Science.gov

Sample records for cross language plagiarism

  1. Plagiarism.

    PubMed

    Skandalakis, John E; Mirilas, Petros

    2004-09-01

    The theft of someone's words or thoughts--plagiarism--has long been a concern in medical literature. The phenomenon applies to unreferenced published or unpublished data that belong to someone else, including applications for grants and a publication submitted in a different language. Other acts of plagiarism are paraphrasing without crediting the source, using "blanket" references, "second-generation" references, and duplicate or repetitive publication of one's own previously published work. Does incorporating a peer reviewer's ideas constitute plagiarism? The requirement of many journals for a short list of references is problematic, as is confusion about what constitutes common knowledge. What criteria should be used for detecting plagiarism? To make an accusation of plagiarism is serious and perilous. Motivations for plagiarism are considered, and 2 striking historical examples of plagiarism are summarized. We believe that with insight into its causes and effects, plagiarism can be eliminated.

  2. Plagiarism in Second-Language Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecorari, Diane; Petric, Bojana

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism is a broad and multidisciplinary field of study, and within second-language (L2) writing, research on the topic goes back to the mid-1980s. In this review article we first discuss the received view of plagiarism as a transgressive act and alternative understandings which have been presented in the L1 and L2 writing literature. We then…

  3. Sentence-Based Natural Language Plagiarism Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Daniel R.; Joy, Mike S.

    2004-01-01

    With the increasing levels of access to higher education in the United Kingdom, larger class sizes make it unrealistic for tutors to be expected to identify instances of peer-to-peer plagiarism by eye and so automated solutions to the problem are required. This document details a novel algorithm for comparison of suspect documents at a sentence…

  4. CrossCheck plagiarism screening : Experience of the Journal of Epidemiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Katsumi

    Due to technological advances in the past two decades, researchers now have unprecedented access to a tremendous amount of useful information. However, because of the extreme pressure to publish, this abundance of information can sometimes tempt researchers to commit scientific misconduct. A serious form of such misconduct is plagiarism. Editors are always concerned about the possibility of publishing plagiarized manuscripts. The plagiarism detection tool CrossCheck allows editors to scan and analyze manuscripts effectively. The Journal of Epidemiology took part in a trial of CrossCheck, and this article discusses the concerns journal editors might have regarding the use of CrossCheck and its analysis. In addition, potential problems identified by CrossCheck, including self-plagiarism, are introduced.

  5. Gauging the Effectiveness of Anti-Plagiarism Software: An Empirical Study of Second Language Graduate Writers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapleton, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The use of anti-plagiarism services has grown very quickly in recent years to the point where over half of American universities now have a license. The most popular of these services, Turnitin, claims that it is licensed in 126 countries and available in 10 languages suggesting that the service is becoming widely used around the world. In order…

  6. Stealing or Sharing? Cross-Cultural Issues of Plagiarism in an Open-Source Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haitch, Russell

    2016-01-01

    More professors and institutions want to move from a detect-and-punish to an educate-and-prevent model for dealing with plagiarism. Understanding the causes of plagiarism, especially among international students, can aid in efforts to educate students and prevent plagiarism. Research points to a confluence of causal factors, such as time pressure,…

  7. EDITORIAL: On plagiarism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Simon; Webb, Steve; Hendee, William R.

    2008-03-01

    Plagiarism Plagiarism is, we are pleased to observe, not a common occurrence in Physics in Medicine & Biology (PMB); however, like those responsible for all scientific journals, we are concerned about plagiarism, and very keen to prevent it. The Publications Committee of the International Organization of Medical Physics (IOMP) has prepared a generic editorial on plagiarism. The editorial is reproduced here (with permission of the IOMP), with slight modifications to enhance its relevance to the audience of PMB, along with our procedures for dealing with any cases of plagiarism should they ever arise. Plagiarism (from the Latin 'plagiare', 'to kidnap') is defined as 'the appropriation or imitation of the language, ideas, and thoughts of another author, and representation of them as one's original work' (the Random House Dictionary of the English Language—unabridged). Plagiarism is a serious breach of research ethics that, if committed intentionally, is considered research misconduct. Plagiarism in its most serious form is the passing off of all, or large sections, of another author's published paper as one's original work. If, following appropriate confidential investigation (see below), such a plagiarism is established, this will result in heavy sanctions including retraction of the article, up to a 5 year publication ban from PMB, and informing of employers and/or professional bodies (even after one offence). This may result in loss of research funding, loss of professional stature, and even termination of employment of the plagiarizing author(s). Plagiarism undermines the authenticity of research manuscripts and the journals in which they are published, and compromises the integrity of the scientific process and the public regard for science. Plagiarism violates the literary rights of the individuals who are plagiarized, and the property rights of copyright holders. Violation of these rights may result in legal action against the individual(s) committing

  8. Detecting and (not) dealing with plagiarism in an engineering paper: beyond CrossCheck-a case study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin-xin; Huo, Zhao-lin; Zhang, Yue-hong

    2014-06-01

    In papers in areas such as engineering and the physical sciences, figures, tables and formulae are the basic elements to communicate the authors' core ideas, workings and results. As a computational text-matching tool, CrossCheck cannot work on these non-textual elements to detect plagiarism. Consequently, when comparing engineering or physical sciences papers, CrossCheck may return a low similarity index even when plagiarism has in fact taken place. A case of demonstrated plagiarism involving engineering papers with a low similarity index is discussed, and editor's experiences and suggestions are given on how to tackle this problem. The case shows a lack of understanding of plagiarism by some authors or editors, and illustrates the difficulty of getting some editors and publishers to take appropriate action. Consequently, authors, journal editors, and reviewers, as well as research institutions all are duty-bound not only to recognize the differences between ethical and unethical behavior in order to protect a healthy research environment, and also to maintain consistent ethical publishing standards.

  9. EDITORIAL: On plagiarism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Simon; Webb, Steve; Hendee, William R.

    2008-03-01

    Plagiarism Plagiarism is, we are pleased to observe, not a common occurrence in Physics in Medicine & Biology (PMB); however, like those responsible for all scientific journals, we are concerned about plagiarism, and very keen to prevent it. The Publications Committee of the International Organization of Medical Physics (IOMP) has prepared a generic editorial on plagiarism. The editorial is reproduced here (with permission of the IOMP), with slight modifications to enhance its relevance to the audience of PMB, along with our procedures for dealing with any cases of plagiarism should they ever arise. Plagiarism (from the Latin 'plagiare', 'to kidnap') is defined as 'the appropriation or imitation of the language, ideas, and thoughts of another author, and representation of them as one's original work' (the Random House Dictionary of the English Language—unabridged). Plagiarism is a serious breach of research ethics that, if committed intentionally, is considered research misconduct. Plagiarism in its most serious form is the passing off of all, or large sections, of another author's published paper as one's original work. If, following appropriate confidential investigation (see below), such a plagiarism is established, this will result in heavy sanctions including retraction of the article, up to a 5 year publication ban from PMB, and informing of employers and/or professional bodies (even after one offence). This may result in loss of research funding, loss of professional stature, and even termination of employment of the plagiarizing author(s). Plagiarism undermines the authenticity of research manuscripts and the journals in which they are published, and compromises the integrity of the scientific process and the public regard for science. Plagiarism violates the literary rights of the individuals who are plagiarized, and the property rights of copyright holders. Violation of these rights may result in legal action against the individual(s) committing

  10. Cross-language treatment generalisation

    PubMed Central

    Goral, Mira; Levy, Erika S.; Kastl, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Background Recent investigations of language gains following treatment in bilingual individuals with chronic aphasia appear to confirm early reports that not only the treated language but also the non-treated language(s) benefit from treatment. The evidence, however, is still suggestive, and the variables that may mitigate generalisation across languages warrant further investigation. Aims We set out to examine cross-language generalisation of language treatment in a trilingual speaker with mild chronic aphasia. Methods & Procedures Language treatment was administered in English, the participant’s second language (L2). The first treatment block focused on morphosyntactic skills and the second on language production rate. Measurements were collected in the treated language (English, L2) as well as the two non-treated languages: Hebrew (the participant’s first language, L1) and French (the participant’s third language, L3). Outcomes & Results The participant showed improvement in his production of selected morphosyntactic elements, such as pronoun gender agreement, in the treated language (L2) as well as in the non-treated French (L3) following the treatment block that focused on morphosyntactic skills. Speech rate also improved in English (L2) and French (L3) following that treatment block. No changes were observed in Hebrew, the participant’s L1. Conclusions Selective cross-language generalisation of treatment benefit was found for morphosyntactic abilities from the participant’s second language to his third language. PMID:20221311

  11. Local Plagiarisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Plagiarism and collusion are significant issues for most lecturers whatever their discipline, and to universities and the higher education sector. Universities respond to these issues by developing institutional definitions of plagiarism, which are intended to apply to all instances of plagiarism and collusion. This article first suggests that…

  12. Biochemia Medica has started using the CrossCheck plagiarism detection software powered by iThenticate

    PubMed Central

    Šupak-Smolčić, Vesna; Šimundić, Ana-Maria

    2013-01-01

    In February 2013, Biochemia Medica has joined CrossRef, which enabled us to implement CrossCheck plagiarism detection service. Therefore, all manuscript submitted to Biochemia Medica are now first assigned to Research integrity editor (RIE), before sending the manuscript for peer-review. RIE submits the text to CrossCheck analysis and is responsible for reviewing the results of the text similarity analysis. Based on the CrossCheck analysis results, RIE subsequently provides a recommendation to the Editor-in-chief (EIC) on whether the manuscript should be forwarded to peer-review, corrected for suspected parts prior to peer-review or immediately rejected. Final decision on the manuscript is, however, with the EIC. We hope that our new policy and manuscript processing algorithm will help us to further increase the overall quality of our Journal. PMID:23894858

  13. Biochemia Medica has started using the CrossCheck plagiarism detection software powered by iThenticate.

    PubMed

    Supak-Smolcić, Vesna; Simundić, Ana-Maria

    2013-01-01

    In February 2013, Biodhemia Medica has joined CrossRef, which enabled us to implement CrossCheck plagiarism detection service. Therefore, all manuscript submitted to Biodchemia Medica are now first assigned to Research integrity editor (RIE), before sending the manuscript for peer-review. RIE submits the text to CrossCheck analysis and is responsible for reviewing the results of the text similarity analysis. Based on the CrossCheck analysis results, RIE subsequently provides a recommendation to the Editor-in-chief (EIC) on whether the manuscript should be forwarded to peer-review, corrected for suspected parts prior to peer-review or immediately rejected. Final decision on the manuscript is, however, with the EIC. We hope that our new policy and manuscript processing algorithm will help us to further increase the overall quality of our Journal.

  14. Plagiarism Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Probett, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism does exist at universities today. In some cases, students are naive with respect to understanding what plagiarism is and how to avoid it. In other cases, students blatantly disregard and disrespect the written work of others, claiming it as their own. Regardless, educators must be vigilant in their efforts to discourage and prevent…

  15. No one likes a copycat: a cross-cultural investigation of children's response to plagiarism.

    PubMed

    Yang, F; Shaw, A; Garduno, E; Olson, K R

    2014-05-01

    Copying other people's ideas is evaluated negatively by American children and adults. The current study investigated the influence of culture on children's evaluations of plagiarism by comparing children from three countries--the United States, Mexico, and China--that differ in terms of their emphasis on the protection of intellectual property and ideas. Children (3- to 6-year-olds) were presented with videos involving two characters drawing pictures and were asked to evaluate the character who drew unique work or the character who copied someone else's drawing. The study showed that 5- and 6-year-olds from all three cultures evaluated copiers negatively compared with unique drawers. These results suggest that children from cultures that place different values on the protection of ideas nevertheless develop similar concerns with plagiarism by 5-year-olds.

  16. No one likes a copycat: a cross-cultural investigation of children's response to plagiarism.

    PubMed

    Yang, F; Shaw, A; Garduno, E; Olson, K R

    2014-05-01

    Copying other people's ideas is evaluated negatively by American children and adults. The current study investigated the influence of culture on children's evaluations of plagiarism by comparing children from three countries--the United States, Mexico, and China--that differ in terms of their emphasis on the protection of intellectual property and ideas. Children (3- to 6-year-olds) were presented with videos involving two characters drawing pictures and were asked to evaluate the character who drew unique work or the character who copied someone else's drawing. The study showed that 5- and 6-year-olds from all three cultures evaluated copiers negatively compared with unique drawers. These results suggest that children from cultures that place different values on the protection of ideas nevertheless develop similar concerns with plagiarism by 5-year-olds. PMID:24473471

  17. "You Fail": Plagiarism, the Ownership of Writing, and Transnational Conflicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Arabella

    2009-01-01

    Responding to cultural concerns about the ownership of writing and the nature of plagiarism, this article examines discourses about plagiarism by ESL students and argues for a plurality of approaches to understanding the ownership of language and textual appropriation. First, it uses speech act theory to explain the dynamics of plagiarism; second,…

  18. University Student Online Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yu-mei

    2008-01-01

    This article reports a study investigating university student online plagiarism. The following questions are investigated: (a) What is the incidence of student online plagiarism? (b) What are student perceptions regarding online plagiarism? (c) Are there any differences in terms of student perceptions of online plagiarism and print plagiarism? (d)…

  19. The Cross-Marriage Language Dilemma: His Language or Hers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Klerk, Vivian

    2001-01-01

    Reports on language shift on a micro level in a study carried out on 10 cross-language English/Afrikaans marriages. Explores the language dynamics, attitudes, and usage patterns within these families, and reports on the relative levels of success in achieving family bilingualism. Provides an overview of factors influencing language usage in these…

  20. Text-based plagiarism in scientific publishing: issues, developments and education.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongyan

    2013-09-01

    Text-based plagiarism, or copying language from sources, has recently become an issue of growing concern in scientific publishing. Use of CrossCheck (a computational text-matching tool) by journals has sometimes exposed an unexpected amount of textual similarity between submissions and databases of scholarly literature. In this paper I provide an overview of the relevant literature, to examine how journal gatekeepers perceive textual appropriation, and how automated plagiarism-screening tools have been developed to detect text matching, with the technique now available for self-check of manuscripts before submission; I also discuss issues around English as an additional language (EAL) authors and in particular EAL novices being the typical offenders of textual borrowing. The final section of the paper proposes a few educational directions to take in tackling text-based plagiarism, highlighting the roles of the publishing industry, senior authors and English for academic purposes professionals.

  1. Rethinking Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nealy, Chynette

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism, presenting someone's words or other creative products as one's own, is a mandatory discussion and writing assignment in many undergraduate business communication courses. Class discussions about this topic tend to be lively, ranging from questions about simply omitting identified sources to different standards of ethical behaviors…

  2. Between Knowledge and "Plagiarism," or, How the Chinese Language Was Studied in the West

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tong, Q. S.

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at descriptions of the Chinese language in Western intellectual writings as indicative of a particular process of knowledge formation and reproduction. Beginning with the first systematic account produced by Matteo Ricci (1552-1610), it charts views offered by John Wilkins (1614-1672), James Beattie (1735-1803), Friedrich von…

  3. Plagiarism in research.

    PubMed

    Helgesson, Gert; Eriksson, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    Plagiarism is a major problem for research. There are, however, divergent views on how to define plagiarism and on what makes plagiarism reprehensible. In this paper we explicate the concept of "plagiarism" and discuss plagiarism normatively in relation to research. We suggest that plagiarism should be understood as "someone using someone else's intellectual product (such as texts, ideas, or results), thereby implying that it is their own" and argue that this is an adequate and fruitful definition. We discuss a number of circumstances that make plagiarism more or less grave and the plagiariser more or less blameworthy. As a result of our normative analysis, we suggest that what makes plagiarism reprehensible as such is that it distorts scientific credit. In addition, intentional plagiarism involves dishonesty. There are, furthermore, a number of potentially negative consequences of plagiarism.

  4. Crossing Boundaries: Journeys into Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Tim

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses two autobiographical accounts of language learning within the context of highly significant personal relationships to argue that the functional emphasis of communicative language teaching has narrowed our understanding of the potential personal and educational meaning of what it is to learn a language. The author's learning of…

  5. Second Language Proficiency and Cross-Language Lexical Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Hell, Janet G.; Tanner, Darren

    2012-01-01

    Although research has consistently shown that a bilingual's two languages interact on multiple levels, it is also well-established that bilinguals can vary considerably in their proficiency in the second language (L2). In this paper we review empirical studies that have examined how differences in L2 proficiency modulate cross-language…

  6. Language Variables in Cross-Cultural Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagi, Mostafa H.

    1977-01-01

    The role of language in cross-cultural research is investigated through analysis of: communication of information; conceptual and functional equivalence; measurement of linguistic variables; and social and language changes. Available from: UNESCO, 7 Place de Fontenoy, 75700 Paris, France. (Author/DB)

  7. Plagiarism (Coming to Terms).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Darsie

    1996-01-01

    Explores the origins of the word "plagiarism" and concepts of authorship. Examines a number of current issues concerning plagiarism, for instance, how the term complicates teacher-student relationships and peer cooperation in writing. (TB)

  8. The plagiarism project.

    PubMed

    Glassman, Nancy R; Sorensen, Karen; Habousha, Racheline G; Minuti, Aurelia; Schwartz, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism has been a problem plaguing academia for centuries. The Internet has made it easier than ever to copy material from one electronic document and paste it into another. Many cases are unintentional, as writers are unaware of the rules regarding plagiarism. This paper provides an overview of plagiarism and describes a project in which librarians partnered with the assistant dean of a graduate science program to educate students about the perils of plagiarism and encourage ethical writing practices.

  9. Plagiarism in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahabuddin, Syed

    2009-01-01

    Plagiarism sometimes creates legal and ethical problems for students and faculty. It can have serious consequences. Fortunately, there are ways to stop plagiarism. There are many tools available to detect plagiarism, e.g. using software for detecting submitted articles. Also, there are many ways to punish a plagiarist, e.g. banning plagiarists…

  10. Generic Language Facilitates Children's Cross-Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Simone P.; Gelman, A.

    2012-01-01

    Four studies examined the role of generic language in facilitating 4- and 5-year-old children's ability to cross-classify. Participants were asked to classify an item into a familiar (taxonomic or script) category, then cross-classify it into a novel (script or taxonomic) category with the help of a clue expressed in either generic or specific…

  11. Plagiarism Avoidance: An Empirical Study Examining Teaching Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto, Julio G.; Anand, Sulekha; McGee, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    College students often struggle to understand complex technical language inherent in scientific communication. In some cases, this struggle leads to plagiarism. We performed a statistical analysis to find which teaching strategies are best suited to significantly reducing plagiarism in science courses. (Contains 1 table and 7 figures.)

  12. The problem of plagiarism.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Melissa S; Steneck, Nicholas H

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism is a form of research misconduct and a serious violation of the norms of science. It is the misrepresentation of another's ideas or words as one's own, without proper acknowledgement of the original source. Certain aspects of plagiarism make it less straightforward than this definition suggests. Over the past 30 years, the U.S. Federal Government has developed and refined its policies on misconduct, and Federal agencies, as well as research institutions, have established approaches to responding to allegations and instances of plagiarism. At present, efforts to avert plagiarism focus on plagiarism-detection software and instructional strategies.

  13. Attitude toward plagiarism among Iranian medical faculty members.

    PubMed

    Ghajarzadeh, Mahsa; Norouzi-Javidan, Abbas; Hassanpour, Kiana; Aramesh, Kiarash; Emami-Razavi, Seyed Hassan

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess attitude towards plagiarism in faculty members of Medical School at Tehran University of Medical Sciences. One hundred and twenty medical faculty members of Tehran University of Medical Sciences were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. They were asked to answer to valid and reliable Persian version of attitude towards plagiarism questionnaire. Attitude toward plagiarism, positive attitude toward self-plagiarism and plagiarism acceptance were assessed. Eighty seven filled-up questionnaires were collected. Mean total number of correct answers was 11.6±3.1. Mean number of correct answers to questions evaluating self-plagiarism was 1.7±0.4 and mean number of correct answers to questions evaluating plagiarism acceptance was 1.4±0.2. There was no significant correlation between plagiarism acceptance and self-plagiarism (r=0.17, P=0.1). It is essential to provide materials (such as workshops, leaflets and mandatory courses) to make Iranian medical faculty members familiar with medical research ethics issues such as plagiarism.

  14. Generic language facilitates children's cross-classification

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Simone P.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    Four studies examined the role of generic language in facilitating 4- and 5-year-old children's ability to cross-classify. Participants were asked to classify an item into a familiar (taxonomic or script) category, then cross-classify it into a novel (script or taxonomic) category with the help of a clue expressed in either generic or specific language. Experiment 1 showed that generics facilitate 5-year-olds' and adults' cross-classification when expressed at an appropriate level of generalization (e.g., “foods,” “birthday party things”), whereas Experiment 2 showed that such effects disappeared when labels were at an inappropriate level of generalization (e.g., “pizzas,” “balloons”). Experiments 3 and 4 offered additional controls. Taken together, the findings demonstrate that language can guide and direct children's multiple categorizations. PMID:22888182

  15. How to Verify and Manage the Translational Plagiarism?

    PubMed Central

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2016-01-01

    The use of Google translator as a tool for determining translational plagiarism is a big challenge. As noted, plagiarism of the original papers written in Macedonian and translated into other languages can be verified after computerised translation in other languages. Attempts to screen the translational plagiarism should be supported. The use of Google Translate tool might be helpful. Special focus should be on any non-English reference that might be the source of plagiarised material and non-English article that might translate from an original English article, which cannot be detected by simple plagiarism screening tool. It is a hard job for any journal to detect the complex translational plagiarism but the harder job might be how to effectively manage the case. PMID:27703588

  16. Plagiarism in computer science courses

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.K.

    1994-12-31

    Plagiarism of computer programs has long been a problem in higher education. Ease of electronic copying, vague understanding by students as to what constitutes plagiarism, increasing acceptance of plagiarism by students, lack of enforcement by instructors and school administrators, and a whole host of other factors contribute to plagiarism. The first step in curbing plagiarism is prevention, the second (and much less preferable) is detection. History files and software metrics can be used as a tool to aid in detecting possible plagiarism. This paper gives advice concerning how to deal with plagiarism and with using software monitors to detect plagiarism.

  17. Plagiarism: understanding and management.

    PubMed

    Wicker, Paul

    2007-08-01

    An epidemic of plagiarism is sweeping the world. A study carried out in the US suggested that 80% of college students admit to cheating at least once (Ashworth et al 1997). Alternative evidence from an American education and software company, Plagiarism.org, reported that 36% of undergraduates plagiarise written material and that 90% of students believe that cheaters are never caught or disciplined (Plagiarism.org 2005). Closer to home, research carried out in the UK by Clare (1996) suggested that 50% of students copy work and invent data. More recently the Plagiarism Advisory Service, based at Northumbria University, reported that 25% of students plagiarise, while lecturers only detect plagiarism 3% of the time (Plagiarism Advisory Service 2006).

  18. But I Changed Three Words! Plagiarism in the ESL Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Lenora C.; Williams, Portia G.

    1995-01-01

    Describes teaching plagiarism to students of English as a Second Language by treating it as a technical, ethical, and cultural issue, and by giving students ample, semester-long opportunity to practice their newfound skills. (SR)

  19. A Comprehensive Definition of Plagiarism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddell, Jean

    2003-01-01

    Explains how the internet has made it easy for students to plagiarize papers. Gives definitions for plagiarism. Explains reasons why students plagiarize including the following: they don't understand what it is, they think they won't get caught, etc. Describes ways to detect and prevent plagiarism. (ontains 58 references.)(MZ)

  20. Plagiarism and Cheating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.; Permuth, Steve

    Plagiarism and cheating can be defined as academic dishonesty and represent policy concerns among all levels of education. Such cases involve academic versus disciplinary decisions and the need to determine the student's understanding of the definition of plagiarism or cheating. This paper analyzes six legal issues raised in court cases and…

  1. Plagiarism in Grant Proposals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markin, Karen M.

    2012-01-01

    It is not news that software exists to check undergraduate papers for plagiarism. What is less well known is that some federal grant agencies are using technology to detect plagiarism in grant proposals. That variety of research misconduct is a growing problem, according to federal experts. The National Science Foundation, in its most recent…

  2. Prevalence of plagiarism in recent submissions to the Croatian Medical Journal.

    PubMed

    Baždarić, Ksenija; Bilić-Zulle, Lidija; Brumini, Gordana; Petrovečki, Mladen

    2012-06-01

    To assess the prevalence of plagiarism in manuscripts submitted for publication in the Croatian Medical Journal (CMJ). All manuscripts submitted in 2009-2010 were analyzed using plagiarism detection software: eTBLAST, CrossCheck, and WCopyfind. Plagiarism was suspected in manuscripts with more than 10% of the text derived from other sources. These manuscripts were checked against the Déjà vu database and manually verified by investigators. Of 754 submitted manuscripts, 105 (14%) were identified by the software as suspicious of plagiarism. Manual verification confirmed that 85 (11%) manuscripts were plagiarized: 63 (8%) were true plagiarism and 22 (3%) were self-plagiarism. Plagiarized manuscripts were mostly submitted from China (21%), Croatia (14%), and Turkey (19%). There was no significant difference in the text similarity rate between plagiarized and self-plagiarized manuscripts (25% [95% CI 22-27%] vs. 28% [95% CI 20-33%]; U = 645.50; P = 0.634). Differences in text similarity rate were found between various sections of self-plagiarized manuscripts (H = 12.65, P = 0.013). The plagiarism rate in the Materials and Methods (61% (95% CI 41-68%) was higher than in the Results (23% [95% CI 17-36%], U = 33.50; P = 0.009) or Discussion (25.5 [95% CI 15-35%]; U = 57.50; P < 0.001) sections. Three authors were identified in the Déjà vu database. Plagiarism detection software combined with manual verification may be used to detect plagiarized manuscripts and prevent their publication. The prevalence of plagiarized manuscripts submitted to the CMJ, a journal dedicated to promoting research integrity, was 11% in the 2-year period 2009-2010.

  3. A Cross-Linguistic Approach to Language Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Carl

    1996-01-01

    Revives Eric Hawkins' idea of a language "trivium" where language awareness activities should fill the space between the learner's two languages. Draws a distinction between awareness and consciousness of language and suggests that cross-linguistic relationships are a major source of input salience strengthening, due to bilinguals' metalinguistic…

  4. Journals May Soon Use Anti-Plagiarism Software on Their Authors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rampell, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    This spring, academic journals may turn the anti-plagiarism software that professors have been using against their students on the professors themselves. CrossRef, a publishing industry association, and the software company iParadigms announced a deal last week to create CrossCheck, an anti-plagiarism program for academic journals. The software…

  5. Managing Plagiarism: A Preventative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insley, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism is a reality in most college classes where some students plagiarize unknowingly and others do so knowingly. This situation requires instructors to decide how to manage the situation. Some may take the easy way out by ignoring the problem, simply pretending that none of their students plagiarize. In contrast, other instructors embrace…

  6. Cross-Language Activation in Children's Speech Production: Evidence from Second Language Learners, Bilinguals, and Trilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poarch, Gregory J.; van Hell, Janet G.

    2012-01-01

    In five experiments, we examined cross-language activation during speech production in various groups of bilinguals and trilinguals who differed in nonnative language proficiency, language learning background, and age. In Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 5, German 5- to 8-year-old second language learners of English, German-English bilinguals,…

  7. [Plagiarism in scientific publications].

    PubMed

    Reyes B, Humberto

    2009-01-01

    Similar to what occurs in literature, art and other human endeavours, every scientific report is based in previous work done by others. The new paper should add something original but a basic law of scientific honesty demands that any mention ideas, observations or thinking that has been previously proposed or published by others, should be acknowledged properly in the text and in the references. Plagiarism is identified when the authors of a scientific report use ideas or text that belong to others and present them as original, the previous source is concealed or it is referred to in a different context. The authors of a paper that contains plagiarism have the intention to mislead the readers, pretending to be the original authors of an idea that was expressed previously by others, or to be the owners of results shown by them. Plagiarism is a dishonest behaviour and, when discovered, may have dangerous consequences because the editors of the journal may publish a notice of retraction that will be inserted by Medline in both papers: the plagiarized and the plagiarizer, to be noticed by everyone who accesses to either of them in the Internet. PMID:19399315

  8. Cross-Language Information Retrieval: An Analysis of Errors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Miguel E.; Srinivasan, Padmini

    1998-01-01

    Investigates an automatic method for Cross Language Information Retrieval (CLIR) that utilizes the multilingual Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus to translate Spanish natural-language queries into English. Results indicate that for Spanish, the UMLS Metathesaurus-based CLIR method is at least equivalent to if not better than…

  9. Lexical Activation of Cross-Language Syntactic Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salamoura, Angeliki; Williams, John N.

    2006-01-01

    Cross-language (L1-to-L2) syntactic priming is the repetition of utterance structure from one language to another independently of meaning and has motivated models of language-shared representations of L1-L2 equivalent structures (Salamoura and Williams, submitted; Schoonbaert, Hartsuiker and Pickering, submitted). These models assume that the…

  10. What is Plagiarism?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishniac, Ethan T.

    2012-01-01

    Manuscripts submitted to The Astrophysical Journal are required to contain "novel and significant" material and to be free of plagiarism. There is a surprising amount of confusion regarding the definition of plagiarism and what constitutes prior publication. I will discuss the definitions used by the ApJ and the procedures we follow to to support this rule. Individual members of the community frequently show a very different understanding of these standards and are surprised at the conflict. Time allowing, I will briefly discuss some of the other common ethical problems that arise during the preparation and publication of articles.

  11. Plagiarism and scientific writing: a personal commentary.

    PubMed

    Ponniah, Irulandy

    2012-11-01

    There have been a number of papers that have addressed the issue of plagiarism. Nevertheless, the charges of plagiarism usually merit little attention with experts, because it is still not clear what sort of copying actually constitutes plagiarism. Another problem that eludes consensus is whether plagiarism was committed with or without intention. This paper discusses certain issues relating to plagiarism and differentiates between intentional and unintentional forms of plagiarism.

  12. Teaching Students about Plagiarism: What It Looks Like and How It Is Measured

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, Diana

    2013-01-01

    This case study examines how full-time faculty, adjunct instructors, and graduate teaching assistants teach students how to avoid plagiarism. Additionally, this case study includes a cross-section of teachers who encounter plagiarism in writing assignments across the curriculum. While many studies in the past have focused on students, this study…

  13. Cross Currents; Communication/Language/Cross-Cultural Skills, Volume VIII, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross Currents, 1981

    1981-01-01

    The following articles on second language teaching techniques, English as a second language, and cross cultural communication are included: (1) "'Honne' and 'Tatemae': Tools for Developing Communicative Competence in a Second Language," by Gregory J. Thompson; (2) "Using Video-Taped Movies with Advanced ESOL Students," by Steven C. Linke; (3)…

  14. Cross Currents: Communication/Language/Cross-Cultural Skills. Volume 5, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutow, Howard, Ed.

    1978-01-01

    This issue of "Cross Currents" includes the following articles: "The Japanese Concept of Hanashi-Kata and Its Potential Influence on Foreign Language Acquisition" by James R. Bowers; "Linguistic Relativity and Foreign Language Learning" by Ronald Taubitz; "On Being a Sansei English Teacher in Japan" by Ruth Sasaki; "Cross-Cultural Barriers to…

  15. Developing a Non-Language Related Span Test for the Use in Language-Specific and Cross-Language Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahnazari-Dorcheh, Mohammadtaghi; Roshan, Saeed

    2012-01-01

    Due to the lack of span test for the use in language-specific and cross-language studies, this study provides L1 and L2 researchers with a reliable language-independent span test (math span test) for the measurement of working memory capacity. It also describes the development, validation, and scoring method of this test. This test included 70…

  16. [High frequency of plagiarism in medical thesis from a Peruvian public university].

    PubMed

    Saldaña-Gastulo, J Jhan C; Quezada-Osoria, C Claudia; Peña-Oscuvilca, Américo; Mayta-Tristán, Percy

    2010-03-01

    An observational study was conducted to describe the presence of plagiarism in medical thesis in 2008 performed at a public university in Peru. Search for plagiarism in 33 thesis introductions using a Google search algorithm, characterizes of the study type and we search in electronic form if the thesis mentor have published articles in scientific journals. We found evidence of plagiarism in 27/33 introductions, 37.3% (171/479) of all the paragraphs analyzed had some degree of plagiarism, literal plagiarism was the most frequent (20/27) and journals were the most common sources of plagiarism (19/27). The characteristics of the studies were observational (32/33), cross-sectional (30/33), descriptive (25/33) and retrospective (19/33). None of the authors had published in a scientific journal, and only nine of his tutors of them had at least one publication. No association was found between the characteristics of the thesis and the presence of plagiarism. In conclusion, we found a high frequency of plagiarism in theses analyzed. Is responsibility of medical schools take the necessary actions to detect and avoid plagiarism among their students.

  17. Development of Cross-Language Lexical Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storms, Gert; Ameel, Eef; Malt, Barbara C.

    2015-01-01

    Bilinguals are often not fully monolingual-like in either language. With respect to the lexicon, recent research demonstrates that their naming patterns for common household objects tend to converge on a common pattern for the two languages. The present study investigates the developmental trajectory of naming of common household objects in…

  18. Teaching about Plagiarism in the Age of the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klausman, Jeffrey

    1999-01-01

    Considers how the Internet provides new opportunities for teaching about plagiarism and how to avoid it. Defines and gives examples of three different kinds of plagiarism: direct plagiarism, paraphrase plagiarism, and patchwork plagiarism. Discusses a way of teaching students about plagiarism. Concludes that plagiarism is usually unintentional.…

  19. On cross-language consonant identification in second language noise.

    PubMed

    Marchegiani, Letizia; Fafoutis, Xenofon

    2015-10-01

    Speech perception in everyday conditions is highly affected by the presence of noise of a different nature. The presence of overlapping speakers is considered an especially challenging scenario, as it introduces both energetic and informational masking. The efficacy of the masking also depends on the familiarity with the language of both the target and masking stimuli. This work analyses consonant identification by non-native English speakers in N-talker natural babble noise and babble-modulated noise, by varying the number of talkers in the babble. In particular, only English consonants that are also present in all the native languages of the subjects are used. As the subjects are familiar with the consonants used, this study can be considered a step towards a deeper analysis on perception of first language speech in the presence of second language maskers. PMID:26520302

  20. Applying Query Structuring in Cross-language Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirkola, Ari; Puolamaki, Deniz; Jarvelin, Kalervo

    2003-01-01

    Explores ways to apply query structuring in cross-language information retrieval. Tested were: English queries translated into Finnish using an electronic dictionary, and run in a Finnish newspaper databases; effects of compound-based structuring using a proximity operator for translation equivalents of query language compound components; and a…

  1. Combating plagiarism: a shared responsibility.

    PubMed

    Rathod, Sujit D

    2010-01-01

    Scientific progress depends on the free dissemination of original thinking and research. With the evidence base formed by publication, investigators develop and implement additional studies, and policy makers propose new laws and regulations. The ramifications of this evidence can affect millions of lives and reallocate considerable resources for programmes or research. As such, it is incumbent on investigators to conduct rigorous research, which precludes engaging in scientific misconduct such as falsification, fabrication and plagiarism. This article addresses the causes and consequences of plagiarism and the processes by which plagiarism is discovered. It concludes by considering the responsibilities of members of the research community in preventing and addressing plagiarism.

  2. Cross-language activation in children's speech production: evidence from second language learners, bilinguals, and trilinguals.

    PubMed

    Poarch, Gregory J; van Hell, Janet G

    2012-03-01

    In five experiments, we examined cross-language activation during speech production in various groups of bilinguals and trilinguals who differed in nonnative language proficiency, language learning background, and age. In Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 5, German 5- to 8-year-old second language learners of English, German-English bilinguals, German-English-Language X trilinguals, and adult German-English bilinguals, respectively, named pictures in German and in English; in Experiment 4, 6- to 8-year-old German monolinguals named pictures in German. In both language conditions, cognate status was manipulated. We found that the bidirectional cognate facilitation effect was significant in all groups except the German monolinguals (Experiment 4) and, critically, the child second language learners (Experiment 1) in whom only native language (L1) German had an effect on second language (L2) English. The findings demonstrate how the integration of languages into a child's system follows a developmental path that, at lower levels of proficiency, allows only limited cross-language activation. The results are interpreted against the backdrop of the developing language systems of the children both for early second language learners and for early bi- and trilinguals. PMID:22138311

  3. Cross-language activation in children's speech production: evidence from second language learners, bilinguals, and trilinguals.

    PubMed

    Poarch, Gregory J; van Hell, Janet G

    2012-03-01

    In five experiments, we examined cross-language activation during speech production in various groups of bilinguals and trilinguals who differed in nonnative language proficiency, language learning background, and age. In Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 5, German 5- to 8-year-old second language learners of English, German-English bilinguals, German-English-Language X trilinguals, and adult German-English bilinguals, respectively, named pictures in German and in English; in Experiment 4, 6- to 8-year-old German monolinguals named pictures in German. In both language conditions, cognate status was manipulated. We found that the bidirectional cognate facilitation effect was significant in all groups except the German monolinguals (Experiment 4) and, critically, the child second language learners (Experiment 1) in whom only native language (L1) German had an effect on second language (L2) English. The findings demonstrate how the integration of languages into a child's system follows a developmental path that, at lower levels of proficiency, allows only limited cross-language activation. The results are interpreted against the backdrop of the developing language systems of the children both for early second language learners and for early bi- and trilinguals.

  4. PLAGIARISM IN SCIENTIFIC PUBLISHING

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2012-01-01

    Scientific publishing is the ultimate product of scientist work. Number of publications and their quoting are measures of scientist success while unpublished researches are invisible to the scientific community, and as such nonexistent. Researchers in their work rely on their predecessors, while the extent of use of one scientist work, as a source for the work of other authors is the verification of its contributions to the growth of human knowledge. If the author has published an article in a scientific journal it cannot publish the article in any other journal h with a few minor adjustments or without quoting parts of the first article, which are used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article with or without the mentioning the author used substantial portions of previously published articles, including tables and figures. Scientific institutions and universities should,in accordance with the principles of Good Scientific Practice (GSP) and Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) have a center for monitoring,security, promotion and development of quality research. Establish rules and compliance to rules of good scientific practice are the obligations of each research institutions,universities and every individual-researchers,regardless of which area of science is investigated. In this way, internal quality control ensures that a research institution such as a university, assume responsibility for creating an environment that promotes standards of excellence, intellectual honesty and legality. Although the truth should be the aim of scientific research, it is not guiding fact for all scientists. The best way to reach the truth in its study and to avoid the methodological and ethical mistakes is to consistently apply scientific methods and ethical standards in research. Although variously defined plagiarism is basically intended to deceive the reader’s own scientific contribution. There is no general regulation of control of

  5. Plagiarism in scientific publishing.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet

    2012-12-01

    Scientific publishing is the ultimate product of scientist work. Number of publications and their quoting are measures of scientist success while unpublished researches are invisible to the scientific community, and as such nonexistent. Researchers in their work rely on their predecessors, while the extent of use of one scientist work, as a source for the work of other authors is the verification of its contributions to the growth of human knowledge. If the author has published an article in a scientific journal it cannot publish the article in any other journal h with a few minor adjustments or without quoting parts of the first article, which are used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article with or without the mentioning the author used substantial portions of previously published articles, including tables and figures. Scientific institutions and universities should,in accordance with the principles of Good Scientific Practice (GSP) and Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) have a center for monitoring,security, promotion and development of quality research. Establish rules and compliance to rules of good scientific practice are the obligations of each research institutions,universities and every individual-researchers,regardless of which area of science is investigated. In this way, internal quality control ensures that a research institution such as a university, assume responsibility for creating an environment that promotes standards of excellence, intellectual honesty and legality. Although the truth should be the aim of scientific research, it is not guiding fact for all scientists. The best way to reach the truth in its study and to avoid the methodological and ethical mistakes is to consistently apply scientific methods and ethical standards in research. Although variously defined plagiarism is basically intended to deceive the reader's own scientific contribution. There is no general regulation of control of

  6. Can Paraphrasing Practice Help Students Define Plagiarism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Elaine S.

    2006-01-01

    Plagiarism is the new dirty word on campus, and college instructors are increasingly interested in teaching students how to prevent committing plagiarism. In this study, college students wrote definitions of plagiarism before and after 6 weeks of practice paraphrasing and citing original sources. Students' definitions of plagiarism were evaluated…

  7. What Prevents ESL/FL Writers from Avoiding Plagiarism? Analyses of 10 North-American College Websites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamada, Kyoko

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how inexperienced English-as-a-Second/Foreign-Language (ESL/EFL) writers can be helped to avoid plagiarism. Analyzes 10 North American Web sites on plagiarism, which provide a window to understanding how this issue has been problemitized and explained in Anglophone academic contexts. Concludes ESL/EFL may need to emphasize the role of…

  8. The Illusory Dichotomy of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuhmcke, Anita; Booth, Tracey; Wangmann, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism has been characterised as a "major problem" for universities. While tensions between students and universities are inevitable, the problem with the existing system of plagiarism management and prevention is that it operates to problematise the relationship between the university and the student, rather than address the core…

  9. Exploring Student Self-Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halupa, Colleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Student self-plagiarism is a confusing issue for both faculty and students alike. This problem is compounded because both groups perceive the concept very differently. Recent literature regarding these perceptions is reviewed and some brief preliminary results of an exploratory multi-university study of student perceptions of self-plagiarism are…

  10. Plagiarism Software: No Magic Bullet!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warn, James

    2006-01-01

    The ready availability of Internet resources has made it easier than ever for students to plagiarize and many higher education institutions have resorted to checking essays with plagiarism detection software. Student behaviour is likely to change in response to this increased scrutiny but not necessarily in the desired direction. Internet…

  11. Avoiding plagiarism in academic writing.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Irene

    Plagiarism means taking the work of another and presenting it as one's own, resulting in potential upset for the original author and disrepute for the professions involved. This article aims to explore the issue of plagiarism and some mechanisms for detection and avoidance.

  12. Cross-Language Communication in Heliodorus' "Aethiopica"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Robert William, IV

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes why Heliodorus pays so much attention to foreign languages in the Aethiopica and how his description of these linguistic phenomena colors the work. It demonstrates that Heliodorus is very careful to attribute linguistic abilities to characters in a sensible way that is in line with real-world expectations. Characters…

  13. Cross-language Similarity Modulates Effectiveness of Second Language Grammar Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolentino, Leida C.; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of instruction method and cross-language similarity during second language (L2) grammar learning. English speakers learned a subset of Swedish using contrast and color highlighting (Salience Group), contrast and highlighting with grammatical explanations (Rule & Salience Group), or neither (Control Group with…

  14. Cross-Linguistic Influence in Non-Native Languages: Explaining Lexical Transfer Using Language Production Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Graham

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this research is on the nature of lexical cross-linguistic influence (CLI) between non-native languages. Using oral interviews with 157 L1 Italian high-school students studying English and German as non-native languages, the project investigated which kinds of lexis appear to be more susceptible to transfer from German to English and…

  15. Agricultural Cross Languages Informationretrieval Schema Based on Muti-Thesaurusmapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chun; Lu, Wenlin

    Based on the rapid development of Chinese agricultures, many English users are interesting on the Chinese agricultural information, and many Chinese users are interesting on English agricultural information too. This paper is a schema to design an agricultural cross languages engine, the core technology is the mapping between Chinese and English agricultural thesauri. The paper introduces the all rules of thesauri mapping, and give exact examples for these rules. With the mapping information, authors design a cross languages engine. English users can get Chinese agricultural information from web data by English descriptors; Chinese users can get English agricultural information from web data by Chinese descriptors

  16. Plagiarism in graduate medical education.

    PubMed

    Cole, Ariel Forrester

    2007-06-01

    The act of overt plagiarism by graduates of accredited residency programs represents a failure in personal integrity. It also indicates a lack of professionalism, one of the six Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) competencies for graduate medical education. A recent experience at one geriatric fellowship indicates that the problem of plagiarism may be more prevalent than previously recognized. A situation was discovered at the geriatric medicine fellowship at Florida Hospital Family Medicine Residency Program in Orlando, Fla, in which three of the personal statements included in a total of 26 applications to the fellowship in the past 2 years contained portions plagiarized from a single Web site. The aim in documenting this plagiarism is to raise awareness among medical educators about the availability of online sources of content and ease of electronic plagiarism. Some students and residents may not recognize copying other resources verbatim as plagiarism. Residency programs should evaluate their own need for education about plagiarism and include this in the training of the competency of professionalism.

  17. Educational approaches for discouraging plagiarism.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Beth A; Zigmond, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Suggested approaches to reduce the occurrence of plagiarism in academia, particularly among trainees. These include (1) educating individuals as to the definition of plagiarism and its consequences through written guidelines, active discussions, and practice in identifying proper and improper citation practices; (2) distributing checklists that break the writing task into more manageable steps, (3) requiring the submission of an outline and then a first draft prior to the deadline for a paper; (4) making assignments relevant to individual interests; and (5) providing trainees with access to software programs that detect plagiarism.

  18. Cross-language information retrieval using PARAFAC2.

    SciTech Connect

    Bader, Brett William; Chew, Peter; Abdelali, Ahmed; Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2007-05-01

    A standard approach to cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) uses Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) in conjunction with a multilingual parallel aligned corpus. This approach has been shown to be successful in identifying similar documents across languages - or more precisely, retrieving the most similar document in one language to a query in another language. However, the approach has severe drawbacks when applied to a related task, that of clustering documents 'language-independently', so that documents about similar topics end up closest to one another in the semantic space regardless of their language. The problem is that documents are generally more similar to other documents in the same language than they are to documents in a different language, but on the same topic. As a result, when using multilingual LSA, documents will in practice cluster by language, not by topic. We propose a novel application of PARAFAC2 (which is a variant of PARAFAC, a multi-way generalization of the singular value decomposition [SVD]) to overcome this problem. Instead of forming a single multilingual term-by-document matrix which, under LSA, is subjected to SVD, we form an irregular three-way array, each slice of which is a separate term-by-document matrix for a single language in the parallel corpus. The goal is to compute an SVD for each language such that V (the matrix of right singular vectors) is the same across all languages. Effectively, PARAFAC2 imposes the constraint, not present in standard LSA, that the 'concepts' in all documents in the parallel corpus are the same regardless of language. Intuitively, this constraint makes sense, since the whole purpose of using a parallel corpus is that exactly the same concepts are expressed in the translations. We tested this approach by comparing the performance of PARAFAC2 with standard LSA in solving a particular CLIR problem. From our results, we conclude that PARAFAC2 offers a very promising alternative to LSA not only for

  19. Cross-linguistic comparisons in child language research.

    PubMed

    Berman, Ruth A

    2014-07-01

    Major large-scale research projects in the early years of developmental psycholinguistics were English-based, yet even then numerous studies were available or under way in a range of different languages (Ferguson & Slobin, 1973). Since then, the field of cross-linguistic child language research has burgeoned in several directions. First, rich information is now available on the acquisition of dozens of languages from around the world in numerous language families, spearheaded by the five-volume series edited by Slobin (1985-1997) and complemented by in-depth examination of specific constructions - e.g. causative alternation, motion verbs, passive voice, subject elision, noun compounding - in various languages, culminating in an in-depth examination of the acquisition of ergativity in over a dozen languages (Bavin & Stoll, 2013). A second fruitful direction is the application of carefully comparable designs targeting a range of issues among children acquiring different languages, including: production of early lexico-grammatical constructions (Slobin, 1982), sentence processing comprehension (MacWhinney & Bates, 1989), expression of spatial relations (Bowerman, 2011), discourse construction of oral narratives based on short picture series (Hickmann, 2003) and longer storybooks (Berman & Slobin, 1994), and extended texts in different genres (Berman, 2008). Taken together, research motivated by the question of what is particular and what universal in child language highlights the marked, and early, impact of ambient language typology on processes of language acquisition. The challenge remains to operationalize such insights by means of psychologically sound and linguistically well-motivated measures for evaluating the interplay between the variables of developmental level, linguistic domain, and ambient language typology.

  20. Cultural Cross-Currents in Second Language Literacy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodycott, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of "cultural cross-currents," their implicit nature and the potential they have to effect second language literacy learning, teaching and curriculum reform in Hong Kong primary classrooms. Despite the substantive implications for learning, the exploration of cultural influences upon teacher and student thinking and…

  1. Recruiting Languages and Lifeworlds for Border-Crossing Compositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skerrett, Allison; Bomer, Randy

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we show how two transnational youth, with the instructional support of their teacher, recruited their languages and lifeworlds, particularly their border-crossing experiences, as tools for engaging with school-based literacy practices. We analyze literary texts that the students composed, showing how the students' uses of…

  2. Plagiarism: It Can Happen to You!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Paul

    1984-01-01

    Suggests that preventative measures, such as proper instruction in basic journalism classes, are not always enough to prevent plagiarism. Urges publications that have discovered they have printed a plagiarized piece to admit their error frankly to their readers. (MM)

  3. Lexical Activation in Bilinguals' Speech Production Is Dynamic: How Language Ambiguous Words Can Affect Cross-Language Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermans, Daan; Ormel, E.; van Besselaar, Ria; van Hell, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Is the bilingual language production system a dynamic system that can operate in different language activation states? Three experiments investigated to what extent cross-language phonological co-activation effects in language production are sensitive to the composition of the stimulus list. L1 Dutch-L2 English bilinguals decided whether or not a…

  4. Education Improves Plagiarism Detection by Biology Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Emily A.

    2012-01-01

    Regrettably, the sciences are not untouched by the plagiarism affliction that threatens the integrity of budding professionals in classrooms around the world. My research, however, suggests that plagiarism training can improve students' recognition of plagiarism. I found that 148 undergraduate ecology students successfully identified plagiarized…

  5. Rethinking Plagiarism in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evering, Lea Calvert; Moorman, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Plagiarism is a complex issue in need of reexamination. A common misconception is there is consensus on what constitute plagiarism, and general agreement that engaging in plagiarism and other forms of academic dishonesty is a major breech of ethics. There seems to be little concern for differentiating degrees of seriousness; the intentional…

  6. Students' Perceptions of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Reva; Hura, Gerri

    2013-01-01

    While plagiarism by college students is a serious problem that must be addressed, students generally overestimate the frequency of plagiarism at their schools and blame students they do not know for the majority of incidents. This study looked at students' estimations of the frequency of plagiarism at a large urban college and explored how…

  7. Beyond Plagiarism: Transgressive and Nontransgressive Intertextuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandrasoma, Ranamukalage; Thompson, Celia; Pennycook, Alastair

    2004-01-01

    The debate about what constitutes plagiarism and how it should be dealt with in the academy continues to gain momentum. The response from many higher education institutions is to channel ever-increasing amounts of resources into plagiarism detection technologies, rather than trying to ascertain why plagiarism might be occurring in the first place.…

  8. Cross-language differences of articulation rate and its transfer into Japanese as a second language.

    PubMed

    Amino, Kanae; Osanai, Takashi

    2015-04-01

    Recently, the articulation rate has been attracting attention in forensic speech investigation as an acoustic feature that varies across speakers, dialects, and languages. The present study investigates how cross-language differences in the articulation rate are transferred into Japanese as a second language. Participants were speakers of Japanese, Chinese, Korean, and Thai. They were recorded while they read a passage in their native language and in Japanese. Local and global articulation rates were calculated based on the number of syllables as well as the number of morae for Japanese speech. When we compared the articulation rate of the native languages, Japanese was the fastest, then Korean, Chinese, and Thai in that order. Also, a significant positive correlation was observed between the articulation rate of the native language and that of the second language. A gender difference was found in the articulation rate of some languages, with males speaking faster than females. The effect of age was limited to Thai speakers only. Accent discrimination and identification experiments were conducted and the results revealed that native and non-native accents could be correctly discriminated just by the articulation rate.

  9. On-Demand Associative Cross-Language Information Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraldo, André Pinto; Moreira, Viviane P.; Gonçalves, Marcos A.

    This paper proposes the use of algorithms for mining association rules as an approach for Cross-Language Information Retrieval. These algorithms have been widely used to analyse market basket data. The idea is to map the problem of finding associations between sales items to the problem of finding term translations over a parallel corpus. The proposal was validated by means of experiments using queries in two distinct languages: Portuguese and Finnish to retrieve documents in English. The results show that the performance of our proposed approach is comparable to the performance of the monolingual baseline and to query translation via machine translation, even though these systems employ more complex Natural Language Processing techniques. The combination between machine translation and our approach yielded the best results, even outperforming the monolingual baseline.

  10. Acquisition of Compound Words in Chinese-English Bilingual Children: Decomposition and Cross-Language Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Chenxi; Wang, Min; Perfetti, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated compound processing and cross-language activation in a group of Chinese-English bilingual children, and they were divided into four groups based on the language proficiency levels in their two languages. A lexical decision task was designed using compound words in both languages. The compound words in one language contained…

  11. [Plagiarism in medical schools, and its prevention].

    PubMed

    Annane, Djillali; Annane, Frédérique

    2012-09-01

    The plagiarism has become very common in universities and medical school. Undoubtedly, the easy access to a huge amount of electronic documents is one explanation for the increasing prevalence of plagiarism among students. While most of universities and medical school have clear statements and rules about plagiarism, available tools for the detection of plagiarism remain inefficient and dedicate training program for students and teachers too scarce. As lack of time is one reason for students to choose plagiarism, it should be one main target for educational programs.

  12. Cross Currents: Communication/Language/Cross-Cultural Skills. Volume 6, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutow, Howard, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    This issue of "Cross Currents" includes the following articles: "An Experience with CLL" by Earl Stevick; "Accuracy vs. Fluency in the English Language Classroom" by Kenton Sutherland; "Predicate Markers: A New Look at the English Predicate System" by Phillip L. Knowles; "'Let Your TV do the Talking': Using the VTR in the EFL Classroom" by Rosanne…

  13. Foreign Language Reading and Study Abroad: Cross-Cultural and Cross-Linguistic Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taillefer, Gail F.

    2005-01-01

    Little cross-cultural empirical research has been devoted to expectations for academic performance of study abroad (SA) students, particularly in their foreign language (FL) reading. This study explored premobility English and French FL reading comprehension and strategy use in 177 European SA students of law and economics. Our concern was whether…

  14. The Influence of Cross-Language Similarity on within- and between-Language Stroop Effects in Trilinguals.

    PubMed

    van Heuven, Walter J B; Conklin, Kathy; Coderre, Emily L; Guo, Taomei; Dijkstra, Ton

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated effects of cross-language similarity on within- and between-language Stroop interference and facilitation in three groups of trilinguals. Trilinguals were either proficient in three languages that use the same-script (alphabetic in German-English-Dutch trilinguals), two similar scripts and one different script (Chinese and alphabetic scripts in Chinese-English-Malay trilinguals), or three completely different scripts (Arabic, Chinese, and alphabetic in Uyghur-Chinese-English trilinguals). The results revealed a similar magnitude of within-language Stroop interference for the three groups, whereas between-language interference was modulated by cross-language similarity. For the same-script trilinguals, the within- and between-language interference was similar, whereas the between-language Stroop interference was reduced for trilinguals with languages written in different scripts. The magnitude of within-language Stroop facilitation was similar across the three groups of trilinguals, but smaller than within-language Stroop interference. Between-language Stroop facilitation was also modulated by cross-language similarity such that these effects became negative for trilinguals with languages written in different scripts. The overall pattern of Stroop interference and facilitation effects can be explained in terms of diverging and converging color and word information across languages.

  15. The Influence of Cross-Language Similarity on within- and between-Language Stroop Effects in Trilinguals

    PubMed Central

    van Heuven, Walter J. B.; Conklin, Kathy; Coderre, Emily L.; Guo, Taomei; Dijkstra, Ton

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated effects of cross-language similarity on within- and between-language Stroop interference and facilitation in three groups of trilinguals. Trilinguals were either proficient in three languages that use the same-script (alphabetic in German–English–Dutch trilinguals), two similar scripts and one different script (Chinese and alphabetic scripts in Chinese–English–Malay trilinguals), or three completely different scripts (Arabic, Chinese, and alphabetic in Uyghur–Chinese–English trilinguals). The results revealed a similar magnitude of within-language Stroop interference for the three groups, whereas between-language interference was modulated by cross-language similarity. For the same-script trilinguals, the within- and between-language interference was similar, whereas the between-language Stroop interference was reduced for trilinguals with languages written in different scripts. The magnitude of within-language Stroop facilitation was similar across the three groups of trilinguals, but smaller than within-language Stroop interference. Between-language Stroop facilitation was also modulated by cross-language similarity such that these effects became negative for trilinguals with languages written in different scripts. The overall pattern of Stroop interference and facilitation effects can be explained in terms of diverging and converging color and word information across languages. PMID:22180749

  16. Plagiarism: An Egregious Form of Misconduct

    PubMed Central

    Juyal, Deepak; Thawani, Vijay; Thaledi, Shweta

    2015-01-01

    Background: Publishing research papers for academic fraternity has become important for career advancement and promotion. Number of publications in peer reviewed journals and subsequent citations are recognized as measures of scientific success. Non-publishing academicians and researchers are invisible to the scientific community. Discussion: With pressure to publish, misconduct has crept into scientific writing with the result that research misconduct, plagiarism, misappropriation of intellectual property, and substantial unattributed textual copying of another's publication have become common. The Office of Research Integrity, USA, defines research misconduct as “fabrication, falsification or plagiarism in proposing, performing or reviewing research, or in reporting research results.” Although plagiarism is difficult to define in few words, it can be viewed as the stealing of another person's ideas, methods, results, or words without giving proper attribution. The Office of Research Integrity defines plagiarism as being “theft or misappropriation of intellectual property and the substantial unattributed textual copying of another's work.” Plagiarism is one of the most vehemently derided breaches of research integrity as it undermines the original and honest contribution to an existing body of knowledge. Conclusion: Plagiarism has many forms viz. blatant plagiarism, technical plagiarism, patchwork plagiarism, and self-plagiarism. In any form, the plagiarism is a threat to the research integrity and is unacceptable. We do need to detect such acts and effectively prosecute the offenders. PMID:25789254

  17. Language selection in bilingual word production: electrophysiological evidence for cross-language competition.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Noriko; Thierry, Guillaume

    2011-01-31

    Previous research has demonstrated that cross-language activation is present even when proficient bilinguals perform a task only in one language. The present study investigated the time-course of cross-language activation during word production in a second language (L2) by using a picture-word interference paradigm with event-related potentials (ERPs). Spanish-English bilinguals living in an L2 environment named pictures in their L2 English while ignoring L2 English distractor words that were visually presented with the pictures. Participants named pictures more slowly when distractors were semantically related or phonologically related to either the English name of the picture or the Spanish name of the picture than when picture and distractor word were unrelated. Interference was also detectable in the mean amplitude of the N2 peak (200-260 ms) and the N3 range (350-400 ms). The results suggest that lexical alternatives from both languages compete for selection in the process of L2 speech planning in a predominantly L2 context.

  18. Language selection in bilingual word production: electrophysiological evidence for cross-language competition.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Noriko; Thierry, Guillaume

    2011-01-31

    Previous research has demonstrated that cross-language activation is present even when proficient bilinguals perform a task only in one language. The present study investigated the time-course of cross-language activation during word production in a second language (L2) by using a picture-word interference paradigm with event-related potentials (ERPs). Spanish-English bilinguals living in an L2 environment named pictures in their L2 English while ignoring L2 English distractor words that were visually presented with the pictures. Participants named pictures more slowly when distractors were semantically related or phonologically related to either the English name of the picture or the Spanish name of the picture than when picture and distractor word were unrelated. Interference was also detectable in the mean amplitude of the N2 peak (200-260 ms) and the N3 range (350-400 ms). The results suggest that lexical alternatives from both languages compete for selection in the process of L2 speech planning in a predominantly L2 context. PMID:21108940

  19. English-Language Learners: Implications of Limited Vocabulary for Cross-Language Transfer of Phonemic Awareness with Kindergartners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwill, Kim; Blanchard, Jay; Christie, James; Gorin, Joanna S.; Garcia, Herman S.

    2010-01-01

    Research examined the influence of native vocabulary development on cross-language transfer of phonemic awareness. Participants were Spanish-speaking kindergartners learning English in immersion classrooms. Results indicated that limited Spanish vocabulary development negatively influenced cross-language transfer of phonemic awareness to English.…

  20. Exploring the Further Integration of Machine Translation in English-Chinese Cross Language Information Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Dan; He, Daqing

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to examine the further integration of machine translation technologies with cross language information access in providing web users the capabilities of accessing information beyond language barriers. Machine translation and cross language information access are related technologies, and yet they have their own unique…

  1. The Relationship between Cross-Culture Communication Activities and Student Motivation in Studying Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youssef, Hussein Zanaty Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the positive impact of second language learners' cross-cultural awareness in the target language. More specifically, the pedagogical desired outcomes include: (1) exploring how students can increase their motivation in learning a foreign language by engaging in the cross-cultural activity "Sister School…

  2. Cross-Cultural Attitudes among Language Students in Australia and Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, David; Kono, Minoru; Sasaki, Masako; Tateyama, Erina; O'Neill, Shiley

    2004-01-01

    The most central aims of language teaching are the development of language proficiency, the development of cultural knowledge and intercultural understanding, and the fostering of positive cross-cultural attitudes. The authors have examined the relationships between language learning and cross-cultural attitudes in projects in Australia (reported…

  3. Cross-Language Transfer in English Immersion Programs in Germany: Reading Comprehension and Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebauer, Sandra Kristina; Zaunbauer, Anna C. M.; Moller, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Cross-language effects on reading skills are of particular interest in the context of foreign language immersion programs. Although there is an extensive literature on cross-language effects on reading in general, research focusing on immersion students and including different dimensions of reading acquisition such as reading fluency and reading…

  4. Pluralizing Plagiarism: Identities, Contexts, Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Rebecca Moore; Robillard, Amy

    2008-01-01

    Recent cases have demonstrated that plagiarism is a hot-button issue. It is also pervasive, occurring in universities, four-year colleges, community colleges, secondary schools, graduate programs, international classrooms, multicultural classrooms, writing centers, writing-across-the-curriculum programs, scholarly publications and the popular…

  5. Plagiarism: What's the Big Deal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Brittney; Stith, Danica; Tesdell, Lee S.

    2011-01-01

    In academic culture, plagiarism is considered to be a form of cheating and therefore unethical. Understandably, instructors try to eliminate this kind of unethical behavior from their courses. But what if they designed their assignments and exams in such a way that students would find no reason to cheat? The authors think that it is possible, at…

  6. Plagiarism: Can It Be Stopped?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, G. Jay

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism can be controlled, not stopped. The more appropriate question to ask is: What can be done to encourage students to "cheat" correctly by doing the assignment the way it was intended? Cheating by college students continues to reach epidemic proportions on selected campuses, as witnessed by the recent episode at Central Florida University,…

  7. Cross-Language Analysis and Second Language Acquisition. Volume 1. Jyvaskyla Cross-Language Studies, No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajavaara, Kari, Ed.

    A collection of 17 papers, most presented at the Fifth International Conference on Contrastive Projects in June 1982 in Finland, includes: "Present Trends in Contrastive Linguistics,""Contrastive Linguistics in Bulgaria,""Communicative Competence in Foreign Language Teaching: A Project Report,""From Traditional Contrastive Linguistics Towards a…

  8. Cross-language synonyms in the lexicons of bilingual infants: one language or two?

    PubMed

    Pearson, B Z; Fernández, S; Oller, D K

    1995-06-01

    This study tests the widely-cited claim from Volterra & Taeschner (1978), which is reinforced by Clark's PRINCIPLE OF CONTRAST (1987), that young simultaneous bilingual children reject cross-language synonyms in their earliest lexicons. The rejection of translation equivalents is taken by Volterra & Taeschner as support for the idea that the bilingual child possesses a single-language system which includes elements from both languages. We examine first the accuracy of the empirical claim and then its adequacy as support for the argument that bilingual children do not have independent lexical systems in each language. The vocabularies of 27 developing bilinguals were recorded at varying intervals between ages 0;8 and 2;6 using the MacArthur CDI, a standardized parent report form in English and Spanish. The two single-language vocabularies of each bilingual child were compared to determine how many pairs of translation equivalents (TEs) were reported for each child at different stages of development. TEs were observed for all children but one, with an average of 30% of all words coded in the two languages, both at early stages (in vocabularies of 2-12 words) and later (up to 500 words). Thus, Volterra & Taeschner's empirical claim was not upheld. Further, the number of TEs in the bilinguals' two lexicons was shown to be similar to the number of lexical items which co-occurred in the monolingual lexicons of two different children, as observed in 34 random pairings for between-child comparisons. It remains to be shown, therefore, that the bilinguals' lexicons are not composed of two independent systems at a very early age. Furthermore, the results appear to rule out the operation of a strong principle of contrast across languages in early bilingualism.

  9. Penguins and Plagiarism: Stemming the Tide of Plagiarism in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Sara

    2007-01-01

    Plagiarism is on the rise on high school and college campuses. There are many reasons why students tend to plagiarize. One of these is that many students are interested in the shortest possible route through a course. Some students also fear that their writing ability is inadequate. If student plagiarism and lack of academic integrity are…

  10. Does the Adoption of Plagiarism-Detection Software in Higher Education Reduce Plagiarism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youmans, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    In two studies, students at California State University, Northridge wrote papers that were checked for plagiarism using plagiarism-detection software. In the first study, half of the students in two classes were randomly selected and told by the professor that their term papers would be scanned for plagiarism using the software. Students in the…

  11. Methodological Challenges in Cross-Language Qualitative Research: A Research Review

    PubMed Central

    Squires, Allison

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Cross-language qualitative research occurs when a language barrier is present between researchers and participants. The language barrier is frequently mediated through the use of a translator or interpreter. The purpose of this critical review of cross-language qualitative research was three fold: 1) review the methods literature addressing cross language research; 2) synthesize the methodological recommendations from the literature into a list of criteria that could evaluate how researchers methodologically managed translators and interpreters in their qualitative studies; and 3) test these criteria on published cross-language qualitative studies. Data sources A group of 40 purposively selected cross-language qualitative studies found in nursing and health sciences journals. Review methods The synthesis of the cross-language methods literature produced 14 criteria to evaluate how qualitative researchers managed the language barrier between themselves and their study participants. To test the criteria, the researcher conducted a summative content analysis framed by discourse analysis techniques of the 40 cross-language studies. Results The evaluation showed that only 6 out of 40 studies met all the criteria recommended by the cross-language methods literature for the production of trustworthy results in cross-language qualitative studies. Multiple inconsistencies, reflecting disadvantageous methodological choices by cross-language researchers, appeared in the remaining 33 studies. To name a few, these included rendering the translator or interpreter as an invisible part of the research process, failure to pilot test interview questions in the participant’s language, no description of translator or interpreter credentials, failure to acknowledge translation as a limitation of the study, and inappropriate methodological frameworks for cross-language research. Conclusions The finding about researchers making the role of the translator or interpreter

  12. Guidelines on What Constitutes Plagiarism and Electronic Tools to Detect it.

    PubMed

    Luksanapruksa, Panya; Millhouse, Paul W

    2016-04-01

    Plagiarism is a serious ethical problem among scientific publications. There are various definitions of plagiarism, and the major categories include unintentional (unsuitable paraphrasing or improper citations) and intentional. Intentional plagiarism includes mosaic plagiarism, plagiarism of ideas, plagiarism of text, and self-plagiarism. There are many Web sites and software packages that claim to detect plagiarism effectively. A violation of plagiarism laws can lead to serious consequences including author banning, loss of professional reputation, termination of a position, and even legal action.

  13. Measuring students' perceptions of plagiarism: modification and Rasch validation of a plagiarism attitude scale.

    PubMed

    Howard, Steven J; Ehrich, John F; Walton, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism is a significant area of concern in higher education, given university students' high self-reported rates of plagiarism. However, research remains inconsistent in prevalence estimates and suggested precursors of plagiarism. This may be a function of the unclear psychometric properties of the measurement tools adopted. To investigate this, we modified an existing plagiarism scale (to broaden its scope), established its psychometric properties using traditional (EFA, Cronbach's alpha) and modern (Rasch analysis) survey evaluation approaches, and examined results of well-functioning items. Results indicated that traditional and modern psychometric approaches differed in their recommendations. Further, responses indicated that although most respondents acknowledged the seriousness of plagiarism, these attitudes were neither unanimous nor consistent across the range of issues assessed. This study thus provides rigorous psychometric testing of a plagiarism attitude scale and baseline data from which to begin a discussion of contextual, personal, and external factors that influence students' plagiarism attitudes.

  14. Presenting an Alternative Source Code Plagiarism Detection Framework for Improving the Teaching and Learning of Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattingh, Frederik; Buitendag, Albertus A. K.; van der Walt, Jacobus S.

    2013-01-01

    The transfer and teaching of programming and programming related skills has become, increasingly difficult on an undergraduate level over the past years. This is partially due to the number of programming languages available as well as access to readily available source code over the Web. Source code plagiarism is common practice amongst many…

  15. Plagiarism: Presenting Someone Else's Creation as One's Own.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiestand, Mike

    1994-01-01

    Explains that "plagiarism" does not have a commonly agreed-upon definition. Claims that plagiarism is not a legal term. Describes plagiarism as a term for an academic crime, for which each institution has its own definition. Notes that copyright law (a crime with a specific legal definition) is a cousin of plagiarism. (PA)

  16. Rapid assessment of assignments using plagiarism detection software.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Whitney R; Abrego, Patricia C

    2011-01-01

    Faculty members most often use plagiarism detection software to detect portions of students' written work that have been copied and/or not attributed to their authors. The rise in plagiarism has led to a parallel rise in software products designed to detect plagiarism. Some of these products are configurable for rapid assessment and teaching, as well as for plagiarism detection.

  17. Online Plagiarism Training Falls Short in Biology Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Emily A.; Fagerheim, Britt; Durham, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Online plagiarism tutorials are increasingly popular in higher education, as faculty and staff try to curb the plagiarism epidemic. Yet no research has validated the efficacy of such tools in minimizing plagiarism in the sciences. Our study compared three plagiarism-avoidance training regimens (i.e., no training, online tutorial, or homework…

  18. Judging Plagiarism: A Problem of Morality and Convention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Julianne

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of plagiarism as an issue of morality. Outrage about student plagiarism in universities positions it as dishonesty and a transgression of standards. Despite this, there has been little work analysing the implications of positioning plagiarism as a moral matter in the making of judgments about plagiarism and…

  19. Morphological Awareness in Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners: Within and Cross-Language Effects on Word Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Gloria; Chen, Xi; Geva, Esther; Kiefer, Heidi

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated within and cross-language effects of morphological awareness on word reading among Spanish-speaking children who were English Language Learners. Participants were 97 Spanish-speaking children in grade 4 and grade 7. Morphological awareness in Spanish and in English was evaluated with two measures of derivational morphology.…

  20. Knowing and Avoiding Plagiarism During Scientific Writing

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, P Mohan; Priya, N Swapna; Musalaiah, SVVS; Nagasree, M

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism has become more common in both dental and medical communities. Most of the writers do not know that plagiarism is a serious problem. Plagiarism can range from simple dishonesty (minor copy paste/any discrepancy) to a more serious problem (major discrepancy/duplication of manuscript) when the authors do cut-copy-paste from the original source without giving adequate credit to the main source. When we search databases like PubMed/MedLine there is a lot of information regarding plagiarism. However, it is still a current topic of interest to all the researchers to know how to avoid plagiarism. It's time to every young researcher to know ethical guidelines while writing any scientific publications. By using one's own ideas, we can write the paper completely without looking at the original source. Specific words from the source can be added by using quotations and citing them which can help in not only supporting your work and amplifying ideas but also avoids plagiarism. It is compulsory to all the authors, reviewers and editors of all the scientific journals to know about the plagiarism and how to avoid it by following ethical guidelines and use of plagiarism detection software while scientific writing. PMID:25364588

  1. Plagiarism in High School: A Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dant, Doris R.

    1986-01-01

    Summarizes results of a survey of 309 students concerning their plagiarism while in high school. Reports data about how many teachers recommended copying, how many required crediting sources, whether students understood about plagiarism, and the relationship between understanding and copying. Recommends action based on survey results. (EL)

  2. Knowing and avoiding plagiarism during scientific writing.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P Mohan; Priya, N Swapna; Musalaiah, Svvs; Nagasree, M

    2014-09-01

    Plagiarism has become more common in both dental and medical communities. Most of the writers do not know that plagiarism is a serious problem. Plagiarism can range from simple dishonesty (minor copy paste/any discrepancy) to a more serious problem (major discrepancy/duplication of manuscript) when the authors do cut-copy-paste from the original source without giving adequate credit to the main source. When we search databases like PubMed/MedLine there is a lot of information regarding plagiarism. However, it is still a current topic of interest to all the researchers to know how to avoid plagiarism. It's time to every young researcher to know ethical guidelines while writing any scientific publications. By using one's own ideas, we can write the paper completely without looking at the original source. Specific words from the source can be added by using quotations and citing them which can help in not only supporting your work and amplifying ideas but also avoids plagiarism. It is compulsory to all the authors, reviewers and editors of all the scientific journals to know about the plagiarism and how to avoid it by following ethical guidelines and use of plagiarism detection software while scientific writing.

  3. Chinese University EFL Teachers' Perceptions of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Jun; Hu, Guangwei

    2015-01-01

    Although Chinese university students' perceptions of plagiarism have been extensively investigated, those of their teachers have been surprisingly under-researched. This study sought to address this gap by investigating 112 Chinese university English teachers' knowledge of and attitudes towards plagiarism. While 57 participating teachers had…

  4. Decreasing Plagiarism Using Critical Thinking Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Ann W.

    A practicum project emphasizing critical thinking skills was undertaken in an eighth grade history class to make students aware of the nature and seriousness of plagiarism. The 10-week unit was preceded by a reading comprehension test and an essay assignment on a major Civil War battle. Plagiarized portions of the essays were highlighted and the…

  5. Finding the True Incidence Rate of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Julie; Price, Robert

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on research that explores the use of detection software in the fight against plagiarism. The aim of the research was to determine if the true incidence rate of plagiarism could be found for a cohort of Higher Education students. The paper outlines the problems and issues when attempting this. In addition, this report highlights…

  6. Plagiarisms, Authorships, and the Academic Death Penalty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Rebecca Moore

    1995-01-01

    Suggests a plagiarism policy that would respect present concerns and discipline but would allow for an enlarged range of definitions of and motivations for plagiarism. Brings to bear contemporary theoretical approaches that take issue with authoring as an autonomous, individual, original act. (TB)

  7. Automatic Student Plagiarism Detection: Future Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mozgovoy, Maxim; Kakkonen, Tuomo; Cosma, Georgina

    2010-01-01

    The availability and use of computers in teaching has seen an increase in the rate of plagiarism among students because of the wide availability of electronic texts online. While computer tools that have appeared in recent years are capable of detecting simple forms of plagiarism, such as copy-paste, a number of recent research studies devoted to…

  8. Source Code Plagiarism--A Student Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joy, M.; Cosma, G.; Yau, J. Y.-K.; Sinclair, J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of source code plagiarism by students within the computing disciplines and reports the results of a survey of students in Computing departments in 18 institutions in the U.K. This survey was designed to investigate how well students understand the concept of source code plagiarism and to discover what, if any,…

  9. Event Categorisation and Language: A Cross-Linguistic Study of Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papafragou, Anna; Selimis, Stathis

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that languages differ in how they encode motion. Languages such as English use verbs that communicate the manner of motion (e.g., "slide", "skip"), while languages such as Greek regularly encode motion paths in verbs (e.g., "enter", "ascend"). Here we ask how such cross-linguistic encoding patterns interface with event cognition…

  10. Chinese-English Biliteracy Acquisition: Cross-Language and Writing System Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Min; Perfetti, Charles A.; Liu, Ying

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated cross-language and writing system relationship in biliteracy acquisition of children learning to read two different writing systems--Chinese and English. Forty-six Mandarin-speaking children were tested for their first language (Chinese-L1) and second language (English-L2) reading skills. Comparable experiments in Chinese…

  11. Receptive Vocabulary and Cross-Language Transfer of Phonemic Awareness in Kindergarten Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwill, Kim; Blanchard, Jay; Gorin, Joanna S.; Burstein, Karen

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the influence of language proficiency on the cross-language transfer (CLT) of phonemic awareness in Spanish-speaking kindergarten students and assessed Spanish and English receptive vocabulary and phonemic awareness abilities. Correlation results indicated positive correlations between phonemic awareness across languages;…

  12. Simulating Cross-Language Priming with a Dynamic Computational Model of the Lexicon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Xiaowei; Li, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Cross-language priming is a widely used experimental paradigm in psycholinguistics to study how bilinguals' two languages are represented and organized. Researchers have observed a number of interesting patterns from the priming effects of both translation equivalents and semantically related word pairs across languages. In this study, we…

  13. Is There Cross-Language Modulation when Bilinguals Process Number Words?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macizo, Pedro; Herrera, Amparo; Paolieri, Daniela; Roman, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the possibility of cross-language activation when bilinguals process number words in their first language (Italian) and their second language (German). Italian monolinguals (Experiment 1), German monolinguals (Experiment 2), and Italian/German bilinguals (Experiment 3) were required to decide the larger of two number words…

  14. Cross-Language Information Retrieval: Experiments Based on CLEF 2000 Corpora.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savoy, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    Discusses cross-language, multilingual, and bilingual information retrieval on the Web; evaluates retrieval effectiveness of indexing and search strategies based on test collections from CLEF (Cross-Language Evaluation Forum) in English, French, German, and Italian; and suggests and evaluates database merging strategies. Appendices include…

  15. The challenges for scientists in avoiding plagiarism.

    PubMed

    Fisher, E R; Partin, K M

    2014-01-01

    Although it might seem to be a simple task for scientists to avoid plagiarism and thereby an allegation of research misconduct, assessment of trainees in the Responsible Conduct of Research and recent findings from the National Science Foundation Office of Inspector General regarding plagiarism suggests otherwise. Our experiences at a land-grant academic institution in assisting researchers in avoiding plagiarism are described. We provide evidence from a university-wide multi-disciplinary course that understanding how to avoid plagiarism in scientific writing is more difficult than it might appear, and that a failure to learn the rules of appropriate citation may cause dire consequences. We suggest that new strategies to provide training in avoiding plagiarism are required.

  16. Cross-language Activation and the Phonetics of Code-switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccinini, Page Elizabeth

    It is now well established that bilinguals have both languages activated to some degree at all times. This cross-language activation has been documented in several research paradigms, including picture naming, reading, and electrophysiological studies. What is less well understood is how the degree a language is activated can vary in different language environments or contexts. Furthermore, when investigating effects of order of acquisition and language dominance, past research has been mixed, as the two variables are often conflated. In this dissertation, I test how degree of cross-language activation can vary according to context by examining phonetic productions in code-switching speech. Both spontaneous speech and scripted speech are analyzed. Follow-up perception experiments are conducted to see if listeners are able to anticipate language switches, potentially due to the phonetic cues in the signal. Additionally, by focusing on early bilinguals who are L1 Spanish but English dominant, I am able to see what plays a greater role in cross-language activation, order of acquisition or language dominance. I find that speakers do have intermediate phonetic productions in code-switching contexts relative to monolingual contexts. Effects are larger and more consistent in English than Spanish. Similar effects are found in speech perception. Listeners are able to anticipate language switches from English to Spanish but not Spanish to English. Together these results suggest that language dominance is a more important factor than order of acquisition in cross-language activation for early bilinguals. Future models on bilingual language organization and access should take into account both context and language dominance when modeling degrees of cross-language activation.

  17. Cross-Language Intrusion Errors in Aging Bilinguals Reveal the Link Between Executive Control and Language Selection

    PubMed Central

    Gollan, Tamar H.; Sandoval, Tiffany; Salmon, David P.

    2013-01-01

    Bilinguals outperform monolinguals on measures of executive control, but it is not known how bilingualism introduces these advantages. To address this question, we investigated whether language-control failures increase with aging-related declines in executive control. Eighteen younger and 18 older Spanish-English bilinguals completed a verbal-fluency task, in which they produced words in 18 categories (9 in each language), and a flanker task. Performance on both tasks exhibited robust effects of aging, but cross-language and within-language errors on the verbal-fluency task differed in a number of ways. Within-language errors occurred relatively often and decreased with higher levels of education in both younger and older bilinguals. In contrast, cross-language intrusions (e.g., inadvertently saying an English word on a Spanish-language trial) were rarely produced, were not associated with education level, and were strongly associated with flanker-task errors in older but not younger bilinguals. These results imply that executive control plays a role in maintaining language selection, but they also suggest the presence of independent forces that prevent language-selection errors. PMID:21775653

  18. From the Board of Editors: on Plagiarism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-04-01

    From the Board of Editors: on Plagiarism

    Dear Colleagues: There has been a significant increase in the number of duplicate submissions and plagiarism cases reported in all major journals, including the journals of the Optical Society of America. Duplicate submissions and plagiarism can take many forms, and all of them are violations of professional ethics, the copyright agreement that an author signs along with the submission of a paper, and OSA's published Author Guidelines. There must be a significant component of new science for a paper to be publishable. The copying of large segments of text from previously published or in-press papers with only minor cosmetic changes is not acceptable and can lead to the rejection of papers. Duplicate submission: Duplicate submission is the most common ethics violation encountered. Duplicate submission is the submission of substantially similar papers to more than one journal. There is a misperception in a small fraction of the scientific community that duplicate submission is acceptable because it sometimes takes a long time to get a paper reviewed and because one of the papers can be withdrawn at any time. This is a clear violation of professional ethics and of the copyright agreement that is signed on submission. Duplicate submission harms the whole community because editors and reviewers waste their time and in the process compound the time it takes to get a paper reviewed for all authors. In cases of duplicate submission, the Editor of the affected OSA journal will consult with the Editor of the other journal involved to determine the proper course of action. Often that action will be the rejection of both papers. Plagiarism: Plagiarism is a serious breach of ethics and is defined as the substantial replication, without attribution, of significant elements of another document already published by the same or other authors. Two types of plagiarism can occur-self-plagiarism

  19. America's Heritage: An Exploratory Cross-Cultural Study of Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickels, Virginia

    A one-year course in which five languages were introduced in conjunction with the study of European and Arkansas state history is described. The course was designed to provide eighth grade students with a basis for deciding whether to study a foreign language. The main goal was to provide awareness of foreign language through conversation and the…

  20. Cross-Cultural Language Learning and Web Design Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Ji Yong

    2015-01-01

    Accepting the fact that culture and language are interrelated in second language learning (SLL), the web sites should be designed to integrate with the cultural aspects. Yet many SLL web sites fail to integrate with the cultural aspects and/or focus on language acquisition only. This study identified three issues: (1) anthropologists'…

  1. Social influences on unconscious plagiarism and anti-plagiarism.

    PubMed

    Hollins, Timothy J; Lange, Nicholas; Dennis, Ian; Longmore, Christopher A

    2016-08-01

    People are more likely to unconsciously plagiarise ideas from a same-sex partner than a different-sex partner, and more likely to unconsciously plagiarise if recalling alone rather than in the presence of their partner [Macrae, C. N., Bodenhausen, G. V., & Calvini, G. (1999). Contexts of cryptomnesia: May the source be with you. Social Cognition, 17, 273-297. doi: 10.1521/soco.1999.17.3.273 ]. Two sets of experiments explore these phenomena, using extensions of the standard unconscious plagiarism paradigm. In Experiment 1A participants worked together in same- or different-sex dyads before trying to recall their own ideas or their partner's ideas. More source errors were evident for same-sex dyads (Experiment 1A), but this effect was absent when participants recalled from both sources simultaneously (Experiment 1B). In Experiment 2A, participants recalled ideas from a single source either alone or in the presence of the partner, using an extended-recall task. Partner presence did not affect the availability of ideas, but did reduce the propensity to report them as task compliant, relative to a partner-present condition. Simultaneous recall from both sources removed this social effect (Experiment 2B). Thus social influences on unconscious plagiarism are apparent, but are influenced by the salience of the alternate source at retrieval.

  2. Social influences on unconscious plagiarism and anti-plagiarism.

    PubMed

    Hollins, Timothy J; Lange, Nicholas; Dennis, Ian; Longmore, Christopher A

    2016-08-01

    People are more likely to unconsciously plagiarise ideas from a same-sex partner than a different-sex partner, and more likely to unconsciously plagiarise if recalling alone rather than in the presence of their partner [Macrae, C. N., Bodenhausen, G. V., & Calvini, G. (1999). Contexts of cryptomnesia: May the source be with you. Social Cognition, 17, 273-297. doi: 10.1521/soco.1999.17.3.273 ]. Two sets of experiments explore these phenomena, using extensions of the standard unconscious plagiarism paradigm. In Experiment 1A participants worked together in same- or different-sex dyads before trying to recall their own ideas or their partner's ideas. More source errors were evident for same-sex dyads (Experiment 1A), but this effect was absent when participants recalled from both sources simultaneously (Experiment 1B). In Experiment 2A, participants recalled ideas from a single source either alone or in the presence of the partner, using an extended-recall task. Partner presence did not affect the availability of ideas, but did reduce the propensity to report them as task compliant, relative to a partner-present condition. Simultaneous recall from both sources removed this social effect (Experiment 2B). Thus social influences on unconscious plagiarism are apparent, but are influenced by the salience of the alternate source at retrieval. PMID:26293909

  3. From the Board of Editors: on Plagiarism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-05-01

    Dear Colleagues: There has been a significant increase in the number of duplicate submissions and plagiarism cases reported in all major journals, including the journals of the Optical Society of America. Duplicate submissions and plagiarism can take many forms, and all of them are violations of professional ethics, the copyright agreement that an author signs along with the submission of a paper, and OSA's published Author Guidelines. There must be a significant component of new science for a paper to be publishable. The copying of large segments of text from previously published or in-press papers with only minor cosmetic changes is not acceptable and can lead to the rejection of papers. Duplicate submission: Duplicate submission is the most common ethics violation encountered. Duplicate submission is the submission of substantially similar papers to more than one journal. There is a misperception in a small fraction of the scientific community that duplicate submission is acceptable because it sometimes takes a long time to get a paper reviewed and because one of the papers can be withdrawn at any time. This is a clear violation of professional ethics and of the copyright agreement that is signed on submission. Duplicate submission harms the whole community because editors and reviewers waste their time and in the process compound the time it takes to get a paper reviewed for all authors. In cases of duplicate submission, the Editor of the affected OSA journal will consult with the Editor of the other journal involved to determine the proper course of action. Often that action will be the rejection of both papers. Plagiarism: Plagiarism is a serious breach of ethics and is defined as the substantial replication, without attribution, of significant elements of another document already published by the same or other authors. Two types of plagiarism can occur-self-plagiarism and plagiarism from others' works. Self-plagiarism is the publication of substantially

  4. Cross-language similarities and differences in the uptake of place information.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Anita

    2013-06-01

    Cross-language differences in the use of coarticulatory cues for the identification of fricatives have been demonstrated in a phoneme detection task: Listeners with perceptually similar fricative pairs in their native phoneme inventories (English, Polish, Spanish) relied more on cues from vowels than listeners with perceptually more distinct fricative contrasts (Dutch and German). The present gating study further investigated these cross-language differences and addressed three questions. (1) Are there cross-language differences in informativeness of parts of the speech signal regarding place of articulation for fricative identification? (2) Are such cross-language differences fricative-specific, or do they extend to the perception of place of articulation for plosives? (3) Is such language-specific uptake of information based on cues preceding or following the consonantal constriction? Dutch, Italian, Polish, and Spanish listeners identified fricatives and plosives in gated CV and VC syllables. The results showed cross-language differences in the informativeness of coarticulatory cues for fricative identification: Spanish and Polish listeners extracted place of articulation information from shorter portions of VC syllables. No language-specific differences were found for plosives, suggesting that greater reliance on coarticulatory cues did not generalize to other phoneme types. The language-specific differences for fricatives were based on coarticulatory cues into the consonant.

  5. Resolving an Incident of Academic Dishonesty: Plagiarism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmack, Betty J.

    1983-01-01

    Describes the emotions encountered in confronting nursing students involved in plagiarism and presents the experience as a process involving denial, anger, and resolution. Evaluates and recommends that nurse educators be prepared to deal with academic dishonesty. (JOW)

  6. Methods for Helping Students Avoid Plagiarism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landau, Joshua D.; Druen, Perri B.; Arcuri, Jennifer A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes an experiment used with undergraduate students to educate students about plagiarism and paraphrasing techniques. Discusses the procedure used for the experiment as well as results from the experiment and a postexperiement questionnaire. (CMK)

  7. Cross-Examining the Commercial: The Language of TV Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarvey, Jack

    1980-01-01

    Argues that television advertising is now the most powerful language in existence. Provides a "TV advertising test" to prove the point and outlines a unit designed to make students aware of the language of television commercials while improving their writing and thinking skills. (FL)

  8. Cross-Language Nonword Repetition by Bilingual and Monolingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windsor, Jennifer; Kohnert, Kathryn; Lobitz, Kelann F.; Pham, Giang T.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Identifying children with primary or specific language impairment (LI) in languages other than English continues to present a diagnostic challenge. This study examined the utility of English and Spanish nonword repetition (NWR) to identify children known to have LI. Method: Participants were 4 groups of school-age children (N = 187).…

  9. Cross-Language Activation of Phonology in Young Bilingual Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jared, Debra; Cormier, Pierre; Levy, Betty Ann; Wade-Woolley, Lesly

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether children who were learning to read simultaneously in English and French activate phonological representations from only the language in which they are reading or from both of their languages. Children in French Immersion programs in Grade 3 were asked to name aloud cognates, interlingual homographs, interlingual homophones,…

  10. Another Look at Cross-Language Competition in Bilingual Speech Production: Lexical and Phonological Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Albert; Colome, Angels; Gomez, Olga; Sebastian-Galles, Nuria

    2003-01-01

    How does lexical selection function in highly-proficient bilingual speakers? What is the role of the non-response language during the course of lexicalization? Evidence of cross-language interference was obtained by Hermans, Bongaerts, De Bot and Schreuder (1998) using the picture-word interference paradigm: participants took longer to name the…

  11. Cross-Sectional Evaluation of English Language Teachers' Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuksel, Ismail; Yasin, Elif

    2014-01-01

    The current study aims to identify the language teachers' technological pedagogical content knowledge and to examine their competency levels in terms of gender, length of service, and workplace. This cross-sectional evaluation study was conducted with 124 language teachers in Eskisehir, Turkey. Participants were administered Technological…

  12. Beyond Cross-Language Transfer: Reconceptualizing the Impact of Early Bilingualism on Phonological Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Li-Jen; Anderson, Richard C.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates effects of early bilingualism on phonological awareness that are abstract and beyond cross-language transfer. It extends the scope of previous research by systematically examining hypotheses derived from "structural sensitivity theory." The theory postulates that having access to two languages renders structural…

  13. Reviving the "Moments": From Cultural Awareness and Cross-Cultural Mediation to Critical Intercultural Language Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dasli, Maria

    2011-01-01

    In the field of modern language education, the discourse of intercultural communication has experienced three "moments": "cultural awareness, cross-cultural mediation," and "critical intercultural language pedagogy". The first refers to the equation between culture and country. The second concerns the development of intercultural competence…

  14. Teaching Languages in College: Communicative Proficiency and Cross-Cultural Issues. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Arnulfo G., Ed.

    A collection of papers concerning college language instruction and exploring issues related to promoting communicative skills and cross-cultural understanding includes the following titles: (1) "Languages at College: The Student and the Curriculum," by W. M. Rivers; (2) "Dimensions of Communicative Proficiency," by A. Ramirez; (3) "Communicative…

  15. Cross-Language Transfer of Insight into the Structure of Compound Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jie; Anderson, Richard C.; Li, Hong; Dong, Qiong; Wu, Xinchun; Zhang, Yan

    2010-01-01

    Cross-language transfer of awareness of the structure of compound words was investigated among native speakers of Chinese who were learning English as a second language. Chinese fifth graders received instruction in the morphology of four types of compound words in either Chinese or English. They then completed both the Chinese and English…

  16. Combating unethical publications with plagiarism detection services

    PubMed Central

    Garner, H.R.

    2010-01-01

    About 3,000 new citations that are highly similar to citations in previously published manuscripts that appear each year in the biomedical literature (Medline) alone. This underscores the importance for the opportunity for editors and reviewers to have detection system to identify highly similar text in submitted manuscripts so that they can then review them for novelty. New software-based services, both commercial and free, provide this capability. The availability of such tools provides both a way to intercept suspect manuscripts and serve as a deterrent. Unfortunately, the capabilities of these services vary considerably, mainly as a consequence of the availability and completeness of the literature bases to which new queries are compared. Most of the commercial software has been designed for detection of plagiarism in high school and college papers, however, there is at least one fee-based service (CrossRef) and one free service (etblast.org) which are designed to target the needs of the biomedical publication industry. Information on these various services, examples of the type of operability and output, and things that need to be considered by publishers, editors and reviewers before selecting and using these services is provided. PMID:21194644

  17. Cross-Linguistic Differences in the Neural Representation of Human Language: Evidence from Users of Signed Languages

    PubMed Central

    Corina, David P.; Lawyer, Laurel A.; Cates, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Studies of deaf individuals who are users of signed languages have provided profound insight into the neural representation of human language. Case studies of deaf signers who have incurred left- and right-hemisphere damage have shown that left-hemisphere resources are a necessary component of sign language processing. These data suggest that, despite frank differences in the input and output modality of language, core left perisylvian regions universally serve linguistic function. Neuroimaging studies of deaf signers have generally provided support for this claim. However, more fine-tuned studies of linguistic processing in deaf signers are beginning to show evidence of important differences in the representation of signed and spoken languages. In this paper, we provide a critical review of this literature and present compelling evidence for language-specific cortical representations in deaf signers. These data lend support to the claim that the neural representation of language may show substantive cross-linguistic differences. We discuss the theoretical implications of these findings with respect to an emerging understanding of the neurobiology of language. PMID:23293624

  18. Plagiarism in Personal Statements of Anesthesiology Residency Applicants.

    PubMed

    Parks, Lance J; Sizemore, Daniel C; Johnstone, Robert E

    2016-02-15

    Plagiarism by residency applicants in their personal statements, as well as sites that sell personal statements, have been described, and led in 2011 to advice to avoid plagiarism and the caution that plagiarism detection software was available. We screened personal statements of 467 anesthesiology residency applicants from 2013-2014 using Viper Plagiarism Scanner software, and studied them for plagiarism. After quotes and commonly used phrases were removed, 82 statements contained unoriginal content of 8 or more consecutive words. After the study, 13.6% of personal statements from non-United States medical school graduates, and 4.0% from United States medical school graduates, contained plagiarized material, a significant difference. Plagiarized content ranged up to 58%. Plagiarism continues to occur in anesthesiology residency personal statements, with a higher incidence among graduates of non-United States medical schools.

  19. Plagiarism in Personal Statements of Anesthesiology Residency Applicants.

    PubMed

    Parks, Lance J; Sizemore, Daniel C; Johnstone, Robert E

    2016-02-15

    Plagiarism by residency applicants in their personal statements, as well as sites that sell personal statements, have been described, and led in 2011 to advice to avoid plagiarism and the caution that plagiarism detection software was available. We screened personal statements of 467 anesthesiology residency applicants from 2013-2014 using Viper Plagiarism Scanner software, and studied them for plagiarism. After quotes and commonly used phrases were removed, 82 statements contained unoriginal content of 8 or more consecutive words. After the study, 13.6% of personal statements from non-United States medical school graduates, and 4.0% from United States medical school graduates, contained plagiarized material, a significant difference. Plagiarized content ranged up to 58%. Plagiarism continues to occur in anesthesiology residency personal statements, with a higher incidence among graduates of non-United States medical schools. PMID:26462161

  20. The Cat-and-Mouse Game of Plagiarism Detection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2001-01-01

    Describes how colleges, frustrated by students who use the Internet to plagiarize, are going online to enable professors to fight back. Explains that plagiarism-detection software, available for several years, is increasing in use. (EV)

  1. Cross-language distributions of high frequency and phonetically similar cognates.

    PubMed

    Schepens, Job; Dijkstra, Ton; Grootjen, Franc; van Heuven, Walter J B

    2013-01-01

    The coinciding form and meaning similarity of cognates, e.g. 'flamme' (French), 'Flamme' (German), 'vlam' (Dutch), meaning 'flame' in English, facilitates learning of additional languages. The cross-language frequency and similarity distributions of cognates vary according to evolutionary change and language contact. We compare frequency and orthographic (O), phonetic (P), and semantic similarity of cognates, automatically identified in semi-complete lexicons of six widely spoken languages. Comparisons of P and O similarity reveal inconsistent mappings in language pairs with deep orthographies. The frequency distributions show that cognate frequency is reduced in less closely related language pairs as compared to more closely related languages (e.g., French-English vs. German-English). These frequency and similarity patterns may support a better understanding of cognate processing in natural and experimental settings. The automatically identified cognates are available in the supplementary materials, including the frequency and similarity measurements.

  2. Cross Context Role of Language Proficiency in Learners' Use of Language Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamalizad, Jalal; Samuel, Moses

    2015-01-01

    Responding to the controversies in the results of past studies regarding the impact of language proficiency on learners' use of language learning strategies, this article reports the effect of language proficiency on the strategy use of Iranian English learners across two different settings, namely ESL Malaysia, and EFL Iran. Some 157 Iranian…

  3. Cross Currents: Communication/Language/Cross-Cultural Skills, Volume X, Number 2. Tenth Anniversary Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasky, Andrew, Ed.; Brooks, Lori B., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    A tenth anniversary issue of the biannual journal of the Language Institute of Japan contains articles on teaching the four language skills, reading, and writing, speaking, listening, as well as cultural training. The articles include: "Rod City: Context and Focus for Student-Generated Language" (Robert Ruud); "Prediction as a Listening Strategy"…

  4. Cross Currents: A Journal of Language Teaching and Cross-Cultural Communication. Volume XI, Number 2, Fall 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross Currents, 1984

    1984-01-01

    This issue of a biannual journal for interdisciplinary exchange of ideas within the areas of communication, language skills acquisition and instruction, and cross-cultural training and learning includes these articles: "Oral Interactive Testing at a Japanese University" (Eloise Pearson); "Classroom Organisation and the Teacher" (Armand…

  5. The Crime of Plagiarism: A Critique of Literary Property Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, Gary Layne

    Understanding the history of plagiarism may put scholars in a position to define plagiarism more precisely and to decide plagiarism disputes involving students and scholars more fairly. The origins of literary property are found in ritual and religious drama. In classical Greece and Rome, literary property began to hold some value for the author.…

  6. The Issue of (Software) Plagiarism: A Student View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuda, D.; Navrat, P.; Kovacova, B.; Humay, P.

    2012-01-01

    The issue of plagiarism is discussed in the context of university education in disciplines related to computing. The focus is therefore mainly on software plagiarism. First, however, a case is made for the claim that the most important reason that plagiarism cannot be tolerated lies in the essence of the concept of a university as it is rooted in…

  7. Rational Ignorance in Education: A Field Experiment in Student Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dee, Thomas S.; Jacob, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    Plagiarism appears to be a common problem among college students, yet there is little evidence on the effectiveness of interventions designed to minimize plagiarism. This study presents the results of a field experiment that evaluated the effects of a web-based educational tutorial in reducing plagiarism. We found that assignment to the treatment…

  8. Technology Enhanced Learning and Plagiarism in Entrepreneurship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risquez, Angelica; O'Dwyer, Michele; Ledwith, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to explore the relationship between entrepreneurship students' ethical views on plagiarism, their self reported engagement in plagiarism and their participation in an online plagiarism prevention tutorial. Design/methodology/approach: The study is based on a questionnaire administered to 434 undergraduate university…

  9. Ethical and Unethical Methods of Plagiarism Prevention in Academic Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakhtiyari, Kaveh; Salehi, Hadi; Embi, Mohamed Amin; Shakiba, Masoud; Zavvari, Azam; Shahbazi-Moghadam, Masoomeh; Ebrahim, Nader Ale; Mohammadjafari, Marjan

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses plagiarism origins, and the ethical solutions to prevent it. It also reviews some unethical approaches, which may be used to decrease the plagiarism rate in academic writings. We propose eight ethical techniques to avoid unconscious and accidental plagiarism in manuscripts without using online systems such as Turnitin and/or…

  10. The Toolbox for Local and Global Plagiarism Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butakov, Sergey; Scherbinin, Vladislav

    2009-01-01

    Digital plagiarism is a problem for educators all over the world. There are many software tools on the market for uncovering digital plagiarism. Most of them can work only with text submissions. In this paper, we present a new architecture for a plagiarism detection tool that can work with many different kinds of digital submissions, from plain or…

  11. Inoculating against Pro-Plagiarism Justifications: Rational and Affective Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compton, Josh; Pfau, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Student plagiarism continues to threaten academic integrity. This investigation assessed whether an inoculation message strategy could combat university plagiarism by protecting student attitudes against pro-plagiarism justification arguments. Additionally, we sought theoretical confirmation of previous findings on involvement and accessibility in…

  12. Turning to Turnitin to Fight Plagiarism among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batane, Tshepo

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a pilot project of the Turnitin plagiarism detection software, which was implemented to determine the impact of the software on the level of plagiarism among University of Botswana (UB) students. Students' assignments were first submitted to the software without their knowledge so as to gauge their level of plagiarism. The…

  13. Perceptions about Plagiarism between Faculty and Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchett, Serene

    2010-01-01

    The problem. Through observation and the review of literature, students often receive inconsistent and vague messages about plagiarism from faculty. Marcoux (2002) and Roig (2001) found a lack of consensus between faculty concerning definitions and forms of plagiarism. Although some students develop skills in order to avoid plagiarism, almost half…

  14. Cross-Validating Chinese Language Mental Health Recovery Measures in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bola, John; Chan, Tiffany Hill Ching; Chen, Eric HY; Ng, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Promoting recovery in mental health services is hampered by a shortage of reliable and valid measures, particularly in Hong Kong. We seek to cross validate two Chinese language measures of recovery and one of recovery-promoting environments. Method: A cross-sectional survey of people recovering from early episode psychosis (n = 121)…

  15. Cross-Modal Bilingualism: Language Contact as Evidence of Linguistic Transfer in Sign Bilingual Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menendez, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    New positive attitudes towards language interaction in the realm of bilingualism open new horizons for sign bilingual education. Plaza-Pust and Morales-Lopez have innovatively reconceptualised a new cross-disciplinary approach to sign bilingualism, based on both sociolinguistics and psycholinguistics. According to this framework, cross-modal…

  16. Cross-Linguistic Transfer among Iranian Learners of English as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talebi, Seyed Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Cross-linguistic transfer studies began from linguistic aspects of language learning and moved to non-linguistic aspects. The intriguing question is whether students are aware of the nature of these cross-linguistic interactions in their minds. For this purpose, a semi-structured interview was conducted with four Iranian university students. It…

  17. Cross-Linguistic Transfer of Morphological Awareness in Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners: The Facilitating Effect of Cognate Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Gloria; Chen, Xi; Pasquarella, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Cross-language effects of Spanish derivational awareness on English vocabulary and reading comprehension were studied in Spanish-speaking English Language Learners (N = 90) in grades four and seven. The role of cognate vocabulary in cross-language transfer of derivational awareness was also examined. Multivariate path analyses controlling for age,…

  18. Guidelines for conducting rigorous health care psychosocial cross-cultural/language qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Arriaza, Pablo; Nedjat-Haiem, Frances; Lee, Hee Yun; Martin, Shadi S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to synthesize and chronicle the authors' experiences as four bilingual and bicultural researchers, each experienced in conducting cross-cultural/cross-language qualitative research. Through narrative descriptions of experiences with Latinos, Iranians, and Hmong refugees, the authors discuss their rewards, challenges, and methods of enhancing rigor, trustworthiness, and transparency when conducting cross-cultural/cross-language research. The authors discuss and explore how to effectively manage cross-cultural qualitative data, how to effectively use interpreters and translators, how to identify best methods of transcribing data, and the role of creating strong community relationships. The authors provide guidelines for health care professionals to consider when engaging in cross-cultural qualitative research.

  19. Perspective: publication ethics and the emerging scientific workforce: understanding "plagiarism" in a global context.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Carrie; Zhao, Hui; McHugh, Michelle K

    2012-01-01

    English has long been the dominant language of scientific publication, and it is rapidly approaching near-complete hegemony. The majority of the scientists publishing in English-language journals are not native English speakers, however. This imbalance has important implications for training concerning ethics and enforcement of publication standards, particularly with respect to plagiarism. The authors suggest that lack of understanding of what constitutes plagiarism and the use of a linguistic support strategy known as "patchwriting" can lead to inadvertent misuse of source material by nonnative speakers writing in English as well as to unfounded accusations of intentional scientific misconduct on the part of these authors. They propose that a rational and well-informed dialogue about this issue is needed among editors, educators, administrators, and both native-English-speaking and nonnative-English-speaking writers. They offer recommendations for creating environments in which such dialogue and training can occur.

  20. Cross-Linguistic Influence in Third Language Perception: L2 and L3 Perception of Japanese Contrasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onishi, Hiromi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the possible influence of language learners' second language (L2) on their perception of phonological contrasts in their third language (L3). Previous studies on Third Language Acquisition (TLA) suggest various factors as possible sources of cross-linguistic influence in the acquisition of an L3. This dissertation…

  1. Cross-linguistic influence of first language writing systems on brain responses to second language word reading in late bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Satoru; Kim, Jungho; Uchida, Shinya; Miyamoto, Tadao; Yoshimoto, Kei; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-09-01

    Introduction How human brains acquire second languages (L2) is one of the fundamental questions in neuroscience and language science. However, it is unclear whether the first language (L1) has a cross-linguistic influence on the processing of L2. Methods Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to compare brain activities during L2 word reading tasks of phonographic Japanese Kana between two groups of learners of the Japanese language as their L2 and who had different orthographic backgrounds of their L1. For Chinese learners, a L1 of the Chinese language (Hanji) and a L2 of the Japanese Kana differed orthographically, whereas for Korean learners, a L1 of Korean Hangul and a L2 of Japanese Kana were similar. Results Our analysis revealed that, although proficiency and the age of acquisition did not differ between the two groups, Chinese learners showed greater activation of the left middle frontal gyrus than Korean learners during L2 word reading. Conclusion Our results provide evidence that strongly supported the hypothesis that cross-linguistic variations in orthography between L1 and L2 induce differential brain activation during L2 word reading, which has been proposed previously. PMID:24392274

  2. Cross-linguistic influence of first language writing systems on brain responses to second language word reading in late bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Satoru; Kim, Jungho; Uchida, Shinya; Miyamoto, Tadao; Yoshimoto, Kei; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-09-01

    Introduction How human brains acquire second languages (L2) is one of the fundamental questions in neuroscience and language science. However, it is unclear whether the first language (L1) has a cross-linguistic influence on the processing of L2. Methods Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to compare brain activities during L2 word reading tasks of phonographic Japanese Kana between two groups of learners of the Japanese language as their L2 and who had different orthographic backgrounds of their L1. For Chinese learners, a L1 of the Chinese language (Hanji) and a L2 of the Japanese Kana differed orthographically, whereas for Korean learners, a L1 of Korean Hangul and a L2 of Japanese Kana were similar. Results Our analysis revealed that, although proficiency and the age of acquisition did not differ between the two groups, Chinese learners showed greater activation of the left middle frontal gyrus than Korean learners during L2 word reading. Conclusion Our results provide evidence that strongly supported the hypothesis that cross-linguistic variations in orthography between L1 and L2 induce differential brain activation during L2 word reading, which has been proposed previously.

  3. Guidelines on What Constitutes Plagiarism and Electronic Tools to Detect it.

    PubMed

    Luksanapruksa, Panya; Millhouse, Paul W

    2016-04-01

    Plagiarism is a serious ethical problem among scientific publications. There are various definitions of plagiarism, and the major categories include unintentional (unsuitable paraphrasing or improper citations) and intentional. Intentional plagiarism includes mosaic plagiarism, plagiarism of ideas, plagiarism of text, and self-plagiarism. There are many Web sites and software packages that claim to detect plagiarism effectively. A violation of plagiarism laws can lead to serious consequences including author banning, loss of professional reputation, termination of a position, and even legal action. PMID:26925859

  4. Negotiating Second-Language Identities in and through Border Crossing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallucci, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I describe the ways in which two British university students negotiated their identity as second language learners during a year abroad in Italy and the extent to which their struggles helped them to "fit in" into the new social and cultural contexts. Building upon the lived experiences of the two participants, I follow…

  5. Cross-Pollination -- An Experiment in Language Enrichment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breach, H. T.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an experiment with a second-year class of about 35 pupils in teaching English, French and Indonesian in an interconnected way, involving art and social studies as well as language and literature. Although the experiment is as yet unevaluated, the general effect was considered encouraging. (KM)

  6. The Role of Cross-Language Activation in Syntactic Ambiguity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Li-Hao

    2011-01-01

    There is much evidence demonstrating that bilinguals activate lexical representations from both of their languages in a non-selective manner even in sentence context. Comparatively less research has examined the extent to which bilingual lexical representations interacts with syntactic processing in sentence context. The purpose of this study is…

  7. International Perspectives on Plagiarism and Considerations for Teaching International Trainees

    PubMed Central

    Heitman, Elizabeth; Litewka, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    In the increasingly global community of biomedical science and graduate science education, many US academic researchers work with international trainees whose views on scientific writing and plagiarism can be strikingly different from US norms. Although a growing number of countries and international professional organizations identify plagiarism as research misconduct, many international trainees come from research environments where plagiarism is ill-defined and even commonly practiced. Two research-ethics educators consider current perspectives on plagiarism around the world and contend that US research-training programs should focus on trainees’ scientific writing skills and acculturation, not simply on preventing plagiarism. PMID:21194646

  8. Patchwork plagiarism--a jigsaw of stolen puzzle pieces.

    PubMed

    Supak Smolcić, Vesna; Bilić-Zulle, Lidija

    2013-01-01

    Plagiarism remains at the top in terms of interest to the scientific community. In its many vicious forms, patchwork plagiarism is characterized by numerous unresolved issues and often passes "below the radar" of editors and reviewers. The problem of detecting the complexity of misconduct has been partially resolved by plagiarism detection software. However, interpretation of relevant reports is not always obvious or easy. This article deals with plagiarism in general and patchwork plagiarism in particular, as well as related problems that editors must deal with to maintain the integrity of scientific journals.

  9. International perspectives on plagiarism and considerations for teaching international trainees.

    PubMed

    Heitman, Elizabeth; Litewka, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    In the increasingly global community of biomedical science and graduate science education, many US academic researchers work with international trainees whose views on scientific writing and plagiarism can be strikingly different from US norms. Although a growing number of countries and international professional organizations identify plagiarism as research misconduct, many international trainees come from research environments where plagiarism is ill-defined and even commonly practiced. Two research-ethics educators consider current perspectives on plagiarism around the world and contend that US research-training programs should focus on trainees' scientific writing skills and acculturation, not simply on preventing plagiarism.

  10. Border Crossings? Exploring the Intersection of Second Language Acquisition, Conversation Analysis, and Foreign Language Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Junko

    2007-01-01

    This article explores recent changes in the landscape of second language acquisition (SLA) and foreign language pedagogical (FLP) research. Firth and Wagner's (1997) proposal for the reconceptualization of SLA has been supported by SLA and FLP researchers who share the sentiment concerning the need for increased attention to social and contextual…

  11. Cross-Language Priming of Word Meaning during Second Language Sentence Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Yanli; Woltz, Dan; Zheng, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The experiment investigated the benefit to second language (L2) sentence comprehension of priming word meanings with brief visual exposure to first language (L1) translation equivalents. Native English speakers learning Mandarin evaluated the validity of aurally presented Mandarin sentences. For selected words in half of the sentences there was…

  12. Language-Specific Developmental Differences in Speech Production: A Cross-Language Acoustic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Fangfang

    2012-01-01

    Speech productions of 40 English- and 40 Japanese-speaking children (aged 2-5) were examined and compared with the speech produced by 20 adult speakers (10 speakers per language). Participants were recorded while repeating words that began with "s" and "sh" sounds. Clear language-specific patterns in adults' speech were found, with English…

  13. Cross Currents: Communication/Language/Cross-Cultural Skills, Volume 7, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutow, Howard L., Ed.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    This issue of a biannual journal devoted to teaching methods and techniques in English as a second language (ESL), with emphasis on a Japanese instructional context, consists of the following articles: (1) "The Missing Element in Foreign Language Communication: Self-Disclosure," by Gertrude Moskowitz; (2) "Seven Clocks: Their Ailments and Their…

  14. Recovery of language function in Korean-Japanese crossed bilingual aphasia following right basal ganglia hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Lee, Boram; Moon, Hyun Im; Lim, Sung Hee; Cho, Hyesuk; Choi, Hyunjoo; Pyun, Sung-Bom

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have investigated language recovery patterns and the mechanisms of crossed bilingual aphasia following a subcortical stroke. In particular, Korean-Japanese crossed bilingual aphasia has not been reported. A 47-year-old, right-handed man was diagnosed with an extensive right basal ganglia hemorrhage. He was bilingual, fluent in both Korean and Japanese. After his stroke, the patient presented with crossed aphasia. We investigated changes in the Korean (L1) and Japanese (L2) language recovery patterns. Both Korean and Japanese versions of the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) were completed one month after the stroke, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed using picture-naming tasks. The WAB showed a paradoxical pattern of bilingual aphasia, with an aphasia quotient (AQ) of 32 for Korean and 50.6 for Japanese, with Broca's aphasia. The patient scored better in the Japanese version of all domains of the tests. The fMRI study showed left lateralized activation in both language tasks, especially in the inferior frontal gyrus. After six months of language therapy targeting L1, the Korean-WAB score improved significantly, while the Japanese-WAB score showed slight improvement. In this case, the subcortical lesion contributed to crossed bilingual aphasia more highly affecting L1 due to loss of the cortico-subcortical control mechanism in the dominant hemisphere. The paradoxical pattern of bilingual aphasia disappeared after lengthy language therapy targeting L1, and the therapy effect did not transfer to L2. Language recovery in L1 might have been accomplished by reintegrating language networks, including the contralesional language homologue area in the left hemisphere. PMID:26853846

  15. Recovery of language function in Korean-Japanese crossed bilingual aphasia following right basal ganglia hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Lee, Boram; Moon, Hyun Im; Lim, Sung Hee; Cho, Hyesuk; Choi, Hyunjoo; Pyun, Sung-Bom

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have investigated language recovery patterns and the mechanisms of crossed bilingual aphasia following a subcortical stroke. In particular, Korean-Japanese crossed bilingual aphasia has not been reported. A 47-year-old, right-handed man was diagnosed with an extensive right basal ganglia hemorrhage. He was bilingual, fluent in both Korean and Japanese. After his stroke, the patient presented with crossed aphasia. We investigated changes in the Korean (L1) and Japanese (L2) language recovery patterns. Both Korean and Japanese versions of the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) were completed one month after the stroke, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed using picture-naming tasks. The WAB showed a paradoxical pattern of bilingual aphasia, with an aphasia quotient (AQ) of 32 for Korean and 50.6 for Japanese, with Broca's aphasia. The patient scored better in the Japanese version of all domains of the tests. The fMRI study showed left lateralized activation in both language tasks, especially in the inferior frontal gyrus. After six months of language therapy targeting L1, the Korean-WAB score improved significantly, while the Japanese-WAB score showed slight improvement. In this case, the subcortical lesion contributed to crossed bilingual aphasia more highly affecting L1 due to loss of the cortico-subcortical control mechanism in the dominant hemisphere. The paradoxical pattern of bilingual aphasia disappeared after lengthy language therapy targeting L1, and the therapy effect did not transfer to L2. Language recovery in L1 might have been accomplished by reintegrating language networks, including the contralesional language homologue area in the left hemisphere.

  16. Avoiding plagiarism: guidance for nursing students.

    PubMed

    Price, Bob

    The pressures of study, diversity of source materials, past assumptions relating to good writing practice, ambiguous writing guidance on best practice and students' insecurity about their reasoning ability, can lead to plagiarism. With the use of source checking software, there is an increased chance that plagiarised work will be identified and investigated, and penalties given. In extreme cases, plagiarised work may be reported to the Nursing and Midwifery Council and professional as well as academic penalties may apply. This article provides information on how students can avoid plagiarism when preparing their coursework for submission.

  17. From the Board of Editors: on Plagiarism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-04-01

    From the Board of Editors: on Plagiarism

    Dear Colleagues: There has been a significant increase in the number of duplicate submissions and plagiarism cases reported in all major journals, including the journals of the Optical Society of America. Duplicate submissions and plagiarism can take many forms, and all of them are violations of professional ethics, the copyright agreement that an author signs along with the submission of a paper, and OSA's published Author Guidelines. There must be a significant component of new science for a paper to be publishable. The copying of large segments of text from previously published or in-press papers with only minor cosmetic changes is not acceptable and can lead to the rejection of papers. Duplicate submission: Duplicate submission is the most common ethics violation encountered. Duplicate submission is the submission of substantially similar papers to more than one journal. There is a misperception in a small fraction of the scientific community that duplicate submission is acceptable because it sometimes takes a long time to get a paper reviewed and because one of the papers can be withdrawn at any time. This is a clear violation of professional ethics and of the copyright agreement that is signed on submission. Duplicate submission harms the whole community because editors and reviewers waste their time and in the process compound the time it takes to get a paper reviewed for all authors. In cases of duplicate submission, the Editor of the affected OSA journal will consult with the Editor of the other journal involved to determine the proper course of action. Often that action will be the rejection of both papers. Plagiarism: Plagiarism is a serious breach of ethics and is defined as the substantial replication, without attribution, of significant elements of another document already published by the same or other authors. Two types of plagiarism can occur-self-plagiarism

  18. Neural control of cross-language asymmetry in the bilingual brain.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kimihiro; Kouider, Sid; Makuuchi, Michiru; Kuroki, Chihiro; Hanajima, Ritsuko; Ugawa, Yoshikazu; Ogawa, Seiji

    2010-09-01

    Most bilinguals understand their second language more slowly than their first. This behavioral asymmetry may arise from the perceptual, phonological, lexicosemantic, or strategic components of bilingual word processing. However, little is known about the neural source of such language dominance and how it is regulated in the bilingual brain. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we found that unconscious neural priming in bilingual word recognition is language nonselective in the left midfusiform gyrus but exhibits a preference for the dominant language in the left posterior middle temporal gyrus (MTG). These early-stage components of reading were located slightly upstream of the left midlateral MTG, which exhibited enhanced response during a conscious switch of language. Effective connectivity analysis revealed that this language switch is triggered by reentrant signals from inferior frontal cortex and not by bottom-up signals from occipitotemporal cortex. We further confirmed that magnetic stimulation of the same inferior frontal region interferes with conscious language control but does not disrupt unconscious priming by masked words. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the neural bottleneck in the bilingual brain is a cross-language asymmetry of form-meaning association in inferolateral temporal cortex, which is overcome by a top-down cognitive control for implementing a task schema in each language.

  19. Language-specific developmental differences in speech production: a cross-language acoustic study.

    PubMed

    Li, Fangfang

    2012-01-01

    Speech productions of 40 English- and 40 Japanese-speaking children (aged 2-5) were examined and compared with the speech produced by 20 adult speakers (10 speakers per language). Participants were recorded while repeating words that began with "s" and "sh" sounds. Clear language-specific patterns in adults' speech were found, with English speakers differentiating "s" and "sh" in 1 acoustic dimension (i.e., spectral mean) and Japanese speakers differentiating the 2 categories in 3 acoustic dimensions (i.e., spectral mean, standard deviation, and onset F2 frequency). For both language groups, children's speech exhibited a gradual change from an early undifferentiated form to later differentiated categories. The separation processes, however, only occur in those acoustic dimensions used by adults in the corresponding languages.

  20. From the Board of Editors: on Plagiarism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-05-01

    Dear Colleagues: There has been a significant increase in the number of duplicate submissions and plagiarism cases reported in all major journals, including the journals of the Optical Society of America. Duplicate submissions and plagiarism can take many forms, and all of them are violations of professional ethics, the copyright agreement that an author signs along with the submission of a paper, and OSA's published Author Guidelines. There must be a significant component of new science for a paper to be publishable. The copying of large segments of text from previously published or in-press papers with only minor cosmetic changes is not acceptable and can lead to the rejection of papers. Duplicate submission: Duplicate submission is the most common ethics violation encountered. Duplicate submission is the submission of substantially similar papers to more than one journal. There is a misperception in a small fraction of the scientific community that duplicate submission is acceptable because it sometimes takes a long time to get a paper reviewed and because one of the papers can be withdrawn at any time. This is a clear violation of professional ethics and of the copyright agreement that is signed on submission. Duplicate submission harms the whole community because editors and reviewers waste their time and in the process compound the time it takes to get a paper reviewed for all authors. In cases of duplicate submission, the Editor of the affected OSA journal will consult with the Editor of the other journal involved to determine the proper course of action. Often that action will be the rejection of both papers. Plagiarism: Plagiarism is a serious breach of ethics and is defined as the substantial replication, without attribution, of significant elements of another document already published by the same or other authors. Two types of plagiarism can occur-self-plagiarism and plagiarism from others' works. Self-plagiarism is the publication of substantially

  1. From the Board of Editors: on Plagiarism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-04-01

    Dear Colleagues: There has been a significant increase in the number of duplicate submissions and plagiarism cases reported in all major journals, including the journals of the Optical Society of America. Duplicate submissions and plagiarism can take many forms, and all of them are violations of professional ethics, the copyright agreement that an author signs along with the submission of a paper, and OSA's published Author Guidelines. There must be a significant component of new science for a paper to be publishable. The copying of large segments of text from previously published or in-press papers with only minor cosmetic changes is not acceptable and can lead to the rejection of papers. Duplicate submission: Duplicate submission is the most common ethics violation encountered. Duplicate submission is the submission of substantially similar papers to more than one journal. There is a misperception in a small fraction of the scientific community that duplicate submission is acceptable because it sometimes takes a long time to get a paper reviewed and because one of the papers can be withdrawn at any time. This is a clear violation of professional ethics and of the copyright agreement that is signed on submission. Duplicate submission harms the whole community because editors and reviewers waste their time and in the process compound the time it takes to get a paper reviewed for all authors. In cases of duplicate submission, the Editor of the affected OSA journal will consult with the Editor of the other journal involved to determine the proper course of action. Often that action will be the rejection of both papers. Plagiarism: Plagiarism is a serious breach of ethics and is defined as the substantial replication, without attribution, of significant elements of another document already published by the same or other authors. Two types of plagiarism can occur-self-plagiarism and plagiarism from others' works. Self-plagiarism is the publication of substantially

  2. From the Board of Editors: on Plagiarism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-03-01

    Dear Colleagues: There has been a significant increase in the number of duplicate submissions and plagiarism cases reported in all major journals, including the journals of the Optical Society of America. Duplicate submissions and plagiarism can take many forms, and all of them are violations of professional ethics, the copyright agreement that an author signs along with the submission of a paper, and OSA's published Author Guidelines. There must be a significant component of new science for a paper to be publishable. The copying of large segments of text from previously published or in-press papers with only minor cosmetic changes is not acceptable and can lead to the rejection of papers. Duplicate submission is the most common ethics violation encountered. Duplicate submission is the submission of substantially similar papers to more than one journal. There is a misperception in a small fraction of the scientific community that duplicate submission is acceptable because it sometimes takes a long time to get a paper reviewed and because one of the papers can be withdrawn at any time. This is a clear violation of professional ethics and of the copyright agreement that is signed on submission. Duplicate submission harms the whole community because editors and reviewers waste their time and in the process compound the time it takes to get a paper reviewed for all authors. In cases of duplicate submission, the Editor of the affected OSA journal will consult with the Editor of the other journal involved to determine the proper course of action. Often that action will be the rejection of both papers. Plagiarism: Plagiarism is a serious breach of ethics and is defined as the substantial replication, without attribution, of significant elements of another document already published by the same or other authors. Two types of plagiarism can occur-self-plagiarism and plagiarism from others' works. Self-plagiarism is the publication of substantially similar scientific content

  3. Three treatments for bilingual children with primary language impairment: Examining cross-linguistic and cross-domain effects

    PubMed Central

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Kohnert, Kathryn; Pham, Giang; Disher, Jill Rentmeester; Payesteh, Bita

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study examines the absolute and relative effects of three different treatment programs for school-aged bilingual children with primary or specific language impairment (PLI). It serves to expand the evidence base on which service providers can base treatment decisions. It also explores hypothesized relations between languages and cognition in bilinguals with PLI. Method Fifty-nine school-aged Spanish-English bilingual children with PLI were assigned to receive nonlinguistic cognitive processing, English, bilingual (Spanish-English), or deferred treatment. Participants in each of the three active treatments received treatment administered by nationally certified speech-language pathologists. Pre- and post-treatment assessments measured change in nonlinguistic cognitive processing, English, and Spanish skills, and analyses examined change within and across both treatment groups and skill domains. Results All active treatment groups made significant pre- to post-treatment improvement on multiple outcome measures. There were fewer significant changes in Spanish than in English across groups. Between group comparisons indicate that the active treatment groups generally outperformed the deferred treatment control, reaching statistical significance for two tasks. Conclusions Results provide insight into cross-language transfer in bilingual children and advance understanding of the general PLI profile with respect to relationships between basic cognitive processing and higher level language skills. PMID:23900032

  4. Reexamining the language account of cross-national differences in base-10 number representations.

    PubMed

    Vasilyeva, Marina; Laski, Elida V; Ermakova, Anna; Lai, Weng-Feng; Jeong, Yoonkyung; Hachigian, Amy

    2015-01-01

    East Asian students consistently outperform students from other nations in mathematics. One explanation for this advantage is a language account; East Asian languages, unlike most Western languages, provide cues about the base-10 structure of multi-digit numbers, facilitating the development of base-10 number representations. To test this view, the current study examined how kindergartners represented two-digit numbers using single unit-blocks and ten-blocks. The participants (N=272) were from four language groups (Korean, Mandarin, English, and Russian) that vary in the extent of "transparency" of the base-10 structure. In contrast to previous findings with older children, kindergartners showed no cross-language variability in the frequency of producing base-10 representations. Furthermore, they showed a pattern of within-language variability that was not consistent with the language account and was likely attributable to experiential factors. These findings suggest that language might not play as critical a role in the development of base-10 representations as suggested in earlier research. PMID:25240152

  5. Plagiarism and the Internet: Turning the Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkins, Thomas; Nelson, Gene

    2001-01-01

    Notes the problem of Net-based plagiarism in student papers. Describes a solution that turns the tables by using the Internet: TurnItIn.com, an Internet scanner that annotates/marks unattributed material in student papers and compiles a report for the teacher overnight. (SR)

  6. Plagiarism: What Don't They Know?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voelker, Troy A.; Love, Leonard G.; Pentina, Iryna

    2012-01-01

    The present economic environment is beneficial for universities and schools of business that are experiencing significant enrollment increases. But just as the U.S. economy is suffering from an economic recession, universities increasingly suffer from an integrity recession. Student academic misconduct, particularly plagiarism, is at an all-time…

  7. Methods for Identifying Versioned and Plagiarized Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoad, Timothy C.; Zobel, Justin

    2003-01-01

    Describes research that was conducted to develop and evaluate techniques for identifying plagiarism, revisions, and different versions of online documents. Highlights include ranking; parsing; similarity measures; identity measures; fingerprinting documents; measuring effectiveness via recall and precision; and experiments on two document…

  8. A Question of Dialogues: Authorship, Authority, Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Celia; Pennycook, Alastair

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that while the term plagiarism has long been used as an unhelpful and moralistic catch-all to describe a range of textual "crimes." educators are moving into an era of both increased diversity of student populations and increased capacity to detect textual borrowings through new forms of software. To rely on the…

  9. Detecting Plagiarism in MS Access Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Anil

    2013-01-01

    Assurance of individual effort from students in computer-based assignments is a challenge. Due to digitization, students can easily use a copy of their friend's work and submit it as their own. Plagiarism in assignments puts students who cheat at par with those who work honestly and this compromises the learning evaluation process. Using a…

  10. Plagiarism and Academic Writing of NNS Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoCastro, Virginia; Masuko, Mayumi

    A study investigated attitudes toward and practices of plagiarism of Japanese college students writing in English. Data were drawn from two senior theses written in English and two in Japanese, 30 other student academic papers, interviews with students, and a questionnaire administered to 46 undergraduate and graduate students. In both…

  11. An Investigation of Plagiarism in Developmental Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Emily Grace Ehrlich; Agnello, Mary Frances; Kiser, Michelle; Osaghae, Osariemen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of higher education is to prepare students for the workforce. In order to prepare students for the workforce, many life lessons must be learned specifically respect for others' work. One of the invaluable lessons that a student can learn regarding respect for others' work is to appreciate originality and avoid of plagiarism. To be…

  12. Unintended Lessons: Plagiarism and the University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Carol C.

    2006-01-01

    Plagiarism, like other ethical problems, flourishes in atmospheres with few consequences. The finding by one survey that only 27% of college students thought cutting and pasting someone else's work was "serious cheating" is troubling evidence of student inclination to cut corners ethically. Papers are easily copied from the Internet, and adult…

  13. Classrooms that Discourage Plagiarism and Welcome Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Nancy Guillot

    2011-01-01

    The key to establishing a defense against plagiarism is understanding the reasons that students engage in the process in the first place. Many students enter new grade levels academically unprepared for new challenges. When students encounter gaps between knowledge and the expectations of the classroom, some engage in unethical practices to propel…

  14. Reflections on the Cultural Climate of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willen, Matthew S.

    2004-01-01

    If frequiency of e-mail distribution is any indication, college professors and administrators indeed took notice of last fall's article in the New York Times, "A Campus Fad That's Being Copied: Internet Plagiarism" (Rimer 2003), on Rutgers Professor Donald L. McCabe's recent study of cheating in college and universities. Four copies of the…

  15. Academic Integrity and Plagiarism: Australasian Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Donald

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews nearly 80 published items concerned with promoting academic integrity and reducing plagiarism. Nearly all of them were published in the last seven years and have authors based in Australasia. Most of them have authors from computing departments and many were published in computing journals or presented at computing conferences.…

  16. Plagiarism within Extension: Origin and Current Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Dora

    2011-01-01

    Extension publication editors from around the United States are finding cases of plagiarism within manuscripts that Extension educators submit as new public education materials. When editors confront such educators with the problem, some don't understand it as such, rationalizing that reproducing published information for a new purpose qualifies…

  17. Plagiarism: Do Students Know What It Is?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Maureen M.; Overfield, Joyce A.

    2006-01-01

    The ability of students to plagiarise coursework assessments has been a topic of much debate in recent years. The consequences of plagiarism for students may be devastating, since their failure to learn and use appropriate study skills will affect both their university experience and their subsequent career. This project set out to investigate…

  18. An electrophysiological investigation of cross-language effects of orthographic neighborhood.

    PubMed

    Midgley, Katherine J; Holcomb, Phillip J; VanHeuven, Walter J B; Grainger, Jonathan

    2008-12-30

    In Experiment 1 ERPs were recorded while French-English bilinguals read pure language lists of French and English words that differed in terms of the number of orthographic neighbors (many or few) they had in the other language. That is the number of French neighbors for English target words was varied and the number of English neighbors for French target words was varied. These participants showed effects of cross-language neighborhood size in the N400 ERP component that arose earlier and were more widely distributed for English (L2) target words than French (L1) targets. In a control experiment that served to demonstrate that these effects were not due to any other uncontrolled for item effects, monolingual L1 English participants read only the list of English targets that varied in the number of French (an unknown L) neighbors. These participants showed a very different pattern of effects of cross-language neighbors. These results provide further crucial evidence showing cross-language permeability in bilingual word recognition, a phenomena that was predicted and correctly simulated by the bilingual interactive-activation model (BIA+).

  19. Evaluating standards in cross-language research: a critique of Squires' criteria.

    PubMed

    Croot, Elizabeth J; Lees, Janet; Grant, Gordon

    2011-08-01

    Innovative methods to conduct cross-language research continue to evolve. There is a need to evaluate the processes involved in cross-language research to assess the extent to which they are fit for purpose from an epistemological point of view, and the subsequent impact on quality of resultant findings. Debate continues about the application of evaluative criteria to qualitative research, not least because of the multiplicity of worldviews and perspectives associated with different qualitative research paradigms. In this article we use two of the authors' studies to discuss how we assess whether methodologies underpinning cross-language research and the choice of methods used are 'fit for purpose'. We use Squires' (2009) 14 criteria to evaluate cross-language nursing and health sciences research based around conceptual equivalence, translator credentials, translator role/competence and study methods, and consider their value as an heuristic or a guide to encourage reflexivity and fuller accounting of the justifications for the approaches taken. PMID:21571272

  20. Development of a Cross-Platform Ubiquitous Language Learning Service via Mobile Phone and Interactive Television

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallahkhair, Sanaz; Pemberton, L.; Griffiths, R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the development processes for a cross-platform ubiquitous language learning service via interactive television (iTV) and mobile phone. Adapting a learner-centred design methodology, a number of requirements were gathered from multiple sources that were subsequently used in TAMALLE (television and mobile phone assisted language…

  1. Conquering the Babel: Cross-Language Information Retrieval on the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qin, Jian

    2000-01-01

    Presents abstracts of a session that discussed cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) on the World Wide Web. Topics include CLIR research in Chinese-English, German-English, and Japanese-English involving machine translation, semantic indexing, domain concepts, integrating new technologies, large-scale multilingual lexicons, and international…

  2. The Potential of Dual-Language Cross-Cultural Peer Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruecker, Todd

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the potential of dual-language cross-cultural peer review and how it improves on traditional monolingual and monocultural peer review. Drawing on scholarship related to international exchange programmes, peer review, and two-way immersion programmes in the United States as well as data collected while facilitating the…

  3. Our Environment. Language Arts Theme Units, Volume I. Cross Curricular Activities for Primary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Elizabeth A.; Hildebrand, Joan M.; Ericson, Joann H.

    Suggesting that students in the primary grades can explore the world around them and practice valuable skills in spelling, reading, writing, communication, and language, this book presents cross-curricular units on the environment that reach diverse needs by working through emotional memory, deductive reasoning, and multiple intelligences.…

  4. A Cross-Cultural Survey of Students' Expectations of Foreign Language Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banno, Eri

    2003-01-01

    Investigates university students' expectations of foreign language teachers cross-culturally. Japanese, American, and Chinese college students chose five important qualities in a teacher from a list. Results indicate that students of all groups placed importance on some qualities, and that Japanese and Chinese students had some similar…

  5. Language Factors Associated with Achievement Grouping in Math Classrooms: A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Mido; Singh, Kusum; Filer, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    The study examines the effects of classroom achievement grouping (AG) practices on the early mathematics performance of language-minority students and compares their mathematics achievement to that of English-speaking majority students. Using a nationally representative database of the USA, both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were done.…

  6. Cross-Sensory Correspondences and Symbolism in Spoken and Written Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Lexical sound symbolism in language appears to exploit the feature associations embedded in cross-sensory correspondences. For example, words incorporating relatively high acoustic frequencies (i.e., front/close rather than back/open vowels) are deemed more appropriate as names for concepts associated with brightness, lightness in weight,…

  7. Intriguing Animals. Language Arts Theme Units, Volume IV. Cross Curricular Activities for Primary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Elizabeth A.; Hildebrand, Joan M.; Ericson, Joann H.

    Suggesting that students in the primary grades can explore the world around them and practice valuable skills in spelling, reading, writing, communication, and language, this book presents cross-curricular units on intriguing animals that reach diverse needs by working through emotional memory, deductive reasoning, and multiple intelligences.…

  8. Persistence of Emphasis in Language Production: A Cross-Linguistic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernolet, Sarah; Hartsuiker, Robert J.; Pickering, Martin J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the way in which speakers determine which aspects of an utterance to emphasize and how this affects the form of utterances. To do this, we ask whether the binding between emphasis and thematic roles persists between utterances. In one within-language (Dutch-Dutch) and three cross-linguistic (Dutch-English) structural…

  9. Transmigrant Women in the US: Border Crossing Narratives, Identity, Spirituality, and Language & Literacy Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nidever-Jordan, Sherilynn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how transmigrant women living in the US encounter the border crossing and settlement experience, as well as how these experiences, gender, spirituality, and residence in the US have impacted their identity construction and reconstruction and their language and literacy practices. In my feminist narrative…

  10. Cross-Language Transfer of Morphological Awareness in Chinese-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasquarella, Adrian; Chen, Xi; Lam, Katie; Luo, Yang C.; Ramirez, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    This study examined cross-language transfer of morphological awareness in Chinese-English bilingual children. One hundred and thirty-seven first to fourth graders participated in the study. The children were tested on parallel measures of compound awareness, vocabulary, word reading and reading comprehension in Chinese and English. They also…

  11. Language Planning at a Cross-Border University in Swaziland: The Case of Teaching and Learning, Research and Institutional Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamwendo, Gregory Hankoni; Dlamini, Nosisi Percis

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses language planning at a cross-border university (a Zimbabwean university) that offers academic programmes to the Kingdom of Swaziland in the Southern African region. The paper is situated within the micro-level language planning framework, and discusses language decisions that govern three areas of university business, namely:…

  12. Cross-language parafoveal semantic processing: Evidence from Korean-Chinese bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aiping; Yeon, Junmo; Zhou, Wei; Shu, Hua; Yan, Ming

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, we aimed at testing cross-language cognate and semantic preview effects. We tested how native Korean readers who learned Chinese as a second language make use of the parafoveal information during the reading of Chinese sentences. There were 3 types of Korean preview words: cognate translations of the Chinese target words, semantically related noncognate words, and unrelated words. Together with a highly significant cognate preview effect, more critically, we also observed reliable facilitation in processing of the target word from the semantically related previews in all fixation measures. Results from the present study provide first evidence for semantic processing from parafoveally presented Korean words and for cross-language parafoveal semantic processing. PMID:26122894

  13. Cross-Language Activation Begins during Speech Planning and Extends into Second Language Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, April; Fricke, Melinda; Kroll, Judith F.

    2016-01-01

    Three groups of native English speakers named words aloud in Spanish, their second language (L2). Intermediate proficiency learners in a classroom setting (Experiment 1) and in a domestic immersion program (Experiment 2) were compared to a group of highly proficient English-Spanish speakers. All three groups named cognate words more quickly and…

  14. Language Crossings: Negotiating the Self in a Multicultural World. Language and Literacy Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogulnick, Karen, Ed.

    This book includes 25 papers in 5 parts. Part 1, "Dislocations," includes (1) "Puzzle" (Myrna Nieves); (2) "No Language To Die In" (Greta Hofmann Nemiroff); (3) "Here's Your Change 'N Enjoy the Show" (Verena Stefan); (4) "The Vagabond Years" (Elizabeth Dykman); (5) "From Bayamon to Brooklyn" (Rita E. Negron Maslanek); (6) "Writing for Effect"…

  15. One World, Two Languages: Cross-Language Semantic Priming in Bilingual Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Leher

    2014-01-01

    The interconnectedness of bilingual memory remains a topic of great debate. Semantic priming provides a powerful methodological tool with which to investigate this issue in early bilingual toddlers. Semantic priming effects were investigated in 21 bilingual toddlers (2.5 years) within and across each of their languages. Results revealed the first…

  16. How do we handle self-plagiarism in submitted manuscripts?

    PubMed

    Supak-Smocić, Vesna; Bilić-Zulle, Lidija

    2013-01-01

    Self-plagiarism is a controversial issue in scientific writing and presentation of research data. Unlike plagiarism, self-plagiarism is difficult to interpret as intellectual theft under the justification that one cannot steal from oneself. However, academics are concerned, as self-plagiarized papers mislead readers, do not contribute to science, and bring undeserved credit to authors. As such, it should be considered a form of scientific misconduct. In this paper, we explain different forms of self-plagiarism in scientific writing and then present good editorial policy toward questionable material. The importance of dealing with self-plagiarism is emphasized by the recently published proposal of Text Recycling Guidelines by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

  17. How do we handle self-plagiarism in submitted manuscripts?

    PubMed

    Supak-Smocić, Vesna; Bilić-Zulle, Lidija

    2013-01-01

    Self-plagiarism is a controversial issue in scientific writing and presentation of research data. Unlike plagiarism, self-plagiarism is difficult to interpret as intellectual theft under the justification that one cannot steal from oneself. However, academics are concerned, as self-plagiarized papers mislead readers, do not contribute to science, and bring undeserved credit to authors. As such, it should be considered a form of scientific misconduct. In this paper, we explain different forms of self-plagiarism in scientific writing and then present good editorial policy toward questionable material. The importance of dealing with self-plagiarism is emphasized by the recently published proposal of Text Recycling Guidelines by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). PMID:23894861

  18. Bilingual Children: Cross-sectional Relations of Psychiatric Syndrome Severity and Dual Language Proficiency

    PubMed Central

    Toppelberg, Claudio O.; Nieto-Castañon, Alfonso; Hauser, Stuart T.

    2012-01-01

    The severity of child psychiatric disorders is commonly associated with child language delays. However, the characteristics of these associations in the fast-growing population of bilingual children remain unknown. To begin to address this gap, we studied a unique sample of Spanish-English bilingual children with significant parent-reported psychopathology (n = 29), focusing on their language proficiencies and psychiatric severity using the Child Behavior Check List. We present cross-sectional analyses of associations of general and specific language proficiency in Spanish and English with the severity of specific psychiatric syndromes. We found Spanish language-proficiency scores to have negative correlations with a wide range of psychiatric symptoms, particularly externalizing (i.e., delinquency and aggression) symptoms (r = −.38 to −.61, p ≤ .05). English scores were similarly associated. Dual language tests covering multiple specific language dimensions explained a large proportion (51%) of overall variance in aggression symptoms and also important proportions (40%) of total and attentional symptoms. While children’s proficiency levels in both Spanish and English showed similar associations with the symptom severity measures (explaining close to 20% of the symptom variance; rsp = −.44, p <.01), these proficiency levels explain nonconverging variance in children’s symptomatology. The findings suggest that clinical evaluation of language functioning is often needed in such populations and that it should be comprehensive and include both languages. Such thorough evaluation of bilingual children suffering from psychopathology will help us to precisely identify (1) language deficits, (2) specific relations of these deficits to the child’s psychopathology, (3) differential implications of communication at home (e.g., in Spanish) and at school (e.g., in English) for clinical presentation and the child’s competence in those differing contexts, and (4

  19. Bilingual children: cross-sectional relations of psychiatric syndrome severity and dual language proficiency.

    PubMed

    Toppelberg, Claudio O; Nieto-Castañon, Alfonso; Hauser, Stuart T

    2006-01-01

    The severity of child psychiatric disorders is commonly associated with child language delays. However, the characteristics of these associations in the fast-growing population of bilingual children remain unknown. To begin to address this gap, we studied a unique sample of Spanish-English bilingual children with significant parent-reported psychopathology (n = 29), focusing on their language proficiencies and psychiatric severity using the Child Behavior Check List. We present cross-sectional analyses of associations of general and specific language proficiency in Spanish and English with the severity of specific psychiatric syndromes. We found Spanish language-proficiency scores to have negative correlations with a wide range of psychiatric symptoms, particularly externalizing (i.e., delinquency and aggression) symptoms (r = -.38 to -.61, p < or = .05). English scores were similarly associated. Dual language tests covering multiple specific language dimensions explained a large proportion (51%) of overall variance in aggression symptoms and also important proportions (40%) of total and attentional symptoms. While children's proficiency levels in both Spanish and English showed similar associations with the symptom severity measures (explaining close to 20% of the symptom variance; r(sp) = -.44, p < .01), these proficiency levels explain nonconverging variance in children's symptomatology. The findings suggest that clinical evaluation of language functioning is often needed in such populations and that it should be comprehensive and include both languages. Such thorough evaluation of bilingual children suffering from psychopathology will help us to precisely identify (1) language deficits, (2) specific relations of these deficits to the child's psychopathology, (3) differential implications of communication at home (e.g., in Spanish) and at school (e.g., in English) for clinical presentation and the child's competence in those differing contexts, and (4) language

  20. Cross Currents: A Journal of Language Teaching and Cross-Cultural Communication, Volume XI, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasky, Andrew, Ed.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    This issue of the biannual journal of the Language Institute of Japan contains, in addition to book reviews, conference listings, and other announcements, these articles: "Teaching Literature with Cognitive Counseling" (Wayne Pounds); "Extending the Scope of ESL Software for Advanced Students" (Hiroko Wagner); "Psycholinguistics and Listening…

  1. From the Board of Editors: on Plagiarism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-03-01

    There has been a significant increase in the number of duplicate submissions and plagiarism cases reported in all major journals, including the journals of the Optical Society of America. Duplicate submissions and plagiarism can take many forms, and all of them are violations of professional ethics, the copyright agreement that an author signs along with the submission of a paper, and OSA’s published Author Guidelines. There must be a significant component of new science for a paper to be publishable. The copying of large segments of text from previously published or in-press papers with only minor cosmetic changes is not acceptable and can lead to the rejection of papers. [Please click on the link below to view the full-text.

  2. Intelligent bar chart plagiarism detection in documents.

    PubMed

    Al-Dabbagh, Mohammed Mumtaz; Salim, Naomie; Rehman, Amjad; Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Saba, Tanzila; Al-Rodhaan, Mznah; Al-Dhelaan, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel features mining approach from documents that could not be mined via optical character recognition (OCR). By identifying the intimate relationship between the text and graphical components, the proposed technique pulls out the Start, End, and Exact values for each bar. Furthermore, the word 2-gram and Euclidean distance methods are used to accurately detect and determine plagiarism in bar charts.

  3. Intelligent Bar Chart Plagiarism Detection in Documents

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dabbagh, Mohammed Mumtaz; Salim, Naomie; Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Saba, Tanzila; Al-Rodhaan, Mznah; Al-Dhelaan, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel features mining approach from documents that could not be mined via optical character recognition (OCR). By identifying the intimate relationship between the text and graphical components, the proposed technique pulls out the Start, End, and Exact values for each bar. Furthermore, the word 2-gram and Euclidean distance methods are used to accurately detect and determine plagiarism in bar charts. PMID:25309952

  4. Perception of intrusive /r/ in English by native, cross-language and cross-dialect listeners.

    PubMed

    Tuinman, Annelie; Mitterer, Holger; Cutler, Anne

    2011-09-01

    In sequences such as law and order, speakers of British English often insert /r/ between law and and. Acoustic analyses revealed such "intrusive" /r/ to be significantly shorter than canonical /r/. In a 2AFC experiment, native listeners heard British English sentences in which /r/ duration was manipulated across a word boundary [e.g., saw (r)ice], and orthographic and semantic factors were varied. These listeners responded categorically on the basis of acoustic evidence for /r/ alone, reporting ice after short /r/s, rice after long /r/s; orthographic and semantic factors had no effect. Dutch listeners proficient in English who heard the same materials relied less on durational cues than the native listeners, and were affected by both orthography and semantic bias. American English listeners produced intermediate responses to the same materials, being sensitive to duration (less so than native, more so than Dutch listeners), and to orthography (less so than the Dutch), but insensitive to the semantic manipulation. Listeners from language communities without common use of intrusive /r/ may thus interpret intrusive /r/ as canonical /r/, with a language difference increasing this propensity more than a dialect difference. Native listeners, however, efficiently distinguish intrusive from canonical /r/ by exploiting the relevant acoustic variation.

  5. Experiments with Cross-Language Information Retrieval on a Health Portal for Psychology and Psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Andrenucci, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have been performed within cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) in the field of psychology and psychotherapy. The aim of this paper is to to analyze and assess the quality of available query translation methods for CLIR on a health portal for psychology. A test base of 100 user queries, 50 Multi Word Units (WUs) and 50 Single WUs, was used. Swedish was the source language and English the target language. Query translation methods based on machine translation (MT) and dictionary look-up were utilized in order to submit query translations to two search engines: Google Site Search and Quick Ask. Standard IR evaluation measures and a qualitative analysis were utilized to assess the results. The lexicon extracted with word alignment of the portal's parallel corpus provided better statistical results among dictionary look-ups. Google Translate provided more linguistically correct translations overall and also delivered better retrieval results in MT. PMID:27577345

  6. Experiments with Cross-Language Information Retrieval on a Health Portal for Psychology and Psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Andrenucci, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have been performed within cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) in the field of psychology and psychotherapy. The aim of this paper is to to analyze and assess the quality of available query translation methods for CLIR on a health portal for psychology. A test base of 100 user queries, 50 Multi Word Units (WUs) and 50 Single WUs, was used. Swedish was the source language and English the target language. Query translation methods based on machine translation (MT) and dictionary look-up were utilized in order to submit query translations to two search engines: Google Site Search and Quick Ask. Standard IR evaluation measures and a qualitative analysis were utilized to assess the results. The lexicon extracted with word alignment of the portal's parallel corpus provided better statistical results among dictionary look-ups. Google Translate provided more linguistically correct translations overall and also delivered better retrieval results in MT.

  7. Addressing Plagiarism in Online Programmes at a Health Sciences University: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Helen; Anast, Ade; Roehling, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism continues to be a concern for all educational institutions. To build a solid foundation for high academic standards and best practices at a graduate university, aspects of plagiarism were reviewed to develop better management processes for reducing plagiarism. Specifically, the prevalence of plagiarism and software programmes for…

  8. Legality, Quality Assurance and Learning: Competing Discourses of Plagiarism Management in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland-Smith, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    In universities around the world, plagiarism management is an ongoing issue of quality assurance and risk management. Plagiarism management discourses are often framed by legal concepts of authorial rights, and plagiarism policies outline penalties for infringement. Learning and teaching discourses argue that plagiarism management is, and should…

  9. Plagiarism: Examination of Conceptual Issues and Evaluation of Research Findings on Using Detection Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantinidis, Angelos; Theodosiadou, Dimitra; Pappos, Christos

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to analyze and evaluate the research findings on using Plagiarism Detection Services (PDS) in universities. In order to do that, conceptual issues about plagiarism are examined and the complex nature of plagiarism is discussed. Subsequently, the pragmatic forms of student plagiarism are listed and PDS strategies on…

  10. A Study of Electronic Detection and Pedagogical Approaches for Reducing Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Chia-An; Wilhelm, William J.; Neureuther, Brian D.

    2009-01-01

    Plagiarism is an increasing problem in high schools and universities. To address the issue of how to teach students not to plagiarize, this study examined several pedagogical approaches for reducing plagiarism and the use of Turnitin, an online plagiarism detection software. The study found a significant difference between the control group and…

  11. Cross-language message- and word-level transfer effects in bilingual text processing.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Deanna C; Jared, Debra

    2007-10-01

    The present study examined the nature of the mental representations bilinguals form when reading a text and to what extent they are language specific. English-French bilinguals read five pairs of passages in succession while their eye movements were tracked. Dependent measures were overall reading times on second passages and fixation latencies on target cognates embeddedin second passages. The first passage w as (1) identical tothe second passage in the pair, (2) related in content only (i.e., a translation), (3) related in content and some words (i.e., translation with cognates), (4) related in words only (i.e., different content with the same cognates), or (5) unrelated. There was substantial cross-language facilitation for passages that shared meaning, but the amount of transfer was less than that for identical passages, indicating that memory representations are largely meaning based but do contain some information about surface form. Cross-language transfer for cognates was observed but depended on the skill of the bilinguals in their second language, the direction of transfer, and whether the passages shared meaning. These results are discussed in relation to Raney's (2003) model of text representation.

  12. Influences of listeners' native and other dialects on cross-language vowel perception

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Daniel; Escudero, Paola

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines to what extent acoustic similarity between native and non-native vowels predicts non-native vowel perception and whether this process is influenced by listeners' native and other non-native dialects. Listeners with Northern and Southern British English dialects completed a perceptual assimilation task in which they categorized tokens of 15 Dutch vowels in terms of English vowel categories. While the cross-language acoustic similarity of Dutch vowels to English vowels largely predicted Southern listeners' perceptual assimilation patterns, this was not the case for Northern listeners, whose assimilation patterns resembled those of Southern listeners for all but three Dutch vowels. The cross-language acoustic similarity of Dutch vowels to Northern English vowels was re-examined by incorporating Southern English tokens, which resulted in considerable improvements in the predicting power of cross-language acoustic similarity. This suggests that Northern listeners' assimilation of Dutch vowels to English vowels was influenced by knowledge of both native Northern and non-native Southern English vowel categories. The implications of these findings for theories of non-native speech perception are discussed. PMID:25339921

  13. Executive control modulates cross-language lexical activation during L2 reading: evidence from eye movements.

    PubMed

    Pivneva, Irina; Mercier, Julie; Titone, Debra

    2014-05-01

    Models of bilingual reading such as Bilingual Interactive Activation Plus (Dijkstra & van Heuven, 2002) do not predict a central role for domain-general executive control during bilingual reading, in contrast with bilingual models from other domains, such as production (e.g., the Inhibitory Control Model; Green, 1998). We thus investigated whether individual differences among bilinguals in domain-general executive control modulate cross-language activation during L2 sentence reading, over and above other factors such as L2 proficiency. Fifty French-English bilinguals read L2-English sentences while their eye movements were recorded, and they subsequently completed a battery of executive control and L2 proficiency tasks. High- and low-constraint sentences contained interlingual homographs (chat = "casual conversation" in English, "a cat" in French), cognates (piano in English and French), or L2-specific control words. The results showed that greater executive control among bilinguals but not L2 proficiency reduced cross-language activation in terms of interlingual homograph interference. In contrast, increased L2 proficiency but not executive control reduced cross-language activation in terms of cognate facilitation. These results suggest that models of bilingual reading must incorporate mechanisms by which domain-general executive control can alter the earliest stages of bilingual lexical activation.

  14. Preventing Unintentional Plagiarism: A Method for Strengthening Paraphrasing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Angela L.

    2008-01-01

    Plagiarism may result from faulty cognitive processing and thereby be unintentional (Marsh, Landau, & Hicks, 1997). The current study tested the effectiveness of paraphrasing training designed to prevent unintentional plagiarism. Thirty-six students enrolled in research methods participated, one group received paraphrasing training; a control…

  15. Plagiarism Litigation Trends in the USA and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.; Cumming, J. Joy

    2008-01-01

    In this article we explore the increasing complexity of plagiarism litigation in the USA and Australia. Plagiarism has always been a serious academic issue and academic staff and students have wrestled with its definition and appropriate penalties for some time. However, the advent of the Internet and more freely accessible information resources,…

  16. Cyber-Plagiarism: Technological and Cultural Background and Suggested Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresham, John

    2002-01-01

    Discusses concerns over the increase in computer-aided plagiarism among secondary and higher education students. Considers technological factors; cultural reasons and background, including time constraints; possible responses and deterrents, including clear policies regarding plagiarism and designing assignments that are more creative; and the…

  17. More Heat than Light: Plagiarism in Its Appearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegg, Sue; Flint, Abbi

    2006-01-01

    This paper argues that the recent debate about plagiarism has taken on aspects of a moral panic, which reflects underlying anxieties about the state of higher education in the United Kingdom. In contrast to the moral absolutism of some commentators, we argue for the significance of posing the phenomenological question of "what is plagiarism in its…

  18. The Anatomy of a Plagiarism Initiative: One Library's Campus Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madray, Amrita

    2008-01-01

    Plagiarism in media and print continues to be a major issue for professors, librarians, and students. Through initiatives and outreach from the B. Davis Memorial Library at the C. W. Post Campus of Long Island University, plagiarism Web sites have been created and workshops and programs continually provided for faculty and students to detect,…

  19. Online Plagiarism Detection Services--Saviour or Scourge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeever, Lucy

    2006-01-01

    Although the exponential growth of the Internet has made it easier than ever to carry out plagiarism, it has also made it much easier to detect. This paper gives an overview of the many different methods of detecting web-based plagiarism which are currently available, assessing practical matters such as cost, functionality and performance.…

  20. Peers and Plagiarism: The Role of Student Judicial Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    After reading Kathryn Valentine's article that talked about her interaction with a Chinese student accused of plagiarism, the author was reminded of the effectiveness of student judicial boards. In this article, the author describes the benefits of having a student judicial board in fighting off plagiarism among students. She relates that although…

  1. Application of Plagiarism Screening Software in the Chemical Engineering Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Matthew E.; Bullard, Lisa G.

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism is an area of increasing concern for written ChE assignments, such as laboratory and design reports, due to ease of access to text and other materials via the internet. This study examines the application of plagiarism screening software to four courses in a university chemical engineering curriculum. The effectiveness of plagiarism…

  2. Good intentions: providing students with skills to avoid accidental plagiarism.

    PubMed

    Zafron, Michelle L

    2012-01-01

    This article explores one librarian's experience with creating and implementing a plagiarism seminar as part of the library liaison program to the School of Public Health and Health Professions at the University at Buffalo. The changes and evolution of the seminar over several iterations are described. This article also examines student perceptions, misperceptions, and reactions to the plagiarism workshop.

  3. Reducing Plagiarism by Using Online Software: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kose, Ozgur; Arikan, Arda

    2011-01-01

    This action research attempts to explore the perceptions of Turkish university students on plagiarism while evaluating the effectiveness of an online application used to deter plagiarism. The participants were 40 first year university students studying in two different sections of an academic writing class. The findings show that the participants…

  4. Turnitin Systems: A Deterrent to Plagiarism in College Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckler, Nina C.; Rice, Margaret; Bryan, C. Hobson

    2013-01-01

    Computer technology and the Internet now make plagiarism an easier enterprise. As a result, faculty must be more diligent in their efforts to mitigate the practice of academic integrity, and institutions of higher education must provide the leadership and support to ensure the context for it. This study explored the use of a plagiarism detection…

  5. Combating plagiarism: the role of the health librarian.

    PubMed

    Spring, Hannah; Adams, Rachel

    2013-12-01

    This feature looks at the issue of plagiarism in health care students and the role of the health librarian in combating the problem. In particular, consideration is given to how plagiarism can occur and provides some examples from two UK universities of approaches health librarians can take in supporting students to avoid these common pitfalls.

  6. Online plagiarism training falls short in biology classrooms.

    PubMed

    Holt, Emily A; Fagerheim, Britt; Durham, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Online plagiarism tutorials are increasingly popular in higher education, as faculty and staff try to curb the plagiarism epidemic. Yet no research has validated the efficacy of such tools in minimizing plagiarism in the sciences. Our study compared three plagiarism-avoidance training regimens (i.e., no training, online tutorial, or homework assignment) and their impacts on students' ability to accurately discriminate plagiarism from text that is properly quoted, paraphrased, and attributed. Using pre- and postsurveys of 173 undergraduate students in three general ecology courses, we found that students given the homework assignment had far greater success in identifying plagiarism or the lack thereof compared with students given no training. In general, students trained with the homework assignment more successfully identified plagiarism than did students trained with the online tutorial. We also found that the summative assessment associated with the plagiarism-avoidance training formats (i.e., homework grade and online tutorial assessment score) did not correlate with student improvement on surveys through time.

  7. Instructor Perceptions of Plagiarism: Are We Finding Common Ground?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Kymberley K.; Behrendt, Linda S.; Boothby, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined instructor views of what constitutes plagiarism. The authors collected questionnaire data from 158 participants recruited through three teaching-related electronic listservs. Results showed that most participants agreed that behaviors that claim credit for someone else's work constituted plagiarism. Instructors differed in…

  8. Using Computer Simulations and Games to Prevent Student Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Elizabeth G.

    2015-01-01

    In this increasingly digital age, student plagiarism is rampant. Roughly half of college students admit to plagiarizing using content found online, directly copying and pasting the work of others. Digital technology and social media have greatly changed the landscape of how knowledge is acquired and disseminated; thus, students must be explicitly…

  9. Fighting Plagiarism: Taking the Work out of Homework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the rise of cut-and-paste plagiarism in schools. Students are constantly searching for essays online, however, they did not know that their teachers are using the same technology to catch them cheating. Plagiarism is happening on campuses nationwide. Yet, with veritable libraries at their fingertips, students see nothing…

  10. Teaching Students about Plagiarism Using a Web-Based Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stetter, Maria Earman

    2013-01-01

    The following research delivered a web-based module about plagiarism and paraphrasing to avoid plagiarism in both a blended method, with live instruction paired with web presentation for 105 students, and a separate web-only method for 22 other students. Participants were graduates and undergraduates preparing to become teachers, the majority of…

  11. Realigning the Focus of Plagiarism Detection Using "Plagiarismdetect.com"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabapathy, Elangkeeran A/L; Rahim, Rozlan Abd; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the extent to which "plagiarismdetect.com," an internet help/tool to detect plagiarism helps academicians tackle the ever-growing problem of plagiarism. Concerned with term papers, essays and most of the time with full-blown research reports, a tool like "plagiarismdetect.com" may…

  12. Decreasing Plagiarism: What Works and What Doesn't

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houtman, Anne M.; Walker, Sean

    2010-01-01

    The authors tested the predictions of a game theory model of plagiarism, using a test population of student papers submitted to an online plagiarism detection program, over five semesters in a non-majors biology course with multiple sections and high enrollment. Consistent with the model, as the probability of detection and the penalty if caught…

  13. Protecting Student Intellectual Property in Plagiarism Detection Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butakov, Sergey; Barber, Craig

    2012-01-01

    The rapid development of the Internet along with increasing computer literacy has made it easy and tempting for digital natives to copy-paste someone's work. Plagiarism is now a burning issue in education, industry and even in the research community. In this study, the authors concentrate on plagiarism detection with particular focus on the…

  14. Grade Expectations: Mapping Stakeholder Views of Online Plagiarism Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashe, Diana; Manning, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    Based upon a pilot study of the leading online plagiarism detection service, this article examines the views of faculty and students as the main stakeholders in the controversy over online plagiarism detection. Rather than give advice outside of a specific institutional context, this study offers an understanding of the reasoning that informs the…

  15. Plagiarism in the Japanese Universities: Truly a Cultural Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Although plagiarism is considered among western academic circles as one of the worst "crimes" a student can commit, many scholars suggest that these attitudes do not apply to students from areas outside this sphere. They believe that in many countries, plagiarism is considered culturally acceptable. As such, ESL or EFL instructors in charge of…

  16. Plagiarism--A Complex Issue Requiring a Holistic Institutional Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Ranald; Carroll, Jude

    2006-01-01

    Recent years have seen a growing awareness of the incidence of plagiarism, though the response has largely been to focus on deterrence through detection and punishment. However, student plagiarism is a much more complex issue than suggested by a one-solution response and this paper argues for a more holistic institutional approach that recognises…

  17. A Strategy to Reduce Plagiarism in an Undergraduate Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belter, Ronald W.; du Pre, Athena

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated how effective an online academic integrity module was at reducing the occurrence of plagiarism in a written assignment for a university course. In a preintervention comparison group, plagiarism was detected in 25.8% of papers submitted, compared with only 6.5% in the group that completed the academic integrity module. The…

  18. Plagiarism as Literacy Practice: Recognizing and Rethinking Ethical Binaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Kathryn

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I assert that plagiarism is a literacy practice that involves social relationships, attitudes, and values as much as it involves rules of citation and students' texts. In addition, I show how plagiarism is complicated by a discourse about academic dishonesty, and I consider the implications that recognizing such complexity has for…

  19. Students' Perceptions of Cheating and Plagiarism in Higher Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owunwanne, Daniel; Rustagi, Narendra; Dada, Remi

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that cheating and plagiarism are prominent problems in many universities. In informal conversations, it seems that different students perceive plagiarism differently. In this paper, we conducted a survey at Howard University to examine or to follow up with this growing trend. Specifically, team leaders in school…

  20. Plagiarism, Enclosure, and the Commons of the Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scurrah, William L.

    When discussing plagiarism and cheating these days, college faculty seem to find themselves using the rhetoric of crime and punishment ("It's easier to steal from the Internet") on their students rather than a rhetoric more attuned to their actual mission. A short overview in this paper of the history of plagiarism and the development of the…

  1. Plagiarism Detection Algorithm for Source Code in Computer Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xin; Xu, Chan; Ouyang, Boyu

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, computer programming is getting more necessary in the course of program design in college education. However, the trick of plagiarizing plus a little modification exists among some students' home works. It's not easy for teachers to judge if there's plagiarizing in source code or not. Traditional detection algorithms cannot fit this…

  2. Arresting Student Plagiarism: Are We Investigators or Educators?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Lajuan

    2011-01-01

    Managing student plagiarism can cause instructors to feel as if they are serving educational institutions in the role of investigator rather than educator. Since many educators continue to struggle with the issue of student plagiarism, the author interviewed some of her colleagues. In this article, she shares her and her colleagues' antiplagiarism…

  3. Applying an Employee-Motivation Model to Prevent Student Plagiarism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malouff, John M.; Sims, Randi L.

    1996-01-01

    A model based on Vroom's expectancy theory of employee motivation posits that instructors can prevent plagiarism by ensuring that students understand the rules of ethical writing, expect assignments to be manageable and have personal benefits, and expect plagiarism to be difficult and have important personal costs. (SK)

  4. Cross-language measurement equivalence of parenting measures for use with Mexican American populations.

    PubMed

    Nair, Rajni L; White, Rebecca M B; Knight, George P; Roosa, Mark W

    2009-10-01

    Increasing diversity among families in the United States often necessitates the translation of common measures into various languages. However, even when great care is taken during translations, empirical evaluations of measurement equivalence are necessary. The current study demonstrates the analytic techniques researchers should use to evaluate the measurement equivalence of translated measures. To this end we investigated the cross-language measurement equivalence of several common parenting measures in a sample of 749 Mexican American families. The item invariance results indicated similarity of factor structures across language groups for each of the parenting measures for both mothers and children. Construct validity tests indicated similar slope relations between each of the 4 parenting measures and the outcomes across the 2 language groups for both mothers and children. Equivalence in intercepts, however, was only achieved for some outcomes. These findings indicate that the use of these measures in both within-group and between-group analyses based on correlation/covariance structure is defensible, but researchers are cautioned against interpretations of mean level differences across these language groups.

  5. Assessing prosodic skills in five European languages: cross-linguistic differences in typical and atypical populations.

    PubMed

    Peppé, Sue J E; Martínez-Castilla, Pastora; Coene, Martine; Hesling, Isabelle; Moen, Inger; Gibbon, Fiona E

    2010-02-01

    Following demand for a prosody assessment procedure, the test Profiling Elements of Prosody in Speech-Communication (PEPS-C), has been translated from English into Spanish, French, Flemish and Norwegian. This provides scope to examine receptive and expressive prosodic ability in Romance (Spanish and French) as well as Germanic (English and Flemish) languages, and includes the possibility of assessing these skills with regard to lexical tone (Norwegian). Cross-linguistic similarities and differences relevant to the translation are considered. Preliminary findings concerning 8-year-old neurotypical children speaking the five languages are reported. The appropriateness of investigating contrastive stress in Romance as well as Germanic languages is considered: results are reported for assessing this skill in Spanish and English speakers and suggest that in Spanish it is acquired much later than in English. We also examine the feasibility of assessing and comparing prosodic disorder in the five languages, using assessments of prosody in Spanish and English speakers with Williams syndrome as an example. We conclude that, with caveats, the original design of the UK test may indicate comparable stages of prosodic development in neurotypical children and is appropriate for the evaluation of prosodic skills for adults and children, both neurotypical and with impairment, in all five languages. PMID:20380244

  6. Pharmacy Students’ Ability to Identify Plagiarism After an Educational Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Kira; Kehr, Heather; Ford, Carolyn; Lane, Daniel C.; Nuzum, Donald S.; Compton, Cynthia; Gibson, Whitney

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine if an educational intervention in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree program increases pharmacy students’ ability to identify plagiarism. Methods. First-year (P1), second-year (P2), and third-year (P3) pharmacy students attended an education session during which types of plagiarism and methods for avoiding plagiarism were reviewed. Students completed a preintervention assessment immediately prior to the session and a postintervention assessment the following semester to measure their ability. Results. Two hundred fifty-two students completed both preintervention and postintervention assessments. There was a 4% increase from preintervention to postintervention in assessment scores for the overall student sample (p<0.05). The mean change was greatest for P1 and P2 students (5% and 4.8%, respectively). Conclusion. An educational intervention about plagiarism can significantly improve students’ ability to identify plagiarism. PMID:24672066

  7. Pharmacy students' ability to identify plagiarism after an educational intervention.

    PubMed

    Degeeter, Michelle; Harris, Kira; Kehr, Heather; Ford, Carolyn; Lane, Daniel C; Nuzum, Donald S; Compton, Cynthia; Gibson, Whitney

    2014-03-12

    Objective. To determine if an educational intervention in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree program increases pharmacy students' ability to identify plagiarism. Methods. First-year (P1), second-year (P2), and third-year (P3) pharmacy students attended an education session during which types of plagiarism and methods for avoiding plagiarism were reviewed. Students completed a preintervention assessment immediately prior to the session and a postintervention assessment the following semester to measure their ability. Results. Two hundred fifty-two students completed both preintervention and postintervention assessments. There was a 4% increase from preintervention to postintervention in assessment scores for the overall student sample (p<0.05). The mean change was greatest for P1 and P2 students (5% and 4.8%, respectively). Conclusion. An educational intervention about plagiarism can significantly improve students' ability to identify plagiarism.

  8. Text-based plagiarism in scientific writing: what Chinese supervisors think about copying and how to reduce it in students' writing.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongyan

    2013-06-01

    Text-based plagiarism, or textual copying, typically in the form of replicating or patchwriting sentences in a row from sources, seems to be an issue of growing concern among scientific journal editors. Editors have emphasized that senior authors (typically supervisors of science students) should take the responsibility for educating novices against text-based plagiarism. To address a research gap in the literature as to how scientist supervisors perceive the issue of textual copying and what they do in educating their students, this paper reports an interview study with 14 supervisors at a research-oriented Chinese university. The study throws light on the potentiality of senior authors mentoring novices in English as an Additional Language (EAL) contexts and has implications for the efforts that can be made in the wider scientific community to support scientists in writing against text-based plagiarism.

  9. Prophylactic Treatments for Anomia in the Logopenic Variant of Primary Progressive Aphasia: Cross-Language Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Aaron M.; Snider, Sarah F.; Eckmann, Carol B.; Friedman, Rhonda B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Treatment studies for anomia in PPA have rarely compared multiple treatments in the same individual, and few anomia treatment studies have included participants with the logopenic variant of PPA (lvPPA). Aims The goals of this study were to evaluate two types of treatment for anomia in a bilingual participant (ND) with lvPPA, and to examine possible cross-language transfer of treatment effects. Methods & Procedures ND is a Norwegian-English bilingual woman with lvPPA who began this study at the age of 69. In the phonological treatment, ND listened to a word while viewing a corresponding picture, and she repeated the word. In the orthographic treatment, ND read a word out loud while viewing the corresponding picture, and she then copied the word. Both treatments were conducted in English, and accuracy for three tasks (oral naming, written naming, and naming to definition) was assessed in English and Norwegian. The treatment occurred over a one-year period, with eight sessions at the laboratory during the first month, followed by monthly laboratory sessions and thrice-weekly home practice sessions during the subsequent 11 months. Post-treatment assessments were conducted at 1 week, 8 months, 1 year, 20 months, and 3 years. Outcomes & Results Compared to untrained items, the orthographic treatment resulted in greater English written naming accuracy. This treatment also resulted in cross-language transfer: greater Norwegian oral naming and naming to definition accuracy. The phonological treatment resulted in marginally greater English oral naming accuracy, but it did not have a significant effect on naming accuracy in Norwegian. Conclusions These findings suggest that the orthographic treatment was effective in strengthening the orthographic representations of the treated items, which facilitated ND's written naming performance. The pattern of cross-language transfer suggests that the orthographic treatment also strengthened the language-independent semantic

  10. Student Plagiarism and the Use of a Plagiarism Detection Tool by Community College Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurmond, Bradley H.

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to better inform community college administrators and faculty regarding possible factors that contribute to higher levels of student plagiarism and to suggest appropriate preventative or responsive interventions. The specific purpose of the study was to investigate a set of faculty related factors that may be associated with…

  11. Who Has Read the Policy on Plagiarism? Unpacking Students' Understanding of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullifer, J. M.; Tyson, G. A.

    2014-01-01

    Research has established that the term "plagiarism" is open to different interpretations, resulting in confusion among students and staff alike. University policy on academic integrity/misconduct defines the behaviours that all stakeholders must abide by, and the parameters for reporting, investigating and penalising infringements. These…

  12. Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Initial Validation of the Stroke-Specific Quality of Life Scale into the Yoruba Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinpelu, Aderonke O.; Odetunde, Marufat O.; Odole, Adesola C.

    2012-01-01

    Stroke-Specific Quality of Life 2.0 (SS-QoL 2.0) scale is used widely and has been cross-culturally adapted to many languages. This study aimed at the cross-cultural adaptation of SS-QoL 2.0 to Yoruba, the indigenous language of south-western Nigeria, and to carry out an initial investigation on its validity. English SS-QoL 2.0 was first adapted…

  13. Asia and Australia: Language Arts around the World, Volume III. Cross Curricular Activities for Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lucy

    Suggesting that students in the intermediate grades can explore the world around them and practice valuable skills in spelling, reading, writing, communication, and language, this book presents cross-curricular units designed to integrate language-arts activities into the study of Asian and Australian cultures. The units in the book reach diverse…

  14. Who Transfers More...and What? Cross-linguistic Influence in Relation to School Grade and Language Dominance in EFL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naves, Teresa; Miralpeix, Immaculada; Celaya, M. Luz

    2005-01-01

    Cross-linguistic influence (CLI) is receiving increasing attention in multilingual learners (Cenoz "et al.", 2001). Research with bilingual learners has analysed CLI in relation to language dominance (see, for instance, Hulk & Muller, 2000; Yip & Stephen, 2000) and to language dominance and grade in school settings (Cenoz, 2003; Lasagabaster,…

  15. Ecology and the Environment. Language Arts around the World, Volume V. Cross-Curricular Activities for Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Elizabeth A.; Hildebrand, Joan M.; Ericson, Joann H.

    Suggesting that students in the intermediate grades can explore the world around them and practice valuable skills in spelling, reading, writing, communication, and language, this book presents cross-curricular units designed to integrate language-arts activities into the study of ecology and the environment. The units in the book reach diverse…

  16. Cross-language phonological activation: evidence from masked onset priming and ERPs.

    PubMed

    Jouravlev, Olessia; Lupker, Stephen J; Jared, Debra

    2014-07-01

    The goal of the present research was to provide direct evidence for the cross-language interaction of phonologies at the sub-lexical level by using the masked onset priming paradigm. More specifically, we investigated whether there is a cross-language masked onset priming effect (MOPE) with L2 (English) primes and L1 (Russian) targets and whether it is modulated by the orthographic similarity of primes and targets. Primes and targets had onsets that overlapped either only phonologically, only orthographically, both phonologically and orthographically, or did not have any overlap. Phonological overlap, but not orthographic overlap, between primes and targets led to faster naming latencies. In contrast, the ERP data provided evidence for effects of both phonological and orthographic overlap. Finally, the time-course of phonological and orthographic processing for our bilinguals mirrored the time-course previously reported for monolinguals in the ERP data. These results provide evidence for shared representations at the sub-lexical level for a bilingual's two languages.

  17. Do medical students require education on issues related to plagiarism?

    PubMed

    Varghese, Joe; Jacob, Molly

    2015-01-01

    In the course of our professional experience, we have seen that many medical students plagiarise. We hypothesised that they do so out of ignorance and that they require formal education on the subject. With this objective in mind, we conducted a teaching session on issues related to plagiarism. As a part of this, we administered a quiz to assess their baseline knowledge on plagiarism and a questionnaire to determine their attitudes towards it. We followed this up with an interactive teaching session, in which we discussed various aspects of plagiarism. We subjected the data obtained from the quiz and questionnaire to bivariate and multivariate analysis. A total of 423 medical students participated in the study. Their average score for the quiz was 4.96±1.67 (out of 10). Age, gender and years in medical school were not significantly associated with knowledge regarding plagiarism. The knowledge scores were negatively correlated with permissive attitudes towards plagiarism and positively correlated with attitudes critical of the practice. Men had significantly higher scores on permissive attitudes compared to women . In conclusion, we found that the medical students' knowledge regarding plagiarism was limited. Those with low knowledge scores tended to have permissive attitudes towards plagiarism and were less critical of the practice. We recommend the inclusion of formal instruction on this subject in the medical curriculum, so that this form of academic misconduct can be tackled.

  18. Spatial metaphor in language can promote the development of cross-modal mappings in children.

    PubMed

    Shayan, Shakila; Ozturk, Ozge; Bowerman, Melissa; Majid, Asifa

    2014-07-01

    Pitch is often described metaphorically: for example, Farsi and Turkish speakers use a 'thickness' metaphor (low sounds are 'thick' and high sounds are 'thin'), while German and English speakers use a height metaphor ('low', 'high'). This study examines how child and adult speakers of Farsi, Turkish, and German map pitch and thickness using a cross-modal association task. All groups, except for German children, performed significantly better than chance. German-speaking adults' success suggests the pitch-to-thickness association can be learned by experience. But the fact that German children were at chance indicates that this learning takes time. Intriguingly, Farsi and Turkish children's performance suggests that learning cross-modal associations can be boosted through experience with consistent metaphorical mappings in the input language.

  19. Cross-sensory correspondences and symbolism in spoken and written language.

    PubMed

    Walker, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Lexical sound symbolism in language appears to exploit the feature associations embedded in cross-sensory correspondences. For example, words incorporating relatively high acoustic frequencies (i.e., front/close rather than back/open vowels) are deemed more appropriate as names for concepts associated with brightness, lightness in weight, sharpness, smallness, speed, and thinness, because higher pitched sounds appear to have these cross-sensory features. Correspondences also support prosodic sound symbolism. For example, speakers might raise the fundamental frequency of their voice to emphasize the smallness of the concept they are naming. The conceptual nature of correspondences and their functional bidirectionality indicate they should also support other types of symbolism, including a visual equivalent of prosodic sound symbolism. For example, the correspondence between auditory pitch and visual thinness predicts that a typeface with relatively thin letter strokes will reinforce a word's reference to a relatively high pitch sound (e.g., squeal). An initial rating study confirms that the thinness-thickness of a typeface's letter strokes accesses the same cross-sensory correspondences observed elsewhere. A series of speeded word classification experiments then confirms that the thinness-thickness of letter strokes can facilitate a reader's comprehension of the pitch of a sound named by a word (thinner letter strokes being appropriate for higher pitch sounds), as can the brightness of the text (e.g., white-on-gray text being appropriate for the names of higher pitch sounds). It is proposed that the elementary visual features of text are represented in the same conceptual system as word meaning, allowing cross-sensory correspondences to support visual symbolism in language. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. Cross-linguistic universals in reading acquisition with applications to English-language learners with reading disabilities.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Brenda K

    2009-11-01

    There is a considerable gap in English reading achievement between English-language learners and native speakers in the United States. Differentiation of whether English language learners' struggles are symptomatic of reading disability or related to second language acquisition is often challenging. These issues highlight the need for increased insight into reading development and disability in this population. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of cross-linguistic universals in reading acquisition, how reading disabilities manifest in various languages, and whether diagnostic and instructional approaches that are effective for native English speakers are also appropriate for English-language learners. Recommendations for assessment and intervention practices for at-risk and reading-disabled English-language learners are provided.

  1. Classification of Health Webpages as Expert and Non Expert with a Reduced Set of Cross-language Features

    PubMed Central

    Grabar, Natalia; Krivine, Sonia; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2007-01-01

    Making the distinction between expert and non expert health documents can help users to select the information which is more suitable for them, according to whether they are familiar or not with medical terminology. This issue is particularly important for the information retrieval area. In our work we address this purpose through stylistic corpus analysis and the application of machine learning algorithms. Our hypothesis is that this distinction can be performed on the basis of a small number of features and that such features can be language and domain independent. The used features were acquired in source corpus (Russian language, diabetes topic) and then tested on target (French language, pneumology topic) and source corpora. These cross-language features show 90% precision and 93% recall with non expert documents in source language; and 85% precision and 74% recall with expert documents in target language. PMID:18693843

  2. Defining and relating biomedical terms: towards a cross-language morphosemantics-based system.

    PubMed

    Namer, Fiammetta; Baud, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of how semantic information can be automatically assigned to compound terms, i.e. both a definition and a set of semantic relations. This is particularly crucial when elaborating multilingual databases and when developing cross-language information retrieval systems. The paper shows how morphosemantics can contribute in the constitution of multilingual lexical networks in biomedical corpora. It presents a system capable of labelling terms with morphologically related words, i.e. providing them with a definition, and grouping them according to synonymy, hyponymy and proximity relations. The approach requires the interaction of three techniques: (1) a language-specific morphosemantic parser, (2) a multilingual table defining basic relations between word roots and (3) a set of language-independent rules to draw up the list of related terms. This approach has been fully implemented for French, on an about 29,000 terms biomedical lexicon, resulting to more than 3000 lexical families. A validation of the results against a manually annotated file by experts of the domain is presented, followed by a discussion of our method.

  3. Chinese-English biliteracy acquisition: cross-language and writing system transfer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Perfetti, Charles A; Liu, Ying

    2005-08-01

    This study investigated cross-language and writing system relationship in biliteracy acquisition of children learning to read two different writing systems-Chinese and English. Forty-six Mandarin-speaking children were tested for their first language (Chinese-L1) and second language (English-L2) reading skills. Comparable experiments in Chinese and English were designed focusing on two reading processes-phonological and orthographic processing. Word reading skills in both writing systems were tested. Results revealed that Chinese onset matching skill was significantly correlated with English onset and rime matching skills. Pinyin, an alphabetic phonetic system used to assist children in learning to read Chinese characters, was highly correlated with English pseudoword reading. Furthermore, Chinese tone processing skill contributed a moderate but significant amount of variance in predicting English pseudoword reading even when English phonemic-level processing skill was taken into consideration. Orthographic processing skill in the two writing systems, on the other hand, did not predict each other's word reading. These findings suggest that bilingual reading acquisition is a joint function of shared phonological processes and orthographic specific skills.

  4. Teaching Paraphrase, Summary, and Plagiarism: An Integrated Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasarenko, Jane

    1996-01-01

    Offers an exercise to help students understand the difference between summarizing and paraphrasing and how both practices can result in plagiarism if the original source is not cited. Explains how the exercise uses Lincoln's "Gettysburg Address." (TB)

  5. Which Language Declines More? Longitudinal versus Cross-Sectional Decline of Picture Naming in Bilinguals with Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Iva; Salmon, David P.; Gollan, Tamar H.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated dual-language decline in non-balanced bilinguals with probable Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) both longitudinally and cross-sectionally. We examined patients’ naming accuracy on the Boston Naming Test (BNT: Kaplan et al., 1983) over three testing sessions (longitudinal analysis) and compared their performance to that of matched controls (cross-sectional analysis). We found different longitudinal and cross-sectional patterns of decline: Longitudinally, the non-dominant language seemed to decline more steeply than the dominant language, but, cross-sectionally, differences between patients and controls were larger for the dominant than for the non-dominant language, especially at the initial testing session. This differential pattern of results for cross-sectional versus longitudinal decline was supported by correlations between decline measures and BNT item characteristics. Further studies will be needed to better characterize the nature of linguistic decline in bilinguals with AD; however, these results suggest that representational robustness of individual lexical representations, rather than language membership, might determine the time course of decline for naming in bilinguals with AD. PMID:24725624

  6. Effects of a Cross-Linguistic Storybook Intervention on the Second Language Development of Two Preschool English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huennekens, Mary Ellen; Xu, Yaoying

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a shared reading experience between parent and child in the child's home language on the emergent literacy and language acquisition in English of preschool-age English Language Learners. Parents of Spanish-speaking four-year-old Head Start students read storybooks in Spanish with their…

  7. Effects of Cross-Language Transfer on First-Language Phonological Awareness and Literacy Skills in Chinese Children Receiving English Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xi; Xu, Fen; Nguyen, Thien-Kim; Hong, Guanglei; Wang, Yun

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation consists of two studies examining the effects of cross-language transfer on the development of phonological awareness and literacy skills among Chinese children who received different amounts of English instruction. Study 1 compared Chinese students in regular English programs (92 first graders and 93 third graders) with…

  8. Iranian academia: evolution after revolution and plagiarism as a disorder.

    PubMed

    Ghazinoory, Sepehr; Ghazinoori, Soroush; Azadegan-Mehr, Mandana

    2011-06-01

    Recently, a few of scientific journals raise serious questions about scientific ethics and moral judgment of some of the Iranian government's senior executives in their papers. Plagiarism, under any circumstances is not justified, and we do not intend to justify it in this note. However, we find it useful in understanding why otherwise respected, responsible individuals may engage in plagiarism by terse review of the history Iranian academia.

  9. Cross Currents, A Journal of Language Teaching and Cross-Cultural Communication, Volume XII, Number 2, Spring/Summer 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Laura A., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    This number of the journal contains the following articles: "A Language-and-Learning Framework for a Theory of Language Teaching" (Moira Chimombo); "Using Authentic Video Materials in the Language Classroom" (Kathleen Kitao); "An American Teacher in Kiev: Impressions of English Education in the U.S.S.R." (Ellen Dussourd); "What Am I Doing?…

  10. Construction and Validation of Attitudes Toward Plagiarism Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Mavrinac, Martina; Brumini, Gordana; Bilić-Zulle, Lidija; Petrovečki, Mladen

    2010-01-01

    Aim To develop and test the psychometric characteristics of a questionnaire measuring attitudes toward plagiarism. Methods Participants were 227 undergraduates and graduate students from three Croatian universities, with a median age of 21 years (range 18 to 48). Research was conducted from March to June 2009. For the purpose of construction of the first version of the questionnaire, 67 statements (items) were developed. The statements were based on the relevant literature and were developed following rules and recommendations for questionnaire writing, and 36 items were chosen for final validation. Factor analysis was used to find out the factor structure of the questionnaire and to measure construct validity. Results The final version of the questionnaire consisted of 29 items divided into a three-factor structure: factor I – positive attitude toward plagiarism (12 items); factor II – negative attitude toward plagiarism (7 items); and factor III – subjective norms toward plagiarism (10 items). Cronbach α was calculated to confirm the reliability of the scale: factor I – α = 0.83; factor II – α = 0.79; and factor III – α = 0.85. Correlations between factors were: -0.37 between I and II, -0.41 between I and III, and +0.31 between II and III. Conclusion Attitudes Toward Plagiarism questionnaire was developed, with good psychometric characteristics. It will be used in future research as a standardized tool for measuring attitudes toward plagiarism. PMID:20564761

  11. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of als Functional Rating Scale-Revised in Portuguese language.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Keyte; Pereira, Cecília; Pavan, Karina; Valério, Berenice Cataldo Oliveira

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study is the cross-cultural, as well as to validate in Portuguese language the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale - Revised (ALSFRS-R). We performed a prospective study of individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) clinically defined. The scale, after obtaining the final version in Portuguese, was administered in 22 individuals and three weeks after re-applied. There were no significant differences between the application and reapplication of the scale (p=0.069). The linear regression and internal consistency measured by Pearson correlation and alpha Conbrach were significant with r=0.975 e alpha=0.934. The reliability test-retest demonstrated by intraclass correlation coefficient was strong with ICC=0.975. Therefore, this version proved to be applicable, reliable and easy to be conducted in clinical practice and research.

  12. Family Impact Scale (FIS): Cross-cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Properties for the Peruvian Spanish Language.

    PubMed

    Abanto, Jenny; Albites, Ursula; Bönecker, Marcelo; Paiva, Saul M; Castillo, Jorge L; Aguilar-Gálvez, Denisse

    2015-12-01

    The lack of a Family Impact Scale (FIS) in Spanish language limits its use as an indicator in Spanish-speaking countries and precludes comparisons with data from other cultural and ethnic groups. The purpose of this study was therefore to adapt the FIS cross-culturally to the Peruvian Spanish language and assess its reliability and validity. In order to translate and adapt the FIS cross-culturally, it was answered by 60 parents in two pilot tests, after which it was tested on 200 parents of children aged 11 to 14 years who were clinically examined for dental caries experience and malocclusions. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient while repeat administration of the FIS on the same 200 parents enabled the test-retest reliability to be assessed via intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Construct and discriminant validity were based on associations of the FIS with global ratings of oral health and clinical groups, respectively. Mean (standard deviation) FIS total score was 5.20 (5.86). Internal consistency was confirmed by Cronbach's alpha 0.84. Test-retest reliability revealed excellent reproducibility (ICC = 0.96). Construct validity was good, demonstrating statistically significant associations between total FIS score and global ratings of oral health (p=0.007) and overall wellbeing (p=0.002), as well as for the subscale scores (p<0.05) with exception of the financial burden subscale. The FIS was also able to discriminate between children with and without dental caries experience and malocclusions (p<0.05). Satisfactory psychometric results for the Peruvian Spanish FIS confirm it as a reliable, valid instrument for assessing the impact on the family caused by children's oral conditions.

  13. Is It Cheating or Learning the Craft of Writing? Using Turnitin to Help Students Avoid Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham-Matheson, Lynne; Starr, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Plagiarism is a growing problem for universities, many of which are turning to software detection for help in detecting and dealing with it. This paper explores issues around plagiarism and reports on a study of the use of Turnitin in a new university. The purpose of the study was to inform the senior management team about the plagiarism policy…

  14. A Safe Place: The Role of Librarians and Writing Centers in Addressing Citation Practices and Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buranen, Lise

    2009-01-01

    In American colleges and universities, plagiarism is a hot topic: teachers wail and moan about the rise in student plagiarism (though often without evidence to demonstrate this supposed rise); they complain that the Web has "caused" plagiarism; and at the same time, many believe that technology is the key to "solving" the problem of student…

  15. Is It Happening? How to Avoid the Deleterious Effects of Plagiarism and Cheating in Your Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Susan E.

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism can be "plaguing" if it is not discussed, understood, and enforced by the professor right at the beginning of the course and throughout the semester. Students usually don't "have" to cheat or plagiarize; they do so mainly because "they can." Professors who turn a deaf ear or a blind eye to students who plagiarize create deleterious…

  16. The Use of Technology to Combat Plagiarism in Business Communication Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stowers, Robert H.; Hummel, Julie Y.

    2011-01-01

    Some have called plagiarism literary theft. Plagiarizing is akin to stealing the intellect of another person. At times, plagiarism occurs because of ignorance, sloppy authorship, or lack of knowledge about proper sourcing. Sometimes, it is done purposefully. Experts have suggested that the concept of intellectual ownership is limited to Western…

  17. Placing the Library at the Heart of Plagiarism Prevention: The University of Bradford Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Sarah; Costigan, Anne; O'hara, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Plagiarism is a vexing issue for Higher Education, affecting student transition, retention, and attainment. This article reports on two initiatives from the University of Bradford library aimed at reducing student plagiarism. The first initiative is an intensive course for students who have contravened plagiarism regulations. The second course…

  18. Is Cheating Always Intentional? The Perception of College Students toward the Issues of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabor, Erin L.

    2013-01-01

    The definition of plagiarism that is used in university handbooks is a simple one, and policies along with tiers of disciplinary strategies are used by faculty members in higher education to deter students from committing a plagiarism infraction based on this simple definition. However, plagiarism still occurs on college campuses, and this may be…

  19. An Integrated Academic Literacy Approach to Improving Students' Understanding of Plagiarism in an Accounting Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Lisa; Singh, Nishani

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism in higher education is a widespread and complex issue. Students' understanding of plagiarism differs as a result of combining their prior learning about referencing with their current experience of institutional policies and generic resources. Plagiarism was identified as a major learning issue in a core second-year undergraduate…

  20. Measuring Plagiarism: Researching What Students Do, Not What They Say They Do

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, John

    2010-01-01

    Student plagiarism in colleges and universities has become a controversial issue in recent years. A key problem has been the lack of reliable empirical data on the frequency, nature and extent of plagiarism in student assignments. The aim of the study described here was to provide this data. Patterns of plagiarism were tracked in two university…

  1. An Empirical Research Study of the Efficacy of Two Plagiarism-Detection Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jacob D.; Page, Elaine Fetyko

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a study of the two most popular plagiarism-detection software platforms available on today's market--Turnitin (http://www.turnitin.com/static/index.html) and SafeAssign (http://www.safeassign.com/). After a brief discussion of plagiarism's relevance to librarians, the authors examine plagiarism-detection methodology and…

  2. Literacy & Identity: Trust, Betrayal, and Authorship: Plagiarism and How We Perceive Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Bronwyn T.

    2007-01-01

    Emotional responses to plagiarism are rarely addressed in professional literature that focuses on ethics and good teaching practices. Yet, the emotions that are unleashed by cases of plagiarism, or suspicions of plagiarism, influence how we perceive our students and how we approach teaching them. Such responses have been complicated by online…

  3. Another Look at Plagiarism in the Digital Age: Is It Time to Turn in My Badge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvin, Benie B.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about plagiarism in the digital age and how plagiarism challenges teachers in their relationship with students. With a growing body of digital commentary and the looming dominance of electronic writing, current professional consensus in the plagiarism dilemma appears dubious and the slope gets more slippery every…

  4. Policing--Or, at Least, Policying--Plagiarism at One Australian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Regan, Kerry

    2006-01-01

    How universities and university people deal with plagiarism is articulated in universities' plagiarism policies. Universities, policies and people are all located in a bigger context, one which is being increasingly shaped by global issues. Some global issues of particular relevance to plagiarism are associated with the Internet and its attendant…

  5. Plagiarism, Cultural Diversity and Metaphor--Implications for Academic Staff Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leask, Betty

    2006-01-01

    Plagiarism is a complex, culturally loaded concept which causes much anxiety for both academics and students. Exactly what constitutes plagiarism is dependent on a number of contextual factors. Despite the difficulties associated with defining and detecting plagiarism, it is said to be on the increase, and students from "other cultures" are…

  6. Plagiarism Awareness among Students: Assessing Integration of Ethics Theory into Library Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strittmatter, Connie; Bratton, Virginia K.

    2014-01-01

    The library literature on plagiarism instruction focuses on students' understanding of what plagiarism is and is not. This study evaluates the effect of library instruction from a broader perspective by examining the pre- and posttest (instruction) levels of students' perceptions toward plagiarism ethics. Eighty-six students completed a pre- and…

  7. When Emotion Stands to Reason: A Phenomenological Study of Composition Instructors' Emotional Responses to Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biswas, Ann E.

    2015-01-01

    Plagiarism has been the focus of considerable scholarly research in recent decades, much of which has examined the number of students who are plagiarizing, why they plagiarize, and what instructors can do to teach students to effectively and ethically integrate their own words and ideas with those of their sources. Overlooked in this scholarship…

  8. Pattern of Plagiarism in Novice Students' Generated Programs: An Experimental Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmadzadeh, Marzieh; Mahmoudabadi, Elham; Khodadadi, Farzad

    2011-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence shows that in computer programming courses plagiarism is a widespread problem. With the growing number of students in such courses, manual plagiarism detection is impractical. This requires instructors to use one of the many available plagiarism detection tools. Prior to choosing one of such tools, a metric that assures the…

  9. A Model for Determining Student Plagiarism: Electronic Detection and Academic Judgement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretag, Tracey; Mahmud, Saadia

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides insights based on the authors' own practice as university instructors, researchers and arbitrators of student plagiarism. Recognising the difficulty in defining plagiarism while still acknowledging the practical importance of doing so, the authors find the common element between the various types of plagiarism to be the lack of…

  10. Scientists Admitting to Plagiarism: A Meta-analysis of Surveys.

    PubMed

    Pupovac, Vanja; Fanelli, Daniele

    2015-10-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of anonymous surveys asking scientists whether they ever committed various forms of plagiarism. From May to December 2011 we searched 35 bibliographic databases, five grey literature databases and hand searched nine journals for potentially relevant studies. We included surveys that asked scientists if, in a given recall period, they had committed or knew of a colleague who committed plagiarism, and from each survey extracted the proportion of those who reported at least one case. Studies that focused on academic (i.e. student) plagiarism were excluded. Literature searches returned 12,460 titles from which 17 relevant survey studies were identified. Meta-analysis of studies reporting committed (N = 7) and witnessed (N = 11) plagiarism yielded a pooled estimate of, respectively, 1.7% (95% CI 1.2-2.4) and 30% (95% CI 17-46). Basic methodological factors, including sample size, year of survey, delivery method and whether survey questions were explicit rather than indirect made a significant difference on survey results. Even after controlling for these methodological factors, between-study differences in admission rates were significantly above those expected by sampling error alone and remained largely unexplained. Despite several limitations of the data and of this meta-analysis, we draw three robust conclusions: (1) The rate at which scientists report knowing a colleague who committed plagiarism is higher than for data fabrication and falsification; (2) The rate at which scientists report knowing a colleague who committed plagiarism is correlated to that of fabrication and falsification; (3) The rate at which scientists admit having committed either form of misconduct (i.e. fabrication, falsification and plagiarism) in surveys has declined over time. PMID:25352123

  11. Scientists Admitting to Plagiarism: A Meta-analysis of Surveys.

    PubMed

    Pupovac, Vanja; Fanelli, Daniele

    2015-10-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of anonymous surveys asking scientists whether they ever committed various forms of plagiarism. From May to December 2011 we searched 35 bibliographic databases, five grey literature databases and hand searched nine journals for potentially relevant studies. We included surveys that asked scientists if, in a given recall period, they had committed or knew of a colleague who committed plagiarism, and from each survey extracted the proportion of those who reported at least one case. Studies that focused on academic (i.e. student) plagiarism were excluded. Literature searches returned 12,460 titles from which 17 relevant survey studies were identified. Meta-analysis of studies reporting committed (N = 7) and witnessed (N = 11) plagiarism yielded a pooled estimate of, respectively, 1.7% (95% CI 1.2-2.4) and 30% (95% CI 17-46). Basic methodological factors, including sample size, year of survey, delivery method and whether survey questions were explicit rather than indirect made a significant difference on survey results. Even after controlling for these methodological factors, between-study differences in admission rates were significantly above those expected by sampling error alone and remained largely unexplained. Despite several limitations of the data and of this meta-analysis, we draw three robust conclusions: (1) The rate at which scientists report knowing a colleague who committed plagiarism is higher than for data fabrication and falsification; (2) The rate at which scientists report knowing a colleague who committed plagiarism is correlated to that of fabrication and falsification; (3) The rate at which scientists admit having committed either form of misconduct (i.e. fabrication, falsification and plagiarism) in surveys has declined over time.

  12. Within- and Cross-Language Relations between Oral Language Proficiency and School Outcomes in Bilingual Children with an Immigrant Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prevoo, Mariëlle J. L.; Malda, Maike; Mesman, Judi; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2016-01-01

    Sixteen meta-analyses were conducted to examine relations of typically developing bilingual immigrant-background children's oral language proficiency in their first and second language with the school outcomes of early literacy (k = 41), reading (k = 61), spelling (k = 9), mathematics (k = 9), and academic achievement (k = 9). Moderate to strong…

  13. Native American Youth Discourses on Language Shift and Retention: Ideological Cross-Currents and Their Implications for Language Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Teresa L.; Romero-Little, Mary Eunice; Zepeda, Ofelia

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines preliminary findings from an ongoing federally funded study of Native language shift and retention in the US Southwest, focusing on in-depth ethnographic interviews with Navajo youth. We begin with an overview of Native American linguistic ecologies, noting the dynamic, variegated and complex nature of language proficiencies…

  14. Hermetic and Web Plagiarism Detection Systems for Student Essays--An Evaluation of the State-of-the-Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakkonen, Tuomo; Mozgovoy, Maxim

    2010-01-01

    Plagiarism has become a serious problem in education, and several plagiarism detection systems have been developed for dealing with this problem. This study provides an empirical evaluation of eight plagiarism detection systems for student essays. We present a categorical hierarchy of the most common types of plagiarism that are encountered in…

  15. Cross-linguistic gestures reflect typological universals: a subject-initial, verb-final bias in speakers of diverse languages.

    PubMed

    Futrell, Richard; Hickey, Tina; Lee, Aldrin; Lim, Eunice; Luchkina, Elena; Gibson, Edward

    2015-03-01

    In communicating events by gesture, participants create codes that recapitulate the patterns of word order in the world's vocal languages (Gibson et al., 2013; Goldin-Meadow, So, Ozyurek, & Mylander, 2008; Hall, Mayberry, & Ferreria, 2013; Hall, Ferreira, & Mayberry, 2014; Langus & Nespor, 2010; and others). Participants most often convey simple transitive events using gestures in the order Subject-Object-Verb (SOV), the most common word order in human languages. When there is a possibility of confusion between subject and object, participants use the order Subject-Verb-Object (SVO). This overall pattern has been explained by positing an underlying cognitive preference for subject-initial, verb-final orders, with the verb-medial order SVO order emerging to facilitate robust communication in a noisy channel (Gibson et al., 2013). However, whether the subject-initial and verb-final biases are innate or the result of languages that the participants already know has been unclear, because participants in previous studies all spoke either SVO or SOV languages, which could induce a subject-initial, verb-late bias. Furthermore, the exact manner in which known languages influence gestural orders has been unclear. In this paper we demonstrate that there is a subject-initial and verb-final gesturing bias cross-linguistically by comparing gestures of speakers of SVO languages English and Russian to those of speakers of VSO languages Irish and Tagalog. The findings show that subject-initial and verb-final order emerges even in speakers of verb-initial languages, and that interference from these languages takes the form of occasionally gesturing in VSO order, without an additional bias toward other orders. The results provides further support for the idea that improvised gesture is a window into the pressures shaping language formation, independently of the languages that participants already know. PMID:25498747

  16. Cross-linguistic gestures reflect typological universals: a subject-initial, verb-final bias in speakers of diverse languages.

    PubMed

    Futrell, Richard; Hickey, Tina; Lee, Aldrin; Lim, Eunice; Luchkina, Elena; Gibson, Edward

    2015-03-01

    In communicating events by gesture, participants create codes that recapitulate the patterns of word order in the world's vocal languages (Gibson et al., 2013; Goldin-Meadow, So, Ozyurek, & Mylander, 2008; Hall, Mayberry, & Ferreria, 2013; Hall, Ferreira, & Mayberry, 2014; Langus & Nespor, 2010; and others). Participants most often convey simple transitive events using gestures in the order Subject-Object-Verb (SOV), the most common word order in human languages. When there is a possibility of confusion between subject and object, participants use the order Subject-Verb-Object (SVO). This overall pattern has been explained by positing an underlying cognitive preference for subject-initial, verb-final orders, with the verb-medial order SVO order emerging to facilitate robust communication in a noisy channel (Gibson et al., 2013). However, whether the subject-initial and verb-final biases are innate or the result of languages that the participants already know has been unclear, because participants in previous studies all spoke either SVO or SOV languages, which could induce a subject-initial, verb-late bias. Furthermore, the exact manner in which known languages influence gestural orders has been unclear. In this paper we demonstrate that there is a subject-initial and verb-final gesturing bias cross-linguistically by comparing gestures of speakers of SVO languages English and Russian to those of speakers of VSO languages Irish and Tagalog. The findings show that subject-initial and verb-final order emerges even in speakers of verb-initial languages, and that interference from these languages takes the form of occasionally gesturing in VSO order, without an additional bias toward other orders. The results provides further support for the idea that improvised gesture is a window into the pressures shaping language formation, independently of the languages that participants already know.

  17. Three Treatments for Bilingual Children with Primary Language Impairment: Examining Cross-Linguistic and Cross-Domain Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Kohnert, Kathryn; Pham, Giang; Disher, Jill Rentmeester; Payesteh, Bita

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the absolute and relative effects of 3 different treatment programs for school-age bilingual children with primary or specific language impairment (PLI). It serves to expand the evidence base on which service providers can base treatment decisions. It also explores hypothesized relations between languages and cognition…

  18. Service-Learning as a Pedagogy To Promote the Content, Cross-Cultural, and Language-Learning of ESL Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heuser, Linda

    1999-01-01

    Describes the incorporation of service learning in a sheltered content course for Japanese sophomores studying in the United States. Service learning holds promise for furthering cognitive knowledge, cross cultural awareness, and language competencies. After profiling the academic program, a definition of service learning is provided with a review…

  19. Space, Scale and Languages: Identity Construction of Cross-Boundary Students in a Multilingual University in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Mingyue Michelle; Tong, Ho Kin

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on the notions of scale and space, this paper investigates identity construction among a group of mainland Chinese cross-boundary students by analysing their language choices and linguistic practices in a multilingual university in Hong Kong. The research illustrates how movement across spaces by these students produces varying index…

  20. A Cross-National Study of Teacher Attitudes Toward Children's Language in England and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Robert E.

    To determine teachers' attitudes (and reasons for these attitudes) toward the language of children in their schools, 33 teachers in selected infant and junior schools in England and a similar number in the United States representing a cross-section of schools and geographic areas in the two countries were interviewed. More than 90 percent of the…

  1. Cross-Lagged Relations between Motivation and Proficiency in English as a Foreign Language among Chinese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xinmiao

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between motivation and EFL proficiency is an issue of great concern in previous research on foreign language learning. However, work in this area offers inconclusive evidence with regard to the directionality of their relations. Using cross-lagged structural equation modeling, this study investigated the directionality of the…

  2. School's out for the Summer: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Second Language Learning in Informal Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feuer, Avital

    2009-01-01

    This ethnographic, cross-cultural study used a dialogic, sociolinguistic framework to describe learning processes in portraits of three immersion summer camps in the eastern US. Using the data collection techniques of in-depth interviewing, participant observation and textual analysis, the study examined the process of second language learning and…

  3. Cross-Language Translation Priming Asymmetry with Chinese-English Bilinguals: A Test of the Sense Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Baoguo; Zhou, Huixia; Gao, Yiwen; Dunlap, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to test the Sense Model of cross-linguistic masked translation priming asymmetry, proposed by Finkbeiner et al. ("J Mem Lang" 51:1-22, 2004), by manipulating the number of senses that bilingual participants associated with words from both languages. Three lexical decision experiments were conducted with…

  4. Cross-cultural adaptation of research instruments: language, setting, time and statistical considerations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Research questionnaires are not always translated appropriately before they are used in new temporal, cultural or linguistic settings. The results based on such instruments may therefore not accurately reflect what they are supposed to measure. This paper aims to illustrate the process and required steps involved in the cross-cultural adaptation of a research instrument using the adaptation process of an attitudinal instrument as an example. Methods A questionnaire was needed for the implementation of a study in Norway 2007. There was no appropriate instruments available in Norwegian, thus an Australian-English instrument was cross-culturally adapted. Results The adaptation process included investigation of conceptual and item equivalence. Two forward and two back-translations were synthesized and compared by an expert committee. Thereafter the instrument was pretested and adjusted accordingly. The final questionnaire was administered to opioid maintenance treatment staff (n=140) and harm reduction staff (n=180). The overall response rate was 84%. The original instrument failed confirmatory analysis. Instead a new two-factor scale was identified and found valid in the new setting. Conclusions The failure of the original scale highlights the importance of adapting instruments to current research settings. It also emphasizes the importance of ensuring that concepts within an instrument are equal between the original and target language, time and context. If the described stages in the cross-cultural adaptation process had been omitted, the findings would have been misleading, even if presented with apparent precision. Thus, it is important to consider possible barriers when making a direct comparison between different nations, cultures and times. PMID:20144247

  5. Cross-Cultural Differences and the Teaching of English as a Foreign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiu-Bai, Qin

    1983-01-01

    A Chinese student of English is often faced with culturally based differences in denotation and connotation, idioms and proverbs, habits, and formulaic use of language. Since the native speaker of any language has built into his language repertoire his unique cultural assumptions and values, a culture-oriented curriculum in language teaching is…

  6. Cross-Linguistic Influence on Brain Activation during Second Language Processing: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, Hyeonjeong; Sugiura, Motoaki; Sassa, Yuko; Yokoyama, Satoru; Horie, Kaoru; Sato, Shigeru; Taira, Masato; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the effect of the linguistic distance between a first language (L1) and a second language (L2) on neural activity during second language relative to first language processing. We compared different L1-L2 pairs in which different linguistic features characterize linguistic distance. Chinese and Korean native…

  7. The Theory of Adaptive Dispersion and Acoustic-phonetic Properties of Cross-language Lexical-tone Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Jennifer Alexandra

    Lexical-tone languages use fundamental frequency (F0/pitch) to convey word meaning. About 41.8% of the world's languages use lexical tone (Maddieson, 2008), yet those systems are under-studied. I aim to increase our understanding of speech-sound inventory organization by extending to tone-systems a model of vowel-system organization, the Theory of Adaptive Dispersion (TAD) (Liljencrants and Lindblom, 1972). This is a cross-language investigation of whether and how the size of a tonal inventory affects (A) acoustic tone-space size and (B) dispersion of tone categories within the tone-space. I compared five languages with very different tone inventories: Cantonese (3 contour, 3 level tones); Mandarin (3 contour, 1 level tone); Thai (2 contour, 3 level tones); Yoruba (3 level tones only); and Igbo (2 level tones only). Six native speakers (3 female) of each language produced 18 CV syllables in isolation, with each of his/her language's tones, six times. I measured tonal F0 across the vowel at onset, midpoint, and offglide. Tone-space size was the F0 difference in semitones (ST) between each language's highest and lowest tones. Tone dispersion was the F0 distance (ST) between two tones shared by multiple languages. Following the TAD, I predicted that languages with larger tone inventories would have larger tone-spaces. Against expectations, tone-space size was fixed across level-tone languages at midpoint and offglide, and across contour-tone languages (except Thai) at offglide. However, within each language type (level-tone vs. contour-tone), languages with smaller tone inventories had larger tone spaces at onset. Tone-dispersion results were also unexpected. The Cantonese mid-level tone was further dispersed from a tonal baseline than the Yoruba mid-level tone; Cantonese mid-level tone dispersion was therefore greater than theoretically necessary. The Cantonese high-level tone was also further dispersed from baseline than the Mandarin high-level tone -- at midpoint

  8. Is it culture or is it language? Examination of language effects in cross-cultural research on categorization.

    PubMed

    Ji, Li-Jun; Zhang, Zhiyong; Nisbett, Richard E

    2004-07-01

    Differences in reasoning styles between Chinese and European Americans held even when controlling for the language of testing. Bilingual Chinese organized objects in a more relational and less categorical way than European Americans, whether tested in English or in Chinese. Thus, culture affects categorization independent of the testing language. Nevertheless, language affected some Chinese bilinguals' categorization. The responses of Chinese from the Mainland and Taiwan were more relational when tested in Chinese than when tested in English. Responses of Chinese from Hong Kong and Singapore were equally relational when tested in Chinese and in English. Age and context of learning English are discussed to explain the differential language effects among different Chinese groups. Theoretical and methodological implications are discussed.

  9. Some cross-linguistic evidence for modulation of implicational universals by language-specific frequency effects in phonological development

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Jan; Beckman, Mary E.

    2009-01-01

    While broad-focus comparisons of consonant inventories across children acquiring different language can suggest that phonological development follows a universal sequence, finer-grained statistical comparisons can reveal systematic differences. This cross-linguistic study of word-initial lingual obstruents examined some effects of language-specific frequencies on consonant mastery. Repetitions of real words were elicited from 2- and 3-year-old children who were monolingual speakers of English, Cantonese, Greek, or Japanese. The repetitions were recorded and transcribed by an adult native speaker for each language. Results found support for both language-universal effects in phonological acquisition and for language-specific influences related to phoneme and phoneme sequence frequency. These results suggest that acquisition patterns that are common across languages arise in two ways. One influence is direct, via the universal constraints imposed by the physiology and physics of speech production and perception, and how these predict which contrasts will be easy and which will be difficult for the child to learn to control. The other influence is indirect, via the way universal principles of ease of perception and production tend to influence the lexicons of many languages through commonly attested sound changes. PMID:19890438

  10. An intervention aimed at reducing plagiarism in undergraduate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Smedley, Alison; Crawford, Tonia; Cloete, Linda

    2015-05-01

    Plagiarism is a current and developing problem in the tertiary education sector where students access information and reproduce it as their own. It is identified as occurring in many tertiary level degrees including nursing and allied health profession degrees. Nursing specifically, is a profession where standards and ethics are required and honesty is paramount. The aim of this study was to evaluate the change in nursing student's knowledge and understanding of plagiarism before and after an educational intervention in their first semester of the Bachelor of nursing degree at a private college of higher education in Sydney, Australia. This study concluded that an educational intervention can increase knowledge and awareness of plagiarism among nursing students.

  11. The eureka error: inadvertent plagiarism by misattributions of effort.

    PubMed

    Preston, Jesse; Wegner, Daniel M

    2007-04-01

    The authors found that the feeling of authorship for mental actions such as solving problems is enhanced by effort cues experienced during mental activity; misattribution of effort cues resulted in inadvertent plagiarism. Pairs of participants took turns solving anagrams as they exerted effort on an unrelated task. People inadvertently plagiarized their partners' answers more often when they experienced high incidental effort while working on the problem and reduced effort as the solution appeared. This result was found for efforts produced when participants squeezed a handgrip during the task (Experiment 1) or when the anagram was displayed in a font that was difficult to read (Experiments 2, 3a, and 3b). Plagiarism declined, however, when participants attended to the source of the effort cues (Experiments 3a and 3b). These results suggest that effort misattribution can influence authorship processing for mental activities. PMID:17469945

  12. Language Education Policies and Inequality in Africa: Cross-National Empirical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Gary

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between inequality and education through the lens of colonial language education policies in African primary and secondary school curricula. The languages of former colonizers almost always occupy important places in society, yet they are not widely spoken as first languages, meaning that most people depend…

  13. Cross-Language Phonological Activation of Meaning: Evidence from Category Verification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, Deanna C.; Jared, Debra

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated phonological processing in bilingual reading for meaning. English-French and French-English bilinguals performed a category verification task in either their first or second language. Interlingual homophones (words that share phonology across languages but not orthography or meaning) and single language control words served…

  14. Cross-Language Transfer of Indexing Concepts for Storage and Retrieval of Moving Images: Preliminary Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, James M.

    1996-01-01

    A French-language version of stock footage videotapes from previous research (using English-language data) was prepared, using the same images. The most popular terms identified in each of the two studies for each of the shots are compared, to determine the rate of correspondence between potential indexing terms in each language. (Author/AEF)

  15. Cross-language lexical connections in the mental lexicon: evidence from a case of trilingual aphasia.

    PubMed

    Goral, Mira; Levy, Erika S; Obler, Loraine K; Cohen, Eyal

    2006-08-01

    Despite anecdotal data on lexical interference among the languages of multilingual speakers, little research evidence about the lexical connections among multilinguals' languages exists to date. In the present paper, two experiments with a multilingual speaker who had suffered aphasia are reported. The first experiment provides data about inter-language activation during natural conversations; the second experiment examines performance on a word-translation task. Asymmetric patterns of inter-language interference and translation are evident. These patterns are influenced by age of language learning, degree of language recovery and use, and prevalence of shared lexical items. We conclude that whereas age of language learning plays a role in language recovery following aphasia, the degrees of language use prior to the aphasia onset and of shared vocabulary determine the ease with which words are accessed. The findings emphasize the importance of patterns of language use and the relations between the language pair under investigation in understanding lexical connections among languages in bilinguals and multilinguals.

  16. Cross-language differences in the brain network subserving intelligible speech.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jianqiao; Peng, Gang; Lyu, Bingjiang; Wang, Yi; Zhuo, Yan; Niu, Zhendong; Tan, Li Hai; Leff, Alexander P; Gao, Jia-Hong

    2015-03-10

    How is language processed in the brain by native speakers of different languages? Is there one brain system for all languages or are different languages subserved by different brain systems? The first view emphasizes commonality, whereas the second emphasizes specificity. We investigated the cortical dynamics involved in processing two very diverse languages: a tonal language (Chinese) and a nontonal language (English). We used functional MRI and dynamic causal modeling analysis to compute and compare brain network models exhaustively with all possible connections among nodes of language regions in temporal and frontal cortex and found that the information flow from the posterior to anterior portions of the temporal cortex was commonly shared by Chinese and English speakers during speech comprehension, whereas the inferior frontal gyrus received neural signals from the left posterior portion of the temporal cortex in English speakers and from the bilateral anterior portion of the temporal cortex in Chinese speakers. Our results revealed that, although speech processing is largely carried out in the common left hemisphere classical language areas (Broca's and Wernicke's areas) and anterior temporal cortex, speech comprehension across different language groups depends on how these brain regions interact with each other. Moreover, the right anterior temporal cortex, which is crucial for tone processing, is equally important as its left homolog, the left anterior temporal cortex, in modulating the cortical dynamics in tone language comprehension. The current study pinpoints the importance of the bilateral anterior temporal cortex in language comprehension that is downplayed or even ignored by popular contemporary models of speech comprehension.

  17. Word Segmentation in Monolingual Infants Acquiring Canadian English and Canadian French: Native Language, Cross-Dialect, and Cross-Language Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polka, Linda; Sundara, Megha

    2012-01-01

    In five experiments, we tested segmentation of word forms from natural speech materials by 8-month-old monolingual infants who are acquiring Canadian French or Canadian English. These two languages belong to different rhythm classes; Canadian French is syllable-timed and Canada English is stress-timed. Findings of Experiments 1, 2, and 3 show that…

  18. How language affects children's use of derivational morphology in visual word and pseudoword processing: evidence from a cross-language study

    PubMed Central

    Casalis, Séverine; Quémart, Pauline; Duncan, Lynne G.

    2015-01-01

    Developing readers have been shown to rely on morphemes in visual word recognition across several naming, lexical decision and priming experiments. However, the impact of morphology in reading is not consistent across studies with differing results emerging not only between but also within writing systems. Here, we report a cross-language experiment involving the English and French languages, which aims to compare directly the impact of morphology in word recognition in the two languages. Monolingual French-speaking and English-speaking children matched for grade level (Part 1) and for age (Part 2) participated in the study. Two lexical decision tasks (one in French, one in English) featured words and pseudowords with exactly the same structure in each language. The presence of a root (R+) and a suffix ending (S+) was manipulated orthogonally, leading to four possible combinations in words (R+S+: e.g., postal; R+S−: e.g., turnip; R−S+: e.g., rascal; and R-S-: e.g., bishop) and in pseudowords (R+S+: e.g., pondal; R+S−: e.g., curlip; R−S+: e.g., vosnal; and R−S−: e.g., hethop). Results indicate that the presence of morphemes facilitates children's recognition of words and impedes their ability to reject pseudowords in both languages. Nevertheless, effects extend across accuracy and latencies in French but are restricted to accuracy in English, suggesting a higher degree of morphological processing efficiency in French. We argue that the inconsistencies found between languages emphasize the need for developmental models of word recognition to integrate a morpheme level whose elaboration is tuned by the productivity and transparency of the derivational system. PMID:25932018

  19. Bilingual Word Recognition in Deaf and Hearing Signers: Effects of Proficiency and Language Dominance on Cross-Language Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morford, Jill P.; Kroll, Judith F.; Piñar, Pilar; Wilkinson, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence demonstrates that American Sign Language (ASL) signs are active during print word recognition in deaf bilinguals who are highly proficient in both ASL and English. In the present study, we investigate whether signs are active during print word recognition in two groups of unbalanced bilinguals: deaf ASL-dominant and hearing…

  20. Cross-Language Perception of Japanese Vowel Length Contrasts: Comparison of Listeners from Different First Language Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsukada, Kimiko; Hirata, Yukari; Roengpitya, Rungpat

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research was to compare the perception of Japanese vowel length contrasts by 4 groups of listeners who differed in their familiarity with length contrasts in their first language (L1; i.e., American English, Italian, Japanese, and Thai). Of the 3 nonnative groups, native Thai listeners were expected to outperform…

  1. On a Different "Plane": Cross-Language Effects on the Conceptual Representations of Within-Language Homonyms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areas Da Luz Fontes, Ana B.; Schwartz, Ana I.

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether bilinguals' conceptual representation of homonyms in one language are influenced by meanings in the other. One hundred and seventeen Spanish-English bilinguals generated sentences for 62 English homonyms that were also cognates with Spanish and which shared at least one meaning with Spanish (e.g., plane/"plano"). Production…

  2. Plagiarism: A silent epidemic in scientific writing - Reasons, recognition and remedies.

    PubMed

    Debnath, Jyotindu

    2016-04-01

    Plagiarism is one of the most serious forms of scientific misconduct prevalent today and is an important reason for significant proportion of rejection of manuscripts and retraction of published articles. It is time for the medical fraternity to unanimously adopt a 'zero tolerance' policy towards this menace. While responsibility for ensuring a plagiarism-free manuscript primarily lies with the authors, editors cannot absolve themselves of their accountability. The only way to write a plagiarism-free manuscript for an author is to write an article in his/her own words, literally and figuratively. This article discusses various types of plagiarism, reasons for increasingly reported instances of plagiarism, pros and cons of use of plagiarism detection tools for detecting plagiarism and role of authors and editors in preventing/avoiding plagiarism in a submitted manuscript. Regular usage of professional plagiarism detection tools for similarity checks with critical interpretation by the editorial team at the pre-review stage will certainly help in reducing the menace of plagiarism in submitted manuscripts.

  3. Plagiarism: A silent epidemic in scientific writing - Reasons, recognition and remedies.

    PubMed

    Debnath, Jyotindu

    2016-04-01

    Plagiarism is one of the most serious forms of scientific misconduct prevalent today and is an important reason for significant proportion of rejection of manuscripts and retraction of published articles. It is time for the medical fraternity to unanimously adopt a 'zero tolerance' policy towards this menace. While responsibility for ensuring a plagiarism-free manuscript primarily lies with the authors, editors cannot absolve themselves of their accountability. The only way to write a plagiarism-free manuscript for an author is to write an article in his/her own words, literally and figuratively. This article discusses various types of plagiarism, reasons for increasingly reported instances of plagiarism, pros and cons of use of plagiarism detection tools for detecting plagiarism and role of authors and editors in preventing/avoiding plagiarism in a submitted manuscript. Regular usage of professional plagiarism detection tools for similarity checks with critical interpretation by the editorial team at the pre-review stage will certainly help in reducing the menace of plagiarism in submitted manuscripts. PMID:27257327

  4. Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadlin, Barry; Nemanich, Donald

    1974-01-01

    An article and a bibliography constitute this issue of the "Illinois English Bulletin." In "Keep the Natives from Getting Restless," Barry Gadlin examines native language learning by children from infancy through high school and discusses the theories of several authors concerning the teaching of the native language. The "Bibliography of…

  5. Segments and segmental properties in cross-language perception: Korean perception of English obstruents in various prosodic locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, Kenneth; Silbert, Noah; Park, Hanyong

    2001-05-01

    Experimental models of cross-language perception and second-language acquisition (such as PAM and SLM) typically treat language differences in terms of whether the two languages share phonological segmental categories. Linguistic models, by contrast, generally examine properties which cross classify segments, such as features, rules, or prosodic constraints. Such models predict that perceptual patterns found for one segment will generalize to other segments of the same class. This paper presents perceptual identifications of Korean listeners to a set of voiced and voiceless English stops and fricatives in various prosodic locations to determine the extent to which such generality occurs. Results show some class-general effects; for example, voicing identification patterns generalize from stops, which occur in Korean, to nonsibilant fricatives, which are new to Korean listeners. However, when identification is poor, there are clear differences between segments within the same class. For example, in identifying stops and fricatives, both point of articulation and prosodic position bias perceptions; coronals are more often labeled fricatives, and syllable initial obstruents are more often labeled stops. These results suggest that class-general perceptual patterns are not a simple consequence of the structure of the perceptual system, but need to be acquired by factoring out within-class differences.

  6. Growth in working memory and inhibition predicts literacy in English language learners: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Swanson, H Lee

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether cross-sectional and growth effects in second language (L2) literacy are related to the executive component of working memory (WM) and whether inhibition may underlie the links between WM and reading in children whose first language (L1) is Spanish. Elementary school children (grades 1, 2 and 3) were administered a battery of cognitive [WM, short-term memory (STM), random generation, rapid naming, phonological processing], vocabulary and reading measures in both Spanish (L1) and English (L2) in Year 1 and again one year later. The regression analyses showed that L2 growth in WM significantly predicted growth in L2 reading skills even when inhibition was controlled. Further, the contributions of WM to reading growth in both L1 and L2 reading were independent of cross-language skills in phonological processing, STM, oral language and naming speed. Overall, the results suggest the mental activities that underlie WM and inhibition in predictions of L2 literacy reflect independent executive processes.

  7. Authors, editors, and the signs, symptoms and causes of plagiarism

    PubMed Central

    Shashok, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism and inadequate citing appear to have reached epidemic proportions in research publication. This article discusses how plagiarism is defined and suggests some possible causes for the increase in the plagiarism disease. Most editors do not have much tolerance for text re-use with inadequate citation regardless of reasons why words are copied from other sources without correct attribution. However, there is now some awareness that re-use of words in research articles to improve the writing or “the English” (which has become a common practice) should be distinguished from intentional deceit for the purpose of stealing other authors’ ideas (which appears to remain a very rare practice). Although it has become almost as easy for editors to detect duplicate text as it is for authors to re-use text from other sources, editors often fail to consider the reasons why researchers resort to this strategy, and tend to consider any text duplication as a symptom of serious misconduct. As a result, some authors may be stigmatized unfairly by being labeled as plagiarists. The article concludes with practical advice for researchers on how to improve their writing and citing skills and thus avoid accusations of plagiarism. PMID:21957412

  8. Authors, editors, and the signs, symptoms and causes of plagiarism.

    PubMed

    Shashok, Karen

    2011-07-01

    Plagiarism and inadequate citing appear to have reached epidemic proportions in research publication. This article discusses how plagiarism is defined and suggests some possible causes for the increase in the plagiarism disease. Most editors do not have much tolerance for text re-use with inadequate citation regardless of reasons why words are copied from other sources without correct attribution. However, there is now some awareness that re-use of words in research articles to improve the writing or "the English" (which has become a common practice) should be distinguished from intentional deceit for the purpose of stealing other authors' ideas (which appears to remain a very rare practice). Although it has become almost as easy for editors to detect duplicate text as it is for authors to re-use text from other sources, editors often fail to consider the reasons why researchers resort to this strategy, and tend to consider any text duplication as a symptom of serious misconduct. As a result, some authors may be stigmatized unfairly by being labeled as plagiarists. The article concludes with practical advice for researchers on how to improve their writing and citing skills and thus avoid accusations of plagiarism. PMID:21957412

  9. Staff and Student Perceptions of Plagiarism and Cheating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    Cheating, plagiarism, and other forms of academic misconduct are a significant issue in higher education. In this study, the attitudes of academic staff and students in a 3 year undergraduate nursing program to various forms of academic misconduct were assessed and compared. Forty-nine percent of staff and 39% of students thought that cheating on…

  10. Cut and Paste 101: Plagiarism and the Net.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renard, Lisa

    2000-01-01

    There are three types of Internet cheaters: unintentional, sneaky, and lazy. Plagiarism is not new, but Internet cheat sites allowing users to cut and paste papers easily from untraceable sources are widespread. Teachers should be aware of cheat sites, demand rewrites, assign unique topics, and teach source documentation. (MLH)

  11. Internet Plagiarism: An Agenda for Staff Inservice and Student Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    Discusses Internet plagiarism and includes an outline for a presentation that library media specialists can use with teachers. Highlights include an overview of the problem; helping teachers recognize the signs; pinpointing the source, including the use of search engines and Web sites; and prevention, including more control over the research…

  12. Student Plagiarism and Faculty Responsibility in Undergraduate Engineering Labs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parameswaran, Ashvin; Devi, Poornima

    2006-01-01

    In undergraduate engineering labs, lab reports are routinely copied. By ignoring this form of plagiarism, teaching assistants and lab technicians neglect their role responsibility. By designing courses that facilitate it, however inadvertently, professors neglect their causal responsibility. Using the case of one university, we show via interviews…

  13. Online Anti-Plagiarism Service Sets off Court Fight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2007-01-01

    As educators grapple with how best to combat plagiarism in the Internet age, several high school students are suing a company that many districts and schools have hired to help them reduce such cheating. The lawsuit alleges that the company is violating the high school students' rights under U.S. copyright law. The lawsuit was filed by four…

  14. Ensuring Effective Student Support in Higher Education Alleged Plagiarism Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Craig; Dooey, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism and other forms of academic misconduct are matters of great concern at all levels of study worldwide. This is especially so for students in higher education institutions, where higher degrees and publications are key focus activities. Ready access to internet based resources assist academic writing practices. However, the unintentional,…

  15. Loss, Responsibility, Blame? Staff Discourses of Student Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gourlay, Lesley; Deane, Janis

    2012-01-01

    Student plagiarism and difficulties with writing have been widely investigated in the literature, but there has been less research on staff perspectives. A Joint Information Services Committee (JISC)-funded questionnaire (n = 80) and focus group study investigated the views of lecturers, librarians and study advisors at a UK post-92 university,…

  16. Awareness about Plagiarism amongst University Students in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramzan, Muhammad; Munir, Muhammad Asif; Siddique, Nadeem; Asif, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Research is an original and systematic investigation undertaken to discover new facts and information about a phenomenon. However a variety of empirical and ethical issues are on the rise in academia, especially plagiarism is quickly becoming part of global educational and research culture. More and more students and researchers are turning to the…

  17. Plagiarism: Academic Dishonesty or "Blind Spot" of Multicultural Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song-Turner, Helen

    2008-01-01

    One of the issues facing universities operating in a range of market situations and contexts is that of plagiarism. Different universities have taken different approaches in dealing with this issue. In an Australian university context, this issue is of particular concern, given the large numbers of overseas students studying in Australia, and…

  18. Confronting Plagiarism: How Conventional Teaching Invites Cyber-Cheating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterngold, Arthur

    2004-01-01

    The digital revolution makes it easy for students to plagiarize. Using Internet search engines, DVD-based reference works, online journals, Web-based news sources, article databases, and other electronic sources, students can find information about nearly any topic and paste the data directly into their papers. Or students can take credit for…

  19. Using Bloom's Taxonomy to Teach Students about Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vosen, Melissa A.

    2008-01-01

    Melissa A. Vosen outlines a unit she has designed to help students comprehend the often unclear boundaries and issues surrounding plagiarism. Using Bloom's taxonomy of the cognitive domain, students complete increasingly complex tasks, learning to construct a works cited page and assess scholarly opinions. They also research the consequences of…

  20. Cheaters: A Case Study of Plagiarism in Composition Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yadgir, Sheri A.

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to find a better understanding of plagiarism in the university writing classroom; specifically, institutional and departmental honor codes and policies were looked at--as was the tendency of individual instructors to follow those policies versus creating their own. The narrow purpose of the study was to investigate plagiarism…

  1. A Reflection on Plagiarism, Patchwriting, and the Engineering Master's Thesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckel, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    Early in his career as an engineering librarian, the author saw plagiarism in completely black and white terms. However, digging into the scholarly literature, he finds ample evidence that there are other factors at work in student writing besides a lack of ethics or the intent to cheat. In this article, he briefly highlights some of these…

  2. Judge Rules Plagiarism-Detection Tool Falls under "Fair Use"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    Judge Claude M. Hilton, of the U.S. District Court in Alexandria, Virginia, in March found that scanning the student papers for the purpose of detecting plagiarism is a "highly transformative" use that falls under the fair-use provision of copyright law. He ruled that the company "makes no use of any work's particular expressive or creative…

  3. Writer's Cloze Performance: Detecting Plagiarism at Four Grade Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brubaugh, Steven J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Uses cloze techniques to examine the development of writers' memory for their own texts. Finds 70% accuracy on writer's cloze to be a consistent cutoff score for detection of plagiarism. Suggests that teachers should be aware that students remember their self-generated texts very well and that these standards can be used to detect and deter…

  4. Protecting Students' Intellectual Property in the Web Plagiarism Detection Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butakov, Sergey; Dyagilev, Vadim; Tskhay, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Learning management systems (LMS) play a central role in communications in online and distance education. In the digital era, with all the information now accessible at students' fingertips, plagiarism detection services (PDS) have become a must-have part of LMS. Such integration provides a seamless experience for users, allowing PDS to check…

  5. Policy, Preparation, and Prevention: Proactive Minimization of Student Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devlin, Marcia

    2006-01-01

    Countless cases of plagiarism are detected across the Australian higher education sector each year. Generally speaking, policy and other responses to the issue focus on punitive, rather than on educative, measures. Recently, a subtle shift is discernable. As well as ensuring appropriate consequences for plagiarists, several universities are…

  6. Strategies to Help Legal Studies Students Avoid Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Linda B.; Bast, Carol M.

    2006-01-01

    Plagiarism is certainly not new to academics, but it may be on the rise with easy access to the vast quantities of information available on the Internet. Students researching on the Internet do not have to take handwritten or typewritten notes. They can simply print out or copy and save whatever they find. They are even spared the tedium of having…

  7. Assessing Domestic vs. International Student Perceptions and Attitudes of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doss, Daniel Adrian; Henley, Russ; Gokaraju, Balakrishna; McElreath, David; Lackey, Hilliard; Hong, Qiuqi; Miller, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined students' perceptions of plagiarism from a higher education teaching institution within the U.S. southeast. This study employed a five-point Likert-scale to examine differences of perceptions between domestic versus international students. Statistically significant outcomes were observed regarding the notions that plagiarism…

  8. Faculty Perceptions of Plagiarism at Queensborough Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Sara; Beck, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    The researchers surveyed English and Speech & Theater faculty members at Queensborough Community College on their perceptions of and attitudes toward plagiarism. The researchers used the Queensborough Community College Academic Integrity Policy as the basis for their analysis. Based on the responses received, it was determined that 50% of the…

  9. Plagiarism Isn't Just an Issue for Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Deborah K.

    2011-01-01

    Everyone is appalled at reports of rampant cheating among high school and college students, primarily by cutting and pasting from the Internet without providing citations. There are situations in real life where an individual suffered serious consequences for plagiarizing work. Many schools incorporate such scenarios in character education…

  10. Exploring University Students' Perceptions of Plagiarism: A Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullifer, Judith; Tyson, Graham A.

    2010-01-01

    Plagiarism is perceived to be a growing problem and universities are being required to devote increasing time and resources to combating it. Theory and research in psychology show that a thorough understanding of an individual's view of an issue or problem is an essential requirement for successful change of that person's attitudes and behaviour.…

  11. A Model for Exploring Student Understandings of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Anna; Taylor, David; Johnston, Carol

    2014-01-01

    A clear understanding of how students view plagiarism is needed if the extensive efforts devoted to helping them engage in high-quality scholarship are to be worthwhile. There are a variety of views on this topic, but theoretical models to integrate the literature, take account of international differences and guide practitioners are limited.…

  12. Cross-language differences in the brain network subserving intelligible speech

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Jianqiao; Peng, Gang; Lyu, Bingjiang; Wang, Yi; Zhuo, Yan; Niu, Zhendong; Tan, Li Hai; Leff, Alexander P.; Gao, Jia-Hong

    2015-01-01

    How is language processed in the brain by native speakers of different languages? Is there one brain system for all languages or are different languages subserved by different brain systems? The first view emphasizes commonality, whereas the second emphasizes specificity. We investigated the cortical dynamics involved in processing two very diverse languages: a tonal language (Chinese) and a nontonal language (English). We used functional MRI and dynamic causal modeling analysis to compute and compare brain network models exhaustively with all possible connections among nodes of language regions in temporal and frontal cortex and found that the information flow from the posterior to anterior portions of the temporal cortex was commonly shared by Chinese and English speakers during speech comprehension, whereas the inferior frontal gyrus received neural signals from the left posterior portion of the temporal cortex in English speakers and from the bilateral anterior portion of the temporal cortex in Chinese speakers. Our results revealed that, although speech processing is largely carried out in the common left hemisphere classical language areas (Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas) and anterior temporal cortex, speech comprehension across different language groups depends on how these brain regions interact with each other. Moreover, the right anterior temporal cortex, which is crucial for tone processing, is equally important as its left homolog, the left anterior temporal cortex, in modulating the cortical dynamics in tone language comprehension. The current study pinpoints the importance of the bilateral anterior temporal cortex in language comprehension that is downplayed or even ignored by popular contemporary models of speech comprehension. PMID:25713366

  13. Lexical access in children with and without specific language impairment: a cross-modal picture-word interference study.

    PubMed

    Seiger-Gardner, Liat; Schwartz, Richard G

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments examined the time course of lexical information availability in 20 adults, 20 children (8;0-10;0) with typical language development, and in 20 children (8;0-10;0) with specific language impairment. A cross-modal picture-word interference paradigm was used in which participants named the pictures as quickly as possible while ignoring the phonologically and semantically related interfering words. A novel early phonological interference effect appeared in all groups. Similar temporal patterns were revealed for the adults and the typical language development group, supporting the notion of similar underlying lexicalization mechanisms. Parametric differences were found in overall response times and errors, with children responding slower and producing more errors than adults. The presence of a phonological facilitation effect suggests that children with specific language impairment utilize phonological primes to ease lexical access. Children with specific language impairment exhibited lingering semantic inhibition and a late semantic inhibition effect suggesting difficulty in processing semantic information. Data from all participants support the cascaded processing model of lexical access.

  14. Lexical access in children with and without specific language impairment: a cross-modal picture-word interference study.

    PubMed

    Seiger-Gardner, Liat; Schwartz, Richard G

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments examined the time course of lexical information availability in 20 adults, 20 children (8;0-10;0) with typical language development, and in 20 children (8;0-10;0) with specific language impairment. A cross-modal picture-word interference paradigm was used in which participants named the pictures as quickly as possible while ignoring the phonologically and semantically related interfering words. A novel early phonological interference effect appeared in all groups. Similar temporal patterns were revealed for the adults and the typical language development group, supporting the notion of similar underlying lexicalization mechanisms. Parametric differences were found in overall response times and errors, with children responding slower and producing more errors than adults. The presence of a phonological facilitation effect suggests that children with specific language impairment utilize phonological primes to ease lexical access. Children with specific language impairment exhibited lingering semantic inhibition and a late semantic inhibition effect suggesting difficulty in processing semantic information. Data from all participants support the cascaded processing model of lexical access. PMID:22612630

  15. Electrophysiology of cross-language interference and facilitation in picture naming.

    PubMed

    Roelofs, Ardi; Piai, Vitória; Garrido Rodriguez, Gabriela; Chwilla, Dorothee J

    2016-03-01

    Disagreement exists about how bilingual speakers select words, in particular, whether words in another language compete, or competition is restricted to a target language, or no competition occurs. Evidence that competition occurs but is restricted to a target language comes from response time (RT) effects obtained when speakers name pictures in one language while trying to ignore distractor words in another language. Compared to unrelated distractor words, RT is longer when the picture name and distractor are semantically related, but RT is shorter when the distractor is the translation of the name of the picture in the other language. These effects suggest that distractor words from another language do not compete themselves but activate their counterparts in the target language, thereby yielding the semantic interference and translation facilitation effects. Here, we report an event-related brain potential (ERP) study testing the prediction that priming underlies both of these effects. The RTs showed semantic interference and translation facilitation effects. Moreover, the picture-word stimuli yielded an N400 response, whose amplitude was smaller on semantic and translation trials than on unrelated trials, providing evidence that interference and facilitation priming underlie the RT effects. We present the results of computer simulations showing the utility of a within-language competition account of our findings.

  16. The Ethics and Politics of Policing Plagiarism: A Qualitative Study of Faculty Views on Student Plagiarism and Turnitin®

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruton, Samuel; Childers, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the usage of plagiarism detection software such as Turnitin® has increased dramatically among university instructors. At the same time, academic criticism of this software's employment has also increased. We interviewed 23 faculty members from various departments at a medium-sized, public university in the southeastern US to determine…

  17. The History of the English Language Course: A Cross-Disciplinary Approach to the Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dressman, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    The study of the history of the English language can help students become aware of major issues in several academic fields, including history, literature, political science, anthropology, communication, economics, the Arts, and, of course, languages and linguistics. Even though instructors may not have an especially broad background in the…

  18. Children's Faithfulness in Imitating Language Use Varies Cross-culturally, Contingent on Prior Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinger, Jörn; Mayor, Julien; Bannard, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Despite its recognized importance for cultural transmission, little is known about the role imitation plays in language learning. Three experiments examine how rates of imitation vary as a function of qualitative differences in the way language is used in a small indigenous community in Oaxaca, Mexico and three Western comparison groups. Data from…

  19. A Meta-Analysis of Cross Sectional Studies Investigating Language in Maltreated Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Powell, Martine; Timms, Lydia; Snow, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In this review article, meta-analysis was used to summarize research investigating language skills in maltreated children. Method: A systematic search of published studies was undertaken. Studies were included in the meta-analysis if they investigated language skills in groups comprising maltreated and nonmaltreated children. Studies were…

  20. Cross-Language Lexical Connections in the Mental Lexicon: Evidence from a Case of Trilingual Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goral, Mira; Levy, Erika S.; Obler, Loraine K.; Cohen, Eyal

    2006-01-01

    Despite anecdotal data on lexical interference among the languages of multilingual speakers, little research evidence about the lexical connections among multilinguals' languages exists to date. In the present paper, two experiments with a multilingual speaker who had suffered aphasia are reported. The first experiment provides data about…

  1. Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Teaching English as a Foreign Language to Children: A Multinational Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vroom, Sara J.; Seaman, Alan A.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most significant trends in contemporary English language teaching is the dramatic increase in English as a foreign language (EFL) programs for younger children (ages 3-12) in school systems throughout the world. These programs have created special challenges for teachers who are nonnative English speakers (NNES). To document the…

  2. Cross-Language Correlates in Phonological Awareness and Naming Speed: Evidence from Deep and Shallow Orthographies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pae, Hye Kyeong; Sevcik, Rose A.; Morris, Robin D.

    2010-01-01

    Phonological awareness (PA) and rapid automatised naming (RAN) skills in relation to reading acquisition were examined using two languages, one with a deep orthography (English) and the other with a shallow orthography (Korean). Participants were 50 Korean American children who spoke English as a dominant language (DL) and were learning to read…

  3. Teachers' Beliefs about Language Learning and Teaching: A Cross-Cultural Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Nae-Dong

    2000-01-01

    This study surveyed 68 Taiwanese preservice English elementary teachers regarding their beliefs about language learning and teaching. The survey examined their beliefs in five areas: child development, teaching English to children, teaching strategies and techniques, the nature of language learning, and self-efficacy and expectations. Data…

  4. Cross-Language Differences in Informational Masking of Speech by Speech: English versus Mandarin Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Xihong; Yang, Zhigang; Huang, Ying; Chen, Jing; Li, Liang; Daneman, Meredyth; Schneider, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine why perceived spatial separation provides a greater release from informational masking in Chinese than English when target sentences in each of the languages are masked by other talkers speaking the same language. Method: Monolingual speakers of English and Mandarin Chinese listened to…

  5. Cross-Language Transfer of Reading Ability: Evidence from Taiwanese Ninth-Grade Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuang, Hui-Kai; Joshi, R. Malatesha; Dixon, L. Quentin

    2012-01-01

    How proficiency in reading the first language (L1) influences proficiency in reading in the second language (L2) was explored in this study. Reading scores in Mandarin Chinese (L1) and in English (L2) for 30,000 Taiwanese ninth-grade students were randomly selected from all who took the national Basic Competency Test during a 6-year period in…

  6. Word Segmentation and Phonological Learning in Cross-Language Perception of Fluent Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Tuuli Morrill

    2011-01-01

    Listeners segment words from the continuous speech stream in their native language by using rhythmic structure, phrasal structure, and phonotactics (e.g. Christophe et al, 2003: McQueen, 1998). One challenging aspect of second language acquisition is the extraction of words from fluent speech, possibly because learners apply a native language…

  7. Cross-language opinion lexicon extraction using mutual-reinforcement label propagation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zheng; Tan, Songbo; Liu, Yue; Cheng, Xueqi; Xu, Xueke

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing interest in automatically building opinion lexicon from sources such as product reviews. Most of these methods depend on abundant external resources such as WordNet, which limits the applicability of these methods. Unsupervised or semi-supervised learning provides an optional solution to multilingual opinion lexicon extraction. However, the datasets are imbalanced in different languages. For some languages, the high-quality corpora are scarce or hard to obtain, which limits the research progress. To solve the above problems, we explore a mutual-reinforcement label propagation framework. First, for each language, a label propagation algorithm is applied to a word relation graph, and then a bilingual dictionary is used as a bridge to transfer information between two languages. A key advantage of this model is its ability to make two languages learn from each other and boost each other. The experimental results show that the proposed approach outperforms baseline significantly.

  8. The Role of Language Dominance in Cross-Linguistic Syntactic Influence: A Korean Child's Use of Null Subjects in Attriting English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Sang-Gu

    2013-01-01

    While Hulk and Muller (2000) predict that the direction of cross-linguistic syntactic influence is unidirectional when the construction involves syntax-pragmatics interface and surface overlap between two languages, they explicitly rule out language dominance as a factor involved. This study questions their latter claim and argues that the syntax…

  9. The Influence of Cross-Linguistic Input and L2 Proficiency on L2 Reading Comprehension among Spanish-Speaking Adults Learning English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Astrid Sussette

    2010-01-01

    Developing literacy and language proficiency in English is essential to thrive in school and in the workforce in American society. Research on cross-linguistic influences on text-level skills is scant, especially studies investigating reading comprehension among language-minority adults. The present study investigated the effects of…

  10. The ethics of scholarly publishing: exploring differences in plagiarism and duplicate publication across nations.

    PubMed

    Amos, Kathleen A

    2014-04-01

    This study explored national differences in plagiarism and duplicate publication in retracted biomedical literature. The national affiliations of authors and reasons for retraction of papers accessible through PubMed that were published from 2008 to 2012 and subsequently retracted were determined in order to identify countries with the largest numbers and highest rates of retraction due to plagiarism and duplicate publication. Authors from more than fifty countries retracted papers. While the United States retracted the most papers, China retracted the most papers for plagiarism and duplicate publication. Rates of plagiarism and duplicate publication were highest in Italy and Finland, respectively. Unethical publishing practices cut across nations.

  11. Self-plagiarism in academic publishing: the anatomy of a misnomer.

    PubMed

    Andreescu, Liviu

    2013-09-01

    The paper discusses self-plagiarism and associated practices in scholarly publishing. It approaches at some length the conceptual issues raised by the notion of self-plagiarism. It distinguishes among and then examines the main families of arguments against self-plagiarism, as well as the question of possibly legitimate reasons to engage in this practice. It concludes that some of the animus frequently reserved for self-plagiarism may be the result of, among others, poor choice of a label, unwarranted generalizations as to its ill effects based on the specific experience (and goals) of particular disciplines, and widespread but not necessarily beneficial publishing practices.

  12. Self-plagiarism in academic publishing: the anatomy of a misnomer.

    PubMed

    Andreescu, Liviu

    2013-09-01

    The paper discusses self-plagiarism and associated practices in scholarly publishing. It approaches at some length the conceptual issues raised by the notion of self-plagiarism. It distinguishes among and then examines the main families of arguments against self-plagiarism, as well as the question of possibly legitimate reasons to engage in this practice. It concludes that some of the animus frequently reserved for self-plagiarism may be the result of, among others, poor choice of a label, unwarranted generalizations as to its ill effects based on the specific experience (and goals) of particular disciplines, and widespread but not necessarily beneficial publishing practices. PMID:23179068

  13. Cross-Language Modulation of Visual Attention Span: An Arabic-French-Spanish Comparison in Skilled Adult Readers.

    PubMed

    Awadh, Faris H R; Phénix, Thierry; Antzaka, Alexia; Lallier, Marie; Carreiras, Manuel; Valdois, Sylviane

    2016-01-01

    In delineating the amount of orthographic information that can be processed in parallel during a single fixation, the visual attention (VA) span acts as a key component of the reading system. Previous studies focused on the contribution of VA span to normal and pathological reading in monolingual and bilingual children from different European languages, without direct cross-language comparison. In the current paper, we explored modulations of VA span abilities in three languages -French, Spanish, and Arabic- that differ in transparency, reading direction and writing systems. The participants were skilled adult readers who were native speakers of French, Spanish or Arabic. They were administered tasks of global and partial letter report, single letter identification and text reading. Their VA span abilities were assessed using tasks that require the processing of briefly presented five consonant strings (e.g., R S H F T). All five consonants had to be reported in global report but a single cued letter in partial report. Results showed that VA span was reduced in Arabic readers as compared to French or Spanish readers who otherwise show a similar high performance in the two report tasks. The analysis of VA span response patterns in global report showed a left-right asymmetry in all three languages. A leftward letter advantage was found in French and Spanish but a rightward advantage in Arabic. The response patterns were symmetric in partial report, regardless of the language. Last, a significant relationship was found between VA span abilities and reading speed but only for French. The overall findings suggest that the size of VA span, the shape of VA span response patterns and the VA Span-reading relationship are modulated by language-specific features. PMID:27014125

  14. Cross-Language Modulation of Visual Attention Span: An Arabic-French-Spanish Comparison in Skilled Adult Readers

    PubMed Central

    Awadh, Faris H. R.; Phénix, Thierry; Antzaka, Alexia; Lallier, Marie; Carreiras, Manuel; Valdois, Sylviane

    2016-01-01

    In delineating the amount of orthographic information that can be processed in parallel during a single fixation, the visual attention (VA) span acts as a key component of the reading system. Previous studies focused on the contribution of VA span to normal and pathological reading in monolingual and bilingual children from different European languages, without direct cross-language comparison. In the current paper, we explored modulations of VA span abilities in three languages –French, Spanish, and Arabic– that differ in transparency, reading direction and writing systems. The participants were skilled adult readers who were native speakers of French, Spanish or Arabic. They were administered tasks of global and partial letter report, single letter identification and text reading. Their VA span abilities were assessed using tasks that require the processing of briefly presented five consonant strings (e.g., R S H F T). All five consonants had to be reported in global report but a single cued letter in partial report. Results showed that VA span was reduced in Arabic readers as compared to French or Spanish readers who otherwise show a similar high performance in the two report tasks. The analysis of VA span response patterns in global report showed a left-right asymmetry in all three languages. A leftward letter advantage was found in French and Spanish but a rightward advantage in Arabic. The response patterns were symmetric in partial report, regardless of the language. Last, a significant relationship was found between VA span abilities and reading speed but only for French. The overall findings suggest that the size of VA span, the shape of VA span response patterns and the VA Span-reading relationship are modulated by language-specific features. PMID:27014125

  15. Cross-Language Modulation of Visual Attention Span: An Arabic-French-Spanish Comparison in Skilled Adult Readers.

    PubMed

    Awadh, Faris H R; Phénix, Thierry; Antzaka, Alexia; Lallier, Marie; Carreiras, Manuel; Valdois, Sylviane

    2016-01-01

    In delineating the amount of orthographic information that can be processed in parallel during a single fixation, the visual attention (VA) span acts as a key component of the reading system. Previous studies focused on the contribution of VA span to normal and pathological reading in monolingual and bilingual children from different European languages, without direct cross-language comparison. In the current paper, we explored modulations of VA span abilities in three languages -French, Spanish, and Arabic- that differ in transparency, reading direction and writing systems. The participants were skilled adult readers who were native speakers of French, Spanish or Arabic. They were administered tasks of global and partial letter report, single letter identification and text reading. Their VA span abilities were assessed using tasks that require the processing of briefly presented five consonant strings (e.g., R S H F T). All five consonants had to be reported in global report but a single cued letter in partial report. Results showed that VA span was reduced in Arabic readers as compared to French or Spanish readers who otherwise show a similar high performance in the two report tasks. The analysis of VA span response patterns in global report showed a left-right asymmetry in all three languages. A leftward letter advantage was found in French and Spanish but a rightward advantage in Arabic. The response patterns were symmetric in partial report, regardless of the language. Last, a significant relationship was found between VA span abilities and reading speed but only for French. The overall findings suggest that the size of VA span, the shape of VA span response patterns and the VA Span-reading relationship are modulated by language-specific features.

  16. Cross-language activation of morphological relatives in cognates: the role of orthographic overlap and task-related processing.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Kimberley; Dijkstra, Ton; Baayen, R Harald

    2015-01-01

    We considered the role of orthography and task-related processing mechanisms in the activation of morphologically related complex words during bilingual word processing. So far, it has only been shown that such morphologically related words (i.e., morphological family members) are activated through the semantic and morphological overlap they share with the target word. In this study, we investigated family size effects in Dutch-English identical cognates (e.g., tent in both languages), non-identical cognates (e.g., pil and pill, in English and Dutch, respectively), and non-cognates (e.g., chicken in English). Because of their cross-linguistic overlap in orthography, reading a cognate can result in activation of family members both languages. Cognates are therefore well-suited for studying mechanisms underlying bilingual activation of morphologically complex words. We investigated family size effects in an English lexical decision task and a Dutch-English language decision task, both performed by Dutch-English bilinguals. English lexical decision showed a facilitatory effect of English and Dutch family size on the processing of English-Dutch cognates relative to English non-cognates. These family size effects were not dependent on cognate type. In contrast, for language decision, in which a bilingual context is created, Dutch and English family size effects were inhibitory. Here, the combined family size of both languages turned out to better predict reaction time than the separate family size in Dutch or English. Moreover, the combined family size interacted with cognate type: the response to identical cognates was slowed by morphological family members in both languages. We conclude that (1) family size effects are sensitive to the task performed on the lexical items, and (2) depend on both semantic and formal aspects of bilingual word processing. We discuss various mechanisms that can explain the observed family size effects in a spreading activation framework.

  17. Crossing the Moat: From Basic Skills to Whole Language in a Kindergarten Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamme, Linda Leonard; Lee, Pam

    1990-01-01

    In this interview with a Florida kindergarten teacher, the whole language philosophy is used to help elementary students learn skills through ongoing reading and writing activities. Thematic units are used to encourage teacher facilitation and peer teaching. (DG)

  18. Crossing borders: High school science teachers learning to teach the specialized language of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrick, Jennifer Drake

    The highly specialized language of science is both challenging and alienating to adolescent readers. This study investigated how secondary science teachers learn to teach the specialized language of science in their classrooms. Three research questions guided this study: (a) what do science teachers know about teaching reading in science? (b) what understanding about the unique language demands of science reading do they construct through professional development? and (c) how do they integrate what they have learned about these specialized features of science language into their teaching practices? This study investigated the experience of seven secondary science teachers as they participated in a professional development program designed to teach them about the specialized language of science. Data sources included participant interviews, audio-taped professional development sessions, field notes from classroom observations, and a prior knowledge survey. Results from this study suggest that science teachers (a) were excited to learn about disciplinary reading practices, (b) developed an emergent awareness of the specialized features of science language and the various genres of science writing, and (c) recognized that the challenges of science reading goes beyond vocabulary. These teachers' efforts to understand and address the language of science in their teaching practices were undermined by their lack of basic knowledge of grammar, availability of time and resources, their prior knowledge and experiences, existing curriculum, and school structure. This study contributes to our understanding of how secondary science teachers learn about disciplinary literacy and apply that knowledge in their classroom instruction. It has important implications for literacy educators and science educators who are interested in using language and literacy practices in the service of science teaching and learning. (Full text of this dissertation may be available via the University

  19. Crossing Geographies of Language Learning--The Case of "A Successful Pupil"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koivistoinen, Hilkka Anneli

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the social actions taken around English language by a 12-year-old Finnish schoolboy, Simo, and his family members in the course of living their everyday life at home. The paper asks how everyday life learning opportunities are related to both in-class and out-of-class English-language learning. The multiple data (e.g. media…

  20. Syntax without language: neurobiological evidence for cross-domain syntactic computations.

    PubMed

    Tettamanti, Marco; Rotondi, Irene; Perani, Daniela; Scotti, Giuseppe; Fazio, Ferruccio; Cappa, Stefano F; Moro, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Not all conceivable grammars are realized within human languages. Rules based on rigid distances, in which a certain word must occur at a fixed distance from another word, are never found in grammars of human languages. Distances between words are specified in terms of relative, non-rigid positions. The left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) (Broca's area) has been found to be involved in the computation of non-rigid but not of rigid syntax in the language domain. A fundamental question is therefore whether the neural activity underlying this non-rigid architecture is language-specific, given that analogous structural properties can be found in other cognitive domains. Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in sixteen healthy native speakers of Italian, we measured brain activity for the acquisition of rigid and non-rigid syntax in the visuo-spatial domain. The data of the present experiment were formally compared with those of a previous experiment, in which there was a symmetrical distinction between rigid and non-rigid syntax in the language domain. Both in the visuo-spatial and in the language domain, the acquisition of non-rigid syntax, but not the acquisition of rigid syntax, activated Brodmann Area 44 of the left IFG. This domain-independent effect was specifically modulated by performance improvement. Thus, in the human brain, one single "grammar without words" serves different higher cognitive functions. PMID:19111290

  1. Metrics-based assessments of research: incentives for 'institutional plagiarism'?

    PubMed

    Berry, Colin

    2013-06-01

    The issue of plagiarism--claiming credit for work that is not one's own, rightly, continues to cause concern in the academic community. An analysis is presented that shows the effects that may arise from metrics-based assessments of research, when credit for an author's outputs (chiefly publications) is given to an institution that did not support the research but which subsequently employs the author. The incentives for what is termed here "institutional plagiarism" are demonstrated with reference to the UK Research Assessment Exercise in which submitting units of assessment are shown in some instances to derive around twice the credit for papers produced elsewhere by new recruits, compared to papers produced 'in-house'.

  2. Using the Google Search Engine to Detect Word-for-Word Plagiarism in Master's Theses: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Mark; Holmberg, Melissa

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore Google's potential for detecting occurrences of word-for-word (1) plagiarism in master's theses. The authors sought answers to these questions:1. Is Google an effective tool for detecting plagiarism in master's theses?2. Is Google an efficient tool for detecting plagiarism in master's theses?The first…

  3. Student's Plagiarisms in Higher Learning Institutions in the Era of Improved Internet Access: Case Study of Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anney, Vicent Naano; Mosha, Mary Atanas

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated students' plagiarism practices in Tanzania higher learning institutions by involving two universities-one public and one private university as a case study. The universities involved have honour code and policies for plagiarism detection however they do not employ software for checking students' plagiarism. The study…

  4. There Was a Crooked Man(uscript): A Not-so-Serious Look at the Serious Subject of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Kevin T.

    2010-01-01

    The problem of plagiarism by political scientists has not received much attention. The incidence of plagiarism, however, may be greater than one would think. In this article, I offer a humorous look at what happened when a manuscript of mine was plagiarized. Based on my experience, I offer some suggestions on how scholars might detect and prevent…

  5. Will the Real Author Come Forward? Questions of Ethics, Plagiarism, Theft and Collusion in Academic Research Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikes, Pat

    2009-01-01

    This paper raises some questions about academic authorial honesty under the headings of Plagiarism (including self-plagiarism), Theft, and Collusion. Compared with the medical sciences, the social sciences in general and education specifically, lag behind in terms of critical attention being paid to the problem of plagiarism, the peer review…

  6. An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Turnitin.Com as a Tool for Reducing Plagiarism in Graduate Student Term Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Russell K.; Thornton, Barry; Adams, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Plagiarism is a continual problem in academia. Plagiarism-detection tools like Turnitin have been used for nearly ten years to help university faculty and administration combat this form of cheating (turnitin.com). This paper evaluates the difference in plagiarism levels in graduate-student term papers when students are not provided access to…

  7. Back Translation: An Emerging Sophisticated Cyber Strategy to Subvert Advances in "Digital Age" Plagiarism Detection and Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Michael; Sheridan, Lynnaire

    2015-01-01

    Advances have been made in detecting and deterring the student plagiarism that has accompanied the uptake and development of the internet. Many authors from the late 1990s onwards grappled with plagiarism in the digital age, presenting articles that were provoking and established the foundation for strategies to address cyber plagiarism, including…

  8. [Is there protection against copying? Thoughts about plagiarism].

    PubMed

    Schubert, András; Glänzel, Wolfgang

    2015-12-13

    There are at least two reasons why more and more cases of suspected plagiarism are perceived in the scientific literature. On one hand, the ever increasing pressure for publication makes it easier for authors, reviewers and editors to infringe or overlook this serious ethical misdemeanor; on the other hand, with the development of text analysis software, detecting text similarities has become a simple task. The judgement of actual cases, however, requires well-grounded professional knowledge and prudent human decisions.

  9. [Is there protection against copying? Thoughts about plagiarism].

    PubMed

    Schubert, András; Glänzel, Wolfgang

    2015-12-13

    There are at least two reasons why more and more cases of suspected plagiarism are perceived in the scientific literature. On one hand, the ever increasing pressure for publication makes it easier for authors, reviewers and editors to infringe or overlook this serious ethical misdemeanor; on the other hand, with the development of text analysis software, detecting text similarities has become a simple task. The judgement of actual cases, however, requires well-grounded professional knowledge and prudent human decisions. PMID:26639647

  10. Orthographic processing in balanced bilingual children: Cross-language evidence from cognates and false friends.

    PubMed

    Schröter, Pauline; Schroeder, Sascha

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether beginning bilingual readers activate orthographic as well as semantic representations in both of their languages while reading in one of them. Balanced bilingual third graders who were learning to read concurrently in German and English completed two lexical decision tasks, one in each language, including cognates, false friends, and matched control words. Results showed a processing advantage for cognates over controls in both languages, indicating that the facilitation effect is driven by the level of balanced language proficiency rather than by experience with print. Except for lower accuracy scores in German, false friends did not differ in their processing from controls, pointing to the presence of semantic-to-orthographic feedback already in the beginning of reading acquisition. Confirming assumptions by the bilingual interactive activation plus (BIA+) model as well as the revised hierarchical model (RHM), findings suggest that in their strategy to resolve orthographic ambiguity, balanced bilingual children are more comparable to bilingual adults than to child second-language (L2) learners.

  11. Orthographic processing in balanced bilingual children: Cross-language evidence from cognates and false friends.

    PubMed

    Schröter, Pauline; Schroeder, Sascha

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether beginning bilingual readers activate orthographic as well as semantic representations in both of their languages while reading in one of them. Balanced bilingual third graders who were learning to read concurrently in German and English completed two lexical decision tasks, one in each language, including cognates, false friends, and matched control words. Results showed a processing advantage for cognates over controls in both languages, indicating that the facilitation effect is driven by the level of balanced language proficiency rather than by experience with print. Except for lower accuracy scores in German, false friends did not differ in their processing from controls, pointing to the presence of semantic-to-orthographic feedback already in the beginning of reading acquisition. Confirming assumptions by the bilingual interactive activation plus (BIA+) model as well as the revised hierarchical model (RHM), findings suggest that in their strategy to resolve orthographic ambiguity, balanced bilingual children are more comparable to bilingual adults than to child second-language (L2) learners. PMID:26456673

  12. Children's Faithfulness in Imitating Language Use Varies Cross-Culturally, Contingent on Prior Experience.

    PubMed

    Klinger, Jörn; Mayor, Julien; Bannard, Colin

    2016-05-01

    Despite its recognized importance for cultural transmission, little is known about the role imitation plays in language learning. Three experiments examine how rates of imitation vary as a function of qualitative differences in the way language is used in a small indigenous community in Oaxaca, Mexico and three Western comparison groups. Data from one hundred thirty-eight 3- to 10-year-olds suggests that children selectively imitate when they understand the function of a given linguistic element because their culture makes frequent use of that function. When function is opaque, however, children imitate faithfully. This has implications for how children manage the imitation-innovation trade-off, and offers insight into why children imitate in language learning across development. PMID:27189408

  13. Language.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Noninvasive focal brain stimulation by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been used extensively in the past 20 years to investigate normal language functions. The picture emerging from this collection of empirical works is that of several independent modular functions mapped on left-lateralized temporofrontal circuits originating dorsally or ventrally to the auditory cortex. The identification of sounds as language (i.e., phonological transformations) is modulated by TMS applied over the posterior-superior temporal cortex and over the caudal inferior frontal gyrus/ventral premotor cortex complex. Conversely, attribution of semantics to words is modulated successfully by applying TMS to the rostral part of the inferior frontal gyrus. Speech production is typically interfered with by TMS applied to the left inferior frontal gyrus, onto the same cortical areas that also contain phonological representations. The cortical mapping of grammatical functions has been investigated with TMS mainly regarding the category of verbs, which seem to be represented in the left middle frontal gyrus. Most TMS studies have investigated the cortical processing of single words or sublexical elements. Conversely, complex elements of language such as syntax have not been investigated extensively, although a few studies have indicated a left temporal, frontal, and parietal system also involving the neocerebellar cortex. Finally, both the perception and production of nonlinguistic communicative properties of speech, such as prosody, have been mapped by TMS in the peri-Silvian region of the right hemisphere. PMID:24112933

  14. Information Use and Secondary School Students: A Model for Understanding Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Kirsty; McGregor, Joy

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The paper describes an interim model for understanding the influences on information use in relation to plagiarism, with a focus on secondary school students. Available literature mostly focuses on the tertiary level and on quantifying the extent of plagiarism, with limited availability of theory or empirical research focussing on…

  15. "Not Necessarily a Bad Thing ...": A Study of Online Plagiarism amongst Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selwyn, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Whilst the copying, falsification and plagiarism of essays and assignments has long been a prevalent form of academic misconduct amongst undergraduate students, the increasing use of the internet in higher education has raised concern over enhanced levels of online plagiarism and new types of "cyber-cheating". Based on a self-report study of 1222…

  16. The Scarlet "P": Plagiarism, Panopticism, and the Rhetoric of Academic Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwagerman, Sean

    2008-01-01

    This article is a rhetorical analysis of the anxious and outraged discourse employed in response to the "rising tide" of cheating and plagiarism. This discourse invites actions that are antithetical to the goals of education and the roles of educators, as exemplified by the proliferation of plagiarism-detection technologies. (Contains 15 notes.)

  17. Plagiarism: using a collaborative approach in an online allied health professions course.

    PubMed

    Pence, Patricia L

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to increase the awareness and understanding of plagiarism among undergraduate students enrolled in an online allied health professions course in a community college in the Midwestern United States. The results suggested that the interventions were effective in educating students about how to avoid plagiarism.

  18. Chinese International Students' and Faculty Members' Views of Plagiarism in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigg, Alan

    2016-01-01

    As the enrollment of Chinese international students (CIS) increased at a private institution in the Midwest, so did suspected cases of plagiarism. This study addressed the problem of how faculty members grappled with CIS' interpretation and application of Western-based views of plagiarism. The purpose of the study was to identify similarities and…

  19. Deconstructing Attitudes towards Plagiarism of Japanese Undergraduates in EFL Academic Writing Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teeter, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a qualitative analysis of 276 first-year Japanese university science major responses to plagiarism to deconstruct prevailing generalizations regarding the incidence of plagiarism by Japanese university students. These students were enrolled in a compulsory yearlong English academic writing course. While utilizing a contextualized…

  20. Retribution, Deterrence and Reform: The Dilemmas of Plagiarism Management in Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland-Smith, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    Universities face constant scrutiny about their plagiarism management strategies, policies and procedures. A resounding theme, usually media inspired, is that plagiarism is rife, unstoppable and university processes are ineffectual in its wake. This has been referred to as a "moral panic" approach (Carroll & Sutherland-Smith, forthcoming; Clegg,…

  1. Skills Training to Avoid Inadvertent Plagiarism: Results from a Randomised Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Fiona J.; Wright, Jill D.; Newton, Joshua D.

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism continues to be a concern within academic institutions. The current study utilised a randomised control trial of 137 new entry tertiary students to assess the efficacy of a scalable short training session on paraphrasing, patch writing and plagiarism. The results indicate that the training significantly enhanced students' overall…

  2. Helping International Students Succeed Academically through Research Process and Plagiarism Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yu-Hui; Van Ullen, Mary K.

    2011-01-01

    Workshops on the research process and plagiarism were designed to meet the needs of international students at the University at Albany. The research process workshop covered formulating research questions, as well as locating and evaluating sources. The plagiarism workshop focused on acknowledging sources, quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing…

  3. Substantive Editing as a Form of Plagiarism among Postgraduate Students in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lines, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    In university plagiarism policies, and in the research into plagiarism, one form of collusion remains virtually unacknowledged: substantive editing performed by editors. While almost all Australian universities allow postgraduate students to have their thesis professionally edited, "substantive" editing is prohibited. This article…

  4. A Comparison of Chinese and Australian University Students' Attitudes towards Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrich, John; Howard, Steven J.; Mu, Congjun; Bokosmaty, Sahar

    2016-01-01

    Student plagiarism is a growing problem within Australian universities and abroad. Potentially exacerbating this situation, research indicates that students' attitudes toward plagiarism are typically more permissive and lenient than the policies of their tertiary institutions. There has been suggestion that this is especially so in Asian countries…

  5. Practice Makes Perfect: Improving Students' Skills in Understanding and Avoiding Plagiarism with a Themed Methods Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estow, Sarah; Lawrence, Eva K.; Adams, Kathrynn A.

    2011-01-01

    To address the issue of plagiarism, students in two undergraduate Research Methods and Analysis courses conducted, analyzed, and wrote up original research on the topic of plagiarism. Students in an otherwise identical course completed the same assignments but examined a different research topic. At the start and end of the semester, all students…

  6. Surveillance in Programming Plagiarism beyond Techniques: An Incentive-Based Fishbone Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yanqing; Chen, Min; Liang, Yaowen; Jiang, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Lots of researches have showed that plagiarism becomes a severe problem in higher education around the world, especially in programming learning for its essence. Therefore, an effective strategy for plagiarism surveillance in program learning is much essential. Some literature focus on code similarity algorithm and the related tools can help to…

  7. Academic Staff's Perspectives upon Student Plagiarism: A Case Study at a University in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yongyan

    2015-01-01

    Much of the previous research concerning student plagiarism has been conducted in Anglo-American settings. The present paper reports a case study of academic staff's perspectives upon student plagiarism at a university in Hong Kong. Based on interviews with 16 instructors, the study focused on the teachers' views and pedagogical practices,…

  8. Online Academic-Integrity Mastery Training May Improve Students' Awareness of, and Attitudes toward, Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Guy J.; Gouldthorp, Bethanie; Thomas, Emma F.; O'Brien, Geraldine M.; Correia, Helen M.

    2013-01-01

    Some evidence has emerged in recent years that plagiarism can be reduced through the use of online mastery tests that are designed to train introductory psychology students in awareness of academic integrity and referencing conventions. Although these studies demonstrated a reduction in incidents of plagiarism they did not directly examine whether…

  9. Rebels without a Clause: Towards an Institutional Framework for Dealing with Plagiarism by Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Chris

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores why an institutional framework for dealing with plagiarism by students is necessary and it outlines the main ingredients of such a framework that has been developed at Lancaster University. It defines plagiarism as a form of academic malpractice and frames it as a breach of academic integrity. The framework places a strong…

  10. The Ethics of Plagiarism: How Genre Affects Writers' Use of Source Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jameson, Daphne A.

    1993-01-01

    Explores the definition of plagiarism in terms of genre. Recommends ways that business communication faculty can provide their students with an understanding of the problem and its solution. Suggests that business communication needs a broader view of what constitutes plagiarism, how documentation expectations are developed, and why the ethical…

  11. Of Flattery and Thievery: Reconsidering Plagiarism in a Time of Virtual Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, P. L.

    2007-01-01

    P. L. Thomas provides a framework for discussing plagiarism and calls on us to avoid overly simplified policies. After considering various perspectives on intent and the purposes of documentation, Thomas advocates developing standard definitions and guidelines for plagiarism in the department or the classroom. We should also offer professional…

  12. Plagiarism by Adult Learners Online: A Case Study in Detection and Remediation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jocoy, Christine; DiBiase, David

    2006-01-01

    Detecting and combating plagiarism from Web-based sources is a concern for administrators and instructors involved in online distance education. In this paper, we quantify copy-and-paste plagiarism among adult learners in an online geography course offered through Penn State's World Campus Geographic Information Systems (GIS) certificate program.…

  13. Electronic Plagiarism as a College Instructor's Nightmare--Prevention and Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLafferty, Charles L.; Foust, Karen M.

    2004-01-01

    Plagiarism, aided by the emergence of massive databases of information on the World Wide Web, has become commonplace on college campuses and in business schools. Because prevention is preferable to policing, in this article the authors (a) present methods for educators to define plagiarism and educate students in appropriate citation and…

  14. Using an Electronic Text-Matching Tool (Turnitin) to Detect Plagiarism in a New Zealand University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddard, Robert; Rudzki, Romuald

    2005-01-01

    This paper is concerned with reporting the experience and findings of staff using a commercially-available text-matching tool (Turnitin) to detect plagiarism in a university setting in New Zealand. The use of actual instances of plagiarism revealed through Turnitin in a teaching department is a departure from the more usual self-reporting…

  15. An Investigation into Electronic-Source Plagiarism in a First-Year Essay Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellery, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Since the emergence of the electronic era, plagiarism has become an increasingly prevalent problem at tertiary institutions. This study investigated the role electronic sources of information played in influencing plagiarism in an essay assignment in a first-year geography module at the University of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. Despite explicit…

  16. Students Turned Off by Turnitin? Perception of Plagiarism and Collusion by Undergraduate Bioscience Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompsett, Andrew; Ahluwalia, Jatinder

    2010-01-01

    Research on undergraduate bioscience students and the incidence of plagiarism is still in its infancy and a key problem arises in gauging the perception of undergraduate students on plagiarism and collusion in biosciences subjects because of the lack of empirical data. The aim of this study was to provide qualitative data on the perceptions of…

  17. Avoid the Plague: Tips and Tricks for Preventing and Detecting Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolkan, J. V.

    2006-01-01

    Plagiarism is an ugly word. Copying someone else's work and attempting to claim credit for one's self is an act that involves a number of ethical failings--theft, laziness, coveting, and lying among others. Many educators blame the Internet for what they perceive as the rise of plagiarism. Although the Internet certainly enables more efficient…

  18. "Thou Shalt Not Plagiarise": From Self-Reported Views to Recognition and Avoidance of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risquez, Angelica; O'Dwyer, Michele; Ledwith, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Throughout much of the literature on plagiarism in higher education, there is an implicit assumption that students who understand plagiarism, who have high ethical views and declare not to engage in plagiaristic behaviour are able to recognise it and avoid it in practice. Challenging this supposition, this paper contrasts students' self-reported…

  19. Vocabulary Development in Greek Children: A Cross-Linguistic Comparison Using the Language Development Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papaeliou, Christina F.; Rescorla, Leslie A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated vocabulary size and vocabulary composition in Greek children aged 1 ; 6 to 2 ; 11 using a Greek adaptation of Rescorla's Language Development Survey (LDS; Rescorla, 1989). Participants were 273 toddlers coming from monolingual Greek-speaking families. Greek LDS data were compared with US LDS data obtained from the…

  20. Cross Currents: Communication/Language/Cultural Skills, Volume IX, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Thomas Walter, Ed.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The following articles and features are presented in this issue: (1) "Approaches to Text," by R. Gannon; (2) "A Case Study in Dealing with Cultural Reserve as an Impediment to Language Learning," by R. Harker; (3) "Student-Centered Chalkboard Activities for Beginning Learners," by W. Matreyek; (4) "Introducing Dialects in the ESL Class," by M.…

  1. When Boundaries Are Crossed: Evaluating Language Attrition Data from Two Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Elena

    2010-01-01

    This study provides an account for a long-term selective loss of L1 (Russian) morpho-syntactic and content components in early immigrants to the U.S. The analysis of naturally occurring data is carried out from the perspective of two theoretical approaches--three models developed within language contact (Myers-Scotton 2002, 2005) and the…

  2. Cross-Language Perception of Cantonese Vowels Spoken by Native and Non-Native Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    So, Connie K.; Attina, Virginie

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of native language background on listeners' perception of native and non-native vowels spoken by native (Hong Kong Cantonese) and non-native (Mandarin and Australian English) speakers. They completed discrimination and an identification task with and without visual cues in clear and noisy conditions. Results…

  3. Moving from Border Crossing to Convergence of Perspectives in Language and Science Literacy Research and Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hand, Brian; Prain, Vaughan

    2006-02-01

    This introduction briefly traces the development of science literacy research from conferences in 2001 and 2002, and shows how the diverse perspectives brought to these conferences are gradually converging in research and practice. Understandings pertaining to literacy boundaries, the functional use of language, and building habits of mind are discussed. Finally, the articles in this special issue are introduced.

  4. Our Physical World. Language Arts Theme Units: Cross-Curricular Activities for Primary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Elizabeth A.; Hildebrand, Joan M.; Ericson, Joann H.

    This book is part of a series of books presenting ready-to-use instructional units on themes typically taught in the primary grades. The topics focus on science, math, social studies or literature, but use language arts skills consistently in each unit. Each book in the series also uses as many frames of mind or intelligences as possible. Within a…

  5. A Cross-Language Study of Perception of Lexical Stress in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Vickie Y.; Andruski, Jean E.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the question of whether language background affects the perception of lexical stress in English. Thirty native English speakers and 30 native Chinese learners of English participated in a stressed-syllable identification task and a discrimination task involving three types of stimuli (real words/pseudowords/hums). The…

  6. Cross-Language Effects of Grammatical Gender in Bilingual Word Recognition and Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemhofer, Kristin; Spalek, Katharina; Schriefers, Herbert

    2008-01-01

    We investigated whether bilinguals recognizing or producing noun phrases in their second language Dutch are influenced by the grammatical gender in their mother tongue German. The Dutch nouns used in the experiments were either gender-"compatible" or - "incompatible" with their German translation. Furthermore, their cognate status (form similarity…

  7. Dynamic Range for Speech Materials in Korean, English, and Mandarin: A Cross-Language Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, In-Ki; Kates, James M.; Arehart, Kathryn H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify whether differences in dynamic range (DR) are evident across the spoken languages of Korean, English, and Mandarin. Method: Recorded sentence-level speech materials were used as stimuli. DR was quantified using different definitions of DR (defined as the range in decibels from the highest to the…

  8. Establishing a Cross-Cultural Analysis Component in Business Foreign Language Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsell, Patricia R.

    Introduction of materials designed to heighten the cultural awareness of students intending to work in international business is a more difficult task than introducing cultural material to language students, due to lack of appropriate texts and methods and the limited international awareness of students. The importance of cultural understanding to…

  9. The Animals Around Us. Language Arts Theme Units: Cross-Curricular Activities for Primary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Elizabeth A.; Hildebrand, Joan M.; Ericson, Joann H.

    This book is part of a series of books presenting ready-to-use instructional units on themes typically taught in the primary grades. The topics focus on science, math, social studies or literature, but use language arts skills consistently in each unit. Each book in the series also uses as many frames of mind or intelligences as possible. Within a…

  10. Language-Specific Effects on Number Computation in Toddlers: A European Cross-Linguistic Cartography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubin, Amelie; Pineau, Arlette; Hodent, Celia; Houde, Olivier

    2006-01-01

    A fundamental question in developmental science is how brains with and without language compute numbers. Measuring young children's verbal reactions in Spain and Finland, we show that, although there is a general arithmetic ability for small numbers that is shared by monkeys and preverbal infants, the development of such initial knowledge in…

  11. Translating Interviews, Translating Lives: Ethical Considerations in Cross-Language Narrative Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Through two narrative inquiries, in this article I explore the challenges for qualitative researchers in working with multiple languages in capturing, translating, analyzing, and representing narratives. I discuss the effect on research when we engage in these processes considering what was happening as we translated both texts and experience from…

  12. Assessing Online Collaboration among Language Teachers: A Cross-Institutional Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Nike; Ducate, Lara; Lomicka, Lara; Lord, Gillian

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) among foreign language (FL) graduate students from three universities, who worked together to create a wiki. In order to investigate the nature of CSCL among participants, this qualitative case study used the Curtis and Lawson framework (2001) to conduct a content analysis of…

  13. Kinesics and Cross-Cultural Understanding. Language in Education: Theory and Practice, No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morain, Genelle G.

    Body language, also called kinesics, is the discipline concerned with the study of all bodily motions that are communicative. An understanding of kinesics across cultures necessitates a close look at posture, movement, facial expression, eye management, gestures, and proxemics (distancing). The popularity of one posture over another and the…

  14. Issues in the Development of Cross-Cultural Assessments of Speech and Language for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Julie A.; Lees, Janet A.; Murira, Gladys M.; Gona, Joseph; Neville, Brian G. R.; Newton, Charles R. J. C.

    2005-01-01

    Background: There is an increasing demand for the assessment of speech and language in clinical and research situations in countries where there are few assessment resources. Due to the nature of cultural variation and the potential for cultural bias, new assessment tools need to be developed or existing tools require adaptation. However, there…

  15. The Development of Basic Reading Skills in Children: A Cross-Language Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geva, Esther; Wang, Min

    2001-01-01

    Reviews recent research evidence for universal and orthography- or language-specific processes in the development of basic reading skills in school-age children. The review focuses on three different aspects of reading--phonological processing, rapid naming, and morphosyntactic complexity--targeted in recent research on development of word…

  16. Cross-Language Effects in Written Word Recognition: The Case of Bilingual Deaf Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormel, Ellen; Hermans, Daan; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, multiple studies have shown that the languages of a bilingual interact during processing. We investigated sign activation as deaf children read words. In a word-picture verification task, we manipulated the underlying sign equivalents. We presented children with word-picture pairs for which the sign translation equivalents varied…

  17. Cross-cultural adaptation and initial validation of the Stroke-Specific Quality of Life Scale into the Yoruba language.

    PubMed

    Akinpelu, Aderonke O; Odetunde, Marufat O; Odole, Adesola C

    2012-12-01

    Stroke-Specific Quality of Life 2.0 (SS-QoL 2.0) scale is used widely and has been cross-culturally adapted to many languages. This study aimed at the cross-cultural adaptation of SS-QoL 2.0 to Yoruba, the indigenous language of south-western Nigeria, and to carry out an initial investigation on its validity. English SS-QoL 2.0 was first adapted to Yoruba language by including Yoruba culture-specific examples in items SC4, UE2 and UE6. The adapted English version (AEV) was independently translated into Yoruba by two language experts who later agreed on a consensus translation, which was then back translated, subjected to an expert committee review and pretested; a cognitive debriefing interview was also carried out to generate the Yoruba translated version (YTV). Thirty-five stroke survivors completed the AEV and Yoruba version (YV) in English and Yoruba. The order of administration was randomized. Data were analysed using Spearman's rank order correlation and Wilcoxon's signed-rank test at a P value less than 0.05. The mean age of the participants (23 men, 12 women) was 58.5±11.3 years. The domain scores of the participants on AEV and YV did not differ significantly, except in the work/productivity domain. In both versions, the mean domain score of the participants was the highest in the language domain [22.6±3.8 (AEV) and 22.7±3.4 (YV)] and the lowest in the work domain [9.0±3.7 (AEV) and 8.0±3.3 (YTV)]. Domain scores on both versions correlated significantly (P<0.05). Participants' ratings of their current state and prestroke state correlated significantly (P<0.01) in all the general areas, except energy and mood. The YTV of SS-QoL 2.0 fulfilled the initial criteria for validity.

  18. An analysis of student privacy rights in the use of plagiarism detection systems.

    PubMed

    Brinkman, Bo

    2013-09-01

    Plagiarism detection services are a powerful tool to help encourage academic integrity. Adoption of these services has proven to be controversial due to ethical concerns about students' rights. Central to these concerns is the fact that most such systems make permanent archives of student work to be re-used in plagiarism detection. This computerization and automation of plagiarism detection is changing the relationships of trust and responsibility between students, educators, educational institutions, and private corporations. Educators must respect student privacy rights when implementing such systems. Student work is personal information, not the property of the educator or institution. The student has the right to be fully informed about how plagiarism detection works, and the fact that their work will be permanently archived as a result. Furthermore, plagiarism detection should not be used if the permanent archiving of a student's work may expose him or her to future harm.

  19. Students' Source Misuse in Language Classrooms: Sharing Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazel, Ismaeil; Kowkabi, Nasrin

    2013-01-01

    In this article we first provide a brief discussion of what is generally referred to as "student plagiarism," which we prefer to call "source misuse" or "inappropriate textual borrowing," and then provide some of the factors that may contribute to this problem in language classes. Moreover, we provide our views and…

  20. Vocabulary development in Greek children: a cross-linguistic comparison using the Language Development Survey.

    PubMed

    Papaeliou, Christina F; Rescorla, Leslie A

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated vocabulary size and vocabulary composition in Greek children aged 1;6 to 2;11 using a Greek adaptation of Rescorla's Language Development Survey (LDS; Rescorla, 1989). Participants were 273 toddlers coming from monolingual Greek-speaking families. Greek LDS data were compared with US LDS data obtained from the instrument's normative sample (Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000). Vocabulary size increased markedly with age, but Greek toddlers appeared to get off to a slower start in early word learning than US children. The correlation between percentage word use scores in Greek and US samples was moderate in size, indicating considerable overlap but some differences. Common nouns were the largest category among the fifty most frequent words in both samples. Numbers of adjectives and verbs were comparable across languages, but people and closed-class words were more numerous in the Greek sample. Finally, Greek late talkers showed similar patterns of vocabulary composition to those observed in typically developing Greek children.

  1. Concurrent Relations between Face Scanning and Language: A Cross-Syndrome Infant Study.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Dean; D'Souza, Hana; Johnson, Mark H; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Typically developing (TD) infants enhance their learning of spoken language by observing speakers' mouth movements. Given the fact that word learning is seriously delayed in most children with neurodevelopmental disorders, we hypothesized that this delay partly results from differences in visual face scanning, e.g., focusing attention away from the mouth. To test this hypothesis, we used an eye tracker to measure visual attention in 95 infants and toddlers with Down syndrome (DS), fragile X syndrome (FXS), and Williams syndrome (WS), and compared their data to 25 chronological- and mental-age matched 16-month-old TD controls. We presented participants with two talking faces (one on each side of the screen) and a sound (/ga/). One face (the congruent face) mouthed the syllable that the participants could hear (i.e., /ga/), while the other face (the incongruent face) mouthed a different syllable (/ba/) from the one they could hear. As expected, we found that TD children with a relatively large vocabulary made more fixations to the mouth region of the incongruent face than elsewhere. However, toddlers with FXS or WS who had a relatively large receptive vocabulary made more fixations to the eyes (rather than the mouth) of the incongruent face. In DS, by contrast, fixations to the speaker's overall face (rather than to her eyes or mouth) predicted vocabulary size. These findings suggest that, at some point in development, different processes or strategies relating to visual attention are involved in language acquisition in DS, FXS, and WS. This knowledge may help further explain why language is delayed in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. It also raises the possibility that syndrome-specific interventions should include an early focus on efficient face-scanning behaviour. PMID:26426329

  2. Metalexical Awareness: Development, Methodology or Written Language? A Cross-Linguistic Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurvers, Jeanne; Uri, Helene

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the ability to access word boundaries of pre-school children, using an on-line methodology (Karmiloff-Smith, Grant, Sims, Jones, & Cockle (1996). "Cognition, 58", 197-219.), which has hardly been used outside English-speaking countries. In a cross-linguistic study in the Netherlands and Norway, four and five-year-old children…

  3. How Cross-Language Similarity and Task Demands Affect Cognate Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Ton; Miwa, Koji; Brummelhuis, Bianca; Sappelli, Maya; Baayen, Harald

    2010-01-01

    This study examines how the cross-linguistic similarity of translation equivalents affects bilingual word recognition. Performing one of three tasks, Dutch-English bilinguals processed cognates with varying degrees of form overlap between their English and Dutch counterparts (e.g., "lamp-lamp" vs. "flood-vloed" vs. "song-lied"). In lexical…

  4. The Rio Grande Valley: Border Crossing, Diversity within Diversity, and Rethinking Categorical Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jupp, James C.

    2001-01-01

    Highlights the Rio Grande Valley in order to combat stereotypical North American folkloric representations of Latin America, discussing border crossings, developing a typology of the Rio Grande Valley that emphasizes diversity within diversity, articulating an example of diversity within diversity, and arguing that multiculturalism's categorical…

  5. Attention problems and language development in preterm low-birth-weight children: Cross-lagged relations from 18 to 36 months

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Research has highlighted a series of persistent deficits in cognitive ability in preterm low-birth-weight children. Language and attention problems are among these deficits, although the nature of the relation between attention and language in early development is not well known. This study represents a preliminary attempt to shed light on the relations between attention problems and language development in preterm low-birth-weight children. Methods The aim of this study was to analyse reciprocal influences between language and attention problems from 18 to 36 months. We used maternal reports on attention problems and language ability referring to a sample of 1288 premature low-birth-weight infants, collected as part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). A sample of children born full-term was used as the control group (N = 37010). Cross-lagged panel analyses were carried out to study reciprocal influences between attention problems and language. Results Language ability at 18 months did not significantly predict attention problems at 36 months, adjusting for attention problems at 18 months. Attention problems at 18 months significantly predicted changes in language ability from 18 to 36 months, pointing to a precursor role of attention in relation to language in children born preterm. Gender, age corrected for prematurity, and mother's education emerged as important covariates. Conclusions Preliminary evidence was found for a precursor role of early attention problems in relation to language in prematurity. This finding can contribute to a better understanding of the developmental pathways of attention and language and lead to better management of unfavourable outcomes associated with co-morbid attention and language difficulties. PMID:21714885

  6. Why do I always have the best ideas? The role of idea quality in unconscious plagiarism.

    PubMed

    Perfect, Timothy J; Stark, Louisa-Jayne

    2008-05-01

    Groups of individuals often work together to generate solutions to a problem. Subsequently, one member of the group can plagiarise another either by recalling that person's idea as their own (recall-own plagiarism), or by generating a novel solution that duplicates a previous idea (generate-new plagiarism). The current study examines the extent to which these forms of plagiarism are influenced by the quality of the ideas. Groups of participants initially generated ideas, prior to an elaboration phase in which idea quality was manipulated in two ways: participants received feedback on the quality of the ideas as rated by independent judges, and they generated improvements to a subset of the ideas. Unconscious plagiarism was measured in recall-own and generate-new tasks. For recall, idea improvement led to increased plagiarism, while for the generate-new task, the independent ratings influenced plagiarism. These data indicate that different source-judgement processes underlie the two forms of plagiarism, neither of which can be reduced simply to memory strength.

  7. Cross-language perceptual similarity predicts categorial discrimination of American vowels by naïve Japanese listeners.

    PubMed

    Strange, Winifred; Hisagi, Miwako; Akahane-Yamada, Reiko; Kubo, Rieko

    2011-10-01

    Current speech perception models propose that relative perceptual difficulties with non-native segmental contrasts can be predicted from cross-language phonetic similarities. Japanese (J) listeners performed a categorical discrimination task in which nine contrasts (six adjacent height pairs, three front/back pairs) involving eight American (AE) vowels [iː, ɪ, ε, æː, ɑː, ʌ, ʊ, uː] in /hVbə/ disyllables were tested. The listeners also completed a perceptual assimilation task (categorization as J vowels with category goodness ratings). Perceptual assimilation patterns (quantified as categorization overlap scores) were highly predictive of discrimination accuracy (r(s)=0.93). Results suggested that J listeners used both spectral and temporal information in discriminating vowel contrasts. PMID:21974496

  8. Consonant acquisition in the Malay language: a cross-sectional study of preschool aged Malay children.

    PubMed

    Phoon, Hooi San; Abdullah, Anna Christina; Lee, Lay Wah; Murugaiah, Puvaneswary

    2014-05-01

    To date, there has been little research done on phonological acquisition in the Malay language of typically developing Malay-speaking children. This study serves to fill this gap by providing a systematic description of Malay consonant acquisition in a large cohort of preschool-aged children between 4- and 6-years-old. In the study, 326 Malay-dominant speaking children were assessed using a picture naming task that elicited 53 single words containing all the primary consonants in Malay. Two main analyses were conducted to study their consonant acquisition: (1) age of customary and mastery production of consonants; and (2) consonant accuracy. Results revealed that Malay children acquired all the syllable-initial and syllable-final consonants before 4;06-years-old, with the exception of syllable-final /s/, /h/ and /l/ which were acquired after 5;06-years-old. The development of Malay consonants increased gradually from 4- to 6 years old, with female children performing better than male children. The accuracy of consonants based on manner of articulation showed that glides, affricates, nasals, and stops were higher than fricatives and liquids. In general, syllable-initial consonants were more accurate than syllable-final consonants while consonants in monosyllabic and disyllabic words were more accurate than polysyllabic words. These findings will provide significant information for speech-language pathologists for assessing Malay-speaking children and designing treatment objectives that reflect the course of phonological development in Malay.

  9. Profits and plagiarism: the case of medical ghostwriting.

    PubMed

    Anekwe, Tobenna D

    2010-07-01

    This paper focuses on medical ghostwriting in the United States. I argue that medical ghostwriting often involves plagiarism and, in those cases, can be treated as an act of research misconduct by both the federal government and research institutions. I also propose several anti-ghostwriting measures, including: 1) journals should implement guarantor policies so that researchers may be better held accountable for their work; 2) research institutions and the federal government should explicitly prohibit medical ghostwriting and outline appropriate penalties; and 3) a publicly available database should be created to record researchers' ethics violations.

  10. Does Gender-Fair Language Pay Off? The Social Perception of Professions from a Cross-Linguistic Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Lisa K.; Merkel, Elisa F.; Maass, Anne; Sczesny, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    In many languages, masculine forms (e.g., German Lehrer, “teachers, masc.”) have traditionally been used to refer to both women and men, although feminine forms are available, too. Feminine-masculine word pairs (e.g., German Lehrerinnen und Lehrer, “teachers, fem. and teachers, masc.”) are recommended as gender-fair alternatives. A large body of empirical research documents that the use of gender-fair forms instead of masculine forms has a substantial impact on mental representations. Masculine forms activate more male representations even when used in a generic sense, whereas word pairs (e.g., German Lehrerinnen und Lehrer, “teachers, fem. and teachers, masc.”) lead to a higher cognitive inclusion of women (i.e., visibility of women). Some recent studies, however, have also shown that in a professional context word pairs may be associated with lesser status. The present research is the first to investigate both effects within a single paradigm. A cross-linguistic (Italian and German) study with 391 participants shows that word pairs help to avoid a male bias in the gender-typing of professions and increase women's visibility; at the same time, they decrease the estimated salaries of typically feminine professions (but do not affect perceived social status or competence). This potential payoff has implications for language policies aiming at gender-fairness. PMID:26834662

  11. Lexical Diversity and Omission Errors as Predictors of Language Ability in the Narratives of Sequential Spanish-English Bilinguals: A Cross-Language Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Peggy F.; Walden, Patrick R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored the utility of language sample analysis for evaluating language ability in school-age Spanish-English sequential bilingual children. Specifically, the relative potential of lexical diversity and word/morpheme omission as predictors of typical or atypical language status was evaluated. Method: Narrative samples were…

  12. Plagiarism in law and medicine: challenges for scholarship, academia, publishers and regulators.

    PubMed

    Freckelton, Ian

    2010-05-01

    The phenomenon of plagiarism has evolved as a major problem in many fields with the increasing accessibility of material on the internet. It poses dilemmas for those involved in secondary and tertiary education, as well as for book publishers and those who edit journals. This editorial reviews important recent decisions in the United Kingdom, Canada and Australia by courts and regulatory bodies in respect of doctors and lawyers who have engaged in plagiarism in various ways both while undergraduates and in the course of their professional careers. It reflects on the phenomenon of plagiarism, the challenges involved in its detection and the steps that can be taken to reduce its incidence.

  13. Strategies for Using Plagiarism Software in the Screening of Incoming Journal Manuscripts: Recommendations Based on a Recent Literature Survey.

    PubMed

    Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, several online tools have appeared capable of identifying potential plagiarism in science. While such tools may help to maintain or even increase the originality and ethical quality of the scientific literature, no apparent consensus exists among editors on the degree of plagiarism or self-plagiarism necessary to reject or retract manuscripts. In this study, two entire volumes of published original papers and reviews from Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology were retrospectively scanned for similarity in anonymized form using iThenticate software to explore measures to predictively identify true plagiarism and self-plagiarism and to potentially provide guidelines for future screening of incoming manuscripts. Several filters were applied, all of which appeared to lower the noise from irrelevant hits. The main conclusions were that plagiarism software offers a unique opportunity to screen for plagiarism easily but also that it has to be employed with caution as automated or uncritical use is far too unreliable to allow a fair basis for judging the degree of plagiarism in a manuscript. This remains the job of senior editors. Whereas a few cases of self-plagiarism that would not likely have been accepted with today's guidelines were indeed identified, no cases of fraud or serious plagiarism were found. Potential guidelines are discussed.

  14. Strategies for Using Plagiarism Software in the Screening of Incoming Journal Manuscripts: Recommendations Based on a Recent Literature Survey.

    PubMed

    Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, several online tools have appeared capable of identifying potential plagiarism in science. While such tools may help to maintain or even increase the originality and ethical quality of the scientific literature, no apparent consensus exists among editors on the degree of plagiarism or self-plagiarism necessary to reject or retract manuscripts. In this study, two entire volumes of published original papers and reviews from Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology were retrospectively scanned for similarity in anonymized form using iThenticate software to explore measures to predictively identify true plagiarism and self-plagiarism and to potentially provide guidelines for future screening of incoming manuscripts. Several filters were applied, all of which appeared to lower the noise from irrelevant hits. The main conclusions were that plagiarism software offers a unique opportunity to screen for plagiarism easily but also that it has to be employed with caution as automated or uncritical use is far too unreliable to allow a fair basis for judging the degree of plagiarism in a manuscript. This remains the job of senior editors. Whereas a few cases of self-plagiarism that would not likely have been accepted with today's guidelines were indeed identified, no cases of fraud or serious plagiarism were found. Potential guidelines are discussed. PMID:26876730

  15. A cross-language study of compensation in response to real-time formant perturbation

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuya, Takashi; MacDonald, Ewen N.; Purcell, David W.; Munhall, Kevin G.

    2011-01-01

    Past studies have shown that when formants are perturbed in real time, speakers spontaneously compensate for the perturbation by changing their formant frequencies in the opposite direction to the perturbation. Further, the pattern of these results suggests that the processing of auditory feedback error operates at a purely acoustic level. This hypothesis was tested by comparing the response of three language groups to real-time formant perturbations, (1) native English speakers producing an English vowel /ε/, (2) native Japanese speakers producing a Japanese vowel (/e⊤/), and (3) native Japanese speakers learning English, producing /ε/. All three groups showed similar production patterns when F1 was decreased; however, when F1 was increased, the Japanese groups did not compensate as much as the native English speakers. Due to this asymmetry, the hypothesis that the compensatory production for formant perturbation operates at a purely acoustic level was rejected. Rather, some level of phonological processing influences the feedback processing behavior. PMID:22087926

  16. Cross-Linguistic and Cross-Cultural Effects on Verbal Working Memory and Vocabulary: Testing Language-Minority Children with an Immigrant Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale M. J.; Baldassi, Martine; Puglisi, Marina L.; Befi-Lopes, Debora M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors explored the impact of test language and cultural status on vocabulary and working memory performance in multilingual language-minority children. Method: Twenty 7-year-old Portuguese-speaking immigrant children living in Luxembourg completed several assessments of first (L1)- and second-language (L2) vocabulary…

  17. Communicating in a Cultural Context: The Global Perspective. Proceedings of the Summer Cross-Cultural Workshop for Foreign Language Teachers (Columbia, South Carolina, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Vicki

    These proceedings of a cross cultural workshop for foreign language teachers sponsored by the South Carolina Department of Education deal with various aspects of education for global awareness. The proceedings and workshop activities are presented in six sections: (1) 22 quotations illustrating why education for global awareness is necessary; (2)…

  18. The Relationship of Korean Students' Age and Years of English-as-a-Foreign-Language Exposure with English-Reading Ability: A Cross-Age Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Stenner, A. Jackson; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Koons, Heather; Bowen, Kimberly; Kim, Kee Hyung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present cross-age study with South Korean students was to investigate the relationship of age and years of English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) exposure with English-reading ability. The main research question was, "Do individuals' age and number of years of English exposure interact in relation to English-reading…

  19. Understanding Legitimate Teacher Authority in a Cross-Cultural Teaching Context: Pre-Service Chinese Language Teachers Undertaking Teaching Practicum in International Schools in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Chun; Gu, Mingyue; Hu, Jingjing

    2015-01-01

    Legitimate teacher authority is fundamental to effective teaching, but is often a thorny issue that teachers need to grapple with when teaching in cross-cultural teaching contexts. By interviewing 18 pre-service Chinese language teachers on their understanding of legitimate teacher authority throughout teaching practicum at international schools…

  20. A Cross-Cultural Investigation of Language and Thought in Young Anglo-, Black-, and Mexican-American Children of Low Social Status Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollomon, John W.; And Others

    The purpose of this investigation was to make a cross-cultural study of the abilities of Anglo-, Black-, and Mexican-American young children of low status parents to process a given set of language and thought universals. The 27 subjects (nine subjects in each ethnic group) were divided into three subgroups according to age-grade levels, 5, 6, and…