soil management systems were studied: I) a crop rotation, which included oats (Avena strigosa), soybean (Glycine max), common vetch (Vicia sativa), maize (Zea mays), fodder radish (Raphanus sativus) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) under the following soil management types: 1) ploughing plus two levelling operations (CT), chiselling plus levelling (RT) and direct drilling with no tillage (NT), and II) bare soil (BS) without crop cover tilled by ploughing plus two levelling. In more than 90% of the study cases, soil losses were collected for single rain events with erosive power, whose erosivity was calculated. Total rain recorded during the 20 year experimental period was approximately 66,400 mm, which is equivalent to roughly 105,700, MJ mm ha-1 h-1 (EI30), whereas soil losses in the BS treatment were higher than 1,700 t.ha-1. On average, soil losses under RT treatment showed a 92% reduction in relation with BS, whereas under CT the reduction in relation to BS was about 66%. Soil management by direct drilling (NT) was the most efficient system to minimize water erosion, as soil losses decreased about 98% when compared with BS. Moreover, soil management systems with a crop

  2. Effect of sewage sledge and their bio-char on some soil qualities in Second year cropping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    fathi dokht, hamed; Movahedi Naeini, Seyed Alireza; Dordipor, Esmaeil; mirzanejad, moujan

    2016-04-01

    Bio char (BC) application as a soil amendment has achieved much interest and has been found that considerably improves soil nutrient status and crop yields on poor soils. However, information on the effect of BC on illitic soils in temperate climates is still insufficient. The primary objective in this study was to assess the influence of sewage sledge and their bio-char on the soil physical properties, nutrient status and plant production in Second year cropping. The result may also provide a reference for the use of biochars as a solution in agricultural waste management when sludge with considerable load of pathogens are involved. Soybean was already grown one year and will be repeated one more year with same treatments. The investigated soil properties included soil water content and mechanical resistance, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), calcium- acetate-lactate (CAL)-extractable P (PCAL) and K (KCAL), C, N, and nitrogen-supplying potential (NSP). The results show soil water content, potassium uptake and plant yield were increased. Heating sludge removed all pathogens and soybean yield was increased by 7%.

  3. Water erosion during a 17-year period under two crop rotations in four soil management systems on a Southbrazilian Inceptisol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertol, Ildegardis; Vidal Vázquez, Eva; Paz Ferreiro, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    Soil erosion still remains a persistent issue in the world, and this in spite of the efforts to ameliorate soil management systems taken into account the point of view of environmental protection against soil losses. In South Brazil water erosion is mainly associated to rainfall events with a great volume and high intensity, which are more or less evenly distributed all over the year. Nowadays, direct drilling is the most widely soil management system used for the main crops of the region. However, some crops still are grown on conventionally tilled soils, which means mainly ploughing and harrowing and less frequently chisel ploughing. In Lages-Santa Catarina State, Brazil, a plot experiment under natural rain was started in 1992 on an Inceptisol with the aim of quantifying soil and water losses. Treatments included bare and vegetated plots. The crop succession was: oats (Avena strigosa), soybean (Glycine max), vetch (Vicia sativa), maize (Zea mays), fodder radish (Raphanus sativus) and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Soil tillage systems investigated in this study were: i) conventional tillage (CT), ii) reduced tillage (MT), iii) no tillage (NT) under crop rotation and iv) conventional tillage on bare soil (BS). Treatments CT and BS involved ploughing plus twice harrowing, whereas MT involved chisel ploughing plus harrowing. Rainfall erosivity from January 1 1992 to December 31 2009 was calculated. Soil losses from the BS treatment along the 17 year study period were higher than 1200 Mg ha-1. Crop cover significantly reduced erosion, so that under some crops soil losses in the CT treatment were 80% lower than in the BS treatment. In turn soil losses in the MT treatment, where tillage was performed by chiselling and harrowing, were on average about 50% lower than in the CT treatment. No tillage was the most efficient soil management system in reducing soil erosion, so that soil losses in the NT treatment were about 98% lower than in the BS treatment. The three

  4. Accumulation, availability, and uptake of heavy metals in a red soil after 22-year fertilization and cropping.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shiwei; Liu, Jing; Xu, Minggang; Lv, Jialong; Sun, Nan

    2015-10-01

    Fertilization is important to increase crop yields, but long-term application of fertilizers probably aggravated the risk of heavy metals in acidic soils. In this study, the effect of 22-year fertilization and cropping on accumulation, availability, and uptake of heavy metals in red soil was investigated. The results showed that pig manure promoted significantly cadmium (Cd) accumulation (average 1.1 mg kg(-1)), nearly three times higher than national soil standards and, thus, increased metal availability. But the enrichment of heavy metals decreased remarkably by 50.5 % under manure fertilization, compared with CK (control without fertilization). On the contrary, chemical fertilizers increased greatly lead (Pb) availability and Cd activity; in particular, exceeding 85 % of soil Cd became available to plant under N (nitrogen) treatment during 9-16 years of fertilization, which correspondingly increased their enrichment by 29.5 %. Long-term application of chemical fertilizers caused soil acidification and manure fertilization led to the increase in soil pH, soil organic matter (SOM), and available phosphorus (Olsen P), which influenced strongly metal behavior in red soil, and their effect had extended to deeper soil layer (20∼40 cm). It is advisable to increase application of manure alone with low content of heavy metals or in combination with chemical fertilizers to acidic soils in order to reduce toxic metal risk. PMID:26004564

  5. Accumulation, availability, and uptake of heavy metals in a red soil after 22-year fertilization and cropping.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shiwei; Liu, Jing; Xu, Minggang; Lv, Jialong; Sun, Nan

    2015-10-01

    Fertilization is important to increase crop yields, but long-term application of fertilizers probably aggravated the risk of heavy metals in acidic soils. In this study, the effect of 22-year fertilization and cropping on accumulation, availability, and uptake of heavy metals in red soil was investigated. The results showed that pig manure promoted significantly cadmium (Cd) accumulation (average 1.1 mg kg(-1)), nearly three times higher than national soil standards and, thus, increased metal availability. But the enrichment of heavy metals decreased remarkably by 50.5 % under manure fertilization, compared with CK (control without fertilization). On the contrary, chemical fertilizers increased greatly lead (Pb) availability and Cd activity; in particular, exceeding 85 % of soil Cd became available to plant under N (nitrogen) treatment during 9-16 years of fertilization, which correspondingly increased their enrichment by 29.5 %. Long-term application of chemical fertilizers caused soil acidification and manure fertilization led to the increase in soil pH, soil organic matter (SOM), and available phosphorus (Olsen P), which influenced strongly metal behavior in red soil, and their effect had extended to deeper soil layer (20∼40 cm). It is advisable to increase application of manure alone with low content of heavy metals or in combination with chemical fertilizers to acidic soils in order to reduce toxic metal risk.

  6. Eating Quality of Carrots (Daucus carota L.) Grown in One Conventional and Three Organic Cropping Systems over Three Years.

    PubMed

    Bach, Vibe; Kidmose, Ulla; Kristensen, Hanne L; Edelenbos, Merete

    2015-11-11

    The eating quality of carrots (Daucus carota L.) was investigated to evaluate the impact of cropping systems (one conventional and three organic systems) and growing years (2007, 2008, and 2009) on root size, chemical composition, and sensory quality. The content of dry matter, sugars, polyacetylenes, and terpenes as well as the sensory quality and root size were related to the climate during the three growing years. A higher global radiation and a higher temperature sum in 2009 as compared to 2007 and 2008 resulted in larger roots, higher contents of dry matter, sucrose, total sugars, and total polyacetylenes, and lower contents of terpenes, fructose, and glucose. No differences were found between conventional and organic carrots with regard to the investigated parameters. This result shows that organically grown carrots have the same eating quality as conventionally grown carrots, while being produced in a more sustainable way.

  7. Eating Quality of Carrots (Daucus carota L.) Grown in One Conventional and Three Organic Cropping Systems over Three Years.

    PubMed

    Bach, Vibe; Kidmose, Ulla; Kristensen, Hanne L; Edelenbos, Merete

    2015-11-11

    The eating quality of carrots (Daucus carota L.) was investigated to evaluate the impact of cropping systems (one conventional and three organic systems) and growing years (2007, 2008, and 2009) on root size, chemical composition, and sensory quality. The content of dry matter, sugars, polyacetylenes, and terpenes as well as the sensory quality and root size were related to the climate during the three growing years. A higher global radiation and a higher temperature sum in 2009 as compared to 2007 and 2008 resulted in larger roots, higher contents of dry matter, sucrose, total sugars, and total polyacetylenes, and lower contents of terpenes, fructose, and glucose. No differences were found between conventional and organic carrots with regard to the investigated parameters. This result shows that organically grown carrots have the same eating quality as conventionally grown carrots, while being produced in a more sustainable way. PMID:26513153

  8. Farm Crop Production Technology: Field and Forage Crop and Fruit and Vine Production Options. A Suggested 2-Year Post High School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Division of Vocational and Technical Education, BAVT.

    Prepared by a junior college under contract with the Office of Education, the curriculum materials are designed to assist school administrators, advisory committees, supervisors, and teachers in developing or evaluating postsecondary programs in farm crop production technology. Information was gathered by visits to the important farm regions and…

  9. Winter cover crop seeding rate and variety effects during eight years of organic vegetables: III. Cover crop residue quality and nitrogen mineralization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter cover crops (CC) can improve nutrient-use efficiency in tillage-intensive systems. Shoot residue quality and soil mineral N following incorporation of rye (Secale cereale L.), legume-rye, and mustard CC was determined in December to February or March during the first 8 yr of the Salinas Orga...

  10. Impact of Multi-year Cropping Regimes on Solanum tuberosum Tuber Yields in the Presence of Pratylenchus penetrans and Verticillium dahliae.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Bird, G W; Mather, R L

    1995-12-01

    Five cropping regimes involving combinations of 2 legumes, alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and yellow sweet dover (Melilotus officinalis), 2 monocots, corn (Zea mays) and sudax (Sorghum halupeuse x Sorghum sudanese), and potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Superior) were tested for their impact on potato yields in a field infested with Pratylenchus penetrans and Verticillium dahliae. No differences in 1990 tuber yields were observed among the five cropping regimes (P < 0.05). In 1991, yields following 1 year of corn, sudax, sweet clover, or alfalfa and 2 years of potato were not different from that of 3 years of continuous potato (P < 0.05). Two years of sweet clover or alfalfa followed by potato resulted in significantly increased potato tuber yields compared with 3 years of potato (P < 0.05). The 2-year legume and 2-year grain rotations resulted in lower P. penetrans population densities at the end of the 3-year rotation compared with 3 years of continuous potato (P < 0.01). The highest preplant V. dahliae population density (34 cfu/g soil), together with a P. penetrans density of 12/100 cm(3) of soil was in the sudax-sudax-potato cropping regime and resulted in the lowest potato tuber yield. The highest preplant P. penetrans population density (54/100 cm(3) soil), together with a V. dahliae population density of 19.5 cfu/g soil was observed in the corn-corn-potato cropping regime and resulted in the second lowest potato tuber yield in 1991. After 3 years, potato tuber yields were negatively related to preplant densities of V. dahliae (r(2) = 0.237), P. penetrans (r(2) = 0.175), and both pathogens (r(2) = 0.380). A comprehensive regression model was developed to isolate pathogen effects on potato yields from cropping regime effects encompassing all 10 cropping regimes (r(2) = 0.915).

  11. Soil carbon after three years under short rotation woody crops grown under varying nutrient and water availability

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, Felipe G.; Coleman, Mark; Garten Jr, Charles T; Luxmoore, Robert J; Stanturf, J. A.; Trettin, Carl; Wullschleger, Stan D

    2007-01-01

    Soil carbon contents were measured on a short-rotation woody crop study located on the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site outside Aiken, SC. This study included fertilization and irrigation treatments on five tree genotypes (sweetgum, loblolly pine, sycamore and two eastern cottonwood clones). Prior to study installation, the previous pine stand was harvested and the remaining slash and stumps were pulverized and incorporated 30 cm into the soil. One year after harvest soil carbon levels were consistent with pre-harvest levels but dropped in the third year below pre-harvest levels. Tillage increased soil carbon contents, after three years, as compared with adjacent plots that were not part of the study but where harvested, but not tilled, at the same time. When the soil response to the individual treatments for each genotype was examined, one cottonwood clone (ST66), when irrigated and fertilized, had higher total soil carbon and mineral associated carbon in the upper 30 cm compared with the other tree genotypes. This suggests that root development in ST66 may have been stimulated by the irrigation plus fertilization treatment.

  12. Engineering design considerations for methane fermentation of energy crops. Annual report, first year, October 1, 1983-September 30, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Jewell, W.J.; Cummings, R.J.; Rector, D.J.; Richards, B.K.

    1985-04-01

    The focus of the first year of the multi-year effort was to begin to define the methane fermentation requirements of two potential energy crops - napier grass and sorghum. Three laboratory scale digester designs were examined - completely mixed digesters controlled at 10 percent solids were used as controls, and solid state digesters with and without leachate management were used to define the kinetics of hydrolysis and methanation in innovative reactor systems. Several different approaches indicated that the biodegradable fractions of organic solids in napier grass and sorghum averaged 74% and 93%, respectively. The completely mixed reactors were highly sensitive to overloading; and operation at 10 percent solids required long retention times (greater than 60 days) to achieve stable operation, low volatile acid concentrations, and efficient biodegradable organic conversions. Most of the emphasis was on solid state batch reactors operated with leachate management. Initial biogas production rates in the solid state units exceeded 10 volumes per volume per day (v/v/d) with sorghum and averaged greater than 1 v/v/d for 100 days at 55 deg C. Three multiple cycles were successfully initiated with sorghum without addition of water, nutrients, or buffer after the initial startup during the first year of testing.

  13. Nitrous oxide and methane emissions from optimized and alternative cereal cropping systems on the North China Plain: a two-year field study.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bing; Ju, Xiaotang; Su, Fang; Meng, Qingfeng; Oenema, Oene; Christie, Peter; Chen, Xinping; Zhang, Fusuo

    2014-02-15

    The impacts of different crop rotation systems with their corresponding management practices on grain yield, greenhouse gas emissions, and fertilizer nitrogen (N) and irrigation water use efficiencies are not well documented. This holds especially for the North China Plain which provides the staple food for hundreds of millions of people and where groundwater resources are polluted with nitrate and depleted through irrigation. Here, we report on fertilizer N and irrigation water use, grain yields, and nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) emissions of conventional and optimized winter wheat-summer maize double-cropping systems, and of three alternative cropping systems, namely a winter wheat-summer maize (or soybean)-spring maize system, with three harvests in two years; and a single spring maize system with one crop per year. The results of this two-year study show that the optimized double-cropping system led to a significant increase in grain yields and a significant decrease in fertilizer N use and net greenhouse gas intensity, but the net greenhouse gas N2O emissions plus CH4 uptake and the use of irrigation water did not decrease relative to the conventional system. Compared to the conventional system the net greenhouse gas emissions, net greenhouse gas intensity and use of fertilizer N and irrigation water decreased in the three alternative cropping systems, but at the cost of grain yields except in the winter wheat-summer maize-spring maize system. Net uptake of CH4 by the soil was little affected by cropping system. Average N2O emission factors were only 0.17% for winter wheat and 0.53% for maize. In conclusion, the winter wheat-summer maize-spring maize system has considerable potential to decrease water and N use and decrease N2O emissions while maintaining high grain yields and sustainable use of groundwater.

  14. Turnip mosaic potyvirus probably first spread to Eurasian brassica crops from wild orchids about 1000 years ago.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huy D; Tomitaka, Yasuhiro; Ho, Simon Y W; Duchêne, Sebastián; Vetten, Heinrich-Josef; Lesemann, Dietrich; Walsh, John A; Gibbs, Adrian J; Ohshima, Kazusato

    2013-01-01

    Turnip mosaic potyvirus (TuMV) is probably the most widespread and damaging virus that infects cultivated brassicas worldwide. Previous work has indicated that the virus originated in western Eurasia, with all of its closest relatives being viruses of monocotyledonous plants. Here we report that we have identified a sister lineage of TuMV-like potyviruses (TuMV-OM) from European orchids. The isolates of TuMV-OM form a monophyletic sister lineage to the brassica-infecting TuMVs (TuMV-BIs), and are nested within a clade of monocotyledon-infecting viruses. Extensive host-range tests showed that all of the TuMV-OMs are biologically similar to, but distinct from, TuMV-BIs and do not readily infect brassicas. We conclude that it is more likely that TuMV evolved from a TuMV-OM-like ancestor than the reverse. We did Bayesian coalescent analyses using a combination of novel and published sequence data from four TuMV genes [helper component-proteinase protein (HC-Pro), protein 3(P3), nuclear inclusion b protein (NIb), and coat protein (CP)]. Three genes (HC-Pro, P3, and NIb), but not the CP gene, gave results indicating that the TuMV-BI viruses diverged from TuMV-OMs around 1000 years ago. Only 150 years later, the four lineages of the present global population of TuMV-BIs diverged from one another. These dates are congruent with historical records of the spread of agriculture in Western Europe. From about 1200 years ago, there was a warming of the climate, and agriculture and the human population of the region greatly increased. Farming replaced woodlands, fostering viruses and aphid vectors that could invade the crops, which included several brassica cultivars and weeds. Later, starting 500 years ago, inter-continental maritime trade probably spread the TuMV-BIs to the remainder of the world.

  15. Turnip Mosaic Potyvirus Probably First Spread to Eurasian Brassica Crops from Wild Orchids about 1000 Years Ago

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Huy D.; Tomitaka, Yasuhiro; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Duchêne, Sebastián; Vetten, Heinrich-Josef; Lesemann, Dietrich; Walsh, John A.; Gibbs, Adrian J.; Ohshima, Kazusato

    2013-01-01

    Turnip mosaic potyvirus (TuMV) is probably the most widespread and damaging virus that infects cultivated brassicas worldwide. Previous work has indicated that the virus originated in western Eurasia, with all of its closest relatives being viruses of monocotyledonous plants. Here we report that we have identified a sister lineage of TuMV-like potyviruses (TuMV-OM) from European orchids. The isolates of TuMV-OM form a monophyletic sister lineage to the brassica-infecting TuMVs (TuMV-BIs), and are nested within a clade of monocotyledon-infecting viruses. Extensive host-range tests showed that all of the TuMV-OMs are biologically similar to, but distinct from, TuMV-BIs and do not readily infect brassicas. We conclude that it is more likely that TuMV evolved from a TuMV-OM-like ancestor than the reverse. We did Bayesian coalescent analyses using a combination of novel and published sequence data from four TuMV genes [helper component-proteinase protein (HC-Pro), protein 3(P3), nuclear inclusion b protein (NIb), and coat protein (CP)]. Three genes (HC-Pro, P3, and NIb), but not the CP gene, gave results indicating that the TuMV-BI viruses diverged from TuMV-OMs around 1000 years ago. Only 150 years later, the four lineages of the present global population of TuMV-BIs diverged from one another. These dates are congruent with historical records of the spread of agriculture in Western Europe. From about 1200 years ago, there was a warming of the climate, and agriculture and the human population of the region greatly increased. Farming replaced woodlands, fostering viruses and aphid vectors that could invade the crops, which included several brassica cultivars and weeds. Later, starting 500 years ago, inter-continental maritime trade probably spread the TuMV-BIs to the remainder of the world. PMID:23405136

  16. Turnip mosaic potyvirus probably first spread to Eurasian brassica crops from wild orchids about 1000 years ago.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huy D; Tomitaka, Yasuhiro; Ho, Simon Y W; Duchêne, Sebastián; Vetten, Heinrich-Josef; Lesemann, Dietrich; Walsh, John A; Gibbs, Adrian J; Ohshima, Kazusato

    2013-01-01

    Turnip mosaic potyvirus (TuMV) is probably the most widespread and damaging virus that infects cultivated brassicas worldwide. Previous work has indicated that the virus originated in western Eurasia, with all of its closest relatives being viruses of monocotyledonous plants. Here we report that we have identified a sister lineage of TuMV-like potyviruses (TuMV-OM) from European orchids. The isolates of TuMV-OM form a monophyletic sister lineage to the brassica-infecting TuMVs (TuMV-BIs), and are nested within a clade of monocotyledon-infecting viruses. Extensive host-range tests showed that all of the TuMV-OMs are biologically similar to, but distinct from, TuMV-BIs and do not readily infect brassicas. We conclude that it is more likely that TuMV evolved from a TuMV-OM-like ancestor than the reverse. We did Bayesian coalescent analyses using a combination of novel and published sequence data from four TuMV genes [helper component-proteinase protein (HC-Pro), protein 3(P3), nuclear inclusion b protein (NIb), and coat protein (CP)]. Three genes (HC-Pro, P3, and NIb), but not the CP gene, gave results indicating that the TuMV-BI viruses diverged from TuMV-OMs around 1000 years ago. Only 150 years later, the four lineages of the present global population of TuMV-BIs diverged from one another. These dates are congruent with historical records of the spread of agriculture in Western Europe. From about 1200 years ago, there was a warming of the climate, and agriculture and the human population of the region greatly increased. Farming replaced woodlands, fostering viruses and aphid vectors that could invade the crops, which included several brassica cultivars and weeds. Later, starting 500 years ago, inter-continental maritime trade probably spread the TuMV-BIs to the remainder of the world. PMID:23405136

  17. Sorghums as energy crops

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinsky, E. S.; Kresovich, S.

    1980-01-01

    The botanical, physiological, and agronomic characteristics of sorghum are described. Integration concepts to improve sorghum prospects are discussed as follows: multiple sweet sorghum crops each year, integration with sugarcane, integration with sugar beets, integration with starch crops, sweet stemmed grain sorghum, and integration with lignocellulosic crops. (MHR)

  18. Hyperspectral remote sensing of vegetation and agricultural crops: knowledge gain and knowledge gap after 40 years of research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Lyon, John G.; Huete, Alfredo; Edited by Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Lyon, John G.; Huete, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this chapter was to summarize the advances made over last 40+ years, as reported in various chapters of this book, in understanding, modeling, and mapping terrestrial vegetation using hyperspectral remote sensing (or imaging spectroscopy) using sensors that are ground-based, truck-mounted, airborne, and spaceborne. As we have seen in various chapters of this book and synthesized in this chapter, the advances made include: (a) significantly improved characterization and modeling of a wide array of biophysical and biochemical properties of vegetation, (b) ability to discriminate plant species and vegetation types with high degree of accuracies (c) reducing uncertainties in determining net primary productivity or carbon assessments from terrestrial vegetation, (d) improved crop productivity and water productivity models, (b), (e) ability to access stress resulting from causes such as management practices, pests and disease, water deficit or excess; , and (f) establishing more sensitive wavebands and indices to detect plant water\\moisture content. The advent of spaceborne hyperspectral sensors (e.g., NASA’s Hyperion, ESA’s PROBA, and upcoming NASA’s HyspIRI) and numerous methods and techniques espoused in this book to overcome Hughes phenomenon or data redundancy when handling large volumes of hyperspectral data have generated tremendous interest in advancing our hyperspectral applications knowledge base over larger spatial extent such as region, nation, continent, and globe.

  19. Weather and Management Effects over Nine Years of Net Ecosystem Direct Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a Cropping System in the Red River Valley, Manitoba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenuta, M.; Amiro, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    Variation in weather and crop management practices strongly determines direct greenhouse gas emissions (CO2 and N2O) from agricultural crop land. Thus a long-term study was established to relate weather and management variations to direct emissions in the Northern Great Plains of Canada. Continuously emission determinations of CO2 and N2O were established at the Trace Gas Manitoba (TGAS-MAN) Long Term Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Site at Glenlea, Manitoba, using the flux gradient micrometeorlogical technique with a tunable diode laser analyzer. The soil is poorly drained clay in the Red River Valley. The field experiment consisted of four 4-hectare plots planted to corn in 2006 and faba bean in 2007. In 2008, grass-alfalfa forage was introduced to two plots (annual - perennial) and grown until 2011 whereas the other two plots (annual) were planted to annual crops: spring wheat, rapeseed, barley and spring wheat in 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011, respectively. In late September of 2011 the grass-alfalfa forage was killed and in 2012, 2013 and 2014 all four plots were planted with corn, soybean and spring wheat, respectively. Management decisions increased emissions such as fertilizer N addition, and hay, straw and silage crop removal greatly increased emissions while choosing legume grain and perennial crops reduced emissions. Weather variation affecting seasonal and daily soil moisture, length of spring freeze-thaw period, and crop yield served to increase or decrease emissions. The variation in management and weather will be discussed in regards to impact on net emissions over the nine year study and answer if development of greenhouse gas neutral cropping systems is possible.

  20. Effect of a 5-Year Multi-Crop Rotation on Mineral N and Hard Red Spring Wheat Yield, Protein, Test Weight and Economics in Western North Dakota, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landblom, Douglas; Senturklu, Songul; Cihacek, Larry; Brevik, Eric

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of this non-irrigated cropping study was to employ the principles of soil health and determine the effect of rotation on seasonal mineral N, HRSW production, protein, test weight, and economics. Prior to the initiation of this research, the cropping study area had been previously seeded to hard red spring wheat (HRSW). The cropping systems consisted of a continuous HRSW control (C) compared to HRSW grown in a multi-crop 5-year rotation (R). The 5-yr rotation consisted of HRSW, cover crop (dual crop winter triticale-hairy vetch harvested for hay in June and immediately reseeded to a 7-species cover crop mix grazed by cows after weaning from mid-November to mid-December), forage corn, field pea-forage barley, and sunflower. The cereal grains, cover crops, and pea-barley intercrop were seeded using a JD 1590 no-till drill, 19 cm row spacing, and seed depth of 2.54 cm Cereal grain plant population was 3,088,750 plants/ha. The row crops were planted using a JD 7000 no-till planter, 76.2 cm row spacing, and seed depth of 5.08 cm. Plant population for the row crops was 46,947 plants/ha. Weeds were controlled using a pre-plant burn down and post-emergence control except for cover crops and pea-barley where a pre-plant burn down was the only chemical applied. Fertilizer application was based on soil test results and recommendations from the North Dakota State University Soil Testing Laboratory. During the 1st three years of the study 31.8 kg of N was applied to the C HRSW and then none the last two years of the 5-year period. The R HRSW was fertilized with 13.6 kg of N the 1st two years of the study and none the remaining three years of the 5-year period. However, chloride was low; therefore, 40.7-56.1 kg/ha were applied each year to both the C and R treatments. Based on 2014 and 2015 seasonal mineral N values, the data suggests that N levels were adequate to meet the 2690 kg/ha yield goal. In 2015, however, the R yield goal was exceeded by 673 kg/ha whereas

  1. Eight years of Conservation Agriculture-based cropping systems research in Eastern Africa to conserve soil and water and mitigate effects of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araya, Tesfay; Nyssen, Jan; Govaerts, Bram; Lanckriet, Sil; Baudron, Frédéric; Deckers, Jozef; Cornelis, Wim

    2014-05-01

    In Ethiopia, repeated plowing, complete removal of crop residues at harvest, aftermath grazing of crop fields and occurrence of repeated droughts have reduced the biomass return to the soil and aggravated cropland degradation. Conservation Agriculture (CA)-based resource conserving cropping systems may reduce runoff and soil erosion, and improve soil quality, thereby increasing crop productivity. Thus, a long-term tillage experiment has been carried out (2005 to 2012) on a Vertisol to quantify - among others - changes in runoff and soil loss for two local tillage practices, modified to integrate CA principles in semi-arid northern Ethiopia. The experimental layout was a randomized complete block design with three replications on permanent plots of 5 m by 19 m. The tillage treatments were (i) derdero+ (DER+) with a furrow and permanent raised bed planting system, ploughed only once at planting by refreshing the furrow from 2005 to 2012 and 30% standing crop residue retention, (ii) terwah+ (TER+) with furrows made at 1.5 m interval, plowed once at planting, 30% standing crop residue retention and fresh broad beds, and (iii) conventional tillage (CT) with a minimum of three plain tillage operations and complete removal of crop residues. All the plowing and reshaping of the furrows was done using the local ard plough mahresha and wheat, teff, barley and grass pea were grown. Glyphosate was sprayed starting from the third year onwards (2007) at 2 l ha-1 before planting to control pre-emergent weeds in CA plots. Runoff and soil loss were measured daily. Soil water content was monitored every 6 days. Significantly different (p<0.05) runoff coefficients averaged over 8 years were 14, 20 and 27% for DER+, TER+ and CT, respectively. Mean soil losses were 4 t ha-1 y-1 in DER+, 13 in TER+ and 18 in CT. Soil water storage during the growing season was constantly higher in CA-based systems compared with CT. A period of at least three years of cropping was required before

  2. Hydraulic properties comparison in the calibration of CropSyst, SWAP and MACRO models in simulating soil water content for 3 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonfante, A.; Fragnito, F.; Manna, P.; Orefice, N.; Pastori, M.; Perego, A.

    2009-04-01

    The quantification of the water balance components within soil-crop-climate system is strictly required to derive proper management conditions for plant growth and environmental protection. Numerical models are currently accepted as helpful tools to gain into the processes occurring in the soil-crop-climate system and to extrapolate data. A large number of available models solves, at field scale, the water balance components by the well known Richard's equation. Despite their common basis of the representation of water flow in the unsaturated zone, it is possible that with the same pedological, climatic and agronomic management conditions, apparently similar hydrological models give different answers. Therefore, to test the capability of a model to represent reality, model simulation must be compared with experimental data and with simulations by other models. The objective of the present study was to evaluate and compare the performances of three well known models (SWAP, MACRO and CropSyst based on the solution of the Richard's equation). Main attention was focussed on the effects of the calibration of the three models on the soil hydraulic properties parameterization. The performance of SWAP, MACRO and CropSyst is compared using field data collected from a structured fine soil (Vertic Calciustepts located in Cerese, Mantova, Italy) cropped to maize. The models are tested and compared on the basis of their ability to predict in situ the measured soil water content at different depths during the years 2002-2004. Water contents was measured with a TDR equipment at 5 depth, where possible with daily frequency. All three models produce acceptable predictions, as evidence by an average root mean square error (RMSE) within ± 0.031 and an average coefficient of residual mass (CRM) within ± 0.66. The SWAP and CropSyst models produces the better performance, but in absolute none of the models is consistently more accurate than the others. In any case the different

  3. Efect of organic barley-based crop rotations on soil nutrient balance in a semiarid environment for a 16-year experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meco, Ramón; María Moreno, Marta; Lacasta, Carlos; Moreno, Carmen

    2013-04-01

    In natural ecosystems with no percolating moisture regime, the biogeochemical cycle can be considered a closed system because the nutrients extracted by the roots will be returned to the soil after a certain time. In organic farming, a cycle model as close as possible is taken as a guideline, but we have to consider that unlike natural ecosystems, where most of the nutrients remain in the cycle, the agrosystems are open cycles. To achieve a sustainable fertility of the soil, the soil nutrient levels, the extractions according to the expected crop yields and the export refunds in the form of crop residues, biological nitrogen fixation, green manure or compost will have to be determined. Nutrient balance should be closed with external inputs, always avoiding to be a source of negative impacts on the environment. In organic farming without exogenous inputs, the effect of the crop rotations is much more noticeable in the nutrient balance than in the conventional farming fields which every year receive inputs of nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) in the form of chemical fertilizers. The most extractive crop rotations are those that produce a greater decrease in soil reserves, and in these cases exogenous inputs to maintain sustainability should be considered; however, in less extractive crop rotations, extractions can be restored by the edaphogenesis processes. In this work, soil organic matter, phosphorus and potassium balances were analyzed in different organic barley-based crop rotations (barley monoculture [b-b] and in rotation with vetch for hay production [B-Vh], vetch as green manure [B-Vm], sunflower [B-S], chickpea [B-C] and fallow [B-F]) in clay soils under a semiarid environment ("La Higueruela" Experimental Farm, Santa Olalla, Toledo, central Spain) over a 16 year period. Additionally, barley monoculture in conventional farming [B-B] was included. In the organic system, the fertilization involved the barley straw in all rotations, the sunflower

  4. Current-year and Subsequent-year Effects of Crop-load Manipulation and Epicormic-shoot Removal on Distribution of Long, Short and Epicormic Shoot Growth in Prunus persica

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, D.; Dejong, T. M.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims The distribution of canopy growth among different shoot types such as epicormic, long and short shoots is not well understood in the peach tree. In this experiment, the effects of crop load and early epicormic sprout removal on current and subsequent-year distribution of vegetative growth among epicormic, long and short shoots was investigated in Prunus persica. Methods Field trials were conducted in Winters, California, in 2003–2004. Crop load was manipulated with fruit thinning in 2003 to produce trees that were de-fruited, commercially thinned or full crop, and half of the trees in each cropping treatment had all current year epicormic sprouts removed at the time of fruit thinning. Yield was recorded and trunk and root carbohydrates were sampled to confirm the effect of 2003 crop load differences on tissue carbohydrate concentration. All current-season vegetative-shoot extension growth was harvested from half of the trees in each treatment in the autumn of 2003 and from the other half in the autumn of 2004. Epicormic, long and short shoots were separately evaluated for dry weight, node number and leaf-stem parameters. Key Results In 2003, long-shoot dry weight and node number were significantly affected by crop load; however, short-shoot dry weight and node number were not significantly affected. The 2003 crop-load treatments did not affect 2004 vegetative growth of any shoot type. Some re-growth of epicormic shoots followed early epicormic sprout removal: by the end of the 2003 season, trees in the early shoot-removal treatment had approximately one-third of the epicormic-shoot dry weight as unpruned trees. Conclusions Fruit thinning promoted distribution of growth similar to that of de-fruited trees. While thinning was effective in increasing fruit size, it exacerbated the problem of epicormic sprouting. Early epicormic sprout removal did not stimulate the excessive epicormic re-growth in the same or subsequent year relative to previously

  5. Cover Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops are great tools to improve soil quality and health, and great tools to increase carbon sequestration. They are nutrient management tools that can help scavenge nitrate, cycle nitrogen to the following crop, mine NO3 from groundwater, and increase nitrogen use efficiency of cropping syste...

  6. A four-year field program investigating long-term effects of repeated exposure of honey bee colonies to flowering crops treated with thiamethoxam.

    PubMed

    Pilling, Edward; Campbell, Peter; Coulson, Mike; Ruddle, Natalie; Tornier, Ingo

    2013-01-01

    Neonicotinoid residues in nectar and pollen from crop plants have been implicated as one of the potential factors causing the declines of honey bee populations. Median residues of thiamethoxam in pollen collected from honey bees after foraging on flowering seed treated maize were found to be between 1 and 7 µg/kg, median residues of the metabolite CGA322704 (clothianidin) in the pollen were between 1 and 4 µg/kg. In oilseed rape, median residues of thiamethoxam found in pollen collected from bees were between <1 and 3.5 µg/kg and in nectar from foraging bees were between 0.65 and 2.4 µg/kg. Median residues of CGA322704 in pollen and nectar in the oilseed rape trials were all below the limit of quantification (1 µg/kg). Residues in the hive were even lower in both the maize and oilseed rape trials, being at or below the level of detection of 1 µg/kg for bee bread in the hive and at or below the level of detection of 0.5 µg/kg for hive nectar, honey and royal jelly samples. The long-term risk to honey bee colonies in the field was also investigated, including the sensitive overwintering stage, from four years consecutive single treatment crop exposures to flowering maize and oilseed rape grown from thiamethoxam treated seeds at rates recommended for insect control. Throughout the study, mortality, foraging behavior, colony strength, colony weight, brood development and food storage levels were similar between treatment and control colonies. Detailed examination of brood development throughout the year demonstrated that colonies exposed to the treated crop were able to successfully overwinter and had a similar health status to the control colonies in the following spring. We conclude that these data demonstrate there is a low risk to honey bees from systemic residues in nectar and pollen following the use of thiamethoxam as a seed treatment on oilseed rape and maize.

  7. Estimating winter cover crop nitrogen uptake with satellite imagery:four years of results from the Choptank River

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Choptank River Watershed Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) has now accumulated a four-year set of quarterly SPOT satellite images taken over the Eastern Shore of the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Imagery collected in December and March of each year were used to estimate the productivity...

  8. Comments on "Global crop yield reductions due to surface ozone exposure: 1. Year 2000 crop production losses and economic damage" and "Global crop yield reductions due to surface ozone exposure: 2. Year 2030 potential crop production losses and economic damage under two scenarios of O3 pollution" by Shiri Avnery, Denise L. Mauzerall, Junfeng Liu, Lary W. Horowitz [Atmospheric Environment 45, 2284-2296 and 2297-2309.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawahda, Amin

    2013-06-01

    The Authors (Avnery et al., 2011a,b) estimated the relative yield losses of wheat crop in China in 2000 and 2030 to be 15%-20% and 25%-30%, respectively. And the relative yield losses of soybean crop in China in 2000 and 2030 to be 20%-25% and 30%-45%, respectively. These findings do not agree with the information that shows the relative yield losses of wheat crop should be greater than those of soybean crop in China. Additionally, do not agree with the findings of previous studies.

  9. 7 CFR 929.250 - Marketable quantity and allotment percentage for the 2000-2001 crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., WISCONSIN, MICHIGAN, MINNESOTA, OREGON, WASHINGTON, AND LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Assessment Rate... percentage if the total industry sales history increases due to established growers receiving additional sales history on acreage with four years sales or less....

  10. 7 CFR 929.250 - Marketable quantity and allotment percentage for the 2000-2001 crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., WISCONSIN, MICHIGAN, MINNESOTA, OREGON, WASHINGTON, AND LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Assessment Rate... percentage if the total industry sales history increases due to established growers receiving additional sales history on acreage with four years sales or less....

  11. 7 CFR 929.250 - Marketable quantity and allotment percentage for the 2000-2001 crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., WISCONSIN, MICHIGAN, MINNESOTA, OREGON, WASHINGTON, AND LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Assessment Rate... percentage if the total industry sales history increases due to established growers receiving additional sales history on acreage with four years sales or less....

  12. 7 CFR 929.250 - Marketable quantity and allotment percentage for the 2000-2001 crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., WISCONSIN, MICHIGAN, MINNESOTA, OREGON, WASHINGTON, AND LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Assessment Rate... percentage if the total industry sales history increases due to established growers receiving additional sales history on acreage with four years sales or less....

  13. 7 CFR 929.250 - Marketable quantity and allotment percentage for the 2000-2001 crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., WISCONSIN, MICHIGAN, MINNESOTA, OREGON, WASHINGTON, AND LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Assessment Rate... percentage if the total industry sales history increases due to established growers receiving additional sales history on acreage with four years sales or less....

  14. Tree-ring footprints of drought variability in last ˜300 years over Kumaun Himalaya, India and its relationship with crop productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Ram R.; Misra, Krishna G.; Yadava, Akhilesh K.; Kotlia, Bahadur S.; Misra, Sandhya

    2015-06-01

    We reconstructed Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), a metric of drought, using tree-ring width chronologies of Himalayan cedar (Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) G. Don) prepared from two ecologically homogeneous settings in the Kumaun Himalaya, India. The reconstruction employing first principal component of the two site chronologies in linear regression model helped in extending 7-month SPI of May (SPI7-May) back to 1720 CE. The calibration model capturing 60% of variance in the observed SPI series (1902-1967) is the strongest so far from the Indian region. On achieving such a robust tree-ring calibration we are of the opinion that SPI should provide a better option to develop long-term drought records for the data scarce Himalayan region. The SPI reconstruction revealed high year-to-year variability with 1816 (SPI -1.92) and 1737 (SPI +2.33) the driest and the wettest years respectively. The five year mean of reconstructed SPI revealed multiyear droughts in 1920-1924, 1782-1786, 1812-1816, 1744-1748, 1964-1968 and pluvial phases in 1911-1915, 1723-1727, 1788-1792, 1758-1762 and 1733-1737. The SPI7-May was found to be significantly correlated with wheat-barley productivity data of Almora in Kumaun, close to our tree ring sites (r = 0.60, two-tailed p < 0.0001). However, we observed that the wheat-barley productivity data, to some extent, were better correlated with 7-month SPI of April (SPI7-April) (r = 0.69, two-tailed p < 0.0001). The difference in relationship of wheat-barley productivity and SPI of above two periods is largely due to the prevailing crop phenology in the region. The wheat and barley crops sown in October-November are usually harvested in May when the Himalayan cedar trees are in active vegetation phase of seasonal growth in Almora region. We observed strong and significant correlation in SPI7-May and SPI7-April (r = 0.75, two-tailed p = 0.0001) underpinning that the tree-ring derived SPI7-May could also be taken as a proxy of wheat-barley production

  15. A Four-Year Field Program Investigating Long-Term Effects of Repeated Exposure of Honey Bee Colonies to Flowering Crops Treated with Thiamethoxam

    PubMed Central

    Pilling, Edward; Campbell, Peter; Coulson, Mike; Ruddle, Natalie; Tornier, Ingo

    2013-01-01

    Neonicotinoid residues in nectar and pollen from crop plants have been implicated as one of the potential factors causing the declines of honey bee populations. Median residues of thiamethoxam in pollen collected from honey bees after foraging on flowering seed treated maize were found to be between 1 and 7 µg/kg, median residues of the metabolite CGA322704 (clothianidin) in the pollen were between 1 and 4 µg/kg. In oilseed rape, median residues of thiamethoxam found in pollen collected from bees were between <1 and 3.5 µg/kg and in nectar from foraging bees were between 0.65 and 2.4 µg/kg. Median residues of CGA322704 in pollen and nectar in the oilseed rape trials were all below the limit of quantification (1 µg/kg). Residues in the hive were even lower in both the maize and oilseed rape trials, being at or below the level of detection of 1 µg/kg for bee bread in the hive and at or below the level of detection of 0.5 µg/kg for hive nectar, honey and royal jelly samples. The long-term risk to honey bee colonies in the field was also investigated, including the sensitive overwintering stage, from four years consecutive single treatment crop exposures to flowering maize and oilseed rape grown from thiamethoxam treated seeds at rates recommended for insect control. Throughout the study, mortality, foraging behavior, colony strength, colony weight, brood development and food storage levels were similar between treatment and control colonies. Detailed examination of brood development throughout the year demonstrated that colonies exposed to the treated crop were able to successfully overwinter and had a similar health status to the control colonies in the following spring. We conclude that these data demonstrate there is a low risk to honey bees from systemic residues in nectar and pollen following the use of thiamethoxam as a seed treatment on oilseed rape and maize. PMID:24194871

  16. A four-year field program investigating long-term effects of repeated exposure of honey bee colonies to flowering crops treated with thiamethoxam.

    PubMed

    Pilling, Edward; Campbell, Peter; Coulson, Mike; Ruddle, Natalie; Tornier, Ingo

    2013-01-01

    Neonicotinoid residues in nectar and pollen from crop plants have been implicated as one of the potential factors causing the declines of honey bee populations. Median residues of thiamethoxam in pollen collected from honey bees after foraging on flowering seed treated maize were found to be between 1 and 7 µg/kg, median residues of the metabolite CGA322704 (clothianidin) in the pollen were between 1 and 4 µg/kg. In oilseed rape, median residues of thiamethoxam found in pollen collected from bees were between <1 and 3.5 µg/kg and in nectar from foraging bees were between 0.65 and 2.4 µg/kg. Median residues of CGA322704 in pollen and nectar in the oilseed rape trials were all below the limit of quantification (1 µg/kg). Residues in the hive were even lower in both the maize and oilseed rape trials, being at or below the level of detection of 1 µg/kg for bee bread in the hive and at or below the level of detection of 0.5 µg/kg for hive nectar, honey and royal jelly samples. The long-term risk to honey bee colonies in the field was also investigated, including the sensitive overwintering stage, from four years consecutive single treatment crop exposures to flowering maize and oilseed rape grown from thiamethoxam treated seeds at rates recommended for insect control. Throughout the study, mortality, foraging behavior, colony strength, colony weight, brood development and food storage levels were similar between treatment and control colonies. Detailed examination of brood development throughout the year demonstrated that colonies exposed to the treated crop were able to successfully overwinter and had a similar health status to the control colonies in the following spring. We conclude that these data demonstrate there is a low risk to honey bees from systemic residues in nectar and pollen following the use of thiamethoxam as a seed treatment on oilseed rape and maize. PMID:24194871

  17. Production of Short-Rotation Woody Crops Grown with a Range of Nutrient and Water Availability: Establishment Report and First-Year Responses

    SciTech Connect

    D.R. Coyle; J. Blake; K. Britton; M. Buford; R.G. Campbell; J. Cox; B. Cregg; D. Daniels; M. Jacobson; K. Johnsen; T. McDonald; K. McLeod; E. Nelson; D. Robison; R. Rummer; F. Sanchez; J. Stanturf; B. Stokes; C. Trettin; J. Tuskan; L. Wright; S. Wullschleger

    2003-12-31

    Coleman, M.D., et. al. 2003. Production of Short-Rotation Woody Crops Grown with a Range of Nutrient and Water Availability: Establishment Report and First-Year Responses. Report. USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, Aiken, SC. 26 pp. Abstract: Many researchers have studied the productivity potential of intensively managed forest plantations. However, we need to learn more about the effects of fundamental growth processes on forest productivity; especially the influence of aboveground and belowground resource acquisition and allocation. This report presents installation, establishment, and first-year results of four tree species (two cottonwood clones, sycamore, sweetgum, and loblolly pine) grown with fertilizer and irrigation treatments. At this early stage of development, irrigation and fertilization were additive only in cottonwood clone ST66 and sweetgum. Leaf area development was directly related to stem growth, but root production was not always consistent with shoot responses, suggesting that allocation of resources varies among treatments. We will evaluate the consequences of these early responses on resource availability in subsequent growing seasons. This information will be used to: (1) optimize fiber and bioenergy production; (2) understand carbon sequestration; and (3) develop innovative applications such as phytoremediation; municipal, industrial, and agricultural wastes management; and protection of soil, air, and water resources.

  18. Herbage intake and milk production of late-lactation dairy cows offered a second-year chicory crop during summer.

    PubMed

    Muir, S K; Ward, G N; Jacobs, J L

    2015-12-01

    Chicory (Cichorum intybus L.) is a summer-active forage herb which has been proposed as an option to increase summer feed supply, increase dry matter intake, nutrient intake, and milk yield from nonirrigated dairy production systems in southern Australia. Dry matter intake, nutrient intake, milk yield, and yield of milk fat and protein of predominantly Holstein-Friesian dairy cows in late lactation consuming 3 herbage-based diets (4 replicates per treatment) were measured. The 3 grazed herbages were second-year chicory (CHIC) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.; PRG) monocultures and a mixed sward (~50:50) of chicory and perennial ryegrass (MIX). All diets (CHIC, PRG, and MIX) were supplemented with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hay (5.5kg of DM/cow per day) and an energy-based concentrate pellet (4.0kg of DM/cow per day). There were no significant differences in milk yield (12.0 to 12.6kg/d across the treatments) or the yield of milk fat (539 to 585g/d) and milk protein (433 to 447g/d) between the 3 herbage-based diets. No differences in DMI (17.9 to 19.2kg/d) or estimated metabolizable energy intake (173 to 185MJ/d) were noted between treatments. Estimated metabolizable energy concentrations in the forages on offer were lower in CHIC than PRG (7.6 vs. 8.2MJ/kg of dry matter), but the concentration in consumed herbage was not different (9.1 vs. 9.2MJ/kg of dry matter); as such, potential for increased milk yield in cows offered CHIC was limited. Increased concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids was observed in chicory herbage compared with perennial ryegrass. This was associated with increased milk conjugated linoleic acid and milk polyunsaturated fatty acids when chicory formed part of the diet (CHIC compared to PRG and MIX). Chicory could be used as an alternative to perennial ryegrass in summer; however, the developmental stage of chicory will influence concentrations of metabolizable energy and neutral detergent fiber and, therefore, intake and milk

  19. Herbage intake and milk production of late-lactation dairy cows offered a second-year chicory crop during summer.

    PubMed

    Muir, S K; Ward, G N; Jacobs, J L

    2015-12-01

    Chicory (Cichorum intybus L.) is a summer-active forage herb which has been proposed as an option to increase summer feed supply, increase dry matter intake, nutrient intake, and milk yield from nonirrigated dairy production systems in southern Australia. Dry matter intake, nutrient intake, milk yield, and yield of milk fat and protein of predominantly Holstein-Friesian dairy cows in late lactation consuming 3 herbage-based diets (4 replicates per treatment) were measured. The 3 grazed herbages were second-year chicory (CHIC) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.; PRG) monocultures and a mixed sward (~50:50) of chicory and perennial ryegrass (MIX). All diets (CHIC, PRG, and MIX) were supplemented with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hay (5.5kg of DM/cow per day) and an energy-based concentrate pellet (4.0kg of DM/cow per day). There were no significant differences in milk yield (12.0 to 12.6kg/d across the treatments) or the yield of milk fat (539 to 585g/d) and milk protein (433 to 447g/d) between the 3 herbage-based diets. No differences in DMI (17.9 to 19.2kg/d) or estimated metabolizable energy intake (173 to 185MJ/d) were noted between treatments. Estimated metabolizable energy concentrations in the forages on offer were lower in CHIC than PRG (7.6 vs. 8.2MJ/kg of dry matter), but the concentration in consumed herbage was not different (9.1 vs. 9.2MJ/kg of dry matter); as such, potential for increased milk yield in cows offered CHIC was limited. Increased concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids was observed in chicory herbage compared with perennial ryegrass. This was associated with increased milk conjugated linoleic acid and milk polyunsaturated fatty acids when chicory formed part of the diet (CHIC compared to PRG and MIX). Chicory could be used as an alternative to perennial ryegrass in summer; however, the developmental stage of chicory will influence concentrations of metabolizable energy and neutral detergent fiber and, therefore, intake and milk

  20. Cultivated Grapevines Represent a Symptomless Reservoir for the Transmission of Hop Stunt Viroid to Hop Crops: 15 Years of Evolutionary Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi-Ito, Yoko; Li, Shi-Fang; Tagawa, Masaya; Araki, Hiroyuki; Goshono, Masafumi; Yamamoto, Shingen; Tanaka, Mayumi; Narita, Masako; Tanaka, Kazuaki; Liu, Sheng-Xue; Shikata, Eishiro; Sano, Teruo

    2009-01-01

    Hop stunt was a mysterious disorder that first emerged in the 1940s in commercial hops in Japan. To investigate the origin of this disorder, we infected hops with natural Hop stunt viroid (HpSVd) isolates derived from four host species (hop, grapevine, plum and citrus), which except for hop represent possible sources of the ancestral viroid. These plants were maintained for 15 years, then analyzed the HpSVd variants present. Here we show that the variant originally found in cultivated grapevines gave rise to various combinations of mutations at positions 25, 26, 54, 193, and 281. However, upon prolonged infection, these variants underwent convergent evolution resulting in a limited number of adapted mutants. Some of them showed nucleotide sequences identical to those currently responsible for hop stunt epidemics in commercial hops in Japan, China, and the United States. Therefore, these results indicate that we have successfully reproduced the original process by which a natural HpSVd variant naturally introduced into cultivated hops was able to mutate into the HpSVd variants that are currently present in commercial hops. Furthermore, and importantly, we have identified cultivated grapevines as a symptomless reservoir in which HSVd can evolve and be transmitted to hop crops to cause epidemics. PMID:20041179

  1. 7 CFR 457.169 - Mint crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... mint crop. Cover crop. A small grain crop seeded into mint acreage to reduce soil erosion and wind... planted for harvest during a previous crop year. Ground cover. Mint plants, including mint foliage and... coverages provided in these Crop Provisions, you may also elect the Winter Coverage Option in...

  2. 7 CFR 457.134 - Peanut crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Peanut crop insurance provisions. 457.134 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.134 Peanut crop insurance provisions. The Peanut Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2007 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  3. 7 CFR 457.135 - Onion crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Onion crop insurance provisions. 457.135 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.135 Onion crop insurance provisions. The onion crop insurance provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  4. 7 CFR 457.135 - Onion crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Onion crop insurance provisions. 457.135 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.135 Onion crop insurance provisions. The onion crop insurance provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  5. 7 CFR 457.135 - Onion crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Onion crop insurance provisions. 457.135 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.135 Onion crop insurance provisions. The onion crop insurance provisions for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  6. 7 CFR 457.158 - Apple crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apple crop insurance provisions. 457.158 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.158 Apple crop insurance provisions. The Apple Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2005 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  7. 7 CFR 457.158 - Apple crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apple crop insurance provisions. 457.158 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.158 Apple crop insurance provisions. The apple crop insurance provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  8. 7 CFR 457.158 - Apple crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apple crop insurance provisions. 457.158 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.158 Apple crop insurance provisions. The apple crop insurance provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  9. 7 CFR 457.158 - Apple crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apple crop insurance provisions. 457.158 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.158 Apple crop insurance provisions. The apple crop insurance provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  10. 7 CFR 457.158 - Apple crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apple crop insurance provisions. 457.158 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.158 Apple crop insurance provisions. The apple crop insurance provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  11. 7 CFR 457.104 - Cotton crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton crop insurance provisions. 457.104 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.104 Cotton crop insurance provisions. The cotton crop insurance provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as...

  12. 7 CFR 457.104 - Cotton crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton crop insurance provisions. 457.104 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.104 Cotton crop insurance provisions. The cotton crop insurance provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as...

  13. 7 CFR 457.104 - Cotton crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton crop insurance provisions. 457.104 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.104 Cotton crop insurance provisions. The cotton crop insurance provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as...

  14. 7 CFR 457.104 - Cotton crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton crop insurance provisions. 457.104 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.104 Cotton crop insurance provisions. The cotton crop insurance provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as...

  15. 7 CFR 457.116 - Sugarcane crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sugarcane crop insurance provisions. 457.116 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.116 Sugarcane crop insurance provisions. The Sugarcane Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as...

  16. 7 CFR 457.116 - Sugarcane crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sugarcane crop insurance provisions. 457.116 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.116 Sugarcane crop insurance provisions. The Sugarcane Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2004 and succeeding crop years are as...

  17. 7 CFR 457.116 - Sugarcane crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sugarcane crop insurance provisions. 457.116 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.116 Sugarcane crop insurance provisions. The Sugarcane Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as...

  18. 7 CFR 457.116 - Sugarcane crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sugarcane crop insurance provisions. 457.116 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.116 Sugarcane crop insurance provisions. The Sugarcane Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as...

  19. 7 CFR 457.116 - Sugarcane crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sugarcane crop insurance provisions. 457.116 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.116 Sugarcane crop insurance provisions. The Sugarcane Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as...

  20. 7 CFR 457.136 - Tobacco crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tobacco crop insurance provisions. 457.136 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.136 Tobacco crop insurance provisions. The Tobacco Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2010 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  1. 7 CFR 457.136 - Tobacco crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tobacco crop insurance provisions. 457.136 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.136 Tobacco crop insurance provisions. The Tobacco Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2010 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  2. 7 CFR 457.136 - Tobacco crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tobacco crop insurance provisions. 457.136 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.136 Tobacco crop insurance provisions. The Tobacco Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2010 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  3. 7 CFR 457.136 - Tobacco crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tobacco crop insurance provisions. 457.136 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.136 Tobacco crop insurance provisions. The Tobacco Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2010 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  4. 7 CFR 457.136 - Tobacco crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco crop insurance provisions. 457.136 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.136 Tobacco crop insurance provisions. The Tobacco Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2010 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  5. 7 CFR 457.171 - Cabbage crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cabbage crop insurance provisions. 457.171 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.171 Cabbage crop insurance provisions. The Cabbage Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  6. 7 CFR 457.171 - Cabbage crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cabbage crop insurance provisions. 457.171 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.171 Cabbage crop insurance provisions. The Cabbage Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  7. 7 CFR 457.171 - Cabbage crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cabbage crop insurance provisions. 457.171 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.171 Cabbage crop insurance provisions. The Cabbage Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  8. 7 CFR 457.171 - Cabbage crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cabbage crop insurance provisions. 457.171 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.171 Cabbage crop insurance provisions. The Cabbage Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  9. Soil quality and the solar corridor crop system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The solar corridor crop system (SCCS) is designed for improved crop productivity based on highly efficient use of solar radiation by integrating row crops with drilled or solid-seeded crops in broad strips (corridors) that also facilitate establishment of cover crops for year-round soil cover. The S...

  10. Soil Quality and the Solar Corridor Crop System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The solar corridor crop system (SCCS) is designed for improved crop productivity based on highly efficient use of solar radiation by integrating row crops with drilled or solid-seeded crops in broad strips (corridors) that also facilitate establishment of cover crops for year-round soil cover. The S...

  11. Sunflower crop

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, B.H.

    1981-05-01

    A review of the sunflower as a major commercial crop, including its history, cultivation, hybridization and uses. It is grown principally for its oil which is high in polyunsaturated fatty acids and used in a variety of foods. Recently it has been tested in diesel engines and a high protein meal is produced from the seed residues.

  12. Selection of fungi by candidate cover crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diversified cropping systems that incorporate year-round ground cover, are known to maintain healthy soils. Information is available for producers regarding the benefits of specific cover crop species for soil fertility, weed and pest management. Even though it is widely recognized that cover crops ...

  13. The Area IV Soil Conservation Districts Cooperative Research Farm: Thirty years of collaborative research to improve cropping system sustainability in the Northern Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Findings and interpretations generated from long-term cropping system studies serve to inform the status and trajectory of ecosystem services, while concurrently providing opportunities for further inquiry related to basic/fundamental research. Recent calls for increased investment in long-term cro...

  14. Oil Crop Potential for Biodiesel Production: Summary of Three Years of Spring Mustard Research -- Methodologies, Results, and Recommendations; 2000-2003

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.

    2005-07-01

    This report summarizes a project whose goal was to support R&D to develop an oil-seed crop that has the potential to reduce the feedstock cost of biodiesel to between 7 and 8 cents per pound of oil and expand supplies of biodiesel as demand for biodiesel grows. The key to this goal is that the non-oil fraction of the oil crop (the seed meal) must have a high value outside of the animal feed markets and produce oil that is not suitable for human consumption. To that end, a spring breeding program was developed to increase diversity of glucosinolate and the concentration of glucosinolates in the meal and to optimize the oil composition for biodiesel fuels. This report presents the research on the spring planted hybrids.

  15. Global crop forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, R. B.; Hall, F. G.

    1980-01-01

    The needs for and remote sensing means of global crop forecasting are discussed, and key results of the Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE) are presented. Current crop production estimates provided by foreign countries are shown often to be inadequate, and the basic elements of crop production forecasts are reviewed. The LACIE project is introduced as a proof-of-concept experiment designed to assimilate remote sensing technology, monitor global wheat production, evaluate key technical problems, modify the technique accordingly and demonstrate the feasibility of a global agricultural monitoring system. The global meteorological data, sampling and aggregation techniques, Landsat data analysis procedures and yield forecast procedures used in the experiment are outlined. Accuracy assessment procedures employed to evaluate LACIE technology performance are presented, and improvements in system efficiency and capacity during the three years of operation are pointed out. Results of LACIE estimates of Soviet, U.S. and Canadian wheat production are presented which demonstrate the feasibility and accuracy of the remote-sensing approach for global food and fiber monitoring.

  16. Firewood crops

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This report does not suggest a solution to the entire firewood crisis but examines one part of the solution: the selection of species suitable for deliberate cultivation as firewood crops in developing countries. Primary emphasis is placed on species suitable for growing firewood for individual family needs. However, species suited to plantation cultivation for fueling small industrial factories, electric generators, and crop dryers are also considered. Most of the plants are little known in traditional forest production. Some are woody shrubs rather than forest trees, but even these may meet many requirements for small-scale village use. Particular attention was paid to multi-purpose plants that have uses in addition to providing fuel, plants that adapt well to different sites and require little care, plants for problem environments and plants not consumed by goats and wildlife. Special consideration was given to nitrogen-fixing ability, rapid growth, ability to coppice, ability to produce wood of high calorific value that burns without sparks or toxic smoke and ability to grow successfully in a wide range of environments. After an introduction on wood as fuel, more than 60 fuel-wood species for humid tropical, tropical highland and arid and semi-arid regions are presented. The data on existing plants cover their major attributes, description, distribution, use as fuelwood, yield, other uses, environmental requirements, establishment, pest and diseases and limitations. Appendices include technologies for improving the efficiency of fuelwood use, case studies from Ethiopia and the Republic of Korea and a master list of firewood species.

  17. Cover cropping and no-tillage improve soil health in arid irrigated cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact on soil health of long-term no-tillage (NT) and cover cropping (CC) practices, alone and in combination, was measured and compared with standard tillage (ST) with and without cover crops (NO) in irrigated row crops after 15 years of management in the San Joaquin Valley, CA. Soil aggregat...

  18. 7 CFR 457.151 - Forage seeding crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... with agronomic and weather conditions in the county. Harvest. Severance of the forage plant from its... application must be filed and by which you may change your crop insurance coverage for a crop year. If the... insured crop and you plant any insurable fall seeded acreage, you may not change your crop...

  19. A Crop Simulation Model for Prediction of Yield and Fate of Nitrogen in Irrigated Potato Rotation Cropping System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Simulation models are valuable tools to evaluate the soil processes, crop growth and production under varied agroclimatic and management conditions. In this study, an upgraded potato crop growth simulation model (CSPotato) was integrated with a multi-year, multi-crop simulation model (CropSystVB)....

  20. From crop domestication to super-domestication.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, D A; Balázs, E; Heslop-Harrison, J S

    2007-11-01

    Research related to crop domestication has been transformed by technologies and discoveries in the genome sciences as well as information-related sciences that are providing new tools for bioinformatics and systems' biology. Rapid progress in archaeobotany and ethnobotany are also contributing new knowledge to understanding crop domestication. This sense of rapid progress is encapsulated in this Special Issue, which contains 18 papers by scientists in botanical, crop sciences and related disciplines on the topic of crop domestication. One paper focuses on current themes in the genetics of crop domestication across crops, whereas other papers have a crop or geographic focus. One feature of progress in the sciences related to crop domestication is the availability of well-characterized germplasm resources in the global network of genetic resources centres (genebanks). Germplasm in genebanks is providing research materials for understanding domestication as well as for plant breeding. In this review, we highlight current genetic themes related to crop domestication. Impressive progress in this field in recent years is transforming plant breeding into crop engineering to meet the human need for increased crop yield with the minimum environmental impact - we consider this to be 'super-domestication'. While the time scale of domestication of 10 000 years or less is a very short evolutionary time span, the details emerging of what has happened and what is happening provide a window to see where domestication might - and can - advance in the future.

  1. Connecting Groundwater, Crop Price, and Crop Production Variability in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollack, A.; Lobell, D. B.; Jain, M.

    2015-12-01

    Farmers in India rely on groundwater resources for irrigation and production of staple crops that provide over half of the calories consumed domestically each year. While this has been a productive strategy in increasing agricultural production and maintaining high yields, groundwater resources are depleting at a quicker rate than natural resources can replace. This issue gains relevance as climate variability concurrently adds to yearly fluctuations in farmer demand for irrigation each year, which can create high risk for farmers that depend on consistent yields, but do not have access to dwindling water resources. This study investigates variability in groundwater levels from 2005 to 2013 in relation to crop prices and production by analyzing district-level datasets made available through India's government. Through this analysis, we show the impact of groundwater variability on price variability, crop yield, and production during these years. By examining this nine-year timescale, we extend our analysis to forthcoming years to demonstrate the increasing importance of groundwater resources in irrigation, and suggest strategies to reduce the impact of groundwater shortages on crop production and prices.

  2. Effects of atmospheric VPD, plant canopies, and low-water years on leaf stomatal conductance and photosynthetic water use efficiency in fifteen potential crop species for use in arid environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lue, A.; Jasoni, R. L.; Arnone, J.

    2011-12-01

    When evaluating the potential for growing alternative crop species in arid environments, high vapor pressure deficits (VPDs) that could potentially inhibit crop productivity by limiting stomatal conductance and CO2 uptake must be considered. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of VPD and irrigation levels on leaf stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthetic water use efficiency (PWUE) for a range of alternative crop species for aridland agriculture. We evaluated fifteen alternative crops in a field trial in the northern Nevada Walker River Basin. Plots of each species were subjected to two irrigation treatments, 4 and 2 acre-feet per growing season, to simulate normal-year and dry-year irrigation levels. We quantified gs and photosynthesis (A) under decreasing relative humidity (RH) (increasing VPDs) in 10% increments, from about 75% to 2%. About seventeen leaves per species were measured throughout the 2010 growing season over eleven days of samplings. Canopy air temperature and RH were logged in experimental plots to calculate diel and seasonal patterns in canopy VPD. Volumetric water content was also collected to quantify the effects of irrigation treatments on soil moisture and leaf gas exchange. Species varied in their gs and PWUE responses to increasing VPD. Stomatal conductance (gs) of leaves of all species generally increased initially as RH was lowered but then decreased at differing rates as RH dropped further. Average gs (across all measurement VPDs), maximum gs, maximum PWUE, and corresponding VPDs differed among species and between irrigation treatments. Some species (Medicago sativa, Leymus racemosus) showed higher gs across the range of measurement VPDs than other species (Bothrichloa ischaemum, Sorghastrum nutans), while some species exhibited maximum gs and maximum PWUE at higher VPDs (Erograstis tef, Calamovilfa longifolia) than other species (Leymus cinereus, Sorghastrum nutans). These results suggest that some species may

  3. Genetics and consequences of crop domestication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenotypic variation has been manipulated by humans during crop domestication, which occurred primarily between 3,000 and 10,000 years ago in the various centers of origin around the world. The process of domestication has profound consequences on crops, where the domesticate has moderately reduced ...

  4. Linking Drought Information to Crop Yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madadgar, S.; Farahmand, A.; Li, L.; Aghakouchak, A.

    2015-12-01

    Droughts have detrimental impacts on agricultural yields all over the world every year. This study analyzes the relationship between three drought indicators including Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI); Standardized Soil Moisture Index (SSI), Multivariate Standardized Drought Index (MSDI) and the yields of five largest rain-fed crops in Australia (wheat, broad beans, canola, lupins and barley). Variation of the five chosen crop yields is overall in agreement with the three drought indicators SPI, SSI, and MSDI during the analysis period of 1980-2012. This study develops a bivariate copula model to investigate the statistical dependence of drought and crop yield. Copula functions are used to establish the existing connections between climate variables and crop yields during the Millennium drought in Australia. The proposed model estimates the likelihood of crop yields given the observed or predicted drought indicators SPI, SSI or MSDI. The results are also useful to estimate crop yields associated with different thresholds of precipitation or soil moisture.

  5. Biodiversity: Building blocks for crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An increasing global population will require more efficient food production. By year 2025, we will need 20-24% increases in yields of crops to meet the projected increase in food, fiber, and bioenergy demand from the global population. The competition to use limited land and sometimes compromised ...

  6. Origins of food crops connect countries worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Achicanoy, Harold A.; Bjorkman, Anne D.; Navarro-Racines, Carlos; Guarino, Luigi; Flores-Palacios, Ximena; Engels, Johannes M. M.; Wiersema, John H.; Dempewolf, Hannes; Sotelo, Steven; Ramírez-Villegas, Julian; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P.; Fowler, Cary; Jarvis, Andy; Rieseberg, Loren H.; Struik, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    Research into the origins of food plants has led to the recognition that specific geographical regions around the world have been of particular importance to the development of agricultural crops. Yet the relative contributions of these different regions in the context of current food systems have not been quantified. Here we determine the origins (‘primary regions of diversity’) of the crops comprising the food supplies and agricultural production of countries worldwide. We estimate the degree to which countries use crops from regions of diversity other than their own (‘foreign crops’), and quantify changes in this usage over the past 50 years. Countries are highly interconnected with regard to primary regions of diversity of the crops they cultivate and/or consume. Foreign crops are extensively used in food supplies (68.7% of national food supplies as a global mean are derived from foreign crops) and production systems (69.3% of crops grown are foreign). Foreign crop usage has increased significantly over the past 50 years, including in countries with high indigenous crop diversity. The results provide a novel perspective on the ongoing globalization of food systems worldwide, and bolster evidence for the importance of international collaboration on genetic resource conservation and exchange.

  7. Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization in Relation to Soil Particle-Size Fractions after 32 Years of Chemical and Manure Application in a Continuous Maize Cropping System

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Xingfang; Zhu, Ping; Zhang, Wenju; Xu, Minggang; Murphy, Daniel V.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term manure application is recognized as an efficient management practice to enhance soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation and nitrogen (N) mineralization capacity. A field study was established in 1979 to understand the impact of long-term manure and/or chemical fertilizer application on soil fertility in a continuous maize cropping system. Soil samples were collected from field plots in 2012 from 9 fertilization treatments (M0CK, M0N, M0NPK, M30CK, M30N, M30NPK, M60CK, M60N, and M60NPK) where M0, M30, and M60 refer to manure applied at rates of 0, 30, and 60 t ha−1 yr−1, respectively; CK indicates no fertilizer; N and NPK refer to chemical fertilizer in the forms of either N or N plus phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Soils were separated into three particle-size fractions (2000–250, 250–53, and <53 μm) by dry- and wet-sieving. A laboratory incubation study of these separated particle-size fractions was used to evaluate the effect of long-term manure, in combination with/without chemical fertilization application, on the accumulation and mineralization of SOC and total N in each fraction. Results showed that long-term manure application significantly increased SOC and total N content and enhanced C and N mineralization in the three particle-size fractions. The content of SOC and total N followed the order 2000–250 μm > 250–53μm > 53 μm fraction, whereas the amount of C and N mineralization followed the reverse order. In the <53 μm fraction, the M60NPK treatment significantly increased the amount of C and N mineralized (7.0 and 10.1 times, respectively) compared to the M0CK treatment. Long-term manure application, especially when combined with chemical fertilizers, resulted in increased soil microbial biomass C and N, and a decreased microbial metabolic quotient. Consequently, long-term manure fertilization was beneficial to both soil C and N turnover and microbial activity, and had significant effect on the microbial metabolic quotient

  8. Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization in Relation to Soil Particle-Size Fractions after 32 Years of Chemical and Manure Application in a Continuous Maize Cropping System.

    PubMed

    Cai, Andong; Xu, Hu; Shao, Xingfang; Zhu, Ping; Zhang, Wenju; Xu, Minggang; Murphy, Daniel V

    2016-01-01

    Long-term manure application is recognized as an efficient management practice to enhance soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation and nitrogen (N) mineralization capacity. A field study was established in 1979 to understand the impact of long-term manure and/or chemical fertilizer application on soil fertility in a continuous maize cropping system. Soil samples were collected from field plots in 2012 from 9 fertilization treatments (M0CK, M0N, M0NPK, M30CK, M30N, M30NPK, M60CK, M60N, and M60NPK) where M0, M30, and M60 refer to manure applied at rates of 0, 30, and 60 t ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively; CK indicates no fertilizer; N and NPK refer to chemical fertilizer in the forms of either N or N plus phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Soils were separated into three particle-size fractions (2000-250, 250-53, and <53 μm) by dry- and wet-sieving. A laboratory incubation study of these separated particle-size fractions was used to evaluate the effect of long-term manure, in combination with/without chemical fertilization application, on the accumulation and mineralization of SOC and total N in each fraction. Results showed that long-term manure application significantly increased SOC and total N content and enhanced C and N mineralization in the three particle-size fractions. The content of SOC and total N followed the order 2000-250 μm > 250-53 μm > 53 μm fraction, whereas the amount of C and N mineralization followed the reverse order. In the <53 μm fraction, the M60NPK treatment significantly increased the amount of C and N mineralized (7.0 and 10.1 times, respectively) compared to the M0CK treatment. Long-term manure application, especially when combined with chemical fertilizers, resulted in increased soil microbial biomass C and N, and a decreased microbial metabolic quotient. Consequently, long-term manure fertilization was beneficial to both soil C and N turnover and microbial activity, and had significant effect on the microbial metabolic quotient. PMID

  9. Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization in Relation to Soil Particle-Size Fractions after 32 Years of Chemical and Manure Application in a Continuous Maize Cropping System.

    PubMed

    Cai, Andong; Xu, Hu; Shao, Xingfang; Zhu, Ping; Zhang, Wenju; Xu, Minggang; Murphy, Daniel V

    2016-01-01

    Long-term manure application is recognized as an efficient management practice to enhance soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation and nitrogen (N) mineralization capacity. A field study was established in 1979 to understand the impact of long-term manure and/or chemical fertilizer application on soil fertility in a continuous maize cropping system. Soil samples were collected from field plots in 2012 from 9 fertilization treatments (M0CK, M0N, M0NPK, M30CK, M30N, M30NPK, M60CK, M60N, and M60NPK) where M0, M30, and M60 refer to manure applied at rates of 0, 30, and 60 t ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively; CK indicates no fertilizer; N and NPK refer to chemical fertilizer in the forms of either N or N plus phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Soils were separated into three particle-size fractions (2000-250, 250-53, and <53 μm) by dry- and wet-sieving. A laboratory incubation study of these separated particle-size fractions was used to evaluate the effect of long-term manure, in combination with/without chemical fertilization application, on the accumulation and mineralization of SOC and total N in each fraction. Results showed that long-term manure application significantly increased SOC and total N content and enhanced C and N mineralization in the three particle-size fractions. The content of SOC and total N followed the order 2000-250 μm > 250-53 μm > 53 μm fraction, whereas the amount of C and N mineralization followed the reverse order. In the <53 μm fraction, the M60NPK treatment significantly increased the amount of C and N mineralized (7.0 and 10.1 times, respectively) compared to the M0CK treatment. Long-term manure application, especially when combined with chemical fertilizers, resulted in increased soil microbial biomass C and N, and a decreased microbial metabolic quotient. Consequently, long-term manure fertilization was beneficial to both soil C and N turnover and microbial activity, and had significant effect on the microbial metabolic quotient.

  10. Wind Turbines Benefit Crops

    ScienceCinema

    Takle, Gene

    2016-07-12

    Ames Laboratory associate scientist Gene Takle talks about research into the effect of wind turbines on nearby crops. Preliminary results show the turbines may have a positive effect by cooling and drying the crops and assisting with carbon dioxide uptake.

  11. Wind Turbines Benefit Crops

    SciTech Connect

    Takle, Gene

    2010-01-01

    Ames Laboratory associate scientist Gene Takle talks about research into the effect of wind turbines on nearby crops. Preliminary results show the turbines may have a positive effect by cooling and drying the crops and assisting with carbon dioxide uptake.

  12. Cover crops for Alabama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops are grown to benefit the following crop as well as to improve the soil, but they are normally not intended for harvest. Selecting the right cover crops for farming operations can improve yields, soil and water conservation and quality, and economic productivity. Properly managed cover ...

  13. Cucurbitaceae (Vine Crops)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cucurbitaceae or vine crop family is a distinct family without any close relatives. The Cucurbitaceae or vine crop family includes many important vegetables collectively referred to as cucurbits. Cucumber, melon, and watermelon are major crop species originally from the Old World (cucumber fro...

  14. Ecoinformatics reveals effects of crop rotational histories on cotton yield.

    PubMed

    Meisner, Matthew H; Rosenheim, Jay A

    2014-01-01

    Crop rotation has been practiced for centuries in an effort to improve agricultural yield. However, the directions, magnitudes, and mechanisms of the yield effects of various crop rotations remain poorly understood in many systems. In order to better understand how crop rotation influences cotton yield, we used hierarchical Bayesian models to analyze a large ecoinformatics database consisting of records of commercial cotton crops grown in California's San Joaquin Valley. We identified several crops that, when grown in a field the year before a cotton crop, were associated with increased or decreased cotton yield. Furthermore, there was a negative association between the effect of the prior year's crop on June densities of the pest Lygus hesperus and the effect of the prior year's crop on cotton yield. This suggested that some crops may enhance L. hesperus densities in the surrounding agricultural landscape, because residual L. hesperus populations from the previous year cannot continuously inhabit a focal field and attack a subsequent cotton crop. In addition, we found that cotton yield declined approximately 2.4% for each additional year in which cotton was grown consecutively in a field prior to the focal cotton crop. Because L. hesperus is quite mobile, the effects of crop rotation on L. hesperus would likely not be revealed by small plot experimentation. These results provide an example of how ecoinformatics datasets, which capture the true spatial scale of commercial agriculture, can be used to enhance agricultural productivity.

  15. Using Satellite Data To Map Crops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hlavka, Christine A.; Sheffner, Edwin J.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes 4-year cooperative project to develop procedures for mapping land used to grow major crops in California. Participants used images and data from Landsat Earth-observing satellite as well as ground survey data.

  16. 7 CFR 457.151 - Forage seeding crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and weather conditions in the county. Harvest. Severance of the forage plant from its roots. Acreage... may change your crop insurance coverage for a crop year. If the Special Provisions provide a sales... insurable fall seeded acreage, you may not change your crop insurance coverage after the fall sales...

  17. Deriving crop calendar using NDVI time-series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, J. H.; Oza, M. P.

    2014-11-01

    Agricultural intensification is defined in terms as cropping intensity, which is the numbers of crops (single, double and triple) per year in a unit cropland area. Information about crop calendar (i.e. number of crops in a parcel of land and their planting & harvesting dates and date of peak vegetative stage) is essential for proper management of agriculture. Remote sensing sensors provide a regular, consistent and reliable measurement of vegetation response at various growth stages of crop. Therefore it is ideally suited for monitoring purpose. The spectral response of vegetation, as measured by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and its profiles, can provide a new dimension for describing vegetation growth cycle. The analysis based on values of NDVI at regular time interval provides useful information about various crop growth stages and performance of crop in a season. However, the NDVI data series has considerable amount of local fluctuation in time domain and needs to be smoothed so that dominant seasonal behavior is enhanced. Based on temporal analysis of smoothed NDVI series, it is possible to extract number of crop cycles per year and their crop calendar. In the present study, a methodology is developed to extract key elements of crop growth cycle (i.e. number of crops per year and their planting - peak - harvesting dates). This is illustrated by analysing MODIS-NDVI data series of one agricultural year (from June 2012 to May 2013) over Gujarat. Such an analysis is very useful for analysing dynamics of kharif and rabi crops.

  18. N2O and CH4-emissions from energy crops - Can the use of organic fertilizers in form of biogas digestate be considered as a real alternative? Results from a three and a half year multi-site field study of energy crops fertilized with biogas digestate in so

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heintze, Gawan

    2016-04-01

    Gawan Heintze1,2, Matthias Drösler1, Ulrike Hagemann3and Jürgen Augustin3 1University of Applied Sciences Weihenstephan-Triesdorf, Chair of Vegetation Ecology, Weihenstephaner Berg 4, 85354 Freising, Germany 2Technische Universität München, Chair of Plant Nutrition, Emil-Ramann-Str. 2, 85354 Freising, Germany 3Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Eberswalder Straße 84, 15374 Müncheberg, Germany Together with industrial process-related emissions (8.1%) the actual GHG emissions from agriculture (7.5% - 70 million tones (Mt) of carbon dioxide (CO2)-equivalents) representing after energy-related emissions from combustion processes of fossil fuels (83.7%) the second largest budget of the Germany-wide total emissions per year. To reduce the EU's CO2 emissions by 20% by 2020 the cultivation of energy crops for biogas production, ideally coupled to a subsequent return of the resulting residues in form of biogas digestate is intended as one key element in the pathway of renewable energy production. Despite an increasing cultivation of energy crops for the production of biogas aiming to reduce the overall climate impact of the agricultural sector, it is still largely unknown how the application of ammonia-rich organic digestate effects field N2O emissions. Therefore, the collaborative research project "potential for reducing the release of climate-relevant trace gases in the cultivation of energy crops for the production of biogas" was launched. The main objective of the study was to determine an improved process understanding and to quantify the influence of mineral nitrogen fertilization, biogas digestate application, crop type and crop rotation, to gain precise and generalizable statements on the exchange of trace gases like nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) on the resulting climate impact. Gas fluxes of N2O and CH4 were measured for three and a half years on two differently managed sites in maize monoculture with different applied organic

  19. N2O and CH4-emissions from energy crops - Can the use of organic fertilizers in form of biogas digestate be considered as a real alternative? Results from a three and a half year multi-site field study of energy crops fertilized with biogas digestate in so

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heintze, Gawan

    2016-04-01

    Gawan Heintze1,2, Matthias Drösler1, Ulrike Hagemann3and Jürgen Augustin3 1University of Applied Sciences Weihenstephan-Triesdorf, Chair of Vegetation Ecology, Weihenstephaner Berg 4, 85354 Freising, Germany 2Technische Universität München, Chair of Plant Nutrition, Emil-Ramann-Str. 2, 85354 Freising, Germany 3Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Eberswalder Straße 84, 15374 Müncheberg, Germany Together with industrial process-related emissions (8.1%) the actual GHG emissions from agriculture (7.5% - 70 million tones (Mt) of carbon dioxide (CO2)-equivalents) representing after energy-related emissions from combustion processes of fossil fuels (83.7%) the second largest budget of the Germany-wide total emissions per year. To reduce the EU's CO2 emissions by 20% by 2020 the cultivation of energy crops for biogas production, ideally coupled to a subsequent return of the resulting residues in form of biogas digestate is intended as one key element in the pathway of renewable energy production. Despite an increasing cultivation of energy crops for the production of biogas aiming to reduce the overall climate impact of the agricultural sector, it is still largely unknown how the application of ammonia-rich organic digestate effects field N2O emissions. Therefore, the collaborative research project "potential for reducing the release of climate-relevant trace gases in the cultivation of energy crops for the production of biogas" was launched. The main objective of the study was to determine an improved process understanding and to quantify the influence of mineral nitrogen fertilization, biogas digestate application, crop type and crop rotation, to gain precise and generalizable statements on the exchange of trace gases like nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) on the resulting climate impact. Gas fluxes of N2O and CH4 were measured for three and a half years on two differently managed sites in maize monoculture with different applied organic

  20. Tillage and crop residue management methods had minor effects on the stock and stabilization of topsoil carbon in a 30-year field experiment.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pooja; Heikkinen, Jaakko; Ketoja, Elise; Nuutinen, Visa; Palojärvi, Ansa; Sheehy, Jatta; Esala, Martti; Mitra, Sudip; Alakukku, Laura; Regina, Kristiina

    2015-06-15

    We studied the effects of tillage and straw management on soil aggregation and soil carbon sequestration in a 30-year split-plot experiment on clay soil in southern Finland. The experimental plots were under conventional or reduced tillage with straw retained, removed or burnt. Wet sieving was done to study organic carbon and soil composition divided in four fractions: 1) large macroaggregates, 2) small macroaggregates, 3) microaggregates and 4) silt and clay. To further estimate the stability of carbon in the soil, coarse particulate organic matter, microaggregates and silt and clay were isolated from the macroaggregates. Total carbon stock in the topsoil (equivalent to 200 kg m(-2)) was slightly lower under reduced tillage (5.0 kg m(-2)) than under conventional tillage (5.2 kg m(-2)). Reduced tillage changed the soil composition by increasing the percentage of macroaggregates and decreasing the percentage of microaggregates. There was no evidence of differences in the composition of the macroaggregates or carbon content in the macroaggregate-occluded fractions. However, due to the higher total amount of macroaggregates in the soil, more carbon was bound to the macroaggregate-occluded microaggregates in reduced tillage. Compared with plowed soil, the density of deep burrowing earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) was considerably higher under reduced tillage and positively associated with the percentage of large macroaggregates. The total amount of microbial biomass carbon did not differ between the treatments. Straw management did not have discernible effects either on soil aggregation or soil carbon stock. We conclude that although reduced tillage can improve clay soil structure, generally the chances to increase topsoil carbon sequestration by reduced tillage or straw management practices appear limited in cereal monoculture systems of the boreal region. This may be related to the already high C content of soils, the precipitation level favoring decomposition and

  1. Tillage and crop residue management methods had minor effects on the stock and stabilization of topsoil carbon in a 30-year field experiment.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pooja; Heikkinen, Jaakko; Ketoja, Elise; Nuutinen, Visa; Palojärvi, Ansa; Sheehy, Jatta; Esala, Martti; Mitra, Sudip; Alakukku, Laura; Regina, Kristiina

    2015-06-15

    We studied the effects of tillage and straw management on soil aggregation and soil carbon sequestration in a 30-year split-plot experiment on clay soil in southern Finland. The experimental plots were under conventional or reduced tillage with straw retained, removed or burnt. Wet sieving was done to study organic carbon and soil composition divided in four fractions: 1) large macroaggregates, 2) small macroaggregates, 3) microaggregates and 4) silt and clay. To further estimate the stability of carbon in the soil, coarse particulate organic matter, microaggregates and silt and clay were isolated from the macroaggregates. Total carbon stock in the topsoil (equivalent to 200 kg m(-2)) was slightly lower under reduced tillage (5.0 kg m(-2)) than under conventional tillage (5.2 kg m(-2)). Reduced tillage changed the soil composition by increasing the percentage of macroaggregates and decreasing the percentage of microaggregates. There was no evidence of differences in the composition of the macroaggregates or carbon content in the macroaggregate-occluded fractions. However, due to the higher total amount of macroaggregates in the soil, more carbon was bound to the macroaggregate-occluded microaggregates in reduced tillage. Compared with plowed soil, the density of deep burrowing earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) was considerably higher under reduced tillage and positively associated with the percentage of large macroaggregates. The total amount of microbial biomass carbon did not differ between the treatments. Straw management did not have discernible effects either on soil aggregation or soil carbon stock. We conclude that although reduced tillage can improve clay soil structure, generally the chances to increase topsoil carbon sequestration by reduced tillage or straw management practices appear limited in cereal monoculture systems of the boreal region. This may be related to the already high C content of soils, the precipitation level favoring decomposition and

  2. [Review of transgenic crop breeding in China].

    PubMed

    Huang, Dafang

    2015-06-01

    The development history and fundamental experience of transgenic crops (Genetically modified crops) breeding in China for near 30 years were reviewed. It was illustrated that a scientific research, development and industrialization system of transgenic crops including gene discovery, transformation, variety breeding, commercialization, application and biosafety assessment has been initially established which was few in number in the world. The research innovative capacity of transgenic cotton, rice and corn has been lifted. The research features as well as relative advantages have been initially formed. The problems and challenges of transgenic crop development were discussed. In addition, three suggestions of promoting commercialization, speeding up implementation of the Major National Project of GM Crops, and enhancing science communication were made. PMID:26672365

  3. Promise and issues of genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Lin, Yongjun

    2013-05-01

    The growing area of genetically modified (GM) crops has substantially expanded since they were first commercialized in 1996. Correspondingly, the adoption of GM crops has brought huge economic and environmental benefits. All these achievements have been primarily supported by two simple traits of herbicide tolerance and insect resistance in the past 17 years. However, this situation will change soon. Recently, the advance of new products, technologies and safety assessment approaches has provided new opportunities for development of GM crops. In this review, we focus on the developmental trend in various aspects of GM crops including new products, technical innovation and risk assessment approaches, as well as potential challenges that GM crops are currently encountering.

  4. Remote sensing of perennial crop stand duration and pre-crop identification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field to field variability in soil erosion and off-site transport of nutrients and pesticides in western Oregon in any single year is primarily driven by the question of whether individual fields were disturbed for planting of new crop stands or remained in production of established perennial crops...

  5. Biomass energy crop production versus food crop production in the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Sammuels, G.

    1983-12-01

    The Caribbean countries have traditionally grown sugar cane, coffee and bananas as major agriculture export crops. Food crop production was sufficient in most cases for domestic consumption. In recent years powerful social and economic changes of increasing population, industrial development and higher living standards have placed pressure on local governments to provide food, clothing, shelter and energy. Energy that is mainly supplied by imported oil. Biomass, primarily as sugar cane, can provide a solution, either partial or total, to the problem. Unfortunately, the arable land area for the majority of the countries is limited. Food crop production is needed for local consumption and export. Possible energy crop production to provide local needs will place an increasing demand on arable land. The objective of this paper is to present the scope of food versus energy crop production and a suggested renewable energy crop program to help achieve a balance within the limited land resources of the Caribbean.

  6. Biosolarization in garlic crop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabeiro, Concepcion; Andres, Manuela; Wic, Consuelo

    2014-05-01

    One of the most important limitations of garlic cultivation is the presence of various soil pathogens. Fusarium proliferatum and Sclerotinium cepivorum and nematode Ditilenchus dipsaci cause such problems that prevent the repetition of the crop in the same field for at least 5 -8 years or soil disinfection is necessary. Chemical disinfection treatments have an uncertain future, in the European Union are reviewing their use, due to the effect on the non-pathogenic soil fauna. This situation causes a itinerant cultivation to avoid the limitations imposed by soil diseases, thereby increasing production costs. The Santa Monica Cooperative (Albacete, Spain) requested advice on possible alternative techniques, solarization and biosolarization. For which a trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness on the riverside area of the municipality. This place has recently authorized irrigation, which would allow the repeated cultivation of garlic if the incidence of soil diseases and the consequent soil fatigue could be avoided. Additionally, this work will serve to promote the cultivation of organic garlic. Last, but not least, the biosolarization technique allows to use waste from wineries, oil mills and mushroom crops. (Bello et al. 2003). The essay should serve as demonstrative proof for farmers' cooperative members. The specific objective for this first year is to assess, the effect on the global soil biota, on the final garlic production and quality and the effect of biosolarization to control soil pathogens. The trial is set on a cooperative's plot previously cultivated with corn. 5 treatments were set, defined by different amounts of organic matter applied, 7.5, 5, 2.5 kg m -2, a solarized with no organic matter, and a control without any treatment. The plot has inground sprinkler for full coverage with four sprinkler lines demarcating the five bands of differential treatment, randomly arranged. Organic matter was incorporated the August 14, 2013, then thoroughly

  7. Economic impact of GM crops

    PubMed Central

    Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A key part of any assessment of the global value of crop biotechnology in agriculture is an examination of its economic impact at the farm level. This paper follows earlier annual studies which examined economic impacts on yields, key costs of production, direct farm income and effects, and impacts on the production base of the four main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialization of genetically modified (GM) crops has continued to occur at a rapid rate, with important changes in both the overall level of adoption and impact occurring in 2012. This annual updated analysis shows that there have been very significant net economic benefits at the farm level amounting to $18.8 billion in 2012 and $116.6 billion for the 17-year period (in nominal terms). These economic gains have been divided roughly 50% each to farmers in developed and developing countries. GM technology have also made important contributions to increasing global production levels of the four main crops, having added 122 million tonnes and 230 million tonnes respectively, to the global production of soybeans and maize since the introduction of the technology in the mid-1990s. PMID:24637520

  8. Decomposing global crop yield variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Ari, Tamara; Makowski, David

    2014-11-01

    Recent food crises have highlighted the need to better understand the between-year variability of agricultural production. Although increasing future production seems necessary, the globalization of commodity markets suggests that the food system would also benefit from enhanced supplies stability through a reduction in the year-to-year variability. Here, we develop an analytical expression decomposing global crop yield interannual variability into three informative components that quantify how evenly are croplands distributed in the world, the proportion of cultivated areas allocated to regions of above or below average variability and the covariation between yields in distinct world regions. This decomposition is used to identify drivers of interannual yield variations for four major crops (i.e., maize, rice, soybean and wheat) over the period 1961-2012. We show that maize production is fairly spread but marked by one prominent region with high levels of crop yield interannual variability (which encompasses the North American corn belt in the USA, and Canada). In contrast, global rice yields have a small variability because, although spatially concentrated, much of the production is located in regions of below-average variability (i.e., South, Eastern and South Eastern Asia). Because of these contrasted land use allocations, an even cultivated land distribution across regions would reduce global maize yield variance, but increase the variance of global yield rice. Intermediate results are obtained for soybean and wheat for which croplands are mainly located in regions with close-to-average variability. At the scale of large world regions, we find that covariances of regional yields have a negligible contribution to global yield variance. The proposed decomposition could be applied at any spatial and time scales, including the yearly time step. By addressing global crop production stability (or lack thereof) our results contribute to the understanding of a key

  9. Unique cover crops for Louisiana sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Louisiana sugarcane production practices provide a tremendous opportunity for the use of cover crops following the final sugarcane harvest in the fall of one year and prior to replanting sugarcane during the summer of the next year. A Louisiana sugarcane field is typically replanted every four years...

  10. 7 CFR 1214.5 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions §...

  11. 7 CFR 1214.5 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions §...

  12. 7 CFR 1214.5 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions §...

  13. The Use of Cover Crops as Climate-Smart Management in Midwest Cropping Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basche, A.; Miguez, F.; Archontoulis, S.; Kaspar, T.

    2014-12-01

    The observed trends in the Midwestern United States of increasing rainfall variability will likely continue into the future. Events such as individual days of heavy rain as well as seasons of floods and droughts have large impacts on agricultural productivity and the natural resource base that underpins it. Such events lead to increased soil erosion, decreased water quality and reduced corn and soybean yields. Winter cover crops offer the potential to buffer many of these impacts because they essentially double the time for a living plant to protect and improve the soil. However, at present, cover crops are infrequently utilized in the Midwest (representing 1-2% of row cropped land cover) in particular due to producer concerns over higher costs and management, limited time and winter growing conditions as well as the potential harm to corn yields. In order to expand their use, there is a need to quantify how cover crops impact Midwest cropping systems in the long term and namely to understand how to optimize the benefits of cover crops while minimizing their impacts on cash crops. We are working with APSIM, a cropping systems platform, to specifically quantify the long term future impacts of cover crop incorporation in corn-based cropping systems. In general, our regional analysis showed only minor changes to corn and soybean yields (<1% differences) when a cover crop was or was not included in the simulation. Further, a "bad spring" scenario (where every third year had an abnormally wet/cold spring and cover crop termination and planting cash crop were within one day) did not result in any major changes to cash crop yields. Through simulations we estimate an average increase of 4-9% organic matter improvement in the topsoil and an average decrease in soil erosion of 14-32% depending on cover crop planting date and growth. Our work is part of the Climate and Corn-based Cropping Systems Coordinated Agriculture Project (CSCAP), a collaboration of eleven Midwestern

  14. Concepts in crop rotations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop rotations have been a part of civilization since the Middle Ages. With colonization of what would become the United States came new crops of tobacco, cotton, and corn, the first two of which would play significant roles in both the economic beginnings and social fabric of the new country, how ...

  15. Waves and Crops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, J.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses wave patterns on the surfaces of ripening wheat and barley crops when the wind is moderately strong. Examines the structure of the turbulence over such natural surfaces and conditions under which the crop may be damaged by the wind. (JR)

  16. New indicators for global crop monitoring in CropWatch -case study in North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingfang, Wu; Miao, Zhang; Hongwei, Zeng; Guoshui, Liu; Sheng, Chang; Gommes, René

    2014-03-01

    CropWatch is a monitoring system developed and operated by the Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth (Chinese Academy of Sciences) to provide global-scale crop information. Now in its 15th year of operation, CropWatch was modified several times to be a timely, comprehensive and independent global agricultural monitoring system using advanced remote sensing technology. Currently CropWatch is being upgraded with new indicators based on new sensors, especially those on board of China Environmental Satellite (HJ-1 CCD), the Medium Resolution Spectral Imager (MERSI) on Chinese meteorological satellite (FY-3A) and cloud classification products of FY-2. With new satellite data, CropWatch will generate new indicators such as fallow land ratio (FLR), crop condition for irrigated (CCI) and non-irrigated (CCNI) areas separately, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), radiation use efficiency for the photosynthetically active radiation (RUEPAR) and cropping index (CI) with crop rotation information (CRI). In this paper, the methods for monitoring the new indicators are applied to the North China Plain which is one of the major grain producing areas in China. This paper shows the preliminary results of the new indicators and methods; they still need to be thoroughly validated before being incorporated into the operational CropWatch system. In the future, the new and improved indicators will help us to better understand the global situation of food security.

  17. Simulation of crop evapotranspiration and crop coefficient in weighing lysimeters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate quantification of crop evapotranspiration (ET) is critical in optimizing irrigation water productivity, especially, in the semiarid regions of the world where limited rainfall is supplemented by irrigation for profitable crop production. In this context, cropping system models are potential...

  18. Midwest cropping system effects on soil properties and on a soil quality index

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cropping systems may improve or decrease soil quality, depending on the specific crop rotation, nutrient amendments, and tillage practices employed. We evaluated soil properties from six cropping systems in the Wisconsin Integrated Cropping Systems Trial (WICST) after 18 years of continuous treatmen...

  19. Crop physiology calibration in the CLM

    SciTech Connect

    Bilionis, I.; Drewniak, B. A.; Constantinescu, E. M.

    2015-04-15

    Farming is using more of the land surface, as population increases and agriculture is increasingly applied for non-nutritional purposes such as biofuel production. This agricultural expansion exerts an increasing impact on the terrestrial carbon cycle. In order to understand the impact of such processes, the Community Land Model (CLM) has been augmented with a CLM-Crop extension that simulates the development of three crop types: maize, soybean, and spring wheat. The CLM-Crop model is a complex system that relies on a suite of parametric inputs that govern plant growth under a given atmospheric forcing and available resources. CLM-Crop development used measurements of gross primary productivity (GPP) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) from AmeriFlux sites to choose parameter values that optimize crop productivity in the model. In this paper, we calibrate these parameters for one crop type, soybean, in order to provide a faithful projection in terms of both plant development and net carbon exchange. Calibration is performed in a Bayesian framework by developing a scalable and adaptive scheme based on sequential Monte Carlo (SMC). The model showed significant improvement of crop productivity with the new calibrated parameters. We demonstrate that the calibrated parameters are applicable across alternative years and different sites.

  20. Crop physiology calibration in the CLM

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bilionis, I.; Drewniak, B. A.; Constantinescu, E. M.

    2015-04-15

    Farming is using more of the land surface, as population increases and agriculture is increasingly applied for non-nutritional purposes such as biofuel production. This agricultural expansion exerts an increasing impact on the terrestrial carbon cycle. In order to understand the impact of such processes, the Community Land Model (CLM) has been augmented with a CLM-Crop extension that simulates the development of three crop types: maize, soybean, and spring wheat. The CLM-Crop model is a complex system that relies on a suite of parametric inputs that govern plant growth under a given atmospheric forcing and available resources. CLM-Crop development used measurementsmore » of gross primary productivity (GPP) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) from AmeriFlux sites to choose parameter values that optimize crop productivity in the model. In this paper, we calibrate these parameters for one crop type, soybean, in order to provide a faithful projection in terms of both plant development and net carbon exchange. Calibration is performed in a Bayesian framework by developing a scalable and adaptive scheme based on sequential Monte Carlo (SMC). The model showed significant improvement of crop productivity with the new calibrated parameters. We demonstrate that the calibrated parameters are applicable across alternative years and different sites.« less

  1. General multiyear aggregation technology: Methodology and software documentation. [estimating seasonal crop acreage proportions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, T. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    A general methodology is presented for estimating a stratum's at-harvest crop acreage proportion for a given crop year (target year) from the crop's estimated acreage proportion for sample segments from within the stratum. Sample segments from crop years other than the target year are (usually) required for use in conjunction with those from the target year. In addition, the stratum's (identifiable) crop acreage proportion may be estimated for times other than at-harvest in some situations. A by-product of the procedure is a methodology for estimating the change in the stratum's at-harvest crop acreage proportion from crop year to crop year. An implementation of the proposed procedure as a statistical analysis system routine using the system's matrix language module, PROC MATRIX, is described and documented. Three examples illustrating use of the methodology and algorithm are provided.

  2. Global Crop Calendars from Satellite-Derived Phenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, J.; Friedl, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Efforts to produce reliable and sustainable food security for human consumption are challenged by a complex set of issues including competition for agricultural lands, climate change impacts, and water scarcity. In the coming decades, population growth and climate change are likely to place significant stress on global food supply. Increasing cropping intensity (the number of crops grown per year) may increase agricultural production on existing agricultural land, but also requires increased inputs of key resources, especially water. Similarly, shifting crop calendars can reduce vulnerability of crops to climate variability. However, the nature and quality of currently available information related to multi-cropping and planting and harvesting dates is highly variable, and efforts focused on assessing the vulnerability of cropping systems to climate change require better information related to crop calendars and cropping intensity. To assist these efforts, we are using remote sensing to develop a database of global crop phenologies. To do this, we use the MODIS Land Dynamics Product (MCD12Q2) to characterize crop planting and harvesting dates at 5-minute spatial resolution globally for the year 2005. To help assess the quality of this database, we present a set of test sites covering the major agricultural regions and compare satellite-derived phenologies with existing crop calendar datasets.

  3. Unique cropping systems for Louisiana sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Louisiana sugarcane field is typically replanted every four years due to declining yields, and, although, it is a costly process, it is both necessary and an opportunity to maximize the financial return during the next four year cropping cycle. Fallow planting systems (FPS) during the fallow perio...

  4. Long-term effect of biochar application on yield-scaled greenhouse gas emissions in a rice paddy cropping system: A four-year case study in south China.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiaobo; Li, Yu'e; Wang, Hong; Liu, Chong; Li, Jianling; Wan, Yunfan; Gao, Qingzhu; Fan, Fenliang; Liao, Yulin

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate long-term effect of biochar application on yield-scaled greenhouse gas emissions (YSGE) in a paddy rice cropping system, a 4-year field experiment by static chamber - gas chromatograph method was conducted in South China. Principal component analysis and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and real-time qPCR was used to unravel the microbial mechanisms of biochar addition. Six treatments were included: control (CK), application of 5tha(-1) biochar (BC1), application of 10tha(-1) biochar (BC2), application of 10tha(-1) biochar (BC3), rice straw return at 2400kgha(-1)(RS) and inoculated rice straw return at 2400kgha(-1)(RI). The results indicated that biochar amendment significantly decreased methane (CH4) and gross greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This may primarily be ascribed to the stimulated biodiversity and abundance of methanotrophic microbes, increased soil pH and improved aeration by reducing bulk density after biochar incorporation. Compared with CK, RS and RI, 26.18%, 70.02%, 66.47% of CH4 flux and 26.14%, 70.16%, 66.46% of gross GHG emissions were reduced by biochar (mean of three biochar treatments), respectively. Furthermore, biochar significantly increased harvest index of double rice production (p<0.05). In comparison with CK, RS and RI, 29.14%, 68.04%, 62.28% of YSGE was reduced by biochar, respectively, and the highest biochar addition rate (20tha(-1)) contributed most to the mitigation of GHG emissions (36.24% decrease compared to CK) and improvement of rice yield (7.65% increase compared to CK). Results of our study suggested that long-term application of biochar should be the potential way to mitigate GHGs emissions and simultaneously improve rice productivity in the paddy rice system. PMID:27450250

  5. Long-term effect of biochar application on yield-scaled greenhouse gas emissions in a rice paddy cropping system: A four-year case study in south China.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiaobo; Li, Yu'e; Wang, Hong; Liu, Chong; Li, Jianling; Wan, Yunfan; Gao, Qingzhu; Fan, Fenliang; Liao, Yulin

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate long-term effect of biochar application on yield-scaled greenhouse gas emissions (YSGE) in a paddy rice cropping system, a 4-year field experiment by static chamber - gas chromatograph method was conducted in South China. Principal component analysis and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and real-time qPCR was used to unravel the microbial mechanisms of biochar addition. Six treatments were included: control (CK), application of 5tha(-1) biochar (BC1), application of 10tha(-1) biochar (BC2), application of 10tha(-1) biochar (BC3), rice straw return at 2400kgha(-1)(RS) and inoculated rice straw return at 2400kgha(-1)(RI). The results indicated that biochar amendment significantly decreased methane (CH4) and gross greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This may primarily be ascribed to the stimulated biodiversity and abundance of methanotrophic microbes, increased soil pH and improved aeration by reducing bulk density after biochar incorporation. Compared with CK, RS and RI, 26.18%, 70.02%, 66.47% of CH4 flux and 26.14%, 70.16%, 66.46% of gross GHG emissions were reduced by biochar (mean of three biochar treatments), respectively. Furthermore, biochar significantly increased harvest index of double rice production (p<0.05). In comparison with CK, RS and RI, 29.14%, 68.04%, 62.28% of YSGE was reduced by biochar, respectively, and the highest biochar addition rate (20tha(-1)) contributed most to the mitigation of GHG emissions (36.24% decrease compared to CK) and improvement of rice yield (7.65% increase compared to CK). Results of our study suggested that long-term application of biochar should be the potential way to mitigate GHGs emissions and simultaneously improve rice productivity in the paddy rice system.

  6. Influence of post-harvest crop residue fires on surface ozone mixing ratios in the N.W. IGP analyzed using 2 years of continuous in situ trace gas measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, V.; Sarkar, C.; Sinha, V.

    2016-04-01

    O3, CO, and NOx affect air quality and tropospheric chemistry but factors that control them in the densely populated N.W. Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) are poorly understood. This work presents the first simultaneous 2 year long in situ data set acquired from August 2011 to September 2013 at a N.W. IGP site (30.667°N, 76.729°E; 310 m asl). We investigate the impact of emissions and meteorology on the diel and seasonal variability of O3, CO, and NOx. Regional post-harvest crop residue fires contribute majorly to an enhancement of 19 ppb in hourly averaged ozone concentrations under similar meteorological conditions in summer and 7 ppb under conditions of lower radiation during the post monsoon. d[O3]/dt (from sunrise to daytime O3 maxima) was highest during periods influenced by post-harvest fires in post monsoon season (9.2 ppb h-1) and lowest during monsoon season (4.1 ppb h-1). Analysis of air mass clusters revealed that enhanced chemical formation of O3 and not transport was the driver of the summertime and post monsoon ambient O3 maxima. Despite having high daytime NOx (>12 ppb) and CO (>440 ppb) in winter, average daytime O3 was less than 40 ppb due to reduced photochemistry and fog. Average daytime O3 during the monsoon was less than 45 ppb due to washout of precursors and suppressed photochemistry due to cloud cover. The 8 h ambient air quality O3 standard was violated on 451 days in the period August 2011-September 2013. The results show that substantial mitigation efforts are required to reduce regional O3 pollution in the N.W. IGP.

  7. The state of genetically modified crop regulation in Canada.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Stuart J

    2014-07-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops were first commercialized in Canada in 1995 and the 2014 crop represents the 20th year of successful production. Prior to the first commercialization of GM crops, Canada reviewed its existing science-based regulatory framework and adapted the existing framework to allow for risk assessments on the new technology to be undertaken in a timely and efficient manner. The result has been the rapid and widespread adoption of GM varieties of canola, corn and soybeans. The first decade of GM crop production precipitated 2 landmark legal cases relating to patent infringement and economic liability, while the second decade witnessed increased political efforts to have GM crops labeled in Canada as well as significant challenges from the low level comingling of GM crops with non-GM commodities. This article reviews the 20 y of GM crop production in Canada from a social science perspective that includes intellectual property, consumer acceptance and low level presence. PMID:25437238

  8. The state of genetically modified crop regulation in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Smyth, Stuart J

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops were first commercialized in Canada in 1995 and the 2014 crop represents the 20th year of successful production. Prior to the first commercialization of GM crops, Canada reviewed its existing science-based regulatory framework and adapted the existing framework to allow for risk assessments on the new technology to be undertaken in a timely and efficient manner. The result has been the rapid and widespread adoption of GM varieties of canola, corn and soybeans. The first decade of GM crop production precipitated 2 landmark legal cases relating to patent infringement and economic liability, while the second decade witnessed increased political efforts to have GM crops labeled in Canada as well as significant challenges from the low level comingling of GM crops with non-GM commodities. This article reviews the 20 y of GM crop production in Canada from a social science perspective that includes intellectual property, consumer acceptance and low level presence. PMID:25437238

  9. The state of genetically modified crop regulation in Canada.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Stuart J

    2014-07-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops were first commercialized in Canada in 1995 and the 2014 crop represents the 20th year of successful production. Prior to the first commercialization of GM crops, Canada reviewed its existing science-based regulatory framework and adapted the existing framework to allow for risk assessments on the new technology to be undertaken in a timely and efficient manner. The result has been the rapid and widespread adoption of GM varieties of canola, corn and soybeans. The first decade of GM crop production precipitated 2 landmark legal cases relating to patent infringement and economic liability, while the second decade witnessed increased political efforts to have GM crops labeled in Canada as well as significant challenges from the low level comingling of GM crops with non-GM commodities. This article reviews the 20 y of GM crop production in Canada from a social science perspective that includes intellectual property, consumer acceptance and low level presence.

  10. Cover crop biomass harvest for bioenergy: implications for crop productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter cover crops, such as rye (Secale cereale), are usually used in conservation agriculture systems in the Southeast. Typically, the cover crop is terminated two to three weeks before planting the summer crop, with the cover biomass left on the soil surface as a mulch. However, these cover crops ...

  11. Transgenics in crops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Y.; Wu, Y. H.; McAvoy, R.; Duan, H.

    2001-01-01

    With rapid world population growth and declining availability of fresh water and arable land, a new technology is urgently needed to enhance agricultural productivity. Recent discoveries in the field of crop transgenics clearly demonstrate the great potential of this technology for increasing food production and improving food quality while preserving the environment for future generations. In this review, we briefly discuss some of the recent achievements in crop improvement that have been made using gene transfer technology.

  12. Androgenesis in recalcitrant solanaceous crops.

    PubMed

    Seguí-Simarro, José M; Corral-Martínez, Patricia; Parra-Vega, Verónica; González-García, Beatriz

    2011-05-01

    Tomato, eggplant, and pepper are three solanaceous crops of outstanding importance worldwide. For hybrid seed production in these species, a fast and cheap method to obtain pure (homozygous) lines is a priority. Traditionally, pure lines are produced by classical inbreeding and selection techniques, which are time consuming (several years) and costly. Alternatively, it has become possible to accelerate the production of homozygous lines through a biotechnological approach: the induction of androgenesis to generate doubled haploid (homozygous) plants. This biotechnological in vitro tool reduces the process to only one generation, which implies important time and costs savings. These facts make androgenic doubled haploids the choice in a number of important crops where the methodology is well set up. Unfortunately, recalcitrant solanaceous crops such as tomato, eggplant, and pepper are still far from an efficient and reliable technology to be applied on a routine basis to different genotypes in breeding programs. In eggplant and pepper, only anther cultures are known to work relatively well. Unfortunately, a more efficient and promising technique, the culture of isolated microspores, is not sufficiently developed yet. In tomato, none of these methods is available nowadays. However, recent advances in the knowledge of embryo development are filling the gaps and opening new ways to achieve the final goal of an efficient protocol in these three recalcitrant species. In this review, we outline the state of the art on androgenic induction in tomato, eggplant, and pepper, and postulate new experimental ways in order to overcome current limitations.

  13. Cover crops and crop residue management under no-till systems improve soils and environmental quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Wegner, Brianna; Vahyala, Ibrahim; Osborne, Shannon; Schumacher, Thomas; Lehman, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Crop residue harvest is a common practice in the Midwestern USA for the ethanol production. However, excessive removal of crop residues from the soil surface contributes to the degradation of important soil quality indicators such as soil organic carbon (SOC). Addition of a cover crop may help to mitigate these negative effects. The present study was set up to assess the impacts of corn (Zea mays L.) residue removal and cover crops on various soil quality indicators and surface greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes. The study was being conducted on plots located at the North Central Agricultural Research Laboratory (NCARL) in Brookings, South Dakota, USA. Three plots of a corn and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) rotation under a no-till (NT) system are being monitored for soils and surface gas fluxes. Each plot has three residue removal (high residue removal, HRR; medium residue removal, MRR; and low residue removal, LRR) treatments and two cover crops (cover crops and no cover crops) treatments. Both corn and soybean are represented every year. Gas flux measurements were taken weekly using a closed static chamber method. Data show that residue removal significantly impacted soil quality indicators while more time was needed for an affect from cover crop treatments to be noticed. The LRR treatment resulted in higher SOC concentrations, increased aggregate stability, and increased microbial activity. The LRR treatment also increased soil organic matter (SOM) and particulate organic matter (POM) concentrations. Cover crops used in HRR (high corn residue removal) improved SOC (27 g kg-1) by 6% compared to that without cover crops (25.4 g kg-1). Cover crops significantly impacted POM concentration directly after the residue removal treatments were applied in 2012. CO2 fluxes were observed to increase as temperature increased, while N2O fluxes increased as soil moisture increased. CH4 fluxes were responsive to both increases in temperature and moisture. On average, soils under

  14. Regional variability of environmental effects of energy crop rotations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prescher, Anne-Katrin; Peter, Christiane; Specka, Xenia; Willms, Matthias; Glemnitz, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The use of energy crops for bioenergy production is increasingly promoted by different frameworks and policies (ECCP, UNFCCC). Energy cropping decreases greenhouse gas emissions by replacing the use of fossil fuel. However, despite this, growing in monocultures energy crop rotations has low environmental benefit. It is broadly accepted consensus that sustainable energy cropping is only realizable by crop rotations which include several energy crop species. Four crop rotations consisting of species mixtures of C3, C4 and leguminous plants and their crop positions were tested to identify the environmental effect of energy cropping systems. The experimental design included four replicates per crop rotation each covering four cultivation years. The study took place at five sites across Germany covering a considerable range of soil types (loamy sand to silt loam), temperatures (7.5 ° C - 10.0 ° C) and precipitation (559 mm - 807 mm) which allow a regional comparison of crop rotation performance. Four indicators were used to characterize the environmental conditions: (1) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the management actions; (2) change in humus carbon (Chum); (3) groundwater recharge (RGW) and (4) nitrogen dynamics. The indicators were derived by balance, by an empirical model and by a dynamic model, respectively, all based and calibrated on measured values. The results show that the crop rotation impact on environmental indicators varied between plant species mixtures and the crop positions, between sites and climate. Crop rotations with 100 % energy crops (including C4 plants) had negative influence on Chum, GHG emissions per area and RGW in comparison to the rotation of 50 % energy crops and 50 % cash crops, which were mainly due to the remaining straw on the field. However, the biogas yield of the latter rotation was smaller, thus GHG emissions per product were higher, pointing out the importance to distinguish between GHG emissions per product and per area

  15. Radioactivity in food crops

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.

    1983-05-01

    Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 40/K, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for /sup 241/Am, /sup 7/Be, /sup 60/Co, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 3/H, /sup 131/I, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 210/Po, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 228/Th, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 95/Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g/sup -1/ (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins.

  16. Biomass resource potential using energy crops

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, L.L.; Cushman, J.H.; Martin, S.A.

    1993-09-01

    Biomass energy crops can provide a significant and environmentally beneficial source of renewable energy feedstocks for the future. They can revitalize the agricultural sector of the US economy by providing profitable uses for marginal cropland. Energy crops include fast-growing trees, perennial grasses, and annual grasses, all capable of collecting solar energy and storing it as cellulosic compounds for several months to several years. Once solar energy is thus captured, it can be converted by means of currently available technologies to a wide variety of energy products such as electricity, heat, liquid transportation fuels, and gases. Experimental results from field trials have generated optimism that selected and improved energy crops, established on cropland with moderate limitations for crop production, have the potential for producing high yields. Both trees and grasses, under very good growing conditions, have produced average annual yields of 20 to 40 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1}. Sorghum has shown especially high yields in the Midwest. Hybrids between sugar cane and its wild relatives, called energy cane, have yielded as much as 50 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} in Florida. These experimental results demonstrate that some species have the genetic potential for very rapid growth rates. New wood energy crop systems developed by the Department of Energy`s Biofuels Feedstock Development Program offer, at a minimum, a 100% increase in biomass production rates over the 2 to 4 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} of dry leafless woody biomass produced by most natural forest systems. Experimental data indicate that short rotation wood crops established on cropland with moderate limitations are capable of producing biomass yields of 8--20 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} with a present average about 11 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} on typical cropland sites.

  17. Cover crops and N credits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops often provide many short- and long-term benefits to cropping systems. Legume cover crops can significantly reduce the N fertilizer requirement of non-legume cash crops that follow. The objectives of this presentation were to: I) educate stakeholders about the potential benefits of cover ...

  18. Grand challenges for crop science

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop science is a highly integrative science using the disciplines of conventional plant breeding, transgenic crop improvement, plant physiology, and cropping system sciences to develop improved varieties of agronomic, turf, and forage crops to produce feed, food, fuel, and fiber for our world's gro...

  19. Biotechnology: herbicide-resistant crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic, herbicide-resistant (HR) crops are planted on about 80% of the land covered by transgenic crops. More than 90% of HR crios are glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops, the others being resistant to glufosinate. The wide-scale adoption of HR crops, largely for economic reasons, has been the mos...

  20. Impacts of crop rotations on soil organic carbon sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobin, Anne; Vos, Johan; Joris, Ingeborg; Van De Vreken, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Agricultural land use and crop rotations can greatly affect the amount of carbon sequestered in the soil. We developed a framework for modelling the impacts of crop rotations on soil carbon sequestration at the field scale with test case Flanders. A crop rotation geo-database was constructed covering 10 years of crop rotation in Flanders using the IACS parcel registration (Integrated Administration and Control System) to elicit the most common crop rotation on major soil types in Flanders. In order to simulate the impact of crop cover on carbon sequestration, the Roth-C model was adapted to Flanders' environment and coupled to common crop rotations extracted from the IACS geodatabases and statistical databases on crop yield. Crop allometric models were used to calculate crop residues from common crops in Flanders and subsequently derive stable organic matter fluxes to the soil (REGSOM). The REGSOM model was coupled to Roth-C model was run for 30 years and for all combinations of seven main arable crops, two common catch crops and two common dosages of organic manure. The common crops are winter wheat, winter barley, sugar beet, potato, grain maize, silage maize and winter rapeseed; the catch crops are yellow mustard and Italian ryegrass; the manure dosages are 35 ton/ha cattle slurry and 22 ton/ha pig slurry. Four common soils were simulated: sand, loam, sandy loam and clay. In total more than 2.4 million simulations were made with monthly output of carbon content for 30 years. Results demonstrate that crop cover dynamics influence carbon sequestration for a very large percentage. For the same rotations carbon sequestration is highest on clay soils and lowest on sandy soils. Crop residues of grain maize and winter wheat followed by catch crops contribute largely to the total carbon sequestered. This implies that agricultural policies that impact on agricultural land management influence soil carbon sequestration for a large percentage. The framework is therefore

  1. Effects of Potato-Cotton Cropping Systems and Nematicides on Plant-Parasitic Nematodes and Crop Yields

    PubMed Central

    Crow, W. T.; Weingartner, D. P.; Dickson, D. W.

    2000-01-01

    Belonolaimus longicaudatus has been reported as damaging both potato (Solanum tuberosum) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). These crops are not normally grown in cropping systems together in areas where the soil is infested with B. longicaudatus. During the 1990s cotton was grown in a potato production region that was a suitable habitat for B. longicaudatus. It was not known how integrating the production of these two crops by rotation or double-cropping would affect the population densities of B. longicaudatus, other plant-parasitic nematodes common in the region, or crop yields. A 3-year field study evaluated the viability of both crops in monocropping, rotation, and double-cropping systems. Viability was evaluated using effects on population densities of plant-parasitic nematodes and yields. Rotation of cotton with potato was found to decrease population densities of B. longicaudatus and Meloidogyne incognita in comparison with continuous potato. Population densities of B. longicaudatus following double-cropping were greater than following continuous cotton. Yields of both potato and cotton in rotation were equivalent to either crop in monocropping. Yields of both crops were lower following double-cropping when nematicides were not used. PMID:19270980

  2. Effect of organic and conventional crop rotation, fertilization, and crop protection practices on metal contents in wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Cooper, Julia; Sanderson, Roy; Cakmak, Ismail; Ozturk, Levent; Shotton, Peter; Carmichael, Andrew; Haghighi, Reza Sadrabadi; Tetard-Jones, Catherine; Volakakis, Nikos; Eyre, Mick; Leifert, Carlo

    2011-05-11

    The effects of organic versus conventional crop management practices (crop rotation, crop protection, and fertility management strategies) on wheat yields and grain metal (Al, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) concentrations were investigated in a long-term field trial. The interactions between crop management practices and the season that the crop was grown were investigated using univariate and redundancy analysis approaches. Grain yields were highest where conventional fertility management and crop protection practices were used, but growing wheat after a previous crop of grass/clover was shown to partially compensate for yield reductions due to the use of organic fertility management. All metals except for Pb were significantly affected by crop management practices and the year that the wheat was grown. Grain Cd and Cu levels were higher on average when conventional fertility management practices were used. Al and Cu were higher on average when conventional crop protection practices were used. The results demonstrate that there is potential to manage metal concentrations in the diet by adopting specific crop management practices shown to affect crop uptake of metals.

  3. Economic Analysis of Energy Crop Production in the U.S. - Location, Quantities, Price, and Impacts on Traditional Agricultural Crops

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, M.E.; De La Torre Ugarte, D.; Slinsky, S.; Graham, R.L.; Shapouri, H.; Ray, D.

    1998-10-04

    POLYSYS is used to estimate US locations where, for any given energy crop price, energy crop production can be economically competitive with conventional crops. POLYSYS is a multi-crop, multi-sector agricultural model developed and maintained by the University of Tennessee and used by the USDA-Economic Research Service. It includes 305 agricultural statistical districts (ASD) which can be aggregated to provide state, regional, and national information. POLYSYS is being modified to include switchgrass, hybrid poplar, and willow on all land suitable for their production. This paper summarizes the preliminary national level results of the POLYSYS analysis for selected energy crop prices for the year 2007 and presents the corresponding maps (for the same prices) of energy crop production locations by ASD. Summarized results include: (1) estimates of energy crop hectares (acres) and quantities (dry Mg, dry tons), (2) identification of traditional crops allocated to energy crop production and calculation of changes in their prices and hectares (acres) of production, and (3) changes in total net farm returns for traditional agricultural crops. The information is useful for identifying areas of the US where large quantities of lowest cost energy crops can most likely be produced.

  4. Crop Coefficients of Some Selected Crops of Andhra Pradesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, K. Chandrasekhar; Arunajyothy, S.; Mallikarjuna, P.

    2015-06-01

    Precise information on crop coefficients for estimating crop evapotranspiration (ETc) for regional scale irrigation planning is a major impediment in many regions. Crop coefficients suggested based on lysimeter data by earlier investigators have to be locally calibrated to account for the differences in the crop canopy under given climatic conditions. In the present study crop coefficients were derived based on reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0) estimated from Penman-Monteith equation and lysimeter measured ETc for groundnut, paddy, tobacco, sugarcane and castor crops at Tirupati, Nellore, Rajahmundry, Anakapalli and Rajendranagar centers of Andhra Pradesh respectively. Crop coefficients derived were compared with those recommended by FAO-56. The mean crop coefficients at different stages of growth were significantly different from those of FAO-56 curve though a similar trend was observed. A third order polynomial crop coefficient model has therefore been developed as a function of time (days after sowing the crop) for deriving suitable crop coefficients. The crop coefficient models suggested may be adopted to estimate crop evapotranspiration in the study area with reasonable degree of accuracy.

  5. Estimation of flood losses to agricultural crops using remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapia-Silva, Felipe-Omar; Itzerott, Sibylle; Foerster, Saskia; Kuhlmann, Bernd; Kreibich, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    The estimation of flood damage is an important component of risk-oriented flood design, risk mapping, financial appraisals and comparative risk analyses. However, research on flood loss modelling, especially in the agricultural sector, has not yet gained much attention. Agricultural losses strongly depend on the crops affected, which need to be predicted accurately. Therefore, three different methods to predict flood-affected crops using remote sensing and ancillary data were developed, applied and validated. These methods are: (a) a hierarchical classification based on standard curves of spectral response using satellite images, (b) disaggregation of crop statistics using a Monte Carlo simulation and probabilities of crops to be cultivated on specific soils and (c) analysis of crop rotation with data mining Net Bayesian Classifiers (NBC) using soil data and crop data derived from a multi-year satellite image analysis. A flood loss estimation model for crops was applied and validated in flood detention areas (polders) at the Havel River (Untere Havelniederung) in Germany. The polders were used for temporary storage of flood water during the extreme flood event in August 2002. The flood loss to crops during the extreme flood event in August 2002 was estimated based on the results of the three crop prediction methods. The loss estimates were then compared with official loss data for validation purposes. The analysis of crop rotation with NBC obtained the best result, with 66% of crops correctly classified. The accuracy of the other methods reached 34% with identification using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) standard curves and 19% using disaggregation of crop statistics. The results were confirmed by evaluating the loss estimation procedure, in which the damage model using affected crops estimated by NBC showed the smallest overall deviation (1%) when compared to the official losses. Remote sensing offers various possibilities for the improvement of

  6. Handling Procedures of Vegetable Crops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; French, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is working towards future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit. The duration of these missions may be as long as 2.5 years and will likely include a stay on a lunar or planetary surface. The primary goal of the Advanced Food System in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious, and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. Vegetable crops can provide the crew with added nutrition and variety. These crops do not require any cooking or food processing prior to consumption. The vegetable crops, unlike prepackaged foods, will provide bright colors, textures (crispy), and fresh aromas. Ten vegetable crops have been identified for possible use in long duration missions. They are lettuce, spinach, carrot, tomato, green onion, radish, bell pepper, strawberries, fresh herbs, and cabbage. Whether these crops are grown on a transit vehicle (e.g., International Space Station) or on the lunar or planetary surface, it will be necessary to determine how to safely handle the vegetables while maintaining acceptability. Since hydrogen peroxide degrades into water and oxygen and is generally recognized as safe (GRAS), hydrogen peroxide has been recommended as the sanitizer. The objective of th is research is to determine the required effective concentration of hydrogen peroxide. In addition, it will be determined whether the use of hydrogen peroxide, although a viable sanitizer, adversely affects the quality of the vegetables. Vegetables will be dipped in 1 % hydrogen peroxide, 3% hydrogen peroxide, or 5% hydrogen peroxide. Treated produce and controls will be stored in plastic bags at 5 C for up to 14 days. Sensory, color, texture, and total plate count will be measured. The effect on several vegetables including lettuce, radish, tomato and strawberries has been completed. Although each vegetable reacts to hydrogen peroxide differently, the

  7. 7 CFR 760.810 - Qualifying 2005, 2006, or 2007 quantity crop losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the applicable crop year growing season. (c) Qualifying losses under this part for nursery stock will... to an eligible natural disaster; (5) Affecting crops where weeds and other forms of undergrowth...

  8. 7 CFR 760.810 - Qualifying 2005, 2006, or 2007 quantity crop losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the applicable crop year growing season. (c) Qualifying losses under this part for nursery stock will... to an eligible natural disaster; (5) Affecting crops where weeds and other forms of undergrowth...

  9. 7 CFR 760.810 - Qualifying 2005, 2006, or 2007 quantity crop losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the applicable crop year growing season. (c) Qualifying losses under this part for nursery stock will... to an eligible natural disaster; (5) Affecting crops where weeds and other forms of undergrowth...

  10. The California Biomass Crop Adoption Model estimates biofuel feedstock crop production across diverse agro-ecological zones within the state, under different future climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaffka, S.; Jenner, M.; Bucaram, S.; George, N.

    2012-12-01

    Both regulators and businesses need realistic estimates for the potential production of biomass feedstocks for biofuels and bioproducts. This includes the need to understand how climate change will affect mid-tem and longer-term crop performance and relative advantage. The California Biomass Crop Adoption Model is a partial mathematical programming optimization model that estimates the profit level needed for new crop adoption, and the crop(s) displaced when a biomass feedstock crop is added to the state's diverse set of cropping systems, in diverse regions of the state. Both yield and crop price, as elements of profit, can be varied. Crop adoption is tested against current farmer preferences derived from analysis of 10 years crop production data for all crops produced in California, collected by the California Department of Pesticide Regulation. Analysis of this extensive data set resulted in 45 distinctive, representative farming systems distributed across the state's diverse agro-ecological regions. Estimated yields and water use are derived from field trials combined with crop simulation, reported elsewhere. Crop simulation is carried out under different weather and climate assumptions. Besides crop adoption and displacement, crop resource use is also accounted, derived from partial budgets used for each crop's cost of production. Systematically increasing biofuel crop price identified areas of the state where different types of crops were most likely to be adopted. Oilseed crops like canola that can be used for biodiesel production had the greatest potential to be grown in the Sacramento Valley and other northern regions, while sugar beets (for ethanol) had the greatest potential in the northern San Joaquin Valley region, and sweet sorghum in the southern San Joaquin Valley. Up to approximately 10% of existing annual cropland in California was available for new crop adoption. New crops are adopted if the entire cropping system becomes more profitable. In

  11. Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE). Feasibility of assessing crop condition and yield from LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Yield modelling for crop production estimation derived a means of predicting the within-a-year yield and the year-to-year variability of yield over some fixed or randomly located unit of area. Preliminary studies indicated that the requirements for interpreting LANDSAT data for yield may be sufficiently similar to those of signature extension that it is feasible to investigate the automated estimation of production. The concept of an advanced yield model consisting of both spectral and meteorological components was endorsed. Rationale for using meteorological parameters originated from known between season and near harvest dynamics in crop environmental-condition-yield relationships.

  12. [Unintended effects assessment of genetically modified crops using omics techniques].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Li, Yan-Yan

    2013-12-01

    Safety assessment is the essential process for commercial application of genetically modified (GM) crops. Omics techniques can be used to evaluate the safety of GM crops unbiasedly at different biological levels, such as transcripts, proteins and metabolites. In the present review, the researches on unintended effects assessment of GM crops using transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic techniques in recent ten years have been summarized. The facts show that the environmental factors (growing area and season) and genotype difference play greater roles than gene insertion does for most unintended variations in GM crops.

  13. Dynamic precision phenotyping reveals mechanism of crop tolerance to herbivory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (LeConte) is a major pest of maize, Zea mays L. Over the years, this pest has repeatedly shown its resilience and adaptability not only to traditional crop management strategies including chemical pesticides and crop rotation, but also to de...

  14. Beyond biodiversity: Ecosystem services of crop wild relatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop wild relatives (CWRs) and crop progenitors were among the first natural ecosystem services available to humans in building the foundations of agriculture in an era of remarkable climate change some 10,000 years ago. Ever since, spatial and temporal variation in micro- and macro-environments, an...

  15. Influence of angular effects on surface reflections for crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing imageries with wide swath have been broadly used in mapping crop types and monitoring crop conditions at the regional, continental or global scales. In recent years, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has used the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, 250m–1km) ...

  16. The Role of Crop Systems Simulation in Agriculture and Environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past 30 to 40 years, simulation of crop systems has advanced from a neophyte science with inadequate computing power into a robust and increasingly accepted science supported by improved software, languages, development tools, and computer capabilities. Crop system simulators contain mathe...

  17. Why we need GMO crops in agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fact that in a very short period of 35 years the global population will reach an estimated 9 billion people presents a massive challenge to agriculture: how do we feed all of these people with nutritious food in a sustainable way? At the present time the yields of most of our major crops are sta...

  18. Can genomics boost productivity of orphan crops?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advances in genomics over the past 20 years have enhanced the precision and efficiency of breeding programs in many temperate cereal crops. One of the first applications of genomics-assisted breeding has been the introgression of loci for resistance to biotic stresses or major quantitative trait loc...

  19. Nitrogen catch crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High costs of nitrogen (N) fertilizer and the potential for N losses to ground and surface water have resulted in increased interest in using catch crops to recover this N. Research on potatoes has shown that the amount of N lost to leaching can be as much as the amount of N removed from the field ...

  20. Biotechnology Towards Energy Crops.

    PubMed

    Margaritopoulou, Theoni; Roka, Loukia; Alexopoulou, Efi; Christou, Myrsini; Rigas, Stamatis; Haralampidis, Kosmas; Milioni, Dimitra

    2016-03-01

    New crops are gradually establishing along with cultivation systems to reduce reliance on depleting fossil fuel reserves and sustain better adaptation to climate change. These biological assets could be efficiently exploited as bioenergy feedstocks. Bioenergy crops are versatile renewable sources with the potential to alternatively contribute on a daily basis towards the coverage of modern society's energy demands. Biotechnology may facilitate the breeding of elite energy crop genotypes, better suited for bio-processing and subsequent use that will improve efficiency, further reduce costs, and enhance the environmental benefits of biofuels. Innovative molecular techniques may improve a broad range of important features including biomass yield, product quality and resistance to biotic factors like pests or microbial diseases or environmental cues such as drought, salinity, freezing injury or heat shock. The current review intends to assess the capacity of biotechnological applications to develop a beneficial bioenergy pipeline extending from feedstock development to sustainable biofuel production and provide examples of the current state of the art on future energy crops. PMID:26798073

  1. Crop Dusting Using GPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers and GPS-based swath guidance systems are used on agricultural aircraft for remote sensing, airplane guidance, and to support variable-rate aerial application of crop inputs such as insecticides, cotton growth regulators, and defoliants. Agricultural aircraf...

  2. Major Cucurbit Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucurbit is a general term to denote all species within the Cucurbitaceae family, which includes approximately 800 species in 130 genera. Cucurbits are mostly annual, herbaceous, tendril-bearing and frost sensitive vines and are among the economically most important vegetable crops worldwide. Cucurb...

  3. Replacing fallow by cover crops: economic sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, José Luis; Garrido, Alberto; Quemada, Miguel

    2013-04-01

    Replacing fallow by cover crops in intensive fertilized systems has been demonstrated as an efficient tool for reducing nitrate leaching. However, despite the evident environmental services provided and the range of agronomic benefits documented in the literature, farmers' adoption of this new technology is still limited because they are either unwilling or unable, although adoption reluctance is frequently rooted in low economic profitability, low water se efficiency or poor knowledge. Economic analyses permit a comparison between the profit that farmers obtain from agricultural products and the cost of adopting specific agricultural techniques. The goal of this study was to evaluate the economic impact of replacing the usual winter fallow with cover crops (barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Vanessa), vetch (Vicia villosa L., cv. Vereda) and rapeseed (Brassica napus L., cv. Licapo)) in irrigated maize systems and variable Mediterranean weather conditions using stochastic Monte-Carlo simulations of key farms' financial performance indicators. The three scenarios studied for each cover crop were: i) just leaving the cover crop residue in the ground, ii) leaving the cover crop residue but reduce following maize fertilization according to the N available from the previous cover crop and iii) selling the cover crop residue for animal feeding. All the scenarios were compared with respect to a typical maize-fallow rotation. With observed data from six different years and in various field trials, looking for different weather conditions, probability distribution functions of maize yield, cover crop biomass production and N fertilizer saving was fitted. Based in statistical sources maize grain price, different forage prices and the cost of fertilizer were fitted to probability distribution functions too. As result, introducing a cover crop involved extra costs with respect to fallow as the initial investment, because new seed, herbicide or extra field operations. Additional

  4. Increasing crop diversity mitigates weather variations and improves yield stability.

    PubMed

    Gaudin, Amélie C M; Tolhurst, Tor N; Ker, Alan P; Janovicek, Ken; Tortora, Cristina; Martin, Ralph C; Deen, William

    2015-01-01

    Cropping sequence diversification provides a systems approach to reduce yield variations and improve resilience to multiple environmental stresses. Yield advantages of more diverse crop rotations and their synergistic effects with reduced tillage are well documented, but few studies have quantified the impact of these management practices on yields and their stability when soil moisture is limiting or in excess. Using yield and weather data obtained from a 31-year long term rotation and tillage trial in Ontario, we tested whether crop rotation diversity is associated with greater yield stability when abnormal weather conditions occur. We used parametric and non-parametric approaches to quantify the impact of rotation diversity (monocrop, 2-crops, 3-crops without or with one or two legume cover crops) and tillage (conventional or reduced tillage) on yield probabilities and the benefits of crop diversity under different soil moisture and temperature scenarios. Although the magnitude of rotation benefits varied with crops, weather patterns and tillage, yield stability significantly increased when corn and soybean were integrated into more diverse rotations. Introducing small grains into short corn-soybean rotation was enough to provide substantial benefits on long-term soybean yields and their stability while the effects on corn were mostly associated with the temporal niche provided by small grains for underseeded red clover or alfalfa. Crop diversification strategies increased the probability of harnessing favorable growing conditions while decreasing the risk of crop failure. In hot and dry years, diversification of corn-soybean rotations and reduced tillage increased yield by 7% and 22% for corn and soybean respectively. Given the additional advantages associated with cropping system diversification, such a strategy provides a more comprehensive approach to lowering yield variability and improving the resilience of cropping systems to multiple environmental

  5. Increasing Crop Diversity Mitigates Weather Variations and Improves Yield Stability

    PubMed Central

    Gaudin, Amélie C. M.; Tolhurst, Tor N.; Ker, Alan P.; Janovicek, Ken; Tortora, Cristina; Martin, Ralph C.; Deen, William

    2015-01-01

    Cropping sequence diversification provides a systems approach to reduce yield variations and improve resilience to multiple environmental stresses. Yield advantages of more diverse crop rotations and their synergistic effects with reduced tillage are well documented, but few studies have quantified the impact of these management practices on yields and their stability when soil moisture is limiting or in excess. Using yield and weather data obtained from a 31-year long term rotation and tillage trial in Ontario, we tested whether crop rotation diversity is associated with greater yield stability when abnormal weather conditions occur. We used parametric and non-parametric approaches to quantify the impact of rotation diversity (monocrop, 2-crops, 3-crops without or with one or two legume cover crops) and tillage (conventional or reduced tillage) on yield probabilities and the benefits of crop diversity under different soil moisture and temperature scenarios. Although the magnitude of rotation benefits varied with crops, weather patterns and tillage, yield stability significantly increased when corn and soybean were integrated into more diverse rotations. Introducing small grains into short corn-soybean rotation was enough to provide substantial benefits on long-term soybean yields and their stability while the effects on corn were mostly associated with the temporal niche provided by small grains for underseeded red clover or alfalfa. Crop diversification strategies increased the probability of harnessing favorable growing conditions while decreasing the risk of crop failure. In hot and dry years, diversification of corn-soybean rotations and reduced tillage increased yield by 7% and 22% for corn and soybean respectively. Given the additional advantages associated with cropping system diversification, such a strategy provides a more comprehensive approach to lowering yield variability and improving the resilience of cropping systems to multiple environmental

  6. Increasing crop diversity mitigates weather variations and improves yield stability.

    PubMed

    Gaudin, Amélie C M; Tolhurst, Tor N; Ker, Alan P; Janovicek, Ken; Tortora, Cristina; Martin, Ralph C; Deen, William

    2015-01-01

    Cropping sequence diversification provides a systems approach to reduce yield variations and improve resilience to multiple environmental stresses. Yield advantages of more diverse crop rotations and their synergistic effects with reduced tillage are well documented, but few studies have quantified the impact of these management practices on yields and their stability when soil moisture is limiting or in excess. Using yield and weather data obtained from a 31-year long term rotation and tillage trial in Ontario, we tested whether crop rotation diversity is associated with greater yield stability when abnormal weather conditions occur. We used parametric and non-parametric approaches to quantify the impact of rotation diversity (monocrop, 2-crops, 3-crops without or with one or two legume cover crops) and tillage (conventional or reduced tillage) on yield probabilities and the benefits of crop diversity under different soil moisture and temperature scenarios. Although the magnitude of rotation benefits varied with crops, weather patterns and tillage, yield stability significantly increased when corn and soybean were integrated into more diverse rotations. Introducing small grains into short corn-soybean rotation was enough to provide substantial benefits on long-term soybean yields and their stability while the effects on corn were mostly associated with the temporal niche provided by small grains for underseeded red clover or alfalfa. Crop diversification strategies increased the probability of harnessing favorable growing conditions while decreasing the risk of crop failure. In hot and dry years, diversification of corn-soybean rotations and reduced tillage increased yield by 7% and 22% for corn and soybean respectively. Given the additional advantages associated with cropping system diversification, such a strategy provides a more comprehensive approach to lowering yield variability and improving the resilience of cropping systems to multiple environmental

  7. Soil Water Improvements with the Long Term Use of a Winter Rye Cover Crop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basche, A.; Kaspar, T.; Archontoulis, S.; Jaynes, D. B.; Sauer, T. J.; Parkin, T.; Miguez, F.

    2015-12-01

    The Midwestern United States, a region that produces one-third of maize and one-quarter of soybeans globally, is projected to experience increasing rainfall variability with future climate change. One approach to mitigate climate impacts is to utilize crop and soil management practices that enhance soil water storage, reducing the risks of flooding and runoff as well as drought-induced crop water stress. While some research indicates that a winter cover crop in a maize-soybean rotation increases soil water, producers continue to be concerned that water use by cover crops will reduce water for a following cash crop. We analyzed continuous in-field soil moisture measurements over from 2008-2014 at a Central Iowa research site that has included a winter rye cover crop in a maize-soybean rotation for thirteen years. This period of study included years in the top third of wettest years on record (2008, 2010, 2014) as well as years in the bottom third of driest years (2012, 2013). We found the cover crop treatment to have significantly higher soil water storage from 2012-2014 when compared to the no cover crop treatment and in most years greater soil water content later in the growing season when a cover crop was present. We further found that the winter rye cover crop significantly increased the field capacity water content and plant available water compared to the no cover crop treatment. Finally, in 2012 and 2013, we measured maize and soybean biomass every 2-3 weeks and did not see treatment differences in crop growth, leaf area or nitrogen uptake. Final crop yields were not statistically different between the cover and no cover crop treatment in any of the years of this analysis. This research indicates that the long-term use of a winter rye cover crop can improve soil water dynamics without sacrificing cash crop growth.

  8. Genetics and consequences of crop domestication.

    PubMed

    Flint-Garcia, Sherry A

    2013-09-01

    Phenotypic variation has been manipulated by humans during crop domestication, which occurred primarily between 3000 and 10000 years ago in the various centers of origin around the world. The process of domestication has profound consequences on crops, where the domesticate has moderately reduced genetic diversity relative to the wild ancestor across the genome, and severely reduced diversity for genes targeted by domestication. The question that remains is whether reduction in genetic diversity has affected crop production today. A case study in maize ( Zea mays ) demonstrates the application of understanding relationships between genetic diversity and phenotypic diversity in the wild ancestor and the domesticate. As an outcrossing species, maize has tremendous genetic variation. The complementary combination of genome-wide association mapping (GWAS) approaches, large HapMap data sets, and germplasm resources is leading to important discoveries of the relationship between genetic diversity and phenotypic variation and the impact of domestication on trait variation.

  9. Genetic transformation of major cereal crops.

    PubMed

    Ji, Qing; Xu, Xing; Wang, Kan

    2013-01-01

    Of the more than 50,000 edible plant species in the world, at least 10,000 species are cereal grains. Three major cereal crops, rice (Oryza sativa), maize (Zea mays), and wheat (Triticum sp.), provide two-thirds of the world's food energy intake. Although crop yields have improved tremendously thanks to technological advances in the past 50 years, population increases and climate changes continue to threaten the sustainability of current crop productions. Whereas conventional and marker-assisted breeding programs continue to play a major role in crop improvement, genetic engineering has drawn an intense worldwide interest from the scientific community. In the past decade, genetic transformation technologies have revolutionized agricultural practices and millions of hectares of biotech crops have been cultured. Because of its unique ability to insert well-characterized gene sequences into the plant genome, genetic engineering can also provide effective tools to address fundamental biological questions. This technology is expected to continue to be an indispensable approach for both basic and applied research. Here, we overview briefly the development of the genetic transformation in the top seven cereals, namely maize, rice, wheat, barley (Hordeum vulgare), sorghum (Sorghum sp.), oat (Avena sativa), and millets. The advantages and disadvantages of the two major transformation methods, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated and biolistic methods, are also discussed.

  10. Genetically modified crops and food security.

    PubMed

    Qaim, Matin; Kouser, Shahzad

    2013-01-01

    The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers' income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the first ex post analysis of food security impacts of GM crops at the micro level. We use comprehensive panel data collected over several years from farm households in India, where insect-resistant GM cotton has been widely adopted. Controlling for other factors, the adoption of GM cotton has significantly improved calorie consumption and dietary quality, resulting from increased family incomes. This technology has reduced food insecurity by 15-20% among cotton-producing households. GM crops alone will not solve the hunger problem, but they can be an important component in a broader food security strategy.

  11. Short rotation Wood Crops Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, L.L.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.

    1990-08-01

    This report synthesizes the technical progress of research projects in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program for the year ending September 30, 1989. The primary goal of this research program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, is the development of a viable technology for producing renewable feedstocks for conversion to biofuels. One of the more significant accomplishments was the documentation that short-rotation woody crops total delivered costs could be $40/Mg or less under optimistic but attainable conditions. By taking advantage of federal subsidies such as those offered under the Conservation Reserve Program, wood energy feedstock costs could be lower. Genetic improvement studies are broadening species performance within geographic regions and under less-than-optimum site conditions. Advances in physiological research are identifying key characteristics of species productivity and response to nutrient applications. Recent developments utilizing biotechnology have achieved success in cell and tissue culture, somaclonal variation, and gene-insertion studies. Productivity gains have been realized with advanced cultural studies of spacing, coppice, and mixed-species trials. 8 figs., 20 tabs.

  12. Diversifying crops: the Nicaraguan experiment.

    PubMed

    Meyrat, A

    1992-01-01

    Over 1/2 of Nicaragua's population lives in the Pacific Plains where cotton has been grown intensively for 40 years. This single-crop economy has led to massive deforestation, wind and water erosion has affected the soil, and extensive use of pesticides has deposited excessive amounts of DDT in the breast milk of nursing mothers. After the downfall of the Somoza dictatorship the subsequent agrarian reform has been hampered by lack of information and training on sustainable methods of farming. The Pikin Guerrero project is a sustainable development experiment involving 2200 peasant families jointly run by the Nicaraguan Institute for Natural Resources and the Environment (IRENA) and the World Conservation Union (IUCN). The farmers grow corn and beans while exhausting the area's natural resources through forest clearing with the result of spreading erosion of fragile soils. 400 farmers have reshaped their production systems with the help of experts. Annual crops have become more diverse: yucca, 10 varieties of bean, 3 of pineapple, and 4 of corn, plus coffee, mango, bananas, and avocado. Soil conservation practices have been introduced, and farmers have built terraces. The initial pilot project comprised 5000 hectares, it is being expanded to cover another 10,000 hectares. The introduction of family planning to the local people is the next undertaking. PMID:12317702

  13. Sugar crops for fuel alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    The use of alcohol rather than petroleum as a fuel source would require a large amount of land and suitable crops. Acerage now in use for food crops and animal production in the USA is given. The author presents alternatives to present land use in order to free acreage for energy crops such as sorghum, sugar beets, and sugar cane. (DC)

  14. Epigenetics and crop improvement.

    PubMed

    Springer, Nathan M

    2013-04-01

    There is considerable excitement about the potential for epigenetic information to contribute to heritable variation in many species. Our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of epigenetic inheritance is rapidly growing, and it is now possible to profile the epigenome at high resolution. Epigenetic information plays a role in developmental gene regulation, response to the environment, and in natural variation of gene expression levels. Because of these central roles, there is the potential for epigenetics to play a role in crop improvement strategies including the selection for favorable epigenetic states, creation of novel epialleles, and regulation of transgene expression. In this review we consider the potential, and the limitations, of epigenetic variation in crop improvement.

  15. Effects of crop rotation on properties of a Vietnam clay soil under rice-based cropping systems in small-scale farmers' fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In tropical deltas, intensive monocultures with three rice crops per year have been the standard for decades. In recent years, though, rice-based rotations with one or more upland crops per year are being adopted by several farmers. Their trends of increasing grain yields raise the question whether ...

  16. Halophytes As Bioenergy Crops.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rita; Wungrampha, Silas; Singh, Vinay; Pareek, Ashwani; Sharma, Manoj K

    2016-01-01

    Shrinking arable land due to soil salinization and, depleting fresh water resources pose serious worldwide constraints to crop productivity. A vision of using plant feedstock for biofuel production can only be realized if we can identify alternate species that can be grown on saline soils and therefore, would not compete for the resources required for conventional agriculture. Halophytes have remarkable ability to grow under high salinity conditions. They can be irrigated with seawater without compromising their biomass and seed yields making them good alternate candidates as bioenergy crops. Both oil produced from the seeds and the lignocellulosic biomass of halophytes can be utilized for biofuel production. Several researchers across the globe have recognized this potential and assessed several halophytes for their tolerance to salt, seed oil contents and composition of their lignocellulosic biomass. Here, we review current advances and highlight the key species of halophytes analyzed for this purpose. We have critically assessed the challenges and opportunities associated with using halophytes as bioenergy crops. PMID:27679645

  17. Halophytes As Bioenergy Crops

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rita; Wungrampha, Silas; Singh, Vinay; Pareek, Ashwani; Sharma, Manoj K.

    2016-01-01

    Shrinking arable land due to soil salinization and, depleting fresh water resources pose serious worldwide constraints to crop productivity. A vision of using plant feedstock for biofuel production can only be realized if we can identify alternate species that can be grown on saline soils and therefore, would not compete for the resources required for conventional agriculture. Halophytes have remarkable ability to grow under high salinity conditions. They can be irrigated with seawater without compromising their biomass and seed yields making them good alternate candidates as bioenergy crops. Both oil produced from the seeds and the lignocellulosic biomass of halophytes can be utilized for biofuel production. Several researchers across the globe have recognized this potential and assessed several halophytes for their tolerance to salt, seed oil contents and composition of their lignocellulosic biomass. Here, we review current advances and highlight the key species of halophytes analyzed for this purpose. We have critically assessed the challenges and opportunities associated with using halophytes as bioenergy crops. PMID:27679645

  18. Halophytes As Bioenergy Crops.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rita; Wungrampha, Silas; Singh, Vinay; Pareek, Ashwani; Sharma, Manoj K

    2016-01-01

    Shrinking arable land due to soil salinization and, depleting fresh water resources pose serious worldwide constraints to crop productivity. A vision of using plant feedstock for biofuel production can only be realized if we can identify alternate species that can be grown on saline soils and therefore, would not compete for the resources required for conventional agriculture. Halophytes have remarkable ability to grow under high salinity conditions. They can be irrigated with seawater without compromising their biomass and seed yields making them good alternate candidates as bioenergy crops. Both oil produced from the seeds and the lignocellulosic biomass of halophytes can be utilized for biofuel production. Several researchers across the globe have recognized this potential and assessed several halophytes for their tolerance to salt, seed oil contents and composition of their lignocellulosic biomass. Here, we review current advances and highlight the key species of halophytes analyzed for this purpose. We have critically assessed the challenges and opportunities associated with using halophytes as bioenergy crops.

  19. Halophytes As Bioenergy Crops

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rita; Wungrampha, Silas; Singh, Vinay; Pareek, Ashwani; Sharma, Manoj K.

    2016-01-01

    Shrinking arable land due to soil salinization and, depleting fresh water resources pose serious worldwide constraints to crop productivity. A vision of using plant feedstock for biofuel production can only be realized if we can identify alternate species that can be grown on saline soils and therefore, would not compete for the resources required for conventional agriculture. Halophytes have remarkable ability to grow under high salinity conditions. They can be irrigated with seawater without compromising their biomass and seed yields making them good alternate candidates as bioenergy crops. Both oil produced from the seeds and the lignocellulosic biomass of halophytes can be utilized for biofuel production. Several researchers across the globe have recognized this potential and assessed several halophytes for their tolerance to salt, seed oil contents and composition of their lignocellulosic biomass. Here, we review current advances and highlight the key species of halophytes analyzed for this purpose. We have critically assessed the challenges and opportunities associated with using halophytes as bioenergy crops.

  20. The green, blue and grey water footprint of crops and derived crop products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekonnen, M. M.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2011-01-01

    m3 GJ-1, while this is 121 m3 GJ-1 for maize. The global water footprint related to crop production in the period 1996-2005 was 7404 billion cubic meters per year (78% green, 12% blue, 10% grey). A large total water footprint was calculated for wheat (1087 Gm3 yr-1), rice (992 Gm3 yr-1) and maize (770 Gm3 yr-1). Wheat and rice have the largest blue water footprints, together accounting for 45% of the global blue water footprint. At country level, the total water footprint was largest for India (1047 Gm3 yr-1), China (967 Gm3 yr-1) and the USA (826 Gm3 yr-1). A relatively large total blue water footprint as a result of crop production is observed in the Indus River Basin (117 Gm3 yr-1) and the Ganges River Basin (108 Gm3 yr-1). The two basins together account for 25% of the blue water footprint related to global crop production. Globally, rain-fed agriculture has a water footprint of 5173 Gm3 yr-1 (91% green, 9% grey); irrigated agriculture has a water footprint of 2230 Gm3 yr-1 (48% green, 40% blue, 12% grey).

  1. The green, blue and grey water footprint of crops and derived crop products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekonnen, M. M.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2011-05-01

    , while this is 121 m3 GJ-1 for maize. The global water footprint related to crop production in the period 1996-2005 was 7404 billion cubic meters per year (78 % green, 12 % blue, 10 % grey). A large total water footprint was calculated for wheat (1087 Gm3 yr-1), rice (992 Gm3 yr-1) and maize (770 Gm3 yr-1). Wheat and rice have the largest blue water footprints, together accounting for 45 % of the global blue water footprint. At country level, the total water footprint was largest for India (1047 Gm3 yr-1), China (967 Gm3 yr-1) and the USA (826 Gm3 yr-1). A relatively large total blue water footprint as a result of crop production is observed in the Indus river basin (117 Gm3 yr-1) and the Ganges river basin (108 Gm3 yr-1). The two basins together account for 25 % of the blue water footprint related to global crop production. Globally, rain-fed agriculture has a water footprint of 5173 Gm3 yr-1 (91 % green, 9 % grey); irrigated agriculture has a water footprint of 2230 Gm3 yr-1 (48 % green, 40 % blue, 12 % grey).

  2. Crop stress detection and classification using hyperspectral remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irby, Jon Trenton

    Agricultural production has observed many changes in technology over the last 20 years. Producers are able to utilize technologies such as site-specific applicators and remotely sensed data to assist with decision making for best management practices which can improve crop production and provide protection to the environment. It is known that plant stress can interfere with photosynthetic reactions within the plant and/or the physical structure of the plant. Common types of stress associated with agricultural crops include herbicide induced stress, nutrient stress, and drought stress from lack of water. Herbicide induced crop stress is not a new problem. However, with increased acreage being planting in varieties/hybrids that contain herbicide resistant traits, herbicide injury to non-target crops will continue to be problematic for producers. With rapid adoption of herbicide-tolerant cropping systems, it is likely that herbicide induced stress will continue to be a major concern. To date, commercially available herbicide-tolerant varieties/hybrids contain traits which allow herbicides like glyphosate and glufosinate-ammonium to be applied as a broadcast application during the growing season. Both glyphosate and glufosinate-ammonium are broad spectrum herbicides which have activity on a large number of plant species, including major crops like non-transgenic soybean, corn, and cotton. Therefore, it is possible for crop stress from herbicide applications to occur in neighboring fields that contain susceptible crop varieties/hybrids. Nutrient and moisture stress as well as stress caused by herbicide applications can interact to influence yields in agricultural fields. If remotely sensed data can be used to accurately identify specific levels of crop stress, it is possible that producers can use this information to better assist them in crop management to maximize yields and protect their investments. This research was conducted to evaluate classification of specific

  3. 7 CFR 457.167 - Pecan revenue crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-irrigated practices, or grown under an organic farming practice are not applicable. 3. Insurance Guarantees... Provisions or 7 CFR part 400, subpart U. (e) The cancellation date is January 31 of the second crop year...

  4. 7 CFR 457.167 - Pecan revenue crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-irrigated practices, or grown under an organic farming practice are not applicable. 3. Insurance Guarantees... Provisions or 7 CFR part 400, subpart U. (e) The cancellation date is January 31 of the second crop year...

  5. Advancing Crop Transformation in the Era of Genome Editing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant transformation has enabled fundamental insights into plant biology and revolutionized commercial agriculture. Unfortunately, for most crops, transformation and regeneration remain arduous even after more than thirty years of technological advances. Genome editing provides new opportunities to...

  6. Advances in managing pest resistance to Bt crops: Pyramids and seed mixtures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic crops producing toxins from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been widely used for the control of insect pests during the last 20 years. Although Bt crops have provided significant environmental and economic benefits, sustainable use of these crops is threatened by the r...

  7. Economic Benefits of Predictive Models for Pest Control in Agricultural Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various forms of crop models or decision making tools for managing crops have existed for many years. The potential advantage of all of these decision making tools is that more informed and economically improved crop management or decision making is accomplished. However, examination of some of thes...

  8. Nutrients in soil water under three rotational cropping systems, Iowa, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    tSubsurface nutrient losses differ between annual and perennial crops; however, nutrient losses fromcropping systems that rotate annual and perennial crops are poorly documented. This study trackedNO3-N and P in soil water under three cropping systems suited for the U.S. Midwest, includingtwo-year (...

  9. Monitoring crop condition at field scale using multiple remote sensing data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop growth condition is affected by both environmental variables (climate, weather and soil condition etc.) and anthropogenic activities (fertilization and irrigation etc.). Crop condition varies by year and location and is critical for crop management and yield estimation. In the United States, cr...

  10. 7 CFR 457.112 - Hybrid sorghum seed crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.112 Hybrid sorghum... succeeding crop years are as follows: FCIC policies: United States Department of Agriculture Federal Crop Insurance Corporation Reinsured Policies (Appropriate title for insurance provider) Both FCIC and...

  11. 7 CFR 457.152 - Hybrid seed corn crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.152 Hybrid seed... succeeding crop years are as follows: FCIC Policies United States Department of Agriculture Federal Crop Insurance Corporation Reinsured Policies (Appropriate title for insurance provider) Both FCIC and...

  12. 7 CFR 457.139 - Fresh market tomato (dollar plan) crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...; (5) Grown by a person who in at least one of the three previous crop years: (i) Grew tomatoes for... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fresh market tomato (dollar plan) crop insurance... Fresh market tomato (dollar plan) crop insurance provisions. The fresh market tomato (dollar plan)...

  13. Assessing the MODIS Crop Detection Algorithm for Soybean Crop Area Mapping and Expansion in the Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ricardo Ducati, Jorge; da Silveira, Luiz Gonzaga

    2014-01-01

    Estimations of crop area were made based on the temporal profiles of the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) obtained from moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) images. Evaluation of the ability of the MODIS crop detection algorithm (MCDA) to estimate soybean crop areas was performed for fields in the Mato Grosso state, Brazil. Using the MCDA approach, soybean crop area estimations can be provided for December (first forecast) using images from the sowing period and for February (second forecast) using images from the sowing period and the maximum crop development period. The area estimates were compared to official agricultural statistics from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) and from the National Company of Food Supply (CONAB) at different crop levels from 2000/2001 to 2010/2011. At the municipality level, the estimates were highly correlated, with R2 = 0.97 and RMSD = 13,142 ha. The MCDA was validated using field campaign data from the 2006/2007 crop year. The overall map accuracy was 88.25%, and the Kappa Index of Agreement was 0.765. By using pre-defined parameters, MCDA is able to provide the evolution of annual soybean maps, forecast of soybean cropping areas, and the crop area expansion in the Mato Grosso state. PMID:24983007

  14. Assessing the MODIS crop detection algorithm for soybean crop area mapping and expansion in the Mato Grosso state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gusso, Anibal; Arvor, Damien; Ducati, Jorge Ricardo; Veronez, Mauricio Roberto; da Silveira, Luiz Gonzaga

    2014-01-01

    Estimations of crop area were made based on the temporal profiles of the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) obtained from moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) images. Evaluation of the ability of the MODIS crop detection algorithm (MCDA) to estimate soybean crop areas was performed for fields in the Mato Grosso state, Brazil. Using the MCDA approach, soybean crop area estimations can be provided for December (first forecast) using images from the sowing period and for February (second forecast) using images from the sowing period and the maximum crop development period. The area estimates were compared to official agricultural statistics from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) and from the National Company of Food Supply (CONAB) at different crop levels from 2000/2001 to 2010/2011. At the municipality level, the estimates were highly correlated, with R (2) = 0.97 and RMSD = 13,142 ha. The MCDA was validated using field campaign data from the 2006/2007 crop year. The overall map accuracy was 88.25%, and the Kappa Index of Agreement was 0.765. By using pre-defined parameters, MCDA is able to provide the evolution of annual soybean maps, forecast of soybean cropping areas, and the crop area expansion in the Mato Grosso state.

  15. Crop scientists break down barriers at Ames meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Moffat, A.S.

    1992-09-04

    For years, crop science has been balkanized, with specialists in rice, corn, and soy beans, for example, working on their commodities and attending their own meetings. But at the First International Crop Science Congress, held in July in Ames, Iowa-an 8-day event 3 years in the making-the discipline displayed a new found hybrid vigor. More than 1000 researchers of various persuasions, including plant molecular biology, classical plant breeding, agronomy, and soil science, representing 85 countries, shared their expertise in basic and applied studies. Here are a couple of proposals for expanding world food production and another that shows the diverse roles crops can play.

  16. Economic impacts of ethanol fuels from crops

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzmark, D.; Ray, D.; Richardson, J.

    1981-08-01

    This paper presents selected results of simulations of agricultural production of ethanol feedstocks from grains and sugar crops. Production levels of up to 5 billion gallons per year were simulated using various combinations of corn, high energy sorghum, sweet sorghum, and sugar beets. Major results include (1) at up to 2 billion gallons per year of ethanol, impacts on the agricultural sector are mild; (2) beyond 2 billion gallons per year, diversification away from corn appears to be necessary to avoid major feed price inflation; (3) farm income unambiguously rises in response to higher crop prices; and (4) exports of food grains are affected differently by alternative feedstocks, and high-energy sorghum shows a good potential for competing with food grains.

  17. Crop yield response to climate change varies with cropping intensity.

    PubMed

    Challinor, Andrew J; Parkes, Ben; Ramirez-Villegas, Julian

    2015-04-01

    Projections of the response of crop yield to climate change at different spatial scales are known to vary. However, understanding of the causes of systematic differences across scale is limited. Here, we hypothesize that heterogeneous cropping intensity is one source of scale dependency. Analysis of observed global data and regional crop modelling demonstrate that areas of high vs. low cropping intensity can have systematically different yields, in both observations and simulations. Analysis of global crop data suggests that heterogeneity in cropping intensity is a likely source of scale dependency for a number of crops across the globe. Further crop modelling and a meta-analysis of projected tropical maize yields are used to assess the implications for climate change assessments. The results show that scale dependency is a potential source of systematic bias. We conclude that spatially comprehensive assessments of climate impacts based on yield alone, without accounting for cropping intensity, are prone to systematic overestimation of climate impacts. The findings therefore suggest a need for greater attention to crop suitability and land use change when assessing the impacts of climate change.

  18. Multi-scale indicators in CropWatch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, B.; Gommes, R.; Zhang, M.; Zeng, H.; Yan, N.; Zhang, N.; Zou, W.; Chang, S.; Liu, G.

    2013-12-01

    CropWatch is a crop monitoring system developed and operated by the Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth (Chinese Academy of Sciences) to provide global-scale crop information, mostly for Chinese users. In its 15th year of operation, CropWatch uses remote sensing data combined with selected field data to determine key crop descriptors: acreage, yield and production, condition, cropping intensity, planting proportion, total food availability, and the status and severity of droughts. Currently, CropWatch is being upgraded with new indicators based on new sensors, especially those on board of China Environmental Satellite (HJ-1 CCD), the Medium Resolution Spectral Imager (MERSI) on Chinese meteorological satellite 3 (FY-3A) and geostationary meteorological satellites (FY-2). The new indicators can be assigned to three different scales: (1) global, (2) regional/Agro-ecological Zone (AEZ), and (3) National/sub-national level. At the global scale, CropWatch focuses on the growing environment including precipitation (R), soil moisture (SM), land surface temperature accumulation (LSTA) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). National values of these four descriptors of the current season and their departure from long term average (LTA) will be determined by spatial average weighted by the production potential. At regional/AEZ scale, CropWatch will use three indicators (biomass, fallow land ratio and cropping intensity) to represent crop condition. At the national/sub-national scale, CropWatch will focus on 30 countries plus China, covering 80% of exports and 80% of production, plus some additional countries. Indicators at global and AEZ scale will also be used for the 30 countries plus China but at a high resolution. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) as well as Evapotranspiration (ET) will be incorporated to determine the crop condition and water stress. All these national/sub-national indicators will be analyzed by irrigated and rain-fed areas

  19. Remote sensing to monitor cover crop adoption in southeastern Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hively, Wells; Sjoerd Duiker,; Greg McCarty,; Prabhakara, Kusuma

    2015-01-01

    showed consistent increases in vegetative groundcover over the four-year study period and determined that trends did not result from annual weather variability, indicating that farmers are increasing adoption of practices such as cover cropping that promote wintertime vegetation. Between 2010 and 2013, the occurrence of wintertime vegetation on agricultural fields increased from 36% to 67% of corn fields in Berks County, from 53% to 75% in Lancaster County, from 42% to 65% in Lebanon County, and from 26% to 52% in York County. Apparently, efforts to promote cover crop use in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed have coincided with a rapid increase in the occurrence of wintertime vegetation following corn harvest in southeastern Pennsylvania. However, despite these increases, between 25% and 48% of corn fields remained without substantial green vegetation over the wintertime, indicating further opportunity for cover crop adoption.

  20. Impact of GM crops on biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Janet E

    2011-01-01

    The potential impact of GM crops on biodiversity has been a topic of interest both in general as well as specifically in the context of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Agricultural biodiversity has been defined at levels from genes to ecosystems that are involved or impacted by agricultural production (www.cbd.int/agro/whatis.shtml). After fifteen years of commercial cultivation, a substantial body of literature now exists addressing the potential impacts of GM crops on the environment. This review takes a biodiversity lens to this literature, considering the impacts at three levels: the crop, farm and landscape scales. Within that framework, this review covers potential impacts of the introduction of genetically engineered crops on: crop diversity, biodiversity of wild relatives, non-target soil organisms, weeds, land use, non-target above-ground organisms, and area-wide pest suppression. The emphasis of the review is peer-reviewed literature that presents direct measures of impacts on biodiversity. In addition, possible impacts of changes in management practises such as tillage and pesticide use are also discussed to complement the literature on direct measures. The focus of the review is on technologies that have been commercialized somewhere in the world, while results may emanate from non-adopting countries and regions. Overall, the review finds that currently commercialized GM crops have reduced the impacts of agriculture on biodiversity, through enhanced adoption of conservation tillage practices, reduction of insecticide use and use of more environmentally benign herbicides and increasing yields to alleviate pressure to convert additional land into agricultural use.

  1. Climate-crop relationships: precipitation or temperature?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowhani, P.; Martin, W.; Iglesias, A.; Hertel, T. W.

    2011-12-01

    Large uncertainties prevail in the estimates of the impacts of climate change on agriculture. Whether agricultural production will suffer from changes in temperature or precipitation is also not well understood. With over 1 billion undernourished people in the world we need to improve our understanding of the climatic controls on crop production since the situation may get worse with the predicted change in climate. To help mitigation and adaptation efforts, we need to be able to better distinguish the various factors influencing crop production. This requires reducing uncertainties related to data and inherent to the models. To this end, a comparison between different models measuring the impacts of precipitation and temperature on maize production in Tanzania is presented here. Results from a statistical analysis will be compared to crop yields estimated by DSSAT (Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer). Currently, agriculture in Tanzania represents around 46% of its GDP, and is mainly rainfed with little chemical input, making crop production very sensitive and vulnerable to climate. The analysis focuses on the six major maize producing regions (Iringa, Mbeya, Rukwa, Ruvuma, Arusha, and Shinyanga) with an average production of 1.1 Mtonnes/year and a yield of 1.55 tonnes/ha over the 1992-2005 time period. Future climate will be based on the results from 22 Global Circulation Models using the A2 scenario. First results show that different climatic factors seem to play a key role in maize yield depending on the method used. Using statistical models, temperature is a major factor impacting crop yields whereas precipitation has a major influence on yields using the process-based model, DSSAT. With the predicted changes in climate by the IPCC, this study will give insight on the potential impacts on crop production, and highlight key uncertainties that need to be reduced.

  2. GEOGLAM Crop Monitor Assessment Tool: Developing Monthly Crop Condition Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGaughey, K.; Becker Reshef, I.; Barker, B.; Humber, M. L.; Nordling, J.; Justice, C. O.; Deshayes, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) developed the Global Agricultural Monitoring initiative (GEOGLAM) to improve existing agricultural information through a network of international partnerships, data sharing, and operational research. This presentation will discuss the Crop Monitor component of GEOGLAM, which provides the Agricultural Market Information System (AMIS) with an international, multi-source, and transparent consensus assessment of crop growing conditions, status, and agro-climatic conditions likely to impact global production. This activity covers the four primary crop types (wheat, maize, rice, and soybean) within the main agricultural producing regions of the AMIS countries. These assessments have been produced operationally since September 2013 and are published in the AMIS Market Monitor Bulletin. The Crop Monitor reports provide cartographic and textual summaries of crop conditions as of the 28th of each month, according to crop type. This presentation will focus on the building of international networks, data collection, and data dissemination.

  3. [Effects of agricultural activities and transgenic crops on agricultural biodiversity].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi-Tao; Luo, Hong-Bing; Li, Jun-Sheng; Huang, Hai; Liu, Yong-Bo

    2014-09-01

    Agricultural biodiversity is a key part of the ecosystem biodiversity, but it receives little concern. The monoculture, environmental pollution and habitat fragmentation caused by agricultural activities have threatened agricultural biodiversity over the past 50 years. To optimize agricultural management measures for crop production and environmental protection, we reviewed the effects of agricultural activities, including cultivation patterns, plastic mulching, chemical additions and the cultivation of transgenic crops, on agricultural biodiversity. The results showed that chemical pesticides and fertilizers had the most serious influence and the effects of transgenic crops varied with other factors like the specific transgene inserted in crops. The environmental risk of transgenic crops should be assessed widely through case-by-case methods, particularly its potential impacts on agricultural biodiversity. It is important to consider the protection of agricultural biodiversity before taking certain agricultural practices, which could improve agricultural production and simultaneously reduce the environmental impacts.

  4. More genomic resources for less-studied crops.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Rajeev K; Glaszmann, Jean-Christophe; Leung, Hei; Ribaut, Jean-Marcel

    2010-09-01

    Many of the crop species considered to be minor on a global scale, yet are important locally for food security in the developing world, have remained less-studied crops. Recent years have witnessed the development of large-scale genomic and genetic resources, including simple sequence repeat, single nucleotide polymorphism and diversity array technology markers, expressed sequence tags or transcript reads, bacterial artificial chromosome libraries, genetic and physical maps, and genetic stocks with rich genetic diversity, such as core reference sets and introgression lines in these crops. These resources have the potential to accelerate gene discovery and initiate molecular breeding in these crops, thereby enhancing crop productivity to ensure food security in developing countries. PMID:20692061

  5. [Effects of agricultural activities and transgenic crops on agricultural biodiversity].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi-Tao; Luo, Hong-Bing; Li, Jun-Sheng; Huang, Hai; Liu, Yong-Bo

    2014-09-01

    Agricultural biodiversity is a key part of the ecosystem biodiversity, but it receives little concern. The monoculture, environmental pollution and habitat fragmentation caused by agricultural activities have threatened agricultural biodiversity over the past 50 years. To optimize agricultural management measures for crop production and environmental protection, we reviewed the effects of agricultural activities, including cultivation patterns, plastic mulching, chemical additions and the cultivation of transgenic crops, on agricultural biodiversity. The results showed that chemical pesticides and fertilizers had the most serious influence and the effects of transgenic crops varied with other factors like the specific transgene inserted in crops. The environmental risk of transgenic crops should be assessed widely through case-by-case methods, particularly its potential impacts on agricultural biodiversity. It is important to consider the protection of agricultural biodiversity before taking certain agricultural practices, which could improve agricultural production and simultaneously reduce the environmental impacts. PMID:25757330

  6. Alfalfa interseeded into silage corn can serve as a cover crop and subsequent forage crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and corn (Zea mays) silage are commonly grown in rotation in dairy forage production systems throughout the northern regions of the USA. Alfalfa interseeded into silage corn could potentially serve two purposes: as a cover crop during the silage corn production year, and as...

  7. Reduced nitrogen losses after conversion of row crop agriculture to perennial biofuel crops.

    PubMed

    Smith, Candice M; David, Mark B; Mitchell, Corey A; Masters, Michael D; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J; Bernacchi, Carl J; Delucia, Evan H

    2013-01-01

    Current biofuel feedstock crops such as corn lead to large environmental losses of N through nitrate leaching and NO emissions; second-generation cellulosic crops have the potential to reduce these N losses. We measured N losses and cycling in establishing miscanthus (), switchgrass ( L. fertilized with 56 kg N ha yr), and mixed prairie, along with a corn ( L.)-corn-soybean [ (L.) Merr.] rotation (corn fertilized at 168-202 kg N ha). Nitrous oxide emissions, soil N mineralization, mid-profile nitrate leaching, and tile flow and nitrate concentrations were measured. Perennial crops quickly reduced nitrate leaching at a 50-cm soil depth as well as concentrations and loads from the tile systems (year 1 tile nitrate concentrations of 10-15 mg N L declined significantly by year 4 in all perennial crops to <0.6 mg N L, with losses of <0.8 kg N ha yr). Nitrous oxide emissions were 2.2 to 7.7 kg N ha yr in the corn-corn-soybean rotation but were <1.0 kg N ha yr by year 4 in the perennial crops. Overall N balances (atmospheric deposition + fertilization + soybean N fixation - harvest, leaching losses, and NO emissions) were positive for corn and soybean (22 kg N ha yr) as well as switchgrass (9.7 kg N ha yr) but were -18 and -29 kg N ha yr for prairie and miscanthus, respectively. Our results demonstrate rapid tightening of the N cycle as perennial biofuel crops established on a rich Mollisol soil.

  8. Space Data for Crop Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    CROPIX, Inc., formed in 1984 by Frank Lamb, president of the Eastern Oregon Farming Company, monitors primarily potato crops in a 20,000 square mile area of northern Oregon and central Washington. Potatoes are a high value specialty crop that can be more profitable to the farmer if he has advance knowledge of market conditions, knows when to harvest, and when to take it to market. By processing and collecting data collected by the NASA-developed Landsat Earth Resources survey satellites, Lamb is able to provide accurate information on crop acreage and conditions on a more timely basis than the routine estimates by the USDA. CROPIX uses Landsat data to make acreage estimates of crops, and to calculate a field-by-field vegetative index number. CROPIX then distributes to its customers a booklet containing color-coded maps, an inventory of crops, plus data and graphs on crop conditions and other valuable information.

  9. Genetic perspectives on crop domestication.

    PubMed

    Gross, Briana L; Olsen, Kenneth M

    2010-09-01

    The process of crop domestication has long been a topic of active research for biologists, anthropologists and others. Genetic data have proved a powerful resource for drawing inferences on questions regarding the geographical origins of crops, the numbers of independent domestication events for a given crop species, the specific molecular changes underlying domestication traits, and the nature of artificial selection during domestication and subsequent crop improvement. We would argue that these genetic inferences are fundamentally compatible with recent archaeological data that support a view of domestication as a geographically diffuse, gradual process. In this review, we summarize methodologies ranging from quantitative trait locus mapping to resequencing used in genetic analyses of crop evolution. We also highlight recent major insights regarding the timing and spatial patterning of crop domestication and the distinct genetic underpinnings of domestication, diversification and improvement traits.

  10. Crop demand of manganese.

    PubMed

    Marton, Laszlo

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate some of the popular rotation crops grown in Hungary for tolerance to low external Mn(2+) levels and to determine the critical tissue concentration of Mn(2+) deficiency during early stages of growth. The minimum Mn(2+) concentration required in soil nutrient contents was 42.5 mg kg(-1) for sunflower, 24.3 mg kg(-1) for tobacco and 10.2 mg kg(-1) for triticale. Sunflower, tobacco and triticale achieved optimum growth at 48.0-65.0 mg Mn(2+) kg(-1), 24.9-32.1 mg Mn( n+) kg(-1) and 28.7 to 29.6 mg Mn(2+) kg(-1), respectively. Critical shoot Mn(2+) concentration at early stages of growth was 53.6 mg kg(-1) in sunflower, 458.0 mg kg(-1) in tobacco and 193.8 mg kg(-1) in triticale. Our results demonstrate that the tolerance to low external Mn(2+) (triticale: <30.2 mg kg(-1); sunflower: <56.2 mg kg(-1); tobacco: <69.3 mg kg(-1)) and the critical tissue Mn(2+) levels for deficiency varied significantly between crop species tested.

  11. Research in satellite-aided crop forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, J. D.; Dragg, J. L.; Bizzell, R. M.; Trichel, M. C.

    1984-01-01

    Evaluations of remote sensing procedures developed specifically to estimate non-U.S. spring small grains area show accuracies of less than 10 percent relative difference to reference statistics for North Dakota in 1978 and good comparison with 9000 square miles of observations over four states and Saskatchewan, Canada during the years 1976-79. Processing a 5 x 6-nautical-mile sample site requires a few minutes manual time and a few minutes central processing unit time on an AS-3000 computer. Evaluations of summer crop, corn, and soybeans area estimates show unbiased summer crops estimates in the U.S. central corn belt but significant bias in one of two years for area estimates of corn and soybeans. Based on results to date, a highly automated corn/sorghum/soybean area estimation procedure should be achieved that is applicable to Argentina.

  12. Historical patterns and drivers of global crop water demand.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, D.; Lobell, D. B.; Sheffield, J.

    2015-12-01

    With climate change expected to subject staple crops in major growing regions to increased heat exposure, a critical question for agriculture and global food security is the degree to which crop water demand is also likely to change. Recent work has explored the relationship between extreme temperatures and crop water demand, finding that vapor pressure deficit (VPD), through its dependence on both temperature and humidity, provides a very good meteorological predictor of water stress. However, assessing crop water demand solely through atmospheric conditions ignores the roles of radiation and transpiration efficiency, which are increased through elevated CO2. We provide a 60-year global assessment of crop water demand in the world's major growing areas, comparing trends and drivers across key growing regions. We find that an atmospheric-based demand measure can differ significantly from that of a crop-specific sink-based approach that incorporates radiation and CO2 effects, sometimes enough to reverse the sign of historical trends. We also find that these changes differ significantly by region, and that multi-decadal trends can mask large decadal swings. To our knowledge, our work is the first to use global meteorological datasets in a global analysis of crop water demand, and should serve as a valuable reference for future work examining the interaction of hydrological, temperature, and CO2 changes on crop yields.

  13. WEED POPULATION IN RELATION TO CROP ROTATION AND NITROGEN FERTILISATION.

    PubMed

    Derycke, V; Latré, J; Van De Vijver, E; De Roo, B; De Cauwer, B; Haesaert, G

    2014-01-01

    In order to assess the impact of crop rotation and nitrogen fertilisation in an agro system, a long-term field experiment has been established in 2006 at the experimental farm of Ghent University and University College Ghent (Bottelare-Belgium). The trial comprises 11 different crop rotations in combination with four nitrogen fertilizer regimes. The different crop rotations are monoculture of grain- and silage maize, whether or not followed by Italian ryegrass, permanent and temporary grass-clover and six other rotations of maize in combination with potatoes, wheat, fodder beet and peas. Normal crop husbandry measures were taken for each crop. The experiment was set up on a sandy loam soil, according to a strip plot design with 3 replicates. In the course of the experiment, crop rotation was the horizontal factor and fertilizer nitrogen (N) the vertical factor. The effect of crop rotation on yield, disease pressure, soil structure and earthworm abundance were evaluated yearly. In autumn 2013 the weed seed bank was analysed for each plot using the seedling emergence method. The obtained results indicated differences between the different crop rotations.

  14. Crop responses to climatic variation

    PubMed Central

    Porter, John R; Semenov, Mikhail A

    2005-01-01

    The yield and quality of food crops is central to the well being of humans and is directly affected by climate and weather. Initial studies of climate change on crops focussed on effects of increased carbon dioxide (CO2) level and/or global mean temperature and/or rainfall and nutrition on crop production. However, crops can respond nonlinearly to changes in their growing conditions, exhibit threshold responses and are subject to combinations of stress factors that affect their growth, development and yield. Thus, climate variability and changes in the frequency of extreme events are important for yield, its stability and quality. In this context, threshold temperatures for crop processes are found not to differ greatly for different crops and are important to define for the major food crops, to assist climate modellers predict the occurrence of crop critical temperatures and their temporal resolution. This paper demonstrates the impacts of climate variability for crop production in a number of crops. Increasing temperature and precipitation variability increases the risks to yield, as shown via computer simulation and experimental studies. The issue of food quality has not been given sufficient importance when assessing the impact of climate change for food and this is addressed. Using simulation models of wheat, the concentration of grain protein is shown to respond to changes in the mean and variability of temperature and precipitation events. The paper concludes with discussion of adaptation possibilities for crops in response to drought and argues that characters that enable better exploration of the soil and slower leaf canopy expansion could lead to crop higher transpiration efficiency. PMID:16433091

  15. Regulating innovative crop technologies in Canada: the case of regulating genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Stuart; McHughen, Alan

    2008-04-01

    The advent of genetically modified crops in the late 1980s triggered a regulatory response to the relatively new field of plant genetic engineering. Over a 7-year period, a new regulatory framework was created, based on scientific principles that focused on risk mitigation. The process was transparent and deliberately sought the input of those involved in crop development from non-governmental organizations, industry, academia and federal research laboratories. The resulting regulations have now been in place for over a decade, and the resilience of the risk-mitigating regulations is evident as there has been no documented case of damage to either environment or human health.

  16. Elevating crop disease resistance with cloned genes.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jonathan D G; Witek, Kamil; Verweij, Walter; Jupe, Florian; Cooke, David; Dorling, Stephen; Tomlinson, Laurence; Smoker, Matthew; Perkins, Sara; Foster, Simon

    2014-04-01

    Essentially all plant species exhibit heritable genetic variation for resistance to a variety of plant diseases caused by fungi, bacteria, oomycetes or viruses. Disease losses in crop monocultures are already significant, and would be greater but for applications of disease-controlling agrichemicals. For sustainable intensification of crop production, we argue that disease control should as far as possible be achieved using genetics rather than using costly recurrent chemical sprays. The latter imply CO₂ emissions from diesel fuel and potential soil compaction from tractor journeys. Great progress has been made in the past 25 years in our understanding of the molecular basis of plant disease resistance mechanisms, and of how pathogens circumvent them. These insights can inform more sophisticated approaches to elevating disease resistance in crops that help us tip the evolutionary balance in favour of the crop and away from the pathogen. We illustrate this theme with an account of a genetically modified (GM) blight-resistant potato trial in Norwich, using the Rpi-vnt1.1 gene isolated from a wild relative of potato, Solanum venturii, and introduced by GM methods into the potato variety Desiree. PMID:24535396

  17. Elevating crop disease resistance with cloned genes

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jonathan D. G.; Witek, Kamil; Verweij, Walter; Jupe, Florian; Cooke, David; Dorling, Stephen; Tomlinson, Laurence; Smoker, Matthew; Perkins, Sara; Foster, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Essentially all plant species exhibit heritable genetic variation for resistance to a variety of plant diseases caused by fungi, bacteria, oomycetes or viruses. Disease losses in crop monocultures are already significant, and would be greater but for applications of disease-controlling agrichemicals. For sustainable intensification of crop production, we argue that disease control should as far as possible be achieved using genetics rather than using costly recurrent chemical sprays. The latter imply CO2 emissions from diesel fuel and potential soil compaction from tractor journeys. Great progress has been made in the past 25 years in our understanding of the molecular basis of plant disease resistance mechanisms, and of how pathogens circumvent them. These insights can inform more sophisticated approaches to elevating disease resistance in crops that help us tip the evolutionary balance in favour of the crop and away from the pathogen. We illustrate this theme with an account of a genetically modified (GM) blight-resistant potato trial in Norwich, using the Rpi-vnt1.1 gene isolated from a wild relative of potato, Solanum venturii, and introduced by GM methods into the potato variety Desiree. PMID:24535396

  18. Multi-use crops and botanochemical production

    SciTech Connect

    Bagby, M.O.; Buchanan, R.A.; Otey, F.H.

    1981-01-01

    Oil- and hydrocarbon-producing plants are especially attractive as future energy and chemical resources. Plants already supply several products competitive with synthetic petrochemicals. These products include tall oil, naval stores, seed oils, and plant oils. For this discussion, we refer to such products collectively as oils and hydrocarbons. For many years, the US Department of Agriculture has actively pursued a multi-disciplined approach to identify and establish new crops as renewable resources. Patterned after the Department's program to identify annually renewable fibrous plants that could be cultivated for papermaking, an analytical screening program was instituted in 1974 to identify and evaluate species as sources of multi-use oil- and hydrocarbon-producing crops for food material and energy production. The multi-use concept requires plant breeders and agronomists to deal with a variety of new crops, each yielding several different products of varying economic value. In screening plant species as potential crops, a rating system was employed that emphasized potential economy of plant production, total biomass yield, and oil and hydrocarbon content. Subsequently, all candidates were ranked by this rating system. It should be emphasized that vigorous perennials were given preference over annuals, with the concept that seed-bed preparation would be infrequent for perennials. Data for over 300 species have been accumulated, and about 40 species have been identified that have sufficient potential to merit further consideration. Nearly all of these species are being further investigated by USDA plant scientists; meanwhile, the screening program continues.

  19. [Cultivation and environmental impacts of GMO crops].

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Georges

    2009-01-01

    Transgenic plant varieties are grown since 1996 on surfaces increasing each year. They covered 114 million hectares worldwide in 2007, which shows their success among the farmers in developed as well as developing countries, despite the propaganda campaigns of the environmental movements and advocates of decline. The first transgenic crops (soybean, corn, coton and rapeseed) offer benefits in terms of health, economy and environment. Europe and especially France, which reject this technology, sentence their research to death and penalize their agriculture.

  20. [Cultivation and environmental impacts of GMO crops].

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Georges

    2009-01-01

    Transgenic plant varieties are grown since 1996 on surfaces increasing each year. They covered 114 million hectares worldwide in 2007, which shows their success among the farmers in developed as well as developing countries, despite the propaganda campaigns of the environmental movements and advocates of decline. The first transgenic crops (soybean, corn, coton and rapeseed) offer benefits in terms of health, economy and environment. Europe and especially France, which reject this technology, sentence their research to death and penalize their agriculture. PMID:20122392

  1. Monsoon variability, crop water requirement, and crop planning for kharif rice in Sagar Island, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, S.; Choudhury, B. U.; Satpati, L. N.

    2015-12-01

    In the Sagar Island of Bay of Bengal, rainfed lowland rice is the major crop, grown solely depending on erratic distribution of southwest monsoon (SM) rainfall. Lack of information on SM rainfall variability and absence of crop scheduling accordingly results in frequent occurrence of intermittent water stress and occasional crop failure. In the present study, we analyzed long period (1982-2010) SM rainfall behavior (onset, withdrawal, rainfall and wetness indices, dry and wet spells), crop water requirement (CWR, by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) 56), and probability of weekly rainfall occurrence (by two-parameter gamma distribution) to assess the variability and impact on water availability, CWR, and rice productivity. Finally, crop planning was suggested to overcome monsoon uncertainties on water availability and rice productivity. Study revealed that the normal onset and withdrawal weeks for SM rainfall were 22nd ± 1 and 43rd ± 2 meteorological weeks (MW), respectively. However, effective monsoon rainfall started at 24th MW (rainfall 92.7 mm, p > 56.7 % for 50 mm rainfall) and was terminated by the end of 40th MW (rainfall 90.7 mm, p < 59.6 % for 50 mm rainfall). During crop growth periods (seed to seed, 21st to 45th MW), the island received an average weekly rainfall of 65.1 ± 25.9 mm, while the corresponding weekly CWR was 47.8 ± 5.4 mm. Despite net water surplus of 353.9 mm during crop growth periods, there was a deficit of 159.5 mm water during MW of 18-23 (seedling raising) and MW of 41-45 (flowering to maturity stages). Water stress was observed in early lag vegetative stage of crop growth (32nd MW). The total dry spell frequency during panicle initiation and heading stage was computed as 40 of which 6 dry spells were >7 days in duration and reflected a significant ( p < 0.05) increasing trend (at 0.22 days year-1) over the years (1982-2010). The present study highlights the adaptive capacity of crop planning including abiotic stress

  2. El Nino southern oscillation effects on dryland crop production in the Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Risk adverse dryland crop management in the US Southern High Plains may stabilize year to year productivity, however in some years the full yield potential is unrealized thereby reducing the overall cropping system productivity. Equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) systematica...

  3. [Effects of continuous cropping of wheat and alfalfa on soil enzyme activities and nutrients].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Qiong; Hao, Ming-De; Zang, Yi-Fei; Li, Li-Xia

    2014-11-01

    Based on a long-term rotation and fertilization experiment in Changwu, Shaanxi, China, we determined the enzymatic activities and nutrients in soils after 27 years continuous cropping of alfalfa and wheat, respectively. The activities of invertase, urease and phosphatase were not affected by fertilization treatment within each cropping system, but they were significantly higher in the alfalfa continuous cropping system than in the wheat continuous cropping system under each fertilization treatment. The activity of hydrogen peroxidase was not affected by the type of cropping system or fertilization treatment. Across the cropping systems, the activities of soil urease, phosphatase and hydrogen peroxidase were higher while soil invertase activity was lower in N, P and manure (NPM) combined treatment compared with the other fertilization treatments. The accumulations of soil organic matter, total nitrogen and available nitrogen were greater in the alfalfa cropping system than in the wheat continuous cropping system, and the NPM treatment could improve the soil fertility.

  4. [Effects of continuous cropping of wheat and alfalfa on soil enzyme activities and nutrients].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Qiong; Hao, Ming-De; Zang, Yi-Fei; Li, Li-Xia

    2014-11-01

    Based on a long-term rotation and fertilization experiment in Changwu, Shaanxi, China, we determined the enzymatic activities and nutrients in soils after 27 years continuous cropping of alfalfa and wheat, respectively. The activities of invertase, urease and phosphatase were not affected by fertilization treatment within each cropping system, but they were significantly higher in the alfalfa continuous cropping system than in the wheat continuous cropping system under each fertilization treatment. The activity of hydrogen peroxidase was not affected by the type of cropping system or fertilization treatment. Across the cropping systems, the activities of soil urease, phosphatase and hydrogen peroxidase were higher while soil invertase activity was lower in N, P and manure (NPM) combined treatment compared with the other fertilization treatments. The accumulations of soil organic matter, total nitrogen and available nitrogen were greater in the alfalfa cropping system than in the wheat continuous cropping system, and the NPM treatment could improve the soil fertility. PMID:25898616

  5. Evaluation of herbacceous biomass crops in the northern Great Plains. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, D.W.; Norby, W.E.; Erickson, D.O.; Johnson, R.G.

    1994-08-01

    Herbaceous lignocellulose crops are a potential renewable feedstock for biochemical conversion systems second in size to wood products. Several herbaceous crops are utilized as forage crops in the northern Great Plains, but forage quality considerations usually dictates a early harvest. Biomass cropping does not have this constraint; therefore, little information was available on herbaceous crops utilized as energy crops prior to this project. Our primary objectives were to evaluate the biomass yield and select chemical components of several herbaceous crops for energy crops in the northern Great Plains, compare the economic feasibility of energy crops with common competing crops, and evaluate biomass cropping on summer fallow lands. Three good, two marginal, and one irrigated sites were used during 1988 to 1992 for the first component. At least six perennial and four annual biomass species were included at all sites. Three to four nitrogen (N) levels and a crop-recrop comparison (annuals only) were management intensities included. Biomass cropping on idled lands was performed on dryland at Carrington and evaluated the effects of removing leguminous biomass on fallowed lands. This report summarizes results from the 5-year project.

  6. 605 Salad crops: Root, bulb, and tuber Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root and tuber crops (potato, cassava, sweet potato, and yams) comprise 4 of the 10 major food staples of the world and serve as a major source of energy for the poor of developing nations. Minimal strain placed on agro ecosystems by root and tuber crops highlight their welcomed contribution to the ...

  7. COLT: seasonal prediction of crop irrigation needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villani, Giulia; Spisni, Andrea; Mariani, Maria Cristina; Pratizzoli, William; Pavan, Valentina; Tomei, Fausto; Botarelli, Lucio; Marletto, Vittorio

    2013-04-01

    COLT is an operational chain to predict summer (June, July, August) crop irrigation needs in Emilia-Romagna (Northern Italy) at the regional and lower scales. Set up by ARPA-SIMC in 2010, it has been applied since with good results. COLT predicts summer irrigation needs in May, i.e. at the beginning of the irrigation season in Emilia-Romagna. COLT is based on the production of yearly updated land use maps, observed daily weather data, a regional soil map and ensemble probabilistic seasonal weather forecasts obtained from the EUROSIP multi-model operational system and a geographical soil water balance model (CRITERIA). The first step of the operational scheme is the supervised classification of crops through field surveys and a set of multitemporal satellite images acquired during the first months of the growing period. As the identification of all crop species during the satellite working windows is not feasible, they are grouped in six classes: summer field crops (including corn, sorghum, tomato, sugar beet, potato and others), winter crops (wheat, barley, oat, etc.), perennial grasses (alfa-alfa and meadows), rice, vineyards and orchards, on the whole regional plain, covering about 775000 ha. The second step involves the statistical downscaling of the EUROSIP ensemble predictions over Emilia-Romagna and the use of a weather generator to synthetically produce a number (usually 50) replicated meteorological summer daily data series, consistent with the predicted and downscaled summer anomalies of temperature, rainfall and other related indices. During the final step the CRITERIA model computes crop development and soil water balance on the crop classification map using observed meteorological daily data up to the end of May. Afterword forecasts are used up to the end of the summer irrigation season, i.e. August 31st. The statistical distribution projections of summer irrigation needs at the regional and reclamation consortia scale are then issued and disseminated

  8. Why genetically modified crops?

    PubMed

    Jones, Jonathan D G

    2011-05-13

    This paper is intended to convey the message of the talk I gave at the Theo Murphy meeting at the Kavli Centre in July 2010. It, like the talk, is polemical, and conveys the exasperation felt by a practitioner of genetically modified (GM) plant science at its widespread misrepresentation. I argue that sustainable intensification of agriculture, using GM as well as other technologies, reduces its environmental impact by reducing pesticide applications and conserving soil carbon by enabling low till methods. Current technologies (primarily insect resistance and herbicide tolerance) have been beneficial. Moreover, the near-term pipeline of new GM methods and traits to enhance our diet, increase crop yields and reduce losses to disease is substantial. It would be perverse to spurn this approach at a time when we need every tool in the toolbox to ensure adequate food production in the short, medium and long term.

  9. Identifying representative crop rotation patterns and grassland loss in the US Western Corn Belt

    SciTech Connect

    Sahajpal, Ritvik; Zhang, Xuesong; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Gelfand, Ilya; Hurtt, George C.

    2014-10-01

    Crop rotations (the practice of growing crops on the same land in sequential seasons) reside at the core of agronomic management as they can influence key ecosystem services such as crop yields, carbon and nutrient cycling, soil erosion, water quality, pest and disease control. Despite the availability of the Cropland Data Layer (CDL) which provides remotely sensed data on crop type in the US on an annual basis, crop rotation patterns remain poorly mapped due to the lack of tools that allow for consistent and efficient analysis of multi-year CDLs. This study presents the Representative Crop Rotations Using Edit Distance (RECRUIT) algorithm, implemented as a Python software package, to select representative crop rotations by combining and analyzing multi-year CDLs. Using CDLs from 2010 to 2012 for 5 states in the US Midwest, we demonstrate the performance and parameter sensitivity of RECRUIT in selecting representative crop rotations that preserve crop area and capture land-use changes. Selecting only 82 representative crop rotations accounted for over 90% of the spatio-temporal variability of the more than 13,000 rotations obtained from combining the multi-year CDLs. Furthermore, the accuracy of the crop rotation product compared favorably with total state-wide planted crop area available from agricultural census data. The RECRUIT derived crop rotation product was used to detect land-use conversion from grassland to crop cultivation in a wetland dominated part of the US Midwest. Monoculture corn and monoculture soybean cropping were found to comprise the dominant land-use on the newly cultivated lands.

  10. Irrigation modeling with AquaCrop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    AquaCrop is a crop water productivity model developed by the Land and Water Division of UN-FAO. It simulates yield response to water of herbaceous crops, and is suited to address conditions where water is a key limiting factor in crop production. AquaCrop attempts to balance accuracy, simplicity, an...

  11. Transgenic horticultural crops in Asia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modern biotechnology applications, including genetic engineering, are a powerful tool to complement the conventional methods of crop improvement. Asia currently has three countries cultivating biotech/transgenic crops – China, India, and the Philippines, but only China commercially grows a transgen...

  12. Midwest Cover Crops Field Guide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers who want to prevent soil erosion, improve nutrient cycling, sustain their soils, and protect/maintain the environment have been returning to a very old practice: planting cover crops. Cover crops are effective tools for reducing soil erosion and increasing nutrient recycling on farmlands, ...

  13. Genetic Engineering and Crop Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Helen C.; Frost, S.

    1991-01-01

    With a spotlight upon current agricultural difficulties and environmental dilemmas, this paper considers both the extant and potential applications of genetic engineering with respect to crop production. The nonagricultural factors most likely to sway the impact of this emergent technology upon future crop production are illustrated. (JJK)

  14. Transgenic Crops for Herbicide Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since their introduction in 1995, crops made resistant to the broad-spectrum herbicides glyphosate and glufosinate with transgenes are widely available and used in much of the world. As of 2008, over 80% of the transgenic crops grown world-wide have this transgenic trait. This technology has had m...

  15. Alternative cropping systems for sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Planting cover crops during the fallow period prior to planting sugarcane has the potential to influence not only the following sugarcane crop, but the economics of the production system as a whole. Research was conducted at the USDA, ARS, Sugarcane Research Unit at Houma, LA to determine the impac...

  16. Double- and relay-cropping oilseed and biomass crops for sustainable energy production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Economically and environmentally sustainable bioenergy production requires strategic integration of biofuel crops into modern cropping systems. Double- and relay-cropping can offer a means of increasing production efficiency to boost profits and provide environmental benefits through crop diversific...

  17. [Effects of different cropping patterns on soil enzyme activities and soil microbial community diversity in oasis farmland].

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Liu, Yu; Chu, Gui-xin

    2015-02-01

    Effects of long-term cropping patterns on the activities of peroxidase, invertase, arylsulfatase, dehydrogenase and protease were investigated in this paper. Four long-term cropping patterns included (1) 10 years continuous cropping of corn, (2) 8 years continuous cropping of wheat followed by 10 years continuous cropping of cotton, (3) 15 years continuous cropping of cotton, and (4) 6 years continuous cropping of cotton followed by 6 years of wheat/sunflower rotation. The responses of soil bacteria, fungi, ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) , and the ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) to different copping patterns were analyzed. The results showed that cropping patterns significantly affected the activities of soil peroxidase, arylsulfatase, dehydrogenase and protease, while had no significant effect on soil invertase activity. The cropping patterns significantly influenced the diversity index of AOA, but had no significant influence on that of soil bacteria, fungi and AOB. The community structures of soil fungi and AOB were more sensitive to cropping patterns than soil bacteria and AOA. In conclusion, long-term continuous cropping of cotton decreased the activities of soil enzymes activities and soil microbial diversity in oasis farmland, while crop rotation could alleviate the negative influence. PMID:26094465

  18. Impacts of Future Climate Change on California Perennial Crop Yields: Model Projections with Climate and Crop Uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Lobell, D; Field, C; Cahill, K; Bonfils, C

    2006-01-10

    Most research on the agricultural impacts of climate change has focused on the major annual crops, yet perennial cropping systems are less adaptable and thus potentially more susceptible to damage. Improved assessments of yield responses to future climate are needed to prioritize adaptation strategies in the many regions where perennial crops are economically and culturally important. These impact assessments, in turn, must rely on climate and crop models that contain often poorly defined uncertainties. We evaluated the impact of climate change on six major perennial crops in California: wine grapes, almonds, table grapes, oranges, walnuts, and avocados. Outputs from multiple climate models were used to evaluate climate uncertainty, while multiple statistical crop models, derived by resampling historical databases, were used to address crop response uncertainties. We find that, despite these uncertainties, climate change in California is very likely to put downward pressure on yields of almonds, walnuts, avocados, and table grapes by 2050. Without CO{sub 2} fertilization or adaptation measures, projected losses range from 0 to >40% depending on the crop and the trajectory of climate change. Climate change uncertainty generally had a larger impact on projections than crop model uncertainty, although the latter was substantial for several crops. Opportunities for expansion into cooler regions are identified, but this adaptation would require substantial investments and may be limited by non-climatic constraints. Given the long time scales for growth and production of orchards and vineyards ({approx}30 years), climate change should be an important factor in selecting perennial varieties and deciding whether and where perennials should be planted.

  19. Multi-Seasonal Nitrogen Recoveries from Crop Residue in Soil and Crop in a Temperate Agro-Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Guoqing; Liu, Xiao; He, Hongbo; Zhang, Wei; Xie, Hongtu; Wu, Yeye; Cui, Jiehua; Sun, Ci; Zhang, Xudong

    2015-01-01

    In conservation tillage systems, at least 30% of the soil surface was covered by crop residues which generally contain significant amounts of nitrogen (N). However, little is known about the multi-seasonal recoveries of the N derived from these crop residues in soil-crop systems, notably in northeastern China. In a temperate agro-ecosystem, 15N-labeled maize residue was applied to field surfaces in the 1st year (2009). From the 2nd to 4th year (2010-2012), one treatment halted the application of maize residue, whereas the soil in the second treatment was re-applied with unlabeled maize residue. Crop and soil samples were collected after each harvest, and their 15N enrichments were determined on an isotope ratio mass spectrometer to trace the allocation of N derived from the initially applied maize residue in the soil-crop systems. On average, 8.4% of the maize residue N was recovered in the soil-crop in the 1st year, and the vast majority (61.9%-91.9%) was recovered during subsequent years. Throughout the experiment, the cumulative recovery of the residue N in the crop increased gradually (18.2%-20.9%), but most of the residue N was retained in the soil, notably in the 0-10 cm soil layer. Compared to the single application, the sequential residue application significantly increased the recovery of the residue N in the soil profile (73.8% vs. 40.9%) and remarkably decreased the total and the initially applied residue derived mineral N along the soil profile. Our results suggested that the residue N was actively involved in N cycling, and its release and recovery in crop and soil profile were controlled by the decomposition process. Sequential residue application significantly enhanced the retention and stabilization of the initially applied residue N in the soil and retarded its translocation along the soil profile. PMID:26192436

  20. Multi-Seasonal Nitrogen Recoveries from Crop Residue in Soil and Crop in a Temperate Agro-Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guoqing; Liu, Xiao; He, Hongbo; Zhang, Wei; Xie, Hongtu; Wu, Yeye; Cui, Jiehua; Sun, Ci; Zhang, Xudong

    2015-01-01

    In conservation tillage systems, at least 30% of the soil surface was covered by crop residues which generally contain significant amounts of nitrogen (N). However, little is known about the multi-seasonal recoveries of the N derived from these crop residues in soil-crop systems, notably in northeastern China. In a temperate agro-ecosystem, 15N-labeled maize residue was applied to field surfaces in the 1st year (2009). From the 2nd to 4th year (2010-2012), one treatment halted the application of maize residue, whereas the soil in the second treatment was re-applied with unlabeled maize residue. Crop and soil samples were collected after each harvest, and their 15N enrichments were determined on an isotope ratio mass spectrometer to trace the allocation of N derived from the initially applied maize residue in the soil-crop systems. On average, 8.4% of the maize residue N was recovered in the soil-crop in the 1st year, and the vast majority (61.9%-91.9%) was recovered during subsequent years. Throughout the experiment, the cumulative recovery of the residue N in the crop increased gradually (18.2%-20.9%), but most of the residue N was retained in the soil, notably in the 0-10 cm soil layer. Compared to the single application, the sequential residue application significantly increased the recovery of the residue N in the soil profile (73.8% vs. 40.9%) and remarkably decreased the total and the initially applied residue derived mineral N along the soil profile. Our results suggested that the residue N was actively involved in N cycling, and its release and recovery in crop and soil profile were controlled by the decomposition process. Sequential residue application significantly enhanced the retention and stabilization of the initially applied residue N in the soil and retarded its translocation along the soil profile. PMID:26192436

  1. Multi-Seasonal Nitrogen Recoveries from Crop Residue in Soil and Crop in a Temperate Agro-Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guoqing; Liu, Xiao; He, Hongbo; Zhang, Wei; Xie, Hongtu; Wu, Yeye; Cui, Jiehua; Sun, Ci; Zhang, Xudong

    2015-01-01

    In conservation tillage systems, at least 30% of the soil surface was covered by crop residues which generally contain significant amounts of nitrogen (N). However, little is known about the multi-seasonal recoveries of the N derived from these crop residues in soil-crop systems, notably in northeastern China. In a temperate agro-ecosystem, 15N-labeled maize residue was applied to field surfaces in the 1st year (2009). From the 2nd to 4th year (2010-2012), one treatment halted the application of maize residue, whereas the soil in the second treatment was re-applied with unlabeled maize residue. Crop and soil samples were collected after each harvest, and their 15N enrichments were determined on an isotope ratio mass spectrometer to trace the allocation of N derived from the initially applied maize residue in the soil-crop systems. On average, 8.4% of the maize residue N was recovered in the soil-crop in the 1st year, and the vast majority (61.9%-91.9%) was recovered during subsequent years. Throughout the experiment, the cumulative recovery of the residue N in the crop increased gradually (18.2%-20.9%), but most of the residue N was retained in the soil, notably in the 0-10 cm soil layer. Compared to the single application, the sequential residue application significantly increased the recovery of the residue N in the soil profile (73.8% vs. 40.9%) and remarkably decreased the total and the initially applied residue derived mineral N along the soil profile. Our results suggested that the residue N was actively involved in N cycling, and its release and recovery in crop and soil profile were controlled by the decomposition process. Sequential residue application significantly enhanced the retention and stabilization of the initially applied residue N in the soil and retarded its translocation along the soil profile.

  2. 75 FR 59057 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations, Cotton Crop Insurance Provisions and Macadamia Nut Crop...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... March 30, 2010 (75 FR 15778-15891). Need for Correction As published, the final regulation contained... Insurance Corporation 7 CFR Part 457 RIN 0563-AB96 Common Crop Insurance Regulations, Cotton Crop Insurance... make corrections relating to the insurance of cotton and macadamia nuts that published March 30,...

  3. Nitrous oxide emissions from crop rotations including wheat, oilseed rape and dry peas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeuffroy, M. H.; Baranger, E.; Carrouée, B.; de Chezelles, E.; Gosme, M.; Hénault, C.; Schneider, A.; Cellier, P.

    2013-03-01

    Approximately 65% of anthropogenic emissions of N2O, a potent greenhouse gas (GHG), originate from soils at a global scale, and particularly after N fertilisation of the main crops in Europe. Thanks to their capacity to fix atmospheric N2 through biological fixation, legumes can reduce N fertilizer use, and possibly N2O emissions. Nevertheless, the decomposition of crop organic matter during the crop cycle and residue decomposition, and possibly the N fixation process itself, could lead to N2O emissions. The objective of this study was to quantify N2O emissions from a dry pea crop (Pisum sativum, harvested at maturity) and from the subsequent crops in comparison with N2O emissions from wheat and oilseed rape crops, fertilized or not, in various rotations. A field experiment was conducted over 4 consecutive years to compare the emissions during the pea crop, in comparison with those during the wheat (fertilized or not) or oilseed rape crops, and after the pea crop, in comparison with other preceding crops. N2O fluxes were measured using static chambers. In spite of low N2O fluxes, mainly due to the site's soil characteristics, fluxes during the crop were significantly lower for pea and unfertilized wheat than for fertilized wheat and oilseed rape. The effect of the preceding crop was not significant, while soil mineral N at harvest was higher after the pea crop. These results should be confirmed over a wider range of soil types. Nevertheless, they demonstrate the absence of N2O emissions linked to the symbiotic N fixation process, and allow us to estimate the decrease in N2O emissions by 20-25% through including one pea crop in a three-year rotation. On a larger scale, this reduction of GHG emissions at field level has to be added to the decrease due to the reduced production and transport of the N fertilizer not applied to the pea crop.

  4. Increased Productivity of a Cover Crop Mixture Is Not Associated with Enhanced Agroecosystem Services

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Richard G.; Atwood, Lesley W.; Warren, Nicholas D.

    2014-01-01

    Cover crops provide a variety of important agroecological services within cropping systems. Typically these crops are grown as monocultures or simple graminoid-legume bicultures; however, ecological theory and empirical evidence suggest that agroecosystem services could be enhanced by growing cover crops in species-rich mixtures. We examined cover crop productivity, weed suppression, stability, and carryover effects to a subsequent cash crop in an experiment involving a five-species annual cover crop mixture and the component species grown as monocultures in SE New Hampshire, USA in 2011 and 2012. The mean land equivalent ratio (LER) for the mixture exceeded 1.0 in both years, indicating that the mixture over-yielded relative to the monocultures. Despite the apparent over-yielding in the mixture, we observed no enhancement in weed suppression, biomass stability, or productivity of a subsequent oat (Avena sativa L.) cash crop when compared to the best monoculture component crop. These data are some of the first to include application of the LER to an analysis of a cover crop mixture and contribute to the growing literature on the agroecological effects of cover crop diversity in cropping systems. PMID:24847902

  5. Increased productivity of a cover crop mixture is not associated with enhanced agroecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard G; Atwood, Lesley W; Warren, Nicholas D

    2014-01-01

    Cover crops provide a variety of important agroecological services within cropping systems. Typically these crops are grown as monocultures or simple graminoid-legume bicultures; however, ecological theory and empirical evidence suggest that agroecosystem services could be enhanced by growing cover crops in species-rich mixtures. We examined cover crop productivity, weed suppression, stability, and carryover effects to a subsequent cash crop in an experiment involving a five-species annual cover crop mixture and the component species grown as monocultures in SE New Hampshire, USA in 2011 and 2012. The mean land equivalent ratio (LER) for the mixture exceeded 1.0 in both years, indicating that the mixture over-yielded relative to the monocultures. Despite the apparent over-yielding in the mixture, we observed no enhancement in weed suppression, biomass stability, or productivity of a subsequent oat (Avena sativa L.) cash crop when compared to the best monoculture component crop. These data are some of the first to include application of the LER to an analysis of a cover crop mixture and contribute to the growing literature on the agroecological effects of cover crop diversity in cropping systems.

  6. Using Imaging Spectrometry to Identify Crops in California's Central Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivers, S.; Roberts, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    With a growing global population, limited resources and a changing climate, understanding and monitoring the distribution of our food and water resources is essential to their sustainability. Regional food yield estimates and water resource accounting are dependent upon accurate agricultural records. Crop mapping provides farmers, managers, and policymakers the information necessary to anticipate annual food supplies and water demands by better understanding the distribution of species. While on the ground crop accounting usually happens yearly at the county level and requires significant time and labor inputs, remote sensing has the potential to map crops and monitor their health over a greater spatial area with more frequent time intervals. Specifically, imaging spectrometers have the capability to produce imagery at high spectral and spatial resolutions, which may allow for differentiation of crops at the field-level scale. In this research 14 crop species and soil were classified in Kern County, California using canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) and Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) on airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS) imagery from June 2013. Imagery was then degraded to Landsat spectral resolution and reclassified for comparison. Results with the AVIRIS imagery show an overall accuracy of 69.0% using MESMA and 89.4% using CDA with nine out of fourteen crop species showing user and producer errors under ten percent. Lower accuracy was found for OLI data. This research illustrates great potential for field-level crop mapping with imaging spectrometry.

  7. Temporal and spatial control of gene expression in horticultural crops

    PubMed Central

    Dutt, Manjul; Dhekney, Sadanand A; Soriano, Leonardo; Kandel, Raju; Grosser, Jude W

    2014-01-01

    Biotechnology provides plant breeders an additional tool to improve various traits desired by growers and consumers of horticultural crops. It also provides genetic solutions to major problems affecting horticultural crops and can be a means for rapid improvement of a cultivar. With the availability of a number of horticultural genome sequences, it has become relatively easier to utilize these resources to identify DNA sequences for both basic and applied research. Promoters play a key role in plant gene expression and the regulation of gene expression. In recent years, rapid progress has been made on the isolation and evaluation of plant-derived promoters and their use in horticultural crops, as more and more species become amenable to genetic transformation. Our understanding of the tools and techniques of horticultural plant biotechnology has now evolved from a discovery phase to an implementation phase. The availability of a large number of promoters derived from horticultural plants opens up the field for utilization of native sequences and improving crops using precision breeding. In this review, we look at the temporal and spatial control of gene expression in horticultural crops and the usage of a variety of promoters either isolated from horticultural crops or used in horticultural crop improvement. PMID:26504550

  8. Effects of Crop Residue on the Persistence of Steinernema carpocapsae

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, David I.; Obrycki, John J.; Lewis, Leslie C.; Jackson, Jan J.

    1999-01-01

    We determined the effects of crop residue on the persistence of an entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae. During 2 consecutive years, nematodes were applied at rates of 2.5 × 10₄ and 1.0 × 10⁵ infective juveniles/m² to small field plots planted with corn. Nematode persistence was monitored by exposing Galleria mellonella larvae to soil samples from plots with and without crop residue (approximately 75% coverage of soybean stubble). Persistence of S. carpocapsae was significantly greater in crop residue plots than in plots without residue. In crop residue plots that received the higher rate of nematode application, larval mortality did not significantly decrease during the study period (3 to 5 days) and remained above 85%. In nematode-treated plots without crop residue, however, larval mortality fell from over 96% to below 11% and 35% in the first and second trials, respectively. The increased crop residue may have benefited nematode persistence through protection from desiccation or ultraviolet light. We conclude that increased ground cover in cropping systems (e.g., due to reduced tillage) may lead to increased insect pest suppression with entomopathogenic nematodes. PMID:19270924

  9. Hyperspectral mapping of crop and soils for precision agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiting, Michael L.; Ustin, Susan L.; Zarco-Tejada, Pablo; Palacios-Orueta, Alicia; Vanderbilt, Vern C.

    2006-08-01

    Precision agriculture requires high spectral and spatial resolution imagery for advanced analyses of crop and soil conditions to increase environmental protection and producers' sustainability. GIS models that anticipate crop responses to nutrients, water, and pesticides require high spatial detail to generate application prescription maps. While the added precision of geo-spatial interpolation to field scouting generates improved zone maps and are an improvement over field-wide applications, it is limited in detail due to expense, and lacks the high precision required for pixel level applications. Multi-spectral imagery gives the spatial detail required, but broad band indexes are not sensitive to many variables in the crop and soil environment. Hyperspectral imagery provides both the spatial detail of airborne imagery and spectral resolution for spectroscopic and narrow band analysis techniques developed over recent decades in the laboratory that will advance precise determination of water and bio-physical properties of crops and soils. For several years, we have conducted remote sensing investigations to improve cotton production through field spectrometer measurements, and plant and soil samples in commercial fields and crop trials. We have developed spectral analyses techniques for plant and soil conditions through determination of crop water status, effectiveness of pre-harvest defoliant applications, and soil characterizations. We present the most promising of these spectroscopic absorption and narrow band index techniques, and their application to airborne hyperspectral imagery in mapping the variability in crops and soils.

  10. Potential for the environmental impact of transgenic crops.

    PubMed

    Dale, Philip J; Clarke, Belinda; Fontes, Eliana M G

    2002-06-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in how changes in agricultural practice associated with the introduction of particular genetically modified (GM) crops might indirectly impact the environment. There is also interest in any effects that might be associated with recombinant and novel combinations of DNA passing into the environment, and the possibility that they may be taken up by microorganisms or other live biological material. From the current state of knowledge, the impact of free DNA of transgenic origin is likely to be negligible compared with the large amount of total free DNA. We can find no compelling scientific arguments to demonstrate that GM crops are innately different from non-GM crops. The kinds of potential impacts of GM crops fall into classes familiar from the cultivation of non-GM crops (e.g., invasiveness, weediness, toxicity, or biodiversity). It is likely, however, that the novelty of some of the products of GM crop improvement will present new challenges and perhaps opportunities to manage particular crops in creative ways. PMID:12042859

  11. Potential for the environmental impact of transgenic crops.

    PubMed

    Dale, Philip J; Clarke, Belinda; Fontes, Eliana M G

    2002-06-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in how changes in agricultural practice associated with the introduction of particular genetically modified (GM) crops might indirectly impact the environment. There is also interest in any effects that might be associated with recombinant and novel combinations of DNA passing into the environment, and the possibility that they may be taken up by microorganisms or other live biological material. From the current state of knowledge, the impact of free DNA of transgenic origin is likely to be negligible compared with the large amount of total free DNA. We can find no compelling scientific arguments to demonstrate that GM crops are innately different from non-GM crops. The kinds of potential impacts of GM crops fall into classes familiar from the cultivation of non-GM crops (e.g., invasiveness, weediness, toxicity, or biodiversity). It is likely, however, that the novelty of some of the products of GM crop improvement will present new challenges and perhaps opportunities to manage particular crops in creative ways.

  12. VegScape: U.S. Crop Condition Monitoring Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    mueller, R.; Yang, Z.; Di, L.

    2013-12-01

    Since 1995, the US Department of Agriculture (USDA)/National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) has provided qualitative biweekly vegetation condition indices to USDA policymakers and the public on a weekly basis during the growing season. Vegetation indices have proven useful for assessing crop condition and identifying the areal extent of floods, drought, major weather anomalies, and vulnerabilities of early/late season crops. With growing emphasis on more extreme weather events and food security issues rising to the forefront of national interest, a new vegetation condition monitoring system was developed. The new vegetation condition portal named VegScape was initiated at the start of the 2013 growing season. VegScape delivers web mapping service based interactive vegetation indices. Users can use an interactive map to explore, query and disseminate current crop conditions. Vegetation indices like Normal Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Vegetation Condition Index (VCI), and mean, median, and ratio comparisons to prior years can be constructed for analytical purposes and on-demand crop statistics. The NASA MODIS satellite with 250 meter (15 acres) resolution and thirteen years of data history provides improved spatial and temporal resolutions and delivers improved detailed timely (i.e., daily) crop specific condition and dynamics. VegScape thus provides supplemental information to support NASS' weekly crop reports. VegScape delivers an agricultural cultivated crop mask and the most recent Cropland Data Layer (CDL) product to exploit the agricultural domain and visualize prior years' planted crops. Additionally, the data can be directly exported to Google Earth for web mashups or delivered via web mapping services for uses in other applications. VegScape supports the ethos of data democracy by providing free and open access to digital geospatial data layers using open geospatial standards, thereby supporting transparent and collaborative government

  13. Dryland soil chemical properties and crop yields affected by long-term tillage and cropping sequence.

    PubMed

    Sainju, Upendra M; Allen, Brett L; Caesar-TonThat, Thecan; Lenssen, Andrew W

    2015-01-01

    Information on the effect of long-term management on soil nutrients and chemical properties is scanty. We examined the 30-year effect of tillage frequency and cropping sequence combination on dryland soil Olsen-P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, SO4-S, and Zn concentrations, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and cation exchange capacity (CEC) at the 0-120 cm depth and annualized crop yield in the northern Great Plains, USA. Treatments were no-till continuous spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (NTCW), spring till continuous spring wheat (STCW), fall and spring till continuous spring wheat (FSTCW), fall and spring till spring wheat-barley (Hordeum vulgare L., 1984-1999) followed by spring wheat-pea (Pisum sativum L., 2000-2013) (FSTW-B/P), and spring till spring wheat-fallow (STW-F, traditional system). At 0-7.5 cm, P, K, Zn, Na, and CEC were 23-60% were greater, but pH, buffer pH, and Ca were 6-31% lower in NTCW, STCW, and FSTW-B/P than STW-F. At 7.5-15 cm, K was 23-52% greater, but pH, buffer pH, and Mg were 3-21% lower in NTCW, STCW, FSTCW, FSTW-B/P than STW-F. At 60-120 cm, soil chemical properties varied with treatments. Annualized crop yield was 23-30% lower in STW-F than the other treatments. Continuous N fertilization probably reduced soil pH, Ca, and Mg, but greater crop residue returned to the soil increased P, K, Na, Zn, and CEC in NTCW and STCW compared to STW-F. Reduced tillage with continuous cropping may be adopted for maintaining long-term soil fertility and crop yields compared with the traditional system. PMID:26171303

  14. Dryland soil chemical properties and crop yields affected by long-term tillage and cropping sequence.

    PubMed

    Sainju, Upendra M; Allen, Brett L; Caesar-TonThat, Thecan; Lenssen, Andrew W

    2015-01-01

    Information on the effect of long-term management on soil nutrients and chemical properties is scanty. We examined the 30-year effect of tillage frequency and cropping sequence combination on dryland soil Olsen-P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, SO4-S, and Zn concentrations, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and cation exchange capacity (CEC) at the 0-120 cm depth and annualized crop yield in the northern Great Plains, USA. Treatments were no-till continuous spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (NTCW), spring till continuous spring wheat (STCW), fall and spring till continuous spring wheat (FSTCW), fall and spring till spring wheat-barley (Hordeum vulgare L., 1984-1999) followed by spring wheat-pea (Pisum sativum L., 2000-2013) (FSTW-B/P), and spring till spring wheat-fallow (STW-F, traditional system). At 0-7.5 cm, P, K, Zn, Na, and CEC were 23-60% were greater, but pH, buffer pH, and Ca were 6-31% lower in NTCW, STCW, and FSTW-B/P than STW-F. At 7.5-15 cm, K was 23-52% greater, but pH, buffer pH, and Mg were 3-21% lower in NTCW, STCW, FSTCW, FSTW-B/P than STW-F. At 60-120 cm, soil chemical properties varied with treatments. Annualized crop yield was 23-30% lower in STW-F than the other treatments. Continuous N fertilization probably reduced soil pH, Ca, and Mg, but greater crop residue returned to the soil increased P, K, Na, Zn, and CEC in NTCW and STCW compared to STW-F. Reduced tillage with continuous cropping may be adopted for maintaining long-term soil fertility and crop yields compared with the traditional system.

  15. Recycling crop residues for use in recirculating hydroponic crop production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Garland, J. L.; Sager, J. C.

    1996-01-01

    As part of bioregenerative life support feasibility testing by NASA, crop residues are being used to resupply elemental nutrients to recirculating hydroponic crop production systems. Methods for recovering nutrients from crop residues have evolved from water soaking (leaching) to rapid aerobic bioreactor processing. Leaching residues recovered the majority of elements but it also recovered significant amounts of soluble organics. The high organic content of leachates was detrimental to plant growth. Aerobic bioreactor processing reduced the organic content ten-fold, which reduced or eliminated phytotoxic effects. Wheat and potato production studies were successful using effluents from reactors having with 8- to 1-day retention times. Aerobic bioreactor effluents supplied at least half of the crops elemental mass needs in these studies. Descriptions of leachate and effluent mineral content, biomass productivity, microbial activity, and nutrient budgets for potato and wheat are presented.

  16. Recycling crop residues for use in recirculating hydroponic crop production.

    PubMed

    Mackowiak, C L; Garland, J L; Sager, J C

    1996-12-01

    As part of bioregenerative life support feasibility testing by NASA, crop residues are being used to resupply elemental nutrients to recirculating hydroponic crop production systems. Methods for recovering nutrients from crop residues have evolved from water soaking (leaching) to rapid aerobic bioreactor processing. Leaching residues recovered the majority of elements but it also recovered significant amounts of soluble organics. The high organic content of leachates was detrimental to plant growth. Aerobic bioreactor processing reduced the organic content ten-fold, which reduced or eliminated phytotoxic effects. Wheat and potato production studies were successful using effluents from reactors having with 8- to 1-day retention times. Aerobic bioreactor effluents supplied at least half of the crops elemental mass needs in these studies. Descriptions of leachate and effluent mineral content, biomass productivity, microbial activity, and nutrient budgets for potato and wheat are presented.

  17. Are the yields of major cereal crops stagnating? Results from the newly developed high spatial resolution crop yield time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, D. K.; Ramankutty, N.; Foley, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    A variety of global scale studies that use crop yield time series for the last 50 years have remained constrained to using national level information due to the lack of high spatial resolution crop yield time series data. In this presentation we will unveil a new global crop yield data set for the 1961-2008 time period, at 5 min spatial resolution, and covering 174 crops. We developed this data by collecting national and sub-national harvested area and production information for individual crops. This new dataset can be used to answer questions related to global agriculture at a resolution and over a time period not previously possible. We have used this new dataset to address the question of whether the yields of the three important cereal crops -- maize, rice and wheat -- are stagnating as widely reported. Our results show that while in the older crop belts of the world yield improvements have slowed, a green revolution type of major yield increases in maize, rice and wheat are continuing in newly cultivated areas of the world.

  18. Dealing with frost damage and climate change in tree fruit crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Each year, the U.S. produces about 15 million tons of deciduous fruit crops that have a combined value of >$10 billion. Unpredictable cold damage to these nutritionally important crops is a major threat to industry profitability. Over the last six years, cold damage has accounted for almost half o...

  19. Regional climate change mitigation with crops: context and assessment.

    PubMed

    Singarayer, J S; Davies-Barnard, T

    2012-09-13

    The intention of this review is to place crop albedo biogeoengineering in the wider picture of climate manipulation. Crop biogeoengineering is considered within the context of the long-term modification of the land surface for agriculture over several thousand years. Biogeoengineering is also critiqued in relation to other geoengineering schemes in terms of mitigation power and adherence to social principles for geoengineering. Although its impact is small and regional, crop biogeoengineering could be a useful and inexpensive component of an ensemble of geoengineering schemes to provide temperature mitigation. The method should not detrimentally affect food security and there may even be positive impacts on crop productivity, although more laboratory and field research is required in this area to understand the underlying mechanisms.

  20. Evolution of crop species: genetics of domestication and diversification.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Rachel S; Purugganan, Michael D

    2013-12-01

    Domestication is a good model for the study of evolutionary processes because of the recent evolution of crop species (<12,000 years ago), the key role of selection in their origins, and good archaeological and historical data on their spread and diversification. Recent studies, such as quantitative trait locus mapping, genome-wide association studies and whole-genome resequencing studies, have identified genes that are associated with the initial domestication and subsequent diversification of crops. Together, these studies reveal the functions of genes that are involved in the evolution of crops that are under domestication, the types of mutations that occur during this process and the parallelism of mutations that occur in the same pathways and proteins, as well as the selective forces that are acting on these mutations and that are associated with geographical adaptation of crop species.

  1. The effectiveness of cannabis crop eradication operations in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Chris; Bhatta, Krishna; Casswell, Sally

    2002-12-01

    At present the only information available on the effectiveness of the cannabis crop eradication programme in New Zealand is the total number of cannabis plants destroyed each year. These figures can only provide a very crude measure of the effectiveness of these operations. A better measure would be the percentage of total cannabis production destroyed--known as the drug seizure rate. This paper calculates the seizure rate of the cannabis crop eradication programme in New Zealand using the amount of cannabis reported consumed in the Alcohol and Public Health Research Unit's (APHRU) National Drug Survey. The seizure rate for the 1998 programme is calculated to be 26-31%. This compares favourably with drug seizure rates reported in other countries. The effectiveness of the cannabis crop eradication programme, and its apparent modest share of the total cannabis control budget, raises some intriguing questions about the role an expanded crop eradication programme could play in a future cannabis control strategy.

  2. Agricultural fuel crops: 201-County Tennessee Valley region policy assessment

    SciTech Connect

    D'Souza, G.E.; Bohac, C.E.

    1985-10-01

    Almost no fuel can be produced without environmental implications. Similarly, the production of crops for fuel is associated with certain externalities. The primary one is the erosive nature of some of these fuel crops, causing a long-term loss in soil productivity. This environmental spillover was examined within the framework of two fuel crop production scenarios, impacts from these scenarios assumed to be the upper bounds for those that could possibly occur. Corn was used as a surrogate crop for the assessment, which was limited to the 201 counties of the Tennessee Valley region, and included a timeframe extending to the year 2000. Due to the paucity of data and time limitations, a large portion of this discussion was based more on casual observation rather than hard empirical evidence. 30 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  3. Regression model estimation of early season crop proportions: North Dakota, some preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, K. K. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    To estimate crop proportions early in the season, an approach is proposed based on: use of a regression-based prediction equation to obtain an a priori estimate for specific major crop groups; modification of this estimate using current-year LANDSAT and weather data; and a breakdown of the major crop groups into specific crops by regression models. Results from the development and evaluation of appropriate regression models for the first portion of the proposed approach are presented. The results show that the model predicts 1980 crop proportions very well at both county and crop reporting district levels. In terms of planted acreage, the model underpredicted 9.1 percent of the 1980 published data on planted acreage at the county level. It predicted almost exactly the 1980 published data on planted acreage at the crop reporting district level and overpredicted the planted acreage by just 0.92 percent.

  4. Biotechnology of oil seed crops

    SciTech Connect

    James, A.T.

    1985-02-01

    A general summary of possibilities and limitation application of biotechnology processes to processing and/or production of fats and oils is presented. Enzymatic processes, cloning of premium perennial oil crops and genetic manipulation of oil seed compositions are discussed.

  5. Soil moisture monitoring for crop management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Dale

    2015-07-01

    The 'Risk management through soil moisture monitoring' project has demonstrated the capability of current technology to remotely monitor and communicate real time soil moisture data. The project investigated whether capacitance probes would assist making informed pre- and in-crop decisions. Crop potential and cropping inputs are increasingly being subject to greater instability and uncertainty due to seasonal variability. In a targeted survey of those who received regular correspondence from the Department of Primary Industries it was found that i) 50% of the audience found the information generated relevant for them and less than 10% indicted with was not relevant; ii) 85% have improved their knowledge/ability to assess soil moisture compared to prior to the project, with the most used indicator of soil moisture still being rain fall records; and iii) 100% have indicated they will continue to use some form of the technology to monitor soil moisture levels in the future. It is hoped that continued access to this information will assist informed input decisions. This will minimise inputs in low decile years with a low soil moisture base and maximise yield potential in more favourable conditions based on soil moisture and positive seasonal forecasts

  6. Crop Diversity for Yield Increase

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chengyun; He, Xiahong; Zhu, Shusheng; Zhou, Huiping; Wang, Yunyue; Li, Yan; Yang, Jing; Fan, Jinxiang; Yang, Jincheng; Wang, Guibin; Long, Yunfu; Xu, Jiayou; Tang, Yongsheng; Zhao, Gaohui; Yang, Jianrong; Liu, Lin; Sun, Yan; Xie, Yong; Wang, Haining; Zhu, Youyong

    2009-01-01

    Traditional farming practices suggest that cultivation of a mixture of crop species in the same field through temporal and spatial management may be advantageous in boosting yields and preventing disease, but evidence from large-scale field testing is limited. Increasing crop diversity through intercropping addresses the problem of increasing land utilization and crop productivity. In collaboration with farmers and extension personnel, we tested intercropping of tobacco, maize, sugarcane, potato, wheat and broad bean – either by relay cropping or by mixing crop species based on differences in their heights, and practiced these patterns on 15,302 hectares in ten counties in Yunnan Province, China. The results of observation plots within these areas showed that some combinations increased crop yields for the same season between 33.2 and 84.7% and reached a land equivalent ratio (LER) of between 1.31 and 1.84. This approach can be easily applied in developing countries, which is crucial in face of dwindling arable land and increasing food demand. PMID:19956624

  7. Crop yield gaps in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Yengoh, Genesis T; Ardö, Jonas

    2014-03-01

    Although food crop yields per hectare have generally been increasing in Cameroon since 1961, the food price crisis of 2008 and the ensuing social unrest and fatalities raised concerns about the country's ability to meet the food needs of its population. This study examines the country's potential for increasing crop yields and food production to meet this food security challenge. Fuzzy set theory is used to develop a biophysical spatial suitability model for different crops, which in turn is employed to ascertain whether crop production is carried out in biophysically suited areas. We use linear regression to examine the trend of yield development over the last half century. On the basis of yield data from experimental stations and farmers' fields we assess the yield gap for major food crops. We find that yields have generally been increasing over the last half century and that agricultural policies can have significant effects on them. To a large extent, food crops are cultivated in areas that are biophysically suited for their cultivation, meaning that the yield gap is not a problem of biophysical suitability. Notwithstanding, there are significantly large yield gaps between actual yields on farmers' farms and maximum attainable yields from research stations. We conclude that agronomy and policies are likely to be the reasons for these large yield gaps. A key challenge to be addressed in closing the yield gaps is that of replenishing and properly managing soil nutrients.

  8. Impacts of Cover Crops on Water and Nutrient Dynamics in Agroecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williard, K.; Swanberg, S.; Schoonover, J.

    2013-05-01

    Intensive cropping systems of corn (Zea Mays L.) and soybeans (Glycine max) are commonly leaky systems with respect to nitrogen (N). Reactive N outputs from agroecosystems can contribute to eutrophication and hypoxic zones in downstream water bodies and greenhouse gas (N2O) emissions. Incorporating cover crops into temperate agroecosystem rotations has been promoted as a tool to increase nitrogen use efficiency and thus limit reactive N outputs to the environment. Our objective was determine how cereal rye (Secale cereal L.) and annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) cover crops impact nutrient and soil water dynamics in an intensive corn and soybean cropping rotation in central Illinois. Cover crops were planted in mid to late October and terminated in early April prior to corn or soybean planting. In the spring just prior to cover crop termination, soil moisture levels were lower in the cover crop plots compared to no cover plots. This can be a concern for the subsequent crop in relatively dry years, which the Midwestern United States experienced in 2012. No cover plots had greater nutrient leaching below the rooting zone compared to cover crop areas, as expected. The cover crops were likely scavenging nutrients during the fall and early spring and should provide nutrients to the subsequent crop via decomposition and mineralization of the cover crop residue. Over the long term, cover crop systems should produce greater inputs and cycling of carbon and N, increasing the productivity of crops due to the long-term accumulation of soil organic matter. This study demonstrates that there may be short term trade-offs in reduced soil moisture levels that should be considered alongside the long term nutrient scavenging and recycling benefits of cover crops.

  9. Evapotranspiration and water use efficiency in maize-soybean crops in the US Midwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, M. Z.; Hamilton, S. K.; Bhardwaj, A. K.; Basso, B.; Thelen, K.; Robertson, P.

    2015-12-01

    Evapotranspiration from maize and soybean crops is an important component of terrestrial water balance in the US Midwest. In this study we examine water use in continuous maize (corn) vs. maize-soybean rotations, with cover crops planted in some years. From 2010-14, we continuously measured growing season evapotranspiration (ET) based on daily drawdown of soil moisture content using TDR (time-domain reflectometry) probes installed throughout the root zone. Treatments included continuous maize (CM), continuous maize with cover crops (CMC) and maize-soybean rotation with cover crops (MSC), all grown without irrigation in a temperate humid climate (Michigan, USA). Cover crops were planted in the autumn after harvest of the main crop and harvested in spring prior to planting of the next main crop during 2012-2013 (2013) and 2013-2014 (2014). Four study years (2010, 2011, 2013 and 2014) had normal growing season rainfall (568, 555, 445, and 472 mm) while 2012 was an extreme drought season with a growing-season rainfall deficit of ~50% (210 mm below average). Growing season ET in CM, CMC and MSC during years of normal rainfall averaged 517, 433, and 443 mm, respectively, compared to 455, 374 and 304 mm in the 2012 drought year. Cover crop ET was inconsequential to the subsequent main crops due to abundant rainfall in the spring periods; soils held as much water as they could at the transition from cover crops to main crops. Grain yield in years of normal rainfall for CM, CMC and MSC averaged 12.6, 8.4 and 7.8 Mg ha-1, respectively, compared to 4.9, 4.0, and 4.0 Mg ha-1 in the 2012 drought year. Maximum biomass in years of normal rainfall averaged 38, 30 and 21 Mg ha-1 compared to 19, 13, and 13 Mg ha-1 in the drought year. Water use efficiencies, defined as ratio of maximum standing-stock biomass to growing season evapotranspiration, were 74, 69, and 47 kg ha-1 mm-1 for CM, CMC and MSC in years of normal rainfall, while values in the drought year were 41, 34 and 46 kg ha

  10. Modeling olive-crop forecasting in Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Dhiab, Ali; Ben Mimoun, Mehdi; Oteros, Jose; Garcia-Mozo, Herminia; Domínguez-Vilches, Eugenio; Galán, Carmen; Abichou, Mounir; Msallem, Monji

    2016-01-01

    Tunisia is the world's second largest olive oil-producing region after the European Union. This paper reports on the use of models to forecast local olive crops, using data for Tunisia's five main olive-producing areas: Mornag, Jemmel, Menzel Mhiri, Chaal, and Zarzis. Airborne pollen counts were monitored over the period 1993-2011 using a Cour trap. Forecasting models were constructed using agricultural data (harvest size in tonnes of fruit/year) and data for several weather-related and phenoclimatic variables (rainfall, humidity, temperature, Growing Degree Days, and Chilling). Analysis of these data revealed that the amount of airborne pollen emitted over the pollen season as a whole (i.e., the Pollen Index) was the variable most influencing harvest size. Findings for all local models also indicated that the amount, timing, and distribution of rainfall (except during blooming) had a positive impact on final olive harvests. Air temperature also influenced final crop yield in three study provinces (Menzel Mhiri, Chaal, and Zarzis), but with varying consequences: in the model constructed for Chaal, cumulative maximum temperature from budbreak to start of flowering contributed positively to yield; in the Menzel Mhiri model, cumulative average temperatures during fruit development had a positive impact on output; in Zarzis, by contrast, cumulative maximum temperature during the period prior to flowering negatively influenced final crop yield. Data for agricultural and phenoclimatic variables can be used to construct valid models to predict annual variability in local olive-crop yields; here, models displayed an accuracy of 98, 93, 92, 91, and 88 % for Zarzis, Mornag, Jemmel, Chaal, and Menzel Mhiri, respectively.

  11. Can Multiple Cropping Help to Avoid the Impacts of Heat Extremes? The Case of Winter Wheat/Soybean Double Cropping in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, C.; Lobell, D. B.

    2014-12-01

    In adapting U.S. agriculture to the climate of the 21st century, multiple cropping presents a unique opportunity to help offset projected negative trends in agricultural production while moving critical crop yield formation periods outside of the hottest months of the year. Critical constraints on this practice include moisture availability, and, more importantly, growing season length. We review evidence that this last constraint has decreased in the previous quarter century, allowing for more winter wheat/soybean double cropping in previously phenologically constrained areas. We also carry this pattern forward to 2100, showing a 126% to 211% increase in the area phenologically suitable for double cropping under the RCP45 and RCP85 scenarios respectively. These results suggest that climate change will relieve phenological constraints on wheat-soy double cropping systems over much of the United States, changing production patterns and crop rotations as areas become suitable for the practice.

  12. Water Footprints of Cellulosic Bioenergy Crops: Implications for Production on Marginal Lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, S. K.; Hussain, M. Z.; Bhardwaj, A. K.; Basso, B.; Abraha, M. G.; Robertson, G. P.

    2014-12-01

    Water availability often limits crop production, even in relatively humid climates, and crops vary in their water demand and water use efficiency. Crop production for biofuel (ethanol or biodiesel) offers an alternative to fossil energy sources but requires large amounts of land, and is therefore a more viable option if such crops could be produced on marginal lands that often have soils of poor water-holding capacity. The selection of an appropriate crop requires information on its water demand, water use efficiency, and drought tolerance, but such information is incompletely available for the suite of cellulosic biofuel crops currently under consideration. This study analyzed soil moisture profiles (time-domain reflectometry) to estimate evapotranspiration and water use efficiency of three leading candidate crops for cellulosic bioenergy production (switchgrass, Miscanthus, and maize) grown in a relatively humid climate (Midwestern United States) over four years (2010-13). These field observations of water use by these annual and perennial crops reveal their water use efficiency for biomass and biofuel production. Total growing season water use was remarkably consistent among crops and across years of varying soil water availability, including very favorable precipitation years as well as a drought year (2012). Water use efficiency was more variable and, for maize, depends on whether the maize serves for both grain and cellulosic biofuel production.

  13. Cropping frequency and area response to climate variability can exceed yield response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohn, Avery S.; Vanwey, Leah K.; Spera, Stephanie A.; Mustard, John F.

    2016-06-01

    The sensitivity of agricultural output to climate change has often been estimated by modelling crop yields under climate change scenarios or with statistical analysis of the impacts of year-to-year climatic variability on crop yields. However, the area of cropland and the number of crops harvested per growing season (cropping frequency) both also affect agricultural output and both also show sensitivity to climate variability and change. We model the change in agricultural output associated with the response of crop yield, crop frequency and crop area to year-to-year climate variability in Mato Grosso (MT), Brazil, a key agricultural region. Roughly 70% of the change in agricultural output caused by climate was determined by changes in frequency and/or changes in area. Hot and wet conditions were associated with the largest losses and cool and dry conditions with the largest gains. All frequency and area effects had the same sign as total effects, but this was not always the case for yield effects. A focus on yields alone may therefore bias assessments of the vulnerability of agriculture to climate change. Efforts to reduce climate impacts to agriculture should seek to limit production losses not only from crop yield, but also from changes in cropland area and cropping frequency.

  14. [Effects of continuous cropping on bacterial community diversity in rhizosphere soil of Rehmannia glutinosa].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhong-yi; Chen, Hui; Yang, Yan-hui; Chen, Ting; Lin, Rui-yu; Chen, Xin-jian; Lin, Wen-xiong

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, T-RFLP (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) technique was adopted to study the dynamic changes of bacterial community in the rhizosphere soil of continuously cropped Rehmannia glutinosa L. The results showed that the Shannon diversity index, Margalef index, and similarity index of bacterial community in the rhizosphere soil all decreased in the order of control > one-year cropping > two-year continuous cropping. Under continuous cropping, the proportion of dominant bacterial species declined obviously. In one-year cropping soil, the class Bacilli of phylum Firmicute dominated the bacteria community; while in two-year continuous cropping soil, the class Epsilonproteobacteria of phylum Proteobacteria became dominant. Continuous cropping of R. glutinosa decreased the bacteria species, and simplified the bacterial community structure. The changes of bacterial community diversity under continuous cropping of R. glutinosa led to the disorder of the functions of bacterial community, and thereby, the destruction of the ecological balance in rhizosphere soil, which might be one of reasons causing the obstacles of continuous cropping of R. glutinosa.

  15. An overview of crop growing condition monitoring in China agriculture remote sensing monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qing; Zhou, Qing-bo; Zhang, Li

    2009-07-01

    China is a large agricultural country. To understand the agricultural production condition timely and accurately is related to government decision-making, agricultural production management and the general public concern. China Agriculture Remote Sensing Monitoring System (CHARMS) can monitor crop acreage changes, crop growing condition, agriculture disaster (drought, floods, frost damage, pest etc.) and predict crop yield etc. quickly and timely. The basic principles, methods and regular operation of crop growing condition monitoring in CHARMS are introduced in detail in the paper. CHARMS can monitor crop growing condition of wheat, corn, cotton, soybean and paddy rice with MODIS data. An improved NDVI difference model was used in crop growing condition monitoring in CHARMS. Firstly, MODIS data of every day were received and processed, and the max NDVI values of every fifteen days of main crop were generated, then, in order to assessment a certain crop growing condition in certain period (every fifteen days, mostly), the system compare the remote sensing index data (NDVI) of a certain period with the data of the period in the history (last five year, mostly), the difference between NDVI can indicate the spatial difference of crop growing condition at a certain period. Moreover, Meteorological data of temperature, precipitation and sunshine etc. as well as the field investigation data of 200 network counties were used to modify the models parameters. Last, crop growing condition was assessment at four different scales of counties, provinces, main producing areas and nation and spatial distribution maps of crop growing condition were also created.

  16. Global crop yield losses from recent warming

    SciTech Connect

    Lobell, D; Field, C

    2006-06-02

    Global yields of the world-s six most widely grown crops--wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, sorghum--have increased since 1961. Year-to-year variations in growing season minimum temperature, maximum temperature, and precipitation explain 30% or more of the variations in yield. Since 1991, climate trends have significantly decreased yield trends in all crops but rice, leading to foregone production since 1981 of about 12 million tons per year of wheat or maize, representing an annual economic loss of $1.2 to $1.7 billion. At the global scale, negative impacts of climate trends on crop yields are already apparent. Annual global temperatures have increased by {approx}0.4 C since 1980, with even larger changes observed in several regions (1). While many studies have considered the impacts of future climate changes on food production (2-5), the effects of these past changes on agriculture remain unclear. It is likely that warming has improved yields in some areas, reduced them in others, and had negligible impacts in still others; the relative balance of these effects at the global scale is unknown. An understanding of this balance would help to anticipate impacts of future climate changes, as well as to more accurately assess recent (and thereby project future) technologically driven yield progress. Separating the contribution of climate from concurrent changes in other factors--such as crop cultivars, management practices, soil quality, and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels--requires models that describe the response of yields to climate. Studies of future global impacts of climate change have typically relied on a bottom-up approach, whereby field scale, process-based models are applied to hundreds of representative sites and then averaged (e.g., ref 2). Such approaches require input data on soil and management conditions, which are often difficult to obtain. Limitations on data quality or quantity can thus limit the utility of this approach

  17. Effect of diversified crop rotations on groundwater levels and crop water productivity in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaolin; Chen, Yuanquan; Pacenka, Steven; Gao, Wangsheng; Ma, Li; Wang, Guangya; Yan, Peng; Sui, Peng; Steenhuis, Tammo S.

    2015-03-01

    Water shortage is the major bottleneck that limits sustainable yield of agriculture in the North China Plain. Due to the over-exploitation of groundwater for irrigating the winter wheat-summer maize double cropping systems, a groundwater crisis is becoming increasingly serious. To help identify more efficient and sustainable utilization of the limited water resources, the water consumption and water use efficiency of five irrigated cropping systems were calculated and the effect of cropping systems on groundwater table changes was estimated based on a long term field experiment from 2003 to 2013 in the North China Plain interpreted using a soil-water-balance model. The five cropping systems included sweet potato → cotton → sweet potato → winter wheat-summer maize (SpCSpWS, 4-year cycle), ryegrass-cotton → peanuts → winter wheat-summer maize (RCPWS, 3-year cycle), peanuts → winter wheat-summer maize (PWS, 2-year cycle), winter wheat-summer maize (WS, 1-year cycle), and continuous cotton (Cont C). The five cropping systems had a wide range of annual average actual evapotranspiration (ETa): Cont C (533 mm/year) < SpCSpWS (556 mm/year) < PWS (615 mm/year) < RCPWS (650 mm/year) < WS rotation (734 mm/year). The sequence of the simulated annual average groundwater decline due to the five cropping systems was WS (1.1 m/year) > RCPWS (0.7 m/year) > PWS (0.6 m/year) > SPCSPWS and Cont C (0.4 m/year). The annual average economic output water use efficiency (WUEe) increased in the order SpCSpWS (11.6 yuan ¥ m-3) > RCPWS (9.0 ¥ m-3) > PWS (7.3 ¥ m-3) > WS (6.8 ¥ m-3) > Cont C (5.6 ¥ m-3) from 2003 to 2013. Results strongly suggest that diversifying crop rotations could play a critically important role in mitigating the over-exploitation of the groundwater, while ensuring the food security or boosting the income of farmers in the North China Plain.

  18. Helping crops stand up to salt

    SciTech Connect

    Raeburn, P.

    1985-05-01

    A new approach to the problem of increasing soil salinity is to raise salt-tolerant plants. The search for such plants involves finding new applications for naturally occurring salt-resistant plants (halophytes), using conventional breeding techniques to identify and strengthen crop varieties known to have better-than-average salt tolerance, and applying recombinant DNA methods to introduce salt resistance into existing plants. One promising plant is salicornia, which produces oil high in polyunsaturates at a greater yield than soybeans. Two varieties of atriplex yield as much animal feed as alfalfa and can be harvested several times a year. Seed companies are supporting the research.

  19. Rainfall variability effects on aggregate crop model predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzotsi, Kofikuma Adzewoda

    Crop production operates in a highly heterogeneous environment. Space-time variability in weather and spatial heterogeneity in soil and management generate variability in crop yield. While it is practically unfeasible to thoroughly sample the variability of the crop environment, quantification of the associated uncertainties in crop performance can provide vital information for decision-making. The present study used rainfall data collected in southwestern Georgia at scales ranging from 1 km to 60 km to assess the effect of weather variability (in particular rainfall) on crop predictions aggregated over soil and management variations. The simple SALUS (System Approach to Land Use Sustainability) crop model was integrated in DSSAT (Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer) then parameterized and tested for maize, peanut and cotton for use in obtaining the crop predictions. Analysis of the rainfall data indicated that variability in storm characteristics depends upon the season. Winter rainfall was more correlated at a mean distance of 54 km between locations than summer rainfall was at a mean distance of 3 km. The pairwise correlation between locations decreased with distance faster in the summer than in the winter. This rainfall variability translated into crop yield variability in the study area (about 3100 km²). It was found that weather variability explained 60% and 49% of maize yield variability respectively in 2010 and 2011 when heterogeneity in weather, soil, cultivar and planting dates were accounted for simultaneously. Uncertainties in crop predictions due to rainfall spatial uncertainty decreased as the number of sites where weather data were collected increased. Expressed in terms of maize yield coefficient of variation, this uncertainty decreased exponentially from 27% to approximately 4% at a sampling density of 20 weather locations. Based on 30 years of generated weather data, it was concluded that the general form of the relationship

  20. Selecting herbaceous energy crops for the southeast and midwest/lake states

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, J.H.; Turhollow, A.F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper summarizes an approach to crop selection and development that has evolved through the five years of species screening and selection in the US Department of Energy's Herbaceous Energy Crops Program. The first phase of this program was designed to identify a number of species for development as energy crops for the Southeast and Midwest/Lake States, specifically as feedstocks for the biochemical and thermochemical conversion processes for alcohol fuels now under development. 14 refs., 1 tab.

  1. [Effects of crop tree release on stand growth and stand structure of Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-qiang; Wang, Yi-xiang; Yang, Yi; Zhu, Ting-ting; Zhu, Xu-dan

    2015-02-01

    Crop trees were selected in a 26-year-old even-aged Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation in Lin' an, and compared in plots that were released and unreleased to examine growth and structure responses for 3 years after thinning. Crop tree release significantly increased the mean increments of diameter and volume of individual tree by 1.30 and 1.25 times relative to trees in control stands, respectively. The increments of diameter and volume of crop trees were significantly higher than those of general trees in thinning plots, crop trees and general trees in control plots, which suggested that the responses from different tree types to crop tree release treatment were different. Crop tree release increased the average distances of crop trees to the nearest neighboring trees, reducing competition among crop trees by about 68.2%. 3-year stand volume increment for thinning stands had no significant difference with that of control stands although the number of trees was only 81.5% of the control. Crop trees in thinned plots with diameters over than 14 cm reached 18.0% over 3 years, compared with 12.0% for trees without thinning, suggesting that crop tree release benefited the larger individual trees. The pattern of tree locations in thinning plots tended to be random, complying with the rule that tree distribution pattern changes with growth. Crop tree release in C. lanceolata plantation not only promoted the stand growth, but also optimized the stand structure, benefiting crop trees sustained rapid growth and larger diameter trees production.

  2. 76 FR 71271 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar Plan) Crop Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... information is contained in the Common Crop Insurance Policy Basic Provisions (Basic Provisions). Therefore...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Federal Crop Insurance Corporation 7 CFR Part 457 RIN 0563-AC32 Common Crop... amend the Common Crop Insurance Regulations, Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar Plan) Crop Provisions....

  3. Impacts of biofuel cultivation on mortality and crop yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashworth, K.; Wild, O.; Hewitt, C. N.

    2013-05-01

    Ground-level ozone is a priority air pollutant, causing ~ 22,000 excess deaths per year in Europe, significant reductions in crop yields and loss of biodiversity. It is produced in the troposphere through photochemical reactions involving oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The biosphere is the main source of VOCs, with an estimated 1,150TgCyr-1 (~ 90% of total VOC emissions) released from vegetation globally. Isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) is the most significant biogenic VOC in terms of mass (around 500TgCyr-1) and chemical reactivity and plays an important role in the mediation of ground-level ozone concentrations. Concerns about climate change and energy security are driving an aggressive expansion of bioenergy crop production and many of these plant species emit more isoprene than the traditional crops they are replacing. Here we quantify the increases in isoprene emission rates caused by cultivation of 72Mha of biofuel crops in Europe. We then estimate the resultant changes in ground-level ozone concentrations and the impacts on human mortality and crop yields that these could cause. Our study highlights the need to consider more than simple carbon budgets when considering the cultivation of biofuel feedstock crops for greenhouse-gas mitigation.

  4. Network Candidate Genes in Breeding for Drought Tolerant Crops.

    PubMed

    Krannich, Christoph Tim; Maletzki, Lisa; Kurowsky, Christina; Horn, Renate

    2015-07-17

    Climate change leading to increased periods of low water availability as well as increasing demands for food in the coming years makes breeding for drought tolerant crops a high priority. Plants have developed diverse strategies and mechanisms to survive drought stress. However, most of these represent drought escape or avoidance strategies like early flowering or low stomatal conductance that are not applicable in breeding for crops with high yields under drought conditions. Even though a great deal of research is ongoing, especially in cereals, in this regard, not all mechanisms involved in drought tolerance are yet understood. The identification of candidate genes for drought tolerance that have a high potential to be used for breeding drought tolerant crops represents a challenge. Breeding for drought tolerant crops has to focus on acceptable yields under water-limited conditions and not on survival. However, as more and more knowledge about the complex networks and the cross talk during drought is available, more options are revealed. In addition, it has to be considered that conditioning a crop for drought tolerance might require the production of metabolites and might cost the plants energy and resources that cannot be used in terms of yield. Recent research indicates that yield penalty exists and efficient breeding for drought tolerant crops with acceptable yields under well-watered and drought conditions might require uncoupling yield penalty from drought tolerance.

  5. Network Candidate Genes in Breeding for Drought Tolerant Crops

    PubMed Central

    Krannich, Christoph Tim; Maletzki, Lisa; Kurowsky, Christina; Horn, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Climate change leading to increased periods of low water availability as well as increasing demands for food in the coming years makes breeding for drought tolerant crops a high priority. Plants have developed diverse strategies and mechanisms to survive drought stress. However, most of these represent drought escape or avoidance strategies like early flowering or low stomatal conductance that are not applicable in breeding for crops with high yields under drought conditions. Even though a great deal of research is ongoing, especially in cereals, in this regard, not all mechanisms involved in drought tolerance are yet understood. The identification of candidate genes for drought tolerance that have a high potential to be used for breeding drought tolerant crops represents a challenge. Breeding for drought tolerant crops has to focus on acceptable yields under water-limited conditions and not on survival. However, as more and more knowledge about the complex networks and the cross talk during drought is available, more options are revealed. In addition, it has to be considered that conditioning a crop for drought tolerance might require the production of metabolites and might cost the plants energy and resources that cannot be used in terms of yield. Recent research indicates that yield penalty exists and efficient breeding for drought tolerant crops with acceptable yields under well-watered and drought conditions might require uncoupling yield penalty from drought tolerance. PMID:26193269

  6. Emerging fruit crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hundreds of fruit species with commercial potential are currently in a status of low economic importance. Some, such as quince (Cydonia oblonga L.), pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), and figs (Ficus carica L.) , have been cultivated for thousands of years. Others have only been locally collected an...

  7. Trends in global approvals of biotech crops (1992-2014).

    PubMed

    Aldemita, Rhodora R; Reaño, Ian Mari E; Solis, Renando O; Hautea, Randy A

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing number of genetically modified (GM) events, traits, and crops that are developed to benefit the global population, approval of these technologies for food, feed, cultivation and import in each country may vary depending on needs, demand and trade interest. ISAAA established a GMO Approval Database to document global approvals of biotech crops. GM event name, crops, traits, developer, year of approval for cultivation, food/feed, import, and relevant dossiers were sourced from credible government regulatory websites and biosafety clearinghouses. This paper investigates the trends in GM approvals for food, feed and cultivation based on the number of approving countries, GM crops, events, and traits in the last 23 y (1992-2014), rationale for approval, factors influencing approvals, and their implications in GM crop adoption. Results show that in 2014, there was an accumulative increase in the number of countries granting approvals at 29 (79% developing countries) for commercial cultivation and 31 (70% developing countries) for food and 19 (80% developing developing) for feed; 2012 had the highest number of approving countries and cultivation approvals; 2011 had the highest number of country approvals for feed, and 2014 for food approvals. Herbicide tolerance trait had the highest events approved, followed by insect tolerance traits. Approvals for food product quality increased in the second decade. Maize had the highest number of events approved (single and stacked traits), and stacked traits product gradually increased which is already 30% of the total trait approvals. These results may indicate understanding and acceptance of countries to enhance regulatory capability to be able to benefit from GM crop commercialization. Hence, the paper provided information on the trends on the growth of the GM crop industry in the last 23 y which may be vital in predicting future GM crops and traits. PMID:26039675

  8. Trends in global approvals of biotech crops (1992–2014)

    PubMed Central

    Aldemita, Rhodora R; Reaño, Ian Mari E; Solis, Renando O; Hautea, Randy A

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT With the increasing number of genetically modified (GM) events, traits, and crops that are developed to benefit the global population, approval of these technologies for food, feed, cultivation and import in each country may vary depending on needs, demand and trade interest. ISAAA established a GMO Approval Database to document global approvals of biotech crops. GM event name, crops, traits, developer, year of approval for cultivation, food/feed, import, and relevant dossiers were sourced from credible government regulatory websites and biosafety clearinghouses. This paper investigates the trends in GM approvals for food, feed and cultivation based on the number of approving countries, GM crops, events, and traits in the last 23 y (1992–2014), rationale for approval, factors influencing approvals, and their implications in GM crop adoption. Results show that in 2014, there was an accumulative increase in the number of countries granting approvals at 29 (79% developing countries) for commercial cultivation and 31 (70% developing countries) for food and 19 (80% developing developing) for feed; 2012 had the highest number of approving countries and cultivation approvals; 2011 had the highest number of country approvals for feed, and 2014 for food approvals. Herbicide tolerance trait had the highest events approved, followed by insect tolerance traits. Approvals for food product quality increased in the second decade. Maize had the highest number of events approved (single and stacked traits), and stacked traits product gradually increased which is already 30% of the total trait approvals. These results may indicate understanding and acceptance of countries to enhance regulatory capability to be able to benefit from GM crop commercialization. Hence, the paper provided information on the trends on the growth of the GM crop industry in the last 23 y which may be vital in predicting future GM crops and traits. PMID:26039675

  9. Selection of herbaceous energy crops for the western corn belt

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, I.C.; Buxton, D.R.; Hallam, J.A.

    1994-05-01

    The ultimate economic feasibility of biomass depends on its cost of production and on the cost of competing fuels. The purpose of this research project is to evaluate the production costs of several combinations of species and management systems for producing herbaceous biomass for energy use in Iowa. Herbaceous biomass production systems have costs similar to other crop production systems, such as corn, soybean, and forages. Thus, the factors influencing the costs of producing dedicated biomass energy crops include technological factors such as the cultivation system, species, treatments, soil type, and site and economic factors such as input prices and use of fixed resources. In order to investigate how these production alternatives are influenced by soil resources, and climate conditions, two locations in Iowa, Ames and Chariton, with different soil types and slightly different weather patterns were selected for both the agronomic and economic analyses. Nine crops in thirteen cropping systems were grown at the two sites for five years, from 1988 to 1992. Some of the systems had multiple cropping or interplanting, using combinations of cool-season species and warm-season species, in order to meet multiple objectives of maximum biomass, minimal soil loss, reduced nitrogen fertilization or diminished pesticide inputs. Six of the systems use continuous monocropping of herbaceous crops with an emphasis on production. The seven other systems consist of similar crops, but with crop rotation and soil conservation considerations. While the erosion and other off-site effects of these systems is an important consideration in their overall evaluation, this report will concentrate on direct production costs only.

  10. Trends in global approvals of biotech crops (1992-2014).

    PubMed

    Aldemita, Rhodora R; Reaño, Ian Mari E; Solis, Renando O; Hautea, Randy A

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing number of genetically modified (GM) events, traits, and crops that are developed to benefit the global population, approval of these technologies for food, feed, cultivation and import in each country may vary depending on needs, demand and trade interest. ISAAA established a GMO Approval Database to document global approvals of biotech crops. GM event name, crops, traits, developer, year of approval for cultivation, food/feed, import, and relevant dossiers were sourced from credible government regulatory websites and biosafety clearinghouses. This paper investigates the trends in GM approvals for food, feed and cultivation based on the number of approving countries, GM crops, events, and traits in the last 23 y (1992-2014), rationale for approval, factors influencing approvals, and their implications in GM crop adoption. Results show that in 2014, there was an accumulative increase in the number of countries granting approvals at 29 (79% developing countries) for commercial cultivation and 31 (70% developing countries) for food and 19 (80% developing developing) for feed; 2012 had the highest number of approving countries and cultivation approvals; 2011 had the highest number of country approvals for feed, and 2014 for food approvals. Herbicide tolerance trait had the highest events approved, followed by insect tolerance traits. Approvals for food product quality increased in the second decade. Maize had the highest number of events approved (single and stacked traits), and stacked traits product gradually increased which is already 30% of the total trait approvals. These results may indicate understanding and acceptance of countries to enhance regulatory capability to be able to benefit from GM crop commercialization. Hence, the paper provided information on the trends on the growth of the GM crop industry in the last 23 y which may be vital in predicting future GM crops and traits.

  11. Fluorescence of crop residue: postmortem analysis of crop conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMurtrey, James E., III; Kim, Moon S.; Daughtry, Craig S. T.; Corp, Lawrence A.; Chappelle, Emmett W.

    1997-07-01

    Fluorescence of crop residues at the end of the growing season may provide an indicator of the past crop's vegetative condition. Different levels of nitrogen (N) fertilization were applied to field grown corn and wheat at Beltsville, Maryland. The N fertilizer treatments produce a range of physiological conditions, pigment concentrations, biomass levels, and grain yields that resulted in varying growth and stress conditions in the living crops. After normal harvesting procedures the crop residues remained. The fluorescence spectral characteristics of the plant residues from crops grown under different levels of N nutrition were analyzed. The blue-green fluorescence response of in-vitro residue biomass of the N treated field corn had different magnitudes. A blue-green- yellow algorithm, (460/525)*600 nm, gave the best separations between prior corn growth conditions at different N fertilization levels. Relationships between total dry biomass, the grain yield, and fluorescence properties in the 400 - 670 nm region of the spectrum were found in both corn and wheat residues. The wheat residue was analyzed to evaluate the constituents responsible for fluorescence. A ratio of the blue-green, 450/550 nm, images gave the best separation among wheat residues at different N fertilization levels. Fluorescence of extracts from wheat residues showed inverse fluorescence intensities as a function of N treatments compared to that of the intact wheat residue or ground residue samples. The extracts also had an additional fluorescence emission peak in the red, 670 nm. Single band fluorescence intensity in corn and wheat residues is due mostly to the quantity of the material on the soil surface. Ratios of fluorescence bands varied as a result of the growth conditions created by the N treatments and are thought to be indicative of the varying concentrations of the plant residues fluorescing constituents. Estimates of the amount and cost effectiveness of N fertilizers to satisfy

  12. Uncertainty in future irrigation water demand and risk of crop failure for maize in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webber, Heidi; Gaiser, Thomas; Oomen, Roelof; Teixeira, Edmar; Zhao, Gang; Wallach, Daniel; Zimmermann, Andrea; Ewert, Frank

    2016-07-01

    While crop models are widely used to assess the change in crop productivity with climate change, their skill in assessing irrigation water demand or the risk of crop failure in large area impact assessments is relatively unknown. The objective of this study is to investigate which aspects of modeling crop water use (reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0), soil water extraction, soil evaporation, soil water balance and root growth) contributes most to the variability in estimates of maize crop water use and the risk of crop failure, and demonstrate the resulting uncertainty in a climate change impact study for Europe. The SIMPLACE crop modeling framework was used to couple the LINTUL5 crop model in factorial combinations of 2–3 different approaches for simulating the 5 aspects of crop water use, resulting in 51 modeling approaches. Using experiments in France and New Zeland, analysis of total sensitivity revealed that ET0 explained the most variability in both irrigated maize water use and rainfed grain yield levels, with soil evaporation also imporatant in the French experiment. In the European impact study, net irrigation requirement differed by 36% between the Penman and Hargreaves ET0 methods in the baseline period. Average EU grain yields were similar between models, but differences approached 1–2 tonnes in parts of France and Southern Europe. EU wide esimates of crop failure in the historical period ranged between 5.4 years for Priestley–Taylor to every 7.9 years for the Penman ET0 methods. While the uncertainty in absolute values between models was significant, estimates of relative changes were similar between models, confirming the utility of crop models in assessing climate change impacts. If ET0 estimates in crop models can be improved, through the use of appropriate methods, uncertainty in irrigation water demand as well as in yield estimates under drought can be reduced.

  13. Uncertainty in future irrigation water demand and risk of crop failure for maize in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webber, Heidi; Gaiser, Thomas; Oomen, Roelof; Teixeira, Edmar; Zhao, Gang; Wallach, Daniel; Zimmermann, Andrea; Ewert, Frank

    2016-07-01

    While crop models are widely used to assess the change in crop productivity with climate change, their skill in assessing irrigation water demand or the risk of crop failure in large area impact assessments is relatively unknown. The objective of this study is to investigate which aspects of modeling crop water use (reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0), soil water extraction, soil evaporation, soil water balance and root growth) contributes most to the variability in estimates of maize crop water use and the risk of crop failure, and demonstrate the resulting uncertainty in a climate change impact study for Europe. The SIMPLACE crop modeling framework was used to couple the LINTUL5 crop model in factorial combinations of 2-3 different approaches for simulating the 5 aspects of crop water use, resulting in 51 modeling approaches. Using experiments in France and New Zeland, analysis of total sensitivity revealed that ET0 explained the most variability in both irrigated maize water use and rainfed grain yield levels, with soil evaporation also imporatant in the French experiment. In the European impact study, net irrigation requirement differed by 36% between the Penman and Hargreaves ET0 methods in the baseline period. Average EU grain yields were similar between models, but differences approached 1-2 tonnes in parts of France and Southern Europe. EU wide esimates of crop failure in the historical period ranged between 5.4 years for Priestley-Taylor to every 7.9 years for the Penman ET0 methods. While the uncertainty in absolute values between models was significant, estimates of relative changes were similar between models, confirming the utility of crop models in assessing climate change impacts. If ET0 estimates in crop models can be improved, through the use of appropriate methods, uncertainty in irrigation water demand as well as in yield estimates under drought can be reduced.

  14. Insect resistance management in GM crops: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Bates, Sarah L; Zhao, Jian-Zhou; Roush, Richard T; Shelton, Anthony M

    2005-01-01

    Transgenic plants expressing insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) were first commercialized in 1996 amid concern from some scientists, regulators and environmentalists that the widespread use of Bt crops would inevitably lead to resistance and the loss of a 'public good,' specifically, the susceptibility of insect pests to Bt proteins. Eight years later, Bt corn and cotton have been grown on a cumulative area >80 million ha worldwide. Despite dire predictions to the contrary, resistance to a Bt crop has yet to be documented, suggesting that resistance management strategies have been effective thus far. However, current strategies to delay resistance remain far from ideal. Eight years without resistance provides a timely opportunity for researchers, regulators and industry to reassess the risk of resistance and the most effective strategies to preserve Bt and other novel insect-resistant crops in development.

  15. Field spectroscopy of agricultural crops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Biehl, L. L.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Hall, F. G.

    1986-01-01

    The development of the full potential of multispectral data acquired from satellites, requires quantitative knowledge, and physical models of the spectral properties of specific earth surface features. Knowledge of the relationships between spectral-radiometric characteristics and important biophysical parameters of agricultural crops and soils can best be obtained by carefully controlled studies of fields or plots. It is important to select plots where data describing the agronomic-biophysical properties of the crop canopies and soil background are attainable, taking into account also the feasibility of frequent timely calibrated spectral measurements. The term 'field spectroscopy' is employed for this research. The present paper is concerned with field research which was sponsored by NASA as part of the AgRISTARS Supporting Research Project. Attention is given to field research objectives, field research instrumentation, measurement procedures, spectral-temporal profile modeling, and the effects of cultural and environmental factors on crop reflectance.

  16. [Fungal population structure and its biological effect in rhizosphere soil of continuously cropped potato].

    PubMed

    Meng, Pin-Pin; Liu, Xing; Qiu, Hui-Zhen; Zhang, Wen-Ming; Zhang, Chun-Hong; Wang, Di; Zhang, Jun-Lian; Shen, Qi-Rong

    2012-11-01

    Continuous cropping obstacle is one of the main restriction factors in potato industry. In order to explore the mechanisms of potato's continuous cropping obstacle and to reduce the impact on potato's tuber yield, a field experiment combined with PCR-DGGE molecular fingerprinting was conducted to investigate the fungal population structure and its biological effect in rhizosphere soil of continuously cropped potato. With the increasing year of potato' s continuous cropping, the numbers of visible bands in rhizosphere fungal DGGE profiles increased obviously. As compared with that of CK (rotation cropping), the operational taxonomic unit (OTU) in treatments of one to five years continuous cropping was increased by 38.5%, 38.5%, 30.8%, 46.2%, and 76.9% respectively, indicating that potato's continuous cropping caused an obvious increase in the individual numbers of dominant fungal populations in rhizosphere soil. Also with the increasing year of potato's continuous cropping, the similarity of the fungal population structure among the treatments had a gradual decrease. The sequencing of the fungal DGGE bands showed that with the increasing year of continuous cropping, the numbers of the potato's rhizosphere soil-borne pathogens Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani increased obviously, while the number of Chaetomium globosum, as a biocontrol species, had a marked decrease in the fifth year of continuous cropping. It was suggested that potato' s continuous cropping caused the pathogen fungal populations become the dominant microbial populations in rhizosphere soil, and the rhizosphere micro-ecological environment deteriorated, which in turn affected the root system, making the root vigor and its absorption area reduced, and ultimately, the tuber yield decreased markedly.

  17. Climate impacts on agriculture: Implications for crop production

    SciTech Connect

    Hatfield, Jerry L.; Boote, Kenneth J.; Kimball, B. A.; Ziska, Lewis A.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Ort, Don; Thomson, Allison M.; Wolfe, David W.

    2011-04-19

    Changes in temperature, CO2, and precipitation under the scenarios of climate change for the next 30 years present a challenge to crop production. This review focuses on the impact of temperature, CO2, and ozone on agronomic crops and the implications for crop production. Understanding these implications for agricultural crops is critical for developing cropping systems resilient to stresses induced by climate change. There is variation among crops in their response to CO2, temperature, and precipitation changes and, with the regional differences in predicted climate, a situation is created in which the responses will be further complicated. For example, the temperature effects on soybean could potentially cause yield reductions of 2.4% in the South but an increase of 1.7% in the Midwest. The frequency of years when temperatures exceed thresholds for damage during critical growth stages is likely to increase for some crops and regions. The increase in CO2 contributes significantly to enhanced plant growth and improved water use efficiency; however, there may be a downscaling of these positive impacts due to higher temperatures plants will experience during their growth cycle. A challenge is to understand the interactions of the changing climatic parameters because of the interactions among temperature, CO2, and precipitation on plant growth and development and also on the biotic stresses of weeds, insects, and diseases. Agronomists will have to consider the variations in temperature and precipitation as part of the production system if they are to ensure the food security required by an ever increasing population.

  18. Simulating crop growth with Expert-N-GECROS under different site conditions in Southwest Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poyda, Arne; Ingwersen, Joachim; Demyan, Scott; Gayler, Sebastian; Streck, Thilo

    2016-04-01

    When feedbacks between the land surface and the atmosphere are investigated by Atmosphere-Land surface-Crop-Models (ALCM) it is fundamental to accurately simulate crop growth dynamics as plants directly influence the energy partitioning at the plant-atmosphere interface. To study both the response and the effect of intensive agricultural crop production systems on regional climate change in Southwest Germany, the crop growth model GECROS (YIN & VAN LAAR, 2005) was calibrated based on multi-year field data from typical crop rotations in the Kraichgau and Swabian Alb regions. Additionally, the SOC (soil organic carbon) model DAISY (MÜLLER et al., 1998) was implemented in the Expert-N model tool (ENGEL & PRIESACK, 1993) and combined with GECROS. The model was calibrated based on a set of plant (BBCH, LAI, plant height, aboveground biomass, N content of biomass) and weather data for the years 2010 - 2013 and validated with the data of 2014. As GECROS adjusts the root-shoot partitioning in response to external conditions (water, nitrogen, CO2), it is suitable to simulate crop growth dynamics under changing climate conditions and potentially more frequent stress situations. As C and N pools and turnover rates in soil as well as preceding crop effects were expected to considerably influence crop growth, the model was run in a multi-year, dynamic way. Crop residues and soil mineral N (nitrate, ammonium) available for the subsequent crop were accounted for. The model simulates growth dynamics of winter wheat, winter rape, silage maize and summer barley at the Kraichgau and Swabian Alb sites well. The Expert-N-GECROS model is currently parameterized for crops with potentially increasing shares in future crop rotations. First results will be shown.

  19. Estimating cropland NPP using national crop inventory and MODIS derived crop specific parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandaru, V.; West, T. O.; Ricciuto, D. M.

    2011-12-01

    Estimates of cropland net primary production (NPP) are needed as input for estimates of carbon flux and carbon stock changes. Cropland NPP is currently estimated using terrestrial ecosystem models, satellite remote sensing, or inventory data. All three of these methods have benefits and problems. Terrestrial ecosystem models are often better suited for prognostic estimates rather than diagnostic estimates. Satellite-based NPP estimates often underestimate productivity on intensely managed croplands and are also limited to a few broad crop categories. Inventory-based estimates are consistent with nationally collected data on crop yields, but they lack sub-county spatial resolution. Integrating these methods will allow for spatial resolution consistent with current land cover and land use, while also maintaining total biomass quantities recorded in national inventory data. The main objective of this study was to improve cropland NPP estimates by using a modification of the CASA NPP model with individual crop biophysical parameters partly derived from inventory data and MODIS 8day 250m EVI product. The study was conducted for corn and soybean crops in Iowa and Illinois for years 2006 and 2007. We used EVI as a linear function for fPAR, and used crop land cover data (56m spatial resolution) to extract individual crop EVI pixels. First, we separated mixed pixels of both corn and soybean that occur when MODIS 250m pixel contains more than one crop. Second, we substituted mixed EVI pixels with nearest pure pixel values of the same crop within 1km radius. To get more accurate photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), we applied the Mountain Climate Simulator (MTCLIM) algorithm with the use of temperature and precipitation data from the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS-2) to generate shortwave radiation data. Finally, county specific light use efficiency (LUE) values of each crop for years 2006 to 2007 were determined by application of mean county inventory

  20. Space Technology for Crop Drying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    McDonnell Douglas came up with a new method of drying agricultural crops derived from vacuum chamber technology called MIVAC, a compression of microwave vacuum drying system. A distant cousin of the home microwave oven, MIVAC dries by means of electrically- generated microwaves introduced to a crop-containing vacuum chamber. Microwaves remove moisture quickly and the very low pressure atmosphere in the chamber permits effective drying at much lower than customary temperatures. Thus energy demand is doubly reduced by lower heat requirement and by the shorter time electric power is needed.

  1. Can crops tolerate acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, J.K.

    1989-11-01

    This brief article describes work by scientists at the ARS Air Quality-Plant Growth and Development Laboratory in Raleigh, North Carolina, that indicates little damage to crops as a result of acid rain. In studies with simulated acid rain and 216 exposed varieties of 18 crops, there were no significant injuries nor was there reduced growth in most species. Results of chronic and acute exposures were correlated in sensitive tomato and soybean plants and in tolerant winter wheat and lettuce plants. These results suggest that 1-hour exposures could be used in the future to screen varieties for sensitivity to acid rain.

  2. Study on extraction of crop information using time-series MODIS data in the Chao Phraya Basin of Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tingting, Lv; Chuang, Liu

    2010-03-01

    In order to acquire the crop-related information in Chao Phraya Basin, time-series MODIS data were used in this paper. Although the spatial resolution of MODIS data is not very high, it is still useful for detecting very large-scale phenomenon, such as changes in seasonal vegetation patterns. After the data processing a general crop-related LULC (land use and land cover) map, cropping intensity map and cropping patterns map were produced. Analysis of these maps showed that the main land use type in the study area was farmland, most of which was dominated by rice. Rice fields mostly concentrated in the flood plains and double or triple rice-cropping system was commonly employed in this area. Maize, cassava, sugarcane and other upland crops were mainly distributed in the high alluvial terraces. Because these area often have water shortage problem particularly in the dry season which can support only one crop in a year, the cropping intensity was very low. However, some upland areas can be cultivated twice a year with crops which have short growing seasons. The crop information extracted from MODIS data sets were assessed by CBERS data, statistic data and so on. It was shown that MODIS derived crop information coincided well with the statistic data at the provincial level. At the same time, crop information extracted by MODIS data sets and CBERS were compared with each other which also showed similar spatial patterns.

  3. Variation of Bacterial Community Diversity in Rhizosphere Soil of Sole-Cropped versus Intercropped Wheat Field after Harvest.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhenping; Yang, Wenping; Li, Shengcai; Hao, Jiaomin; Su, Zhifeng; Sun, Min; Gao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Chunlai

    2016-01-01

    As the major crops in north China, spring crops are usually planted from April through May every spring and harvested in fall. Wheat is also a very common crop traditionally planted in fall or spring and harvested in summer year by year. This continuous cropping system exhibited the disadvantages of reducing the fertility of soil through decreasing microbial diversity. Thus, management of microbial diversity in the rhizosphere plays a vital role in sustainable crop production. In this study, ten common spring crops in north China were chosen sole-cropped and four were chosen intercropped with peanut in wheat fields after harvest. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and DNA sequencing of one 16S rDNA fragment were used to analyze the bacterial diversity and species identification. DGGE profiles showed the bacterial community diversity in rhizosphere soil samples varied among various crops under different cropping systems, more diverse under intercropping system than under sole-cropping. Some intercropping-specific bands in DGGE profiles suggested that several bacterial species were stimulated by intercropping systems specifically. Furthermore, the identification of these dominant and functional bacteria by DNA sequencing indicated that intercropping systems are more beneficial to improve soil fertility. Compared to intercropping systems, we also observed changes in microbial community of rhizosphere soil under sole-crops. The rhizosphere bacterial community structure in spring crops showed a strong crop species-specific pattern. More importantly, Empedobacter brevis, a typical plant pathogen, was only found in the carrot rhizosphere, suggesting carrot should be sown prudently. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that crop species and cropping systems had significant effects on bacterial community diversity in the rhizosphere soils. We strongly suggest sorghum, glutinous millet and buckwheat could be taken into account as intercropping crops with peanut

  4. Variation of Bacterial Community Diversity in Rhizosphere Soil of Sole-Cropped versus Intercropped Wheat Field after Harvest

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhenping; Yang, Wenping; Li, Shengcai; Hao, Jiaomin; Su, Zhifeng; Sun, Min; Gao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Chunlai

    2016-01-01

    As the major crops in north China, spring crops are usually planted from April through May every spring and harvested in fall. Wheat is also a very common crop traditionally planted in fall or spring and harvested in summer year by year. This continuous cropping system exhibited the disadvantages of reducing the fertility of soil through decreasing microbial diversity. Thus, management of microbial diversity in the rhizosphere plays a vital role in sustainable crop production. In this study, ten common spring crops in north China were chosen sole-cropped and four were chosen intercropped with peanut in wheat fields after harvest. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and DNA sequencing of one 16S rDNA fragment were used to analyze the bacterial diversity and species identification. DGGE profiles showed the bacterial community diversity in rhizosphere soil samples varied among various crops under different cropping systems, more diverse under intercropping system than under sole-cropping. Some intercropping-specific bands in DGGE profiles suggested that several bacterial species were stimulated by intercropping systems specifically. Furthermore, the identification of these dominant and functional bacteria by DNA sequencing indicated that intercropping systems are more beneficial to improve soil fertility. Compared to intercropping systems, we also observed changes in microbial community of rhizosphere soil under sole-crops. The rhizosphere bacterial community structure in spring crops showed a strong crop species-specific pattern. More importantly, Empedobacter brevis, a typical plant pathogen, was only found in the carrot rhizosphere, suggesting carrot should be sown prudently. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that crop species and cropping systems had significant effects on bacterial community diversity in the rhizosphere soils. We strongly suggest sorghum, glutinous millet and buckwheat could be taken into account as intercropping crops with peanut

  5. Altered pesticide use on transgenic crops and the associated general impact from an environmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Kleter, Gijs A; Bhula, Raj; Bodnaruk, Kevin; Carazo, Elizabeth; Felsot, Allan S; Harris, Caroline A; Katayama, Arata; Kuiper, Harry A; Racke, Kenneth D; Rubin, Baruch; Shevah, Yehuda; Stephenson, Gerald R; Tanaka, Keiji; Unsworth, John; Wauchope, R Donald; Wong, Sue-Sun

    2007-11-01

    The large-scale commercial cultivation of transgenic crops has undergone a steady increase since their introduction 10 years ago. Most of these crops bear introduced traits that are of agronomic importance, such as herbicide or insect resistance. These traits are likely to impact upon the use of pesticides on these crops, as well as the pesticide market as a whole. Organizations like USDA-ERS and NCFAP monitor the changes in crop pest management associated with the adoption of transgenic crops. As part of an IUPAC project on this topic, recent data are reviewed regarding the alterations in pesticide use that have been observed in practice. Most results indicate a decrease in the amounts of active ingredients applied to transgenic crops compared with conventional crops. In addition, a generic environmental indicator -- the environmental impact quotient (EIQ) -- has been applied by these authors and others to estimate the environmental consequences of the altered pesticide use on transgenic crops. The results show that the predicted environmental impact decreases in transgenic crops. With the advent of new types of agronomic trait and crops that have been genetically modified, it is useful to take also their potential environmental impacts into account.

  6. Crop Identification Technolgy Assessment for Remote Sensing (CITARS). Volume 1: Task design plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, F. G.; Bizzell, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    A plan for quantifying the crop identification performances resulting from the remote identification of corn, soybeans, and wheat is described. Steps for the conversion of multispectral data tapes to classification results are specified. The crop identification performances resulting from the use of several basic types of automatic data processing techniques are compared and examined for significant differences. The techniques are evaluated also for changes in geographic location, time of the year, management practices, and other physical factors. The results of the Crop Identification Technology Assessment for Remote Sensing task will be applied extensively in the Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment.

  7. Topsoil Depth Effects on Crop Yields as Affected by Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Scott; Cruse, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Topsoil (A-horizon) depth is positively correlated with crop productivity; crop roots and available nutrients are concentrated in this layer; topsoil is critical for nutrient retention and water holding capacity. Its loss or reduction can be considered an irreversible impact of soil erosion. Climatic factors such as precipitation and temperature extremes that impose production stress further complicate the relationship between soil erosion and crop productivity. The primary research objective was to determine the effects of soil erosion on corn and soybean yields of loess and till-derived soils in the rain-fed farming region of Iowa. Data collection took place from 2007 to 2012 at seven farm sites located in different major soil regions. Collection consisted of 40 to 50 randomly selected georeferenced soil probe locations across varying erosion classes in well drained landscape positions. Soil probes were done to a minimum depth of 100 cm and soil organic carbon samples were obtained in the top 10 cm. Crop yields were determined utilizing georeferenced harvest maps from yield monitoring devices and cross referenced with georeferenced field data points. Data analysis targeted relationships between crop yields versus soil organic carbon contents (SOC) and crop yields versus topsoil depths (TSD). The variation of yield and growing season rainfall across multiple years were also evaluated to provide an indication of soil resiliency associated with topsoil depth and soil organic carbon levels across varying climatic conditions. Results varied between sites but generally indicated a greater yield potential at thicker TSD's and higher SOC concentrations; an annual variation in yield response as a function of precipitation amount during the growing season; largest yield responses to both TSD and SOC occurred in the driest study year (2012); and little to no significant yield responses to TSD occurred during the wettest study year (2010). These results were not

  8. Economic impacts of glyphosate-resistant crops.

    PubMed

    Gianessi, Leonard P

    2008-04-01

    Glyphosate-resistant crops have been widely planted since their introduction in 1996. Growers have numerous choices for herbicide treatments and have chosen to plant glyphosate-resistant crops on the basis of economic factors. The economic effects of the widespread planting of glyphosate-resistant crops have included reductions in herbicide expenses, increases in seed costs, increased yield and changes in the relative profitability of crops that has resulted in changes in which crops are planted. In addition, non-pecuniary benefits have accrued as a result of the simplicity of weed management in the glyphosate-resistant crop systems.

  9. Economic impacts of glyphosate-resistant crops.

    PubMed

    Gianessi, Leonard P

    2008-04-01

    Glyphosate-resistant crops have been widely planted since their introduction in 1996. Growers have numerous choices for herbicide treatments and have chosen to plant glyphosate-resistant crops on the basis of economic factors. The economic effects of the widespread planting of glyphosate-resistant crops have included reductions in herbicide expenses, increases in seed costs, increased yield and changes in the relative profitability of crops that has resulted in changes in which crops are planted. In addition, non-pecuniary benefits have accrued as a result of the simplicity of weed management in the glyphosate-resistant crop systems. PMID:18181242

  10. Soil quality differences in a mature alley cropping system in temperate North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alley cropping in agroforestry practices has been shown to improve soil quality, however information on long-term effects (>10 years) of alley cropping on soils in the temperate zone is very limited. The objective of this study was to examine effects of management, landscape, and soil depth on soil...

  11. US-1136, US-1137, and US-1138 Cowpea Germplasm Lines for Use as a Cover Crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The adoption of sustainable and organic cultural practices in recent years has resulted in an increased use of cover crops. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) is an excellent warm season cover crop due to its tolerance of heat and drought stress, ability to grow well in sandy, poor, acidic soils, high b...

  12. Integrating choice of variety, soil amendments, and cover crops to optimize organic rice production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have completed our first year of this project to determine the impact of winter cover crops, soil amendments, and rice varieties on organic rice production at Beaumont, TX. Two winter cover crops were established successfully and the amounts of dry biomass produced were 4,690 and 5,157 lb/acre f...

  13. Winter Cover Crop Effects on Nitrate Leaching in Subsurface Drainage as Simulated by RZWQM-DSSAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Planting winter cover crops such as winter rye after corn and soybean harvest is one of the more promising practices to reduce nitrate loss to streams from tile drainage systems. Because use of cover crops to reduce nitrate loss has only been tested over a few years with limited environmental and ma...

  14. Replacing fallow with cover crops in a semiarid soil: effects on soil properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Replacement of fallow in crop-fallow systems with cover crops (CCs) may improve soil properties. We assessed whether replacing fallow in no-till winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-fallow with winter and spring CCs for five years reduced wind and water erosion, increased soil organic carbon (SOC), a...

  15. 7 CFR 1437.504 - Notice of loss for covered tropical crops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... production, before or after the loss event, will be taken into account in computing eligibilities. (ii... taken into account in the loss determinations made under this part. The producer is obligated to... having a zero yield capability for the crop year involved for purposes of constructing a crop...

  16. Impact of corn residue on yield of cool-season crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synergy between dry pea and corn can reduce the density of corn needed for optimum yield. Lower crop density may accrue an additional benefit, as after-harvest residues of corn lying on the soil surface can reduce yield of crops planted the next year. This study evaluated impact of corn residue lev...

  17. Effect of Seeding Rate and Planting Arrangement on Rye Cover Crop and Weed Growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed growth in winter cover crops in warm climates may contribute to weed management costs in subsequent crops. A two year experiment was conducted on an organic vegetable farm in Salinas, California, to determine the impact of seeding rate and planting arrangement on rye (Secale cereale L. cv. Merc...

  18. Crop species diversity changes in the United States: 1978-2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anecdotal accounts regarding reduced US cropping system diversity have raised concerns about negative impacts of increasingly homogeneous cropping systems. However, formal analyses to document such changes are lacking. Using US Agriculture Census data, which is collected on 5-year intervals, we qua...

  19. The Bushland weighing lysimeters: A quarter century of crop ET investigations to advance sustainable irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1987-1989, the first irrigated crops were grown on the four large, precision weighing lysimeters at the USDA-ARS Laboratory at Bushland, Texas, on the Southern High Plains (SHP). Thus began >25-years of full- and deficit-irrigated crop growth, energy and water balance, evapotranspiration (ET), yi...

  20. The Bushland weighing lysimeters: A quarter century of crop ET investigations to advance sustainable irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1987-1989, the first irrigated crops were grown on the four large, precision weighing lysimeters at the USDA-ARS Conservation & Production Laboratory on the Southern High Plains (SHP) at Bushland, Texas. Thus began >25-years of full- and deficit-irrigated crop growth, energy and water balance, ev...

  1. Cover crop in Missouri: putting them to work on your farm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunlight powers agriculture and fortunately is free to all farmers. The challenge is harvesting as much sunlight as possible. With commodity crops that may only be in the field for 4 to 5 months, there are several months each year when fields are receiving untapped sunlight. Fortunately, cover crop...

  2. Bumper transgenic plant crop

    SciTech Connect

    Moffat, A.S.

    1991-07-05

    Although it may seem hard to believe, it's been almost 10 years since researchers showed that they could use gene transfer technology on plants. Since then the plant genetic engineers have taken great strides. With several dozen field trials already under way, they may soon achieve their original goal - the development of high-yielding plant varieties with enhanced resistance to herbicides, disease, or insects. So now the researchers are branching out, beginning to design plants with improved consumer appeal, such as tomatoes that hold up better to freezing, as well as creating plants that can serve as factories for pharmaceuticals and industrial oils, just as researchers are now attempting to use pigs to make human hemoglobin. Some of the plant varieties being developed include: tobacco plants, soybeans, tomatoes, and dry, navy and green beans.

  3. Delivery of crop pollination services is an insufficient argument for wild pollinator conservation.

    PubMed

    Kleijn, David; Winfree, Rachael; Bartomeus, Ignasi; Carvalheiro, Luísa G; Henry, Mickaël; Isaacs, Rufus; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Kremen, Claire; M'Gonigle, Leithen K; Rader, Romina; Ricketts, Taylor H; Williams, Neal M; Lee Adamson, Nancy; Ascher, John S; Báldi, András; Batáry, Péter; Benjamin, Faye; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C; Blitzer, Eleanor J; Bommarco, Riccardo; Brand, Mariëtte R; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Button, Lindsey; Cariveau, Daniel P; Chifflet, Rémy; Colville, Jonathan F; Danforth, Bryan N; Elle, Elizabeth; Garratt, Michael P D; Herzog, Felix; Holzschuh, Andrea; Howlett, Brad G; Jauker, Frank; Jha, Shalene; Knop, Eva; Krewenka, Kristin M; Le Féon, Violette; Mandelik, Yael; May, Emily A; Park, Mia G; Pisanty, Gideon; Reemer, Menno; Riedinger, Verena; Rollin, Orianne; Rundlöf, Maj; Sardiñas, Hillary S; Scheper, Jeroen; Sciligo, Amber R; Smith, Henrik G; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Thorp, Robbin; Tscharntke, Teja; Verhulst, Jort; Viana, Blandina F; Vaissière, Bernard E; Veldtman, Ruan; Ward, Kimiora L; Westphal, Catrin; Potts, Simon G

    2015-06-16

    There is compelling evidence that more diverse ecosystems deliver greater benefits to people, and these ecosystem services have become a key argument for biodiversity conservation. However, it is unclear how much biodiversity is needed to deliver ecosystem services in a cost-effective way. Here we show that, while the contribution of wild bees to crop production is significant, service delivery is restricted to a limited subset of all known bee species. Across crops, years and biogeographical regions, crop-visiting wild bee communities are dominated by a small number of common species, and threatened species are rarely observed on crops. Dominant crop pollinators persist under agricultural expansion and many are easily enhanced by simple conservation measures, suggesting that cost-effective management strategies to promote crop pollination should target a different set of species than management strategies to promote threatened bees. Conserving the biological diversity of bees therefore requires more than just ecosystem-service-based arguments.

  4. Safety assessment of foods from genetically modified crops in countries with developing economies.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Bryan

    2015-12-01

    Population growth particularly in countries with developing economies will result in a need to increase food production by 70% by the year 2050. Biotechnology has been utilized to produce genetically modified (GM) crops for insect and weed control with benefits including increased crop yield and will also be used in emerging countries. A multicomponent safety assessment paradigm has been applied to individual GM crops to determine whether they as safe as foods from non-GM crops. This paper reviews methods to assess the safety of foods from GM crops for safe consumption from the first generation of GM crops. The methods can readily be applied to new products developed within country and this paper will emphasize the concept of data portability; that safety data produced in one geographic location is suitable for safety assessment regardless of where it is utilized.

  5. Cascade effects of crop species richness on the diversity of pest insects and their natural enemies.

    PubMed

    Shi, PeiJian; Hui, Cang; Men, XingYuan; Zhao, ZiHua; Ouyang, Fang; Ge, Feng; Jin, XianShi; Cao, HaiFeng; Li, B Larry

    2014-07-01

    Understanding how plant species richness influences the diversity of herbivorous and predatory/parasitic arthropods is central to community ecology. We explore the effects of crop species richness on the diversity of pest insects and their natural enemies. Using data from a four-year experiment with five levels of crop species richness, we found that crop species richness significantly affected the pest species richness, but there were no significant effects on richness of the pests' natural enemies. In contrast, the species richness of pest insects significantly affected their natural enemies. These findings suggest a cascade effect where trophic interactions are strong between adjacent trophic levels, while the interactions between connected but nonadjacent trophic levels are weakened by the intermediate trophic level. High crop species richness resulted in a more stable arthropod community compared with communities in monoculture crops. Our results highlight the complicated cross-trophic interactions and the crucial role of crop diversity in the food webs of agro-ecosystems.

  6. Delivery of crop pollination services is an insufficient argument for wild pollinator conservation.

    PubMed

    Kleijn, David; Winfree, Rachael; Bartomeus, Ignasi; Carvalheiro, Luísa G; Henry, Mickaël; Isaacs, Rufus; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Kremen, Claire; M'Gonigle, Leithen K; Rader, Romina; Ricketts, Taylor H; Williams, Neal M; Lee Adamson, Nancy; Ascher, John S; Báldi, András; Batáry, Péter; Benjamin, Faye; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C; Blitzer, Eleanor J; Bommarco, Riccardo; Brand, Mariëtte R; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Button, Lindsey; Cariveau, Daniel P; Chifflet, Rémy; Colville, Jonathan F; Danforth, Bryan N; Elle, Elizabeth; Garratt, Michael P D; Herzog, Felix; Holzschuh, Andrea; Howlett, Brad G; Jauker, Frank; Jha, Shalene; Knop, Eva; Krewenka, Kristin M; Le Féon, Violette; Mandelik, Yael; May, Emily A; Park, Mia G; Pisanty, Gideon; Reemer, Menno; Riedinger, Verena; Rollin, Orianne; Rundlöf, Maj; Sardiñas, Hillary S; Scheper, Jeroen; Sciligo, Amber R; Smith, Henrik G; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Thorp, Robbin; Tscharntke, Teja; Verhulst, Jort; Viana, Blandina F; Vaissière, Bernard E; Veldtman, Ruan; Ward, Kimiora L; Westphal, Catrin; Potts, Simon G

    2015-01-01

    There is compelling evidence that more diverse ecosystems deliver greater benefits to people, and these ecosystem services have become a key argument for biodiversity conservation. However, it is unclear how much biodiversity is needed to deliver ecosystem services in a cost-effective way. Here we show that, while the contribution of wild bees to crop production is significant, service delivery is restricted to a limited subset of all known bee species. Across crops, years and biogeographical regions, crop-visiting wild bee communities are dominated by a small number of common species, and threatened species are rarely observed on crops. Dominant crop pollinators persist under agricultural expansion and many are easily enhanced by simple conservation measures, suggesting that cost-effective management strategies to promote crop pollination should target a different set of species than management strategies to promote threatened bees. Conserving the biological diversity of bees therefore requires more than just ecosystem-service-based arguments. PMID:26079893

  7. Delivery of crop pollination services is an insufficient argument for wild pollinator conservation

    PubMed Central

    Kleijn, David; Winfree, Rachael; Bartomeus, Ignasi; Carvalheiro, Luísa G; Henry, Mickaël; Isaacs, Rufus; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Kremen, Claire; M'Gonigle, Leithen K; Rader, Romina; Ricketts, Taylor H; Williams, Neal M; Lee Adamson, Nancy; Ascher, John S; Báldi, András; Batáry, Péter; Benjamin, Faye; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C; Blitzer, Eleanor J; Bommarco, Riccardo; Brand, Mariëtte R; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Button, Lindsey; Cariveau, Daniel P; Chifflet, Rémy; Colville, Jonathan F; Danforth, Bryan N; Elle, Elizabeth; Garratt, Michael P.D.; Herzog, Felix; Holzschuh, Andrea; Howlett, Brad G; Jauker, Frank; Jha, Shalene; Knop, Eva; Krewenka, Kristin M; Le Féon, Violette; Mandelik, Yael; May, Emily A; Park, Mia G; Pisanty, Gideon; Reemer, Menno; Riedinger, Verena; Rollin, Orianne; Rundlöf, Maj; Sardiñas, Hillary S; Scheper, Jeroen; Sciligo, Amber R; Smith, Henrik G; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Thorp, Robbin; Tscharntke, Teja; Verhulst, Jort; Viana, Blandina F; Vaissière, Bernard E; Veldtman, Ruan; Westphal, Catrin; Potts, Simon G

    2015-01-01

    There is compelling evidence that more diverse ecosystems deliver greater benefits to people, and these ecosystem services have become a key argument for biodiversity conservation. However, it is unclear how much biodiversity is needed to deliver ecosystem services in a cost-effective way. Here we show that, while the contribution of wild bees to crop production is significant, service delivery is restricted to a limited subset of all known bee species. Across crops, years and biogeographical regions, crop-visiting wild bee communities are dominated by a small number of common species, and threatened species are rarely observed on crops. Dominant crop pollinators persist under agricultural expansion and many are easily enhanced by simple conservation measures, suggesting that cost-effective management strategies to promote crop pollination should target a different set of species than management strategies to promote threatened bees. Conserving the biological diversity of bees therefore requires more than just ecosystem-service-based arguments. PMID:26079893

  8. Southeast Growers Can use Furrow Diking to Stabilize Cropping Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water availability has a large bearing on crop fate. In 2 years of research at NPRL, research with furrow dikes has shown positive results with peanut, cotton, and corn. The equipment necessary for furrow diking is not expensive and can be attached to common cultivation equipment or planters. Fur...

  9. Impact of preceding crop on alfalfa competitiveness with weeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic producers would like to include no-till practices in their farming systems. We are seeking to develop a continuous no-till system for organic farming, based on a complex rotation that includes a 3-year sequence of alfalfa. In this study, we evaluated impact of preceding crop on weed infest...

  10. Surprising yields with no-till cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers using no-till practices have observed that crop yields can greatly exceed expectations based on nutrient and water supply. For example, Ralph Holzwarth, who farms near Gettysburg, SD, has averaged 150 bu/ac of corn on his farm for the past 6 years. We were surprised with this yield, as c...

  11. Risk Management of GM Crops

    EPA Science Inventory

    Driven by biofuel demand, a significant increase in GM corn acreage is anticipated for the 2007 growing season with future planted GM corn acreage approaching 80% of the corn crop by 2009. As demand increases, grower non-compliance with mandated planting requirements is likely to...

  12. Vegetable Crop Pests. MEP 311.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantzes, James G.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of vegetable crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects, weeds, and diseases.…

  13. Fruit Crop Pests. MEP 312.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Leslie O.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of fruit crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects, weeds, and diseases. Also in…

  14. Crop stubble needs and opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmers in Australia and elsewhere around the world are being offered opportunities to market their crop residues as a bioenergy feedstock, but many are not aware of how that could affect their soil resources. This report shares information from the USDA-ARS Renewable Energy Assessment Project (REAP...

  15. The limits of crop productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugbee, Bruce; Monje, Oscar

    1992-01-01

    The component processes that govern yield limits in food crops are reviewed and how each process can be individually measured is described. The processes considered include absorption of photosynthetic radiation by green tissue, carbon-fixation efficiency in photosynthesis, carbon use efficiency in respiration, biomass allocation to edible products, and efficiency of photosynthesis and respiration. The factors limiting yields in optimal environments are considered.

  16. Using the CLM Crop Model to assess the impacts of changes in Climate, Atmospheric CO2, Irrigation, Fertilizer and Geographic Distribution on Historical and Future Crop Yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, P.

    2015-12-01

    Since the start of the green revolution global crop yields have increased linearly for most major cereal crops, so that present day global values are around twice those of the 1960s. The increase in crop yields have allowed for large increases in global agricultural production without correspondingly large increases in cropping area. Future projections under the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSP) framework and other assessments result in increases of global crop production of greater than 100% by the year 2050. In order to meet this increased agricultural demand within the available arable land, future production gains need to be understood in terms of the yield changes due to changes in climate, atmospheric CO2, and adaptive management such as irrigation and fertilizer application. In addition to the changes in crop yield, future agricultural demand will need to be met through increasing cropping areas into what are currently marginal lands at the cost of existing forests and other natural ecosystems. In this study we assess the utility of the crop model within the Community Land Model (CLM Crop) to provide both historical and future guidance on changes in crop yields under a range of global idealized crop modeling experiments. The idealized experiments follow the experimental design of the AgMIP Global Gridded Crop Model Intercomparison (GGCMI) in which CLM Crop is a participating model. The idealized experiments consist of global crop simulations for Cotton, Maize, Rice, Soy, Sugarcane, and Wheat under various climate, atmospheric CO2 levels, irrigation prescription, and nitrogen fertilizer application. The time periods simulated for the experiments are for the Historical period (1901 - 2005), and for the two Representative Concentration Pathways of RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 (2006 - 2100). Each crop is simulated on all land grid cells globally for each time period with atmospheric forcing that is a combination of: 1. transient climate and CO2; 2. transient climate

  17. The dynamics of hydroponic crops for simulation studies of the CELSS initial reference configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, Tyler

    1993-01-01

    During the past several years, the NASA Program in Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) has continued apace with crop research and logistic, technological, and scientific strides. These include the CELSS Test Facility planned for the space station and its prototype Engineering Development Unit, soon to be active at Ames Research Center (as well as the advanced crop growth research chamber at Ames); the large environmental growth chambers and the planned human test bed facility at Johnson Space Center; the NSCORT at Purdue with new candidate crops and diverse research into the CELSS components; the gas exchange data for soy, potatoes, and wheat from Kennedy Space Center (KSC); and the high-precision gas exchange data for wheat from Utah State University (USU). All these developments, taken together, speak to the need for crop modeling as a means to connect the findings of the crop physiologists with the engineers designing the system. A need also exists for crop modeling to analyze and predict the gas exchange data from the various locations to maximize the scientific yield from the experiments. One fruitful approach employs what has been called the 'energy cascade'. Useful as a basis for CELSS crop growth experimental design, the energy cascade as a generic modeling approach for CELSS crops is a featured accomplishment in this report. The energy cascade is a major tool for linking CELSS crop experiments to the system design. The energy cascade presented here can help collaborations between modelers and crop experimenters to develop the most fruitful experiments for pushing the limits of crop productivity. Furthermore, crop models using the energy cascade provide a natural means to compare, feature for feature, the crop growth components between different CELSS experiments, for example, at Utah State University and Kennedy Space Center.

  18. Energy cropping on derelict and waste land

    SciTech Connect

    Dennington, V.N.; Chadwick, M.J.; Chase, D.S.

    1983-04-01

    The productivity of broadleaved and coniferous tree species has been determined on a range of derelict and waste land sites. Mean annual yields ranged from 0.54 t ha/sup -1/ for Betula pendula on railway land to 11.8 t ha/sup -1/ for Alnus glutinosa on pulverized fuel ash. Betula pendula, Pinus contorta and Populus robusta yielded more than 4 t ha/sup -1/ on a number of sites. Nutrient analyses show that harvesting a crop of 4 dry t ha/sup -1/ can remove up to 38 kg ha/sup -1/ nitrogen, 2 kg ha/sup -1/ phosphorus and 17 kg ha/sup -1/ potassium. However, 44-68% of the nitrogen, 46-49% of the potassium and 83-94% of the phosphorus in the standing crop at the end of the growing season occur in the foliage. Considerable conservation of nutrients can therefore be achieved by harvesting deciduous species after leaf fall, reducing total yield by about 18%. Nevertheless, in the absence of regular fertilizer additions, repeated harvesting will severely deplete the soil nutrient pool on many derelict sites. Of the total area of 339,000 ha of derelict and waste land, about 50% occurs in sites too small for the production of energy crops. A further 10% occurs in urban areas. Of the remainder, about 5% will be too steep for cultivation and 20% will be unsuitable because of the substrate. Assuming yields equivalent to 4.5 dry t ha/sup -1/yr/sup -1/, the remaining 115,938 ha of derelict and waste land could yield 520,000 dry t yr/sup -1/, representing an energy yield of about 205,000 t oil equivalent, about 0.1% of the United Kingdom energy requirement for the year 2000. 27 references, 2 figures, 10 tables

  19. Water Footprint of crop productions: A review.

    PubMed

    Lovarelli, Daniela; Bacenetti, Jacopo; Fiala, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Water Footprint is an indicator recently developed with the goal of quantifying the virtual content of water in products and/or services. It can also be used to identify the worldwide virtual water trade. Water Footprint is composed of three parts (green, blue and grey waters) that make the assessment complete in accordance with the Water Footprint Network and with the recent ISO14046. The importance of Water Footprint is linked to the need of taking consciousness about water content in products and services and of the achievable changes in productions, diets and market trades. In this study, a literature review has been completed on Water Footprint of agricultural productions. In particular, the focus was paid on crops for the production of food and bioenergy. From the review, the development of the Water Footprint concept emerged: in early studies the main goal was to assess products' water trade on a global scale, while in the subsequent years, the goal was the rigorous quantification of the three components for specific crops and in specific geographical areas. In the most recent assessments, similarities about the methodology and the employed tools emerged. For 96 scientific articles on Water Footprint indicator of agricultural productions, this literature review reports the main results and analyses weaknesses and strengths. Seventy-eight percent of studies aimed to quantify Water Footprint, while the remaining 22% analysed methodology, uncertainty, future trends and comparisons with other footprints. It emerged that most studies that quantified Water Footprint concerned cereals (33%), among which maize and wheat were the most investigated crops. In 46% of studies all the three components were assessed, while in 18% no indication about the subdivision was given; in the remaining 37%, only blue or green and blue components were quantified.

  20. Water Footprint of crop productions: A review.

    PubMed

    Lovarelli, Daniela; Bacenetti, Jacopo; Fiala, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Water Footprint is an indicator recently developed with the goal of quantifying the virtual content of water in products and/or services. It can also be used to identify the worldwide virtual water trade. Water Footprint is composed of three parts (green, blue and grey waters) that make the assessment complete in accordance with the Water Footprint Network and with the recent ISO14046. The importance of Water Footprint is linked to the need of taking consciousness about water content in products and services and of the achievable changes in productions, diets and market trades. In this study, a literature review has been completed on Water Footprint of agricultural productions. In particular, the focus was paid on crops for the production of food and bioenergy. From the review, the development of the Water Footprint concept emerged: in early studies the main goal was to assess products' water trade on a global scale, while in the subsequent years, the goal was the rigorous quantification of the three components for specific crops and in specific geographical areas. In the most recent assessments, similarities about the methodology and the employed tools emerged. For 96 scientific articles on Water Footprint indicator of agricultural productions, this literature review reports the main results and analyses weaknesses and strengths. Seventy-eight percent of studies aimed to quantify Water Footprint, while the remaining 22% analysed methodology, uncertainty, future trends and comparisons with other footprints. It emerged that most studies that quantified Water Footprint concerned cereals (33%), among which maize and wheat were the most investigated crops. In 46% of studies all the three components were assessed, while in 18% no indication about the subdivision was given; in the remaining 37%, only blue or green and blue components were quantified. PMID:26802352

  1. Crop Species Diversity Changes in the United States: 1978-2012.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Jonathan; Gramig, Greta G; Hendrickson, John R; Archer, David W; Forcella, Frank; Liebig, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Anecdotal accounts regarding reduced US cropping system diversity have raised concerns about negative impacts of increasingly homogeneous cropping systems. However, formal analyses to document such changes are lacking. Using US Agriculture Census data, which are collected every five years, we quantified crop species diversity from 1978 to 2012, for the contiguous US on a county level basis. We used Shannon diversity indices expressed as effective number of crop species (ENCS) to quantify crop diversity. We then evaluated changes in county-level crop diversity both nationally and for each of the eight Farm Resource Regions developed by the National Agriculture Statistics Service. During the 34 years we considered in our analyses, both national and regional ENCS changed. Nationally, crop diversity was lower in 2012 than in 1978. However, our analyses also revealed interesting trends between and within different Resource Regions. Overall, the Heartland Resource Region had the lowest crop diversity whereas the Fruitful Rim and Northern Crescent had the highest. In contrast to the other Resource Regions, the Mississippi Portal had significantly higher crop diversity in 2012 than in 1978. Also, within regions there were differences between counties in crop diversity. Spatial autocorrelation revealed clustering of low and high ENCS and this trend became stronger over time. These results show that, nationally counties have been clustering into areas of either low diversity or high diversity. Moreover, a significant trend of more counties shifting to lower rather than to higher crop diversity was detected. The clustering and shifting demonstrates a trend toward crop diversity loss and attendant homogenization of agricultural production systems, which could have far-reaching consequences for provision of ecosystem system services associated with agricultural systems as well as food system sustainability. PMID:26308552

  2. Crop Species Diversity Changes in the United States: 1978–2012

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, Jonathan; Gramig, Greta G.; Hendrickson, John R.; Archer, David W.; Forcella, Frank; Liebig, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Anecdotal accounts regarding reduced US cropping system diversity have raised concerns about negative impacts of increasingly homogeneous cropping systems. However, formal analyses to document such changes are lacking. Using US Agriculture Census data, which are collected every five years, we quantified crop species diversity from 1978 to 2012, for the contiguous US on a county level basis. We used Shannon diversity indices expressed as effective number of crop species (ENCS) to quantify crop diversity. We then evaluated changes in county-level crop diversity both nationally and for each of the eight Farm Resource Regions developed by the National Agriculture Statistics Service. During the 34 years we considered in our analyses, both national and regional ENCS changed. Nationally, crop diversity was lower in 2012 than in 1978. However, our analyses also revealed interesting trends between and within different Resource Regions. Overall, the Heartland Resource Region had the lowest crop diversity whereas the Fruitful Rim and Northern Crescent had the highest. In contrast to the other Resource Regions, the Mississippi Portal had significantly higher crop diversity in 2012 than in 1978. Also, within regions there were differences between counties in crop diversity. Spatial autocorrelation revealed clustering of low and high ENCS and this trend became stronger over time. These results show that, nationally counties have been clustering into areas of either low diversity or high diversity. Moreover, a significant trend of more counties shifting to lower rather than to higher crop diversity was detected. The clustering and shifting demonstrates a trend toward crop diversity loss and attendant homogenization of agricultural production systems, which could have far-reaching consequences for provision of ecosystem system services associated with agricultural systems as well as food system sustainability. PMID:26308552

  3. Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE). Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE), completed June 30, 1978, has met the USDA at-harvest goals (90% accuracy with a 90% confidence level) in the US Great Plains and U.S.S.R. for two consecutive years. In addition, in the U.S.S.R., LACIE indicated a shortfall in the '76-'77 wheat crop about two months prior to harvest, thus demonstrating the capability of LACIE to make accurate preharvest estimates.

  4. Intragenesis and cisgenesis as alternatives to transgenic crop development.

    PubMed

    Holme, Inger Bæksted; Wendt, Toni; Holm, Preben Bach

    2013-05-01

    One of the major concerns of the general public about transgenic crops relates to the mixing of genetic materials between species that cannot hybridize by natural means. To meet this concern, the two transformation concepts cisgenesis and intragenesis were developed as alternatives to transgenesis. Both concepts imply that plants must only be transformed with genetic material derived from the species itself or from closely related species capable of sexual hybridization. Furthermore, foreign sequences such as selection genes and vector-backbone sequences should be absent. Intragenesis differs from cisgenesis by allowing use of new gene combinations created by in vitro rearrangements of functional genetic elements. Several surveys show higher public acceptance of intragenic/cisgenic crops compared to transgenic crops. Thus, although the intragenic and cisgenic concepts were introduced internationally only 9 and 7 years ago, several different traits in a variety of crops have currently been modified according to these concepts. Five of these crops are now in field trials and two have pending applications for deregulation. Currently, intragenic/cisgenic plants are regulated as transgenic plants worldwide. However, as the gene pool exploited by intragenesis and cisgenesis are identical to the gene pool available for conventional breeding, less comprehensive regulatory measures are expected. The regulation of intragenic/cisgenic crops is presently under evaluation in the EU and in the US regulators are considering if a subgroup of these crops should be exempted from regulation. It is accordingly possible that the intragenic/cisgenic route will be of major significance for future plant breeding. PMID:23421562

  5. Root crops and their biomass potential in Florida

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hair, S.K.; Locascio, S.J.; Forbes, R.R.; White, J.M.; Hensel, D.R.; Shumaker, J.R.; Dangler, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Root and tuber crops are of particular interest as biofuel crops because of their ability to concentrate and store fermentables including starch and sugars, in enlarged organs at or below the soil surface. In Florida, harvest index, the storage organ biomass divided by total plant biomass, of sweet potato, fodder beet, cassava and potato has approached 0.80. Chicory, fodder beet, cassava and sweet potato produced a total plant yield of 16.0, 14.1, 11.4 and 11.3 t/ha, respectively. Since the crops vary for time to maturity and storage organ chemical composition, a conventional unit to equate yield differences is kilocalorie (kcal) production/ha/day. Of the warm season crops, sweet potato and cassava roots produced an estimated 32 and 14 x 10/sup 4/ kcal/ha/day, respectively. Chinese radish and rutabaga roots produced 18 and 17 x 10/sup 4/ kcal/ha/day. Thus, a year round average of as much as 25 x 10/sup 4/ kcal/ha/day has been demonstrated. In conjunction with the total potential biomass production by a plant, root and tuber crops may be able to surpass grain crops in fermentable productivity on a temporal and spacial basis. The factors that will contribute to this include developing the appropriate cultural practices for biomass production along with breeding and selecting for adaptability and favorable harvest index. Since many of these crops have been neglected from a research standpoint, there is little doubt that improvements can be made by further work. 27 references.

  6. GM crops and the rat digestive tract: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Zdziarski, I M; Edwards, J W; Carman, J A; Haynes, J I

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this review is to examine the relationship between genetically modified (GM) crops and health, based on histopathological investigations of the digestive tract in rats. We reviewed published long-term feeding studies of crops containing one or more of three specific traits: herbicide tolerance via the EPSPS gene and insect resistance via cry1Ab or cry3Bb1 genes. These genes are commonly found in commercialised GM crops. Our search found 21 studies for nine (19%) out of the 47 crops approved for human and/or animal consumption. We could find no studies on the other 38 (81%) approved crops. Fourteen out of the 21 studies (67%) were general health assessments of the GM crop on rat health. Most of these studies (76%) were performed after the crop had been approved for human and/or animal consumption, with half of these being published at least nine years after approval. Our review also discovered an inconsistency in methodology and a lack of defined criteria for outcomes that would be considered toxicologically or pathologically significant. In addition, there was a lack of transparency in the methods and results, which made comparisons between the studies difficult. The evidence reviewed here demonstrates an incomplete picture regarding the toxicity (and safety) of GM products consumed by humans and animals. Therefore, each GM product should be assessed on merit, with appropriate studies performed to indicate the level of safety associated with them. Detailed guidelines should be developed which will allow for the generation of comparable and reproducible studies. This will establish a foundation for evidence-based guidelines, to better determine if GM food is safe for human and animal consumption.

  7. The food and environmental safety of Bt crops

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Michael S.; Ward, Jason M.; Levine, Steven L.; Baum, James A.; Vicini, John L.; Hammond, Bruce G.

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) microbial pesticides have a 50-year history of safety in agriculture. Cry proteins are among the active insecticidal ingredients in these pesticides, and genes coding for Cry proteins have been introduced into agricultural crops using modern biotechnology. The Cry gene sequences are often modified to enable effective expression in planta and several Cry proteins have been modified to increase biological activity against the target pest(s). Additionally, the domains of different but structurally conserved Cry proteins can be combined to produce chimeric proteins with enhanced insecticidal properties. Environmental studies are performed and include invertebrates, mammals, and avian species. Mammalian studies used to support the food and feed safety assessment are also used to support the wild mammal assessment. In addition to the NTO assessment, the environmental assessment includes a comparative assessment between the Bt crop and the appropriate conventional control that is genetically similar but lacks the introduced trait to address unintended effects. Specific phenotypic, agronomic, and ecological characteristics are measured in the Bt crop and the conventional control to evaluate whether the introduction of the insect resistance has resulted in any changes that might cause ecological harm in terms of altered weed characteristics, susceptibility to pests, or adverse environmental impact. Additionally, environmental interaction data are collected in field experiments for Bt crop to evaluate potential adverse effects. Further to the agronomic and phenotypic evaluation, potential movement of transgenes from a genetically modified crop plants into wild relatives is assessed for a new pest resistance gene in a new crop. This review summarizes the evidence for safety of crops containing Cry proteins for humans, livestock, and other non-target organisms. PMID:25972882

  8. Intragenesis and cisgenesis as alternatives to transgenic crop development.

    PubMed

    Holme, Inger Bæksted; Wendt, Toni; Holm, Preben Bach

    2013-05-01

    One of the major concerns of the general public about transgenic crops relates to the mixing of genetic materials between species that cannot hybridize by natural means. To meet this concern, the two transformation concepts cisgenesis and intragenesis were developed as alternatives to transgenesis. Both concepts imply that plants must only be transformed with genetic material derived from the species itself or from closely related species capable of sexual hybridization. Furthermore, foreign sequences such as selection genes and vector-backbone sequences should be absent. Intragenesis differs from cisgenesis by allowing use of new gene combinations created by in vitro rearrangements of functional genetic elements. Several surveys show higher public acceptance of intragenic/cisgenic crops compared to transgenic crops. Thus, although the intragenic and cisgenic concepts were introduced internationally only 9 and 7 years ago, several different traits in a variety of crops have currently been modified according to these concepts. Five of these crops are now in field trials and two have pending applications for deregulation. Currently, intragenic/cisgenic plants are regulated as transgenic plants worldwide. However, as the gene pool exploited by intragenesis and cisgenesis are identical to the gene pool available for conventional breeding, less comprehensive regulatory measures are expected. The regulation of intragenic/cisgenic crops is presently under evaluation in the EU and in the US regulators are considering if a subgroup of these crops should be exempted from regulation. It is accordingly possible that the intragenic/cisgenic route will be of major significance for future plant breeding.

  9. The food and environmental safety of Bt crops.

    PubMed

    Koch, Michael S; Ward, Jason M; Levine, Steven L; Baum, James A; Vicini, John L; Hammond, Bruce G

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) microbial pesticides have a 50-year history of safety in agriculture. Cry proteins are among the active insecticidal ingredients in these pesticides, and genes coding for Cry proteins have been introduced into agricultural crops using modern biotechnology. The Cry gene sequences are often modified to enable effective expression in planta and several Cry proteins have been modified to increase biological activity against the target pest(s). Additionally, the domains of different but structurally conserved Cry proteins can be combined to produce chimeric proteins with enhanced insecticidal properties. Environmental studies are performed and include invertebrates, mammals, and avian species. Mammalian studies used to support the food and feed safety assessment are also used to support the wild mammal assessment. In addition to the NTO assessment, the environmental assessment includes a comparative assessment between the Bt crop and the appropriate conventional control that is genetically similar but lacks the introduced trait to address unintended effects. Specific phenotypic, agronomic, and ecological characteristics are measured in the Bt crop and the conventional control to evaluate whether the introduction of the insect resistance has resulted in any changes that might cause ecological harm in terms of altered weed characteristics, susceptibility to pests, or adverse environmental impact. Additionally, environmental interaction data are collected in field experiments for Bt crop to evaluate potential adverse effects. Further to the agronomic and phenotypic evaluation, potential movement of transgenes from a genetically modified crop plants into wild relatives is assessed for a new pest resistance gene in a new crop. This review summarizes the evidence for safety of crops containing Cry proteins for humans, livestock, and other non-target organisms.

  10. AN APPROACH TO TRANSGENIC CROP MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remote sensing by aerial or satellite images may provide a method of identifying transgenic pesticidal crop distribution in the landscape. Genetically engineered crops containing bacterial gene(s) that express an insecticidal protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are regulated...

  11. 7 CFR 1437.12 - Crop definition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... same plant as a single crop. The acreage must be in an area where the practice is recognized as a good... to market conditions; and (3) The growing period of the specific crop acreage is uniquely...

  12. 7 CFR 1437.12 - Crop definition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... same plant as a single crop. The acreage must be in an area where the practice is recognized as a good... to market conditions; and (3) The growing period of the specific crop acreage is uniquely...

  13. Nutritionally Enhanced Food Crops; Progress and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Hefferon, Kathleen L.

    2015-01-01

    Great progress has been made over the past decade with respect to the application of biotechnology to generate nutritionally improved food crops. Biofortified staple crops such as rice, maize and wheat harboring essential micronutrients to benefit the world’s poor are under development as well as new varieties of crops which have the ability to combat chronic disease. This review discusses the improvement of the nutritional status of crops to make a positive impact on global human health. Several examples of nutritionally enhanced crops which have been developed using biotechnological approaches will be discussed. These range from biofortified crops to crops with novel abilities to fight disease. The review concludes with a discussion of hurdles faced with respect to public perception, as well as directions of future research and development for nutritionally enhanced food crops. PMID:25679450

  14. Crop Genetics: The Seeds of Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeYoung, H. Garrett

    1983-01-01

    Current research in plant genetics is described. Benefits of this research (which includes genetic engineering applications) will include reduction/elimination of crop diseases, assurance of genetic stability, and the creation of new crop varieties. (JN)

  15. Nutritionally enhanced food crops; progress and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hefferon, Kathleen L

    2015-01-01

    Great progress has been made over the past decade with respect to the application of biotechnology to generate nutritionally improved food crops. Biofortified staple crops such as rice, maize and wheat harboring essential micronutrients to benefit the world's poor are under development as well as new varieties of crops which have the ability to combat chronic disease. This review discusses the improvement of the nutritional status of crops to make a positive impact on global human health. Several examples of nutritionally enhanced crops which have been developed using biotechnological approaches will be discussed. These range from biofortified crops to crops with novel abilities to fight disease. The review concludes with a discussion of hurdles faced with respect to public perception, as well as directions of future research and development for nutritionally enhanced food crops.

  16. Tragedies and Crops: Understanding Natural Selection To Improve Cropping Systems.

    PubMed

    Anten, Niels P R; Vermeulen, Peter J

    2016-06-01

    Plant communities with traits that would maximize community performance can be invaded by plants that invest extra in acquiring resources at the expense of others, lowering the overall community performance, a so-called tragedy of the commons (TOC). By contrast, maximum community performance is usually the objective in agriculture. We first give an overview of the occurrence of TOCs in plants, and explore the extent to which past crop breeding has led to trait values that go against an unwanted TOC. We then show how linking evolutionary game theory (EGT) with mechanistic knowledge of the physiological processes that drive trait expression and the ecological aspects of biotic interactions in agro-ecosystems might contribute to increasing crop yields and resource-use efficiency. PMID:27012675

  17. Tragedies and Crops: Understanding Natural Selection To Improve Cropping Systems.

    PubMed

    Anten, Niels P R; Vermeulen, Peter J

    2016-06-01

    Plant communities with traits that would maximize community performance can be invaded by plants that invest extra in acquiring resources at the expense of others, lowering the overall community performance, a so-called tragedy of the commons (TOC). By contrast, maximum community performance is usually the objective in agriculture. We first give an overview of the occurrence of TOCs in plants, and explore the extent to which past crop breeding has led to trait values that go against an unwanted TOC. We then show how linking evolutionary game theory (EGT) with mechanistic knowledge of the physiological processes that drive trait expression and the ecological aspects of biotic interactions in agro-ecosystems might contribute to increasing crop yields and resource-use efficiency.

  18. Role of organic matter on trace metal availability in contaminated soils: case of high biomass perennial crops vs annual crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamy, I.; Beaumelle, L.; Iqbal, M.; Chenu, C.

    2012-04-01

    Soils of contaminated agrosystems are still potential arable surfaces for the production of non-alimentary crops provided that such cropping systems do not increase risks for the environment in order to integrate them in a sustainable agriculture development. Effects of changing land management from annual to perennial on soil properties have been widely studied over the last decades, but the case of contaminated agricultural soils remains little documented in particular concerning the effects on the dynamic of soil trace elements. Among the non-alimentary crops, the use of energy crops like miscanthus, a C4 perennial plant, must be studied in particular to evaluate their environmental impacts as they are known to modify the soil organic matter pools. In this work we aimed at assessing changes in soil trace metal availability when annual crops are replaced by a perennial cropping system in a metal contaminated soil, with the hypothesis that exogenous organic carbon originating from the plant induced changes in the soil metal speciation. For this, we used the soil surface horizons of a smelter impacted parcel in the North of France, whose one part was cultivated in miscanthus three years ago and the other part was left with the previous land use i.e. cropping rotations. We quantified the carbon fluxes originating from miscanthus in the various granulo-densimetric fractions of the soil under miscanthus by C13 measurements, and compared the chemical extraction and the physical localisation of both organic carbon and of two trace metal, Cu and Zn in the various soil size fractions of both soils under miscanthus and under annual crops. Results showed an incorporation of organic carbon from miscanthus in the coarse organic fractions which was related to an increase in the metal localisation in the coarse grain fractions observed for Cu but not for Zn. Comparison of metal availabilities between the two cropping systems showed no difference for Zn availability while copper

  19. Does nitrogen fertilizer application rate to corn affect nitrous oxide emissions from the rotated soybean crop?

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Javed; Mitchell, David C; Barker, Daniel W; Miguez, Fernando; Sawyer, John E; Pantoja, Jose; Castellano, Michael J

    2015-05-01

    Little information exists on the potential for N fertilizer application to corn ( L.) to affect NO emissions during subsequent unfertilized crops in a rotation. To determine if N fertilizer application to corn affects NO emissions during subsequent crops in rotation, we measured NO emissions for 3 yr (2011-2013) in an Iowa, corn-soybean [ (L.) Merr.] rotation with three N fertilizer rates applied to corn (0 kg N ha, the recommended rate of 135 kg N ha, and a high rate of 225 kg N ha); soybean received no N fertilizer. We further investigated the potential for a winter cereal rye ( L.) cover crop to interact with N fertilizer rate to affect NO emissions from both crops. The cover crop did not consistently affect NO emissions. Across all years and irrespective of cover crop, N fertilizer application above the recommended rate resulted in a 16% increase in mean NO flux rate during the corn phase of the rotation. In 2 of the 3 yr, N fertilizer application to corn (0-225 kg N ha) did not affect mean NO flux rates from the subsequent unfertilized soybean crop. However, in 1 yr after a drought, mean NO flux rates from the soybean crops that received 135 and 225 kg N ha N application in the corn year were 35 and 70% higher than those from the soybean crop that received no N application in the corn year. Our results are consistent with previous studies demonstrating that cover crop effects on NO emissions are not easily generalizable. When N fertilizer affects NO emissions during a subsequent unfertilized crop, it will be important to determine if total fertilizer-induced NO emissions are altered or only spread across a greater period of time.

  20. Looking forward to genetically edited fruit crops.

    PubMed

    Nagamangala Kanchiswamy, Chidananda; Sargent, Daniel James; Velasco, Riccardo; Maffei, Massimo E; Malnoy, Mickael

    2015-02-01

    The availability of genome sequences for many fruit crops has redefined the boundaries of genetic engineering and genetically modified (GM) crop plants. However commercialization of GM crops is hindered by numerous regulatory and social hurdles. Here, we focus on recently developed genome-editing tools for fruit crop improvement and their importance from the consumer perspective. Challenges and opportunities for the deployment of new genome-editing tools for fruit plants are also discussed. PMID:25129425

  1. Economics of Rainfed Cropping Systems: Northeast Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Sam H., III; Charoenwatana, Terd

    1981-06-01

    Using a computer model to simulate effective rainfall, it is shown that a flexible rainfed cropping system based on a legume crop planted before rice has a greater expected return than present subsistent rainfed cropping systems. Combining a legume crop intercropped with cassava or kenaf further increases the expected returns yet maintains the stability of the new system. Further research is required to bring the farmer's yields up to match experiment station results and to facilitate effective transfer policies.

  2. Looking forward to genetically edited fruit crops.

    PubMed

    Nagamangala Kanchiswamy, Chidananda; Sargent, Daniel James; Velasco, Riccardo; Maffei, Massimo E; Malnoy, Mickael

    2015-02-01

    The availability of genome sequences for many fruit crops has redefined the boundaries of genetic engineering and genetically modified (GM) crop plants. However commercialization of GM crops is hindered by numerous regulatory and social hurdles. Here, we focus on recently developed genome-editing tools for fruit crop improvement and their importance from the consumer perspective. Challenges and opportunities for the deployment of new genome-editing tools for fruit plants are also discussed.

  3. Genetically engineered crops: from idea to product.

    PubMed

    Prado, Jose Rafael; Segers, Gerrit; Voelker, Toni; Carson, Dave; Dobert, Raymond; Phillips, Jonathan; Cook, Kevin; Cornejo, Camilo; Monken, Josh; Grapes, Laura; Reynolds, Tracey; Martino-Catt, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Genetically engineered crops were first commercialized in 1994 and since then have been rapidly adopted, enabling growers to more effectively manage pests and increase crop productivity while ensuring food, feed, and environmental safety. The development of these crops is complex and based on rigorous science that must be well coordinated to create a plant with desired beneficial phenotypes. This article describes the general process by which a genetically engineered crop is developed from an initial concept to a commercialized product.

  4. Quantifying the link between crop production and mined groundwater irrigation in China.

    PubMed

    Grogan, Danielle S; Zhang, Fan; Prusevich, Alexander; Lammers, Richard B; Wisser, Dominik; Glidden, Stanley; Li, Changsheng; Frolking, Steve

    2015-04-01

    In response to increasing demand for food, Chinese agriculture has both expanded and intensified over the past several decades. Irrigation has played a key role in increasing crop production, and groundwater is now an important source of irrigation water. Groundwater abstraction in excess of recharge (which we use here to estimate groundwater mining) has resulted in declining groundwater levels and could eventually restrict groundwater availability. In this study we used a hydrological model, WBMplus, in conjunction with a process based crop growth model, DNDC, to evaluate Chinese agriculture's recent dependence upon mined groundwater, and to quantify mined groundwater-dependent crop production across a domain that includes variation in climate, crop choice, and management practices. This methodology allowed for the direct attribution of crop production to irrigation water from rivers and reservoirs, shallow (renewable) groundwater, and mined groundwater. Simulating 20 years of weather variability and circa year 2000 crop areas, we found that mined groundwater fulfilled 20%-49% of gross irrigation water demand, assuming all demand was met. Mined groundwater accounted for 15%-27% of national total crop production. There was high spatial variability across China in irrigation water demand and crop production derived from mined groundwater. We find that climate variability and mined groundwater demand do not operate independently; rather, years in which irrigation water demand is high due to the relatively hot and dry climate also experience limited surface water supplies and therefore have less surface water with which to meet that high irrigation water demand. PMID:25544335

  5. Barriers and paths to market for genetically engineered crops.

    PubMed

    Rommens, Caius M

    2010-02-01

    Each year, billions of dollars are invested in efforts to improve crops through genetic engineering (GE). These activities have resulted in a surge of publications and patents on technologies and genes: a momentum in basic research that, unfortunately, is not sustained throughout the subsequent phases of product development. After more than two decades of intensive research, the market for transgenic crops is still dominated by applications of just a handful of methods and genes. This discrepancy between research and development reflects difficulties in understanding and overcoming seven main barriers-to-entry: (1) trait efficacy in the field, (2) critical product concepts, (3) freedom-to-operate, (4) industry support, (5) identity preservation and stewardship, (6) regulatory approval and (7) retail and consumer acceptance. In this review, I describe the various roadblocks to market for transgenic crops and also discuss methods and approaches on how to overcome these, especially in the United States. PMID:19968823

  6. Reductions in India's crop yield due to ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghude, Sachin D.; Jena, Chinmay; Chate, D. M.; Beig, G.; Pfister, G. G.; Kumar, Rajesh; Ramanathan, V.

    2014-08-01

    This bottom-up modeling study, supported by emission inventories and crop production, simulates ozone on local to regional scales. It quantifies, for the first time, potential impact of ozone on district-wise cotton, soybeans, rice, and wheat crops in India for the first decade of the 21st century. Wheat is the most impacted crop with losses of 3.5 ± 0.8 million tons (Mt), followed by rice at 2.1 ± 0.8 Mt, with the losses concentrated in central and north India. On the national scale, this loss is about 9.2% of the cereals required every year (61.2 Mt) under the provision of the recently implemented National Food Security Bill (in 2013) by the Government of India. The nationally aggregated yield loss is sufficient to feed about 94 million people living below poverty line in India.

  7. Progress and challenges for abiotic stress proteomics of crop plants.

    PubMed

    Barkla, Bronwyn J; Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Pantoja, Omar

    2013-06-01

    Plants are continually challenged to recognize and respond to adverse changes in their environment to avoid detrimental effects on growth and development. Understanding the mechanisms that crop plants employ to resist and tolerate abiotic stress is of considerable interest for designing agriculture breeding strategies to ensure sustainable productivity. The application of proteomics technologies to advance our knowledge in crop plant abiotic stress tolerance has increased dramatically in the past few years as evidenced by the large amount of publications in this area. This is attributed to advances in various technology platforms associated with MS-based techniques as well as the accessibility of proteomics units to a wider plant research community. This review summarizes the work which has been reported for major crop plants and evaluates the findings in context of the approaches that are widely employed with the aim to encourage broadening the strategies used to increase coverage of the proteome. PMID:23512887

  8. Barriers and paths to market for genetically engineered crops.

    PubMed

    Rommens, Caius M

    2010-02-01

    Each year, billions of dollars are invested in efforts to improve crops through genetic engineering (GE). These activities have resulted in a surge of publications and patents on technologies and genes: a momentum in basic research that, unfortunately, is not sustained throughout the subsequent phases of product development. After more than two decades of intensive research, the market for transgenic crops is still dominated by applications of just a handful of methods and genes. This discrepancy between research and development reflects difficulties in understanding and overcoming seven main barriers-to-entry: (1) trait efficacy in the field, (2) critical product concepts, (3) freedom-to-operate, (4) industry support, (5) identity preservation and stewardship, (6) regulatory approval and (7) retail and consumer acceptance. In this review, I describe the various roadblocks to market for transgenic crops and also discuss methods and approaches on how to overcome these, especially in the United States.

  9. Progress and challenges for abiotic stress proteomics of crop plants.

    PubMed

    Barkla, Bronwyn J; Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Pantoja, Omar

    2013-06-01

    Plants are continually challenged to recognize and respond to adverse changes in their environment to avoid detrimental effects on growth and development. Understanding the mechanisms that crop plants employ to resist and tolerate abiotic stress is of considerable interest for designing agriculture breeding strategies to ensure sustainable productivity. The application of proteomics technologies to advance our knowledge in crop plant abiotic stress tolerance has increased dramatically in the past few years as evidenced by the large amount of publications in this area. This is attributed to advances in various technology platforms associated with MS-based techniques as well as the accessibility of proteomics units to a wider plant research community. This review summarizes the work which has been reported for major crop plants and evaluates the findings in context of the approaches that are widely employed with the aim to encourage broadening the strategies used to increase coverage of the proteome.

  10. Random Forests for Global and Regional Crop Yield Predictions

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jig Han; Resop, Jonathan P.; Mueller, Nathaniel D.; Fleisher, David H.; Yun, Kyungdahm; Butler, Ethan E.; Timlin, Dennis J.; Shim, Kyo-Moon; Gerber, James S.; Reddy, Vangimalla R.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate predictions of crop yield are critical for developing effective agricultural and food policies at the regional and global scales. We evaluated a machine-learning method, Random Forests (RF), for its ability to predict crop yield responses to climate and biophysical variables at global and regional scales in wheat, maize, and potato in comparison with multiple linear regressions (MLR) serving as a benchmark. We used crop yield data from various sources and regions for model training and testing: 1) gridded global wheat grain yield, 2) maize grain yield from US counties over thirty years, and 3) potato tuber and maize silage yield from the northeastern seaboard region. RF was found highly capable of predicting crop yields and outperformed MLR benchmarks in all performance statistics that were compared. For example, the root mean square errors (RMSE) ranged between 6 and 14% of the average observed yield with RF models in all test cases whereas these values ranged from 14% to 49% for MLR models. Our results show that RF is an effective and versatile machine-learning method for crop yield predictions at regional and global scales for its high accuracy and precision, ease of use, and utility in data analysis. RF may result in a loss of accuracy when predicting the extreme ends or responses beyond the boundaries of the training data. PMID:27257967

  11. Germany wide seasonal flood risk analysis for agricultural crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, Stefan; Kreibich, Heidi; Kuhlmann, Bernd; Merz, Bruno; Schröter, Kai

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, large-scale flood risk analysis and mapping has gained attention. Regional to national risk assessments are needed, for example, for national risk policy developments, for large-scale disaster management planning and in the (re-)insurance industry. Despite increasing requests for comprehensive risk assessments some sectors have not received much scientific attention, one of these is the agricultural sector. In contrast to other sectors, agricultural crop losses depend strongly on the season. Also flood probability shows seasonal variation. Thus, the temporal superposition of high flood susceptibility of crops and high flood probability plays an important role for agricultural flood risk. To investigate this interrelation and provide a large-scale overview of agricultural flood risk in Germany, an agricultural crop loss model is used for crop susceptibility analyses and Germany wide seasonal flood-frequency analyses are undertaken to derive seasonal flood patterns. As a result, a Germany wide map of agricultural flood risk is shown as well as the crop type most at risk in a specific region. The risk maps may provide guidance for federal state-wide coordinated designation of retention areas.

  12. Evolutionary ecology of insect adaptation to Bt crops

    PubMed Central

    Carrière, Yves; Crowder, David W; Tabashnik, Bruce E

    2010-01-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins are used worldwide to control major pests of corn and cotton. Development of strategies to delay the evolution of pest resistance to Bt crops requires an understanding of factors affecting responses to natural selection, which include variation in survival on Bt crops, heritability of resistance, and fitness advantages associated with resistance mutations. The two main strategies adopted for delaying resistance are the refuge and pyramid strategies. Both can reduce heritability of resistance, but pyramids can also delay resistance by reducing genetic variation for resistance. Seasonal declines in the concentration of Bt toxins in transgenic cultivars, however, can increase the heritability of resistance. The fitness advantages associated with resistance mutations can be reduced by agronomic practices, including increasing refuge size, manipulating refuges to increase fitness costs, and manipulating Bt cultivars to reduce fitness of resistant individuals. Manipulating costs and fitness of resistant individuals on transgenic insecticidal crops may be especially important for thwarting evolution of resistance in haplodiploid and parthenogenetic pests. Field-evolved resistance to Bt crops in only five pests during the last 14 years suggests that the refuge strategy has successfully delayed resistance, but the accumulation of resistant pests could accelerate. PMID:25567947

  13. Random Forests for Global and Regional Crop Yield Predictions.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jig Han; Resop, Jonathan P; Mueller, Nathaniel D; Fleisher, David H; Yun, Kyungdahm; Butler, Ethan E; Timlin, Dennis J; Shim, Kyo-Moon; Gerber, James S; Reddy, Vangimalla R; Kim, Soo-Hyung

    2016-01-01

    Accurate predictions of crop yield are critical for developing effective agricultural and food policies at the regional and global scales. We evaluated a machine-learning method, Random Forests (RF), for its ability to predict crop yield responses to climate and biophysical variables at global and regional scales in wheat, maize, and potato in comparison with multiple linear regressions (MLR) serving as a benchmark. We used crop yield data from various sources and regions for model training and testing: 1) gridded global wheat grain yield, 2) maize grain yield from US counties over thirty years, and 3) potato tuber and maize silage yield from the northeastern seaboard region. RF was found highly capable of predicting crop yields and outperformed MLR benchmarks in all performance statistics that were compared. For example, the root mean square errors (RMSE) ranged between 6 and 14% of the average observed yield with RF models in all test cases whereas these values ranged from 14% to 49% for MLR models. Our results show that RF is an effective and versatile machine-learning method for crop yield predictions at regional and global scales for its high accuracy and precision, ease of use, and utility in data analysis. RF may result in a loss of accuracy when predicting the extreme ends or responses beyond the boundaries of the training data. PMID:27257967

  14. Amazon basin soils: management for continuous crop production.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, P A; Bandy, D E; Villachica, J H; Nicholaides, J J

    1982-05-21

    Technology has been developed which permits continuous production of annual crops in some of the acid, infertile soils of the Amazon Basin. Studies in Yurimaguas, Peru, show that three grain crops can be produced annually with appropriate fertilizer inputs. Twenty-one crops have been harvested during the past 8(1/2) years in the same field, with an average annual production of 7.8 tons of grain per hectare. Soil properties are improving with continuous cultivation. The technology has been validated by local farmers, who normally practice shifting cultivation. Economic interpretations indicate large increases in annual family farm income and a high return on the investment of chemical inputs. Other promising land use alternatives include low-input crop production systems, paddy rice production in fertile alluvial soils, and pastures or agroforestry in rolling areas. Stable, continuous food crop production is an attractive alternative to shifting cultivation in humid tropical regions experiencing severe demographic pressures. For each hectare of land managed in a highly productive manner, there may be less need for clearing additional tropical forests to meet food demands. PMID:17819134

  15. Advancing Crop Transformation in the Era of Genome Editing.

    PubMed

    Altpeter, Fredy; Springer, Nathan M; Bartley, Laura E; Blechl, Ann E; Brutnell, Thomas P; Citovsky, Vitaly; Conrad, Liza J; Gelvin, Stanton B; Jackson, David P; Kausch, Albert P; Lemaux, Peggy G; Medford, June I; Orozco-Cárdenas, Martha L; Tricoli, David M; Van Eck, Joyce; Voytas, Daniel F; Walbot, Virginia; Wang, Kan; Zhang, Zhanyuan J; Stewart, C Neal

    2016-07-01

    Plant transformation has enabled fundamental insights into plant biology and revolutionized commercial agriculture. Unfortunately, for most crops, transformation and regeneration remain arduous even after more than 30 years of technological advances. Genome editing provides novel opportunities to enhance crop productivity but relies on genetic transformation and plant regeneration, which are bottlenecks in the process. Here, we review the state of plant transformation and point to innovations needed to enable genome editing in crops. Plant tissue culture methods need optimization and simplification for efficiency and minimization of time in culture. Currently, specialized facilities exist for crop transformation. Single-cell and robotic techniques should be developed for high-throughput genomic screens. Plant genes involved in developmental reprogramming, wound response, and/or homologous recombination should be used to boost the recovery of transformed plants. Engineering universal Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains and recruiting other microbes, such as Ensifer or Rhizobium, could facilitate delivery of DNA and proteins into plant cells. Synthetic biology should be employed for de novo design of transformation systems. Genome editing is a potential game-changer in crop genetics when plant transformation systems are optimized. PMID:27335450

  16. Random Forests for Global and Regional Crop Yield Predictions.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jig Han; Resop, Jonathan P; Mueller, Nathaniel D; Fleisher, David H; Yun, Kyungdahm; Butler, Ethan E; Timlin, Dennis J; Shim, Kyo-Moon; Gerber, James S; Reddy, Vangimalla R; Kim, Soo-Hyung

    2016-01-01

    Accurate predictions of crop yield are critical for developing effective agricultural and food policies at the regional and global scales. We evaluated a machine-learning method, Random Forests (RF), for its ability to predict crop yield responses to climate and biophysical variables at global and regional scales in wheat, maize, and potato in comparison with multiple linear regressions (MLR) serving as a benchmark. We used crop yield data from various sources and regions for model training and testing: 1) gridded global wheat grain yield, 2) maize grain yield from US counties over thirty years, and 3) potato tuber and maize silage yield from the northeastern seaboard region. RF was found highly capable of predicting crop yields and outperformed MLR benchmarks in all performance statistics that were compared. For example, the root mean square errors (RMSE) ranged between 6 and 14% of the average observed yield with RF models in all test cases whereas these values ranged from 14% to 49% for MLR models. Our results show that RF is an effective and versatile machine-learning method for crop yield predictions at regional and global scales for its high accuracy and precision, ease of use, and utility in data analysis. RF may result in a loss of accuracy when predicting the extreme ends or responses beyond the boundaries of the training data.

  17. Advancing Crop Transformation in the Era of Genome Editing.

    PubMed

    Altpeter, Fredy; Springer, Nathan M; Bartley, Laura E; Blechl, Ann E; Brutnell, Thomas P; Citovsky, Vitaly; Conrad, Liza J; Gelvin, Stanton B; Jackson, David P; Kausch, Albert P; Lemaux, Peggy G; Medford, June I; Orozco-Cárdenas, Martha L; Tricoli, David M; Van Eck, Joyce; Voytas, Daniel F; Walbot, Virginia; Wang, Kan; Zhang, Zhanyuan J; Stewart, C Neal

    2016-07-01

    Plant transformation has enabled fundamental insights into plant biology and revolutionized commercial agriculture. Unfortunately, for most crops, transformation and regeneration remain arduous even after more than 30 years of technological advances. Genome editing provides novel opportunities to enhance crop productivity but relies on genetic transformation and plant regeneration, which are bottlenecks in the process. Here, we review the state of plant transformation and point to innovations needed to enable genome editing in crops. Plant tissue culture methods need optimization and simplification for efficiency and minimization of time in culture. Currently, specialized facilities exist for crop transformation. Single-cell and robotic techniques should be developed for high-throughput genomic screens. Plant genes involved in developmental reprogramming, wound response, and/or homologous recombination should be used to boost the recovery of transformed plants. Engineering universal Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains and recruiting other microbes, such as Ensifer or Rhizobium, could facilitate delivery of DNA and proteins into plant cells. Synthetic biology should be employed for de novo design of transformation systems. Genome editing is a potential game-changer in crop genetics when plant transformation systems are optimized.

  18. The imprint of crop choice on global nutrient needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jobbágy, Esteban G.; Sala, Osvaldo E.

    2014-08-01

    Solutions to meet growing food requirements in a world of limited suitable land and degrading environment focus mainly on increasing crop yields, particularly in poorly performing regions, and reducing animal product consumption. Increasing yields could alleviate land requirements, but imposing higher soil nutrient withdrawals and in most cases larger fertilizer inputs. Lowering animal product consumption favors a more efficient use of land as well as soil and fertilizer nutrients; yet actual saving may largely depend on which crops and how much fertilizer are used to feed livestock versus people. We show, with a global analysis, how the choice of cultivated plant species used to feed people and livestock influences global food production as well as soil nutrient withdrawals and fertilizer additions. The 3 to 15-fold differences in soil nutrient withdrawals per unit of energy or protein produced that we report across major crops explain how composition shifts over the last 20 years have reduced N, maintained P and increased K harvest withdrawals from soils while contributing to increasing dietary energy, protein and, particularly, vegetable fat outputs. Being highly variable across crops, global fertilization rates do not relate to actual soil nutrient withdrawals, but to monetary values of harvested products. Future changes in crop composition could contribute to achieve more sustainable food systems, optimizing land and fertilizer use.

  19. Nitrogen input effectiveness on carbon sequestration in rainfed cropping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novara, Agata; Gristina, Luciano; Poma, Ignazio

    2016-04-01

    The combined effect of total N and C/N ratio had a large influence on the decomposition rate and consequently on potential soil organic carbon sequestration. The aim of the work was to evaluate Carbon sequestration potentiality under three mineral N fertilization levels in interaction with two cropping systems characterized by addition of N input due to leguminous species in the rotation. The study was carried out in the semiarid Mediterranean environment in a 18years long-term experiment. Is well know that in the semiarid environment the excess of N fertilization reduces biomass yield and the consequent C input. On the contrary, both N and C input determine high difference in C/N input ratio and faster organic matter mineralization. Results showed no influence of N fertilization on SOC sequestration and a reduction of SOC stock due to crop rotation due to lower C input. Crop residue quality of durum wheat-pea crop rotation characterized by a faster decomposition rate could explain the lower ability of crop rotation to sequester C in the semiarid environment.

  20. Energy cropping on derelict and waste land

    SciTech Connect

    Dennington, V.N.; Chadwick, M.J.; Chase, D.S.

    1983-04-01

    The productivity of broadleaved and coniferous tree species has been determined on a range of derelict and waste land sites. Mean annual yields ranged from 0.54 t ha/sup -1/ for Betula pendula on railway land to 11.8 t ha/sup -1/ for Alnus glutinosa on pulverized fuel ash. Betula pendula, Pinus contorta and Populus robusta yielded more than 4 t ha/sup -1/ on a number of sites. Nutrient analysis show that harvesting a crop of 4 dry t ha/sup -1/ can remove up to 38 kg ha/sup -1/ nitrogen, 2 kg ha/sup -1/ phosphorus and 17 kg ha/sup -1/ potassium. However, 44-68% of the nitrogen, 46-49% of the potassium and 83-94% of the phosphorus in the standing crop at the end of the growing season occur in the foliage. Considerable conservation of nutrients can therefore be achieved by harvesting deciduous species after leaf fall, reducing total yield by about 18%. Nevertheless, in the absence of regular fertilizer additions, repeated harvesting will severely deplete the soil nutrient pool on many derelict sites. Assuming yields equivalent to 4.5 dry t ha/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/, derelict and waste land could yield 520,000 dry t yr/sup -1/ representing an energy yield of about 205,000 t oil equivalent, about 0.1% of the UK energy requirement for the year 2000.