Science.gov

Sample records for cross regional cluster

  1. Cluster Observations of the Auroral Acceleration Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, S.; Marklund, G.; Karlsson, R.; Lindqvist, P.; Li, B.; Nilsson, H.; Marghitu, O.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Lucek, E. A.

    2011-12-01

    We present results from Cluster satellite multi-point event studies from the auroral acceleration region (AAR). Electric potential structures associated with inverted-V aurora are investigated using electric field, magnetic field, ion and electron data from the Cluster spacecraft, crossing the auroral acceleration region (AAR) at different altitudes above the auroral oval. The spatial and temporal development of the acceleration structures is studied, given the magnetic conjunction opportunity and the short time-difference between the Cluster spacecraft crossings. The configuration allowed for estimating the characteristic times of development for the structures and estimating the parallel electric field and potential drop. For one of the negative potential structures, a growth time of 40 s and stability for more than one minute was observed and an average parallel electric field was estimated (~ 0.56 mV/m, between 1.13 and 1.3 RE of altitude).

  2. Cross-Clustering: A Partial Clustering Algorithm with Automatic Estimation of the Number of Clusters

    PubMed Central

    Tellaroli, Paola; Bazzi, Marco; Donato, Michele; Brazzale, Alessandra R.; Drăghici, Sorin

    2016-01-01

    Four of the most common limitations of the many available clustering methods are: i) the lack of a proper strategy to deal with outliers; ii) the need for a good a priori estimate of the number of clusters to obtain reasonable results; iii) the lack of a method able to detect when partitioning of a specific data set is not appropriate; and iv) the dependence of the result on the initialization. Here we propose Cross-clustering (CC), a partial clustering algorithm that overcomes these four limitations by combining the principles of two well established hierarchical clustering algorithms: Ward’s minimum variance and Complete-linkage. We validated CC by comparing it with a number of existing clustering methods, including Ward’s and Complete-linkage. We show on both simulated and real datasets, that CC performs better than the other methods in terms of: the identification of the correct number of clusters, the identification of outliers, and the determination of real cluster memberships. We used CC to cluster samples in order to identify disease subtypes, and on gene profiles, in order to determine groups of genes with the same behavior. Results obtained on a non-biological dataset show that the method is general enough to be successfully used in such diverse applications. The algorithm has been implemented in the statistical language R and is freely available from the CRAN contributed packages repository. PMID:27015427

  3. Cluster in the Auroral Acceleration Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickett, Jolene S.; Fazakerley, Andrew N.; Marklund, Gorun; Dandouras, Iannis; Christopher, Ivar W.; Kistler, Lynn; Lucek, Elizabeth; Masson, Arnaud; Taylor, Matthew G.; Mutel, Robert L.; Santolik, Ondrej; Bell, Timothy F.; Fung, Shing; Pottelette, Raymond; Hanasz, Jan; Schreiber, Roman; Hull, Arthur J.

    2010-01-01

    Due to a fortuitous evolution of the Cluster orbit, the Cluster spacecraft penetrated for the first time in its mission the heart of Earth's auroral acceleration region (AAR) in December 2009 and January 2010. During this time a special AAR campaign was carried out by the various Cluster instrument teams with special support from ESA and NASA facilities. We present some of the first multi-spacecraft observations of the waves, particles and fields made during that campaign. The Cluster spacecraft configuration during these AAR passages was such that it allowed us to explore the differences in the signatures of waves, particles, and fields on the various spacecraft in ways not possible with single spacecraft. For example, one spacecraft was more poleward than the other three (C2), one was at higher altitude (C1), and one of them (0) followed another (C4) through the AAR on approximately the same track but delayed by three minutes. Their separations were generally on the order of a few thousand km or less and occasionally two of them were lying along the same magnetic field line. We will show some of the first analyses of the data obtained during the AAR campaign, where upward and downward current regions, and the waves specifically associated with those regions, as well as the auroral cavities, were observed similarly and differently on the various spacecraft, helping us to explore the spatial, as well as the temporal, aspects of processes occurring in the AAR.

  4. Electron impact ionization cross sections of beryllium-tungsten clusters*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukuba, Ivan; Kaiser, Alexander; Huber, Stefan E.; Urban, Jan; Probst, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We report calculated electron impact ionization cross sections (EICSs) of beryllium-tungsten clusters, BenW with n = 1,...,12, from the ionization threshold to 10 keV using the Deutsch-Märk (DM) and the binary-encounter-Bethe (BEB) formalisms. The positions of the maxima of DM and BEB cross sections are mostly close to each other. The DM cross sections are more sensitive with respect to the cluster size. For the clusters smaller than Be4W they yield smaller cross sections than BEB and vice versa larger cross sections than BEB for clusters larger than Be6W. The maximum cross section values for the singlet-spin groundstate clusters range from 7.0 × 10-16 cm2 at 28 eV (BeW) to 54.2 × 10-16 cm2 at 43 eV (Be12W) for the DM cross sections and from 13.5 × 10-16 cm2 at 43 eV (BeW) to 38.9 × 10-16 cm2 at 43 eV (Be12W) for the BEB cross sections. Differences of the EICSs in different isomers and between singlet and triplet states are also explored. Both the DM and BEB cross sections could be fitted perfectly to a simple expression used in modeling and simulation codes in the framework of nuclear fusion research. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Atomic Cluster Collisions (7th International Symposium)", edited by Gerardo Delgado Barrio, Andrey Solov'Yov, Pablo Villarreal, Rita Prosmiti.Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjd/e2015-60583-7

  5. Robust Multi-Network Clustering via Joint Cross-Domain Cluster Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; Cheng, Wei; Tong, Hanghang; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Network clustering is an important problem that has recently drawn a lot of attentions. Most existing work focuses on clustering nodes within a single network. In many applications, however, there exist multiple related networks, in which each network may be constructed from a different domain and instances in one domain may be related to instances in other domains. In this paper, we propose a robust algorithm, MCA, for multi-network clustering that takes into account cross-domain relationships between instances. MCA has several advantages over the existing single network clustering methods. First, it is able to detect associations between clusters from different domains, which, however, is not addressed by any existing methods. Second, it achieves more consistent clustering results on multiple networks by leveraging the duality between clustering individual networks and inferring cross-network cluster alignment. Finally, it provides a multi-network clustering solution that is more robust to noise and errors. We perform extensive experiments on a variety of real and synthetic networks to demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of MCA. PMID:27239167

  6. Electron impact ionisation cross sections of iron hydrogen clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Stefan E.; Sukuba, Ivan; Urban, Jan; Limtrakul, Jumras; Probst, Michael

    2016-09-01

    We computed electron impact ionisation cross sections (EICSs) of iron hydrogen clusters, FeH n with n = 1,2, ...,10, from the ionisation threshold to 10 keV using the Deutsch-Märk (DM) and the binary-encounter-Bethe (BEB) formalisms. The maxima of the cross sections for the iron hydrogen clusters range from 6.13 × 10-16 cm2 at 60 eV to 8.76 × 10-16 cm2 at 76 eV for BEB-AE (BEB method based on quantum-chemical data from all-electron basis sets) calculations, from 4.15 × 10-16 cm2 at 77 eV to 7.61 × 10-16 cm2 at 80 eV for BEB-ECP (BEB method based on quantum-chemical data from effective-core potentials for inner-core electrons) calculations and from 2.49 × 10-16 cm2 at 43.5 eV to 7.04 × 10-16 cm2 at 51 eV for the DM method. Cross sections calculated via the BEB method are substantially higher than the ones obtained via the DM method, up to a factor of about two for FeH and FeH2. The formation of Fe-H bonds depopulates the iron 4 s orbital, causing significantly lower cross sections for the small iron hydrides compared to atomic iron. Both the DM and BEB cross sections can be fitted perfectly against a simple expression used in modelling and simulation codes in the framework of nuclear fusion research. The energetics of the iron hydrogen clusters change substantially when exact exchange is present in the density functional, while the cluster geometries do not depend on this choice.

  7. Anvil Productivities of Tropical Deep Convective Clusters and Their Regional Differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Min; Mace, Gerald G.; Wang, Zhien

    2016-06-01

    Tropical deep convection's intensity and their anvil productivity are investigated and compared among 8 climatological regions with 4-year collocated and combined CloudSat and CALIPSO data. For all 8 regions, the convective clusters become deeper, while they become wider and tend to be composed of multiple rainy cores. Among 8 regions, convective clusters at the same scale over EP and AT tend to have less but wider rainy cores than those at WP, MA and IO, while those over AF, IO, MA and AM tend to have higher cloud top than those over ocean. For convective clusters less than 300 km wide over AF and MA, the rainy cores pump more ice mass of larger particles to the mid- and upper troposphere in strong updrafts. The total anvil clouds detrained from convection counts for 0.4 to 0.8 of the cluster horizontal scale, 0.2 to 0.6 of the cluster cross section volume, and 0.05 to 0.20 of the cluster ice mass, depending on the cluster scales and height. There are two main detrainment layers. When the convective clusters is less than about 100 km, the anvil clouds are mainly detrained at about 6-8 km with a spreading ratio (ratio of maximum cluster width to convection rainy core width) less than 1.5. When convective clusters becomes 100 km or wider, it reaches the dominate detrainment layer at about 12 km, the detrainment index increase from 2 to more 6. Among 8 regions, convection clusters in MA produce the most anvil volume fraction. The more the ice mass is pumped upward in the anvil clouds till clusters are about 500 km wider. Nevertheless, the anvil ice mass pumped above 15 km is less than 0.1% of the total ice mass in the convective cluster.

  8. Electron impact ionisation cross sections of iron hydrogen clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Stefan E.; Sukuba, Ivan; Urban, Jan; Limtrakul, Jumras; Probst, Michael

    2016-09-01

    We computed electron impact ionisation cross sections (EICSs) of iron hydrogen clusters, FeHn with n = 1,2,...,10, from the ionisation threshold to 10 keV using the Deutsch-Märk (DM) and the binary-encounter-Bethe (BEB) formalisms. The maxima of the cross sections for the iron hydrogen clusters range from 6.13 × 10-16 cm2 at 60 eV to 8.76 × 10-16 cm2 at 76 eV for BEB-AE (BEB method based on quantum-chemical data from all-electron basis sets) calculations, from 4.15 × 10-16 cm2 at 77 eV to 7.61 × 10-16 cm2 at 80 eV for BEB-ECP (BEB method based on quantum-chemical data from effective-core potentials for inner-core electrons) calculations and from 2.49 × 10-16 cm2 at 43.5 eV to 7.04 × 10-16 cm2 at 51 eV for the DM method. Cross sections calculated via the BEB method are substantially higher than the ones obtained via the DM method, up to a factor of about two for FeH and FeH2. The formation of Fe-H bonds depopulates the iron 4s orbital, causing significantly lower cross sections for the small iron hydrides compared to atomic iron. Both the DM and BEB cross sections can be fitted perfectly against a simple expression used in modelling and simulation codes in the framework of nuclear fusion research. The energetics of the iron hydrogen clusters change substantially when exact exchange is present in the density functional, while the cluster geometries do not depend on this choice. Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page athttp://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjd/e2016-70292-4

  9. The Clusters - Collaborative Models of Sustainable Regional Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mănescu, Gabriel; Kifor, Claudiu

    2014-12-01

    The clusters are the subject of actions and of whole series of documents issued by national and international organizations, and, based on experience, many authorities promote the idea that because of the clusters, competitiveness increases, the workforce specializes, regional businesses and economies grow. The present paper is meant to be an insight into the initiatives of forming clusters in Romania. Starting from a comprehensive analysis of the development potential offered by each region of economic development, we present the main types of clusters grouped according to fields of activity and their overall objectives

  10. Clusters, deformation, and dilation: Diagnostics for material accumulation regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntley, Helga S.; Lipphardt, B. L.; Jacobs, Gregg; Kirwan, A. D.

    2015-10-01

    Clusters of material at the ocean surface have been frequently observed. Such accumulations of material play an important role in a variety of applications, from biology to pollution mitigation. Identifying where clusters will form can aid in locating, for example, hotspots of biological activity or regions of high pollutant concentration. Here cluster strength is introduced as a new metric for defining clusters when all particle positions are known. To diagnose regions likely to contain clusters without the need to integrate millions of particle trajectories, we propose to use dilation, which quantifies area changes of Lagrangian patches. Material deformation is decomposed into dilation and area-preserving stretch processes to refine previous approaches based on finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLE) by splitting the FTLE into fundamental kinematic properties. The concepts are developed theoretically and illustrated in the context of a state-of-the-art data-assimilating predictive ocean model of the Gulf of Mexico. Regions of dilation less than one are shown to be much more likely (6 times more likely in the given example) to be visited by particles than those of dilation greater than one. While the relationship is nonlinear, dilation and cluster strength exhibit a fairly good correlation. In contrast, both stretch and Eulerian divergence are found to be uncorrelated with cluster strength. Thus, dilation maps can be used as guides for identifying cluster locations, while saving some of the computational cost of trajectory integrations.

  11. Using cluster analysis to organize and explore regional GPS velocities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpson, Robert W.; Thatcher, Wayne; Savage, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Cluster analysis offers a simple visual exploratory tool for the initial investigation of regional Global Positioning System (GPS) velocity observations, which are providing increasingly precise mappings of actively deforming continental lithosphere. The deformation fields from dense regional GPS networks can often be concisely described in terms of relatively coherent blocks bounded by active faults, although the choice of blocks, their number and size, can be subjective and is often guided by the distribution of known faults. To illustrate our method, we apply cluster analysis to GPS velocities from the San Francisco Bay Region, California, to search for spatially coherent patterns of deformation, including evidence of block-like behavior. The clustering process identifies four robust groupings of velocities that we identify with four crustal blocks. Although the analysis uses no prior geologic information other than the GPS velocities, the cluster/block boundaries track three major faults, both locked and creeping.

  12. Spatial connectivity of urban clusters and regional climate effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, G.; Hu, Y.; Xu, R.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid urbanization in East Asia in past three decades is considered as a remarkable process that featured with expansion of urban clusters and tightened linkages within and among clusters. Such process could lead to much larger scale climate effects, and could even contribute to sub-regional and regional climate change. In large area of urban clusters with significant expansion of built-up in relatively short period, local urban heat islands could contribute to sub-regional climate forcing. Here we use visible/near infrared and thermal infrared satellite data to estimate multiple scale structure of urban clusters, and to assess effects of urban heat islands at local and regional scales in East Asia. Our estimates of urban extent were greater than previously reported in most global datasets. Strong spatial connection and internal expansion were found in major urban clusters in past 30 years, and was accelerated in past 10 years. Many city clusters were merging into each other, with gradual blurring boundaries and disappearing of gaps among member cities. Cities and towns were more connected with roads and commercial corridors, while wildland and urban greens became more isolated as patches among built-up areas. We would argue that in many cases in this region, urban clusters are no longer "islands", they are now "seas" in term of climate related urban canopy. Urban greens such as parks and plantation were long recognized for their cooling effects that buffer the urban heat island effect, however, such cooling effects tend to be weakened as their patches became smaller and isolated, and over dominated by urban surfaces. There were significant positive relations between urban fraction and urban heat island effects as demonstrated by VNIR and TIR data from multiple satellites. Those new estimates are expected to effectively improve climate simulation for better understanding the impacts of inter-connected urban clusters on air temperature, precipitation, wind speed

  13. 75 FR 53667 - Space Coast Regional Innovation Cluster Competition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... Agreements, published in the Federal Register on February 11, 2008 (73 FR 7696), are applicable to this... Economic Development Administration Space Coast Regional Innovation Cluster Competition AGENCY: Economic...: This notice announces the upcoming availability of funding for the Space Coast Regional...

  14. Simulations of Globular Clusters Merging in Galactic Nuclear Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miocchi, P.; Dolcetta, R. Capuzzo; Matteo, P. Di

    We present the results of detailed N-body simulations regarding the interaction of four massive globular clusters in the central region of a triaxial galaxy. The systems undergo a full merging event, producing a sort of `Super Star Cluster' (SSC) whose features are close to those of a superposition of the individual initial mergers. In contrast with other similar simulations, the resulting SSC structural parameters are located along the observed scaling relations of globular clusters. These findings seem to support the idea that a massive SSC may have formed in early phases of the mother galaxy evolution and contributed to the growth of a massive nucleus.

  15. Multi-probing of the auroral acceleration region by Cluster (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marklund, G. T.; Sadeghi, S.; Karlsson, R.; Lindqvist, P.; Nilsson, H.; Pickett, J.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Forsyth, C.; Masson, A.

    2010-12-01

    Multi-probe in situ measurements in the auroral acceleration region became a reality in November 2008, when the orbit of the European Space Agency Cluster satellites, was lowered to cover this region, typically located between 5000 and 12000 km altitude above the polar atmosphere. Results are presented from Cluster crossings of this region, at different altitudes and with time separations of a few minutes between the spacecraft. The unique observations allow us to address the spatial and temporal properties of this region, such as the morphology and stability in space and time of the associated quasi-static electric potential structures. The formation of such acceleration structures is a fundamental and ubiquitous space plasma process, taking place not only around Earth, but around many other solar system planets, such as Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn.

  16. Climate Regionalization through Hierarchical Clustering: Options and Recommendations for Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badr, H. S.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Dezfuli, A. K.

    2014-12-01

    Climate regionalization is an important but often under-emphasized step in studies of climate variability and predictions. While most investigations of regional climate or statistical/dynamical predictions do make at least an implicit attempt to focus on a study region or sub-regions that are climatically coherent in some respect, rigorous climate regionalization--in which the study area is divided on the basis of the most relevant climate metrics and at a resolution most appropriate to the data and the scientific question--has the potential to enhance the precision and explanatory power of climate studies in many cases. This is particularly true for climatically complex regions such as the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA) and Equatorial West Africa. Here we present an improved clustering method and a flexible, open-source software tool (R package "HiClimR") designed specifically for climate regionalization. As a demonstration, we apply HiClimR to regionalize the GHA on the basis of interannual precipitation variability in each calendar month and for three-month running seasons. Different clustering methods are tested to show the behavior of each method and provide recommendations for specific problems. This would underscore the applicability of our work to a wide range of climate issues, and enable researchers to easily and quickly learn how to apply our tools to their own problems. Both the proposed methodology and the R package can be easily used for a broad range of climate applications.

  17. Energetic particle measurements during a Cluster crossing of a complex high altitude cusp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Theodore A.

    The Cluster spacecraft were outbound over the Northern Hemisphere on 26 February 2001, at approximately 12:00 MLT, approaching the magnetosheath through the high-altitude cusp region. Due to motions of the cusp, the spacecraft made more than 11 crossings of the boundary of the cusp region before exiting into the magnetosheath. Previously reported studies of this period have compared two methods of 4-spacecraft boundary analysis, one using PEACE data and one using FGM data [Taylor, et al., Annales Geophysicae (2004) 22: 3707-3719]. A third method employing the existence of an energetic particle layer on the cusp boundary measured by the RAPID experiment is presented that permits both the motion of the boundary of this complex passage to be tracked in even greater detail and to establish the capability of the cusp to actually trap energetic electrons within the accompanying cusp diamagnetic cavities that are observed.

  18. Energetic particle measurements during a Cluster crossing of a complex high altitude cusp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, C.; Fritz, T. A.

    2008-05-01

    The Cluster spacecraft were outbound over the Northern Hemisphere on 26 February 2001, at approximately 12:00 MLT, approaching the magnetosheath through the high-altitude cusp region. Due to motions of the cusp, the spacecraft made more than 11 crossings of the boundary of the cusp region before exiting into the magnetosheath. Previously reported studies of this period have compared two methods of 4-spacecraft boundary analysis, one using PEACE data and one using FGM data [Taylor, et al., Annales Geophysicae (2004) 22: 3707-3719]. A third method employing the existence of an energetic particle layer on the cusp boundary measured by the RAPID experiment is presented that permits both the motion of the boundary of this complex passage to be tracked in even greater detail and to establish the capability of the cusp to actually trap energetic electrons within the accompanying cusp diamagnetic cavities that are observed.

  19. Observational and Numerical Diagnostics of Galaxy Cluster Outer Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, D.; Vazza, F.; Ettori, S.; Molendi, S.; Nagai, D.; Lau, E.; Roncarelli, M.; Rossetti, M.; Snowden, S. L.; Gastaldello, F.

    2011-01-01

    Aims. We present the analysis of a local (z = 0.04 - 0.2) sample of 31 galaxy clusters with the aim of measuring the density of the X-ray emitting gas in cluster outskirts. We compare our results with numerical simulations to set constraints on the azimuthal symmetry and gas clumping in the outer regions of galaxy clusters. Methods. We exploit the large field-of-view and low instrumental background of ROSAT/PSPC to trace the density of the intracluster gas out to the virial radius. We perform a stacking of the density profiles to detect a signal beyond r(sub 200) and measure the typical density and scatter in cluster outskirts. We also compute the azimuthal scatter of the profiles with respect to the mean value to look for deviations from spherical symmetry. Finally, we compare our average density and scatter profiles with the results of numerical simulations. Results. As opposed to several recent results, we observe a steepening of the density profiles beyond approximately 0.3r(sub 500). Comparing our density profiles with simulations, we find that non-radiative runs predict too steep density profiles, whereas runs including additional physics and/or gas clumping are in better agreement with the observed gas distribution. We note a systematic difference between cool-core and non-cool core clusters beyond approximately 0.3r(sub 200), which we explain by a different distribution of the gas in the two classes. Beyond approximately r(sub 500), galaxy clusters deviate significantly from spherical symmetry, with only little differences between relaxed and disturbed systems. We find good agreement between the observed and predicted scatter profiles, but only when the 1% densest clumps are filtered out in the simulations. Conclusions. The general trend of steepening density around the virial radius indicates that the shallow density profiles found in several recent works were probably obtained along particular directions (e.g., filaments) and are not representative of the

  20. The Gas Distribution in Galaxy Cluster Outer Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, D.; Vazza, F.; Ettori, S.; Molendi, S.; Nagai, D.; Laue, E. T.; Roncarelli, M.; Rossetti, M.; Snowden, S. L.; Gastaldello, F.

    2012-01-01

    Aims. We present the analysis of a local (z = 0.04 - 0.2) sample of 31 galaxy clusters with the aim of measuring the density of the X-ray emitting gas in cluster outskirts. We compare our results with numerical simulations to set constraints on the azimuthal symmetry and gas clumping in the outer regions of galaxy clusters. Methods. We exploit the large field-of-view and low instrumental background of ROSAT/PSPC to trace the density of the intracluster gas out to the virial radius. We perform a stacking of the density profiles to detect a signal beyond r200 and measure the typical density and scatter in cluster outskirts. We also compute the azimuthal scatter of the profiles with respect to the mean value to look for deviations from spherical symmetry. Finally, we compare our average density and scatter profiles with the results of numerical simulations. Results. As opposed to some recent Suzaku results, and confirming previous evidence from ROSAT and Chandra, we observe a steepening of the density profiles beyond approximately r(sub 500). Comparing our density profiles with simulations, we find that non-radiative runs predict too steep density profiles, whereas runs including additional physics and/or treating gas clumping are in better agreement with the observed gas distribution. We report for the first time the high-confidence detection of a systematic difference between cool-core and non-cool core clusters beyond 0.3r(sub 200), which we explain by a different distribution of the gas in the two classes. Beyond r(sub 500), galaxy clusters deviate significantly from spherical symmetry, with only little differences between relaxed and disturbed systems. We find good agreement between the observed and predicted scatter profiles, but only when the 1% densest clumps are filtered out in the simulations. Conclusions. Comparing our results with numerical simulations, we find that non-radiative simulations fail to reproduce the gas distribution, even well outside cluster

  1. The Gas Distribution in the Outer Regions of Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, D.; Vazza, F.; Ettori, S.; Molendi, S.; Nagai, D.; Lau, E. T.; Roncarelli, M.; Rossetti, M.; Snowden, L.; Gastaldello, F.

    2012-01-01

    Aims. We present our analysis of a local (z = 0.04 - 0.2) sample of 31 galaxy clusters with the aim of measuring the density of the X-ray emitting gas in cluster outskirts. We compare our results with numerical simulations to set constraints on the azimuthal symmetry and gas clumping in the outer regions of galaxy clusters. Methods. We have exploited the large field-of-view and low instrumental background of ROSAT/PSPC to trace the density of the intracluster gas out to the virial radius, We stacked the density profiles to detect a signal beyond T200 and measured the typical density and scatter in cluster outskirts. We also computed the azimuthal scatter of the profiles with respect to the mean value to look for deviations from spherical symmetry. Finally, we compared our average density and scatter profiles with the results of numerical simulations. Results. As opposed to some recent Suzaku results, and confirming previous evidence from ROSAT and Chandra, we observe a steepening of the density profiles beyond approximately r(sub 500). Comparing our density profiles with simulations, we find that non-radiative runs predict density profiles that are too steep, whereas runs including additional physics and/ or treating gas clumping agree better with the observed gas distribution. We report high-confidence detection of a systematic difference between cool-core and non cool-core clusters beyond approximately 0.3r(sub 200), which we explain by a different distribution of the gas in the two classes. Beyond approximately r(sub 500), galaxy clusters deviate significantly from spherical symmetry, with only small differences between relaxed and disturbed systems. We find good agreement between the observed and predicted scatter profiles, but only when the 1% densest clumps are filtered out in the ENZO simulations. Conclusions. Comparing our results with numerical simulations, we find that non-radiative simulations fail to reproduce the gas distribution, even well outside

  2. Fractal clustering pattern of Earthquakes in Haiti Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singha Roy, P. N.; Agrawal, M.

    2011-12-01

    12 January 2010 earthquake was a catastrophic magnitude (Mw =7.0) earthquake with an epicenter near the town of Leogane(18.44N, 72.57W), with the depth of earthquake was 13Km on the blind thrust faults associated with the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault system. Modern tectonic activity is forced by the convergent movements between the plates: The Caribbean tectonic plate shifts eastward in relation to North American plate. Highly complex geodynamic process of this region makes it well suited for fractal seismic analysis. Data between March 2000 to December 2009, prior to main shock, was studied for the entire Caribbean-North America plate boundary in the region of Hispaniola using spatial fractal correlation dimension (Dc) approach for the detection of clustering pattern in the narrow time span prior to the main strong events. Based on the spatio-temporal clustering pattern indicated by relatively low Dc (very close to the value of 1) of the past intermediate size events prior to strong event, the potential for future large events can also be assessed. Spatio-temporal clustering pattern of events apparently indicates a highly stressed region, an asperity or weak zone from where the rupture propagation may have eventually nucleated, causing strong earthquake may be used as clue for going detail hazard study.

  3. REGIONAL-SCALE WIND FIELD CLASSIFICATION EMPLOYING CLUSTER ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Glascoe, L G; Glaser, R E; Chin, H S; Loosmore, G A

    2004-06-17

    The classification of time-varying multivariate regional-scale wind fields at a specific location can assist event planning as well as consequence and risk analysis. Further, wind field classification involves data transformation and inference techniques that effectively characterize stochastic wind field variation. Such a classification scheme is potentially useful for addressing overall atmospheric transport uncertainty and meteorological parameter sensitivity issues. Different methods to classify wind fields over a location include the principal component analysis of wind data (e.g., Hardy and Walton, 1978) and the use of cluster analysis for wind data (e.g., Green et al., 1992; Kaufmann and Weber, 1996). The goal of this study is to use a clustering method to classify the winds of a gridded data set, i.e, from meteorological simulations generated by a forecast model.

  4. Hartree-Fock calculation of the differential photoionization cross sections of small Li clusters.

    PubMed

    Galitskiy, S A; Artemyev, A N; Jänkälä, K; Lagutin, B M; Demekhin, Ph V

    2015-01-21

    Cross sections and angular distribution parameters for the single-photon ionization of all electron orbitals of Li2-8 are systematically computed in a broad interval of the photoelectron kinetic energies for the energetically most stable geometry of each cluster. Calculations of the partial photoelectron continuum waves in clusters are carried out by the single center method within the Hartree-Fock approximation. We study photoionization cross sections per one electron and analyze in some details general trends in the photoionization of inner and outer shells with respect to the size and geometry of a cluster. The present differential cross sections computed for Li2 are in a good agreement with the available theoretical data, whereas those computed for Li3-8 clusters can be considered as theoretical predictions.

  5. Cross-space-time clustering of childhood cancer in Great Britain: evidence for a common aetiology.

    PubMed

    McNally, Richard J Q; Stiller, Charles; Vincent, Tim J; Murphy, Michael F G

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we identified space-time clustering in certain childhood cancers. This study aimed to determine whether there was cross-space-time clustering between different diagnostic groups. A total of 32,295 cases were diagnosed during 1969-1993. Cross-space-time clustering was analyzed by a second-order procedure based on Diggle's method. Locations were birth and diagnosis addresses. The following space-time combinations were examined: address and date of birth; address at birth and date of diagnosis; address and date of diagnosis. Cross-space-time clustering analyses considered clustering pairs of cases from two different diagnostic groups. Formal statistical significance was taken as p < 0.00067 and marginal significance 0.01 > p ≥ 0.00067. Based on address at birth and date of diagnosis, there was statistically significant cross-clustering between cases of HL and intracranial and intraspinal embryonal tumors (IIET), both aged 0-14 years (p < 0.0001). Based on address and date of birth, there was marginally significant cross-clustering between cases of lymphoid leukemia (LL) aged 5-14 years and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) aged 0-14 years (p = 0.0019). Based on address and date of diagnosis there was marginally significant cross-clustering between cases of LL aged 1-4 years and soft tissue sarcoma (STS) aged 0-14 years (p = 0.0041). Findings from this study are consistent with possible common aetiological factors between different diagnostic groups. They suggest a common aetiology for the following pairs of diagnostic groups: HL and IIET; older cases of LL and HL; younger cases of LL and STS. The possibility of common infectious mechanisms should be explored.

  6. Electric and Magnetic Field and Plasma Density Measurements During Multiple Dayside Boundary Layer Crossings On Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, A.; Denig, W. F.; Lucek, E.; Lybekk, B.; Moen, J.; Oksavik, K.; Svenes, K.; Vaivads, A.

    Cluster observed multiple crossings of the dayside boundary layer on 26.January 2001 when the four spacecraft orbited out between 12 and 13 Earth radii near 15 h local time. The magnetic latitude of Cluster varied between 50 and 44 degrees, which meant that the spacecraft were conjugated with the frontside cusp or cleft at ionospheric al- titudes. The solar wind magnetic field was initially southward and then turned to a steady value in the -Y direction during the boundary layer crossings. Electric and magnetic field measurements and calculated E x B velocities, together with high time resolution plasma density information from spacecraft potential measurements, will be used to describe the boundary layer crossings. Data from near Earth polar orbiting spacecraft and from ground networks will be used to provide complementary infor- mation of the polar and cusp conditions during the Cluster boundary layer crossings.

  7. Cluster multi-spacecraft observations of electron and ion holes in the Auroral Acceleration Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazakerley, A. N.; Pickett, J. S.; Berthomier, M.; Mutel, R. L.; Masson, A.; Forsyth, C.; Owen, C. J.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Andre, M.; Carr, C.

    2013-12-01

    In spring 2013, the Cluster spacecraft have visited the Auroral Acceleration Region (AAR) for the second and final time. The spacecraft constellation was arranged to produce very small separation magnetic field aligned conjunctions (~10s km) between C3 and C4, with C1 relatively nearby. The goal was to allow study of electron and ion holes, including their propagation between C3 and C4, and their roles in generating waves that may be observed locally and also at C1. Detailed planning work has tried to maximize the opportunities to use the Cluster payload effectively during these conjunctions, but the presence of auroral activity during the relatively few AAR passes cannot be guaranteed in advance. The dataset may also be valuable for other aspects of auroral science, as data is collected throughout the AAR crossings, not only at the conjunctions. We intend to present first results from this campaign.

  8. Cluster multi-spacecraft observations of electron and ion holes in the Auroral Acceleration Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazakerley, Andrew; Pickett, Jolene; Berthomier, Matthieu; Mutel, Robert; Masson, Arnaud; Forsyth, Colin; Owen, Christopher J.; Khotyaintsev, Yuri; Andre, Mats; Carr, Chris

    2014-05-01

    In spring 2013, the Cluster spacecraft visited the Auroral Acceleration Region (AAR) for the second and final time. The spacecraft constellation was arranged to produce very small separation magnetic field aligned conjunctions (~10s km) between C3 and C4, with C1 relatively nearby. The goal was to allow study of electron and ion holes, including their propagation between C3 and C4, and their roles in generating waves that may be observed locally and also at C1. Detailed planning work has tried to maximize the opportunities to use the Cluster payload effectively during these conjunctions, but the presence of auroral activity during the relatively few AAR passes could be guaranteed in advance. The dataset may also be valuable for other aspects of auroral science, as data is collected throughout the AAR crossings, not only at the conjunctions. We intend to present first results from this campaign.

  9. Auroral nightside downward-current regions: ClusterII observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, K.; Fazakerley, A.; Karlsson, T.; Lahiff, A.; Marklund, G.

    2007-12-01

    The ClusterII spacecraft traverse the nightside auroral zone at 4-6 Re altitudes in February-March of each year. In 2004, their separation was such as to cross the auroral zone with separation times of a few minutes, comparable to the expected timescales of auroral downward current sheet evolution. We present observations from 12 such events from an effort to look for signatures of the temporal evolution of the auroral downward current system. We compare the electron characteristic energy (ratio of energy flux to number flux) and density of the upgoing electron beams as measured by the PEACE instrument, to electric field signatures from EFW including integrated potential, divergent field structures, and ambient density calculated from the spacecraft potential. The events are seen to be localized on or near ambient density gradients. The characteristic energy of the upgoing electrons is inversely proportional to their number density. Characteristic energies of up to a few keV are seen, and these energies typically decrease with time as subsequent spacecraft cross the same event.

  10. The global monsoon division combining the k-means clustering method and low-level cross-equatorial flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ning; Qian, Weihong; Leung, Jeremy Cheuk-Hin

    2016-10-01

    The global monsoon domain has been recently determined utilizing two criteria: difference of local maximum and minimum pentad-mean precipitation rates exceeding 4 mm day-1, and wind reversal of low-level cross-equatorial flow. In this paper, 22 major dry-wet alteration regions under six categories were first derived through the k-means clustering method from the climatological evolution of global precipitation. Considering the seasonal influences of the low-level cross-equatorial flow in these major dry-wet alternation regions, the global monsoon was objectively divided into 16 major regions under five climatological precipitation categories. Nine monsoon regions are distributed between Asia and Australia while four regions are from Africa to the Southwest Indian Ocean and three regions in Americas. Precipitation trends during rainy seasons of 1981-2010 were examined in the 16 monsoon regions. Four regions with decreasing trends of precipitation are located in Africa and the Southwest Indian Ocean while three regions with increasing trends are situated in Americas. Six regions of increasing precipitation trends are concentrated in Asia and the biggest increasing trend is found in south China.

  11. Prevalence and Clustering of Major Cardiovascular Risk Factors in China: A Recent Cross-Sectional Survey.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie; Cheng, Xinqi; Qiu, Ling; Xu, Tao; Zhu, Guangjin; Han, Jianhua; Xia, Liangyu; Qin, Xuzhen; Cheng, Qian; Liu, Qian

    2016-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the Chinese population. Although general prevalence estimates of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) are available for Chinese adults, prevalence estimates covering all adult age groups by race/ethnicity have not been reported. The aim of this study is to estimate the current prevalence and clustering of major CVRFs in Chinese adults, including a plurality of ethnic minorities.A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a nationally representative sample of 23,010 adults aged 18 years and older from 2007 to 2011. Questionnaires and physical examinations were performed, and fasting blood was collected for laboratory measurements. The prevalence of traditional CVRFs, including hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, overweight, and current smoking, were determined.The prevalence of the major CVRFs, including hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, overweight, and current smoking were 24.3%, 4.3%, 49.3%, 32.0%, and 21.7%, respectively. These risk factors were significantly associated with sex, age, region, ethnicity, and education levels. Overall, 70.3%, 40.3%, and 16.7% of Chinese adults had ≥1, ≥2, or ≥3 CVRFs, respectively. Men, northern and rural residents were more likely to have clustered CVRFs compared with women, southern and urban residents, respectively. Compared with Han residents, Hui and Mongolian residents were more likely, and Tujia and Miao residents were less likely, to have ≥1, ≥2, or ≥3 risk factors. The prevalence of Chinese women having ≥1, ≥2, or ≥3 CVRFs decreased with increasing levels of education.The prevalence and clustering of CVRFs is still high in Chinese adults ≥18 years old, especially in men and in individuals living in the northern and rural areas. Of note, there are differences in cardiovascular risk among different ethnic groups. Therefore, targeted and enhanced intervention measures are required to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and the corresponding

  12. The cluster-galaxy cross spectrum. An additional probe of cosmological and halo parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hütsi, G.; Lahav, O.

    2008-12-01

    Context: There are several wide field galaxy and cluster surveys planned for the near future, e.g. BOSS, WFMOS, ADEPT, Hetdex, SPT, eROSITA. In the simplest approach, one would analyze these independently, thus neglecting the extra information provided by the cluster-galaxy cross pairs. Aims: In this paper we have focused on the possible synergy between these surveys by investigating the amount of information encoded in the cross pairs. Methods: We present a model for the cluster-galaxy cross spectrum within the halo model framework. To assess the gain in performance due to inclusion of the cluster-galaxy cross pairs, we carry out a Fisher matrix analysis for a BOSS-like galaxy redshift survey targeting luminous red galaxies and a hypothetical mass-limited cluster redshift survey with a lower mass threshold of 1.7 × 1014 h-1 M⊙ over the same volume. Results: On small scales, a cluster-galaxy cross spectrum directly probes the density profile of the halos, instead of the density profile convolved with itself, as is the case for the galaxy power spectrum. Due to this different behavior, adding information from the cross pairs helps to tighten constraints on the halo occupation distribution (e.g. a factor of ~2 compression of the error ellipses on the m_glow-α plane) and offers an alternative mechanism compared with techniques that directly fit halo density profiles. By inclusion of the cross pairs, a factor of ~2 stronger constraints are obtained for σ_8, while the improvement for the dark energy figure-of-merit is somewhat weaker: an increase by a factor of 1.4. We have also written down the formalism for the case when only photometric redshifts are available for both the clusters and the galaxies. For the analysis of the photometric surveys the inclusion of the cluster-galaxy cross pairs might be very beneficial since the photo-z errors for the clusters are usually significantly smaller than for the typical galaxies.

  13. 75 FR 40856 - Federal Register Meeting Notice; Webinar About Regional Innovation Clusters RFP

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... ADMINISTRATION Federal Register Meeting Notice; Webinar About Regional Innovation Clusters RFP AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) ACTION: Notice of open webinar meeting to discuss Regional Innovation... Innovation Clusters RFP. For more information please go to http://www.sba.gov/clusters/index.html . The...

  14. A coupled-cluster study of photodetachment cross sections of closed-shell anions

    SciTech Connect

    Cukras, Janusz; Decleva, Piero; Coriani, Sonia

    2014-11-07

    We investigate the performance of Stieltjes Imaging applied to Lanczos pseudo-spectra generated at the coupled cluster singles and doubles, coupled cluster singles and approximate iterative doubles and coupled cluster singles levels of theory in modeling the photodetachment cross sections of the closed shell anions H{sup −}, Li{sup −}, Na{sup −}, F{sup −}, Cl{sup −}, and OH{sup −}. The accurate description of double excitations is found to play a much more important role than in the case of photoionization of neutral species.

  15. Photoionization cross section by Stieltjes imaging applied to coupled cluster Lanczos pseudo-spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Cukras, Janusz; Coriani, Sonia; Decleva, Piero; Christiansen, Ove; Norman, Patrick

    2013-09-07

    A recently implemented asymmetric Lanczos algorithm for computing (complex) linear response functions within the coupled cluster singles (CCS), coupled cluster singles and iterative approximate doubles (CC2), and coupled cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) is coupled to a Stieltjes imaging technique in order to describe the photoionization cross section of atoms and molecules, in the spirit of a similar procedure recently proposed by Averbukh and co-workers within the Algebraic Diagrammatic Construction approach. Pilot results are reported for the atoms He, Ne, and Ar and for the molecules H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, NH{sub 3}, HF, CO, and CO{sub 2}.

  16. Photoionization cross section by Stieltjes imaging applied to coupled cluster Lanczos pseudo-spectra.

    PubMed

    Cukras, Janusz; Coriani, Sonia; Decleva, Piero; Christiansen, Ove; Norman, Patrick

    2013-09-01

    A recently implemented asymmetric Lanczos algorithm for computing (complex) linear response functions within the coupled cluster singles (CCS), coupled cluster singles and iterative approximate doubles (CC2), and coupled cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) is coupled to a Stieltjes imaging technique in order to describe the photoionization cross section of atoms and molecules, in the spirit of a similar procedure recently proposed by Averbukh and co-workers within the Algebraic Diagrammatic Construction approach. Pilot results are reported for the atoms He, Ne, and Ar and for the molecules H2, H2O, NH3, HF, CO, and CO2. PMID:24028098

  17. Fermi-LAT constraints on dark matter annihilation cross section from observations of the Fornax cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Ando, Shin'ichiro; Nagai, Daisuke E-mail: daisuke.nagai@yale.edu

    2012-07-01

    We analyze 2.8-yr data of 1–100 GeV photons for clusters of galaxies, collected with the Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi satellite. By analyzing 49 nearby massive clusters located at high Galactic latitudes, we find no excess gamma-ray emission towards directions of the galaxy clusters. Using flux upper limits, we show that the Fornax cluster provides the most stringent constraints on the dark matter annihilation cross section. Stacking a large sample of nearby clusters does not help improve the limit for most dark matter models. This suggests that a detailed modeling of the Fornax cluster is important for setting robust limits on the dark matter annihilation cross section based on clusters. We therefore perform the detailed mass modeling and predict the expected dark matter annihilation signals from the Fornax cluster, by taking into account effects of dark matter contraction and substructures. By modeling the mass distribution of baryons (stars and gas) around a central bright elliptical galaxy, NGC 1399, and using a modified contraction model motivated by numerical simulations, we show that the dark matter contraction boosts the annihilation signatures by a factor of 4. For dark matter masses around 10 GeV, the upper limit obtained on the annihilation cross section times relative velocity is (σν)∼<(2–3) × 10{sup −25} cm{sup 3} s{sup −1}, which is within a factor of 10 from the value required to explain the dark matter relic density. This effect is more robust than the annihilation boost due to substructure, and it is more important unless the mass of the smallest subhalos is much smaller than that of the Sun.

  18. Fuzzy hierarchical cross-clustering of data from abandoned mine site contaminated with heavy metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourjabbar, A.; Sârbu, C.; Kostarelos, K.; Einax, J. W.; Büchel, G.

    2014-11-01

    The characteristics of pore water and slate samples are critically analyzed using fuzzy hierarchical cross-clustering statistical techniques. The main aim of this study was to investigate the source of contamination near an abandoned uranium mine in Germany. The mining activities were abandoned in 1990 the site was closed, and the surrounding area was remediated. However, heavy metal contamination is still detectable in water, soil and plants today. Hence, investigating the source of the current contamination is an important task. In order to achieve the goal, results from chemical analysis of both pore water samples and leachates from slate samples were initially analyzed using hard (classical) hierarchical clustering algorithms that did not provide meaningful results. By using two fuzzy clustering algorithms, Fuzzy Divisive Hierarchical Clustering (FDHC) and Fuzzy Hierarchical Cross-Clustering (FHCC), a relationship between the leachate from Ordovician-Silurian slate samples (10 samples collected from the test site and the surrounding area) and pore water samples (53 samples collected from 3 locations within the test site at 3 depths over the course of 4 years) was identified. The leachate data formed a cluster which was statistically similar to the cluster formed by the pore water samples collected from two of three locations. In addition, the fuzzy cross-clustering approach allowed for the identification of the characteristics (qualitative and quantitative) responsible for the observed similarities between all the samples. We conclude that the fuzzy algorithms were a better tool for the analysis and interpretation of geological/hydrogeological data where the data sets have an inherent vagueness/uncertainty.

  19. Earthquake cluster activity beneath the Tanzawa Mountains region, Japan: Migration of hypocenters and low stress drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.; Yukutake, Y.

    2013-12-01

    An earthquake cluster activity was observed beneath the Tanzawa Mountains region, Japan with a depth of 20 km in the end of January, 2012. Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) determined hypocenters of 76 earthquakes with M > 2 in the area within 50 hours. Five of them had magnitudes greater than 4 and the largest one was 5.4. Four out of the five earthquakes had the reverse-type focal mechanisms with the P axis in the NW-SE direction. First we relocated hypocenters of the activity following the method of Yukutake et al. (2012). We estimated relative arrival times of P and S waves by calculating the coefficients of the cross correlation and relocated hypocenters with the double-difference relocation method (Waldhauser and Ellsworth, 2000). We found that the cluster activity showed a migration from the first earthquake of the activity. The parabolic migration speed was consistent with the migration speed of the deep tremor sources (Ide et al., 2010) for which the fluid activity would play an important role. We then analyzed stress drops of 17 earthquakes with M > 3.5 that occurred from January, 2000 to June, 2012 in the area of the cluster activity. We calculated empirical Green's functions from waveforms of earthquakes with magnitudes of 3.0 to 3.2 and estimated stress drops of the earthquakes assuming that the source spectra can be expressed as the omega-squared model. We found that earthquakes of the cluster activity had smaller stress drops by an order of magnitude than the values of earthquakes that occurred in the same area before the cluster activity. These results suggest that the fluid played an important role for the earthquake cluster activity. That is, the fluid increased the pore pressure, decreased the effective normal stress and triggered the cluster activity. The difference of the rupture speed and the change of the rigidity might also be candidates that account for our results. They, however, can hardly explain the results quantitatively. Fig

  20. Seismotectonic Implications Of Clustered Regional GPS Velocities In The San Francisco Bay Region, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graymer, R. W.; Simpson, R.

    2012-12-01

    We have used a hierarchical agglomerative clustering algorithm with Euclidean distance and centroid linkage, applied to continuous GPS observations for the Bay region available from the U.S. Geological Survey website. This analysis reveals 4 robust, spatially coherent clusters that coincide with 4 first-order structural blocks separated by 3 major fault systems: San Andreas (SA), Southern/Central Calaveras-Hayward-Rodgers Creek-Maacama (HAY), and Northern Calaveras-Concord-Green Valley-Berryessa-Bartlett Springs (NCAL). Because observations seaward of the San Gregorio (SG) fault are few in number, the cluster to the west of SA may actually contain 2 major structural blocks not adequately resolved: the Pacific plate to the west of the northern SA and a Peninsula block between the Peninsula SA and the SG fault. The average inter-block velocities are 11, 10, and 9 mm/yr across SA, HAY, and NCAL respectively. There appears to be a significant component of fault-normal compression across NCAL, whereas SA and HAY faults appear to be, on regional average, purely strike-slip. The velocities for the Sierra Nevada - Great Valley (SNGV) block to the west of NCAL are impressive in their similarity. The cluster of these velocities in a velocity plot forms a tighter grouping compared with the groupings for the other cluster blocks, suggesting a more rigid behavior for this block than the others. We note that for 4 clusters, none of the 3 cluster boundaries illuminate geologic structures other than north-northwest trending dominantly strike-slip faults, so plate motion is not accommodated by large-scale fault-parallel compression or extension in the region or by significant plastic deformation , at least over the time span of the GPS observations. Complexities of interseismic deformation of the upper crust do not allow simple application of inter-block velocities as long-term slip rates on bounding faults. However, 2D dislocation models using inter-block velocities and typical

  1. Generalizing Nigrescence Profiles: Cluster Analyses of Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) Scores in Three Independent Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worrell, Frank C.; Vandiver, Beverly J.; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Cross, William E., Jr.; Fhagen-Smith, Peony E.

    2006-01-01

    The two studies in this article examine the interpretability and generalizability of nigrescence profiles based on Cross Racial Identity Scale scores across different educational contexts. Study 1 participants (N=333) came from a predominantly White institution (PWI) and were grouped into six clusters labeled Afrocentric, multiculturalist,…

  2. Sonority and Cross-Linguistic Acquisition of Initial S-Clusters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yavas, Mehmet; Ben-David, Avivit; Gerrits, Ellen; Kristoffersen, Kristian E.; Simonsen, Hanne G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the findings and implications of the cross-linguistic acquisition of #sC clusters in relation to sonority patterns. Data from individual studies on English, Dutch, Norwegian, and Hebrew are compared for accuracy of production as well as the reductions with respect to potential differences across subtypes of #sC groups. In all…

  3. Scalable Integrated Region-Based Image Retrieval Using IRM and Statistical Clustering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, James Z.; Du, Yanping

    Statistical clustering is critical in designing scalable image retrieval systems. This paper presents a scalable algorithm for indexing and retrieving images based on region segmentation. The method uses statistical clustering on region features and IRM (Integrated Region Matching), a measure developed to evaluate overall similarity between images…

  4. Photoabsorption cross section of acetylene in the EUV region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C. Y. R.; Judge, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    The measurement of the absolute photoabsorption cross sections of C2H2 in the 175-740 A region by means of a double ionization chamber is reported. The continuum background source is the synchrotron radiation emitted by the Wisconsin 240 MeV electron storage ring. It is found that the cross sections range from 2 to a maximum of 36 Mb. Two new Rydberg series are identified and the cross section data are applied in the analysis of various sum rules. From the rules, it is shown that the data of C2H2 in the 580-1088 A range may be too low, while the measured ionization transition moment may be too high.

  5. MASSIVE CLUSTERS IN THE INNER REGIONS OF NGC 1365: CLUSTER FORMATION AND GAS DYNAMICS IN GALACTIC BARS

    SciTech Connect

    Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Galliano, Emmanuel; Alloin, Danielle E-mail: egallian@on.b

    2009-10-01

    Cluster formation and gas dynamics in the central regions of barred galaxies are not well understood. This paper reviews the environment of three 10{sup 7} M {sub sun} clusters near the inner Lindblad resonance (ILR) of the barred spiral NGC 1365. The morphology, mass, and flow of H I and CO gas in the spiral and barred regions are examined for evidence of the location and mechanism of cluster formation. The accretion rate is compared with the star formation rate to infer the lifetime of the starburst. The gas appears to move from inside corotation in the spiral region to looping filaments in the interbar region at a rate of approx6 M {sub sun} yr{sup -1} before impacting the bar dustlane somewhere along its length. The gas in this dustlane moves inward, growing in flux as a result of the accretion to approx40 M {sub sun} yr{sup -1} near the ILR. This inner rate exceeds the current nuclear star formation rate by a factor of 4, suggesting continued buildup of nuclear mass for another approx0.5 Gyr. The bar may be only 1-2 Gyr old. Extrapolating the bar flow back in time, we infer that the clusters formed in the bar dustlane outside the central dust ring at a position where an interbar filament currently impacts the lane. The ram pressure from this impact is comparable to the pressure in the bar dustlane, and both are comparable to the pressure in the massive clusters. Impact triggering is suggested. The isothermal assumption in numerical simulations seems inappropriate for the rarefaction parts of spiral and bar gas flows. The clusters have enough lower-mass counterparts to suggest they are part of a normal power-law mass distribution. Gas trapping in the most massive clusters could explain their [Ne II] emission, which is not evident from the lower-mass clusters nearby.

  6. A Rare Encounter of Cluster With Source Region(s) of Elf/vlf Chorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inan, U. S.; Platino, M.; Bell, T. F.

    On November 27, 2000, three of the CLUSTER spacecraft (SC1, SC2, and SC3) apparently had an unusually close encounter with the source region(s) of discrete ELF/VLF chorus emissions, near the geomagnetic equatorial plane at L 3.8. As reported initially by Gurnett et al. [2001], discrete emissions observed on two space- craft (SC1, SC2) appeared to have identical temporal patterns but were shifted by as much as 1 kHz in frequency with respect to each other. We interpret this apparent frequency shift in terms of differential Doppler shift, brought about by the fact that the highly localized source region(s) of the discrete emissions are bracketed by the orbital tracks of the two spacecraft, with the waves propagating outward from the source regions and arriving at the two spacecraft along propagation paths that sub- tend an obtuse angle with respect to each other. The wave packets emanating from the source region(s) propagate along raypaths that have components both perpendicular (i.e., along longitude) and parallel (i.e., along latitude) to the magnetic field lines. The general properties (including detailed dispersion and a dramatic reversal of Doppler shift near the equatorial plane) of the observed differential arrival time delay and fre- quency shifts of discrete elements as observed on two spacecraft are found to be re- produced with a rather simple model, albeit requiring relatively high whistler-mode refractive indices of in excess of 1000. If this interpretation is valid, it may indicate that discrete whistler-mode ELF/VLF chorus emissions can be generated in local- ized source region(s) with highly oblique wave normal angles very near the resonance cone, with the wave vectors subsequently moving closer to the field line as a result of propagation in the presence of magnetic field and plasma density gradients.

  7. Mapping hotspots of threatened species traded in bushmeat markets in the Cross-Sanaga rivers region.

    PubMed

    Fa, John E; Farfán, Miguel Angel; Marquez, Ana Luz; Duarte, Jesús; Nackoney, Janet; Hall, Amy; Dupain, Jef; Seymour, Sarah; Johnson, Paul J; MacDonald, David W; Vargas, J Mario

    2014-02-01

    Bushmeat markets exist in many countries in West and Central Africa, and data on species sold can be used to detect patterns of wildlife trade in a region. We surveyed 89 markets within the Cross-Sanaga rivers region, West Africa. In each market, we counted the number of carcasses of each taxon sold. During a 6-month period (7594 market days), 44 mammal species were traded. Thirteen species were on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List or protected under national legislation, and at least 1 threatened species was traded in 88 of the 89 markets. We used these data to identify market groups that traded similar species assemblages. Using cluster analyses, we detected 8 market groups that were also geographically distinct. Market groups differed in the diversity of species, evenness of species, and dominant, prevalent, and characteristic species traded. We mapped the distribution of number of threatened species traded across the study region. Most threatened species were sold in markets nearest 2 national parks, Korup National Park in Cameroon and Cross River in Nigeria. To assess whether the threatened-species trade hotspots coincided with the known ranges of these species, we mapped the overlap of all threatened species traded. Markets selling more threatened species overlapped with those regions that had higher numbers of these. Our study can provide wildlife managers in the region with better tools to discern zones within which to focus policing efforts and reduce threats to species that are threatened by the bushmeat trade.

  8. Young star clusters in the circumnuclear region of NGC 2110

    SciTech Connect

    Durré, Mark; Mould, Jeremy

    2014-03-20

    High-resolution observations in the near infrared show star clusters around the active galactic nucleus (AGN) of the Seyfert 1 NGC 2110, along with a 90 × 35 pc bar of shocked gas material around its nucleus. These are seen for the first time in our imaging and gas kinematics of the central 100 pc with the Keck OSIRIS instrument with adaptive optics. Each of these clusters is two to three times brighter than the Arches cluster close to the center of the Milky Way. The core star formation rate is 0.3 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. The photoionized gas (He I) dynamics imply an enclosed mass of 3-4 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉}. These observations demonstrate the physical linkage between AGN feedback, which triggers star formation in massive clusters, and the resulting stellar (and supernovae) winds, which cause the observed [Fe II] emission and feed the black hole.

  9. Cross-correlation Weak Lensing of SDSS Galaxy Clusters I: Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldon, Erin S.; Johnston, David E.; Scranton, Ryan; Koester, Ben P.; McKay, Timothy A.; Oyaizu, Hiroaki; Cunha, Carlos; Lima, Marcos; Lin, Huan; Frieman, Joshua A.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Annis, James; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Bahcall, Neta A.; Fukugita, Masataka

    2007-09-28

    This is the first in a series of papers on the weak lensing effect caused by clusters of galaxies in Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The photometrically selected cluster sample, known as MaxBCG, includes {approx}130,000 objects between redshift 0.1 and 0.3, ranging in size from small groups to massive clusters. We split the clusters into bins of richness and luminosity and stack the surface density contrast to produce mean radial profiles. The mean profiles are detected over a range of scales, from the inner halo (25 kpc/h) well into the surrounding large scale structure (30 Mpc/h), with a significance of 15 to 20 in each bin. The signal over this large range of scales is best interpreted in terms of the cluster-mass cross-correlation function. We pay careful attention to sources of systematic error, correcting for them where possible and bounding them where not. We find that the profiles scale strongly with richness and luminosity. We find the signal within a given richness bin depends upon luminosity, suggesting that luminosity is more closely correlated with mass than galaxy counts. We split the samples by redshift but detect no significant evolution. The profiles are not well described by power laws. In a subsequent series of papers we invert the profiles to three-dimensional mass profiles, show that they are well fit by a halo model description, measure mass-to-light ratios and provide a cosmological interpretation.

  10. A Catalog of [O III] 5007 Photometric Standards In The Virgo Cluster Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Frances; Ganguly, R.; Feldmeier, J.; Barlow, R.

    2009-01-01

    The number of sources that can be used for the calibration of narrow band photometry is small compared to that of broadband photometry.Narrowband photometry of point sources is important for a variety of reasons, from the search for intracluster planetary nebulae to understanding the star-formation history of the universe (e.g.,through Lyman alpha-emitting galaxies). There will be a need in the next several years for more photometric narrow-band standard stars with the next generation of surveys (e.g., with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope,or the One-Degree Imager). Thus, more standard stars (both primary and secondary) for narrow band need to be identified and cataloged. Over the last three years, we have been collecting narrow-band [OIII]5007 images of portions of the Virgo Cluster, along with broad-band V and R. The data were collected at the 2.3m Wyoming Infrared Observatory and the Kitt Peak 0.9m.We present our [OIII]5007 photometry calibration of point sources in the Virgo Cluster region, most of which are intracluster planetary nebula. For greater utility of this catalog, we also cross-calibrate our photometry with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey ugriz system. In addition, we take advantage of the long basline of our observatios to find time-variable sources (rejected from the standard star catalog) such as background quasars, supernovae, novae, and micro-lensing events.

  11. Cross-layer cluster-based energy-efficient protocol for wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Mammu, Aboobeker Sidhik Koyamparambil; Hernandez-Jayo, Unai; Sainz, Nekane; de la Iglesia, Idoia

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in electronics and wireless communications have enabled the improvement of low-power and low-cost wireless sensors networks (WSNs). One of the most important challenges in WSNs is to increase the network lifetime due to the limited energy capacity of the network nodes. Another major challenge in WSNs is the hot spots that emerge as locations under heavy traffic load. Nodes in such areas quickly drain energy resources, leading to disconnection in network services. In such an environment, cross-layer cluster-based energy-efficient algorithms (CCBE) can prolong the network lifetime and energy efficiency. CCBE is based on clustering the nodes to different hexagonal structures. A hexagonal cluster consists of cluster members (CMs) and a cluster head (CH). The CHs are selected from the CMs based on nodes near the optimal CH distance and the residual energy of the nodes. Additionally, the optimal CH distance that links to optimal energy consumption is derived. To balance the energy consumption and the traffic load in the network, the CHs are rotated among all CMs. In WSNs, energy is mostly consumed during transmission and reception. Transmission collisions can further decrease the energy efficiency. These collisions can be avoided by using a contention-free protocol during the transmission period. Additionally, the CH allocates slots to the CMs based on their residual energy to increase sleep time. Furthermore, the energy consumption of CH can be further reduced by data aggregation. In this paper, we propose a data aggregation level based on the residual energy of CH and a cost-aware decision scheme for the fusion of data. Performance results show that the CCBE scheme performs better in terms of network lifetime, energy consumption and throughput compared to low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH) and hybrid energy-efficient distributed clustering (HEED).

  12. Cross-Layer Cluster-Based Energy-Efficient Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Mammu, Aboobeker Sidhik Koyamparambil; Hernandez-Jayo, Unai; Sainz, Nekane; de la Iglesia, Idoia

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in electronics and wireless communications have enabled the improvement of low-power and low-cost wireless sensors networks (WSNs). One of the most important challenges in WSNs is to increase the network lifetime due to the limited energy capacity of the network nodes. Another major challenge in WSNs is the hot spots that emerge as locations under heavy traffic load. Nodes in such areas quickly drain energy resources, leading to disconnection in network services. In such an environment, cross-layer cluster-based energy-efficient algorithms (CCBE) can prolong the network lifetime and energy efficiency. CCBE is based on clustering the nodes to different hexagonal structures. A hexagonal cluster consists of cluster members (CMs) and a cluster head (CH). The CHs are selected from the CMs based on nodes near the optimal CH distance and the residual energy of the nodes. Additionally, the optimal CH distance that links to optimal energy consumption is derived. To balance the energy consumption and the traffic load in the network, the CHs are rotated among all CMs. In WSNs, energy is mostly consumed during transmission and reception. Transmission collisions can further decrease the energy efficiency. These collisions can be avoided by using a contention-free protocol during the transmission period. Additionally, the CH allocates slots to the CMs based on their residual energy to increase sleep time. Furthermore, the energy consumption of CH can be further reduced by data aggregation. In this paper, we propose a data aggregation level based on the residual energy of CH and a cost-aware decision scheme for the fusion of data. Performance results show that the CCBE scheme performs better in terms of network lifetime, energy consumption and throughput compared to low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH) and hybrid energy-efficient distributed clustering (HEED). PMID:25860073

  13. Central San Juan caldera cluster: regional volcanic framework

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipman, Peter W.

    2000-01-01

    Eruption of at least 8800 km3 of dacitic-rhyolitic magma as 9 major ash-slow sheets (individually 150-5000 km3) was accompanied by recurrent caldera subsidence between 28.3 and about 26.5 Ma in the central San Juan Mountains, Colorado. Voluminous andesitic-decitic lavas and breccias were erupted from central volcanoes prior to the ash-flow eruptions, and similar lava eruptions continued within and adjacent to the calderas during the period of explosive volcanism, making the central San Juan caldera cluster an exceptional site for study of caldera-related volcanic processes. Exposed calderas vary in size from 10 to 75 km in maximum diameter, the largest calderas being associated with the most voluminous eruptions. After collapse of the giant La Garita caldera during eruption if the Fish Canyon Tuff at 17.6 Ma, seven additional explosive eruptions and calderas formed inside the La Garita depression within about 1 m.y. Because of the nested geometry, maximum loci of recurrently overlapping collapse events are inferred to have subsided as much as 10-17 km, far deeper than the roof of the composite subvolcanic batholith defined by gravity data, which represents solidified caldera-related magma bodies. Erosional dissection to depths of as much as 1.5 km, although insufficient to reach the subvolcanic batholith, has exposed diverse features of intracaldera ash-flow tuff and interleaved caldera-collapse landslide deposits that accumulated to multikilometer thickness within concurrently subsiding caldera structures. The calderas display a variety of postcollapse resurgent uplift structures, and caldera-forming events produced complex fault geometries that localized late mineralization, including the epithermal base- and precious-metal veins of the well-known Creede mining district. Most of the central San Juan calderas have been deeply eroded, and their identification is dependent on detailed geologic mapping. In contrast, the primary volcanic morphology of the

  14. A cross-species bi-clustering approach to identifying conserved co-regulated genes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiangwen; Jiang, Zongliang; Tian, Xiuchun; Bi, Jinbo

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: A growing number of studies have explored the process of pre-implantation embryonic development of multiple mammalian species. However, the conservation and variation among different species in their developmental programming are poorly defined due to the lack of effective computational methods for detecting co-regularized genes that are conserved across species. The most sophisticated method to date for identifying conserved co-regulated genes is a two-step approach. This approach first identifies gene clusters for each species by a cluster analysis of gene expression data, and subsequently computes the overlaps of clusters identified from different species to reveal common subgroups. This approach is ineffective to deal with the noise in the expression data introduced by the complicated procedures in quantifying gene expression. Furthermore, due to the sequential nature of the approach, the gene clusters identified in the first step may have little overlap among different species in the second step, thus difficult to detect conserved co-regulated genes. Results: We propose a cross-species bi-clustering approach which first denoises the gene expression data of each species into a data matrix. The rows of the data matrices of different species represent the same set of genes that are characterized by their expression patterns over the developmental stages of each species as columns. A novel bi-clustering method is then developed to cluster genes into subgroups by a joint sparse rank-one factorization of all the data matrices. This method decomposes a data matrix into a product of a column vector and a row vector where the column vector is a consistent indicator across the matrices (species) to identify the same gene cluster and the row vector specifies for each species the developmental stages that the clustered genes co-regulate. Efficient optimization algorithm has been developed with convergence analysis. This approach was first validated on

  15. Spatiotemporal features of the auroral acceleration region as observed by Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, Soheil; Marklund, Göran T.; Karlsson, Tomas; Lindqvist, Per-Arne; Nilsson, Hans; Marghitu, Octav; Fazakerley, Andrew; Lucek, Elisabeth A.

    2011-12-01

    A pair of negative electric potential structures associated with inverted-V aurora is investigated using electric and magnetic field, ion and electron data from the Cluster spacecraft, crossing the auroral acceleration region (AAR) at different altitudes above the Northern hemisphere midnight auroral oval. The spatial and temporal development of the acceleration structures is studied, given the magnetic conjunction opportunity and the one minute difference between the Cluster spacecraft crossings. The configuration allowed for estimation of characteristic times of development for the two structures and of the parallel electric field and potential drop for the more stable one. The first potential structure had a width of ˜80 km (projected to the ionosphere) and was relatively short-lived, developing in less than 40 s and decaying in one minute. The parallel potential drop increased between altitudes of 1.13 RE and 1.3 RE, whereas the acceleration potential above 1.3 RE remained almost unchanged during that time. This intensification occurred mainly after the time when the associated upward current had reached its maximum value. The second structure had a width of ˜50 km and was subject to an increase by a factor of 3 of the parallel potential drop below 1.3 RE, during about 40 s, after which it remained rather stable for one minute or more. Similarly here, the acceleration potential above 1.3 RE remained roughly unchanged. For the more stable second structure, an average parallel electric field between 1.13 and 1.3 RE could be estimated (˜0.56 mV/m). The conductance along the flux tube was also stable for one minute or more.

  16. Health region development from the perspective of system theory - an empirical cross-regional case study.

    PubMed

    Volgger, Michael; Mainil, Tomas; Pechlaner, Harald; Mitas, Ondrej

    2015-01-01

    Governments are increasingly establishing health regions to deal with current challenges of public health service. These regions are seen as instruments to balance public and private stakeholders, and offer health care to regional citizens as well as to medical/health tourists. However, it is still unclear how the development of such health regions as well as their governance may be conceptualized. We apply Luhmann's system theory approach in the context of a cross-regional case study that compares health region developments in the Autonomous Province of Bolzano-South Tyrol (Italy) with particular regard to the Eastern Dolomites and in the province of Zeeland (the Netherlands). We suggest that Luhmann's system theory provides a useful set of criteria to evaluate and judge health region development. Fully developed health regions can be understood as auto-poietic systems. By emphasizing programs, personnel, and communication channels, these case studies illustrate the suitability of the system theory toolset to analyze the governance and spatial embeddedness of health regions. Additionally, the study contributes to literature by indicating that health regions are closely related to identity issues and to decision making in regions.

  17. Health region development from the perspective of system theory - an empirical cross-regional case study.

    PubMed

    Volgger, Michael; Mainil, Tomas; Pechlaner, Harald; Mitas, Ondrej

    2015-01-01

    Governments are increasingly establishing health regions to deal with current challenges of public health service. These regions are seen as instruments to balance public and private stakeholders, and offer health care to regional citizens as well as to medical/health tourists. However, it is still unclear how the development of such health regions as well as their governance may be conceptualized. We apply Luhmann's system theory approach in the context of a cross-regional case study that compares health region developments in the Autonomous Province of Bolzano-South Tyrol (Italy) with particular regard to the Eastern Dolomites and in the province of Zeeland (the Netherlands). We suggest that Luhmann's system theory provides a useful set of criteria to evaluate and judge health region development. Fully developed health regions can be understood as auto-poietic systems. By emphasizing programs, personnel, and communication channels, these case studies illustrate the suitability of the system theory toolset to analyze the governance and spatial embeddedness of health regions. Additionally, the study contributes to literature by indicating that health regions are closely related to identity issues and to decision making in regions. PMID:24923839

  18. MOLECULAR CLUMPS AND INFRARED CLUSTERS IN THE S247, S252, AND BFS52 REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Shimoikura, Tomomi; Dobashi, Kazuhito; Saito, Hiro; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Matsumoto, Tomoaki; Nishimura, Atsushi; Kimura, Kimihiro; Onishi, Toshikazu; Ogawa, Hideo

    2013-05-01

    We present results of the observations carried out toward the S247, S252, and BFS52 H II regions with various molecular lines using the 1.85 m radio telescope and the 45 m telescope at Nobeyama Radio Observatory. There are at least 11 young infrared clusters (IR clusters) within the observed region. We found that there are two velocity components in {sup 12}CO (J = 2-1), and also that their spatial distributions show an anti-correlation. The IR clusters are located at their interfaces, suggesting that two distinct clouds with different velocities are colliding with each other, which may have induced the cluster formation. Based on {sup 13}CO (J = 1-0) and C{sup 18}O (J = 1-0) observations, we identified 16 clumps in and around the three H II regions. Eleven of the clumps are associated with the IR clusters and the other five clumps are not associated with any known young stellar objects. We investigated variations in the velocity dispersions of the 16 clumps as a function of the distance from the center of the clusters or the clumps. Clumps with clusters tend to have velocity dispersions that increase with distance from the cluster center, while clumps without clusters show a flat velocity dispersion over the clump extents. A {sup 12}CO outflow has been found in some of the clumps with IR clusters but not in the other clumps, supporting a strong relation of these clumps to the broader velocity dispersion region. We also estimated a mean star formation efficiency of {approx}30% for the clumps with IR clusters in the three H II regions.

  19. Clustered magnetite nanocrystals cross-linked with PEI for efficient siRNA delivery.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Won; Bae, Ki Hyun; Kim, Chunsoo; Park, Tae Gwan

    2011-02-14

    Magnetofection has been utilized as a powerful tool to enhance gene transfection efficiency via magnetic field-enforced cellular transport processes. The accelerated accumulation of nucleic acid molecules by applying an external magnetic force enables the rapid and improved transduction efficiency. In this study, we developed magnetite nanocrystal clusters (PMNCs) cross-linked with polyethylenimine (PEI) to magnetically trigger intracellular delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA). PMNCs were produced by cross-linked assembly of catechol-functionalized branched polyethylenimine (bPEI) around magnetite nanocrystals through an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion and solvent evaporation method. The physical properties of PMNC were characterized by TEM, DLS, TSA, and FT-IR. Finely tuned formulation of clustered magnetite nanocrystals with controlled size and shape exhibited superior saturation of magnetization value. Magnetite nanocrystal clusters could form nanosized polyelectrolyte complexes with negatively charged siRNA molecules, enabling efficient delivery of siRNA into cells upon exposure to an external magnetic field within a short time. This study introduces a new class of magnetic nanomaterials that can be utilized for magnetically driven intracellular siRNA delivery. PMID:21190334

  20. A search for quasars in the Virgo cluster region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, X.-T.; Cannon, R. D.; Peacock, J. A.; Smith, M. G.; Oke, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    Using objective-prism plates taken with the 44-arcmin objective prism mounted on the UK Schmidt telescope, 53 emission-line quasar candidates and 29 ultraviolet-excess objects (possible low-redshift quasars) have been found in a 5 x 5-degree field centered on 12 h 27 m, + 13 deg 30 min (1950) in the Virgo cluster of galaxies. Eighteen of these 82 candidates were observed using the double spectrograph on the Palomar 5-meter telescope; 13 of the observed objects proved to be quasars. The broad-absorption-line QSO Q1232 + 134 is the first example of the class to show broad low-ionization absorption lines (such as Mg II 2798 A) in addition to the usual high-excitation lines such as Nv 1240 A. Although no conclusive evidence for quasar-galaxy associations is found in this field, there do exist nonuniformities in the distribution of the quasar candidates which may merit further investigation. These objects will provide a useful network of probes for absorbing material in the Virgo cluster. The lines-of-sight to two of the confirmed quasars pass very close to NGC galaxies; the respective projected QSO-galaxy separations are only 4 and 11 kpc at the assumed distance of the Virgo cluster.

  1. CROSS-CORRELATION WEAK LENSING OF SDSS GALAXY CLUSTERS. III. MASS-TO-LIGHT RATIOS

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldon, Erin S.; Johnston, David E.; Masjedi, Morad; Blanton, Michael R.; McKay, Timothy A.; Scranton, Ryan; Wechsler, Risa H.; Koester, Benjamin P.; Hansen, Sarah M.; Frieman, Joshua A.; Annis, James

    2009-10-01

    We present measurements of the excess mass-to-light ratio (M/L) measured around MaxBCG galaxy clusters observed in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. This red-sequence cluster sample includes objects from small groups with M {sub 200} approx 5 x 10{sup 12} h {sup -1} M {sub sun} to clusters with M {sub 200} approx 10{sup 15} h {sup -1} M {sub sun}. Using cross-correlation weak lensing, we measure the excess mass density profile above the universal mean DELTArho(r)=rho(r)-rho-bar for clusters in bins of richness and optical luminosity. We also measure the excess luminosity density DELTAl(r)=l(r)-l-bar measured in the z = 0.25 i band. For both mass and light, we de-project the profiles to produce three-dimensional mass and light profiles over scales from 25 h {sup -1} kpc to 22 h {sup -1} Mpc. From these profiles we calculate the cumulative excess mass DELTAM(r) and excess light DELTAL(r) as a function of separation from the BCG. On small scales, where rho(r)>>rho-bar, the integrated mass-to-light profile (DELTAM/DELTAL)(r) may be interpreted as the cluster M/L. We find the (DELTAM/DELTAL){sub 200}, the M/L within r {sub 200}, scales with cluster mass as a power law with index 0.33 +- 0.02. On large scales, where rho(r)approxrho-bar, the DELTAM/DELTAL approaches an asymptotic value independent of cluster richness. For small groups, the mean (DELTAM/DELTAL){sub 200} is much smaller than the asymptotic value, while for large clusters (DELTAM/DELTAL){sub 200} is consistent with the asymptotic value. This asymptotic value should be proportional to the mean M/L of the universe (M/L). We find (M/L)b{sup -2} {sub M/L} = 362 +- 54h (statistical). There is additional uncertainty in the overall calibration at the approx10% level. The parameter b {sup 2} {sub M/L} is primarily a function of the bias of the L approx< L {sub *} galaxies used as light tracers, and should be of order unity. Multiplying by the luminosity density in the same bandpass we find OMEGA {sub m}b{sup -2} {sub M

  2. Cross-correlation Weak Lensing of SDSS Galaxy Clusters III: Mass-to-light Ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldon, Erin S.; Johnston, David E.; Masjedi, Morad; McKay, Timothy A.; Blanton, Michael R.; Scranton, Ryan; Wechsler, Risa H.; Koester, Ben P.; Hansen, Sarah M.; Frieman, Joshua A.; Annis, James

    2007-09-28

    We present measurements of the excess mass-to-light ratio measured around MaxBCG galaxy clusters observed in the SDSS. This red sequence cluster sample includes objects from small groups with M{sub 200} {approx} 5 x 10{sup 12}h{sup -1}M{sub {circle_dot}} to clusters with M{sub 200} {approx} 5 x 10{sup 15}h{sup -1}M{sub {circle_dot}}. Using cross-correlation weak lensing, we measure the excess mass density profile above the universal mean {Delta}{yields}(r) = {rho}(r) -- {bar {rho}} for clusters in bins of richness and optical luminosity. We also measure the excess {sup 0.25}i-band luminosity density {Delta}{ell}(r) = {ell}(r) -- {bar {ell}}. For both mass and light, we de-project the profiles to produce 3D mass and light profiles over scales from 25h{sup -1} kpc to 22h{sup -1} Mpc. From these profiles we calculate the cumulative excess mass {Delta}M(r) and excess light {Delta}L(r) as a function of separation from the BCG. On small scales, where {rho}(r) >> {bar {rho}}, the integrated mass-to-light profile ({Delta}M/{Delta}L)(r) may be interpreted as the cluster mass-to-light ratio. We find the ({Delta}M/{Delta}L){sub 200}, the mass-to-light ratio within r{sub 200}, scales with cluster mass as a power law with index 0.33{+-}0.02. On large scales, where {rho}(r) {approx} {bar {rho}}, the {Delta}M/{Delta}L approaches an asymptotic value independent of scale or cluster richness. For small groups, the mean ({Delta}M/{Delta}L){sub 200} is much smaller than the asymptotic value, while for large clusters ({Delta}M/{Delta}L)200 is consistent with the asymptotic value. This asymptotic value should be proportional to the mean mass-to-light ratio of the universe {l_angle}M/L{r_angle}. We find {l_angle}M/L{r_angle} b{sup -2}{sub M/L} = 362 {+-} 54h measured in the {sup 0.25}i-bandpass. The parameter b{sup 2}{sub M/L} is primarily a function of the bias of the L {approx}< L* galaxies used as light tracers, and should be of order unity. Multiplying by the luminosity density in

  3. Revisiting the region of the open cluster NGC 5606

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsatti, A. M.; Feinstein, C.; Vega, E. I.; Vergne, M. M.

    2007-08-01

    We present polarimetric observations in the UBVRI bands corresponding to 54 stars located in the direction of NGC 5606. Our intention is to analyze the dust characteristics between the Sun and the cluster, as well as to confirm doubtful memberships using polarimetric tools. We also want to determine if a group of 11 B and A stars identified in the past by Vázquez & Feinstein (1991, A&AS, 87, 383) in front of NGC 5606 has any physical entity. From polarimetric data we have found at least two dust layers along the line of sight to the open cluster. The observations show that both dust layers have their local magnetic field with an orientation which is close to the direction of the Galactic Plane (θ = 70.0 °), but the direction of the polarimetric vector for the members of the cluster seems to be lower than this value. NGC 5606 can be polarimetrically characterized with P_max = 2.97% and θv = 63.5 °. The internal dispersion of the polarization values for the members of NGC 5606 seems to be compatible with intracluster dust. We were able to add four possible new members to the list of stars in NGC 5606, and to reject others accepted as members in past investigations; and we identified 17 (out of the 54 observed stars) with intrinsic polarization in their light. The group of late B- and A-type stars could be physically related, with characteristics of an open cluster of intermediate age (between 0.79 and 1. × 108 yr). For this group we obtained representative values of P = 2.12% and θv = 70.0 °. The new cluster, which we have provisionally named Anon (La Plata 1), extends from NE to SW across the face of NGC 5606 covering about 10'. The fitting procedure of Schmidt-Kaler's ZAMS (1982, in Landolt/Bornstein, Neue Series VI/2b) was used to derive the distance to the group, obtaining a distance modulus of Vo - Mv = 9.90 (649 pc from the Sun). The mean color excess associated with the small group is EB-V = 0.27 ± 0.08 mag and the dust distribution shows great

  4. 197Au(n,gamma) Cross Section in the Unresolved Resonance Region

    SciTech Connect

    Lederer, C.; Koehler, Paul Edward

    2011-03-01

    The cross section of the reaction {sup 197}Au(n,{gamma}) was measured with the time-of-flight technique at the n{_}TOF (neutron time-of-flight) facility in the unresolved resonance region between 5 and 400 keV using a pair of C{sub 6}D{sub 6} (where D denotes {sup 2}H) liquid scintillators for the detection of prompt capture {gamma} rays. The results with a total uncertainty of 3.9%-6.7% for a resolution of 20 bins per energy decade show fair agreement with the Evaluated Nuclear Data File Version B-VII.0 (ENDF/B-VII.0), which contains the standard evaluation. The Maxwellian-averaged cross section (MACS) at 30 keV is in excellent agreement with the one according to the ENDF/B-VII.0 evaluation and 4.7% higher than the MACS measured independently by activation technique. Structures in the cross section, which had also been reported earlier, have been interpreted as being due to clusters of resonances.

  5. Experiments with clustering of catchments in PCA-reduced space and regionalization of a hydrological model (Central Alborz region, Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosravi, Mohammad; Solomatine, Dimitri; Salajegheh, Ali; Mohseni Saravi, Mohsen; Malekian, Arash; Corzo, Gerald

    2015-04-01

    This study tested the possibility of simulating time series of daily streamflows in ungauged catchments based on climatic and physiographic similarity. The study area is located in central Alborz region in Iran. Fourteen (14) proper catchments, with the area ranged between 16 to 827Km2, in this region selected for testing. After applying Principal Component Analysis for selecting the most important parameters among the different climatic and physiographic parameters, five components which could explain more than 90% of variances of the data were selected and according to the values of the coefficients in selected PCA components, five parameters including: Area, Annual Rainfall, Annual temperature, gravelius compactness coefficient and mean elevation, were selected as the measures for clustering. Then mentioned parameters entered in K-means clustering analysis method to classify the catchments. Finally the catchments divided in three different clusters. Using the well known HBV model, we built a model for the closest catchment to the center of each cluster. Then, the thirteen (13) HBV model parameters were calibrated using Genetic Algorithm. We assumed that the remained catchments in each cluster are ungauged, and using the calibrated model, the daily time series of streamflows simulated in the remained catchments in the considered cluster (as the receiver catchments). Nash Sutcliffe and RMSE indices used to comparing the simulated and recorded data. The experiments with the considered case study confirmed that the model regionalization based on the physiographic and climatic characteristics could be a useful instrument in hydrological studies. Key words: Regionalization, HBV, PCA, Cluster, Catchment, central Alborz region

  6. 40 CFR 81.66 - Southeast Minnesota-La Crosse (Wisconsin) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Southeast Minnesota-La Crosse... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.66 Southeast Minnesota-La Crosse (Wisconsin) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Southeast Minnesota-La Crosse (Wisconsin)...

  7. 40 CFR 81.66 - Southeast Minnesota-La Crosse (Wisconsin) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Southeast Minnesota-La Crosse... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.66 Southeast Minnesota-La Crosse (Wisconsin) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Southeast Minnesota-La Crosse (Wisconsin)...

  8. 40 CFR 81.66 - Southeast Minnesota-La Crosse (Wisconsin) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Southeast Minnesota-La Crosse... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.66 Southeast Minnesota-La Crosse (Wisconsin) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Southeast Minnesota-La Crosse (Wisconsin)...

  9. 40 CFR 81.66 - Southeast Minnesota-La Crosse (Wisconsin) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Southeast Minnesota-La Crosse... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.66 Southeast Minnesota-La Crosse (Wisconsin) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Southeast Minnesota-La Crosse (Wisconsin)...

  10. 40 CFR 81.66 - Southeast Minnesota-La Crosse (Wisconsin) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Southeast Minnesota-La Crosse... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.66 Southeast Minnesota-La Crosse (Wisconsin) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Southeast Minnesota-La Crosse (Wisconsin)...

  11. Noise cross correlation functions in a noisy region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudot, I.; Beucler, E.; Mocquet, A.; Schimmel, M.; Le Feuvre, M.; Leparoux, D.; Côte, P.

    2013-12-01

    The geology of the western France can be roughly split into two main domains: the Armorican massif that contains imprints of the old Cadomian and Variscan orogens; and the Bay of Biscay which present signatures of more recent tectonic events closely related to the opening of North Atlantic ocean. Due to the lack of seismic stations deployment, it exists very few pictures of the deep structures below the Armorican Massif and the Bay of Biscay. Recently, a broadband array of seismometers has been deployed over the south and west of France, providing a good opportunity to get reliable images at depth. Since the region is surrounded by the seas, the seismic ambient noise tomography technique has been proposed to reveal the crustal and uppermost mantle features beneath this area. The first step consists in the computation of noise correlation functions (NCFs) between each station pairs. The ability to obtain empirical Green's functions from NCFs relies on the efficiency of the randomization. Classic ambient noise tomography studies use long-time series (typically several months) to help the randomization including all the scattering effects due to Earth's heterogeneities. However, additionnal signal processing steps such as temporal and/or spectral whitening are most often required for the signals to be representative of a random wavefield. These techniques rely on nonlinear operations which corrupt the integrity of the original record. In the literature, alternatives have been proposed to avoid, at least partially, such non linear operations. One of them is the instantaneous phase cross correlation (PCC). This correlation technique is intrinsically little sensitive to large amplitude transient signals. Using a set of data from a temporary broad band array, we explore the features of the PCC as compared to the time domain geometrically normalized cross correlation (CCGN). In the 0.02Hz-1Hz frequency band, different time series are extracted to investigate the effects of

  12. Study of Seismic Clusters at Bahía de Banderas Region, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Rutz-Lopez, M.; Suarez-Plascencia, C.; Trejo-Gomez, E.

    2010-12-01

    Given that the coast in the states of Jalisco and south of the state of Nayarit is located within a region of high seismic potential and also because population is increasing, perhaps motivated by the development of tourism, the Civil Defense authorities of Jalisco and the Centro de Sismología y Volcanología de Occidente-SisVOc of Universidad de Guadalajara started in the year 2000 a joint project to study the seismic risk of the region, including the seismic monitoring of Colima volcano (located between the states of Jalisco and Colima). This work focuses on the study of seismicity in the area of Bahía de Banderas and northern coast of Jalisco. To this end, we perform an analysis of available seismograms to characterize active structures, their relationship to surface morphology, and possible reach of these structures into the shallow parts of the bay. The data used in this work are waveforms recorded during the year 2003 during which the seismograph network spanned the region of study. Our method is based on the identification of seismic clusters or families using cross-correlation of waveforms, earthquake relocation and modeling of fault planes. From an initial data set of 404 earthquakes located during 2003, 96 earthquakes could be related to 17 potentially active continental structures. A modeling of fault planes was possible for 11 of these structures. Subgroups of 7 structures are aligned parallel to the Middle America Trench, a possible consequence of oblique subduction. The magnitudes of earthquakes grouped into families is less than 3.6 (Ml), corresponding to fault dimensions of hundreds of meters.

  13. Clustering in Engineering Education in the Baltic Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahrens, Andreas; Zascerinska, Jelena

    2011-01-01

    The contemporary situation in the Baltic region, namely, the lack of working places due to the structural problems, a high unemployment rate, the migration of highly qualified people and the low rate of self-employees, demands on innovation as an engine of the economic development with a strong impact on sustainable development in the European…

  14. Manual hierarchical clustering of regional geochemical data using a Bayesian finite mixture model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellefsen, Karl J.; Smith, David

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation of regional scale, multivariate geochemical data is aided by a statistical technique called “clustering.” We investigate a particular clustering procedure by applying it to geochemical data collected in the State of Colorado, United States of America. The clustering procedure partitions the field samples for the entire survey area into two clusters. The field samples in each cluster are partitioned again to create two subclusters, and so on. This manual procedure generates a hierarchy of clusters, and the different levels of the hierarchy show geochemical and geological processes occurring at different spatial scales. Although there are many different clustering methods, we use Bayesian finite mixture modeling with two probability distributions, which yields two clusters. The model parameters are estimated with Hamiltonian Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior probability density function, which usually has multiple modes. Each mode has its own set of model parameters; each set is checked to ensure that it is consistent both with the data and with independent geologic knowledge. The set of model parameters that is most consistent with the independent geologic knowledge is selected for detailed interpretation and partitioning of the field samples.

  15. Cross-correlation Weak Lensing of SDSS galaxy Clusters II: Cluster Density Profiles and the Mass--Richness Relation

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, David E.; Sheldon, Erin S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Rozo, Eduardo; Koester, Benjamin P.; Frieman, Joshua A.; McKay, Timothy A.; Evrard, August E.; Becker, Matthew R.; Annis, James

    2007-09-28

    We interpret and model the statistical weak lensing measurements around 130,000 groups and clusters of galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey presented by Sheldon et al. (2007). We present non-parametric inversions of the 2D shear profiles to the mean 3D cluster density and mass profiles in bins of both optical richness and cluster i-band luminosity. Since the mean cluster density profile is proportional to the cluster-mass correlation function, the mean profile is spherically symmetric by the assumptions of large-scale homogeneity and isotropy. We correct the inferred 3D profiles for systematic effects, including non-linear shear and the fact that cluster halos are not all precisely centered on their brightest galaxies. We also model the measured cluster shear profile as a sum of contributions from the brightest central galaxy, the cluster dark matter halo, and neighboring halos. We infer the relations between mean cluster virial mass and optical richness and luminosity over two orders of magnitude in cluster mass; the virial mass at fixed richness or luminosity is determined with a precision of {approx} 13% including both statistical and systematic errors. We also constrain the halo concentration parameter and halo bias as a function of cluster mass; both are in good agreement with predictions from N-body simulations of LCDM models. The methods employed here will be applicable to deeper, wide-area optical surveys that aim to constrain the nature of the dark energy, such as the Dark Energy Survey, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and space-based surveys.

  16. Functional analysis of the upstream regulatory region of chicken miR-17-92 cluster.

    PubMed

    Min, Cheng; Wenjian, Zhang; Tianyu, Xing; Xiaohong, Yan; Yumao, Li; Hui, Li; Ning, Wang

    2016-08-01

    miR-17-92 cluster plays important roles in cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, animal development and tumorigenesis. The transcriptional regulation of miR-17-92 cluster has been extensively studied in mammals, but not in birds. To date, avian miR-17-92 cluster genomic structure has not been fully determined. The promoter location and sequence of miR-17-92 cluster have not been determined, due to the existence of a genomic gap sequence upstream of miR-17-92 cluster in all the birds whose genomes have been sequenced. In this study, genome walking was used to close the genomic gap upstream of chicken miR-17-92 cluster. In addition, bioinformatics analysis, reporter gene assay and truncation mutagenesis were used to investigate functional role of the genomic gap sequence. Genome walking analysis showed that the gap region was 1704 bp long, and its GC content was 80.11%. Bioinformatics analysis showed that in the gap region, there was a 200 bp conserved sequence among the tested 10 species (Gallus gallus, Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes, Bos taurus, Sus scrofa, Rattus norvegicus, Mus musculus, Possum, Danio rerio, Rana nigromaculata), which is core promoter region of mammalian miR-17-92 host gene (MIR17HG). Promoter luciferase reporter gene vector of the gap region was constructed and reporter assay was performed. The result showed that the promoter activity of pGL3-cMIR17HG (-4228/-2506) was 417 times than that of negative control (empty pGL3 basic vector), suggesting that chicken miR-17-92 cluster promoter exists in the gap region. To further gain insight into the promoter structure, two different truncations for the cloned gap sequence were generated by PCR. One had a truncation of 448 bp at the 5'-end and the other had a truncation of 894 bp at the 3'-end. Further reporter analysis showed that compared with the promoter activity of pGL3-cMIR17HG (-4228/-2506), the reporter activities of the 5'-end truncation and the 3'-end truncation were reduced by 19

  17. Magnetic self-assembly of microparticle clusters in an aqueous two-phase microfluidic cross-flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, Niki; Jones, Steven G.; Moon, Byeong-Ui; Tsai, Scott S. H.

    2015-11-01

    We present a technique that self-assembles paramagnetic microparticles on the interface of aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) fluids in a microfluidic cross-flow. A co-flow of the ATPS is formed in the microfluidic cross channel as the flows of a dilute dextran (DEX) phase, along with a flow-focused particle suspension, converges with a dilute polyethylene glycol (PEG) phase. The microparticles arrive at the liquid-liquid interface and self-assemble into particle clusters due to forces on the particles from an applied external magnetic field gradient, and the interfacial tension of the ATPS. The microparticles form clusters at the interface, and once the cluster size grows to a critical value, the cluster passes through the interface. We control the size of the self-assembled clusters, as they pass through the interface, by varying the strength of the applied magnetic field gradient and the ATPS interfacial tension. We observe rich assembly dynamics, from the formation of Pickering emulsions to clusters that are completely encapsulated inside DEX phase droplets. We anticipate that this microparticle self-assembly method may have important biotechnological applications that require the controlled assembly of cells into clusters.

  18. INTER- AND INTRA-CLUSTER AGE GRADIENTS IN MASSIVE STAR FORMING REGIONS AND INDIVIDUAL NEARBY STELLAR CLUSTERS REVEALED BY MYStIX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getman, Konstantin V.; Feigelson, Eric; Kuhn, Michael A.; Broos, Patrick S; Townsley, Leisa K.; Naylor, Tim; Povich, Matthew S.; Luhman, Kevin; Garmire, Gordon

    2014-08-01

    The MYStIX (Massive Young Star-Forming Complex Study in Infrared and X-ray) project seeks to characterize 20 OB-dominated young star forming regions (SFRs) at distances <4 kpc using photometric catalogs from the Chandra X-ray Observatory, Spitzer Space Telescope, UKIRT and 2MASS surveys. As part of the MYStIX project, we developed a new stellar chronometer that employs near-infrared and X-ray photometry data, AgeJX. Computing AgeJX averaged over MYStIX (sub)clusters reveals previously unknown age gradients across most of the MYStIX regions as well as within some individual rich clusters. Within the SFRs, the inferred AgeJX ages are youngest in obscured locations in molecular clouds, intermediate in revealed stellar clusters, and oldest in distributed stellar populations. Noticeable intra-cluster gradients are seen in the NGC 2024 (Flame Nebula) star cluster and the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC): stars in cluster cores appear younger and thus were formed later than stars in cluster halos. The latter result has two important implications for the formation of young stellar clusters. Clusters likely form slowly: they do not arise from a single nearly-instantaneous burst of star formation. The simple models where clusters form inside-out are likely incorrect, and more complex models are needed. We provide several star formation scenarios that alone or in combination may lead to the observed core-halo age gradients.

  19. A modified procedure for mixture-model clustering of regional geochemical data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellefsen, Karl J.; Smith, David B.; Horton, John D.

    2014-01-01

    A modified procedure is proposed for mixture-model clustering of regional-scale geochemical data. The key modification is the robust principal component transformation of the isometric log-ratio transforms of the element concentrations. This principal component transformation and the associated dimension reduction are applied before the data are clustered. The principal advantage of this modification is that it significantly improves the stability of the clustering. The principal disadvantage is that it requires subjective selection of the number of clusters and the number of principal components. To evaluate the efficacy of this modified procedure, it is applied to soil geochemical data that comprise 959 samples from the state of Colorado (USA) for which the concentrations of 44 elements are measured. The distributions of element concentrations that are derived from the mixture model and from the field samples are similar, indicating that the mixture model is a suitable representation of the transformed geochemical data. Each cluster and the associated distributions of the element concentrations are related to specific geologic and anthropogenic features. In this way, mixture model clustering facilitates interpretation of the regional geochemical data.

  20. X-ray survey of galaxy clusters in the SDSS Stripe 82 region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durret, Florence; Takey, Ali

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a survey of galaxy clusters detected from XMM-Newton observations covering an area of 11.25 deg^2 in the Stripe 82 region of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We found 94 X-ray cluster candidates from the third XMM-Newton serendipitous source catalogue (3XMM-DR5) and correlated this list with recently published X-ray and optically selected cluster catalogues to obtain optical confirmations and redshifts (between 0.05 and 1.19, with a median of 0.36) for 54 galaxy groups/clusters. Of these, 17 are newly X-ray discovered clusters and 45 systems with spectroscopic confirmations. Among the remaining candidates, 25 sources are distant cluster candidates (beyond a redshift of 0.6). We will present preliminary results on the X-ray and optical properties of these clusters: luminosities and temperatures of the X-ray gas, and optical properties of the galaxies (morphology, luminosity functions).

  1. Regional flood frequency analysis using kernel-based fuzzy clustering approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Bidroha; Srinivas, V. V.

    2014-04-01

    Regionalization approaches are widely used in water resources engineering to identify hydrologically homogeneous groups of watersheds that are referred to as regions. Pooled information from sites (depicting watersheds) in a region forms the basis to estimate quantiles associated with hydrological extreme events at ungauged/sparsely gauged sites in the region. Conventional regionalization approaches can be effective when watersheds (data points) corresponding to different regions can be separated using straight lines or linear planes in the space of watershed related attributes. In this paper, a kernel-based Fuzzy c-means (KFCM) clustering approach is presented for use in situations where such linear separation of regions cannot be accomplished. The approach uses kernel-based functions to map the data points from the attribute space to a higher-dimensional space where they can be separated into regions by linear planes. A procedure to determine optimal number of regions with the KFCM approach is suggested. Further, formulations to estimate flood quantiles at ungauged sites with the approach are developed. Effectiveness of the approach is demonstrated through Monte-Carlo simulation experiments and a case study on watersheds in United States. Comparison of results with those based on conventional Fuzzy c-means clustering, Region-of-influence approach and a prior study indicate that KFCM approach outperforms the other approaches in forming regions that are closer to being statistically homogeneous and in estimating flood quantiles at ungauged sites.

  2. 75 FR 7464 - Energy Efficient Building Systems Regional Innovation Cluster Initiative-Joint Federal Funding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... Announcement Information Session AGENCY: Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Notice of public meeting and... innovation in energy efficient building technologies and systems design. The DOE funded Energy Efficient... (the ``Energy Regional Innovation Cluster'' or ``E-RIC'') and will work to disseminate new...

  3. Regional Odontodysplasia Crossing Midline: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, TP; Pandey, RK; Chaurasia, Akhilanand; Singh, Parul

    2011-01-01

    Regional odontodysplasia is a nonhereditary, uncommon developmental abnormality of teeth. Females have more predilections for regional odontodysplasia. The enamel, dentin and pulp of teeth are affected and radiographically, teeth are described as “ghost teeth”. Many of these :eeth do not erupt and have an increased risk for caries and periapical inflammation. Since the literature on regional odontodysplasia is limited, here is need to discuss this anomaly to have a better approach for the diagnosis and treatment.

  4. The W40 region in the gould belt: An embedded cluster and H II region at the junction of filaments

    SciTech Connect

    Mallick, K. K.; Ojha, D. K.; Kumar, M. S. N.; Samal, M. R.; Pirogov, L.

    2013-12-20

    We present a multiwavelength study of the W40 star-forming region using infrared (IR) observations in the UKIRT JHK bands, Spitzer Infrared Array Camera bands, and Herschel PACS bands, 2.12 μm H{sub 2} narrowband imaging, and radio continuum observations from GMRT (610 and 1280 MHz), in a field of view (FoV) of ∼34' × 40'. Archival Spitzer observations in conjunction with near-IR observations are used to identify 1162 Class II/III and 40 Class I sources in the FoV. The nearest-neighbor stellar surface density analysis shows that the majority of these young stellar objects (YSOs) constitute the embedded cluster centered on the high-mass source IRS 1A South. Some YSOs, predominantly the younger population, are distributed along and trace the filamentary structures at lower stellar surface density. The cluster radius is measured to be 0.44 pc—matching well with the extent of radio emission—with a peak density of 650 pc{sup –2}. The JHK data are used to map the extinction in the region, which is subsequently used to compute the cloud mass—126 M {sub ☉} and 71 M {sub ☉} for the central cluster and the northern IRS 5 region, respectively. H{sub 2} narrowband imaging shows significant emission, which prominently resembles fluorescent emission arising at the borders of dense regions. Radio continuum analysis shows that this region has a blister morphology, with the radio peak coinciding with a protostellar source. Free-free emission spectral energy distribution analysis is used to obtain physical parameters of the overall photoionized region and the IRS 5 sub-region. This multiwavelength scenario is suggestive of star formation having resulted from the merging of multiple filaments to form a hub. Star formation seems to have taken place in two successive epochs, with the first epoch traced by the central cluster and the high-mass star(s)—followed by a second epoch that is spreading into the filaments as uncovered by the Class I sources and even younger

  5. Cluster of solar active regions and onset of coronal mass ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, JingXiu; Zhang, YuZong; He, Han; Chen, AnQin; Jin, ChunLan; Zhou, GuiPing

    2015-09-01

    Abstract round-the-clock solar observations with full-disk coverage of vector magnetograms and multi-wavelength images demonstrate that solar active regions (ARs) are ultimately connected with magnetic field. Often two or more ARs are clustered, creating a favorable magnetic environment for the onset of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). In this work, we describe a new type of magnetic complex: cluster of solar ARs. An AR cluster is referred to as the close connection of two or more ARs which are located in nearly the same latitude and a narrow span of longitude. We illustrate three examples of AR clusters, each of which has two ARs connected and formed a common dome of magnetic flux system. They are clusters of NOAA (i.e., National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) ARs 11226 & 11227, 11429 & 11430, and 11525 & 11524. In these AR clusters, CME initiations were often tied to the instability of the magnetic structures connecting two partner ARs, in the form of inter-connecting loops and/or channeling filaments between the two ARs. We show the evidence that, at least, some of the flare/CMEs in an AR cluster are not a phenomenon of a single AR, but the result of magnetic interaction in the whole AR cluster. The observations shed new light on understanding the mechanism(s) of solar activity. Instead of the simple bipolar topology as suggested by the so-called standard flare model, a multi-bipolar magnetic topology is more common to host the violent solar activity in solar atmosphere.

  6. Molecular characterization of the PR-toxin gene cluster in Penicillium roqueforti and Penicillium chrysogenum: cross talk of secondary metabolite pathways.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Pedro I; Ullán, Ricardo V; Albillos, Silvia M; Montero, Olimpio; Fernández-Bodega, María Ángeles; García-Estrada, Carlos; Fernández-Aguado, Marta; Martín, Juan-Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The PR-toxin is a potent mycotoxin produced by Penicillium roqueforti in moulded grains and grass silages and may contaminate blue-veined cheese. The PR-toxin derives from the 15 carbon atoms sesquiterpene aristolochene formed by the aristolochene synthase (encoded by ari1). We have cloned and sequenced a four gene cluster that includes the ari1 gene from P. roqueforti. Gene silencing of each of the four genes (named prx1 to prx4) resulted in a reduction of 65-75% in the production of PR-toxin indicating that the four genes encode enzymes involved in PR-toxin biosynthesis. Interestingly the four silenced mutants overproduce large amounts of mycophenolic acid, an antitumor compound formed by an unrelated pathway suggesting a cross-talk of PR-toxin and mycophenolic acid production. An eleven gene cluster that includes the above mentioned four prx genes and a 14-TMS drug/H(+) antiporter was found in the genome of Penicillium chrysogenum. This eleven gene cluster has been reported to be very poorly expressed in a transcriptomic study of P. chrysogenum genes under conditions of penicillin production (strongly aerated cultures). We found that this apparently silent gene cluster is able to produce PR-toxin in P. chrysogenum under static culture conditions on hydrated rice medium. Noteworthily, the production of PR-toxin was 2.6-fold higher in P. chrysogenum npe10, a strain deleted in the 56.8kb amplifiable region containing the pen gene cluster, than in the parental strain Wisconsin 54-1255 providing another example of cross-talk between secondary metabolite pathways in this fungus. A detailed PR-toxin biosynthesis pathway is proposed based on all available evidence.

  7. DISCOVERY OF A POSSIBLY SINGLE BLUE SUPERGIANT STAR IN THE INTRA-CLUSTER REGION OF VIRGO CLUSTER OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Ohyama, Youichi; Hota, Ananda

    2013-04-20

    IC 3418 is a dwarf irregular galaxy falling into the Virgo cluster, and a 17 kpc long trail is seen behind the galaxy, which is considered to have formed due to ram pressure stripping. The trail contains compact knots and diffuse blobs of ultraviolet and blue optical emission and, thus, it is a clear site of recent star formation but in an unusual environment, surrounded by a million degree intra-cluster medium. We report on our optical spectroscopy of a compact source in the trail, SDSS J122952.66+112227.8, and show that the optical spectrum is dominated by emission from a massive blue supergiant star. If confirmed, our report would mark the farthest star with spectroscopic observation. We interpret that a massive O-type star formed in situ in the trail has evolved recently out of the main sequence into this blue supergiant phase, and now lacks any detectable spectral sign of its associated H II region. We argue that turbulence within the ram pressure striped gaseous trail may play a dominant role for the star formation within such trails.

  8. Sinapinic acid clusters distribution from monomer to mega Dalton's region in MALDI process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Szu-Hsueh; Chang, Kuang-Hua; Lin, Jung-Lee; Wu, Chia-Lin; Chen, Chung-Hsuan

    2013-03-01

    In this work, we report the first complete sinapinic acid clusters distribution from monomer to mega Dalton's region by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI). A decrease of eight orders in intensity was observed from monomer ion to 10 000-mer ion. The results fit to the model of laser ablation induced desorption process with bimodal power-law dependence. In addition, the detailed measurements on the populations of different sizes of clusters can provide some insight of different models of the mechanism for MALDI.

  9. Identification of protostellar clusters in the inner part of the milky way : Interaction between the ISM and star forming regions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuret, M.; Billot, N.; Cambrésy, L.; Elia, D.; Molinari, S.; Pezzuto, S.; Pestalozzi, M.; Schisano, E.

    2014-12-01

    Interactions between the interstellar medium (ISM) and young stellar objects (YSO) need to be investigated to better understand star formation. We used the Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) method to identify protostellar clusters in the inner part of galactic plane. Using heliocentric distance estimates, we obtained about 230 clusters over a 140 × 2 square degree region. Most of these clusters are correlated with Infrared Dark Cloud (IRDC) or H II regions. We conclude that clustering is more important for protostars than for prestellar clumps and that a strong correlation can be established between the distribution of H II regions, known star formation complexes and the YSOs identified in the Hi-GAL data.

  10. Sejong Open Cluster Survey (SOS) - II. IC 1848 cluster in the H II region W5 West

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Beomdu; Sung, Hwankyung; Kim, Jinyoung S.; Bessell, Michael S.; Karimov, Rivkat

    2014-02-01

    IC 1848 is one of the young open clusters in the giant star-forming Cas OB6 association. Several interesting aspects relating to star formation processes in giant star-forming regions attracted us to study the initial mass function (IMF), star formation mode and properties of pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars. A UBVI and Hα photometric study of the young open cluster IC 1848 was conducted as part of the `Sejong Open Cluster Survey'. We have selected 105 early-type members from photometric diagrams. Their mean reddening is = 0.660 ± 0.054 mag. Using the published photometric data with near- and mid-infrared archival data we confirmed the normal reddening law (RV = 3.1) towards the cluster (IC 1848). A careful zero-age main-sequence fitting gives a distance modulus of V0 - MV = 11.7 ± 0.2 mag, equivalent to 2.2 ± 0.2 kpc. Hα photometry and the list of young stellar objects identified by Koenig et al. permitted us to select a large number of PMS stars comprising 196 Hα emission stars, 35 Hα emission candidates, 5 Class I, 368 Class II and 24 transition disc candidates. From the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram using stellar evolution models, we estimate an age of 5 Myr from several evolved stars and 3 Myr from the PMS stars. The IMF was derived from stars with mass larger than 3 M⊙, and the slope is slightly steeper (Γ = -1.6 ± 0.2) than the Salpeter/Kroupa IMF. Finally, we estimated the mass accretion rate of PMS stars with an ultraviolet excess. The mean mass accretion rate is about 1.4 × 10-8 M⊙ yr-1 in the mass range of 0.5-2 M⊙, whereas intermediate-mass stars (≥2.5 M⊙) exhibit a much higher accretion rate of dot{M} > 10^{-6} M_{⊙} yr^{-1}.

  11. Observational Study of Ion Diffusion Region tailward of the Cusp: Polar and Cluster Observations in 1998-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzamil, F. M.; Farrugia, C. J.; Torbert, R. B.; Argall, M. R.; Wang, S.

    2015-12-01

    Asymmetries in plasma density and the presence of a guide field significantly alter the structure of the ion diffusion region (IDR) in symmetric, collisionless reconnection. These features have been shown by numerical simulations under moderate density asymmetries (~10), and theoretical analyses. However, very few studies have addressed these issues with in-situ observations. We have compiled a collection of Cluster and Polar crossings of the high-latitude magnetopause poleward of the cusp under northward interplanetary magnetic field in the years 1998-2008 when signatures of reconnection inside the IDR are observed. They encompass a wide range of density asymmetries (~10 to 1000), magnetic field asymmetries (~0.2 to 0.9), and guide fields (~10 to ~60 %). In this dedicated observational study, we target the following topics: (1) The alteration of the structure of the IDR -- i.e., its width, the non-colocation of stagnation and X-lines, jet outflow speed, and biasing of the reconnection outflow jet toward the magnetosphere -- as a function of increasing density asymmetry, and (2) the diamagnetic drift of the X-line. Further, focusing on IDR crossings during plasma flow reversals and/or near-simultaneous crossings on either side of the X-line by two spacecraft under steady ambient conditions, we report on the contrast in the Hall fields and the plasma behavior on the sunward versus the tailward sides of the X-line in its dependence on the strength of the guide field.

  12. Absolute cross sections for the dissociation of hydrogen cluster ions in high-energy collisions with helium atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Eden, S.; Tabet, J.; Samraoui, K.; Louc, S.; Farizon, B.; Farizon, M.; Ouaskit, S.; Maerk, T. D.

    2006-02-15

    Absolute dissociation cross sections are reported for H{sub n}{sup +} clusters of varied mass (n=3,5,...,35) following collisions with He atoms at 60 keV/amu. Initial results have been published previously for a smaller range of cluster sizes [Ouaskit et al., Phys. Rev. A 49, 1484 (1994)]. The present extended study includes further experimental results, reducing the statistical errors associated with the absolute cross sections. The previously suggested quasilinear dependence of the H{sub n}{sup +} dissociation cross sections upon n is developed with reference to expected series of geometrical shells of H{sub 2} molecules surrounding a H{sub 3}{sup +} core. Recent calculations identify n=9 as corresponding to the first closed H{sub 2} shell [e.g., Stich et al., J. Chem. Phys. 107, 9482 (1997)]. Recurrence of the distinct characteristics observed in the dissociation-cross-section dependence upon cluster size around n=9 provides the basis for the presently proposed subsequent closed shells at n=15, 21, 27, and 33, in agreement with the calculations of Nagashima et al. [J. Phys. Chem. 96, 4294 (1992)].

  13. Submegabase Clusters of Unstable Tandem Repeats Unique to the Tla Region of Mouse T Haplotypes

    PubMed Central

    Uehara, H.; Ebersole, T.; Bennett, D.; Artzt, K.

    1990-01-01

    We describe here the identification and genomic organization of mouse t haplotype-specific elements (TSEs) 7.8 and 5.8 kb in length. The TSEs exist as submegabase-long clusters of tandem repeats localized in the Tla region of the major histocompatibility complex of all t haplotype chromosomes examined. In contrast, no such clusters were detected among 12 inbred strains of Mus musculus and other Mus species; thus, clusters of TSEs represent the first absolutely qualitative difference between t haplotypes and wild-type chromosomes. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis shows that the number of clusters, and the number of repeats in each cluster are extremely variable. Dramatic quantitative differences of TSEs uniquely distinguish every independent t haplotype from any other. The complete nucleotide sequence of one 7.8-kb TSE reveals significant homology to the ETn (a major transcript in the early embryo of the mouse), and some homologies to intracisternal A-particles and the mammary tumor virus env gene. Apart from the diagnostic relevance to t haplotypes, evolutionary and functional significances are discussed with respect to chromosome structure and genetic recombination. PMID:2076812

  14. Semi-supervised clustering for parcellating brain regions based on resting state fMRI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hewei; Fan, Yong

    2014-03-01

    Many unsupervised clustering techniques have been adopted for parcellating brain regions of interest into functionally homogeneous subregions based on resting state fMRI data. However, the unsupervised clustering techniques are not able to take advantage of exiting knowledge of the functional neuroanatomy readily available from studies of cytoarchitectonic parcellation or meta-analysis of the literature. In this study, we propose a semi-supervised clustering method for parcellating amygdala into functionally homogeneous subregions based on resting state fMRI data. Particularly, the semi-supervised clustering is implemented under the framework of graph partitioning, and adopts prior information and spatial consistent constraints to obtain a spatially contiguous parcellation result. The graph partitioning problem is solved using an efficient algorithm similar to the well-known weighted kernel k-means algorithm. Our method has been validated for parcellating amygdala into 3 subregions based on resting state fMRI data of 28 subjects. The experiment results have demonstrated that the proposed method is more robust than unsupervised clustering and able to parcellate amygdala into centromedial, laterobasal, and superficial parts with improved functionally homogeneity compared with the cytoarchitectonic parcellation result. The validity of the parcellation results is also supported by distinctive functional and structural connectivity patterns of the subregions and high consistency between coactivation patterns derived from a meta-analysis and functional connectivity patterns of corresponding subregions.

  15. Peculiar radio structures in the central regions of galaxy cluster Abell 585

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamrozy, M.; Stawarz, Ł.; Marchenko, V.; Kuźmicz, A.; Ostrowski, M.; Cheung, C. C.; Sikora, M.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we analyse the peculiar radio structure observed across the central region of the galaxy cluster Abell 585 (z = 0.12). In the low-resolution radio maps, this structure appears uniform and diffuse on angular scales of ˜3 arcmin, and is seemingly related to the distant (z = 2.5) radio quasar B3 0727+409 rather than to the cluster itself. However, after a careful investigation of the unpublished archival radio data with better angular resolution, we resolve the structure into two distinct arcmin-scale features, which resemble typical lobes of cluster radio galaxies with no obvious connection to the background quasar. We support this conclusion by examining the spectral and polarization properties of the features, demonstrating in addition that the analysed structure can hardly be associated with any sort of a radio mini-halo or relics of the cluster. Yet at the same time we are not able to identify host galaxies of the radio lobes in the available optical and infrared surveys. We consider some speculative explanations for our findings, including gravitational wave recoil kicks of supermassive black holes responsible for the lobes' formation in the process of merging massive ellipticals within the central parts of a rich cluster environment, but we do not reach any robust conclusions regarding the origin of the detected radio features.

  16. Cross ranking of cities and regions: population versus income

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerqueti, Roy; Ausloos, Marcel

    2015-07-01

    This paper explores the relationship between the inner economical structure of communities and their population distribution through a rank-rank analysis of official data, along statistical physics ideas within two techniques. The data is taken on Italian cities. The analysis is performed both at a global (national) and at a more local (regional) level in order to distinguish ‘macro’ and ‘micro’ aspects. First, the rank-size rule is found not to be a standard power law, as in many other studies, but a doubly decreasing power law. Next, the Kendall τ and the Spearman ρ rank correlation coefficients which measure pair concordance and the correlation between fluctuations in two rankings, respectively,—as a correlation function does in thermodynamics, are calculated for finding rank correlation (if any) between demography and wealth. Results show non only global disparities for the whole (country) set, but also (regional) disparities, when comparing the number of cities in regions, the number of inhabitants in cities and that in regions, as well as when comparing the aggregated tax income of the cities and that of regions. Different outliers are pointed out and justified. Interestingly, two classes of cities in the country and two classes of regions in the country are found. ‘Common sense’ social, political, and economic considerations sustain the findings. More importantly, the methods show that they allow to distinguish communities, very clearly, when specific criteria are numerically sound. A specific modeling for the findings is presented, i.e. for the doubly decreasing power law and the two phase system, based on statistics theory, e.g. urn filling. The model ideas can be expected to hold when similar rank relationship features are observed in fields. It is emphasized that the analysis makes more sense than one through a Pearson Π value-value correlation analysis

  17. Brazilian Anopheles darlingi Root (Diptera: Culicidae) Clusters by Major Biogeographical Region

    PubMed Central

    Bergo, Eduardo S.; Randel, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    The major drivers of the extensive biodiversity of the Neotropics are proposed to be geological and tectonic events together with Pliocene and Pleistocene environmental and climatic change. Geographical barriers represented by the rivers Amazonas/Solimões, the Andes and the coastal mountain ranges in eastern Brazil have been hypothesized to lead to diversification within the primary malaria vector, Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) darlingi Root, which primarily inhabits rainforest. To test this biogeographical hypothesis, we analyzed 786 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 12 populations of An. darlingi from across the complex Brazilian landscape. Both model-based (STRUCTURE) and non-model-based (Principal Components and Discriminant Analysis) analysis of population structure detected three major genetic clusters that correspond with newly described Neotropical biogeographical regions: 1) Atlantic Forest province (= southeast population); 2) Parana Forest province (= West Atlantic forest population, with one Chacoan population - SP); and 3) Brazilian dominion population (= Amazonian population with one Chacoan population - TO). Significant levels of pairwise genetic divergences were found among the three clusters, allele sharing among clusters was negligible, and geographical distance did not contribute to differentiation. We infer that the Atlantic forest coastal mountain range limited dispersal between the Atlantic Forest province and the Parana Forest province populations, and that the large, diagonal open vegetation region of the Chacoan dominion dramatically reduced dispersal between the Parana and Brazilian dominion populations. We hypothesize that the three genetic clusters may represent three putative species. PMID:26172559

  18. On the continuing stellar formation in the central regions of some globular clusters and their relation to the pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komberg, B. V.

    1979-01-01

    The discrepancy between the predicted and observed quantities of gas in the central regions of massive globular clusters is discussed. It is hypothesized that star formation continues in the central regions by means of gas released during stellar evolution or trapped by the central region when the globular clusters pass through the center of the galaxy. Nine globular clusters are indicated at distances less than 1000 ps from which radio pulsars or X-ray sources are observed. It is argued that they could have formed relatively recently in closed pairs in the central regions and then ejected at the stage of supernova bursts with velocities over 100 ks/s.

  19. Young open clusters in the Galactic star forming region NGC 6357

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massi, F.; Giannetti, A.; Di Carlo, E.; Brand, J.; Beltrán, M. T.; Marconi, G.

    2015-01-01

    Context. NGC 6357 is an active star forming region with very young massive open clusters. These clusters contain some of the most massive stars in the Galaxy and strongly interact with nearby giant molecular clouds. Aims: We study the young stellar populations of the region and of the open cluster Pismis 24, focusing on their relationship with the nearby giant molecular clouds. We seek evidence of triggered star formation "propagating" from the clusters. Methods: We used new deep JHKs photometry, along with unpublished deep Spitzer/IRAC mid-infrared photometry, complemented with optical HST/WFPC2 high spatial resolution photometry and X-ray Chandra observations, to constrain age, initial mass function, and star formation modes in progress. We carefully examine and discuss all sources of bias (saturation, confusion, different sensitivities, extinction). Results: NGC 6357 hosts three large young stellar clusters, of which Pismis 24 is the most prominent. We found that Pismis 24 is a very young (~1-3 Myr) open cluster with a Salpeter-like initial mass function and a few thousand members. A comparison between optical and infrared photometry indicates that the fraction of members with a near-infrared excess (i.e., with a circumstellar disk) is in the range 0.3-0.6, consistent with its photometrically derived age. We also find that Pismis 24 is likely subdivided into a few different subclusters, one of which contains almost all the massive members. There are indications of current star formation triggered by these massive stars, but clear age trends could not be derived (although the fraction of stars with a near-infrared excess does increase towards the Hii region associated with the cluster). The gas out of which Pismis 24 formed must have been distributed in dense clumps within a cloud of less dense gas ~1 pc in radius. Conclusions: Our findings provide some new insight into how young stellar populations and massive stars emerge, and evolve in the first few Myr after

  20. Analysis of the properties of the molecular-cluster xenon mixture in the mesoscopic phase transition region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurlapov, L. I.; Kassymov, A. B.

    2016-04-01

    We report on the results of calculation of the concentrations of cluster subcomponents in a molecular-cluster xenon mixture at temperatures and pressures at which the gas experiences a mesoscopic phase transition. The existence of such a transition follows from singularities of the temperature dependence of viscosity, from the behavior of the cluster thermodiffusion coefficient, and from the features of the distributions of cluster subcomponents in the centrifuge. The mesoscopic phase transition is manifested in the intermediate position of the molecular-cluster mixture between the gas and the liquid judging from its properties in the transition region.

  1. Nucleus and cytoplasm segmentation in microscopic images using K-means clustering and region growing

    PubMed Central

    Sarrafzadeh, Omid; Dehnavi, Alireza Mehri

    2015-01-01

    Background: Segmentation of leukocytes acts as the foundation for all automated image-based hematological disease recognition systems. Most of the time, hematologists are interested in evaluation of white blood cells only. Digital image processing techniques can help them in their analysis and diagnosis. Materials and Methods: The main objective of this paper is to detect leukocytes from a blood smear microscopic image and segment them into their two dominant elements, nucleus and cytoplasm. The segmentation is conducted using two stages of applying K-means clustering. First, the nuclei are segmented using K-means clustering. Then, a proposed method based on region growing is applied to separate the connected nuclei. Next, the nuclei are subtracted from the original image. Finally, the cytoplasm is segmented using the second stage of K-means clustering. Results: The results indicate that the proposed method is able to extract the nucleus and cytoplasm regions accurately and works well even though there is no significant contrast between the components in the image. Conclusions: In this paper, a method based on K-means clustering and region growing is proposed in order to detect leukocytes from a blood smear microscopic image and segment its components, the nucleus and the cytoplasm. As region growing step of the algorithm relies on the information of edges, it will not able to separate the connected nuclei more accurately in poor edges and it requires at least a weak edge to exist between the nuclei. The nucleus and cytoplasm segments of a leukocyte can be used for feature extraction and classification which leads to automated leukemia detection. PMID:26605213

  2. 75 FR 16739 - EDA Participation in the Energy Efficient Building Systems Regional Innovation Cluster Initiative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ...-site water recycling. The two EDA programs from which funds may be awarded are the (i) Public Works and..., and services. The E-RIC may be located in a defined geographic region that crosses municipal, county..., 2008 (73 FR 7696). This notice may be accessed by entering the Federal Register volume and page...

  3. THE CLUSTERED NATURE OF STAR FORMATION. PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE CLUSTERS IN THE STAR-FORMING REGION NGC 602/N90 IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Gouliermis, Dimitrios A.; Gennaro, Mario; Schmeja, Stefan; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Tognelli, Emanuele; Prada Moroni, Pier Giorgio

    2012-03-20

    Located at the tip of the wing of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), the star-forming region NGC 602/N90 is characterized by the H II nebular ring N90 and the young cluster of pre-main-sequence (PMS) and early-type main-sequence stars NGC 602, located in the central area of the ring. We present a thorough cluster analysis of the stellar sample identified with Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys in the region. We show that apart from the central cluster low-mass PMS stars are congregated in 13 additional small, compact sub-clusters at the periphery of NGC 602, identified in terms of their higher stellar density with respect to the average background density derived from star counts. We find that the spatial distribution of the PMS stars is bimodal, with an unusually large fraction ({approx}60%) of the total population being clustered, while the remaining is diffusely distributed in the intercluster area, covering the whole central part of the region. From the corresponding color-magnitude diagrams we disentangle an age difference of {approx}2.5 Myr between NGC 602 and the compact sub-clusters, which appear younger, on the basis of comparison of the brighter PMS stars with evolutionary models, which we accurately calculated for the metal abundance of the SMC. The diffuse PMS population appears to host stars as old as those in NGC 602. Almost all detected PMS sub-clusters appear to be centrally concentrated. When the complete PMS stellar sample, including both clustered and diffused stars, is considered in our cluster analysis, it appears as a single centrally concentrated stellar agglomeration, covering the whole central area of the region. Considering also the hot massive stars of the system, we find evidence that this agglomeration is hierarchically structured. Based on our findings, we propose a scenario according to which the region NGC 602/N90 experiences an active clustered star formation for the last {approx}5 Myr. The central cluster NGC 602 was

  4. RCWIM - an improved global water isotope pattern prediction model using fuzzy climatic clustering regionalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terzer, Stefan; Araguás-Araguás, Luis; Wassenaar, Leonard I.; Aggarwal, Pradeep K.

    2013-04-01

    Prediction of geospatial H and O isotopic patterns in precipitation has become increasingly important to diverse disciplines beyond hydrology, such as climatology, ecology, food authenticity, and criminal forensics, because these two isotopes of rainwater often control the terrestrial isotopic spatial patterns that facilitate the linkage of products (food, wildlife, water) to origin or movement (food, criminalistics). Currently, spatial water isotopic pattern prediction relies on combined regression and interpolation techniques to create gridded datasets by using data obtained from the Global Network of Isotopes In Precipitation (GNIP). However, current models suffer from two shortcomings: (a) models may have limited covariates and/or parameterization fitted to a global domain, which results in poor predictive outcomes at regional scales, or (b) the spatial domain is intentionally restricted to regional settings, and thereby of little use in providing information at global geospatial scales. Here we present a new global climatically regionalized isotope prediction model which overcomes these limitations through the use of fuzzy clustering of climatic data subsets, allowing us to better identify and customize appropriate covariates and their multiple regression coefficients instead of aiming for a one-size-fits-all global fit (RCWIM - Regionalized Climate Cluster Water Isotope Model). The new model significantly reduces the point-based regression residuals and results in much lower overall isotopic prediction uncertainty, since residuals are interpolated onto the regression surface. The new precipitation δ2H and δ18O isoscape model is available on a global scale at 10 arc-minutes spatial and at monthly, seasonal and annual temporal resolution, and will provide improved predicted stable isotope values used for a growing number of applications. The model further provides a flexible framework for future improvements using regional climatic clustering.

  5. Cross sections and photoelectron angular distributions in photodetachment from negative ions using equation-of-motion coupled-cluster Dyson orbitals

    SciTech Connect

    Oana, C. Melania; Krylov, Anna I.

    2009-09-28

    We report total and differential cross sections for photodetachment from negative ions using Dyson orbitals calculated from equation-of-motion coupled-cluster wave functions and free wave description of the detached electron. The energy dependence of the cross sections is reproduced well, however, the accuracy of absolute values varies. For F{sup -}, C{sup -}, NH{sub 2}{sup -}, and H{sup -}, the calculated cross sections are within the error bars from the experimental values, whereas the errors for Li{sup -} and OH{sup -} are about 20%. The largest errors are observed for O{sup -} and O{sub 2}{sup -} for which the calculated cross sections differ from the experimental ones by factors of 3 and 2, respectively. Calculated anisotropy parameters for atomic anions exhibit too slow decrease, which suggests that the diffuseness of the computed Dyson orbitals is underestimated. Moreover, in the asymptotic region, the orbitals exhibit artifactual oscillations probably due to the limitations of Gaussian basis sets. The analysis of the trends in the experimental anisotropy parameters suggests that the interaction of the detached electron with the core, which is neglected in the present model, is important.

  6. A spectroscopic census in young stellar regions: the σ Orionis cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Hernández, Jesús; Perez, Alice; Hernan, Ramírez; Calvet, Nuria; Hartmann, Lee; Briceño, Cesar; Olguin, Lorenzo; Contreras, Maria E.; Allen, Lori; Espaillat, Catherine

    2014-10-10

    We present a spectroscopic survey of the stellar population of the σ Orionis cluster. We have obtained spectral types for 340 stars. Spectroscopic data for spectral typing come from several spectrographs with similar spectroscopic coverage and resolution. More than half of the stars in our sample are members confirmed by the presence of lithium in absorption, strong Hα in emission or weak gravity-sensitive features. In addition, we have obtained high-resolution (R ∼ 34,000) spectra in the Hα region for 169 stars in the region. Radial velocities were calculated from this data set. The radial velocity distribution for members of the cluster is in agreement with previous work. Analysis of the profile of the Hα line and infrared observations reveals two binary systems or fast rotators that mimic the Hα width expected in stars with accretion disks. On the other hand, there are stars with optically thick disks and narrow Hα profiles not expected in stars with accretion disks. This contribution constitutes the largest homogeneous spectroscopic data set of the σ Orionis cluster to date.

  7. Electron density estimations derived from spacecraft potential measurements on Cluster in tenuous plasma regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, A.; Lybekk, B.; André, M.; Eriksson, A.; Masson, A.; Mozer, F. S.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; DéCréAu, P. M. E.; Dandouras, I.; Sauvaud, J.-A.; Fazakerley, A.; Taylor, M.; Paschmann, G.; Svenes, K. R.; Torkar, K.; Whipple, E.

    2008-07-01

    Spacecraft potential measurements by the EFW electric field experiment on the Cluster satellites can be used to obtain plasma density estimates in regions barely accessible to other type of plasma experiments. Direct calibrations of the plasma density as a function of the measured potential difference between the spacecraft and the probes can be carried out in the solar wind, the magnetosheath, and the plasmashere by the use of CIS ion density and WHISPER electron density measurements. The spacecraft photoelectron characteristic (photoelectrons escaping to the plasma in current balance with collected ambient electrons) can be calculated from knowledge of the electron current to the spacecraft based on plasma density and electron temperature data from the above mentioned experiments and can be extended to more positive spacecraft potentials by CIS ion and the PEACE electron experiments in the plasma sheet. This characteristic enables determination of the electron density as a function of spacecraft potential over the polar caps and in the lobes of the magnetosphere, regions where other experiments on Cluster have intrinsic limitations. Data from 2001 to 2006 reveal that the photoelectron characteristics of the Cluster spacecraft as well as the electric field probes vary with the solar cycle and solar activity. The consequences for plasma density measurements are addressed. Typical examples are presented to demonstrate the use of this technique in a polar cap/lobe plasma.

  8. A Cluster Analysis of Constant Ambient Air Monitoring Data from the Kanto Region of Japan

    PubMed Central

    Iizuka, Atsushi; Shirato, Shintaro; Mizukoshi, Atsushi; Noguchi, Miyuki; Yamasaki, Akihiro; Yanagisawa, Yukio

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates an application of cluster analysis to constant ambient air monitoring data of four pollutants in the Kanto region: NOx, photochemical oxidant (Ox), suspended particulate matter, and non-methane hydrocarbons. Constant ambient air monitoring can provide important information about the surrounding atmospheric pollution. However, at the same time, ambient air monitoring can place a significant financial burden on some autonomous communities. Thus, it has been necessary to reduce both the number of monitoring stations and the number of chemicals monitored. To achieve this, it is necessary to identify those monitoring stations and pollutants that are least significant, while minimizing the loss of data quality and mitigating the effects on the determination of any spatial and temporal trends of the pollutants. Through employing cluster analysis, it was established that the ambient monitoring stations in the Kanto region could be clustered topologically for NOx and Ox into eight groups. From the results of this analysis, it was possible to identify the similarities in site characteristics and pollutant behaviors. PMID:24995597

  9. Identification of clustered YY1 binding sites in Imprinting Control Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J D; Hinz, A; Bergmann, A; Huang, J; Ovcharenko, I; Stubbs, L; Kim, J

    2006-04-19

    Mammalian genomic imprinting is regulated by Imprinting Control Regions (ICRs) that are usually associated with tandem arrays of transcription factor binding sites. In the current study, the sequence features derived from a tandem array of YY1 binding sites of Peg3-DMR (differentially methylated region) led us to identify three additional clustered YY1 binding sites, which are also localized within the DMRs of Xist, Tsix, and Nespas. These regions have been shown to play a critical role as ICRs for the regulation of surrounding genes. These ICRs have maintained a tandem array of YY1 binding sites during mammalian evolution. The in vivo binding of YY1 to these regions is allele-specific and only to the unmethylated active alleles. Promoter/enhancer assays suggest that a tandem array of YY1 binding sites function as a potential orientation-dependent enhancer. Insulator assays revealed that the enhancer-blocking activity is detected only in the YY1 binding sites of Peg3-DMR but not in the YY1 binding sites of other DMRs. Overall, our identification of three additional clustered YY1 binding sites in imprinted domains suggests a significant role for YY1 in mammalian genomic imprinting.

  10. Deep Ultraviolet Luminosity Functions at the Infall Region of the Coma Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, D. M.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Salim, S.; Smith, R.; Jenkins, L.; Mobasher, B.; Miller, N.; Ferguson, H.

    2012-02-01

    We have used deep GALEX observations at the infall region of the Coma cluster to measure the faintest ultraviolet (UV) luminosity functions (LFs) presented for a rich galaxy cluster thus far. The Coma UV LFs are measured to M UV = -10.5 in the GALEX FUV and NUV bands, or 3.5 mag fainter than previous studies, and reach the dwarf early-type galaxy population in Coma for the first time. The Schechter faint-end slopes (α ≈ -1.39 in both GALEX bands) are shallower than reported in previous Coma UV LF studies owing to a flatter LF at faint magnitudes. A Gaussian-plus-Schechter model provides a slightly better parameterization of the UV LFs resulting in a faint-end slope of α ≈ -1.15 in both GALEX bands. The two-component model gives faint-end slopes shallower than α = -1 (a turnover) for the LFs constructed separately for passive and star-forming galaxies. The UV LFs for star-forming galaxies show a turnover at M UV ≈ -14 owing to a deficit of dwarf star-forming galaxies in Coma with stellar masses below M * = 108 M ⊙. A similar turnover is identified in recent UV LFs measured for the Virgo cluster suggesting this may be a common feature of local galaxy clusters, whereas the field UV LFs continue to rise at faint magnitudes. We did not identify an excess of passive galaxies as would be expected if the missing dwarf star-forming galaxies were quenched inside the cluster. In fact, the LFs for both dwarf passive and star-forming galaxies show the same turnover at faint magnitudes. We discuss the possible origin of the missing dwarf star-forming galaxies in Coma and their expected properties based on comparisons to local field galaxies.

  11. Deep UV Luminosity Functions at the Infall Region of the Coma Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, D. M.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Salim, S.; Smith, R.; Jenkins, L.; Mobasher, B.; Miller, N.; Ferguson, H.

    2011-01-01

    We have used deep GALEX observations at the infall region of the Coma cluster to measure the faintest UV luminosity functions (LFs) presented for a rich galaxy cluster thus far. The Coma UV LFs are measured to M(sub uv) = -10.5 in the GALEX FUV and NUV bands, or 3.5 mag fainter than previous studies, and reach the dwarf early-type galaxy population in Coma for the first time. The Schechter faint-end slopes (alpha approximately equal to -1.39 in both GALEX bands) are shallower than reported in previous Coma UV LF studies owing to a flatter LF at faint magnitudes. A Gaussian-plus-Schechter model provides a slightly better parametrization of the UV LFs resulting in a faint-end slope of alpha approximately equal to -1.15 in both GALEX bands. The two-component model gives faint-end slopes shallower than alpha = -1 (a turnover) for the LFs constructed separately for passive and star forming galaxies. The UV LFs for star forming galaxies show a turnover at M(sub UV) approximately equal to -14 owing to a deficit of dwarf star forming galaxies in Coma with stellar masses below M(sub *) = 10(sup 8) solar mass. A similar turnover is identified in recent UV LFs measured for the Virgo cluster suggesting this may be a common feature of local galaxy clusters, whereas the field UV LFs continue to rise at faint magnitudes. We did not identify an excess of passive galaxies as would be expected if the missing dwarf star forming galaxies were quenched inside the cluster. In fact, the LFs for both dwarf passive and star forming galaxies show the same turnover at faint magnitudes. We discuss the possible origin of the missing dwarf star forming galaxies in Coma and their expected properties based on comparisons to local field galaxies.

  12. Proper motions and membership probabilities of stars in the region of globular cluster NGC 6366

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sariya, Devesh P.; Yadav, R. K. S.

    2015-12-01

    Context. NGC 6366 is a metal-rich globular cluster that is relatively unstudied. It is a kinematically interesting cluster, reported as belonging to the slowly rotating halo system, which is unusual given its metallicity and spatial location in the Galaxy. Aims: The purpose of this research is to determine the relative proper motion and membership probability of the stars in the region of globular cluster NGC 6366. To target cluster members reliably during spectroscopic surveys without including field stars, a good proper motion and membership probability catalogue of NGC 6366 is needed. Methods: To derive relative proper motions, the archival data from the Wide Field Imager mounted on the ESO 2.2 m telescope have been reduced using a high precision astrometric software. The images used are in the B,V, and I photometric bands with an epoch gap of ~3.2 yr. The calibrated BVI magnitudes have been determined using recent data for secondary standard stars. Results: We determined relative proper motions and cluster membership probabilities for 2530 stars in the field of globular cluster NGC 6366. The median proper motion rms errors for stars brighter than V ~ 18 mag is ~2 mas yr-1, which gradually increases to ~5 mas yr-1 for stars having magnitudes V ~ 20 mag. Based on the membership catalogue, we checked the membership status of the X-ray sources and variable stars of NGC 6366 mentioned in the literature. We also provide the astronomical community with an electronic catalogue that includes B, V, and I magnitudes; relative proper motions; and membership probabilities of the stars in the region of NGC 6366. Based on observations with the MPG/ESO 2.2 m and ESO/VLT telescopes, located at La Silla and Paranal Observatory, Chile, under DDT programs 164.O-0561(F), 71.D-0220(A) and the archive material.Full Table 4 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/584/A59

  13. Equation-Of Coupled-Cluster Calculations of Photodetachment Cross Sections for Atomic Negative Ions across the Periodic Table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichino, Takatoshi; Cheng, Lan; Stanton, John F.

    2016-06-01

    The innovative application of the ion-trap technique by Wester and coworkers has yielded definitive experimental values of photodetachment cross sections for the atomic oxygen radical anion (Obullet -) [Hlavenka et al., J. Chem. Phys. 130, 061105 (2009)]. In the present study, equation-of-motion coupled-cluster (EOM-CC) calculations have been performed to derive theoretical values of photodetachment cross sections for the negative ions of atoms in the first two periods of the periodic table as well as of those which belong to the alkali metal and halogen groups. Two methods have been employed to derive the cross sections. One involves the Dyson orbitals obtained from EOM-CC calculations and plane wave functions for the detached electron in the transition dipole moment integrals. The other method utilizes the moment theory following EOM-CC calculations of transition dipole moments for a large number of pseudo-states. The cross sections so evaluated for Obullet - match the experimental values very well. Generally good agreement has been found between the theoretical and experimental values of the cross sections for the atoms in the first two periods, while the present calculations cast some doubt on reported experimental values for some atoms beyond the second period. Substantial relativistic effects on the cross section have been observed for heavy elements in the alkali metal and halogen groups.

  14. Utilizing Hierarchical Clustering to improve Efficiency of Self-Organizing Feature Map to Identify Hydrological Homogeneous Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farsadnia, Farhad; Ghahreman, Bijan

    2016-04-01

    Hydrologic homogeneous group identification is considered both fundamental and applied research in hydrology. Clustering methods are among conventional methods to assess the hydrological homogeneous regions. Recently, Self-Organizing feature Map (SOM) method has been applied in some studies. However, the main problem of this method is the interpretation on the output map of this approach. Therefore, SOM is used as input to other clustering algorithms. The aim of this study is to apply a two-level Self-Organizing feature map and Ward hierarchical clustering method to determine the hydrologic homogenous regions in North and Razavi Khorasan provinces. At first by principal component analysis, we reduced SOM input matrix dimension, then the SOM was used to form a two-dimensional features map. To determine homogeneous regions for flood frequency analysis, SOM output nodes were used as input into the Ward method. Generally, the regions identified by the clustering algorithms are not statistically homogeneous. Consequently, they have to be adjusted to improve their homogeneity. After adjustment of the homogeneity regions by L-moment tests, five hydrologic homogeneous regions were identified. Finally, adjusted regions were created by a two-level SOM and then the best regional distribution function and associated parameters were selected by the L-moment approach. The results showed that the combination of self-organizing maps and Ward hierarchical clustering by principal components as input is more effective than the hierarchical method, by principal components or standardized inputs to achieve hydrologic homogeneous regions.

  15. Eastern region represents a worrying cluster of active hepatitis C in Algeria in 2012.

    PubMed

    Bensalem, Aïcha; Selmani, Karima; Hihi, Narjes; Bencherifa, Nesrine; Mostefaoui, Fatma; Kerioui, Cherif; Pineau, Pascal; Debzi, Nabil; Berkane, Saadi

    2016-08-01

    Algeria is the largest country of Africa, peopled with populations living a range of traditional/rural and modern/urban lifestyles. The variations of prevalence of chronic active hepatitis care poorly known on the Algerian territory. We conducted a retrospective survey on all patients (n = 998) referred to our institution in 2012 and confirmed by us for an active hepatitis C. Half of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) isolates were genotyped. Forty Algerian regions out of the 48 were represented in our study. Three geographical clusters (Aïn-Temouchent/SidiBelAbbes, Algiers, and a large Eastern region) with an excess of active hepatitis C were observed. Patients coming from the Eastern cluster (Batna, Khenchela, Oum el Bouaghi, and Tebessa) were strongly over-represented (49% of cases, OR = 14.5, P < 0.0001). The hallmarks of Eastern region were an excess of women (65% vs. 46% in the remaining population, P < 0.0001) and the almost exclusive presence of HCV genotype 1 (93% vs. 63%, P = 0.0001). The core of the epidemics was apparently located in Khenchela (odds ratio = 24.6, P < 0.0001). This situation is plausibly connected with nosocomial transmission or traditional practices as scarification (Hijama), piercing or tattooing, very lively in this region. Distinct hepatitis C epidemics are currently affecting Algerian population. The most worrying situation is observed in rural regions located east of Algeria. J. Med. Virol. 88:1394-1403, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26856380

  16. HST Snapshot Study of Variable Stars in Globular Clusters: Inner Region of NGC 6441

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritzl, Barton J.; Smith, Horace A.; Stetson, Peter B.; Catelan, Marcio; Sweigart, Allen V.; Layden, Andrew C.; Rich, R. Michael

    2003-01-01

    We present the results of a Hubble Space Telescope snapshot program to survey the inner region of the metal-rich globular cluster NGC 6441 for its variable stars. A total of 57 variable stars was found including 38 RR Lyrae stars, 6 Population II Cepheids, and 12 long period variables. Twenty-four of the RR Lyrae stars and all of the Population II Cepheids were previously undiscovered in ground-based surveys. Of the RR Lyrae stars observed in h s survey, 26 are pulsating in the fundamental mode with a mean period of 0.753 d and 12 are first-overtone mode pulsators with a mean period of 0.365 d. These values match up very well with those found in ground-based surveys. Combining all the available data for NGC 6441, we find mean periods of 0.759 d and 0.375 d for the RRab and RRc stars, respectively. We also find that the RR Lyrae in this survey are located in the same regions of a period-amplitude diagram as those found in ground-based surveys. The overall ratio of RRc to total RR Lyrae is 0.33. Although NGC 6441 is a metal-rich globular cluster and would, on that ground, be expected either to have few RR Lyrae stars, or to be an Oosterhoff type I system, its RR Lyrae more closely resemble those in Oosterhoff type II globular clusters. However, even compared to typical Oosterhoff type II systems, the mean period of its RRab stars is unusually long. We also derived I-band period-luminosity relations for the RR Lyrae stars. Of the six Population II Cepheids, five are of W Virginis type and one is a BL Herculis variable star. This makes NGC 6441, along with NGC 6388, the most metal-rich globular cluster known to contain these types of variable stars. Another variable, V118, may also be a Population II Cepheid given its long period and its separation in magnitude from the RR Lyrae stars. We examine the period-luminosity relation for these Population II Cepheids and compare it to those in other globular clusters and in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We argue that there does

  17. A Study of the Orientation, Propagation Speeds, and Thicknesses of Electric Field and Density Structures Observed by Cluster~II in the High-Altitude Auroral Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, A. J.; Bonnell, J. W.; Mozer, F. S.; Andre, M.; Vaivads, A.; Eriksson, A.; Pedersen, A.; Lindqvist, P.; Laakso, H.

    2001-12-01

    The high-altitude auroral region constitues an integral part of the auroral zone electrodynamic system. The high-altitude perpendicular flows and the electric fields associated with those flows are the drivers for the low-altitude flows and mid-altitude acceleration processes that occur in the auroral zone. An interesting open question that the Cluster~II mission is ideally suited to answer is what properties of the generator region and the flows and density structures observed therin are related to the proper motion of the auroral acceleration region and auroral arcs. We will present the results of a study of more than twenty crossings of the high-altitude auroral zone by the Cluster~II spacecraft. The multi-point electric field and density measurements from the Cluster~II constellation will be used to estimate the direction and speed of propagation of structures in the electric fields and plasma density (as inferred from spacecraft floating potential measurements), as well as quantify the thicknesses of those structures. The implications of our observational results on the proper motion of arc systems in the ionosphere will be discussed.

  18. A new methodology to define homogeneous regions through an entropy based clustering method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridolfi, E.; Rianna, M.; Trani, G.; Alfonso, L.; Di Baldassarre, G.; Napolitano, F.; Russo, F.

    2016-10-01

    One of the most crucial steps in flow frequency studies is the definition of Homogenous Regions (HRs), i.e. areas with similar hydrological behavior. This is essential in ungauged catchments, as HR allows information to be transferred from a neighboring river basin. This study proposes a new, entropy-based approach to define HRs, in which regions are defined as homogeneous if their hydrometric stations capture redundant information. The problem is handled through the definition of the Information Transferred Index (ITI) as the ratio between redundant information and the total information provided by pairs of stations. The methodology is compared with a traditional, distance-based clustering method through a Monte Carlo experiment and a jack-knife procedure. Results indicate that the ITI-based method performs well, adding value to current methodologies to define HRs.

  19. A novel method for discovering local spatial clusters of genomic regions with functional relationships from DNA contact maps

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xihao; Shi, Christina Huan; Yip, Kevin Y.

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: The three-dimensional structure of genomes makes it possible for genomic regions not adjacent in the primary sequence to be spatially proximal. These DNA contacts have been found to be related to various molecular activities. Previous methods for analyzing DNA contact maps obtained from Hi-C experiments have largely focused on studying individual interactions, forming spatial clusters composed of contiguous blocks of genomic locations, or classifying these clusters into general categories based on some global properties of the contact maps. Results: Here, we describe a novel computational method that can flexibly identify small clusters of spatially proximal genomic regions based on their local contact patterns. Using simulated data that highly resemble Hi-C data obtained from real genome structures, we demonstrate that our method identifies spatial clusters that are more compact than methods previously used for clustering genomic regions based on DNA contact maps. The clusters identified by our method enable us to confirm functionally related genomic regions previously reported to be spatially proximal in different species. We further show that each genomic region can be assigned a numeric affinity value that indicates its degree of participation in each local cluster, and these affinity values correlate quantitatively with DNase I hypersensitivity, gene expression, super enhancer activities and replication timing in a cell type specific manner. We also show that these cluster affinity values can precisely define boundaries of reported topologically associating domains, and further define local sub-domains within each domain. Availability and implementation: The source code of BNMF and tutorials on how to use the software to extract local clusters from contact maps are available at http://yiplab.cse.cuhk.edu.hk/bnmf/. Contact: kevinyip@cse.cuhk.edu.hk Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27307607

  20. Toward an SSC test lattice design with two chromatic clusters of interaction regions

    SciTech Connect

    Garren, A.; Steffen, K.

    1985-10-01

    Various ideas on how to design a cluster of interaction regions (IR) with local chromaticity correction were investigated, all of them employing pairs of sextupoles with betatron phase advances of (2n+{lambda}){pi} between them so that their geometric aberrations cancel. Some of these ideas were discarded. Even when, at the sextupoles, one amplitude function is made very small as compared to the other, and the two interleaving pairs are thus decoupled regarding their horizontal and vertical chromaticity correction, they can still not be considered `non-interleaved` regarding their compensation of chromatic aberrations. What remains, then, are schemes that have one or more complete sextupole pairs in a periodic focusing structure between interaction points. This periodic structure may be specially tailored to suit the purpose, or it may even be the normal arc FODO structure. In any case, it must have a strong horizontal dispersion for the sextupoles to act on. Probably the best and most elegant structure the authors found is the one described at the end of this note; it has a 2200 m long periodic channel of arc cells with four pairs of sextupoles between interaction points. In this scheme, the three interaction points forming a `cluster` are within five miles of each other, and thus the denotation may still be justified. However, the FODO channels may be increased in this scheme to any length, until an equidistant spacing of IR`s is obtained. The elegance of the scheme lies in the way the vertical separation and the horizontal and vertical dispersions are handled at the end of the FODO channel and matched into the interaction region, and it is applicable to clustered as well as distributed IR`s. However at first a simpler scheme will be described which has only one pair of sextupoles between IR`s, placed in a specially tailored FODO channel with long cells and very large dispersion.

  1. The Erua earthquake cluster and seismic anisotropy in the Ruapehu region, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keats, Brook S.; Johnson, Jessica H.; Savage, Martha K.

    2011-08-01

    We use seismicity generated from the Erua earthquake cluster (a consistently active area of seismicity about 20 km to the west of Mount Ruapehu) over the last 12 years to study seismic anisotropy in the Ruapehu region. In particular, we search for changes associated with two minor phreatic eruptions on the 4th of October 2006 and the 25th of September 2007. The seismicity rate, magnitude of completeness, focal mechanisms and b-value of the cluster are also examined to investigate whether the characteristics of the seismicity changed over the duration of the study. The hypocenters were relocated, which revealed a westward dip in the shallow seismicity. Shear wave splitting results revealed a decrease in delay time in the 2006-2007 period and a significant variation in the fast shear wave polarization in the same time period. The b-value also increased significantly from 1.0 ± 0.2 in 2004 to a peak of 1.8 ± 0.2 in 2007, but no other parameters were found to vary significantly over this time period. We attribute these changes to an increase in pore-fluid pressure in the Erua region due to fluid movement and suggest that this fluid movement may be associated with the eruptions in 2006 and 2007.

  2. The Radial Mass Profile within the Entire Virial Region of a Fossil Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buote, David A.; Su, Yuanyuan; Gastaldello, Fabio; Brighenti, Fabrizio

    2016-06-01

    We present a hydrostatic analysis of the azimuthally averaged hot intracluster medium (ICM) of the entire virial region of the relaxed fossil cluster RXJ 1159+5531. For a model consisting of ICM, stellar mass from the central galaxy (BCG), and an NFW dark matter (DM) halo, we obtain a good description of the projected radial profiles of ICM temperature and emission-measure that yield precise constraints on the total mass profile. The BCG stellar mass component is clearly detected with a K-band stellar mass-to-light ratio, M_star/L_K = 0.61 +/- 0.11 solar, consistent with stellar population synthesis models. We obtain a halo concentration, c_200 = 8.4 +/- 1.0, and virial mass, M_200 = 7.9 +/- 0.6 x 10^{13} M_sun. For its mass, the inferred concentrationis larger than most relaxed halos produced in cosmological simulations with Planck parameters, consistent with RXJ 1159+5531 forming earlier than the general halo population. The detection of a plausible stellar BCG mass component distinct from the NFW DM halo in the total gravitational potential supports the suggestion by Newman et al. (2015) that 10^{14} M_sun represents the mass scale above which dissipation is unimportant in the formation of the central regions of galaxy clusters.

  3. Enhanced performance of anion exchange membranes via crosslinking of ion cluster regions for fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Ao Nan; Guo, Dong; Lin, Chen Xiao; Zhang, Qiu Gen; Zhu, Ai Mei; Ye, Mei Ling; Liu, Qing Lin

    2016-09-01

    Development of anion exchange membranes (AEMs) with high hydroxide conductivity, good dimensional and alkaline stabilities is still a challenge for the practical application of AEM fuel cells. In this study, we report a new strategy to prepare high-performance AEMs with crosslinked ionic regions. A series of phenolphthalein-containing poly(arylene ether sulfone)s crosslinked AEMs was synthesized by grafting ion groups selectively and densely on the phenolphthalein units to form ion clusters that are further crosslinked to generate the hydrophilic ionic regions. The crosslinking reaction not only improved the dimensional stability of the AEMs, but also increased the aggregation of the ion clusters leading to the formation of hydrophilic/hydrophobic phase-separated morphology and ion-conducting channels. As a result, enhancements in both ion conductivity and dimensional stability can be achieved. The crosslinked AEMs showed high hydroxide conductivities in the range of 52.2-143.4 mS cm-1 from 30 to 80 °C and a superb ratio of relative conductivity to relative swelling at 80 °C. Furthermore, the crosslinked AEMs also exhibited good mechanical properties, thermal and alkaline stabilities and desirable single cell performance. This work presents a promising strategy for the synthesis of high-performance AEMs for fuel cells.

  4. Symptom clusters on primary care medical service trips in five regions in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Dainton, Christopher; Chu, Charlene

    2015-09-01

    Short-term primary care medical service trips organized by the North American non-governmental organizations (NGOs) serve many communities in Latin America that are poorly served by the national health system. This descriptive study contributes to the understanding of the epidemiology of patients seen on such low-resource trips. An analysis was conducted on epidemiologic data collected from anonymized electronic medical records on patients seen during 34 short-term medical service trips in five regions in Ecuador, Guatemala, and the Dominican Republic between April 2013 and April 2014. A total of 22,977 patients were assessed by North American clinicians (physicians, nurse practitioners, physician assistants) on primary care, low-resource medical service trips. The majority of patients were female (67.1%), and their average age was 36. The most common presenting symptoms in all regions were general pain, upper respiratory tract symptoms, skin disorders, eye irritation, dyspepsia, and nonspecific abdominal complaints; 71-78% of primary care complaints were easily aggregated into well-defined symptom clusters. The results suggest that guideline development for clinicians involved in these types of medical service trips should focus on management of the high-yield symptom clusters described by these data.

  5. Employing post-DEA cross-evaluation and cluster analysis in a sample of Greek NHS hospitals.

    PubMed

    Flokou, Angeliki; Kontodimopoulos, Nick; Niakas, Dimitris

    2011-10-01

    To increase Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) discrimination of efficient Decision Making Units (DMUs), by complementing "self-evaluated" efficiencies with "peer-evaluated" cross-efficiencies and, based on these results, to classify the DMUs using cluster analysis. Healthcare, which is deprived of such studies, was chosen as the study area. The sample consisted of 27 small- to medium-sized (70-500 beds) NHS general hospitals distributed throughout Greece, in areas where they are the sole NHS representatives. DEA was performed on 2005 data collected from the Ministry of Health and the General Secretariat of the National Statistical Service. Three inputs -hospital beds, physicians and other health professionals- and three outputs -case-mix adjusted hospitalized cases, surgeries and outpatient visits- were included in input-oriented, constant-returns-to-scale (CRS) and variable-returns-to-scale (VRS) models. In a second stage (post-DEA), aggressive and benevolent cross-efficiency formulations and clustering were employed, to validate (or not) the initial DEA scores. The "maverick index" was used to sort the peer-appraised hospitals. All analyses were performed using custom-made software. Ten benchmark hospitals were identified by DEA, but using the aggressive and benevolent formulations showed that two and four of them respectively were at the lower end of the maverick index list. On the other hand, only one 100% efficient (self-appraised) hospital was at the higher end of the list, using either formulation. Cluster analysis produced a hierarchical "tree" structure which dichotomized the hospitals in accordance to the cross-evaluation results, and provided insight on the two-dimensional path to improving efficiency. This is, to our awareness, the first study in the healthcare domain to employ both of these post-DEA techniques (cross efficiency and clustering) at the hospital (i.e. micro) level. The potential benefit for decision-makers is the capability to examine high

  6. Nonlinear functional connectivity network recovery in the human brain with mutual connectivity analysis (MCA): convergent cross-mapping and non-metric clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wismüller, Axel; Abidin, Anas Z.; D'Souza, Adora M.; Wang, Xixi; Hobbs, Susan K.; Leistritz, Lutz; Nagarajan, Mahesh B.

    2015-03-01

    We explore a computational framework for functional connectivity analysis in resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) data acquired from the human brain for recovering the underlying network structure and understanding causality between network components. Termed mutual connectivity analysis (MCA), this framework involves two steps, the first of which is to evaluate the pair-wise cross-prediction performance between fMRI pixel time series within the brain. In a second step, the underlying network structure is subsequently recovered from the affinity matrix using non-metric network clustering approaches, such as the so-called Louvain method. Finally, we use convergent cross-mapping (CCM) to study causality between different network components. We demonstrate our MCA framework in the problem of recovering the motor cortex network associated with hand movement from resting state fMRI data. Results are compared with a ground truth of active motor cortex regions as identified by a task-based fMRI sequence involving a finger-tapping stimulation experiment. Our results regarding causation between regions of the motor cortex revealed a significant directional variability and were not readily interpretable in a consistent manner across subjects. However, our results on whole-slice fMRI analysis demonstrate that MCA-based model-free recovery of regions associated with the primary motor cortex and supplementary motor area are in close agreement with localization of similar regions achieved with a task-based fMRI acquisition. Thus, we conclude that our MCA methodology can extract and visualize valuable information concerning the underlying network structure between different regions of the brain in resting state fMRI.

  7. IMF Dependence of High-Latitude Thermospheric Wind Pattern Derived from CHAMP Cross-Track Accelerometer Data and the Corresponding Magnetospheric Convection from Cluster EDI Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foerster, Matthias; Haaland, Stein E.; Rentz, Stefanie; Liu, Huixin

    Neutral thermospheric wind pattern at high latitudes obtained from cross-track acceleration measurements of the CHAMP satellite above both North and South polar regions are statistically analyzed in their dependence on the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) direction in the GSM y-z plane (clock angle). We compare this dependency with magnetospheric convection pattern using 1-min-averages of Cluster/EDI electric drift observations and the same IMF and solar wind sorting conditions. The spatially distributed Cluster/EDI measurements are mapped to a the common reference level at ionospheric F-region heights in a magnetic latitude/MLT grid. We obtained both regular thermospheric wind and plasma drift pattern according to the various IMF conditions. The IMF-dependency shows some similarity with the corresponding high-latitude plasma convection insofar that the larger-scale convection cells, in particular the round-shaped dusk cell for IMF By+ (By-) conditions at the Northern (Southern) Hemisphere, leave their marks on the dominant general transpolar wind circulation from the dayside to the nightside. The direction of the transpolar circulation is generally deflected toward a duskward flow, in particular in the evening to nighttime sector. The degree of deflection correlates with the IMF clock angle. It is larger for IMF By+ than for Byand is systematically larger (about 5 deg) and appear less structured at the Southern Hemisphere compared with the Northern. Thermospheric cross-polar wind amplitudes are largest for IMF Bz-/Byconditions (corresponding to sector 5) at the Northern Hemisphere, but for IMF Bz-/By+ conditions (sector 3) at the Southern because the magnetospheric convection is in favour of largest wind accelerations over the polar cap under these conditions. The overall variance of the thermospheric wind magnitude at Southern high latitudes is larger than for the Northern. This is probably due to a larger "stirring effect" at the Southern Hemisphere because

  8. Automated regional registration and characterization of corresponding microcalcification clusters on temporal pairs of mammograms for interval change analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Filev, Peter; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Chan, Heang-Ping; Sahiner, Berkman; Ge Jun; Helvie, Mark A.; Roubidoux, Marilyn; Zhou Chuan

    2008-12-15

    A computerized regional registration and characterization system for analysis of microcalcification clusters on serial mammograms is being developed in our laboratory. The system consists of two stages. In the first stage, based on the location of a detected cluster on the current mammogram, a regional registration procedure identifies the local area on the prior that may contain the corresponding cluster. A search program is used to detect cluster candidates within the local area. The detected cluster on the current image is then paired with the cluster candidates on the prior image to form true (TP-TP) or false (TP-FP) pairs. Automatically extracted features were used in a newly designed correspondence classifier to reduce the number of false pairs. In the second stage, a temporal classifier, based on both current and prior information, is used if a cluster has been detected on the prior image, and a current classifier, based on current information alone, is used if no prior cluster has been detected. The data set used in this study consisted of 261 serial pairs containing biopsy-proven calcification clusters. An MQSA radiologist identified the corresponding clusters on the mammograms. On the priors, the radiologist rated the subtlety of 30 clusters (out of the 261 clusters) as 9 or 10 on a scale of 1 (very obvious) to 10 (very subtle). Leave-one-case-out resampling was used for feature selection and classification in both the correspondence and malignant/benign classification schemes. The search program detected 91.2%(238/261) of the clusters on the priors with an average of 0.42 FPs/image. The correspondence classifier identified 86.6%(226/261) of the TP-TP pairs with 20 false matches (0.08 FPs/image) relative to the entire set of 261 image pairs. In the malignant/benign classification stage the temporal classifier achieved a test A{sub z} of 0.81 for the 246 pairs which contained a detection on the prior. In addition, a classifier was designed by using the

  9. Formalism for neutron cross section covariances in the resonance region using kernel approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Oblozinsky, P.; Cho,Y-S.; Matoon,C.M.; Mughabghab,S.F.

    2010-04-09

    We describe analytical formalism for estimating neutron radiative capture and elastic scattering cross section covariances in the resolved resonance region. We use capture and scattering kernels as the starting point and show how to get average cross sections in broader energy bins, derive analytical expressions for cross section sensitivities, and deduce cross section covariances from the resonance parameter uncertainties in the recently published Atlas of Neutron Resonances. The formalism elucidates the role of resonance parameter correlations which become important if several strong resonances are located in one energy group. Importance of potential scattering uncertainty as well as correlation between potential scattering and resonance scattering is also examined. Practical application of the formalism is illustrated on {sup 55}Mn(n,{gamma}) and {sup 55}Mn(n,el).

  10. DNA repair and crossing over favor similar chromosome regions as discovered in radiation hybrid of Triticum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The uneven distribution of recombination across the length of chromosomes results in inaccurate estimates of genetic to physical distances. In wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) chromosome 3B, it has been estimated that 90% of the cross over occurs in distal sub-telomeric regions representing 40% of the...

  11. Absolute cross section for photoionization of Mn+ in the 3p region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjeldsen, H.; Folkmann, F.; Kristensen, B.; West, J. B.; Hansen, J. E.

    2004-03-01

    The absolute cross section for photoionization of Mn+ has been measured using the merged-beam technique, focusing on the region of the 'giant' 3p rarr 3d resonance. The main discrepancy between theory and earlier experiments has been removed. However, more extensive relativistic calculations are required for a rigorous comparison with theory.

  12. Multivariate Spectral Clustering for the Delineation of Ecoclimatic Regions of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ergüner Baytok, Y.; Akin, S.; Dalfes, H. N.

    2012-12-01

    Although temperature and precipitation regimes (trends) are well-studied for Turkey using global/regional climate model results and station time-series, a study that integrates topographic, and edaphic attributes with climatic attributes derived from RCM outputs and GCM-based projections for the delineation of ecoclimatic regions for Turkey has not been done until now. We present multivariate representation of ecoclimatic variables up to 28 and 50 distinct ecoclimatic regions (at 9 km2 resolution) for Turkey and map their historical locations and their projected locations in the future under A2 emission scenario. We have performed a multivariate geographical clustering analysis involving an eigen gap analysis to estimate optimal cluster sizes, through the use of a spectral clustering algorithm (Ng et al., 2002; Von Luxburg, 2007) to quantitatively define ecoregions for a past reference period (1961-1990) and for a 21st Century. The clustering algorithm has been implemented in R and ran on a 128-cores SMP hardware of the National High Performance Computing Center of Turkey. Outputs of global climate model ECHAM5 of Max Planck Institute for Meteorology and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data (NNRP) were dynamically downscaled to a 27 km resolution using a regional climate model, RegCM3, have been used to generate climatic input layers. For the historical period (1961-1990) 30-year daily climatology of the downscaled NNRP and for the 21st mid-century (2041-2070) downscaled general circulation model ECHAM5 under A2 emission scenario projections have been considered. 9 km resolution maps of daily average, maximum, minimum temperatures and solar radiation have been produced using NCAR Command Language's (NCL) bilinear interpolation method considering also the adiabatic lapse rate correction for the temperature values. Precipitation maps have been split into nine grid points and retain their values. In addition to the calculation of four unique climatic variables (degree-day heat

  13. Measurements of absolute absorption cross sections of ozone in the 185- to 254-nm wavelength region and the temperature dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshino, K.; Esmond, J. R.; Freeman, D. E.; Parkinson, W. H.

    1993-01-01

    Laboratory measurements of the relative absorption cross sections of ozone at temperatures 195, 228, and 295 K have been made throughout the 185 to 254 nm wavelength region. The absolute absorption cross sections at the same temperatures have been measured at several discrete wavelengths in the 185 to 250 nm region. The absolute cross sections of ozone have been used to put the relative cross sections on a firm absolute basis throughout the 185 to 255 nm region. These recalibrated cross sections are slightly lower than those of Molina and Molina (1986), but the differences are within a few percent and would not be significant in atmospheric applications.

  14. Cross-linked Glucose Oxidase Clusters for Biofuel Cell Anode Catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Dudzik, Jonathan; Chang, Wen-Chi; Kannan, A.M.; Filipek, Slawomir; Viswanathan, Sowmya; Li, Pingzuo; Renugopalakrishnan, V.; Audette, Gerald F.

    2013-01-01

    The efficient localization of increased levels of active enzymes onto conducting scaffolds is important for the development of enzyme-based biofuel cells. Crosslinked enzyme clusters (CEC) of glucose oxidase (GOx) constrained to functionalized carbon nanotubes (CEC-CNTs) were generated in order to evaluate the potential of using CECs for developing GOx-based bioanodes functioning via direct electron transfer from the GOx active site to the CNT scaffold. CEC-CNTs generated from several weight-to-weight ratios of GOx:CNT were examined for comparable catalytic activity to free GOx in solution, with CEC-CNTs generated from a 100% GOx solution displaying the greatest enzymatic activity. STEM analysis of CEC-CNTs generated from 100% GOx to CNT (wt/wt) ratios revealed CEC clusters of ~78 μm2 localized that the CNT surface. Electrochemical analysis indicates that the enzyme is engaging in direct electron transfer, and BFCs generated using GOx CEC-CNT bioanodes were observed to have a peak power density of ~180 μW·cm−2. These data indicate that the generation of nano-to-micro sized active enzyme clusters is an attractive option for the design of enzyme-specific biofuel cell powered implantable devices. PMID:23880606

  15. Identification of geographic clustering and regions spared by the Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma (CTCL) in Texas using two distinct cancer registries

    PubMed Central

    Litvinov, Ivan V.; Tetzlaff, Michael T.; Rahme, Elham; Habel, Youssef; Risser, David R.; Gangar, Pamela; Jennings, Michelle A.; Pehr, Kevin; Prieto, Victor G.; Sasseville, Denis; Duvic, Madeleine

    2015-01-01

    Background Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphomas (Mycosis Fungoides and its leukemic variant, Sézary Syndrome) are rare malignancies. Reports of occurrence of Mycosis Fungoides in married couples and families raise the possibility of an environmental trigger for this cancer. While it was suggested that CTLC arises from inappropriate T cell stimulation, currently no preventable trigger has been identified. Methods We analyzed by region, zip code, age, sex and ethnicity the demographic data of 1047 patients from Texas, who were seen in a CTCL clinic at the MD Anderson Cancer Center during 2000-2012 (the MDACC database) and 1990 patients that were recorded in the population-based Texas Cancer Registry (TCR) between 1996-2010. Subsequently data from both databases was cross analyzed and compared. Results Our findings, based on the MDACC database, document geographic clustering of patients in three communities within the Houston metropolitan area, where CTCL incidence rates were 5-20 times higher than the expected population rate. Analysis of the TCR database defined the CTCL population rate for the state to be 5.8 [95% CI 5.5, 6.0] cases per million individuals per year, confirmed the observations from the MDACC database and further highlighted additional areas of geographic clustering and regions spared by CTCL in Texas. Conclusions Our study documents geographic clustering of CTCL cases in Texas and argues for the existence of yet unknown external causes/triggers for this rare malignancy. PMID:25728286

  16. Photometric and Spectroscopic Survey of the Cluster [DBS2003] 156 Associated with the H II Region G331.1-0.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, M. C.; Ortiz, R.; Abraham, Z.; Copetti, M. V. F.

    2016-05-01

    The Norma section of the Milky Way is especially interesting because it crosses three spiral arms: Sagittarius-Carina, Scutum-Crux and the Norma arm itself. Distance determinations of embedded young stellar clusters can contribute to define the spiral structure in this part of the Galaxy. However, spectrophotometric distances were obtained for only a few of these clusters in Norma. We present a photometric and spectroscopic study in the NIR of the [DBS2003] 156 stellar cluster, associated with the H II region G331.1-0.5. We aim to find the ionizing sources of the H II region and determine its distance. The cluster was observed in the J, H, and {K}{{s}} bands and eight potential massive stars were chosen among the detected sources according to color criteria; subsequent spectroscopy of these candidates was performed with the Ohio State Infrared Imager/Spectrometer spectrograph attached to the Southern Observatory for Astrophysical Research 4.1 m telescope. We identified and classified spectroscopically four early-type stars: IRS 176 (O8 V), IRS 308 (O-type), IRS 310 (O6 V), and IRS 71 (B1 Iab). Based on the proximity of IRS 176 and 308 with the radio continuum emission peaks and their relative positions with respect to the warm dust mid-infrared emission, we concluded that these two stars are the main ionizing sources of the H ii region G331.1-0.5. The mean spectrophotometric distance of IRS 176 and 310 of 3.38 ± 0.58 kpc is similar to that obtained in a previous work for two early-type stars of the neighbor cluster [DBS2003] 157 of 3.29 ± 0.58 kpc. The narrow range of radial velocities of radio sources in the area of the clusters [DBS2003] 156 and 157 and their similar visual extinction indicate that these clusters are physically associated. A common distance of 3.34 ± 0.34 kpc is derived for the system [DBS2003] 156 and 157. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Observatory for Astrophysical Research (SOAR), a joint project of the Ministério de Ci

  17. Photometric and Spectroscopic Survey of the Cluster [DBS2003] 156 Associated with the H II Region G331.1‑0.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, M. C.; Ortiz, R.; Abraham, Z.; Copetti, M. V. F.

    2016-05-01

    The Norma section of the Milky Way is especially interesting because it crosses three spiral arms: Sagittarius–Carina, Scutum–Crux and the Norma arm itself. Distance determinations of embedded young stellar clusters can contribute to define the spiral structure in this part of the Galaxy. However, spectrophotometric distances were obtained for only a few of these clusters in Norma. We present a photometric and spectroscopic study in the NIR of the [DBS2003] 156 stellar cluster, associated with the H II region G331.1‑0.5. We aim to find the ionizing sources of the H II region and determine its distance. The cluster was observed in the J, H, and {K}{{s}} bands and eight potential massive stars were chosen among the detected sources according to color criteria; subsequent spectroscopy of these candidates was performed with the Ohio State Infrared Imager/Spectrometer spectrograph attached to the Southern Observatory for Astrophysical Research 4.1 m telescope. We identified and classified spectroscopically four early-type stars: IRS 176 (O8 V), IRS 308 (O-type), IRS 310 (O6 V), and IRS 71 (B1 Iab). Based on the proximity of IRS 176 and 308 with the radio continuum emission peaks and their relative positions with respect to the warm dust mid-infrared emission, we concluded that these two stars are the main ionizing sources of the H ii region G331.1‑0.5. The mean spectrophotometric distance of IRS 176 and 310 of 3.38 ± 0.58 kpc is similar to that obtained in a previous work for two early-type stars of the neighbor cluster [DBS2003] 157 of 3.29 ± 0.58 kpc. The narrow range of radial velocities of radio sources in the area of the clusters [DBS2003] 156 and 157 and their similar visual extinction indicate that these clusters are physically associated. A common distance of 3.34 ± 0.34 kpc is derived for the system [DBS2003] 156 and 157. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Observatory for Astrophysical Research (SOAR), a joint project of the Minist

  18. Negative ion clusters in oxygen: collision cross sections and transport coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Urquijo, J.; Bekstein, A.; Ducasse, O.; Ruíz-Vargas, G.; Yousfi, M.; Benhenni, M.

    2009-12-01

    Using a pulsed Townsend experiment, we have observed the formation of two negative ion species in oxygen over the pressure range 100-600 torr, and the density-normalised electric field strength, E/N, from 2 to 14 Td. The peculiar shape of these transients has led us to propose a scheme of three-body ion-molecule reactions leading to the formation of O4 - and O6 -, which is substantiated by a curve fitting procedure. The resulting mobility data of these two ionic species have been used to calculate their respective momentum transfer collision cross sections, together with the dissociation cross sections that are needed to extend the range of calculation of mobility and diffusion (transverse and longitudinal) to 1000 Td. These calculations were based on an optimised Monte Carlo algorithm, using collision cross sections obtained from a JWKB approximation (Jeffreys-Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin) or taken from literature.

  19. An integrative analysis of TFBS-clustered regions reveals new transcriptional regulation models on the accessible chromatin landscape.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hebing; Li, Hao; Liu, Feng; Zheng, Xiaofei; Wang, Shengqi; Bo, Xiaochen; Shu, Wenjie

    2015-01-01

    DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs) define the accessible chromatin landscape and have revolutionised the discovery of distinct cis-regulatory elements in diverse organisms. Here, we report the first comprehensive map of human transcription factor binding site (TFBS)-clustered regions using Gaussian kernel density estimation based on genome-wide mapping of the TFBSs in 133 human cell and tissue types. Approximately 1.6 million distinct TFBS-clustered regions, collectively spanning 27.7% of the human genome, were discovered. The TFBS complexity assigned to each TFBS-clustered region was highly correlated with genomic location, cell selectivity, evolutionary conservation, sequence features, and functional roles. An integrative analysis of these regions using ENCODE data revealed transcription factor occupancy, transcriptional activity, histone modification, DNA methylation, and chromatin structures that varied based on TFBS complexity. Furthermore, we found that we could recreate lineage-branching relationships by simple clustering of the TFBS-clustered regions from terminally differentiated cells. Based on these findings, a model of transcriptional regulation determined by TFBS complexity is proposed. PMID:25682954

  20. High time resolution observations of HF cross-modulation within the D region ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langston, J.; Moore, R. C.

    2013-05-01

    High-frequency cross-modulation is employed to probe the D region ionosphere during HF heating experiments at the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) observatory. We have adapted Fejer's well-known cross-modulation probing method to determine the extent of ionospheric conductivity modification in the D region ionosphere with high (5 μsec) time resolution. We demonstrate that the method can be used to analyze D region conductivity changes produced by HF heating both during the initial stages of heating and under steady state conditions. The sequence of CW probe pulses used allow the separation of cross-modulation effects that occur as the probe pulse propagates upward and downward through the heated region. We discuss how this probing technique can be applied to benefit ELF/VLF wave generation experiments and ionospheric irregularities experiments at higher altitudes. We demonstrate that large phase changes equivalent to Doppler shift velocities >60 km/s can be imposed on HF waves propagating through the heated D region ionosphere.

  1. The population of galaxies in the central region of the Antlia Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith-Castelli, A. V.; Bassino, L. P.; Cellone, S. A.; Richtler, T.; Dirsch, B.; Infante, L.; Aruta, C.; Gómez, M.

    We present results of the study of the galaxy population in the central region of the Antlia cluster. Our work is based on Washington photometric observations obtained with the MOSAIC camera of the 4-m Blanco telescope (CTIO), as well as on spectra taken with the IMACS camera at the Magellan I Baade 6.5-m telescope (Las Campanas Observatory). Our main result is that early-type dwarf galaxies that are confirmed or likely members of Antlia define a very narrow relation in the colour-magnitude diagram (CMD). Since in this diagram, the location of different types of galaxies is also tightly related to their membership status, we obtained as an additional result that the CMD can be used to identify background galaxies, which are a significant source of contamination.

  2. Absorption Cross Sections of Hot Hydrocarbons in the 3 μm Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beale, Christopher A.; Hargreaves, Robert J.; Buzan, Eric M.; Bernath, Peter F.

    2016-06-01

    The 3 μm region of ethane, propane and propene contains a number of vibrational modes dominated by various C-H stretches. Transmission spectra for these hydrocarbons have been obtained at high resolution (0.005 wn) and at elevated temperatures (up to 773 K). The integrated absorption cross sections over the isolated 3 μm region are calibrated to those from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in order to obtain an effective pressure for the sample. With the Jovian Infrared Auroral Mapper (JIRAM on Juno) due to arrive at Jupiter in July 2016, these cross sections will find use in the study of hot emission from hydrocarbons in the auroral regions of Jupiter. They are also appropriate for modeling atmospheres of hot Jupiter exoplanets and brown dwarfs.

  3. Coronal Mass Ejections from the Same Active Region Cluster: Two Different Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremades, H.; Mandrini, C. H.; Schmieder, B.; Crescitelli, A. M.

    2015-06-01

    The cluster formed by active regions (ARs) NOAA 11121 and 11123, approximately located on the solar central meridian on 11 November 2010, is of great scientific interest. This complex was the site of violent flux emergence and the source of a series of Earth-directed events on the same day. The onset of the events was nearly simultaneously observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) telescope onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and the Extreme-Ultraviolet Imagers (EUVI) on the Sun-Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation (SECCHI) suite of telescopes onboard the Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) twin spacecraft. The progression of these events in the low corona was tracked by the Large Angle Spectroscopic Coronagraphs (LASCO) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and the SECCHI/COR coronagraphs on STEREO. SDO and SOHO imagers provided data from the Earth's perspective, whilst the STEREO twin instruments procured images from the orthogonal directions. This spatial configuration of spacecraft allowed optimum simultaneous observations of the AR cluster and the coronal mass ejections that originated in it. Quadrature coronal observations provided by STEREO revealed many more ejective events than were detected from Earth. Furthermore, joint observations by SDO/AIA and STEREO/SECCHI EUVI of the source region indicate that all events classified by GOES as X-ray flares had an ejective coronal counterpart in quadrature observations. These results directly affect current space weather forecasting because alarms might be missed when there is a lack of solar observations in a view direction perpendicular to the Sun-Earth line.

  4. Double diffractive cross-section measurement in the forward region at the LHC.

    PubMed

    Antchev, G; Aspell, P; Atanassov, I; Avati, V; Baechler, J; Berardi, V; Berretti, M; Bossini, E; Bottigli, U; Bozzo, M; Brücken, E; Buzzo, A; Cafagna, F S; Catanesi, M G; Covault, C; Csanád, M; Csörgő, T; Deile, M; Eggert, K; Eremin, V; Ferro, F; Fiergolski, A; Garcia, F; Giani, S; Greco, V; Grzanka, L; Heino, J; Hilden, T; Karev, A; Kašpar, J; Kopal, J; Kundrát, V; Kurvinen, K; Lami, S; Latino, G; Lauhakangas, R; Leszko, T; Lippmaa, E; Lippmaa, J; Lokajíček, M; Losurdo, L; Lo Vetere, M; Lucas Rodríguez, F; Macrí, M; Mäki, T; Mercadante, A; Minafra, N; Minutoli, S; Nemes, F; Niewiadomski, H; Oliveri, E; Oljemark, F; Orava, R; Oriunno, M; Österberg, K; Palazzi, P; Procházka, J; Quinto, M; Radermacher, E; Radicioni, E; Ravotti, F; Robutti, E; Ropelewski, L; Ruggiero, G; Saarikko, H; Scribano, A; Smajek, J; Snoeys, W; Sziklai, J; Taylor, C; Turini, N; Vacek, V; Vítek, M; Welti, J; Whitmore, J; Wyszkowski, P

    2013-12-27

    The first double diffractive cross-section measurement in the very forward region has been carried out by the TOTEM experiment at the LHC with a center-of-mass energy of sqrt[s]=7  TeV. By utilizing the very forward TOTEM tracking detectors T1 and T2, which extend up to |η|=6.5, a clean sample of double diffractive pp events was extracted. From these events, we determined the cross section σDD=(116±25)  μb for events where both diffractive systems have 4.7<|η|min<6.5.

  5. Regional structural cross sections, mid-permian to quaternary strata, Texas Panhandle and Eastern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    McGookey, D.A.; Gustavson, T.C.; Hoadley, A.D.

    1989-01-01

    Twelve regional cross sections (with text) of the Palo Duro, Dalhart, and Anadarko Basins illustrating the tabular geometry of Permian evaporite beds, areas where salt has been lost by dissolution, and the effects of dissolution-induced subsidence on Permian and post-Permian strata. The authors identify areas of dissolution beneath the High Plains, the Caprock Escarpment, the Rolling Plains, the Pecos Plains, and along the Canadian River valley. The cross sections are printed at a vertical scale of 1 inch equals 400 feet and a horizontal scale of 1 inch equals approximately 8 miles and were constructed using geophysical logs, sample logs, and surficial geologic data.

  6. Double diffractive cross-section measurement in the forward region at the LHC.

    PubMed

    Antchev, G; Aspell, P; Atanassov, I; Avati, V; Baechler, J; Berardi, V; Berretti, M; Bossini, E; Bottigli, U; Bozzo, M; Brücken, E; Buzzo, A; Cafagna, F S; Catanesi, M G; Covault, C; Csanád, M; Csörgő, T; Deile, M; Eggert, K; Eremin, V; Ferro, F; Fiergolski, A; Garcia, F; Giani, S; Greco, V; Grzanka, L; Heino, J; Hilden, T; Karev, A; Kašpar, J; Kopal, J; Kundrát, V; Kurvinen, K; Lami, S; Latino, G; Lauhakangas, R; Leszko, T; Lippmaa, E; Lippmaa, J; Lokajíček, M; Losurdo, L; Lo Vetere, M; Lucas Rodríguez, F; Macrí, M; Mäki, T; Mercadante, A; Minafra, N; Minutoli, S; Nemes, F; Niewiadomski, H; Oliveri, E; Oljemark, F; Orava, R; Oriunno, M; Österberg, K; Palazzi, P; Procházka, J; Quinto, M; Radermacher, E; Radicioni, E; Ravotti, F; Robutti, E; Ropelewski, L; Ruggiero, G; Saarikko, H; Scribano, A; Smajek, J; Snoeys, W; Sziklai, J; Taylor, C; Turini, N; Vacek, V; Vítek, M; Welti, J; Whitmore, J; Wyszkowski, P

    2013-12-27

    The first double diffractive cross-section measurement in the very forward region has been carried out by the TOTEM experiment at the LHC with a center-of-mass energy of sqrt[s]=7  TeV. By utilizing the very forward TOTEM tracking detectors T1 and T2, which extend up to |η|=6.5, a clean sample of double diffractive pp events was extracted. From these events, we determined the cross section σDD=(116±25)  μb for events where both diffractive systems have 4.7<|η|min<6.5. PMID:24483791

  7. Neutron cross section covariances in the resonance region: 52Cr, 56Fe, 58Ni

    SciTech Connect

    Oblozinsky, P.; Cho, Y.-S.; Mattoon, C.M.; Mughabghab, S.F.

    2010-08-03

    We evaluated covariances for neutron capture and elastic scattering cross sections on major structural materials, {sup 52}Cr, {sup 56}Fe and {sup 58}Ni, in the resonance region which extends beyond 800 keV for each of them. Use was made of the recently developed covariance formalism based on kernel approximation along with data in the Atlas of Neutron Resonances. The data of most interest for AFCI applications, elastic scattering cross section uncertainties at energies above about few hundred keV, are on the level of about 12% for {sup 52}Cr, 7-8% for {sup 56}Fe and 5-6% for {sup 58}Ni.

  8. Partial-wave analysis of n +241Am reaction cross sections in the resonance region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguere, G.; Bouland, O.; Kopecky, S.; Lampoudis, C.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Plompen, A.; Gunsing, F.; Sage, C.; Sirakov, I.

    2015-07-01

    Cross sections for neutron-induced reactions of 241Am in the resonance region have been evaluated. Results of time-of-flight cross section experiments carried out at the GELINA, LANSCE, ORELA and Saclay facilities have been combined with optical model calculations to derive consistent cross sections from the thermal energy region up to the continuum region. Resolved resonance parameters were derived from a resonance shape analysis of transmissions, capture yields, and fission yields in the energy region up to 150 eV using the refit code. From a statistical analysis of these parameters, a neutron strength function (104S0=1.01 ±0.12 ), mean level spacing (D0=0.60 ±0.01 eV) and average radiation width (<Γγ 0>=43.3 ±1.1 meV) for s -wave resonances were obtained. Neutron strength functions for higher partial waves (l >0 ) together with channel and effective scattering radii were deduced from calculations based on a complex mean-field optical model potential, applying an equivalent hard-sphere scattering radius approximation.

  9. Factors associated with genotype clustering of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in an ethnically diverse region of southern California, United States

    PubMed Central

    Rodwell, Timothy C.; Kapasi, Anokhi J.; Barnes, Richard F.W.; Moser, Kathleen S.

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) isolates with identical genotypes, found in different patients, are most likely the result of recent transmission. Mtb strains with closely related genotypes, called clonal complexes, are most likely derived from one another. We examined Mtb genotypes from southern California TB patients from 2005 through 2008 to complete the first comprehensive molecular epidemiology analysis of this complicated and ethnically diverse region. Mtb genotypes were characterized with spoligo-type and MIRU-12 typing. MIRU-VNTRplus was utilized to assign genotypes to global lineages and complete cluster analyses. Associations between patient characteristics and genotype clustering and clonal complexes were evaluated using logistic regression and frequency analysis. Of 832 Mtb isolates analyzed, 480 (58%) fell into 94 strain clusters. The majority of isolates were identified as being in the EA1 (31%), LAM (17%) and Haarlem (15%) lineages, but 13 different lineages were found in this region. TB patients with clustered isolates were more likely to be homeless (AOR 3.44, 95% CI 1.65, 7.18) and male (AOR 1.57, 95% CI 1.17, 2.10). Of the 480 clustered strains, 388 aggregated into six clonal complexes. Over 45% of reported TB cases were clustered and likely resulted from recent transmission events. Patients with clustered Mtb isolates that were grouped into clonal complexes had unique socio-demographic characteristics. These data suggest that TB is being transmitted in relatively insular community networks defined by race/ethnicity and country of origin. The addition of clonal complex analysis to simple cluster analysis provides important public health insights into the local transmission of TB in ethnically diverse regions with diverse Mtb genotypes. PMID:22982156

  10. Metallicities and radial velocities of two stellar clusters located in the outer regions of the Small Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramajo, L. V.; Parisi, M. C.; Clariá, J. J.; Geisler, D.; Vásquez, S.; Da Costa, G.; Grebel, E. K.

    2016-08-01

    We studied near-infrared spectra of red giant stars in two Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) clusters. We used the Caii lines to measure radial velocities as well as the equivalent widths of these lines to determine metallicity. The two studied clusters (L32 and L38) are projected on the outer regions of the SMC so they are particularly interesting to examine the possible existence of a change of sign in the metallicity gradient in the outer regions, as suggested by a recent study.

  11. Characteristics of quasi-static potential structures observed in the auroral return current region by Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marklund, G. T.; Karlsson, T.; Figueiredo, S.; Johansson, T.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; André, M.; Buchert, S.; Kistler, L. M.; Fazakerley, A.

    2004-12-01

    Temporal and spatial characteristics of intense quasi-static electric fields and associated electric potential structures in the return current region are discussed using Cluster observations at geocentric distances of about 5 Earth radii. Results are presented from four Cluster encounters with such acceleration structures to illustrate common as well as different features of such structures. The electric field structures are characterized by (all values are projected to 100 km altitude) peak amplitudes of ≍1V/m, bipolar or unipolar profiles, perpendicular scale sizes of ≍10km, occurrence at auroral plasma boundaries associated with plasma density gradients, downward field-aligned currents of ≍10µA/m2, and upward electron beams with characteristic energies of a few hundred eV to a fewkeV. Two events illustrate the temporal evolution of bipolar, diverging electric field structures, indicative of positive U-shaped potentials increasing in magnitude from less than 1kV to a few kV on a few 100s time scale. This is also the typical formation time for ionospheric plasma cavities, which are connected to the potential structure and suggested to evolve hand-in-hand with these. In one of these events an energy decay of inverted-V ions was observed in the upward field-aligned current region prior to the acceleration potential increase in the adjacent downward current region, possibly suggesting that a potential redistribution took place between the two current branches. The other two events were characterized by intense unipolar electric fields, indicative of S-shaped potential contours and were encountered at the polar cap boundary. The total observation time for these events was typically 10-20s, too short for monitoring the evolution of the structure, but yet of interest for revealing their short term stability. The locations of the two bipolar events at the poleward boundary of the central plasma sheet and of the two unipolar events at the polar cap boundary

  12. Cluster and regional influences on suicide in a Southwestern American Indian tribe.

    PubMed

    Wissow, L S; Walkup, J; Barlow, A; Reid, R; Kane, S

    2001-11-01

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death among American Indian youth. Elevated rates of suicide in Indian communities have been attributed both to outbreaks and to regional trends. We assessed the contribution of these two factors for a single tribe, and attempted to define a profile of individuals at risk. Data came from the tribe's registry of suicide attempts and completions for 1990-1993 and analysis of death certificates for the period 1985-1996. Using combined tribal and death certificate data, the average annual (age-adjusted) rate of completed suicide among tribal members was 44.7/100,000 for 1990-1993. Within the 45 suicide deaths and serious attempts in this time period, we identified one grouping of seven cases taking place in a 40-day period. All seven involved hanging and youth (13-28 years old). Using death certificate data alone, the average annual rate of suicide death for non-natives in the surrounding county in the period 1985-1996 was 22.7/100,000. Age-adjusted to the county population, the tribal rate for the same period was not significantly different (24.6/100,000). Tribal and county suicide patterns differed by age distribution and method but not by gender. We concluded that both regional trends and clustering contribute to suicide in this community. Further prevention efforts may need to focus on both unique tribal characteristics and shared factors among non-native neighbors.

  13. Images in the rocket ultraviolet - Young clusters in H II regions of M83

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohlin, Ralph C.; Cornett, Robert H.; Hill, Jesse K.; Stecher, Theodore P.

    1990-01-01

    UV images of M83 at 1540 and 2360 A reveal 18 compact sources that are associated with H II regions. E(B - V) values were estimated individually from the observed UV and optical colors and the Galactic UV extinction curve, using theoretical flux distributions. The dereddened colors are consistent with ages up to 3 x 10 to the 6th yr. A maximum possible age of 6.5 x 10 to the 6th yr is obtained assuming foreground reddening only. The distribution of observed colors is consistent with the Galactic reddening curve but not with enhanced far-UV extinction, as in the LMC 30 Dor curve. The H-alpha fluxes suggest either that dust within the H II regions absorbs up to 70 percent of the Lyman continuum radiation or that a similar fraction of the H-alpha flux is below the surface brightness detection limit. Cluster mass estimates depend on the range of stellar masses present but are probably in the range 10,000-100,000 solar masses.

  14. Vacuum ultraviolet imagery of the Virgo Cluster region. II. Total far-ultraviolet flux of galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Kodaira, K.; Watanabe, T.; Onaka, T.; Tanaka, W. Tokyo Univ. )

    1990-11-01

    The total flux in the far-ultraviolet region around 150 nm was measured for more than 40 galaxies in the central region of the Virgo Cluster, using two imaging telescopes on board a sounding rocket. The observed far-ultraviolet flux shows positive correlations with the H I 21 cm flux and the far-infrared flux for spiral galaxies, and with the X-ray flux and the radio continuum flux for elliptical galaxies. The former correlations of spiral galaxies are interpreted in terms of star formation activity, which indicates substantial depletion in the Virgo galaxies in accordance with the H I stripping. The latter correlations of elliptical galaxies indicate possible far-ultraviolet sources of young population, in addition to evolved hot stars. Far-ultraviolet fluxes from two dwarf elliptical galaxies were obtained tentatively, indicating star formation activity in elliptical galaxies. A high-resolution UV imagery by HST would be effective to distinguish the young population and the old population in elliptical galaxies. 81 refs.

  15. Infrared Mass-to-Light Profile throughout the Infall Region of the Coma Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rines, K.; Geller, M. J.; Kurtz, M. J.; Diaferio, A.; Jarrett, T. H.; Huchra, J. P.

    2001-11-01

    Using a redshift survey of 1779 galaxies and photometry from the Two Micron All Sky Survey covering 200 deg2, we calculate independent mass and light profiles for the infall region of the Coma Cluster of galaxies. The redshift survey is complete to Ks=12.2 (622 galaxies), 1.2 mag fainter than M*Ks at the distance of Coma. We confirm the mass profile obtained by Geller, Diaferio, and Kurtz. The enclosed mass-to-light ratio measured in the Ks band is approximately constant to a radius of 10 h-1 Mpc, where M/LKs=75+/-23 h Msolar/Lsolar, in agreement with weak-lensing results on similar scales. Within 2.5 h-1 Mpc, X-ray estimates yield similar mass-to-light ratios (67+/-32 h). The constant enclosed mass-to-light ratio with radius suggests that the K-band light from bright galaxies in clusters traces the total mass on scales <~10 h-1 Mpc. Uncertainties in the mass profile imply that the mass-to-light ratio inside r200 may be as much as a factor of 2.5 larger than that outside r200. These data demonstrate that the K-band light is not positively biased with respect to the mass; we cannot rule out antibias. These results imply that Ωm=0.17+/-0.05. Estimates of possible variations in M/LKs with radius suggest that the density parameter is no smaller than Ωm~0.08.

  16. High Resolution Spectra of Carbon Dioxide Clusters in the νb{3} Band Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKellar, A. R. W.; Afshari, Mahin; Dehghany, M.; Moazzen-Ahmadi, N.

    2010-06-01

    There is widespread interest in carbon dioxide clusters from a variety of experimental and theoretical perspectives. But in terms of high resolution spectroscopy, the only definitive information concerns (CO_2)_2 and (CO_2)_3. The dimer has a planar slipped parallel geometry with C2h symmetry. Two isomers are known for the trimer: a planar cyclic form with C3h symmetry and a sort of "barrel-shaped" form with C_2 symmetry. Here we analyze two new bands in the CO_2 νb{3} region. The first is a dimer combination band near 2382 wn whose assignment raises interesting questions about the intermolecular vibrations of (CO_2)_2. The second band is a trimer band near 2370 wn which is very similar to one we observed previously near 2364 wn. We assign it to a combination involving another out-of-plane vibration of the cyclic trimer. In addition to these newly assigned bands, we also discuss a number of clear and (mostly) well-resolved bands which apparently must belong to (CO_2)_N clusters with N in the range 6 ˜ 15. Although they cannot be precisely assigned at this time, these bands offer intriguing future prospects for learning more about the structures and vibrational dynamics of CO_2 clusters in a challenging and important size range. K.W. Jucks, Z.S. Huang, D. Dayton, R.E. Miller, and W.J. Lafferty, J. Chem. Phys. 86, 4341 (1987); M.A. Walsh, T.H. England, T.R. Dyke, and B.J. Howard, Chem. Phys. Lett. 142, 265 (1987). G.T. Fraser, A.S. Pine, W.J. Lafferty and R.E. Miller, J. Chem. Phys. 87, 1502 (1987). M.J. Weida and D.J. Nesbitt, J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10210 (1996). H. Chen and J.C. Light, J. Chem. Phys. 112, 5070 (2000). M. Dehghany, M. Afshari, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, and A.R.W. McKellar, J. Chem. Phys. 128, 064308 (2008).

  17. Imaging active faulting in a region of distributed deformation from the joint clustering of focal mechanisms and hypocentres: Application to the Azores-western Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custódio, Susana; Lima, Vânia; Vales, Dina; Cesca, Simone; Carrilho, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    The matching between linear trends of hypocentres and fault planes indicated by focal mechanisms (FMs) is frequently used to infer the location and geometry of active faults. This practice works well in regions of fast lithospheric deformation, where earthquake patterns are clear and major structures accommodate the bulk of deformation, but typically fails in regions of slow and distributed deformation. We present a new joint FM and hypocentre cluster algorithm that is able to detect systematically the consistency between hypocentre lineations and FMs, even in regions of distributed deformation. We apply the method to the Azores-western Mediterranean region, with particular emphasis on western Iberia. The analysis relies on a compilation of hypocentres and FMs taken from regional and global earthquake catalogues, academic theses and technical reports, complemented by new FMs for western Iberia. The joint clustering algorithm images both well-known and new seismo-tectonic features. The Azores triple junction is characterised by FMs with vertical pressure (P) axes, in good agreement with the divergent setting, and the Iberian domain is characterised by NW-SE oriented P axes, indicating a response of the lithosphere to the ongoing oblique convergence between Nubia and Eurasia. Several earthquakes remain unclustered in the western Mediterranean domain, which may indicate a response to local stresses. The major regions of consistent faulting that we identify are the mid-Atlantic ridge, the Terceira rift, the Trans-Alboran shear zone and the north coast of Algeria. In addition, other smaller earthquake clusters present a good match between epicentre lineations and FM fault planes. These clusters may signal single active faults or wide zones of distributed but consistent faulting. Mainland Portugal is dominated by strike-slip earthquakes with fault planes coincident with the predominant NNE-SSW and WNW-ESE oriented earthquake lineations. Clusters offshore SW Iberia are

  18. Analysis of Hydrogen Bonding in the OH Stretch Region of Protonated Water Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzugan, Laura C.; McCoy, Anne B.

    2015-06-01

    There are two types of bands in the OH stretch region of the vibrational spectra of hydrogen-bonded complexes; narrow peaks due to isolated OH stretches and a broadened feature reflecting the OH stretches involved in strong hydrogen bonding. This second region can be as wide as several hundred wavenumbers and is shifted to the red of the narrow peaks. In this work we focus on H+(H2O)n, where n = 3 or 4. Both of these systems exhibit a very intense, broad H-bonded band. This breadth arises from coupling between the OH stretches and the low frequency modes. To understand the broadening observed in the spectra, we have developed a computational scheme in which we sample displacement geometries from the equilibrium structure based on the ground state harmonic wavefunction. Then we combine the harmonic spectra in the OH stretch region for each computed geometry to generate the spectrum for each protonated water structure. Based on the large anharmonicities at play in these modes, we extend the approach using second-order perturbation theory to solve the reduced-dimensional Hamiltonian that involves only the HOH bends and the OH stretches. This is done by expressing the normal modes used to expand the Hamiltonian as linear combinations of internal coordinates. In this talk we will describe the approach used for these anharmonic calculations and report preliminary results for these protonated water clusters. Relph, R. A.; Guasco, T. L.; Elliot, B. M.; Kamrath, M. Z.; McCoy, A. B.; Steele, R. P.; Schofield, D. P.; Jordan, K. D.; Viggiano, A. A.; Ferguson, E. E.; Johnson, M. A. Science, 2010, 327(5963), 308-312. Johnson, C. J.; Dzugan, L. C.; Wolk, A. B.; Leavitt, C. M.; Fournier, J. A.; McCoy, A. B.; Johnson, M. A. J. Phys. Chem. A, 2014, 118, 7590-7597.

  19. Sejong Open Cluster Survey (SOS) - V. The Active Star Forming Region SH 2-255-257

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Beomdu; Sung, Hwankyung; Hur, Hyeonoh; Lee, Byeong-Cheol; Bessell, Michael S.; Kim, Jinyoung S.; Lee, Kang Hwan; Park, Byeong-Gon; Jeong, Gwanghui

    2015-12-01

    There is much observational evidence that active star formation is taking place in the H II regions Sh 2-255-257. We present a photometric study of this star forming region (SFR) using imaging data obtained in passbands from the optical to the mid-infrared, in order to study the star formation process. A total of 218 members were identified using various selection criteria based on their observational properties. The SFR is reddened by at least E(B-V) = 0.8 mag, and the reddening law toward the region is normal (R_V = 3.1). From the zero-age main sequence fitting method it is confirmed that the SFR is 2.1 ± 0.3 kpc from the Sun. The median age of the identified members is estimated to be about 1.3 Myr from a comparison of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (HRD) with stellar evolutionary models. The initial mass function (IMF) is derived from the HRD and the near-infrared (J, J-H) color-magnitude diagram. The slope of the IMF is about Γ = -1.6 ± 0.1, which is slightly steeper than that of the Salpeter/Kroupa IMF. It implies that low-mass star formation is dominant in the SFR. The sum of the masses of all the identified members provides the lower limit of the cluster mass (169 M_{⊙}). We also analyzed the spectral energy distribution (SED) of pre-main sequence stars using the SED fitting tool of Robitaille et al., and confirm that there is a significant discrepancy between stellar mass and age obtained from two different methods based on the SED fitting tool and the HRD.

  20. Cross-modal activation of auditory regions during visuo-spatial working memory in early deafness.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hao; Qin, Wen; Liang, Meng; Ming, Dong; Wan, Baikun; Li, Qiang; Yu, Chunshui

    2015-09-01

    Early deafness can reshape deprived auditory regions to enable the processing of signals from the remaining intact sensory modalities. Cross-modal activation has been observed in auditory regions during non-auditory tasks in early deaf subjects. In hearing subjects, visual working memory can evoke activation of the visual cortex, which further contributes to behavioural performance. In early deaf subjects, however, whether and how auditory regions participate in visual working memory remains unclear. We hypothesized that auditory regions may be involved in visual working memory processing and activation of auditory regions may contribute to the superior behavioural performance of early deaf subjects. In this study, 41 early deaf subjects (22 females and 19 males, age range: 20-26 years, age of onset of deafness < 2 years) and 40 age- and gender-matched hearing controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during a visuo-spatial delayed recognition task that consisted of encoding, maintenance and recognition stages. The early deaf subjects exhibited faster reaction times on the spatial working memory task than did the hearing controls. Compared with hearing controls, deaf subjects exhibited increased activation in the superior temporal gyrus bilaterally during the recognition stage. This increased activation amplitude predicted faster and more accurate working memory performance in deaf subjects. Deaf subjects also had increased activation in the superior temporal gyrus bilaterally during the maintenance stage and in the right superior temporal gyrus during the encoding stage. These increased activation amplitude also predicted faster reaction times on the spatial working memory task in deaf subjects. These findings suggest that cross-modal plasticity occurs in auditory association areas in early deaf subjects. These areas are involved in visuo-spatial working memory. Furthermore, amplitudes of cross-modal activation during the maintenance stage were

  1. A cross-sectional, randomized cluster sample survey of household vulnerability to extreme heat among slum dwellers in ahmedabad, india.

    PubMed

    Tran, Kathy V; Azhar, Gulrez S; Nair, Rajesh; Knowlton, Kim; Jaiswal, Anjali; Sheffield, Perry; Mavalankar, Dileep; Hess, Jeremy

    2013-06-18

    Extreme heat is a significant public health concern in India; extreme heat hazards are projected to increase in frequency and severity with climate change. Few of the factors driving population heat vulnerability are documented, though poverty is a presumed risk factor. To facilitate public health preparedness, an assessment of factors affecting vulnerability among slum dwellers was conducted in summer 2011 in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. Indicators of heat exposure, susceptibility to heat illness, and adaptive capacity, all of which feed into heat vulnerability, was assessed through a cross-sectional household survey using randomized multistage cluster sampling. Associations between heat-related morbidity and vulnerability factors were identified using multivariate logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to account for clustering effects. Age, preexisting medical conditions, work location, and access to health information and resources were associated with self-reported heat illness. Several of these variables were unique to this study. As sociodemographics, occupational heat exposure, and access to resources were shown to increase vulnerability, future interventions (e.g., health education) might target specific populations among Ahmedabad urban slum dwellers to reduce vulnerability to extreme heat. Surveillance and evaluations of future interventions may also be worthwhile.

  2. Absolute absorption cross-section measurements of ozone in the wavelength region 238-335 nm and the temperature dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshino, K.; Freeman, D. E.; Esmond, J. R.; Parkinson, W. H.

    1988-01-01

    The absolute absorption cross-section of ozone has been experimentally determined at the temperatures 195, 228, and 295 K at several discrete wavelengths in the 238-335-nm region. The present results for ozone at 295 K are found to be in agreement with those of Hearn (1961). Absolute cross-section measurements of ozone at 195 K have confirmed previous (Freeman et al., 1984) relative cross-section measurements throughout the 240-335-nm region.

  3. Regional incentives and patient cross-border mobility: evidence from the Italian experience

    PubMed Central

    Brenna, Elenka; Spandonaro, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Background: In recent years, accreditation of private hospitals followed by decentralisation of the Italian National Health Service (NHS) into 21 regional health systems has provided a good empirical ground for investigating the Tiebout principle of "voting with their feet". We examine the infra-regional trade-off between greater patient choice (due to an increase in hospital services supply) and financial equilibrium, and we relate it to the significant phenomenon of Cross-Border Mobility (CBM) between Italian regions. Focusing on the rules supervising the financial agreements between regional authorities and providers of hospital care, we find incentives for private accredited providers in attracting patient inflows. Methods: The analysis is undertaken from an institutional, regulatory and empirical perspective. We select a sample of five regions with higher positive CBM balance and we examine regional regulations governing the contractual agreements between purchasers and providers of hospital care. According to this sample, we provide a statistical analysis of CBM and apply a Regional Attraction Ability Index (RAAI), aimed at testing patient preferences for private/public accredited providers. Results: We find that this index is systematically higher for private providers, both in the case of distance/boundary patients and of excellence/general hospitals. Conclusion: Conclusions address both financial issues regarding the coverage of regional healthcare systems and equity issues on patient healthcare access. They also raise concerns on the new European Union (EU) directive inherent to patient mobility across Europe. PMID:26029895

  4. Regulatory Feedback Loop of Two phz Gene Clusters through 5′-Untranslated Regions in Pseudomonas sp. M18

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yaqian; Du, Xilin; Lu, Zhi John; Wu, Daqiang; Zhao, Yilei; Ren, Bin; Huang, Jiaofang; Huang, Xianqing; Xu, Yuhong; Xu, Yuquan

    2011-01-01

    Background Phenazines are important compounds produced by pseudomonads and other bacteria. Two phz gene clusters called phzA1-G1 and phzA2-G2, respectively, were found in the genome of Pseudomonas sp. M18, an effective biocontrol agent, which is highly homologous to the opportunistic human pathogen P. aeruginosa PAO1, however little is known about the correlation between the expressions of two phz gene clusters. Methodology/Principal Findings Two chromosomal insertion inactivated mutants for the two gene clusters were constructed respectively and the correlation between the expressions of two phz gene clusters was investigated in strain M18. Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) molecules produced from phzA2-G2 gene cluster are able to auto-regulate expression itself and activate the expression of phzA1-G1 gene cluster in a circulated amplification pattern. However, the post-transcriptional expression of phzA1-G1 transcript was blocked principally through 5′-untranslated region (UTR). In contrast, the phzA2-G2 gene cluster was transcribed to a lesser extent and translated efficiently and was negatively regulated by the GacA signal transduction pathway, mainly at a post-transcriptional level. Conclusions/Significance A single molecule, PCA, produced in different quantities by the two phz gene clusters acted as the functional mediator and the two phz gene clusters developed a specific regulatory mechanism which acts through 5′-UTR to transfer a single, but complex bacterial signaling event in Pseudomonas sp. strain M18. PMID:21559370

  5. User’s guide for GcClust—An R package for clustering of regional geochemical data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellefsen, Karl J.; Smith, David B.

    2016-04-08

    GcClust is a software package developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for statistical clustering of regional geochemical data, and similar data such as regional mineralogical data. Functions within the software package are written in the R statistical programming language. These functions, their documentation, and a copy of the user’s guide are bundled together in R’s unit of sharable code, which is called a “package.” The user’s guide includes step-by-step instructions showing how the functions are used to cluster data and to evaluate the clustering results. These functions are demonstrated in this report using test data, which are included in the package.

  6. Imaging active faults in a region of distributed deformation from joint focal mechanism and hypocenter clustering: Application to western Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custodio, S.; Lima, V.; Vales, D.; Carrilho, F.; Cesca, S.

    2015-12-01

    Mainland Portugal, on the SW edge of the European continent, is located directly north of the boundary between the Eurasian and Nubian plates. It lies in a region of slow lithospheric deformation, which has generated some of the largest earthquakes in Europe, both intraplate (mainland) and interplate (offshore). The seismicity of mainland Portugal and its adjacent offshore has been repeatedly classified as diffuse. We analyse the instrumental earthquake catalog for western Iberia, enriched with data from recent dense broadband deployments. We show that although the plate boundary south of Portugal is diffuse, in that deformation is accommodated along several distributed faults rather than along one long linear plate boundary, the seismicity itself is not diffuse. Rather, when located using high quality data, earthquakes collapse into well-defined clusters and lineations. We then present a new joint focal mechanism and hypocenter cluster algorithm that is able to extract coherent information between hypocenter locations and focal mechanisms. We apply the method to the Azores-western Mediterranean region, with emphasis on western Iberia. In addition to identifying well-known seismo-tectonic features, the joint clustering algorithm identifies eight new clusters of earthquakes with a good match between the directions of epicentre lineations and focal mechanism fault planes. These clusters may signal single active faults or wider fault zones accommodating a consistent type of faulting. Mainland Portugal is dominated by strike-slip faulting, consistent with the NNE-SSW and WNW-ESE oriented lineations. The region offshore SW Iberia displays clusters that are either predominantly strike-slip or reverse, indicating slip partitioning. This work shows that the study of low-magnitude earthquakes using dense seismic deployments is a powerful tool to study lithospheric deformation in slowly deforming regions, where high-magnitude earthquakes occur with long recurrence intervals.

  7. Prospects for Formation and Development of the Geographical (Territorial) Industrial Clusters in West Kazakhstan Region of the Republic of Kazakhstan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imashev, Eduard Zh.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop and implement an economic and geographic approach to forming and developing geographic (territorial) industrial clusters in regions of Kazakhstan. The purpose necessitates the accomplishment of the following scientific objectives: to investigate scientific approaches and experience of territorial economic…

  8. NEUTRON CROSS SECTION EVALUATIONS OF FISSION PRODUCTS BELOW THE FAST ENERGY REGION

    SciTech Connect

    OH,S.Y.; CHANG,J.; MUGHABGHAB,S.

    2000-05-11

    Neutron cross section evaluations of the fission-product isotopes, {sup 95}Mo, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 101}Ru, {sup 103}Rh, {sup 105}Pd, {sup 109}Ag, {sup 131}Xe, {sup 133}Cs, {sup 141}Pr, {sup 141}Nd, {sup 147}Sm, {sup 149}Sm, {sup 150}Sm, {sup 151}Sm, {sup 152}Sm, {sup 153}Eu, {sup 155}Gd, and {sup 157}Gd were carried out below the fast neutron energy region within the framework of the BNL-KAERI international collaboration. In the thermal energy region, the energy dependence of the various cross-sections was calculated by applying the multi-level Breit-Wigner formalism. In particular, the strong energy dependence of the coherent scattering lengths of {sup 155}Gd and {sup 157}Gd were determined and were compared with recent calculations of Lynn and Seeger. In the resonance region, the recommended resonance parameters, reported in the BNL compilation, were updated by considering resonance parameter information published in the literature since 1981. The s-wave and, if available, p-wave reduced neutron widths were analyzed in terms of the Porter-Thomas distribution to determine the average level spacings and the neutron strength functions. Average radiative widths were also calculated from measured values of resolved energy resonances. The average resonance parameters determined in this study were compared with those in the BNL and other compilations, as well as the ENDF/B-VI, JEF-2.2, and JENDL-3.2 data libraries. The unresolved capture cross sections of these isotopes, computed with the determined average resonance parameters, were compared with measurements, as well as the ENDF/B-VI evaluations. To achieve agreement with the measurements, in a few cases minor adjustments in the average resonance parameters were made. Because of astrophysical interest, the Maxwellian capture cross sections of these nuclides at a neutron temperature of 30 keV were computed and were compared with other compilations and evaluations.

  9. ISW-galaxy cross correlation: a probe of dark energy clustering and distribution of dark matter tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosravi, Shahram; Mollazadeh, Amir; Baghram, Shant

    2016-09-01

    Cross correlation of the Integrated Sachs-Wolfe signal (ISW) with the galaxy distribution in late time is a promising tool for constraining the dark energy properties. Here, we study the effect of dark energy clustering on the ISW-galaxy cross correlation and demonstrate the fact that the bias parameter between the distribution of the galaxies and the underlying dark matter introduces a degeneracy and complications. We argue that as the galaxy's host halo formation time is different from the observation time, we have to consider the evolution of the halo bias parameter. It will be shown that any deviation from ΛCDM model will change the evolution of the bias as well. Therefore, it is deduced that the halo bias depends strongly on the sub-sample of galaxies which is chosen for cross correlation and that the joint kernel of ISW effect and the galaxy distribution has a dominant effect on the observed signal. In this work, comparison is made specifically between the clustered dark energy models using two samples of galaxies. The first one is a sub-sample of galaxies from Sloan Digital Sky Survey, chosen with the r-band magnitude 18 < r < 21 and the dark matter halo host of mass M ~1012Msolar and formation redshift of zf~ 2.5. The second one is the sub-sample of Luminous Red galaxies with the dark matter halo hosts of mass M ~ 1013Msolar and formation redshift of 0zf~ 2.. Using the evolved bias we improve the χ2 for the ΛCDM which reconciles the ~1σ-2σ tension of the ISW-galaxy signal with ΛCDM prediction. Finally, we study the parameter estimation of a dark energy model with free parameters w0 and wa in the equation of state wde = w0 +waz/(1+z) with the constant bias parameter and also with an evolved bias model with free parameters of galaxy's host halo mass and the halo formation redshift.

  10. Near-Infrared Imaging of the Central Regions of Metal-Poor Inner Spheroid Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidge, T. J.

    2001-06-01

    JHK images obtained with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope adaptive optics bonnette are used to investigate the near-infrared photometric properties of red giant branch (RGB) and horizontal-branch (HB) stars in eight metal-poor globular clusters with RGC<=2 kpc. The slope of the RGB on the (K, J-K) CMDs confirms the metal-poor nature of these clusters, four of which (NGC 6287, 6293, 6333, and 6355) are found to have metallicities that are comparable to M92. The luminosity functions of RGB stars in inner spheroid and outer halo clusters have similar slopes, although there is a tendency for core-collapsed clusters to have slightly flatter luminosity functions than noncollapsed clusters. The distribution of red HB stars on the (K, J-K) CMDs of inner spheroid clusters with [Fe/H]~-1.5 is very different from that of clusters with [Fe/H]~-2.2, suggesting that metallicity is the main parameter defining HB content among these objects. The RGB bump is detected in four of the inner spheroid clusters, and this feature is used to compute distances to these objects. Finally, the specific frequency of globular clusters in the inner Galaxy is discussed in the context of the early evolution of the bulge. Based on the ratio of metal-poor to metal-rich clusters in the inner Galaxy it is suggested that the metal-poor clusters formed during an early intense burst of star formation. It is also demonstrated that if the globular cluster formation efficiency for the inner Galaxy is similar to that measured in other spheroidal systems, then the main body of the bulge could have formed from gas that was chemically enriched in situ; hence, material from a separate pre-enriched reservoir, such as the disk or outer halo, may not be required to form the bulge.

  11. Missense mutations cluster within the carboxyl-terminal region of DAX-1 and impair transcriptional repression.

    PubMed

    Achermann, J C; Ito, M; Silverman, B L; Habiby, R L; Pang, S; Rosler, A; Jameson, J L

    2001-07-01

    DAX-1 is an orphan nuclear receptor that plays a key role in the development and function of the adrenal gland and hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal axis. Mutations in the gene encoding DAX-1 result in X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC). Affected boys typically present with primary adrenal failure in infancy or childhood and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism at the time of puberty. The majority of DAX1 mutations described to date are nonsense or frameshift mutations that result in premature truncation of the DAX-1 protein and loss of DAX-1 repressor function. Relatively few missense mutations in DAX1 have been reported. Here, we describe missense mutations in three additional families with X-linked AHC. When combined with previous reports, the DAX1 missense mutations appear to cluster within restricted regions of the putative ligand-binding domain of DAX-1 and affect amino acids that are evolutionarily conserved, suggesting that these regions correspond to critical functional domains. Transcription assays, using a variety of artificial and native target genes, were performed to assess the effects of these mutations on the function of DAX-1. All DAX-1 missense mutant constructs showed marked loss of repressor function, with the exception of I439S, a mutation previously shown to be associated with delayed-onset adrenal failure and incomplete hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. These data indicate that most DAX1 missense mutations associated with classic AHC exhibit marked loss of function. The locations of these mutations thereby identify important functional domains in the carboxyl-terminus of the protein.

  12. Ubiquity of density slope oscillations in the central regions of galaxy and cluster-sized systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Anthony M.; Williams, Liliya L. R.; Hjorth, Jens

    2016-05-01

    One usually thinks of a radial density profile as having a monotonically changing logarithmic slope, such as in NFW or Einasto profiles. However, in two different classes of commonly used systems, this is often not the case. These classes exhibit non-monotonic changes in their density profile slopes which we call oscillations for short. We analyze these two unrelated classes separately. Class 1 consists of systems that have density oscillations and that are defined through their distribution function f(E), or differential energy distribution N(E), such as isothermal spheres, King profiles, or DARKexp, a theoretically derived model for relaxed collisionless systems. Systems defined through f(E) or N(E) generally have density slope oscillations. Class 1 system oscillations can be found at small, intermediate, or large radii but we focus on a limited set of Class 1 systems that have oscillations in the central regions, usually at log(r/r-2) lesssim -2, where r-2 is the largest radius where dlog(ρ)/dlog(r) = -2. We show that the shape of their N(E) can roughly predict the amplitude of oscillations. Class 2 systems which are a product of dynamical evolution, consist of observed and simulated galaxies and clusters, and pure dark matter halos. Oscillations in the density profile slope seem pervasive in the central regions of Class 2 systems. We argue that in these systems, slope oscillations are an indication that a system is not fully relaxed. We show that these oscillations can be reproduced by small modifications to N(E) of DARKexp. These affect a small fraction of systems' mass and are confined to log(r/r-2) lesssim 0. The size of these modifications serves as a potential diagnostic for quantifying how far a system is from being relaxed.

  13. Chandra X-Ray Observatory Study of the Orion Nebula Cluster and BN/KL Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garmire, Gordon; Feigelson, Eric D.; Broos, Patrick; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Pravdo, Steven H.; Townsley, Leisa; Tsuboi, Yohko

    2000-09-01

    About 1000 X-ray emitting young pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars distributed in mass from ~0.05 Msolar brown dwarfs to a ~50 Msolar O star are detected in an image of the Orion Nebula obtained with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer on board the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. This is the richest field of sources ever obtained in X-ray astronomy. Individual X-ray luminosities in the Orion Nebula cluster range from the sensitivity limit of 2×1028 ergs s-1 to ~1032 ergs s-1. ACIS sources include 85%-90% of V<20 stars, plus a lower but substantial fraction of deeply embedded stars with extinctions as high as AV~=60. The relationships between X-ray and other PMS stellar properties suggest that X-ray luminosity of lower-mass PMS stars depends more on mass, and possibly stellar rotation, than on bolometric luminosity, as widely reported. In a subsample of 17 unabsorbed stars with mass ~=1 Msolar, X-ray luminosities are constant at a high level around Lx~=2×1030 ergs s-1 for the first ~=2 Myr while descending the convective Hayashi track, but diverge during the 2-10 Myr phase with X-ray emission plummeting in some stars but remaining high in others. This behavior is consistent with the distribution of X-ray luminosities on the zero-age main sequence and with current theories of their rotational history and magnetic dynamos. The sources in the Becklin-Neugebauer/Kleinman-Low region of massive star formation are discussed in detail. They include both unabsorbed and embedded low-mass members of the Orion Nebula cluster, the luminous infrared Source n, and a class of sources without optical or infrared counterparts that may be new magnetically active embedded PMS stars. Several X-ray sources are also variable radio emitters, an association often seen in magnetically active PMS stars. Faint X-ray emission is seen close to, but apparently not coincident with, the Becklin-Neugebauer object. Its nature is not clear.

  14. Spatial inequalities in life expectancy within postindustrial regions of Europe: a cross-sectional observational study

    PubMed Central

    Taulbut, Martin; Walsh, David; McCartney, Gerry; Parcell, Sophie; Hartmann, Anja; Poirier, Gilles; Strniskova, Dana; Hanlon, Phil

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare spatial inequalities in life expectancy (LE) in West Central Scotland (WCS) with nine other postindustrial European regions. Design A cross-sectional observational study. Setting WCS and nine other postindustrial regions across Europe. Participants Data for WCS and nine other comparably deindustrialised European regions were analysed. Male and female LEs at birth were obtained or calculated for the mid-2000s for 160 districts within selected regions. Districts were stratified into two groups: small (populations of between 141 000 and 185 000 people) and large (populations between 224 000 and 352 000). The range and IQR in LE were used to describe within-region disparities. Results In small districts, the male LE range was widest in WCS and Merseyside, while the IQR was widest in WCS and Northern Ireland. For women, the LE range was widest in WCS, though the IQR was widest in Northern Ireland and Merseyside. In large districts, the range and IQR in LE was widest in WCS and Wallonia for both sexes. Conclusions Subregional spatial inequalities in LE in WCS are wide compared with other postindustrial mainland European regions, especially for men. Future research could explore the contribution of economic, social and political factors in reducing these inequalities. PMID:24889851

  15. Photoionization cross section measurements of the excited states of cobalt in the near-threshold region

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Xianfeng Zhou, Xiaoyu; Cheng, Zaiqi; Jia, Dandan; Qu, Zehua; Yao, Guanxin; Zhang, Xianyi; Cui, Zhifeng

    2014-10-15

    We present measurements of photoionization cross-sections of the excited states of cobalt using a two-color, two-step resonance ionization technique in conjunction with a molecular beam time of flight (TOF) mass spectrometer. The atoms were produced by the laser vaporization of a cobalt rod, coupled with a supersonic gas jet. The absolute photoionization cross-sections at threshold and near-threshold regions (0-1.2 eV) were measured, and the measured values ranged from 4.2±0.7 Mb to 10.5±1.8 Mb. The lifetimes of four odd parity energy levels are reported for the first time.

  16. Investigating Regional Disparities of China's Human Development with Cluster Analysis: A Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yongheng; Hu, Angang

    2008-01-01

    This paper adopts both one-dimensional and multi-dimensional cluster analysis to analyze China's HDI data for 1982, 1995, 1999, and 2003, and to classify China's provinces into four tiers based on the three basic developmental aspects embedded in HDI. The classifications by cluster analysis depends on the observations' similarities with respect to…

  17. Neutron capture cross section measurements for 238U in the resonance region at GELINA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H. I.; Paradela, C.; Sirakov, I.; Becker, B.; Capote, R.; Gunsing, F.; Kim, G. N.; Kopecky, S.; Lampoudis, C.; Lee, Y.-O.; Massarczyk, R.; Moens, A.; Moxon, M.; Pronyaev, V. G.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Wynants, R.

    2016-06-01

    Measurements were performed at the time-of-flight facility GELINA to determine the 238U(n, γ) cross section in the resonance region. Experiments were carried out at a 12.5 and 60m measurement station. The total energy detection principle in combination with the pulse height weighting technique was applied using C6D6 liquid scintillators as prompt γ-ray detectors. The energy dependence of the neutron flux was measured with ionisation chambers based on the 10B(n, α) reaction. The data were normalised to the isolated and saturated 238U resonance at 6.67 eV. Special procedures were applied to reduce bias effects due to the weighting function, normalization, dead time and background corrections, and corrections related to the sample properties. The total uncertainty due to the weighting function, normalization, neutron flux and sample characteristics is about 1.5%. Resonance parameters were derived from a simultaneous resonance shape analysis of the GELINA capture data and transmission data obtained previously at a 42m and 150m station of ORELA. The parameters of resonances below 500 eV are in good agreement with those resulting from an evaluation that was adopted in the main data libraries. Between 500 eV and 1200 eV a systematic difference in the neutron width is observed. Average capture cross section data were derived from the experimental capture yield in the energy region between 3.5 keV and 90 keV. The results are in good agreement with an evaluated cross section resulting from a least squares fit to experimental data available in the literature prior to this work. The average cross section data derived in this work were parameterised in terms of average resonance parameters and included in a least squares analysis together with other experimental data reported in the literature.

  18. Ethnic disparities in the clustering of risk factors for cardiovascular disease among the Kazakh, Uygur, Mongolian and Han populations of Xinjiang: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chinese Uygur, Kazakh, Mongolian and Han populations represent >90% of the total population of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, and their genetic backgrounds, customs, culture, and food consumption are different. The effect of ethnic differences on cardiovascular disease risk factors (CRFs; hypertension, obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking) can be striking but is rarely studied. We report here the findings of the relationship among these ethnic groups and their CRFs across the four largest ethnic groups of Xinjiang. Methods A cross-sectional survey of representative samples was conducted 2002–2008 in Chinese Uygur, Kazakh, Mongolian and Han populations (age >30 years; 4,421 Kazakh, 3884 Han, 3,218 Uygur, and 892 Mongolian individuals) in Xinjiang. Results A total of 90.4% of Kazakh, 91.9% of Uygur, 90.4% of Mongolian, 85.1% of Han individuals had at least one CRF. Clustering of ≥2 or ≥3 of these risk factors was noted in 65.2% or 32.1% of Kazakh, 64.8% or 33.0% of Uygur, 66.9% or 36.5% of Mongolian as well as 62.0% or 28.3% of Han subjects, respectively. Compared with the Han population, the adjusted odds ratios of ≥1, ≥2, and ≥3 CRFs for Kazakh, Uygur and Mongolian populations were higher (all P<0.001). The age-standardized prevalence of the clustering of ≥1, ≥2, and ≥3 CRFs in Kazakh, Uygur, Mongolian, and Han populations was lower than their counterparts in the NHANES Ш study (USA) but higher than in the InterASIA Study (China). Conclusions Ethnic groups living in Xinjiang had striking differences in CRFs. Ethnic-specific strategies should be developed to prevent cardiovascular disease in different ethnic groups. PMID:22759741

  19. Crossing-over in a hypervariable species preferentially occurs in regions of high local similarity.

    PubMed

    Seplyarskiy, Vladimir B; Logacheva, Maria D; Penin, Aleksey A; Baranova, Maria A; Leushkin, Evgeny V; Demidenko, Natalia V; Klepikova, Anna V; Kondrashov, Fyodor A; Kondrashov, Alexey S; James, Timothy Y

    2014-11-01

    Recombination between double-stranded DNA molecules is a key genetic process which occurs in a wide variety of organisms. Usually, crossing-over (CO) occurs during meiosis between genotypes with 98.0-99.9% sequence identity, because within-population nucleotide diversity only rarely exceeds 2%. However, some species are hypervariable and it is unclear how CO can occur between genotypes with less than 90% sequence identity. Here, we study CO in Schizophyllum commune, a hypervariable cosmopolitan basidiomycete mushroom, a frequently encountered decayer of woody substrates. We crossed two haploid individuals, from the United States and from Russia, and obtained genome sequences for their 17 offspring. The average genetic distance between the parents was 14%, making it possible to study CO at very high resolution. We found reduced levels of linkage disequilibrium between loci flanking the CO sites indicating that they are mostly confined to hotspots of recombination. Furthermore, CO events preferentially occurred in regions under stronger negative selection, in particular within exons that showed reduced levels of nucleotide diversity. Apparently, in hypervariable species CO must avoid regions of higher divergence between the recombining genomes due to limitations imposed by the mismatch repair system, with regions under strong negative selection providing the opportunity for recombination. These patterns are opposite to those observed in a number of less variable species indicating that population genomics of hypervariable species may reveal novel biological phenomena.

  20. Derivation of water vapour absorption cross-sections in the red region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lal, M.; Chakrabarty, D. K.

    1994-01-01

    Absorption spectrum in 436 to 448 nm wavelength region gives NO2 and O3 column densities. This spectrum can also give H2O column density. The spectrum in the range of 655 to 667 nm contains absorption due to NO3 and H2O. Combining the absorption spectra in the wavelength ranges of 436 to 448 and 655 to 667 nm, water vapor absorption cross-sections in this range comes out to be of the order of 2.0 x 10(exp -24) cm(exp -2).

  1. Measuring the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect through the cross correlation of Planck and WMAP maps with ROSAT galaxy cluster catalogs

    SciTech Connect

    Hajian, Amir; Bond, J. Richard; Battaglia, Nicholas; Spergel, David N.; Pfrommer, Christoph; Sievers, Jonathan L. E-mail: nbattaglia@cmu.edu E-mail: bond@cita.utoronto.ca E-mail: sievers@cita.utoronto.ca

    2013-11-01

    We measure a significant correlation between the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect in the Planck and WMAP maps and an X-ray cluster map based on ROSAT. We use the 100, 143 and 343 GHz Planck maps and the WMAP 94 GHz map to obtain this cluster cross spectrum. We check our measurements for contamination from dusty galaxies using the cross correlations with the 217, 545 and 857 GHz maps from Planck. Our measurement yields a direct characterization of the cluster power spectrum over a wide range of angular scales that is consistent with large cosmological simulations. The amplitude of this signal depends on cosmological parameters that determine the growth of structure (σ{sub 8} and Ω M) and scales as σ{sub 8}{sup 7.4} and Ω M{sup 1.9} around the multipole (ℓ) ∼ 1000. We constrain σ{sub 8} and Ω M from the cross-power spectrum to be σ{sub 8}(Ω M/0.30){sup 0.26} = 0.8±0.02. Since this cross spectrum produces a tight constraint in the σ{sub 8} and Ω M plane the errors on a σ{sub 8} constraint will be mostly limited by the uncertainties from external constraints. Future cluster catalogs, like those from eRosita and LSST, and pointed multi-wavelength observations of clusters will improve the constraining power of this cross spectrum measurement. In principle this analysis can be extended beyond σ{sub 8} and Ω M to constrain dark energy or the sum of the neutrino masses.

  2. Regionalization of Europe based on a K-Means Cluster Analysis of the climate change of temperatures and precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, M. J.; Melo-Gonçalves, P.; Teixeira, J. C.; Rocha, A.

    2016-08-01

    In order to study climate change on a regional scale using Earth System Models, it is useful to partition the spatial domain into regions according to their climate changes. The aim of this work is to divide the European domain into regions of similar projected climate changes using a simulation of daily total precipitation, minimum and maximum temperatures for the recent-past (1986-2005) and long-term future (2081-2100) provided by the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). The difference between the long-term future and recent-past daily climatologies of these three variables is determined. Aiming to objectively identify the grid points with coherent climate changes, a K-Mean Cluster Analysis is applied to these differences. This method is performed for each variable independently (univariate version) and for the aggregation of the three variables (multivariate version). A mathematical approach to determine the optimal number of clusters is pursued. However, due to the method characteristics, a sensitivity test to the number of clusters is performed by analysing the consistency of the results. This is a novel method, allowing for the determination of regions based on the climate change of multiple variables. Results from the univariate application of this method are in accordance with results found in the literature, showing overall similar regions of changes. The regions obtained for the multivariate version are mainly defined by latitude over European land, with some features of land-sea interaction. Furthermore, all regions have statistically different distributions of at least one of the variables, providing confidence to the regions obtained.

  3. Interpretive geologic cross sections for the Death Valley regional flow system and surrounding areas, Nevada and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweetkind, D.S.; Dickerson, R.P.; Blakely, R.J.; Denning, P.D.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents a network of 28 geologic cross sections that portray subsurface geologic relations within the Death Valley regional ground-water system, a ground-water basin that encompasses a 3? x 3? area (approximately 70,000 km2) in southern Nevada and eastern California. The cross sections transect that part of the southern Great Basin that includes Death Valley, the Nevada Test Site, and the potential high-level nuclear waste underground repository at Yucca Mountain. The specific geometric relationships portrayed on the cross sections are discussed in the context of four general sub-regions that have stratigraphic similarities and general consistency of structural style: (1) the Nevada Test Site vicinity; (2) the Spring Mountains, Pahrump Valley and Amargosa Desert region; (3) the Death Valley region; and (4) the area east of the Nevada Test Site. The subsurface geologic interpretations portrayed on the cross sections are based on an integration of existing geologic maps, measured stratigraphic sections, published cross sections, well data, and geophysical data and interpretations. The estimated top of pre-Cenozoic rocks in the cross sections is based on inversion of gravity data, but the deeper parts of the sections are based on geologic conceptual models and are more speculative. The region transected by the cross sections includes part of the southern Basin and Range Province, the northwest-trending Walker Lane belt, the Death Valley region, and the northern Mojave Desert. The region is structurally complex, where a locally thick Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary section unconformably overlies previously deformed Proterozoic through Paleozoic rocks. All of these rocks have been deformed by complex Neogene ex-tensional normal and strike-slip faults. These cross sections form a three-dimensional network that portrays the interpreted stratigraphic and structural relations in the region; the sections form part of the geologic framework that will be

  4. Seismic Hazard and risk assessment for Romania -Bulgaria cross-border region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeonova, Stela; Solakov, Dimcho; Alexandrova, Irena; Vaseva, Elena; Trifonova, Petya; Raykova, Plamena

    2016-04-01

    Among the many kinds of natural and man-made disasters, earthquakes dominate with regard to their social and economical impact on the urban environment. Global seismic hazard and vulnerability to earthquakes are steadily increasing as urbanization and development occupy more areas that are prone to effects of strong earthquakes. The assessment of the seismic hazard and risk is particularly important, because it provides valuable information for seismic safety and disaster mitigation, and it supports decision making for the benefit of society. Romania and Bulgaria, situated in the Balkan Region as a part of the Alpine-Himalayan seismic belt, are characterized by high seismicity, and are exposed to a high seismic risk. Over the centuries, both countries have experienced strong earthquakes. The cross-border region encompassing the northern Bulgaria and southern Romania is a territory prone to effects of strong earthquakes. The area is significantly affected by earthquakes occurred in both countries, on the one hand the events generated by the Vrancea intermediate-depth seismic source in Romania, and on the other hand by the crustal seismicity originated in the seismic sources: Shabla (SHB), Dulovo, Gorna Orjahovitza (GO) in Bulgaria. The Vrancea seismogenic zone of Romania is a very peculiar seismic source, often described as unique in the world, and it represents a major concern for most of the northern part of Bulgaria as well. In the present study the seismic hazard for Romania-Bulgaria cross-border region on the basis of integrated basic geo-datasets is assessed. The hazard results are obtained by applying two alternative approaches - probabilistic and deterministic. The MSK64 intensity (MSK64 scale is practically equal to the new EMS98) is used as output parameter for the hazard maps. We prefer to use here the macroseismic intensity instead of PGA, because it is directly related to the degree of damages and, moreover, the epicentral intensity is the original

  5. Neutron and Charged-Particle Induced Cross Sections for Radiochemistry in the Region of Bromine and Krypton

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, R; Dietrich, F; Bauer, R; Kelley, K; Mustafa, M

    2004-07-23

    We have developed a set of modeled nuclear reaction cross sections for use in radiochemical diagnostics. Systematics for the input parameters required by the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model were developed and used to calculate neutron and proton induced nuclear reaction cross sections in the mass region of bromine and krypton (34 {le} Z {le} 37, 40 {le} N {le} 47).

  6. Neutron and Charged-Particle Induced Cross Sections for Radiochemistry in the Region of Samarium, Europium, and Gadolinium

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, R D; Kelley, K; Dietrich, F S; Bauer, R; Mustafa, M

    2004-11-30

    We have developed a set of modeled nuclear reaction cross sections for use in radiochemical diagnostics. Systematics for the input parameters required by the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model were developed and used to calculate neutron and proton induced nuclear reaction cross sections in the mass region of samarium, europium and gadolinium (62 {le} Z {le} 64, 82 {le} N {le} 96).

  7. Regional specific groundwater arsenic levels and neuropsychological functioning: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Melissa; Johnson, Leigh; Mauer, Cortney; Barber, Robert; Hall, James; O'Bryant, Sid

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of the study was to examine the link between GIS-estimated regional specific groundwater levels and neuropsychological functioning in a sample of individuals with and without cognitive impairment. Methods This cross-sectional study design analyzed data from 1390 participants (733 Alzheimer's disease, 127 Mild Cognitive Impairment, and 530 with normal cognition) enrolled in the Texas Alzheimer's Research and Care Consortium. Geographic information systems analyses were used to estimate regional specific groundwater arsenic concentrations using the Environmental Systems Research Institute and arsenic concentrations from the Texas Water Development Board. Results In the full cohort, regional specific arsenic concentrations were positively associated with language abilities (p=0.008), but associated with poorer verbal memory, immediate (p=0.008) and delayed (p<0.001) as well as poorer visual memory, immediate (p=0.02) and delayed (p<0.001). The findings varied by diagnostic category with arsenic being related with cognition most prominently among MCI cases. Conclusions Overall, estimated regional specific groundwater arsenic levels were negatively associated with neuropsychological performance. PMID:24506178

  8. Ionization cross sections of small cationic carbon clusters in high-energy collisions with helium atoms and stability of multiply charged species

    SciTech Connect

    Mezdari, F.; Wohrer-Beroff, K.; Chabot, M.; Martinet, G.; Della Negra, S.; Desesquelles, P.; Hamrita, H.; LePadellec, A.

    2005-09-15

    Single, double, triple, and quadruple ionization cross sections of small cationic carbon clusters C{sub n}{sup +} colliding with helium atoms at a fixed velocity (2.6 atomic units) have been measured. The size ranges from n=1 to n=10 for single to triple ionization, from n=5 to n=10 for the quadruple ionization. The dependence of the cross sections with the cluster size is found to be well reproduced by predictions of the independent atom and electron (IAE) collision model. This extends the applicability of this simple model to higher n values and to a higher ionization degree than previously done [M. Chabot et al., Eur. Phys. J. D 14, 5 (2001)]. The branching ratios of multiply charged C{sub n}{sup q+} clusters remaining intact over a 100 ns time window have been measured (n=3-10, q=2-3). Branching ratios of nonfragmented doubly charged clusters have been interpreted on the basis of calculated internal energies of C{sub n}{sup 2+} due to single ionization of C{sub n}{sup +} clusters using the IAE model. This allowed estimates of the minimum energies required to fragment these C{sub n}{sup 2+} species to be derived.

  9. Ionization cross sections of small cationic carbon clusters in high-energy collisions with helium atoms and stability of multiply charged species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezdari, F.; Wohrer-Béroff, K.; Chabot, M.; Martinet, G.; Della Negrâ, S.; Désesquelles, P.; Hamrita, H.; Lepadellec, A.

    2005-09-01

    Single, double, triple, and quadruple ionization cross sections of small cationic carbon clusters Cn+ colliding with helium atoms at a fixed velocity (2.6 atomic units) have been measured. The size ranges from n=1 to n=10 for single to triple ionization, from n=5 to n=10 for the quadruple ionization. The dependence of the cross sections with the cluster size is found to be well reproduced by predictions of the independent atom and electron (IAE) collision model. This extends the applicability of this simple model to higher n values and to a higher ionization degree than previously done [M. Chabot , Eur. Phys. J. D 14, 5 (2001)]. The branching ratios of multiply charged Cnq+ clusters remaining intact over a 100ns time window have been measured ( n=3-10 , q=2-3 ). Branching ratios of nonfragmented doubly charged clusters have been interpreted on the basis of calculated internal energies of Cn2+ due to single ionization of Cn+ clusters using the IAE model. This allowed estimates of the minimum energies required to fragment these Cn2+ species to be derived.

  10. Nutrition, environment and cardiovascular health (NESCAV): protocol of an inter-regional cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite the remarkable technological progress in health care and treatment, cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of premature death, prolonged hospitalization and disability in most European countries. In the population of the Greater Region (Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg, Wallonia in Belgium, and Lorraine in France), the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and disease is among the highest in Europe, warranting the need for a better understanding of factors contributing to this pattern. In this context, the cross-border "Nutrition, Environment and Cardiovascular Health-NESCAV" project is initiated by an inter-regional multi-disciplinary consortium and supported by the INTERREG IV A program "Greater Region", 2007-2013, to fight synergically and harmoniously against this major public health problem. Methods/design The objectives of the three-year planned project are to assess, in a representative sample of 3000 randomly selected individuals living at the Greater Region, 1) the cardiovascular health and risk profile, 2) the association between the dietary habits and the cardiovascular risk, 3) the association of occupational and environmental pollution markers with the cardiovascular risk, 4) the knowledge, awareness and level of control of cardiovascular risk factors, 5) the potential gaps in the current primary prevention, and finally, to address evidence-based recommendations enabling the development of inter-regional guidance to help policy-makers and health care workers for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Discussion The findings will provide tools that may enable the Greater Region's decision-makers and health professionals to implement targeted and cost-effective prevention strategies. PMID:21078172

  11. A YOUNG STELLAR CLUSTER WITHIN THE RCW41 H II REGION: DEEP NIR PHOTOMETRY AND OPTICAL/NIR POLARIMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, Fabio P.; Franco, Gabriel A. P.; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre E-mail: franco@fisica.ufmg.br

    2012-06-01

    The RCW41 star-forming region is embedded within the Vela Molecular Ridge, hosting a massive stellar cluster surrounded by a conspicuous H II region. Understanding the role of interstellar magnetic fields and studying the newborn stellar population is crucial to building a consistent picture of the physical processes acting on this kind of environment. We carried out a detailed study of the interstellar polarization toward RCW41 with data from an optical and near-infrared polarimetric survey. Additionally, deep near-infrared images from the 3.5 meter New Technology Telescope were used to study the photometric properties of the embedded young stellar cluster, revealing several YSO candidates. By using a set of pre-main-sequence isochrones, a mean cluster age in the range 2.5-5.0 million years was determined, and evidence of sequential star formation was revealed. An abrupt decrease in R-band polarization degree was noticed toward the central ionized area, probably due to low grain alignment efficiency caused by the turbulent environment and/or the weak intensity of magnetic fields. The distortion of magnetic field lines exhibits dual behavior, with the mean orientation outside the area approximately following the borders of the star-forming region and directed radially toward the cluster inside the ionized area, in agreement with simulations of expanding H II regions. The spectral dependence of polarization allowed a meaningful determination of the total-to-selective extinction ratio by fittings of the Serkowski relation. Furthermore, a large rotation of polarization angle as a function of wavelength was detected toward several embedded stars.

  12. The Central Regions of Early-Type Galaxies in Nearby Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, Lisa Anne

    Remarkably, the central regions of galaxies are very important in shaping and influencing galaxies as a whole. As such, galaxy cores can be used for classification, to determine which processes may be important in galaxy formation and evolution. Past studies, for example, have found a dichotomy in the inner slopes of early-type galaxy surface brightness profiles. Using deprojections of the galaxies from the ACS Virgo and Fornax Cluster Surveys (ACSVCS/FCS), we show that, in fact, this dichotomy does not exist. Instead, we demonstrate that the brightest early-type galaxies tend to have central light deficits, a trend which gradually transitions to central light excesses -- also known as compact stellar nuclei -- as we go to fainter galaxies. This effect is quantified, and can be used to determine what evolutionary factors are important as we move along the galaxy luminosity function. The number of stellar nuclei that we observe is, in fact, an unexpected result emerging from the ACSVCS/FCS. Being three times more common than previously thought, they are present in the vast majority of intermediate and low-luminosity galaxies. Conversely, it has been known for over a decade that there is likely a supermassive black hole weighing millions to billions of solar masses at the center of virtually every galaxy of sufficient size. These black holes are known to follow scaling relations with their host galaxies. Using the ACSVCS, along with new kinematical data from long-slit spectroscopy, we measure the dynamical masses of 83 galaxies, and show that supermassive black holes and nuclei appear to fall along the same scaling relation with host mass. Both represent approximately 0.2% of their host's mass, implying an important link between the two types of central massive objects. Finally, we extract elliptical isophotes and fit parameterized models to the surface brightness profiles of new Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the ACSVCS galaxies, observed in infrared and

  13. Flux Transfer Event in the Subsolar Region and Near the Cusp: Simultaneous Polar and Cluster Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, G.; Zheng, Y.; Russell, C. T.; Pfaff, R. F.; Slavin, J. A.; Lin, N.; Mozer, F.; Parks, G.; Petrinec, S. M.; Lucek, e. A.; Reme, Henri

    2005-01-01

    The phenomenon called flux transfer events (FTEs) is widely accepted as the manifestation of time-dependent reconnection. In this paper, we present an observational evidence of a flux transfer event observed simultaneously at low-latitude by Polar and high-latitude by Cluster. This event occurred on March 21, 2002, when both Cluster and Polar were located near the local noon but with large latitudinal distance. Cluster was moving outbound from polar cusp to the magnetosheath, and Polar was in the magnetosheath near the equatorial magnetopause. The observations show that a flux transfer event was formed between the equator and the northern cusp. Polar and Cluster observed the FTE's two open flux tubes: Polar saw the southward moving flux tube near the equator; and Cluster the , northward moving flux tube at high latitude. Unlike low-latitude FTEs, the high-latitude FTE did not exhibit the characteristic bi-polar BN signature. But the plasma data clearly showed its open flux tube configuration. Enhanced electric field fluctuations were observed within the FTE core, both at low- and high-attitudes. This event provides us a unique opportunity to understand high-latitude FTE signatures and the nature of time-varying reconnection.

  14. X-ray mapping the outer regions of galaxy clusters at z = 0.23 and 0.45

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q. Daniel; Walker, Stephen

    2014-04-01

    The thermal, chemical, and kinematic properties of the potentially multiphase circum/intergalactic medium at the virial radii of galaxy clusters remain largely uncertain. We present an X-ray study of Abell 2246 and GMBCG J255.34805+64.23661 (z = 0.23 and 0.45), two foreground clusters of the UV-bright QSO HS 1700+6416, based on 240 ks Chandra/Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer observations. We detect enhanced diffuse X-ray emission to the projected distances beyond r200 radii of these two clusters. The large-scale X-ray emission is consistent with being azimuthally symmetric at the projected radii of the QSO (0.36 and 0.8 times the radii of the two clusters). Assuming a spherical symmetry, we obtain the de-projected temperature and density profiles of the X-ray-emitting gas. Excluding the cool cores that are detected, we find that the mean temperature of the hot gas is ˜4.0 keV for Abell 2246 and 5.5 keV for GMBCG J255.34805+64.23661, although there are indications for temperature drop at large radii. From these results, we can estimate the density and pressure distributions of the hot gas along the QSO sightline. We further infer the radial entropy profile of Abell 2246 and compare it with the one expected from purely gravitational hierarchical structure formation. This comparison shows that the intracluster medium in the outer region of the clusters is likely in a clumpy and multiphased state. These results, together with the upcoming Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph observations of the QSO sightline, will enable a comprehensive investigation of the multiphase medium associated with the clusters.

  15. Association between payments from manufacturers of pharmaceuticals to physicians and regional prescribing: cross sectional ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Shantanu; King, Marissa; Venkatesh, Arjun K; Krumholz, Harlan M; McKee, Douglas; Brown, Douglas; Ross, Joseph S

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between payments made by the manufacturers of pharmaceuticals to physicians and prescribing by physicians within hospital referral regions. Design Cross sectional analysis of 2013 and 2014 Open Payments and Medicare Part D prescribing data for two classes of commonly prescribed, commonly marketed drugs: oral anticoagulants and non-insulin diabetes drugs, overall and stratified by physician and payment type. Setting 306 hospital referral regions, United States. Participants 45 949 454 Medicare Part D prescriptions written by 623 886 physicians to 10 513 173 patients for two drug classes: oral anticoagulants and non-insulin diabetes drugs. Main outcome measures Proportion, or market share, of marketed oral anticoagulants and non-insulin diabetes drugs prescribed by physicians among all drugs in each class and within hospital referral regions. Results Among 306 hospital referral regions, there were 977 407 payments to physicians totaling $61 026 140 (£46 174 600; €54 632 500) related to oral anticoagulants, and 1 787 884 payments totaling $108 417 616 related to non-insulin diabetes drugs. The median market share of the hospital referral regions was 21.6% for marketed oral anticoagulants and 12.6% for marketed non-insulin diabetes drugs. Among hospital referral regions, one additional payment (median value $13, interquartile range, $10-$18) was associated with 94 (95% confidence interval 76 to 112) additional days filled of marketed oral anticoagulants and 107 (89 to 125) additional days filled of marketed non-insulin diabetes drugs (P<0.001). Payments to specialists were associated with greater prescribing of marketed drugs than payments to non-specialists (212 v 100 additional days filled per payment of marketed oral anticoagulants, 331 v 114 for marketed non-insulin diabetes drugs, P<0.001). Payments for speaker and consulting fees for non-insulin diabetes drugs were associated with

  16. Isotopic molybdenum total neutron cross section in the unresolved resonance region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahran, R.; Barry, D.; Block, R.; Leinweber, G.; Rapp, M.; Daskalakis, A.; Blain, E.; Williams, D.; McDermott, B.; Leal, L.; Danon, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Accurate isotopic molybdenum nuclear data are important because molybdenum can exist in nuclear reactor components including fuel, cladding, or as a high yield fission product. High-resolution time-of-flight neutron transmission measurements on highly enriched isotopic metallic samples of 95Mo , 96Mo , 98Mo , and 100Mo were performed in the resonance energy range from 1 to 620 keV . The measurements were taken with the newly developed modular 6Li -glass transmission detector positioned at the 100-m experimental flight station. In the unresolved energy region (URR), new comprehensive methods of analysis were developed and validated in order to obtain accurate neutron total cross-section data from the measurement by correcting for background and transmission enhancement effects. Average parameters and fits to the total cross section for 95Mo were obtained using the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model code fitacs, which is currently incorporated into the sammy code. The fits to the experimental data deviate from the current evaluated nuclear data file/B-VII.1 isotopic Mo evaluations by several percent in the URR.

  17. Studying the Permian cross-section (Volga region) using chemical and isotopic investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gareev, Bulat; Georgii, Batalin; Nurgaliev, Danis; Nurgalieva, Nuriya

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a study of international important site: the cross-section of Permian system's Urzhumian Stage in the ravine "Pechischy". Outcrop is located on the right bank of the Volga River (about 10 km West of Kazan). It has local, regional and planetary correlation features and also footprints of different geographical scale events. The main objective in the research is the deep study of sediments using chemical and isotopic investigations. XRF spectrometer was used for chemical investigations of samples. Chemistry of carbonates and clastic rocks includes the analysis of chemical elements, compounds, petrochemical (lithogeochemical) modules for the interpretation of the genesis of lithotypes. For the review of the geochemistry of stable isotopes of carbon (oxygen) we used IRMS. The main objective is the nature of the isotope fractionation issues, to addressing the issues of stratigraphy and paleogeography. The measurements have shown the variability of chemical parameters in cross-section. It gives us opportunity to see small changes in sedimentation and recognize the factors that influence to the process. The work was carried out according to the Russian Government's Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University, supported by the grant provided to the Kazan State University for performing the state program in the field of scientific research.

  18. (α ,γ ) cross section measurements in the region of light p nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, S. J.; Spyrou, A.; Simon, A.; Battaglia, A.; Bowers, M.; Bucher, B.; Casarella, C.; Couder, M.; DeYoung, P. A.; Dombos, A. C.; Görres, J.; Kontos, A.; Li, Q.; Long, A.; Moran, M.; Paul, N.; Pereira, J.; Robertson, D.; Smith, K.; Smith, M. K.; Stech, E.; Talwar, R.; Tan, W. P.; Wiescher, M.

    2015-10-01

    The 90Zr(α ,γ )94Mo,92Zr(α ,γ )96Mo, and 74Ge(α ,γ )78Se reaction cross sections were measured for the first time in an effort to expand the existing experimental database for (α ,γ ) reactions relevant for the production of p nuclei in the universe. In particular, the 90Zr(α ,γ )94Mo reaction was identified by a sensitivity study for its potential impact on the γ -process mass flow in the region of light p nuclei. The measurements were performed for energies Eα=9.5 - 12.0 MeV at the University of Notre Dame using the SuN detector and the γ -summing technique. The results are compared to theoretical calculations from the talys and non-smoker nuclear reaction codes, and it is shown that the data greatly reduce the uncertainty in the cross section for the measured energies. The talys parameters that provide the best description of the experimental data are reported.

  19. Cross-stream ejection in the inter-wheel region of aircraft landing gears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Philip; Ekmekci, Alis

    2014-11-01

    The reduction of aircraft noise is an important challenge currently faced by aircraft manufacturers. During approach and landing, the landing gears contribute a significant proportion of the aircraft generated noise. It is therefore critical that the key noise sources be identified and understood in order for effective mitigation methods to be developed. For a simplified two-wheel nose landing gear, a strong cross stream flow ejection phenomena has been observed to occur in the inter-wheel region in presence of wheel wells. The location and orientation of these flow ejections causes highly unsteady, three dimensional flow between the wheels that may impinge on other landing gear components, thereby potentially acting as a significant noise generator. The effects of changing the inter-wheel geometry (inter-wheel spacing, the wheel well depth and main strut geometry) upon the cross-stream ejection behaviour has been experimentally investigated using both qualitative flow visualisation and quantitative PIV techniques. A summary of the key results will be presented for the three main geometrical parameters under examination and the application of these findings to real life landing gears will be discussed. Thanks to Messier-Bugatti-Dowty and NSERC for their support for this project.

  20. Measurement of Neutron Capture Cross Section of 62Ni in the keV-Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpizar-Vicente, A. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Esch, E.-I.; Greife, U.; Haight, R. C.; Hatarik, R.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Reifarth, R.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.

    2006-03-01

    The neutron capture cross section of 62Ni, relative to gold as a standard, was determined in the energy range from 250 eV to 100 keV. This energy range covers the region between 5 keV to 20 keV, which is not available in ENDF. Capture events are detected with the 160-fold 4π BaF2 Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. One of the challenges was to process the high count rate of 4 MHz, which required an optimization of the data acquisition software. The neutron energy was determined by the time-of-flight technique using a flight path of 20.25 m. The sample mass of the 96% enriched 62Ni target was 210 mg and it was mounted in a 1.5 μm thick Mylar foil.

  1. Cross-Comparison of Leaching Strains Isolated from Two Different Regions: Chambishi and Dexing Copper Mines

    PubMed Central

    Ngom, Baba; Liang, Yili; Liu, Xueduan

    2014-01-01

    A cross-comparison of six strains isolated from two different regions, Chambishi copper mine (Zambia, Africa) and Dexing copper mine (China, Asia), was conducted to study the leaching efficiency of low grade copper ores. The strains belong to the three major species often encountered in bioleaching of copper sulfide ores under mesophilic conditions: Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, and Leptospirillum ferriphilum. Prior to their study in bioleaching, the different strains were characterized and compared at physiological level. The results revealed that, except for copper tolerance, strains within species presented almost similar physiological traits with slight advantages of Chambishi strains. However, in terms of leaching efficiency, native strains always achieved higher cell density and greater iron and copper extraction rates than the foreign microorganisms. In addition, microbial community analysis revealed that the different mixed cultures shared almost the same profile, and At. ferrooxidans strains always outcompeted the other strains. PMID:25478575

  2. Cross-comparison of leaching strains isolated from two different regions: Chambishi and Dexing copper mines.

    PubMed

    Ngom, Baba; Liang, Yili; Liu, Xueduan

    2014-01-01

    A cross-comparison of six strains isolated from two different regions, Chambishi copper mine (Zambia, Africa) and Dexing copper mine (China, Asia), was conducted to study the leaching efficiency of low grade copper ores. The strains belong to the three major species often encountered in bioleaching of copper sulfide ores under mesophilic conditions: Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, and Leptospirillum ferriphilum. Prior to their study in bioleaching, the different strains were characterized and compared at physiological level. The results revealed that, except for copper tolerance, strains within species presented almost similar physiological traits with slight advantages of Chambishi strains. However, in terms of leaching efficiency, native strains always achieved higher cell density and greater iron and copper extraction rates than the foreign microorganisms. In addition, microbial community analysis revealed that the different mixed cultures shared almost the same profile, and At. ferrooxidans strains always outcompeted the other strains.

  3. Measurement of Neutron Capture Cross Section of 62Ni in the keV-Region

    SciTech Connect

    Alpizar-Vicente, A. M.; Hatarik, R.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Esch, E.-I.; Haight, R. C.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Reifarth, R.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.; Greife, U.

    2006-03-13

    The neutron capture cross section of 62Ni, relative to gold as a standard, was determined in the energy range from 250 eV to 100 keV. This energy range covers the region between 5 keV to 20 keV, which is not available in ENDF. Capture events are detected with the 160-fold 4{pi} BaF2 Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. One of the challenges was to process the high count rate of 4 MHz, which required an optimization of the data acquisition software. The neutron energy was determined by the time-of-flight technique using a flight path of 20.25 m. The sample mass of the 96% enriched 62Ni target was 210 mg and it was mounted in a 1.5 {mu}m thick Mylar foil.

  4. Absorption cross-sections of ozone in the ultraviolet and visible spectral regions: Status report 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orphal, Johannes; Staehelin, Johannes; Tamminen, Johanna; Braathen, Geir; De Backer, Marie-Renée; Bais, Alkiviadis; Balis, Dimitris; Barbe, Alain; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Birk, Manfred; Burkholder, James B.; Chance, Kelly; von Clarmann, Thomas; Cox, Anthony; Degenstein, Doug; Evans, Robert; Flaud, Jean-Marie; Flittner, David; Godin-Beekmann, Sophie; Gorshelev, Viktor; Gratien, Aline; Hare, Edward; Janssen, Christof; Kyrölä, Erkki; McElroy, Thomas; McPeters, Richard; Pastel, Maud; Petersen, Michael; Petropavlovskikh, Irina; Picquet-Varrault, Benedicte; Pitts, Michael; Labow, Gordon; Rotger-Languereau, Maud; Leblanc, Thierry; Lerot, Christophe; Liu, Xiong; Moussay, Philippe; Redondas, Alberto; Van Roozendael, Michel; Sander, Stanley P.; Schneider, Matthias; Serdyuchenko, Anna; Veefkind, Pepijn; Viallon, Joële; Viatte, Camille; Wagner, Georg; Weber, Mark; Wielgosz, Robert I.; Zehner, Claus

    2016-09-01

    . For ground-based Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) measurements the use of BDM (1995) or SER (2014) is recommended. For satellite retrieval the presently widely used data of BDM (1995) should be used because SER (2014) seems less suitable for retrievals that use wavelengths close to 300 nm due to a deficiency in the signal-to-noise ratio in the SER (2014) dataset. The work of ACSO also showed: The need to continue laboratory cross-section measurements of ozone of highest quality. The importance of careful characterization of the uncertainties of the laboratory measurements. The need to extend the scope of such studies to other wavelength ranges (particularly to cover not only the Huggins band but also the comparison with the mid-infrared region). The need for regular cooperation of experts in spectral laboratory measurements and specialists in atmospheric (ozone) measurements.

  5. Clustering of diet- and activity-related parenting practices: cross-sectional findings of the INPACT study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Various diet- and activity-related parenting practices are positive determinants of child dietary and activity behaviour, including home availability, parental modelling and parental policies. There is evidence that parenting practices cluster within the dietary domain and within the activity domain. This study explores whether diet- and activity-related parenting practices cluster across the dietary and activity domain. Also examined is whether the clusters are related to child and parental background characteristics. Finally, to indicate the relevance of the clusters in influencing child dietary and activity behaviour, we examined whether clusters of parenting practices are related to these behaviours. Methods Data were used from 1480 parent–child dyads participating in the Dutch IVO Nutrition and Physical Activity Child cohorT (INPACT). Parents of children aged 8–11 years completed questionnaires at home assessing their diet- and activity-related parenting practices, child and parental background characteristics, and child dietary and activity behaviours. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify clusters of parenting practices. Backward regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between child and parental background characteristics with cluster scores, and partial correlations to examine associations between cluster scores and child dietary and activity behaviours. Results PCA revealed five clusters of parenting practices: 1) high visibility and accessibility of screens and unhealthy food, 2) diet- and activity-related rules, 3) low availability of unhealthy food, 4) diet- and activity-related positive modelling, and 5) positive modelling on sports and fruit. Low parental education was associated with unhealthy cluster 1, while high(er) education was associated with healthy clusters 2, 3 and 5. Separate clusters were related to both child dietary and activity behaviour in the hypothesized directions: healthy clusters

  6. NEAR-INFRARED IMAGING AND SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY OF THE SOUTHERN REGION OF THE YOUNG OPEN CLUSTER NGC 2264

    SciTech Connect

    Marinas, Naibi; Lada, Elizabeth A.; Teixiera, Paula S.; Lada, Charles J.

    2013-08-01

    We have obtained JHK near-IR images and JH band low-resolution spectra of candidate members of the southern region of the young open cluster NGC 2264. We have determined spectral types from H-band spectra for 54 sources, 25 of which are classified for the first time. The stars in our sample cover a large range of spectral types (A8-M8). Using a cluster distance of 780 pc, we determined a median age of 1 Myr for this region of NGC 2264, with 90% of the stars being 5 Myr or younger. To improve the statistical significance of our sample, we included 66 additional cluster members within our field of view with optical spectral classification in the literature. We derived infrared excesses using stellar properties to model the photospheric emission for each source and the extinction to correct FLAMINGOS near-IR and Spitzer mid-IR photometry, and obtained a disk fraction of 51% {+-} 5% for the region. Binning the stars by stellar mass, we find a disk fraction of 38% {+-} 9% for the 0.1-0.3 solar mass group, 55% {+-} 6% for 0.3-1 solar masses, and 58% {+-} 10% for the higher than 1 solar mass group. The lower disk fraction for the lower mass stars is similar to the results found in non-cluster regions like Taurus and Chamaeleon, but differs from the older 3 Myr cluster IC 348 in which the disk fraction is lower for the higher mass stars. This mass-dependent disk fraction is accentuated in the sample with isochrone ages younger than 2 Myr. Here, we find that 45% {+-} 11% of the 0.1-0.3 solar mass stars have disks, 60% {+-} 7% of the 0.3-1 solar mass stars have disks, and all 1-3 solar mass stars have disks. Stellar masses might be an important factor in the ability of a system to form or retain a disk early on. However, regardless of the stellar mass, the large infrared excesses expected from optically thick disks disappear within the first 2 Myr for all stars in our study and small excesses from optically thin disks are found mostly in sources younger than 4 Myr.

  7. Near-infrared Imaging and Spectroscopic Survey of the Southern Region of the Young Open Cluster NGC 2264

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariñas, Naibí; Lada, Elizabeth A.; Teixeira, Paula S.; Lada, Charles J.

    2013-08-01

    We have obtained JHK near-IR images and JH band low-resolution spectra of candidate members of the southern region of the young open cluster NGC 2264. We have determined spectral types from H-band spectra for 54 sources, 25 of which are classified for the first time. The stars in our sample cover a large range of spectral types (A8-M8). Using a cluster distance of 780 pc, we determined a median age of 1 Myr for this region of NGC 2264, with 90% of the stars being 5 Myr or younger. To improve the statistical significance of our sample, we included 66 additional cluster members within our field of view with optical spectral classification in the literature. We derived infrared excesses using stellar properties to model the photospheric emission for each source and the extinction to correct FLAMINGOS near-IR and Spitzer mid-IR photometry, and obtained a disk fraction of 51% ± 5% for the region. Binning the stars by stellar mass, we find a disk fraction of 38% ± 9% for the 0.1-0.3 solar mass group, 55% ± 6% for 0.3-1 solar masses, and 58% ± 10% for the higher than 1 solar mass group. The lower disk fraction for the lower mass stars is similar to the results found in non-cluster regions like Taurus and Chamaeleon, but differs from the older 3 Myr cluster IC 348 in which the disk fraction is lower for the higher mass stars. This mass-dependent disk fraction is accentuated in the sample with isochrone ages younger than 2 Myr. Here, we find that 45% ± 11% of the 0.1-0.3 solar mass stars have disks, 60% ± 7% of the 0.3-1 solar mass stars have disks, and all 1-3 solar mass stars have disks. Stellar masses might be an important factor in the ability of a system to form or retain a disk early on. However, regardless of the stellar mass, the large infrared excesses expected from optically thick disks disappear within the first 2 Myr for all stars in our study and small excesses from optically thin disks are found mostly in sources younger than 4 Myr. Based on observations

  8. Neutron Cross Section Processing Methods for Improved Integral Benchmarking of Unresolved Resonance Region Evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Jonathan A.; Forget, Benoit; Smith, Kord S.; Brown, Forrest B.

    2016-03-01

    In this work we describe the development and application of computational methods for processing neutron cross section data in the unresolved resonance region (URR). These methods are integrated with a continuous-energy Monte Carlo neutron transport code, thereby enabling their use in high-fidelity analyses. Enhanced understanding of the effects of URR evaluation representations on calculated results is then obtained through utilization of the methods in Monte Carlo integral benchmark simulations of fast spectrum critical assemblies. First, we present a so-called on-the-fly (OTF) method for calculating and Doppler broadening URR cross sections. This method proceeds directly from ENDF-6 average unresolved resonance parameters and, thus, eliminates any need for a probability table generation pre-processing step in which tables are constructed at several energies for all desired temperatures. Significant memory reduction may be realized with the OTF method relative to a probability table treatment if many temperatures are needed. Next, we examine the effects of using a multi-level resonance formalism for resonance reconstruction in the URR. A comparison of results obtained by using the same stochastically-generated realization of resonance parameters in both the single-level Breit-Wigner (SLBW) and multi-level Breit-Wigner (MLBW) formalisms allows for the quantification of level-level interference effects on integrated tallies such as keff and energy group reaction rates. Though, as is well-known, cross section values at any given incident energy may differ significantly between single-level and multi-level formulations, the observed effects on integral results are minimal in this investigation. Finally, we demonstrate the calculation of true expected values, and the statistical spread of those values, through independent Monte Carlo simulations, each using an independent realization of URR cross section structure throughout. It is observed that both probability table

  9. Interpretive geologic cross sections for the Death Valley regional flow system and surrounding areas, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect

    D.S. Sweetkind; R.P. Dickerson; R.J. Blakely; P.D. Denning

    2001-11-09

    This report presents a network of 28 geologic cross sections that portray subsurface geologic relations within the Death Valley regional ground-water system, a ground-water basin that encompasses a 3 degree x 3 degree area (approximately 70,000 square kilometers) in southern Nevada and eastern California. The cross sections transect that part of the southern Great Basin that includes Death Valley, the Nevada Test Site, and the potential high-level nuclear waste underground repository at Yucca Mountain. The specific geometric relationships portrayed on the cross sections are discussed in the context of four general sub-regions that have stratigraphic similarities and general consistency of structural style: (1) the Nevada Test Site vicinity; (2) the Spring Mountains, Pahrump Valley and Amargosa Desert region; (3) the Death Valley region; and (4) the area east of the Nevada Test Site. The subsurface geologic interpretations portrayed on the cross sections are based on an integration of existing geologic maps, measured stratigraphic sections, published cross sections, well data, and geophysical data and interpretations. The estimated top of pre-Cenozoic rocks in the cross sections is based on inversion of gravity data, but the deeper parts of the sections are based on geologic conceptual models and are more speculative.

  10. Spatial clusters of violent deaths in a newly urbanized region of Brazil: highlighting the social disparities

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Deaths due to homicides and traffic accidents among youth are a public health issue worldwide. Studies of the complex network of cause and effect on this topic point to both poverty and health inequalities. Different investigational approaches to intentional and unintentional deaths combined with socioeconomic variables can help create a better understanding of the association between violence and socioeconomic conditions. This study analyzed the spatial distribution and potential clusters of risk for intentional and unintentional deaths among youths aged 15-24 years in Goiânia, a newly urbanized city in central Brazil. Methods Death data and residential addresses were extracted from the national Mortality Information System and validated by household visits. To detect all potential cases, we prospectively investigated every death classified as a transport accident, assault, legal intervention, intentional self-harm, unknown underlying cause, and undetermined intent according to the ICD-10. The Geographical Information System was used to plot residential addresses, and cases were interactively geocoded to the residential address level using a digital map of the municipality. Spatial scan statistic was applied (Poisson model) to identify clusters of census tracts with high mortality due to intentional injuries and traffic accidents. The socioeconomic variables obtained using census data were compared between the most likely cluster and other areas of the municipality. Results The most violent deaths among young people were due to intentional injuries. Between August 2005 and August 2006, 145 addresses for cases of intentional injuries and traffic accidents were located and geocoded. No significant clusters for deaths due to traffic accidents were found within the municipality. One significant cluster (RR = 4.65; p = 0.029) composed of 14 cases of intentional deaths, mostly homicides, was detected in an emergent, populated, and very poor area on the

  11. Antigenic cross-reactivity and immunogenicity of Bothrops venoms from snakes of the Amazon region.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Maria de Fátima D; Cardoso, Silvia Travaglia; Soares, Oscar Espellet; Pereira, Aparecida Pietro; Fernandes, Daniel Silva; Tambourgi, Denise Vilarinho; Sant'Anna, Osvaldo Augusto

    2010-04-01

    Snakebites are still a critical public health problem in developing countries or isolated areas. In Brazil, the North Region has a high distribution coefficient worsened by the significant number of eventually unreported cases, due to difficulties in access to health services, to the natural geographic barriers and the vast territory. In the Rio Negro area, the species Bothrops atrox, Bothrops brazili, Lachesis muta muta and Bothriopsis taeniata are thought to be the major species responsible for snakebites. The aim of this study was to qualitatively and quantitatively determine the antigenic cross-reactivity and expression of toxins and the immunogenicity of Bothrops venom species of the Amazon and to evaluate the general efficacy of the therapeutic sera. The in vivo assays demonstrated that the defibrinating activity of B. taeniata venom was absent but that the lethal and hemorrhagic properties were more intense than in the B. atrox venom. The results evidence venom variability among the two B. atrox populations from two distinct Amazonian regions, which may reveal a subjacent speciation process. The results point to new aspects that may guide the improvement of anti-Bothropic therapeutic serum. PMID:20036275

  12. ^amp;+^amp;-p Electroproduction Cross Sections off Protons in the Second Resonance Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedotov, Gleb; Gothe, Ralf; Mokeev, Victor

    2013-04-01

    In this talk we present preliminary ^amp;+^amp;-p electroproduction cross sections off protons in the kinematical area of W from 1.4 to 1.8 GeV and Q^2 from 0.4 to 1.1 GeV^2. Our kinematical coverage in part overlap with previous CLAS measurements, but offers more than a factor six finer binning in Q^2. The physics analysis of these data within the framework of the JM model will allow us to determine the electrocouplings and the partial πδ, ρp decay widths of several high lying nucleon resonances S31(1620), S11(1650), F15(1685), D33(1700), P13(1720) and to further explore the evidence for the 3/2^+(1720) candidate-state. Analysis of the single pion electroproduction data measured with CLAS in the aforementioned kinematic region is in progress. Single and charged double pion exclusive channels are major contributors to the meson electroproduction in the N* excitation region with different non-resonant mechanisms. A successful description of all observables in these exclusive channels with consistent N* electrocouplings will offer evidence for the reliable evaluation of these fundamental quantities.

  13. Extreme deformations and clusterization at high spin in the A ~ 40 mass region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Debisree; Afanasjev, Anatoli

    2015-10-01

    Recent revival of the interest to the study of superdeformation and clusterization in light nuclei has motivated us to undertake the study of extreme deformations in the A ~ 32 - 50 N ~ Z nuclei. Unfortunately, at spin zero the predicted structures with extreme deformation are located at high excitation energies which prevents their experimental observation. On the other hand, the rotation brings such structures closer to the yrast line and, in principle, makes their observation possible with future generation of facilities such as GRETA. Thus, the systematic study of the extremely deformed structures and clusterization has been performed in the framework of cranked relativistic mean field theory. The major features of such structures, the spins at which they become yrast and the possiblities of their experimental observation will be discussed in this presentation. This work has been supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under the Grant DE-FG02-07ER41459.

  14. Adjacent chromosomal regions can evolve at very different rates: evolution of the Drosophila 68C glue gene cluster.

    PubMed

    Meyerowitz, E M; Martin, C H

    1984-01-01

    The 68C puff is a highly transcribed region of the Drosophila melanogaster salivary gland polytene chromosomes. Three different classes of messenger RNA originate in a 5000-bp region in the puff; each class is translated to one of the salivary gland glue proteins sgs-3, sgs-7, or sgs-8. These messenger RNA classes are coordinately controlled, with each RNA appearing in the third larval instar and disappearing at the time of puparium formation. Their disappearance is initiated by the action of the steroid hormone ecdysterone. In the work reported here, we studied evolution of this hormone-regulated gene cluster in the melanogaster species subgroup of Drosophila. Genome blot hybridization experiments showed that five other species of this subgroup have DNA sequences that hybridize to D. melanogaster 68C sequences, and that these sequences are divided into a highly conserved region, which does not contain the glue genes, and an extraordinarily diverged region, which does. Molecular cloning of this DNA from D. simulans, D. erecta, D. yakuba, and D. teissieri confirmed the division of the region into a slowly and a rapidly evolving portion, and also showed that the rapidly evolving region of each species codes for third instar larval salivary gland RNAs homologous to the D. melanogaster glue mRNAs. The highly conserved region is at least 13,000 bp long, and is not known to code for any RNAs.

  15. Ab initio calculations of optical properties of silver clusters: cross-over from molecular to nanoscale behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titantah, John T.; Karttunen, Mikko

    2016-05-01

    Electronic and optical properties of silver clusters were calculated using two different ab initio approaches: (1) based on all-electron full-potential linearized-augmented plane-wave method and (2) local basis function pseudopotential approach. Agreement is found between the two methods for small and intermediate sized clusters for which the former method is limited due to its all-electron formulation. The latter, due to non-periodic boundary conditions, is the more natural approach to simulate small clusters. The effect of cluster size is then explored using the local basis function approach. We find that as the cluster size increases, the electronic structure undergoes a transition from molecular behavior to nanoparticle behavior at a cluster size of 140 atoms (diameter ~1.7 nm). Above this cluster size the step-like electronic structure, evident as several features in the imaginary part of the polarizability of all clusters smaller than Ag147, gives way to a dominant plasmon peak localized at wavelengths 350 nm ≤ λ ≤ 600 nm. It is, thus, at this length-scale that the conduction electrons' collective oscillations that are responsible for plasmonic resonances begin to dominate the opto-electronic properties of silver nanoclusters.

  16. Fluids confined in wedges and by edges: From cluster integrals to thermodynamic properties referred to different regions.

    PubMed

    Urrutia, Ignacio

    2015-06-28

    Recently, new insights into the relation between the geometry of the vessel that confines a fluid and its thermodynamic properties were traced through the study of cluster integrals for inhomogeneous fluids. In this work, I analyze the thermodynamic properties of fluids confined in wedges or by edges, emphasizing on the question of the region to which these properties refer. In this context, the relations between the line-thermodynamic properties referred to different regions are derived as analytic functions of the dihedral angle α, for 0 < α < 2π, which enables a unified approach to both edges and wedges. As a simple application of these results, I analyze the properties of the confined gas in the low-density regime. Finally, using recent analytic results for the second cluster integral of the confined hard sphere fluid, the low density behavior of the line thermodynamic properties is analytically studied up to order two in the density for 0 < α < 2π and by adopting different reference regions.

  17. Fluids confined in wedges and by edges: From cluster integrals to thermodynamic properties referred to different regions

    SciTech Connect

    Urrutia, Ignacio

    2015-06-28

    Recently, new insights into the relation between the geometry of the vessel that confines a fluid and its thermodynamic properties were traced through the study of cluster integrals for inhomogeneous fluids. In this work, I analyze the thermodynamic properties of fluids confined in wedges or by edges, emphasizing on the question of the region to which these properties refer. In this context, the relations between the line-thermodynamic properties referred to different regions are derived as analytic functions of the dihedral angle α, for 0 < α < 2π, which enables a unified approach to both edges and wedges. As a simple application of these results, I analyze the properties of the confined gas in the low-density regime. Finally, using recent analytic results for the second cluster integral of the confined hard sphere fluid, the low density behavior of the line thermodynamic properties is analytically studied up to order two in the density for 0 < α < 2π and by adopting different reference regions.

  18. A Study of Cross-linked Regions of Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Gels by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Mathias B.; Desa, J. A. E.; Aswal, V. K.

    2011-07-01

    A poly(vinyl alcohol)-borax cross-linked hydrogel has been studied by Small Angle Neutron Scattering as a function of borax concentration in the wave-vector transfer (Q) range of 0.017 Å-1 to 0.36 Å-1. It is found that as the concentration of borax increases, so does the intensity of scattering in this range. Beyond a borax concentration of 2 mg/ml, the increase in cross-linked PVA chains leads to cross-linked units larger than 150 Å as evidenced by a reduction in intensity in the lower Q region.

  19. Normal Activation of Discoidin Domain Receptor 1 Mutants with Disulfide Cross-links, Insertions, or Deletions in the Extracellular Juxtamembrane Region

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huifang; Abe, Takemoto; Liu, Justin K. H.; Zalivina, Irina; Hohenester, Erhard; Leitinger, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    The discoidin domain receptors, DDR1 and DDR2, are receptor tyrosine kinases that are activated by collagen. DDR activation does not appear to occur by the common mechanism of ligand-induced receptor dimerization: the DDRs form stable noncovalent dimers in the absence of ligand, and ligand-induced autophosphorylation of cytoplasmic tyrosines is unusually slow and sustained. Here we sought to identify functionally important dimer contacts within the extracellular region of DDR1 by using cysteine-scanning mutagenesis. Cysteine substitutions close to the transmembrane domain resulted in receptors that formed covalent dimers with high efficiency, both in the absence and presence of collagen. Enforced covalent dimerization did not result in constitutive activation and did not affect the ability of collagen to induce receptor autophosphorylation. Cysteines farther away from the transmembrane domain were also cross-linked with high efficiency, but some of these mutants could no longer be activated. Furthermore, the extracellular juxtamembrane region of DDR1 tolerated large deletions as well as insertions of flexible segments, with no adverse effect on activation. These findings indicate that the extracellular juxtamembrane region of DDR1 is exceptionally flexible and does not constrain the basal or ligand-activated state of the receptor. DDR1 transmembrane signaling thus appears to occur without conformational coupling through the juxtamembrane region, but requires specific receptor interactions farther away from the cell membrane. A plausible mechanism to explain these findings is signaling by DDR1 clusters. PMID:24671415

  20. Clustering of pain and its associations with health in people aged 50 years and older: cross-sectional results from the North Staffordshire Osteoarthritis Project

    PubMed Central

    Lacey, R J; Strauss, V Y; Rathod, T; Belcher, J; Croft, P R; Natvig, B; Wilkie, R; McBeth, J

    2015-01-01

    Objective Most pain in patients aged ≥50 years affects multiple sites and yet the predominant mode of presentation is single-site syndromes. The aim of this study was to investigate if pain sites form clusters in this population and if any such clusters are associated with health factors other than pain. Setting Six general practices in North Staffordshire, UK. Design Cross-sectional, postal questionnaire, study. Participants Community-dwelling adults aged ≥50 years registered at the general practices. Main outcomes measures Number of pain sites was measured by asking participants to shade sites of pain lasting ≥1 day in the past 4 weeks on a blank body manikin. Health factors measured included anxiety and depression (Hospital and Anxiety Depression Scale), cognitive complaint (Sickness Impact Profile) and sleep. Pain site clustering was investigated using latent class analysis. Association of clusters with health factors, adjusted for age, sex, body mass index and morbidities, was analysed using multinomial regression models. Results 13 986 participants (adjusted response 70.6%) completed a questionnaire, of whom 12 408 provided complete pain data. Four clusters of participants were identified: (1) low number of pain sites (36.6%), (2) medium number of sites with no back pain (31.5%), (3) medium number of sites with back pain (17.9%) and (4) high number of sites (14.1%). Compared to Cluster 1, other clusters were associated with poor health. The strongest associations (relative risk ratios, 95% CI) were with Cluster 4: depression (per unit change in score) 1.11 (1.08 to 1.14); cognitive complaint 2.60 (2.09 to 3.24); non-restorative sleep 4.60 (3.50 to 6.05). Conclusions These results indicate that in a general population aged ≥50 years, pain forms four clusters shaped by two dimensions—number of pain sites (low, medium, high) and, within the medium cluster, the absence or presence of back pain. The usefulness of primary care treatment

  1. Visualization of heterogeneity and regional grading of gliomas by multiple features using magnetic resonance-based clustered images

    PubMed Central

    Inano, Rika; Oishi, Naoya; Kunieda, Takeharu; Arakawa, Yoshiki; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Miyamoto, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Preoperative glioma grading is important for therapeutic strategies and influences prognosis. Intratumoral heterogeneity can cause an underestimation of grading because of the sampling error in biopsies. We developed a voxel-based unsupervised clustering method with multiple magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived features using a self-organizing map followed by K-means. This method produced novel magnetic resonance-based clustered images (MRcIs) that enabled the visualization of glioma grades in 36 patients. The 12-class MRcIs revealed the highest classification performance for the prediction of glioma grading (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.928; 95% confidential interval = 0.920–0.936). Furthermore, we also created 12-class MRcIs in four new patients using the previous data from the 36 patients as training data and obtained tissue sections of the classes 11 and 12, which were significantly higher in high-grade gliomas (HGGs), and those of classes 4, 5 and 9, which were not significantly different between HGGs and low-grade gliomas (LGGs), according to a MRcI-based navigational system. The tissues of classes 11 and 12 showed features of malignant glioma, whereas those of classes 4, 5 and 9 showed LGGs without anaplastic features. These results suggest that the proposed voxel-based clustering method provides new insights into preoperative regional glioma grading. PMID:27456199

  2. Variable requirements for DNA-binding proteins at polycomb-dependent repressive regions in human HOX clusters.

    PubMed

    Woo, Caroline J; Kharchenko, Peter V; Daheron, Laurence; Park, Peter J; Kingston, Robert E

    2013-08-01

    Polycomb group (PcG)-mediated repression is an evolutionarily conserved process critical for cell fate determination and maintenance of gene expression during embryonic development. However, the mechanisms underlying PcG recruitment in mammals remain unclear since few regulatory sites have been identified. We report two novel prospective PcG-dependent regulatory elements within the human HOXB and HOXC clusters and compare their repressive activities to a previously identified element in the HOXD cluster. These regions recruited the PcG proteins BMI1 and SUZ12 to a reporter construct in mesenchymal stem cells and conferred repression that was dependent upon PcG expression. Furthermore, we examined the potential of two DNA-binding proteins, JARID2 and YY1, to regulate PcG activity at these three elements. JARID2 has differential requirements, whereas YY1 appears to be required for repressive activity at all 3 sites. We conclude that distinct elements of the mammalian HOX clusters can recruit components of the PcG complexes and confer repression, similar to what has been seen in Drosophila. These elements, however, have diverse requirements for binding factors, which, combined with previous data on other loci, speaks to the complexity of PcG targeting in mammals.

  3. A Cluster of Transverse Myelitis Following Dengue Virus Infection in the Brazilian Amazon Region

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Adriano Miranda; Alvarenga, Marina Papais; Alvarenga, Regina Maria Papais

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: During the last two decades, clinical reports have begun to place increasing emphasis on the possible neurological complications related to dengue. However, reports of cases with myelitis post dengue are rare. This study describes an unprecedented cluster of transverse myelitis following a dengue virus infection. Methods: 51 possible cases of neurological complications related to dengue were identified by the epidemiological surveillance of the State of Rondônia, Brazil and submitted to serial neurological examination, electromyography, vertebral MR and laboratory investigation to confirm the dengue diagnosis and rule out other arboviruses. Results: The diagnosis of acute transverse myelitis post-dengue was established in 26 patients, the majority were women, young and white. Antibodies against virus IgM were present in all cases and DEN 3 virus was isolated by PCR in one patient. Treatment with IV steroids was useful. Conclusions: The cluster of transverse myelitis post-dengue with favorable clinical outcome here reported suggests an immune mediated mechanism for the spinal cord involvement. Whereas dengue epidemics are frequent in tropical and subtropical countries, the dengue fever should be part in the differential diagnosis of the infectious and post-infectious myelitis. PMID:25324689

  4. Regions of lower crossing over harbor more rare variants in African populations of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Andolfatto, P; Przeworski, M

    2001-01-01

    A correlation between diversity levels and rates of recombination is predicted both by models of positive selection, such as hitchhiking associated with the rapid fixation of advantageous mutations, and by models of purifying selection against strongly deleterious mutations (commonly referred to as "background selection"). With parameter values appropriate for Drosophila populations, only the first class of models predicts a marked skew in the frequency spectrum of linked neutral variants, relative to a neutral model. Here, we consider 29 loci scattered throughout the Drosophila melanogaster genome. We show that, in African populations, a summary of the frequency spectrum of polymorphic mutations is positively correlated with the meiotic rate of crossing over. This pattern is demonstrated to be unlikely under a model of background selection. Models of weakly deleterious selection are not expected to produce both the observed correlation and the extent to which nucleotide diversity is reduced in regions of low (but nonzero) recombination. Thus, of existing models, hitchhiking due to the recurrent fixation of advantageous variants is the most plausible explanation for the data. PMID:11404330

  5. Capacity building and collaborative research on cross-national studies in the Asian region.

    PubMed

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Chang, Linda; Wang, Gene-Jack; Li, Ming D; Rawson, Richard; Shoptaw, Steve; Normand, Jacques; Tai, Betty

    2013-12-01

    To build capacity and collaborative research for future cross-national studies in the Asian and Pacific Islander (API) region, priority research topics were identified and discussed at the April 2013 Conference to Promote Global Health in Taipei. These topics included (1) Neuroscience on HIV/HCV and amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS), led by Drs. Linda Chang, Gene-Jack Wang, and Betty Tai; (2) ATS and mental health disorders, led by Drs. Richard Rawson and Wilson Compton; and (3) HIV/HCV transmission and social networks, led by Drs. Steven Shoptaw and Jacques Normand. Potential genetic studies spanning these topical areas as well as the importance of smoking cessation were further discussed, led by Dr. Ming Li. Additional priority research topics were also identified: (4) Drug use prevention, and (5) Family involvement to improve treatment adherence and recovery. Workgroups on these topics will be formed to prioritize research questions within the respective topical area and to determine the next steps. The ultimate goal of these workgroups is to stimulate collaboration that will eventually lead to research studies addressing critical issues related to the rising substance abuse and HIV infection rates in many Asian countries and, at the same time, to advance the scientific knowledge of substance abuse and HIV infection.

  6. Gap winds and their effects on regional oceanography Part I: Cross Sound, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladd, Carol; Cheng, Wei

    2016-10-01

    Gap-wind events flowing from Cross Sound in the eastern Gulf of Alaska (GOA) were examined using QuikSCAT wind data. The average duration of an event is 3.6 days with the longest event recorded in the QuikSCAT dataset being 12 days. Daily offshore directed winds with speeds >10 m s-1 are more common during the winter months (October-March), averaging 20.0 days per year, and less common during the summer (April - September), averaging 2.8 days per year. Interannual variability in the frequency of gap-wind events is correlated with El Niño. During gap-wind events, the spatial scales of high off-shore directed winds (>10 m s-1) reach almost 200 km off-shore and 225 km along the shelf break, suggesting that the winds directly influence both the shelf (20-65 km wide) and the off-shore waters. A model experiment suggests that a gap-wind event can result in eddy formation and changes in circulation and water properties. Increased entrainment of water from below the mixed layer due to the gap-wind event implies that mixed-layer nitrate concentrations could increase on the order of 5-10 μmole/l, potentially enhancing primary production in the region. An accompanying paper discusses part II of our study (Ladd et al., 2016) focusing on gap-wind events in the western GOA around Kodiak Island.

  7. Iridium Complexes and Clusters in Dealuminated Zeolite HY: Distribution between Crystalline and Impurity Amorphous Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Macias, Claudia; Xu, Pinghong; Hwang, Son-Jong; Lu, Jing; Chen, Cong-Yan; Browning, Nigel D.; Gates, Bruce C.

    2014-07-08

    Dealuminated zeolite HY was used to support Ir(CO)2 complexes formed from Ir(CO)2(C5H7O2). Infrared and X-ray absorption spectra and atomic-resolution electron microscopy images identify these complexes, and the images and 27Al NMR spectra identify impurity amorphous regions in the zeolite where the iridium is more susceptible to aggregation than in the crystalline regions. The results indicate a significant stability limitation of metal in amorphous impurity regions of zeolites.

  8. The assembly and evolution of the outter regions of Brightest Cluster Galaxies as traced by the star light and globular clusters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laporte, Chervin Fabien Pierre

    2015-08-01

    In this talk I will present high-resolution cosmological zoom-in N-body simulations of the assembly of galaxy clusters focussed on the late assembly of the Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs) and their globular clusters. At z=2 dark matter halos are populated with stellar components (and globular clusters) following the scaling relations of z=2 massive quiescent galaxies and their subsequent evolution is followed to the present-day. This leads to a significant build up of the outter envelope of BCGs through accretion and stripping of galaxies consistent with the observed surface brightness profiles of real objects strongly suggesting a dissipationless merger scenario for their assembly with little star formation involved. I will show how it is possible to also study the evolution of the red and blue globular cluster populations in BCGs under the dissipationless merger scenario. I will present predictions on their spatial distribution and kinematics in clusters and how these compare with observations of globular clusters in Virgo and also depend on the accretion history inside the galaxy clusters. Finally, I will also discuss how blue globular clusters in particular can be used to infer the past accretion history of BCGs by tracing low-surface brightness features of shredded galaxies in BCGs otherwise not recognisable/detectable in the light.

  9. Parasites in cross-bred pigs in the Upper East region of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Permin, A; Yelifari, L; Bloch, P; Steenhard, N; Hansen, N P; Nansen, P

    1999-11-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Upper East Region (UER) of Ghana in order to estimate the prevalence of parasitic infections in local cross-bred pigs. Out of 60 villages with a human population of 200-1000 inhabitants, 10 villages were randomly selected for the study. The number of pigs varied from 50 to 200 pigs per village. In total 259 faecal samples from growers were collected and examined. Ninety-one percent of the animals excreted parasite eggs. Among these the prevalence of Eimeria spp. was 77.2%, Isospora suis (27%) and Balantidium coli (19.3%).The following helminth eggs were identified: Metastrongylus salmi (19.3%); Physocephalus sexalatus (17.4%); Oesophagostomum spp./Hyostrongylus rubidus (60.6%); Trichuris suis (4.6%); Ascaris suum (12.7%); Ascarops strongylina (8.1%); Brachylaemus suis (1.9%); Paragonimus suis (0.8%); Globocephalus urosubulatus (2.7%); and Schistosoma suis (0.4%). Furthermore, six growers were selected from each village for clinical and postmortem examinations, i.e. 60 in total. The clinical examinations revealed ectoparasites on 98.3% of the animals. The ectoparasites were: Haematopinus suis (66.7%); Boophilus spp. (58.3%); Amblyomma spp (45.0%); Sarcoptes suis (38.3%); and Rhipicephalus spp. (8.3%). All pigs were examined for the presence of haemoparasites. It was found that 23.3% of the animals had haemoparasites. These were: Babesia perroncitoi (23.3%); Babesia trautmanni (13.3%); and Eperytrozoon suis (1.7%). Based on postmortem examinations the following adult worms were identified: Metastrongylus salmi (83.3%); Oesophagostomum dentatum (63.3%); Oesophagostomum quadrispinulatum (38.3%); Hyostrongylus rubidus (23.3%); Ascarops strongylina (76.7%); Globocephalus urosubulatus (20.0%); Strongyloides spp. (1.7%); and Physocephalus sexalatus (65.0%). Cysts of the human tapeworm Taenia solium, Cysticercus cellulosae, were present in 11.7% of the animals. Small pieces of the diaphragm were examined for the presence of

  10. Clustering of health-related behaviors, health outcomes and demographics in Dutch adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies show several health-related behaviors to cluster in adolescents. This has important implications for public health. Interrelated behaviors have been shown to be most effectively targeted by multimodal interventions addressing wider-ranging improvements in lifestyle instead of via separate interventions targeting individual behaviors. However, few previous studies have taken into account a broad, multi-disciplinary range of health-related behaviors and connected these behavioral patterns to health-related outcomes. This paper presents an analysis of the clustering of a broad range of health-related behaviors with relevant demographic factors and several health-related outcomes in adolescents. Methods Self-report questionnaire data were collected from a sample of 2,690 Dutch high school adolescents. Behavioral patterns were deducted via Principal Components Analysis. Subsequently a Two-Step Cluster Analysis was used to identify groups of adolescents with similar behavioral patterns and health-related outcomes. Results Four distinct behavioral patterns describe the analyzed individual behaviors: 1- risk-prone behavior, 2- bully behavior, 3- problematic screen time use, and 4- sedentary behavior. Subsequent cluster analysis identified four clusters of adolescents. Multi-problem behavior was associated with problematic physical and psychosocial health outcomes, as opposed to those exerting relatively few unhealthy behaviors. These associations were relatively independent of demographics such as ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status. Conclusions The results show that health-related behaviors tend to cluster, indicating that specific behavioral patterns underlie individual health behaviors. In addition, specific patterns of health-related behaviors were associated with specific health outcomes and demographic factors. In general, unhealthy behavior on account of multiple health-related behaviors was associated with both poor psychosocial

  11. TECHNIQUES TO ASSESS CROSS-BORDER AIR POLLUTION AND APPLICATION TO A U.S.-MEXICO BORDER REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A year-long assessment of cross-border air pollution was conducted in the eastmost section of the US-Mexico border region, known as the Lower Rio Grande Valley, in South Texas. Measurements were conducted on the US side and included fine particle mass (PM2.5) and elemental com...

  12. Modeled Neutron Induced Nuclear Reaction Cross Sections for Radiochemistry in the region of Iriduim and Gold

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, R D; Dietrich, F S; Kelley, K; Escher, J; Bauer, R; Mustafa, M

    2008-02-26

    We have developed a set of modeled nuclear reaction cross sections for use in radiochemical diagnostics. Systematics for the input parameters required by the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model were developed and used to calculate neutron induced nuclear reaction cross sections for targets ranging from osmium (Z = 76) to gold (Z = 79). Of particular interest are the cross sections on Ir and Au including reactions on isomeric targets.

  13. Absolute elastic differential electron scattering cross sections in the intermediate energy region. IV - CO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, H.; Srivastava, S. K.; Chutjian, A.

    1978-01-01

    Using a crossed electron beam-molecular beam scattering geometry and a relative-flow technique, ratios of elastic differential cross sections of CO to those of He have been measured at electron impact energies of 3, 5, 7.5, 9.9, 15, 20, 30, 50, 75, and 100 eV. At each energy, an angular range of 15 to 130 deg has been covered. These ratios have been multiplied by previously known He elastic differential cross sections to obtain elastic differential cross sections for CO. Since pure rotational excitations were not resolved, the elastic differential cross sections are a sum of elastic and pure rotational excitations at room temperature. From a knowledge of differential cross sections (DCS), integral and momentum transfer cross sections have been calculated. Both the DCS and integral cross sections are compared at 50, 75, and 100 eV to a recent two-potential theory of e-molecule scattering. Present results show that the isoelectronic molecules CO and N2 have very similar magnitudes and shapes of their differential cross sections.

  14. Evolution of auroral acceleration region field-aligned current systems, plasma, and potentials observed by Cluster during substorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, A. J.; Chaston, C. C.; Fillingim, M. O.; Frey, H. U.; Goldstein, M. L.; Bonnell, J. W.; Mozer, F.

    2015-12-01

    The auroral acceleration region is an integral link in the chain of events that transpire during substorms, and the currents, plasma and electric fields undergo significant changes driven by complex dynamical processes deep in the magnetotail. The acceleration processes that occur therein accelerate and heat the plasma that ultimately leads to some of the most intense global substorm auroral displays. Though this region has garnered considerable attention, the temporal evolution of field-aligned current systems, associated acceleration processes, and resultant changes in the plasma constituents that occur during key stages of substorm development remain unclear. In this study we present a survey of Cluster traversals within and just above the auroral acceleration region (≤3 Re altitude) during substorms. Particular emphasis is on the spatial morphology and developmental sequence of auroral acceleration current systems, potentials and plasma constituents, with the aim of identifying controlling factors, and assessing auroral emmission consequences. Exploiting multi-point measurements from Cluster in combination with auroral imaging, we reveal the injection powered, Alfvenic nature of both the substorm onset and expansion of auroral particle acceleration. We show evidence that indicates substorm onsets are characterized by the gross-intensification and filamentation/striation of pre-existing large-scale current systems to smaller/dispersive scale Alfven waves. Such an evolutionary sequence has been suggested in theoretical models or single spacecraft data, but has not been demonstrated or characterized in multispacecraft observations until now. It is also shown how the Alfvenic variations over time may dissipate to form large-scale inverted-V structures characteristic of the quasi-static aurora. These findings suggest that, in addition to playing active roles in driving substorm aurora, inverted-V and Alfvenic acceleration processes are causally linked. Key

  15. Prediction of hot regions in protein-protein interaction by combining density-based incremental clustering with feature-based classification.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jing; Zhang, Xiaolong; Liu, Xiaoming; Tang, Jinshan

    2015-06-01

    Discovering hot regions in protein-protein interaction is important for drug and protein design, while experimental identification of hot regions is a time-consuming and labor-intensive effort; thus, the development of predictive models can be very helpful. In hot region prediction research, some models are based on structure information, and others are based on a protein interaction network. However, the prediction accuracy of these methods can still be improved. In this paper, a new method is proposed for hot region prediction, which combines density-based incremental clustering with feature-based classification. The method uses density-based incremental clustering to obtain rough hot regions, and uses feature-based classification to remove the non-hot spot residues from the rough hot regions. Experimental results show that the proposed method significantly improves the prediction performance of hot regions.

  16. Crossing the Date Line: Perspectives of Canadian Students Studying Education in an Australian Regional University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dann, Chris; Allen, Bill; Readman, Kylie

    2009-01-01

    The research reported here aims to develop understandings around the expectations and perceptions of Canadian students entering a Graduate Diploma of Education program in an Australian university. The study align well with the theme of "crossing borders", as the study focuses on international students "crossing borders" to achieve their…

  17. Clustering of Risk Behaviors and their Social Determinants among Primary School Learners in Beijing, China: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Ji, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies in developed countries reveal that poor lifestyle choices triggering diseases typically cluster among children. However, there is insufficient evidence on the clustering of risk behaviors among children in developing countries. This study aimed to determine the clustering of risk behaviors and their social determinants among 4th-and 5th -grade learners in Beijing, China. Methods: The sample comprised of 967 learners from six primary schools enrolled migrant and resident learners by two-stage stratified cluster sampling. Prevalence denoted the risk behaviors and their clustering. A log-linear model was used to explore the clustering patterns. Ordinal logistic regression determined the influence of demographic characteristics, school environment, and family context on behavioral clustering. Results: The prevalence of none, one, two, and three or more risk factors was 61.2%, 20.0%, 10.8%, and 8.1% for infectious diseases and 46.0%, 30.6%, 15.4%, and 8.0% for chronic diseases, respectively. Some behaviors appeared dependent and were more likely to be observed together. The three most influential factors for infectious diseases were school type (odds ratio [OR] =4.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.00–6.66), school located in an inner suburb (OR = 0.27, 95% CI 0.18–0.38), and gender (OR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.42–0.74). Regarding risk behaviors for chronic diseases, clustering was not associated with household registration status and number of appliances, but was significantly associated with school type (OR = 5.36, 95% CI 3.72–7.73), school located in an inner suburb (OR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.43–0.81), and gender (OR = 0.61, 95% CI 0.47–0.78). School environment variables were the most significant contributor to the number of risk behaviors. Conclusions: The characteristics of schools enrolling migrants and residents influenced the number of risk behaviors. Therefore, improved school conditions and integrated behavioral interventions are

  18. Cross sections for H+ and H atoms colliding with Li in the low-keV-energy region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera-Trujillo, R.; Sabin, John R.; Deumens, E.; Öhrn, Y.

    2008-07-01

    State-to-state, summed charge transfer and stopping cross sections in collisions of protons and neutral hydrogen atoms with lithium atoms have been studied at collision energies ranging from 10to25keV . Cross sections were calculated using electron-nuclear dynamics (END), which is a nonadiabatic, time-dependent, direct approach for the study of ion-atom-molecule interaction processes. Our results show good agreement when compared to available theoretical and experimental data. We find that the charge transfer cross section for protons shows a bump and a maximum as a function of the projectile energy, both of them as a result of the large probability for capture into the projectile 2p orbital. The bump corresponds to a projectile energy of approximately Ep˜0.7keV , and results from the electron capture probability in the low impact parameter region of approximately btilde 2.0a.u. The maximum occurs at Ep˜5keV as a result of the larger capture probability in the intermediate impact parameter region near btilde 8a.u. A similar behavior is found for the electron loss cross section for hydrogen projectiles. We find that the beam charge fraction, for all the energies considered, is nearly neutral. We also find that the largest contribution to the stopping cross section is for impact parameters around btilde 5a.u. Finally, we report the total, electronic, and nuclear stopping cross sections to be within a factor of 2 of the reported values in the SRIM 06 code (SRIM stands for stopping and range of ions in matter) and other available experimental data. The largest discrepancy is due to the charge transfer process as well as to a transient LiH+ molecular ion formed in the low projectile energy region.

  19. Physical analysis of the COR region: a cluster of six genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, K.; Stiles, J.I.; Pietras, D.F.; Melnick, L.; Sherman, F.

    1987-02-01

    Six genes, CYC1, UTR1, UTR3, OSM1, tRNAGly, and RAD7, have been localized within an 8-kilobase region on chromosome X of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The physical structures and the transcripts of these genes were identified by analyzing a normal strain and six deletion mutants by genomic blotting, transcriptional analysis, and gene disruption procedures. The well-studied CYC1 gene encodes iso-1-cytochrome c; the tRNAGly gene encodes a tRNA; deletion of OSM1 and RAD7 causes sensitivity to hypertonic medium and UV irradiation, respectively. There were no observable phenotypes in strains having deletions of the UTR1, UTR3, and tRNAGly gene. The high density of transcripts, with little or almost no intragenic regions, indicates that the chromosomal organization of S. cerevisiae resembles the chromosomal organization of procaryotes rather than higher eucaryotes.

  20. Spiral Galaxies with a Larger Fraction of Dark Matter in the Region of 3-10 Mpc Around the Virgo and Fornax Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogoshvili, N. G.; Borchkhadze, T. M.; Kalloghlian, A. T.

    2015-09-01

    This is a study of the dynamic characteristics of spiral galaxies with absolute magnitudes M ≥ -20m.6 at distances of 3 to 10 Mpc from the Virgo and Fornax clusters based on data from the Merged Catalog of Galaxies MERCG. The diameters of the galaxies are used to determine the radius RD corresponding to the region with the greatest concentration of dark matter. Based on the condition of centrifugal equilibrium, the dynamic parameters of the spiral galaxies with M ≥ -20m.6 are calculated and compared with the dynamic characteristics of spiral galaxies with M ≥ -20m.6. It is found that there are many fewer spiral galaxies with M ≥ -20m.6 and a larger fraction of dark matter in the regions surrounding these clusters, estimated at 12.7% in the vicinity of the Virgo cluster and 15.3% in the vicinity of the Fornax cluster.

  1. THE HIGH-VELOCITY MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS IN MASSIVE CLUSTER-FORMING REGION G10.6-0.4

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Hauyu Baobab; Ho, Paul T. P.; Zhang Qizhou E-mail: pho@asiaa.sinica.edu.t

    2010-12-20

    We report the arcsecond resolution Submillimeter Array observations of the {sup 12}CO (2-1) transition in the massive cluster-forming region G10.6-0.4. In these observations, the high-velocity {sup 12}CO emission is resolved into individual outflow systems, which have a typical size scale of a few arcseconds. These molecular outflows are energetic and are interacting with the ambient molecular gas. By inspecting the shock signatures traced by CH{sub 3}OH, SiO, and HCN emissions, we suggest that abundant star formation activities are distributed over the entire 0.5 pc scale dense molecular envelope. The star formation efficiency over one global free-fall timescale (of the 0.5 pc molecular envelope, {approx}10{sup 5} years) is about a few percent. The total energy feedback of these high-velocity outflows is higher than 10{sup 47} erg, which is comparable to the total kinetic energy in the rotational motion of the dense molecular envelope. From order-of-magnitude estimations, we suggest that the energy injected from the protostellar outflows is capable of balancing the turbulent energy dissipation. No high-velocity bipolar molecular outflow associated with the central OB cluster is directly detected, which can be due to the photoionization.

  2. The High-velocity Molecular Outflows in Massive Cluster-forming Region G10.6-0.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Ho, Paul T. P.; Zhang, Qizhou

    2010-12-01

    We report the arcsecond resolution Submillimeter Array observations of the 12CO (2-1) transition in the massive cluster-forming region G10.6-0.4. In these observations, the high-velocity 12CO emission is resolved into individual outflow systems, which have a typical size scale of a few arcseconds. These molecular outflows are energetic and are interacting with the ambient molecular gas. By inspecting the shock signatures traced by CH3OH, SiO, and HCN emissions, we suggest that abundant star formation activities are distributed over the entire 0.5 pc scale dense molecular envelope. The star formation efficiency over one global free-fall timescale (of the 0.5 pc molecular envelope, ~105 years) is about a few percent. The total energy feedback of these high-velocity outflows is higher than 1047 erg, which is comparable to the total kinetic energy in the rotational motion of the dense molecular envelope. From order-of-magnitude estimations, we suggest that the energy injected from the protostellar outflows is capable of balancing the turbulent energy dissipation. No high-velocity bipolar molecular outflow associated with the central OB cluster is directly detected, which can be due to the photoionization.

  3. Radiation hybrid mapping of a cytokine gene cluster located in the proximal region of 5q

    SciTech Connect

    Segal, A.L.; McPherson, J.D.; Wasmuth, J.J.

    1994-09-01

    The long (q) arm of chromosome 5 has been shown to contain a large number of genes encoding growth factors, growth factor receptors, hormone receptors and neurotransmitter receptors. IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-13, GM-CSF and IRF-1 are located in the 5q22-31.1 interval, while three GABA receptors map to 5q33-34. A number of receptors, including the prolactin and growth hormone receptors, the IL-7 receptor and the leukemia inhibitory factor receptor, map to proximal 5p. Genes encoding three of the complement components, C6, C7 and C9, are also located in the same region. YAC data indicates that C6 and C7 lie within 170 kb of each other. We have used a panel of 180 Chinese hamster-human radiation hybrids possessing fragments of human chromosome 5 to construct a physical map of this region of 5q. Two-point and multi-point analyses were done on the data and significant LOD scores (from 3 to 30) were observed. LIFR, PRLR, GHR, IL-7R, C6, C7, C9, TARS, and a number of CEPH-Genethon dinucleotide repeat markers were ordered and mapped. Yeast artificial chromosomes and cosmids have been isolated and inter-Alu PCR products from them are being used to construct a contig and to improve the physical map. The long term goal of this work is to identify and characterize new genes in the region.

  4. Cluster analysis of Landslide Vulnerable region on an urban Area in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Yonghee; Lee, Sangeun; Kim, Myoungsoo; Baek, Jongrak

    2016-04-01

    Mountain areas occupy about 65% of the territory in South Korea. Due to the rapid population growth and urbanization, many cities suffer from the limitation in space, and hence the commercial buildings, educational facilities, and housing settlement areas continue to stretch until the bottom of the mountain. In result, residents become more and more vulnerable to landslides and debris flow. This led to the central government to perceiving the need for strengthening regulations relevant to urban planning. In order to consider risks due to landslides and debris flow in the stage of urban planning, present authors suggested the strategies, including: first, selecting priority areas necessary to manage landslide-related disasters strictly; second, establishing the integrated management system useful to offer technical assistances to persons in charge of urban planning in the areas; third, promoting disaster awareness programs with those persons along with the central government. As the first attempt, this study mainly discusses the GIS-application procedures in which authors selected the priority areas, which are summarized: 1. Collect the landslide historical data for the period 1999 - 2012 when the disasters particularly threatened the whole country. 2. Define the areas with the one-kilometer radius around the landslide occurrence places. 3. Exclude the areas where population is less than 100 persons per 1 km2. 4. Exclude the areas where mountains with Grade I or II of landslide risk (announced by the Korea Forest Service) go below a certain portion of the area. 5. Carry out the cluster analysis with the remaining areas 6. Classify the types at the standpoint of landslide disaster risk management. Through the procedures, this study obtained a total of 86 priority areas, which were also classified into 24 areas - Type A (high population exposure and mid landslide occurrence likelihood) -, 25 areas - Type B (mid population exposure and high landslide occurrence

  5. Infrared spectroscopy of (HCl)m(H(2)O)n clusters in helium nanodroplets: definitive assignments in the HCl stretch region.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Alexander M; Flynn, Steven D; Liang, Tao; Douberly, Gary E

    2010-08-12

    Infrared spectra in the HCl stretch region (2600-2900 cm(-1)) are presented for small, mixed (HCl)(m)(H(2)O)(n) clusters solvated in helium nanodroplets. Sharp bands associated with the Cl-H...Cl stretch vibrations in m:n = 1:1, 2:1, 2:2, and 3:1 clusters are superimposed on a broad background that increases in intensity as larger clusters are grown within the droplets. The broad background is determined to be partially due to mixed clusters with m > 3 and n > 2. The sharp bands are assigned to specific cluster compositions, m:n, via pick-up pressure dependence studies and optically selected mass spectrometry. Orientation of the clusters is achieved with the application of a large electric field to the laser/droplet beam interaction region. The intensity of each band is measured as a function of the applied field strength. Simulations of this electric field dependence based on ab initio calculations of permanent dipole moments and vibrational transition moment angles leads to definitive structural assignments for each sharp band. The 2:1 complex is cyclic, and a band associated with the 2:2 cluster is determined to arise from the nonalternating cyclic structure.

  6. Cluster Encounter of a Magnetic Reconnection Diffusion Region in the Near-Earth Magnetotail on September 19, 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, A. L.; Oieroset, M.; Phan, T. D.; Mozer, F.; Pedersen, A.; Mouikis, C.; McFadden, J. P.; Twitty, C.; Balogh, A.; Reme, H.

    2005-12-01

    We report a clear encounter by the Cluster spacecraft of a magnetic reconnection diffusion region in the near-Earth magnetotail at XGSM} = -17.5 R_E on September 19, 2003. In addition to the reversals of the plasma jets and of GSM-z (~normal) component of the magnetic field, clear signatures of Hall quadrupolar (GSM-y) magnetic fields as well as bipolar Hall (GSM-z) electric fields with amplitude up to 80 mV/m directed toward the current sheet in both hemispheres were observed. Furthermore, large fluctuations in the electric field perpendicular to the magnetic field with amplitudes reaching 65 mV/m were observed near the separatrices in both hemispheres and in association with local density minima.

  7. Cluster encounter of a magnetic reconnection diffusion region in the near-Earth magnetotail on September 19, 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, A. L.; Øieroset, M.; Phan, T. D.; Mozer, F. S.; Pedersen, A.; Mouikis, C.; McFadden, J. P.; Twitty, C.; Balogh, A.; Rème, H.

    2005-10-01

    We report a clear encounter by the Cluster spacecraft of a magnetic reconnection diffusion region in the near-Earth magnetotail at XGSM = -17.5 RE on September 19, 2003. In addition to the reversals of the plasma jets and of GSM-z (~normal) component of the magnetic field, clear signatures of Hall quadrupolar (GSM-y) magnetic fields as well as bipolar Hall (GSM-z) electric fields with amplitude up to 80 mV/m directed toward the neutral sheet in both hemispheres were observed. Furthermore, large fluctuations in the electric field perpendicular to the magnetic field with amplitudes reaching 65 mV/m were observed near the separatrices in both hemispheres and in association with local density minima.

  8. [Profile distribution of soil aggregates organic carbon in primary forests in Karst cluster-peak depression region].

    PubMed

    Lu, Ling-Xiao; Song, Tong-Qing; Peng, Wan-Xia; Zeng, Fu-Ping; Wang, Ke-Lin; Xu, Yun-Lei; Yu, Zi; Liu, Yan

    2012-05-01

    Soil profiles were collected from three primary forests (Itoa orientalis, Platycladus orientalis, and Radermachera sinica) in Karst cluster-peak depression region to study the composition of soil aggregates, their organic carbon contents, and the profile distribution of the organic carbon. In the three forests, >2 mm soil aggregates were dominant, occupying about 76% of the total. The content of soil total organic carbon ranged from 12.73 to 68.66 g x kg(-1), with a significant difference among the forests. The organic carbon content in <1 mm soil aggregates was slightly higher than that in >2 mm soil aggregates, but most of soil organic carbon was stored in the soil aggregates with greater particle sizes. About 70% of soil organic carbon came from >2 mm soil aggregates. There was a significant positive relationship between the contents of 2-5 and 5-8 mm soil aggregates and the content of soil organic carbon. To increase the contents of 2-8 mm soil aggregates could effectively improve the soil carbon sequestration in Karst region. In Itoa orientalis forest, 2-8 mm soil aggregates accounted for 46% of the total, and the content of soil total organic carbon reached to 37.62 g x kg(-1), which implied that Itoa orientalis could be the suitable tree species for the ecological restoration in Karst region.

  9. Product PCNPsurv or the "reduced" evaporation residue cross section σER/σfusion for "hot" fusion reactions studied with the dynamical cluster-decay model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chopra, Sahila; Kaur, Arshdeep; Hemdeep, Gupta, Raj K.

    2016-04-01

    The product PCNPsurv of compound nucleus (CN) fusion probability PCN and survival probability Psurv is calculated to determine the reduced evaporation residue cross section σER/σfusion , denoted σERreduced, with (total) fusion cross section σfusion given as a sum of CN-formation cross section σCN and non-CN cross section σnCN for each reaction, where σCN is the sum of evaporation residue cross section σER and fusion-fission cross section σff and σnCN, if not measured, is estimated empirically as the difference between measured and calculated σfusion. Our calculations of PCN and Psurv, based on the dynamical cluster-decay model, were successfully made for some 17 "hot" fusion reactions, forming different CN of mass numbers ACN˜100 -300 , with deformations of nuclei up to hexadecapole deformations and "compact" orientations for both coplanar (Φc=0∘ ) and noncoplanar (Φc≠0∘ ) configurations, using various different nuclear interaction potentials. Interesting variations of σERreduced with CN excitation energy E*, fissility parameter χ , CN mass ACN, and Coulomb parameter Z1Z2 show that, independent of entrance channel, different isotopes of CN, and nuclear interaction potentials used, the dominant quantity in the product is Psurv, which classifies all the studied CN into three groups of weakly fissioning, radioactive, and strongly fissioning superheavy nuclei, with relative magnitudes of σERreduced˜1 , ˜10-6 , and ˜10-11 , which, like for PCN, get further grouped in two dependencies of (i) weakly fissioning and strongly fissioning superheavy nuclei decreasing with increasing E* and (ii) radioactive nuclei increasing with increasing E*.

  10. Absolute Rayleigh scattering cross sections of gases and freons of stratospheric interest in the visible and ultraviolet regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SHARDANAND; Rao, A. D. P.

    1977-01-01

    The laboratory measurements of absolute Rayleigh scattering cross sections as a function wavelength are reported for gas molecules He, Ne, Ar, N2, H2, O2, CO2, CH4 and for vapors of most commonly used freons CCl2F2, CBrF3, CF4, and CHClf2. These cross sections are determined from the measurements of photon scattering at an angle of 54 deg 44 min which yield the absolute values independent of the value of normal depolarization ratios. The present results show that in the spectral range 6943-3638A deg, the values of the Rayleigh scattering cross section can be extrapolated from one wavelength to the other using 1/lambda (4) law without knowing the values of the polarizabilities. However, such an extrapolation can not be done in the region of shorter wavelengths.

  11. Rapid detection of regionally clustered germ-line BRCA1 mutations by multiplex heteroduplex analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gayther, S.A.; Harrington, P.; Russell, P.

    1996-03-01

    Germ-line mutations of the BRCA1 gene are responsible for a substantial proportion of families with multiple cases of early-onset breast and/or ovarian cancer. Since the isolation of BRCA1 last year, >65 distinct mutations scattered throughout the coding region have been detected, making analysis of the gene time consuming and technically challenging. We have developed a multiplex heteroduplex analysis that is designed to analyze one-quarter of the coding sequence in a single-step screening procedure and that will detect {approximately}50% of all BRCA1 mutations so far reported in breast/ovarian cancer families. We have used this technique to analyze BRCA1 in 162 families with a history of breast and/or ovarian cancer and identified 12 distinct mutations in 35 families. 20 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Dental-to-velar perceptual assimilation: A cross-linguistic study of the perception of dental stop+/1/ clusters

    PubMed Central

    Hallé, Pierre A.; Best, Catherine T.

    2009-01-01

    French listeners perceive illegal /tl/ and /dl/ clusters as legal /kl/ and /gl/, suggesting that /dl, tl/ undergo “phonotactic perceptual assimilation” to the phonetically most similar permissible clusters [Hallé et al., J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. (1998)]. However, without a comparison to native speakers of a language allowing initial /tl, dl/, other explanations remain open (e.g., universal phonetic biases). Experiment 1 compared native French and Hebrew listeners on perception of Hebrew /tl/-/kl/ and /dl/-/gl/. On a language-specific phonotactics account, these contrasts should be difficult for listeners whose language disallows initial /tl, dl/ while allowing /kl, gl/(French), but not for listeners whose language permits all four clusters (Hebrew). Indeed, French but not Hebrew listeners showed difficulty discriminating /tl/-/kl/, and tended to categorize the initial consonant of /tl/ as /k/; analogous effects for /dl/-/gl/ were weaker. Experiment 2 tested speakers of American English, which also disallows initial /tl, dl/ but realizes stop-voicing differently than French or Hebrew, to examine possible contributions of language-specific phonetic settings. Their performance was similar to that of French listeners, though they had significantly greater difficulty with /dl-/gl/. The results support the proposal of language-specific phonotactic perceptual assimilation, with modest contributions from language-specific phonetic settings. PMID:17550188

  13. A point mutation in the [2Fe–2S] cluster binding region of the NAF-1 protein (H114C) dramatically hinders the cluster donor properties

    SciTech Connect

    Tamir, Sagi; Eisenberg-Domovich, Yael; Conlan, Andrea R.; Stofleth, Jason T.; Lipper, Colin H.; Paddock, Mark L.; Mittler, Ron; Jennings, Patricia A.; Livnah, Oded Nechushtai, Rachel

    2014-06-01

    NAF-1 has been shown to be related with human health and disease, is upregulated in epithelial breast cancer and suppression of its expression significantly suppresses tumor growth. It is shown that replacement of the single His ligand with Cys resulted in dramatic changes to the properties of its 2Fe-2S clusters without any global crystal structural changes. NAF-1 is an important [2Fe–2S] NEET protein associated with human health and disease. A mis-splicing mutation in NAF-1 results in Wolfram Syndrome type 2, a lethal childhood disease. Upregulation of NAF-1 is found in epithelial breast cancer cells, and suppression of NAF-1 expression by knockdown significantly suppresses tumor growth. Key to NAF-1 function is the NEET fold with its [2Fe–2S] cluster. In this work, the high-resolution structure of native NAF-1 was determined to 1.65 Å resolution (R factor = 13.5%) together with that of a mutant in which the single His ligand of its [2Fe–2S] cluster, His114, was replaced by Cys. The NAF-1 H114C mutant structure was determined to 1.58 Å resolution (R factor = 16.0%). All structural differences were localized to the cluster binding site. Compared with native NAF-1, the [2Fe–2S] clusters of the H114C mutant were found to (i) be 25-fold more stable, (ii) have a redox potential that is 300 mV more negative and (iii) have their cluster donation/transfer function abolished. Because no global structural differences were found between the mutant and the native (wild-type) NAF-1 proteins, yet significant functional differences exist between them, the NAF-1 H114C mutant is an excellent tool to decipher the underlying biological importance of the [2Fe–2S] cluster of NAF-1 in vivo.

  14. Antibody responses to hepatitis C virus hypervariable region 1: evidence for cross-reactivity and immune-mediated sequence variation.

    PubMed

    Mondelli, M U; Cerino, A; Lisa, A; Brambilla, S; Segagni, L; Cividini, A; Bissolati, M; Missale, G; Bellati, G; Meola, A; Bruniercole, B; Nicosia, A; Galfrè, G; Silini, E

    1999-08-01

    Sequence heterogeneity of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is unevenly distributed along the genome, and maximal variation is confined to a short sequence of the HCV second envelope glycoprotein (E2), designated hypervariable region 1 (HVR1), whose biological function is still undefined. We prospectively studied serological responses to synthetic oligopeptides derived from HVR1 sequences of patients with acute and chronic HCV infection obtained at baseline and after a defined follow-up period. Extensive serological cross-reactivity for unrelated HVR1 peptides was observed in the majority of the patients. Antibody response was restricted to the IgG1 isotype and was focused on the carboxyterminal end of the HVR1 region. Cross-reactive antibodies could be readily elicited following immunization of mice with multiple antigenic peptides carrying HVR1 sequences derived from our patients. The vigor and heterogeneity of cross-reactive antibody responses were significantly higher in patients with chronic hepatitis compared with those with acute hepatitis and in patients infected with HCV type 2 compared with patients infected with other viral genotypes (predominantly type 1), which suggest that higher time-related HVR1 sequence diversification previously described for type 2 may result from immune selection. The finding of a statistically significant correlation between HVR1 sequence variation, and intensity, and cross-reactivity of humoral immune responses provided stronger evidence in support of the contention that HCV variant selection is driven by the host's immune pressure.

  15. {sup 12}C({alpha},{gamma}){sup 16}O E2 cross section: R-matrix fits combined with a microscopic cluster model

    SciTech Connect

    Dufour, M.

    2008-07-15

    The E2 component of the {sup 12}C({alpha},{gamma}){sup 16}O cross section is investigated in two ways: by a microscopic cluster model, and by R-matrix fits. The {alpha}+{sup 12}C microscopic calculation is performed in the framework of the generator coordinate method (GCM) by including all {sup 12}C states (T=0) within the p shell. Using different nucleon-nucleon interactions we find S{sub E2}(300 keV){approx_equal}50 keV {center_dot} b for ground-state transitions. We also study cascade transitions to the 0{sub 2}{sup +} and 2{sub 1}{sup +} excited states of {sup 16}O. Then the S-factor is analyzed in the phenomenological R-matrix theory. We show that the background term plays a crucial role, and cannot be determined without ambiguity. Using the experimental phase shifts and capture cross sections, only an upper limit on the extrapolated S factor can be obtained [S{sub E2}(300 keV)<190 keV {center_dot} b]. To constrain the R-matrix analysis, we use the GCM asymptotic normalization constant (ANC) of the 2{sub 1}{sup +} level, well known to be a cluster state. This procedure strongly reduces the uncertainties on the R-matrix fit, and we end up with a recommended value of S{sub E2}(300 keV)=42{+-}2 keV {center_dot} b. We show that ANC values derived from indirect methods are not consistent with the {sup 12}C({alpha},{gamma}){sup 16}O cascade transitions to the 2{sub 1}{sup +} state, and suggest that a remeasurement of this cross section is desirable.

  16. Clustering oxbow lakes in the Upper-Tisza Region on the basis of stable isotope measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babka, Beáta; Futó, István; Szabó, Szilárd

    2011-11-01

    SummarySeveral times a year the River Tisza floods areas between dikes, fills the oxbow lakes on the floodplain and changes their water. However the water addition in the oxbow lakes does not only take place through flooding; it is also likely that water can seep under the surface through the gravelled layers of the old river-beds, and furthermore, precipitation also plays a role. Our goal with this study is to acquire a full, comprehensive picture of the water addition of the oxbow lakes in the Upper-Tisza Region. Surface and groundwater samples were taken from the River Tisza, the oxbow lakes and the boreholes around four oxbow lakes, and stabile isotope ratios were measured. We can get information on the origin, the evaporation and the state of the waters, and the depth of the water table with the help of δ18O VSMOW (‰) and δD VSMOW (‰). During the examination the question we addressed was how oxbow lakes can be classified according to their water addition on the basis of their stable isotope ratios. The results from the Tisza and the oxbow lakes, as well as the results from the oxbow lakes on the reclaimed side and the floodplain are also isolated.

  17. Precise optical modeling for LED lighting verified by cross correlation in the midfield region.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ching-Cherng; Lee, Tsung-Xian; Ma, Shih-Hsin; Lee, Ya-Luan; Huang, Shih-Ming

    2006-07-15

    A novel LED modeling algorithm for precise three-dimensional light pattern simulation is proposed and demonstrated. We propose to use normalized cross correlation to verify the validity of the simulation in one-dimensional intensity patterns as well as two-dimensional irradiance patterns in various midfield distances and to provide feedback to achieve a successful model. The model is demonstrated to obtain an average of 99% in normalized cross correlation between the simulation light pattern and experimental measurement for a truncated inverse pyramid LED.

  18. A point mutation in the [2Fe-2S] cluster binding region of the NAF-1 protein (H114C) dramatically hinders the cluster donor properties.

    PubMed

    Tamir, Sagi; Eisenberg-Domovich, Yael; Conlan, Andrea R; Stofleth, Jason T; Lipper, Colin H; Paddock, Mark L; Mittler, Ron; Jennings, Patricia A; Livnah, Oded; Nechushtai, Rachel

    2014-06-01

    NAF-1 is an important [2Fe-2S] NEET protein associated with human health and disease. A mis-splicing mutation in NAF-1 results in Wolfram Syndrome type 2, a lethal childhood disease. Upregulation of NAF-1 is found in epithelial breast cancer cells, and suppression of NAF-1 expression by knockdown significantly suppresses tumor growth. Key to NAF-1 function is the NEET fold with its [2Fe-2S] cluster. In this work, the high-resolution structure of native NAF-1 was determined to 1.65 Å resolution (R factor = 13.5%) together with that of a mutant in which the single His ligand of its [2Fe-2S] cluster, His114, was replaced by Cys. The NAF-1 H114C mutant structure was determined to 1.58 Å resolution (R factor = 16.0%). All structural differences were localized to the cluster binding site. Compared with native NAF-1, the [2Fe-2S] clusters of the H114C mutant were found to (i) be 25-fold more stable, (ii) have a redox potential that is 300 mV more negative and (iii) have their cluster donation/transfer function abolished. Because no global structural differences were found between the mutant and the native (wild-type) NAF-1 proteins, yet significant functional differences exist between them, the NAF-1 H114C mutant is an excellent tool to decipher the underlying biological importance of the [2Fe-2S] cluster of NAF-1 in vivo.

  19. Exploring the crowded central region of ten Galactic globular clusters using EMCCDs. Variable star searches and new discoveries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figuera Jaimes, R.; Bramich, D. M.; Skottfelt, J.; Kains, N.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Horne, K.; Dominik, M.; Alsubai, K. A.; Bozza, V.; Calchi Novati, S.; Ciceri, S.; D'Ago, G.; Galianni, P.; Gu, S.-H.; Harpsøe, K. B. W.; Haugbølle, T.; Hinse, T. C.; Hundertmark, M.; Juncher, D.; Korhonen, H.; Mancini, L.; Popovas, A.; Rabus, M.; Rahvar, S.; Scarpetta, G.; Schmidt, R. W.; Snodgrass, C.; Southworth, J.; Starkey, D.; Street, R. A.; Surdej, J.; Wang, X.-B.; Wertz, O.

    2016-04-01

    Aims: We aim to obtain time-series photometry of the very crowded central regions of Galactic globular clusters; to obtain better angular resolution thanhas been previously achieved with conventional CCDs on ground-based telescopes; and to complete, or improve, the census of the variable star population in those stellar systems. Methods: Images were taken using the Danish 1.54-m Telescope at the ESO observatory at La Silla in Chile. The telescope was equipped with an electron-multiplying CCD, and the short-exposure-time images obtained (ten images per second) were stacked using the shift-and-add technique to produce the normal-exposure-time images (minutes). Photometry was performed via difference image analysis. Automatic detection of variable stars in the field was attempted. Results: The light curves of 12 541 stars in the cores of ten globular clusters were statistically analysed to automatically extract the variable stars. We obtained light curves for 31 previously known variable stars (3 long-period irregular, 2 semi-regular, 20 RR Lyrae, 1 SX Phoenicis, 3 cataclysmic variables, 1 W Ursae Majoris-type and 1 unclassified) and we discovered 30 new variables (16 long-period irregular, 7 semi-regular, 4 RR Lyrae, 1 SX Phoenicis and 2 unclassified). Fluxes and photometric measurements for these stars are available in electronic form through the Strasbourg astronomical Data Center. Based on data collected by the MiNDSTEp team with the Danish 1.54m telescope at ESO's La Silla observatory in Chile.Full Table 1 is only available at CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/588/A128

  20. Hubble Space Telescope Discovery of a Probable Caustic-Crossing Event in the MACS1149 Galaxy Cluster Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Patrick L.; Rodney, Steven; Diego, Jose Maria; Zitrin, Adi; Broadhurst, Tom; Selsing, Jonatan; Balestra, Italo; Benito, Alberto Molino; Bradac, Marusa; Bradley, Larry; Brammer, Gabriel; Cenko, Brad; Christensen, Lise; Coe, Dan; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Foley, Ryan; Frye, Brenda; Graham, Melissa; Graur, Or; Grillo, Claudio; Hjorth, Jens; Howell, Andy; Jauzac, Mathilde; Jha, Saurabh; Kaiser, Nick; Kawamata, Ryota; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Lotz, Jennifer; Matheson, Thomas; McCully, Curtis; Merten, Julian; Nonino, Mario; Oguri, Masamune; Richard, Johan; Riess, Adam; Rosati, Piero; Schmidt, Kasper Borello; Sharon, Keren; Smith, Nathan; Strolger, Lou; Treu, Tommaso; Wang, Xin; Weiner, Ben; Williams, Liliya; Zheng, Weikang

    2016-05-01

    While monitoring the MACS1149 (z = 0.54) galaxy cluster as part of the RefsdalRedux program (PID 14199; PI Kelly) with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFC3 IR camera, we have detected a rising transient that appears to be coincident ( Target-of-opportunity optical follow-up imaging in several ACS and WFC3 bands with the FrontierSN program (PID 14208; PI Rodney) has revealed that its rest-frame ultraviolet through optical spectrum may be reasonably well fit with that of a B star at z=1.49 exhibiting a strong Balmer break.

  1. A CHANDRA STUDY OF THE ROSETTE STAR-FORMING COMPLEX. III. THE NGC 2237 CLUSTER AND THE REGION'S STAR FORMATION HISTORY

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Junfeng; Feigelson, Eric D.; Townsley, Leisa K.; Broos, Patrick S.; Garmire, Gordon; Roman-Zuniga, Carlos G.; Lada, Elizabeth

    2010-06-10

    We present high spatial resolution Chandra X-ray images of the NGC 2237 young stellar cluster on the periphery of the Rosette Nebula. We detect 168 X-ray sources, 80% of which have stellar counterparts in USNO, Two Micron All Sky Survey, and deep FLAMINGOS images. These constitute the first census of the cluster members with 0.2 {approx}< M {approx}< 2 M {sub sun}. Star locations in near-infrared color-magnitude diagrams indicate a cluster age around 2 Myr with a visual extinction of 1 {approx}< A{sub V} {approx}< 3 at 1.4 kpc, the distance of the Rosette Nebula's main cluster NGC 2244. We derive the K-band luminosity function and the X-ray luminosity function of the cluster, which indicate a population {approx}400-600 stars. The X-ray-selected sample shows a K-excess disk frequency of 13%. The young Class II counterparts are aligned in an arc {approx}3 pc long suggestive of a triggered formation process induced by the O stars in NGC 2244. The diskless Class III sources are more dispersed. Several X-ray emitting stars are located inside the molecular cloud and around gaseous pillars projecting from the cloud. These stars, together with a previously unreported optical outflow originating inside the cloud, indicate that star formation is continuing at a low level and the cluster is still growing. This X-ray view of young stars on the western side of the Rosette Nebula complements our earlier studies of the central cluster NGC 2244 and the embedded clusters on the eastern side of the Nebula. The large-scale distribution of the clusters and molecular material is consistent with a scenario in which the rich central NGC 2244 cluster formed first, and its expanding H II region triggered the formation of the now-unobscured satellite clusters Rosette Molecular Cloud (RMC) XA and NGC 2237. A large swept-up shell material around the H II region is now in a second phase of collect-and-collapse fragmentation, leading to the recent formation of subclusters. Other clusters deeper

  2. A Chandra Study of the Rosette Star-forming Complex. III. The NGC 2237 Cluster and the Region's Star Formation History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junfeng; Feigelson, Eric D.; Townsley, Leisa K.; Broos, Patrick S.; Román-Zúñiga, Carlos G.; Lada, Elizabeth; Garmire, Gordon

    2010-06-01

    We present high spatial resolution Chandra X-ray images of the NGC 2237 young stellar cluster on the periphery of the Rosette Nebula. We detect 168 X-ray sources, 80% of which have stellar counterparts in USNO, Two Micron All Sky Survey, and deep FLAMINGOS images. These constitute the first census of the cluster members with 0.2 <~ M <~ 2 M sun. Star locations in near-infrared color-magnitude diagrams indicate a cluster age around 2 Myr with a visual extinction of 1 <~ AV <~ 3 at 1.4 kpc, the distance of the Rosette Nebula's main cluster NGC 2244. We derive the K-band luminosity function and the X-ray luminosity function of the cluster, which indicate a population ~400-600 stars. The X-ray-selected sample shows a K-excess disk frequency of 13%. The young Class II counterparts are aligned in an arc ~3 pc long suggestive of a triggered formation process induced by the O stars in NGC 2244. The diskless Class III sources are more dispersed. Several X-ray emitting stars are located inside the molecular cloud and around gaseous pillars projecting from the cloud. These stars, together with a previously unreported optical outflow originating inside the cloud, indicate that star formation is continuing at a low level and the cluster is still growing. This X-ray view of young stars on the western side of the Rosette Nebula complements our earlier studies of the central cluster NGC 2244 and the embedded clusters on the eastern side of the Nebula. The large-scale distribution of the clusters and molecular material is consistent with a scenario in which the rich central NGC 2244 cluster formed first, and its expanding H II region triggered the formation of the now-unobscured satellite clusters Rosette Molecular Cloud (RMC) XA and NGC 2237. A large swept-up shell material around the H II region is now in a second phase of collect-and-collapse fragmentation, leading to the recent formation of subclusters. Other clusters deeper in the molecular cloud appear unaffected by the

  3. La Crosse Virus in Aedes japonicus japonicus Mosquitoes in the Appalachian Region, United States

    PubMed Central

    Dotseth, Eric J.; Jackson, Bryan T.; Zink, Steven D.; Marek, Paul E.; Kramer, Laura D.; Paulson, Sally L.; Hawley, Dana M.

    2015-01-01

    La Crosse virus (LACV), a leading cause of arboviral encephalitis in children in the United States, is emerging in Appalachia. For local arboviral surveillance, mosquitoes were tested. LACV RNA was detected and isolated from Aedes japonicus mosquitoes. These invasive mosquitoes may significantly affect LACV range expansion and dynamics. PMID:25811131

  4. La Crosse Virus in Aedes japonicus japonicus mosquitoes in the Appalachian Region, United States.

    PubMed

    Harris, M Camille; Dotseth, Eric J; Jackson, Bryan T; Zink, Steven D; Marek, Paul E; Kramer, Laura D; Paulson, Sally L; Hawley, Dana M

    2015-04-01

    La Crosse virus (LACV), a leading cause of arboviral encephalitis in children in the United States, is emerging in Appalachia. For local arboviral surveillance, mosquitoes were tested. LACV RNA was detected and isolated from Aedes japonicus mosquitoes. These invasive mosquitoes may significantly affect LACV range expansion and dynamics.

  5. Molecular dissection of cis-acting regulatory elements from 5'-proximal regions of a vaccinia virus late gene cluster.

    PubMed

    Miner, J N; Weinrich, S L; Hruby, D E

    1988-01-01

    Promoter elements responsible for directing the transcription of six tightly clustered vaccinia virus (VV) late genes (open reading frames [ORFs] D11, D12, D13, A1, A2, and A3) from the HindIII D/A region of the viral genome were identified within the upstream sequences proximal to each individual locus. These regions were identified as promoters by excising them from the VV genome, abutting them to the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyl transferase gene, and demonstrating their ability to drive expression of the reporter gene in transient-expression assays in an orientation-specific manner. To delineate the 5' boundary of the upstream elements, two of the VV late gene (A1 and D13) promoter: CAT constructs were subjected to deletion mutagenesis procedures. A series of 5' deletions of the ORF A1 promoter from -114 to -24 showed no reduction in promoter activity, whereas additional deletion of the sequences from -24 to +2 resulted in the complete loss of activity. Deletion of the ORF A1 fragment from -114 to -104 resulted in a 24% increase in activity, suggesting the presence of a negative regulatory region. In marked contrast to previous 5' deletion analyses which have identified VV late promoters as 20- to 30-base-pair cap-proximal sequences, 5' deletions to define the upstream boundary of the ORF D13 promoter identified two positive regulatory regions, the first between -235 and -170 and the second between -123 and -106. Background levels of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase expression were obtained with deletions past -88. Significantly, this places the ORF D13 regulatory regions within the upstream coding sequences of the ORF A1. A high-stringency computer search for homologies between VV late promoters that have been thus far characterized was carried out. Several potential consensus sequences were found just upstream from RNA start sites of temporally related promoter elements. Three major conclusions are drawn from these experiments. (i) The presence of

  6. Appalachia in an International Context: Cross-National Comparisons of Developing Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obermiller, Phillip J., Ed.; Philliber, William W., Ed.

    This book contains 11 essays that compare economic and social conditions in Appalachia to those in rural regions of other countries. These rural, frequently mountainous, regions suffer similar economic problems due to their peripheral position in the national economies of their countries. Among the topics of particular educational interest are the…

  7. Evaluation of Tungsten Neutron Cross Sections in the Resolved Resonance Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Pigni, Marco T; Leal, Luiz C; Dunn, Michael E; Guber, Klaus H; Emiliani, F.; Kopecky, S.; Lampoudis, C.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Siegler, P.

    2014-01-01

    We generated a preliminary set of resonance parameters for 182-184,186W in the neutron energy range of thermal up to several keV. The evaluation methodology uses the Reich-Moore approximation to t, with the R-matrix code SAMMY, the high-resolution measurements performed in 2010 and 2012 at the GEel LINear Accelerator (GELINA) facility. Particularly for 183W, the transmission data and the capture cross sections calculated with the set of resonance parameters are compared with the experimental values, and some of the average properties of the resonance parameters are discussed. In the analyzed energy range, this work almost doubles the existing resolved resonance evaluations in the ENDF/B-VII.1 library. The analysis of the performance of the calculated cross sections based on criticality benchmarks is still in progress and it is only briefly discussed.

  8. Evaluation of Tungsten Neutron Cross Sections in the Resolved Resonance Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pigni, M. T.; Leal, L. C.; Dunn, M. E.; Guber, K. H.; Trkov, A.; Žerovnik, G.; Emiliani, F.; Kopecky, S.; Lampoudis, C.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Siegler, P.

    2014-04-01

    We generated a preliminary set of resonance parameters for 182,183,184,186W in the neutron energy range of thermal up to several keV. The evaluation methodology uses the Reich-Moore approximation to fit with the R-matrix code SAMMY, the high-resolution measurements performed in 2010 and 2012 at the Geel linear accelerator facility. For 183W, the transmission data and capture cross sections calculated with the set of resonance parameters are compared with the experimental values, and some of the average properties of the resonance parameters are discussed. In the analyzed energy range, this work almost doubles the existing resolved resonance evaluations in the ENDF/B-VII.1 library. A preliminary analysis of the performance of the calculated cross sections based on Lead slowing-down benchmarks is presented and briefly discussed.

  9. Level Densities in the actinide region and indirect n,y cross section measurements using the surrogate method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J. N.; Gunsing, F.; Bernstein, L.; Bürger, A.; Görgen, A.; Thompson, I. J.; Guttormssen, M.; Larsen, A.-C.; Mansouri, P.; Renstrøm, T.; Rose, S. J.; Siem, S.; Wiedeking, M.; Wiborg, T.

    2012-02-01

    Results from a program of measurements of level densities and gamma ray strength functions in the actinide region are presented. Experiments at the Oslo cyclotron involving the Cactus/Siri detectors and 232Th(d,x) and 232Th(3He,x) reactions were carried out to help answer the question of which level density model is the most appropriate for actinide nuclei, since it will have an impact on cross section calculations important for reactor physics simulations. A new technique for extracting level densities and gamma ray strength functions from particle-gamma coincidence data is proposed and results from the development of this technique are presented. In addition, simultaneous measurements of compound nuclear gamma decay probabilities have been performed for the key thorium cycle nuclei 233Th, 231Th and 232Pa up to around 1MeV above the neutron binding energy and have enabled extraction of indirect neutron induced capture cross sections for the 232Th, 231Pa and 230Th nuclei using the surrogate reaction method. Since the neutron capture cross section for 232Th is already well known from direct measurements a comparison provides a stringent test of the applicability of the surrogate technique in the actinide region.

  10. New Wolf-Rayet stars in Galactic open clusters - Sher 1 and the giant H II region core Westerlund 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Shara, Michael M.; Potter, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Two new Galactic Wolf-Rayet stars were found in open clusters: a WN4 star in the O9 cluster Sher 1 and a WN7 star in the O7 cluster Westerlund 2. This confirms a previous trend, namely that fainter, hotter WN stars tend to be older than brighter, cooler WN stars. This may be a consequence of evolution via extreme mass loss.

  11. Studies of the central regions in globular clusters: Kinematics, mass modeling, and a search for binary stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Bingrong

    Globular clusters (GCs) are one of the oldest structures in the universe. The strongest constraints on the predictions of dynamical models of GCs come from the kinematics in the central few arcminutes, where the effects of mass segregation, core collapse, or a possible massive black hole (if any) are most significant. In my dissertation, I have conducted a variety of studies in the central regions of GCs using the Rutgers Fabry-Perot Imaging Spectrometer, including the kinematics, mass modeling, searching for binary stars, and searching for the correlation between kinematics and the metallicity. We performed non-parametric mass modeling of NGC 6752 and found that there is no evidence of a large central mass-to-light ratio for NGC 6752 from the measured velocity dispersion. We addressed a series of studies of o Centauri (NGC 5139, hereafter o Cen). In one, we measured the velocity dispersion profile, the projected rotation map, and the mass-to-light ratio profile. In another, we correlated our kinematics data and the metallicities from Stromgren photometry to give constraints on the pictures of the origin of o Cen. In another, we used Monte Carlo simulations to calculate a binary fraction and found that o Cen is not deficient in binary stars compared to other GCs.

  12. On the onset of secondary stellar generations in giant star-forming regions and massive star clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Palouš, J.; Wünsch, R.; Tenorio-Tagle, G.

    2014-09-10

    Here we consider the strong evolution experienced by the matter reinserted by massive stars, both in giant star-forming regions driven by a constant star formation rate and in massive and coeval superstar clusters. In both cases we take into consideration the changes induced by stellar evolution on the number of massive stars, the number of ionizing photons, and the integrated mechanical luminosity of the star-forming regions. The latter is at all times compared with the critical luminosity that defines, for a given size, the lower mechanical luminosity limit above which the matter reinserted via strong winds and supernova explosions suffers frequent and recurrent thermal instabilities that reduce its temperature and pressure and inhibit its exit as part of a global wind. Instead, the unstable reinserted matter is compressed by the pervasive hot gas, and photoionization maintains its temperature at T ∼ 10{sup 4} K. As the evolution proceeds, more unstable matter accumulates and the unstable clumps grow in size. Here we evaluate the possible self-shielding of thermally unstable clumps against the UV radiation field. Self-shielding allows for a further compression of the reinserted matter, which rapidly develops a high-density neutral core able to absorb in its outer skin the incoming UV radiation. Under such conditions the cold (T ∼ 10 K) neutral cores soon surpass the Jeans limit and become gravitationally unstable, creating a new stellar generation with the matter reinserted by former massive stars. We present the results of several calculations of this positive star formation feedback scenario promoted by strong radiative cooling and mass loading.

  13. On the Onset of Secondary Stellar Generations in Giant Star-forming Regions and Massive Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palouš, J.; Wünsch, R.; Tenorio-Tagle, G.

    2014-09-01

    Here we consider the strong evolution experienced by the matter reinserted by massive stars, both in giant star-forming regions driven by a constant star formation rate and in massive and coeval superstar clusters. In both cases we take into consideration the changes induced by stellar evolution on the number of massive stars, the number of ionizing photons, and the integrated mechanical luminosity of the star-forming regions. The latter is at all times compared with the critical luminosity that defines, for a given size, the lower mechanical luminosity limit above which the matter reinserted via strong winds and supernova explosions suffers frequent and recurrent thermal instabilities that reduce its temperature and pressure and inhibit its exit as part of a global wind. Instead, the unstable reinserted matter is compressed by the pervasive hot gas, and photoionization maintains its temperature at T ~ 104 K. As the evolution proceeds, more unstable matter accumulates and the unstable clumps grow in size. Here we evaluate the possible self-shielding of thermally unstable clumps against the UV radiation field. Self-shielding allows for a further compression of the reinserted matter, which rapidly develops a high-density neutral core able to absorb in its outer skin the incoming UV radiation. Under such conditions the cold (T ~ 10 K) neutral cores soon surpass the Jeans limit and become gravitationally unstable, creating a new stellar generation with the matter reinserted by former massive stars. We present the results of several calculations of this positive star formation feedback scenario promoted by strong radiative cooling and mass loading.

  14. Active index model: a unique approach for regional quantitative morphometry in longitudinal and cross-sectional studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, P. K.; Zhang, H.; Sonka, M.; Christensen, G. E.; Rajapakse, C. S.

    2007-03-01

    Recent advancements in digital medical imaging have opened avenues for quantitative analyses of different volumetric and morphometric indices in response to a disease or a treatment. However, a major challenge in performing such an analysis is the lack of a technology of building a mean anatomic space (MAS) that allows mapping data of a given subject onto MAS. This approach leads to a tool for point-by-point regional analysis and comparison of quantitative indices for data coming from a longitudinal or transverse study. Toward this goal, we develop a new computation technique, called Active Index Model (AIM), which is a unique tool to solve the stated problem. AIM consists of three building blocks - (1) development of MAS for a particular anatomic site, (2) mapping a specific data onto MAS, (3) regional statistical analysis of data from different populations assessing regional response to a disease or treatment progression. The AIM presented here is built at the training phase from two known populations (e.g., normal and diseased) which will be immediately ready for diagnostic purpose in a subject whose clinical status is unknown. AIM will be useful for both cross sectional and longitudinal studies and for early diagnostic. This technique will be a vital tool for understanding regional response of a disease or treatment at various stages of its progression. This method has been applied for analyzing regional trabecular bone structural distribution in rabbit femur via micro-CT imaging and to localize the affected myocardial regions from cardiac MR data.

  15. Data Clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.

    2012-03-01

    On obtaining a new data set, the researcher is immediately faced with the challenge of obtaining a high-level understanding from the observations. What does a typical item look like? What are the dominant trends? How many distinct groups are included in the data set, and how is each one characterized? Which observable values are common, and which rarely occur? Which items stand out as anomalies or outliers from the rest of the data? This challenge is exacerbated by the steady growth in data set size [11] as new instruments push into new frontiers of parameter space, via improvements in temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution, or by the desire to "fuse" observations from different modalities and instruments into a larger-picture understanding of the same underlying phenomenon. Data clustering algorithms provide a variety of solutions for this task. They can generate summaries, locate outliers, compress data, identify dense or sparse regions of feature space, and build data models. It is useful to note up front that "clusters" in this context refer to groups of items within some descriptive feature space, not (necessarily) to "galaxy clusters" which are dense regions in physical space. The goal of this chapter is to survey a variety of data clustering methods, with an eye toward their applicability to astronomical data analysis. In addition to improving the individual researcher’s understanding of a given data set, clustering has led directly to scientific advances, such as the discovery of new subclasses of stars [14] and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) [38]. All clustering algorithms seek to identify groups within a data set that reflect some observed, quantifiable structure. Clustering is traditionally an unsupervised approach to data analysis, in the sense that it operates without any direct guidance about which items should be assigned to which clusters. There has been a recent trend in the clustering literature toward supporting semisupervised or constrained

  16. αβ T cell receptor germline CDR regions moderate contact with MHC ligands and regulate peptide cross-reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Attaf, Meriem; Holland, Stephan J.; Bartok, Istvan; Dyson, Julian

    2016-01-01

    αβ T cells respond to peptide epitopes presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. The role of T cell receptor (TCR) germline complementarity determining regions (CDR1 and 2) in MHC restriction is not well understood. Here, we examine T cell development, MHC restriction and antigen recognition where germline CDR loop structure has been modified by multiple glycine/alanine substitutions. Surprisingly, loss of germline structure increases TCR engagement with MHC ligands leading to excessive loss of immature thymocytes. MHC restriction is, however, strictly maintained. The peripheral T cell repertoire is affected similarly, exhibiting elevated cross-reactivity to foreign peptides. Our findings are consistent with germline TCR structure optimising T cell cross-reactivity and immunity by moderating engagement with MHC ligands. This strategy may operate alongside co-receptor imposed MHC restriction, freeing germline TCR structure to adopt this novel role in the TCR-MHC interface. PMID:27775030

  17. Differential cross section measurements for the 6Li(n,t)alpha reaction in the few MeV region

    SciTech Connect

    Devlin, Matthew J; Taddeucci, Terence N; Hale, Gerald M; Haight, Robert C; O' Donnell, Johhn M

    2008-01-01

    New measured differential cross sections of tritons and alpha particles following the {sup 6}Li(n,t){alpha} reaction are reported for incident neutron energies between 0.2 and approximately 20 MeV. The neutrons were produced by spallation at the WNR facility at the Los Alamos Neutron Science CEnter (LANSCE), with the incident neutron energy determined by the time-of-flight method. Four E-{Delta}E telescopes were used at eight laboratory angles. These data have been incorporated into a prior R-matrix fit for the compound {sup 7}Li system, and result in an (n,t) reaction cross section that is 4% to 10% higher than previous evaluations in the 1-3 MeV incident neutron energy region.

  18. Absolute absorption cross sections of ozone at 300 K, 228 K and 195 K in the wavelength region 185-240 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshino, K.; Parkinson, W. H.; Freeman, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    An account is given of progress of work on absorption cross section measurements of ozone at 300 K, 228 K and 195 K in the wavelength region 185-240 nm. In this wavelength region, the penetration of solar radiation into the Earth's atmosphere is controlled by O2 and O3. The transmitted radiation is available to dissociate trace species such as halocarbons and nitrous oxide. We have recently measured absolute absorption cross sections of O3 in the wavelength region 240-350 nm (Freeman et al., 1985; Yoshino et al., 1988). We apply these proven techniques to the determination of the absorption cross section of O3 at 300 K, 228 K and 195 K throughout the wavelength region 185-240 nm. A paper titled 'Absolute Absorption Cross Section Measurements of Ozone in the Wavelength Region 185-254 nm and the Temperature Dependence' has been submitted for publication in the Journal of Geophysical Research.

  19. Measurements of Photoabsorpton Cross Sections and their Temperature Dependence for CO2 in the 170nm to 200nm Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkinson, W. H.; Yoshino, K.

    2001-11-01

    All the photochemical models for the predominately CO2 Martian atmosphere ar e very sensitive to the amount of CO2 and to the values and spectral details of the absorpton cross sections of CO2 in the region 170nm-200nm. Earlier we had measured and published absolute cross sections of CO2 in the region 118.0 nm-175.5 nm at 295K and 195K. We have recently extended these measurements from 170 nm to 200 nm at 300K and 1 95K. The new measurements have been carried out at high resolution with our 6.65 -m normal incidence , photoelectric spectrometer. To measure the weak photoabsorption of the CO2 bands in the wavelength region 170 --200 nm, we required a high column density of the gas. We obtained this by using a multi pass technique, a White cell. The White cell was designed to have a distance of 1.50 m between two main mirrors, and was set for four, double pas ses making a path length of 12.0 m. CO2 gas was frozen in a stainless cylinder immersed in liquid nitrogen, and t he frozen product (dryice) was pumped by the diffusion pump for purification. The CO2 was warmed up slowly and kept in the cylinder at high pressure. The CO2 pressure used in the White cell was varied from 1 to 1000 Torr depend ing on the wavelength region, and was measured with a a capacitance manometer (M KS Baratron, 10 Torr and 1000 Torr). We divided the spectral region into twenty sections of about 1.5 nm extent. At each scan range, another scan was obtained from the emission spectrum of the fourth positive bands of CO for wavelength calibration. We acknowledge funding from NASA, grant NAGS-7859 to Harvard College Observatory.

  20. Cross-linking of epidermal growth factor receptors in intact cells: detection of initial stages of receptor clustering and determination of molecular weight of high-affinity receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Fanger, B.O.; Austin, K.S.; Earp, H.S.; Cidlowski, J.A.

    1986-10-21

    A method was developed to label epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors with /sup 125/I-EGF in whole cells using chemical cross-linking reagents. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis resolved an M/sub r/ approx. 180,000 EGF-receptor complex and larger M/sub r/ greater than or equal to 360,000 aggregates. The formation of the larger complexes was timed and temperature dependent and appeared to represent the initial events of EGF receptor clustering. Alteration of the ratio of /sup 125/I-EGF-labeled high- and low- affinity complexes by competition with unlabeled EGF or by induction of additional high-affinity sites with dexamethasone suggested that both sites were represented by the M/sub r/ approx. 180,000 /sup 125/I-EGF-receptor complexes. Digestion of cells before cross-linking detected a small population of trypsin-resistant M/sub r/ approx. 180,000 receptors, which could represent previously described cryptic and/or high-affinity receptors. Few of the M/sub r/ approx. 360,000 receptors were trypsin resistant. Glucocorticoid induction of high-affinity EGF receptors failed to induce detectable changes in the microclustering of EGF receptors but did result in a 50% increase in EGF-induced receptor phosphorylation in HeLa S/sub 3/ cell membranes at 4/sup 0/C. Thus, glucocorticoids increase high-affinity EGF binding sites, EGF-induced receptor phosphorylation, and cell growth.

  1. Using PEACE, FGM, and CIS Data from the Four Cluster Spacecraft to Measure Cross Helicity, Compressibility, and Vorticity in the Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurgiolo, C.; Goldstein, M. L.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Lahiff, A. D.; Lucek, E.; Parks, G.; Mozer, F.; Decreau, P.

    2007-12-01

    Determinations of compressibility and vorticity in the solar wind require a set of multi-point measurements that encompass a volume of space over which finite differences can be defined in analogy to computing divergences and cross products in finite difference numerical calculations. Because Cluster cannot provide four-point data of the ion velocity and density moments, it is of interest to try to make such measurements using the four-point thermal electron data provided by the PEACE instruments. PEACE provides an opportunity to compute the velocity and density moments and from them construct the divergence and curl of the velocity, thereby obtaining both a measure of the compressibility and the vorticity. From those moments, and together with the FGM magnetic field data, we have also constructed spectra of the cross helicity (the correlation between the fluctuating velocity and magnetic fields). We present early results in that project, including strong velocity shears associated with a Hot Flow Anomaly encountered by the four spacecraft in 2007. The analysis makes use of the Taylor frozen-in-flow approximation to artificially vary the spacecraft separation in the GSE -x direction in the solar wind.

  2. Geographic Clustering of Adult Asthma Hospitalization and Residential Exposure to Pollution at a United States–Canada Border Crossing

    PubMed Central

    Oyana, Tonny J.; Rogerson, Peter; Lwebuga-Mukasa, Jamson S.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We conducted a case–control study of adulthood asthma and point-source respirable particulate air pollution with asthma-diagnosed case patients (n = 3717) and gastroenteritis-diagnosed control patients (n = 4129) to determine effects of particulate air pollution on public health. Methods. We used hospitalization data from Buffalo, NY, neighborhoods for a 5-year period (1996 through 2000), geographic information systems techniques, the Diggle method, and statistical analysis to compare the locations of case patients and control patients in terms of proximity to different known pollution sources in the study area. Results. We found a clustering of asthma cases in close proximity to the Peace Bridge Complex and the freeways and a dose–response relationship indicating a decreased risk of asthma prevalence the farther an individual resides from the source of exposure. Conclusions. These findings provide a basis for the development of new hypotheses relating to the spatial distribution of asthma prevalence and morbidity in this community. PMID:15226151

  3. The young stellar cluster [DBS2003] 157 associated with the H II region GAL 331.31-00.34

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, M. C.; Abraham, Z.; Copetti, M. V. F.; Ortiz, R.; Falceta-Gonçalves, D. A.; Roman-Lopes, A.

    2012-07-01

    We report a study of the stellar content of the near-infrared (NIR) cluster [DBS2003] 157 embedded in the extended H II region GAL 331.31-00.34, which is associated with the IRAS source 16085-5138. JHK photometry was carried out in order to identify potential ionizing candidates, and the follow-up NIR spectroscopy allowed the spectral classification of some sources, including two O-type stars. A combination of NIR photometry and spectroscopy data was used to obtain the distance of these two stars, with the method of spectroscopic parallax: IRS 298 (O6 V, 3.35 ± 0.61 kpc) and IRS 339 (O9 V, 3.24 ± 0.56 kpc). Adopting the average distance of 3.29 ± 0.58 kpc and comparing the Lyman continuum luminosity of these stars with that required to account for the radio continuum flux of the H II region, we conclude that these two stars are the ionizing sources of GAL 331.31-00.34. Young stellar objects (YSOs) were searched by using our NIR photometry and mid-infrared (MIR) data from the Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE) survey. The analysis of NIR and MIR colour-colour diagrams resulted in 47 YSO candidates. The GLIMPSE counterpart of IRAS 16085-5138, which presents IRAS colour indices compatible with an ultracompact H II region, has been identified. The analysis of its spectral energy distribution between 2 and ?m revealed that this source shows a spectral index α= 3.6 between 2 and ?m, which is typical of a YSO immersed in a protostellar envelope. Lower limits to the bolometric luminosity and the mass of the embedded protostar have been estimated as L= 7.7 × 103 L⊙ and M= 10 M⊙, respectively, which correspond to a B0-B1 V zero-age main sequence star. Based on observations carried at the Southern Observatory for Astrophysical Research (SOAR) observatory, a joint project of the Ministério de Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (MCTI) of the República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the

  4. The Patient Portal of the Personal Cross-Enterprise Electronic Health Record (PEHR) in the Rhine-Neckar-Region.

    PubMed

    Brandner, Antje; Schreiweis, Björn; Aguduri, Lakshmi S; Bronsch, Tobias; Kunz, Aline; Pensold, Peter; Stein, Katharina E; Weiss, Nicolas; Yüksekogul, Nilay; Bergh, Björn; Heinze, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Over the last years we stepwise implemented our vision of a personal cross-enterprise electronic health record (PEHR) in the Rhine-Neckar-Region in Germany. The patient portal is one part of the PEHR architecture with IHE connectivity. The patient is enabled to access and manage his medical record by use of the patient portal. Moreover, he can give his consent regarding which healthcare providers are allowed to send data into or read data from his medical record. Forthcoming studies will give evidence for improvements and further requirements to develop. PMID:27577362

  5. Matrix isolation study of the formation of methanol cluster structures in the spectral region of C-O and O-H stretch vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doroshenko, I. Yu.

    2011-07-01

    Infrared absorption spectra of methyl alcohol isolated in an argon matrix are recorded experimentally. The transformation of the structure of the spectral bands with rising matrix temperature is analyzed in the spectral region of the C-O and O-H stretch deformation vibrations (1000-1100 and 3000-3800 cm-1). The experimental data are interpreted using quantum-chemical modelling of an optimal spatial structure and of the vibrational spectra of different nano-sized methyl alcohol clusters. The structure of the clusters changes gradually as the temperature of the argon matrix is raised from 10 to 50 K.

  6. Star Clusters and Associations in the 30 Doradus Region: Tracing more than 25 Myr of Massive Star Formation in a Prototypical Starburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbi, Elena

    2015-08-01

    30 Doradus (a.k.a. Tarantula Nebula) is the closest extragalactic giant HII region. By virtue of its privileged position in the Large Magellanic Cloud 30 Doradus is the only starburst that can be studied down to the sub-solar mass regime.We will discuss the stellar content, the clustering properties, and the temporal and spatial impact of stellar feedback on the lifecycle of stars and clusters in an environment that resembles the extreme conditions found in the starburst knots observed in interacting galaxies in the Local Universe and in the young galaxies at high redshift.

  7. [Analysis of the structure and expression of the cluster of Drosophila melanogaster genes DIP1, CG32500, CG32819, and CG14476 in the flamenco gene region].

    PubMed

    Potapova, M V; Nefedova, L N; Kim, A I

    2009-10-01

    The flamenco gene controlling transpositions of the gypsy retrovirus is localized in the 20A1-3 region, in which eight open reading frames organized in a cluster were discovered: DIP1, three repeats of CG32500 and CG32819, and CG14476. Analysis of the genes composing the cluster indicates that their transcription in Drosophila melanogaster is a stage-specific process. Comparison of the expression of these genes in the strains OreR, SS, and MS having the flamenco phenotype and in the strain 413 having the flamenco+ phenotype revealed differences only for the DIP1 gene, transcription of this gene being altered only in the OreR strain. Thus, mutant flamenco alleles are differently expressed in different strains. The structural organization of the flamenco gene region was studied in different Drosophila species: D. sechellia, D. simulans, D. mauritiana, D. yakuba, D. erecta, D. virilis, D. ananassae, D. grimshawi, and D. pseudoobscura. The genes of the cluster were found to be highly conserved in genomes of different species, but in none of them, except D. sechellia, the structural organization of the region repeats the structure of the D. melanogaster cluster. PMID:19947543

  8. Identifying a Network of Brain Regions Involved in Aversion-Related Processing: A Cross-Species Translational Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Dave J.; Northoff, Georg

    2011-01-01

    The ability to detect and respond appropriately to aversive stimuli is essential for all organisms, from fruit flies to humans. This suggests the existence of a core neural network which mediates aversion-related processing. Human imaging studies on aversion have highlighted the involvement of various cortical regions, such as the prefrontal cortex, while animal studies have focused largely on subcortical regions like the periaqueductal gray and hypothalamus. However, whether and how these regions form a core neural network of aversion remains unclear. To help determine this, a translational cross-species investigation in humans (i.e., meta-analysis) and other animals (i.e., systematic review of functional neuroanatomy) was performed. Our results highlighted the recruitment of the anterior cingulate cortex, the anterior insula, and the amygdala as well as other subcortical (e.g., thalamus, midbrain) and cortical (e.g., orbitofrontal) regions in both animals and humans. Importantly, involvement of these regions remained independent of sensory modality. This study provides evidence for a core neural network mediating aversion in both animals and humans. This not only contributes to our understanding of the trans-species neural correlates of aversion but may also carry important implications for psychiatric disorders where abnormal aversive behavior can often be observed. PMID:22102836

  9. High resolution absorption cross sections in the transmission window region of the Schumann-Runge bands and Herzberg continuum of O2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshino, K.; Esmond, J. R.; Cheung, A. S.-C.; Freeman, D. E.; Parkinson, W. H.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented on measurements, conducted in the wavelength region 180-195 nm, and at different pressures of oxygen (between 2.5-760 torr) in order to separate the pressure-dependent absorption from the main cross sections, of the absorption cross sections of the Schumann-Runge bands in the window region between the rotational lines of S-R bands of O2. The present cross sections supersede the earlier published cross sections (Yoshino et al., 1983). The combined cross sections are presented graphically; they are available at wavenumber intervals of about 0.1/cm from the National Space Science Data Center. The Herzberg continuum cross sections are derived after subtracting calculated contributions from the Schumann-Runge bands. These are significantly smaller than any previous measurements.

  10. School Psychology in China (PRC), Hong Kong and Taiwan: A Cross-Regional Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Yi; Kuo, Yi-Lung; Van Dyke, Don C.

    2008-01-01

    Although China (People's Republic of China [PRC]), Hong Kong and Taiwan have many similarities in language, culture, values, Confucian traditions, family systems and other social-environmental variables, school psychological services in the three regions are distinctly different in both history and practice. Few studies in the psychology…

  11. Cross-scale dynamics of a regional urban system through time

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this work, we conducted an analysis of a regional urban system (southeastern United States) that has been the subject of research in the series of papers reviewed in the preceding sections. We used a U.S. census dataset incorporating the urbanized area (UA) definition. A UA co...

  12. Multi-point Analysis of Electrostatic Solitary Waves and Field Aligned Electrons Observed by Cluster in and Near the Auroral Current Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickett, J. S.; Forsyth, C.; Christopher, I.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Masson, A.; Marklund, G. T.; Georgescu, E.

    2011-12-01

    The four Cluster spacecraft have been transiting Earth's mid and upper auroral acceleration region (AAR) during parts of the year since late 2008. The Wideband Data (WBD) plasma wave receiver mounted on all four spacecraft obtains high time resolution, band-limited waveforms over a wide frequency range (100 Hz to 577 kHz). We present observations of Electrostatic Solitary Waves (ESWs) made by the WBD instrument simultaneously on more than one Cluster spacecraft in and near the auroral downward current region in the following two frequency bands: 100 Hz to 9.5 kHz and 700 Hz to 77 kHz. We examine and analyze these ESWs for similarities on different spacecraft, and investigate the conclusion, based on single spacecraft FAST satellite data, that fast ESWs (~1 ms duration) in this region are observed in conjunction with modulations in both upgoing and downgoing electrons, suggesting a current instability as the mechanism for generation of these ESWs. We also analyze and discuss the very short time duration ESWs (~20-30 microseconds) observed in the upward current region by the Cluster spacecraft. Such short time duration ESWs have not been previously reported in this region, although fast ESWs of ~300 microseconds duration have been reported using data from the FAST satellite. The Cluster PEACE electron data in this upward current region are examined to determine if there is a correlation of ESW detection with narrow, field-aligned downgoing beams as shown by the FAST results, suggesting ESW generation through a beam instability. The electron density and electric field data are also presented for some events in order to place the wave measurements into context with relation to the auroral density cavity and electric field configuration in and near the AAR.

  13. [Infectivity-resistotype-genotype clustering of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains in the Central Blacksea Region of Turkey].

    PubMed

    Kırca Yılmaz, Sule; Acuner, Ibrahim Cağatay; Strommenger, Birgit; Bek, Yüksel; Witte, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    The increase in the prevalence of epidemic strains of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in hospitals and community requires special attention of infection control. The aim of this study was to determine the pathogenic phenotype (i.e. infectivity and resistotype) and genotypic characteristics (i.e. PFGE-pulsotyping, SLST-spa typing, MLST-sequence typing, eBURST-clonal complex detection algorithm) of clinical MRSA isolates in the Central Blacksea region of Turkey, in order to understand their short- and long-term epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics, and to investigate any probable presence of a significant clustering. This prospective study included consecutive but non-repetitive 48 MRSA isolates (of them 18 were colonized strains and 30 were causes of nosocomial infection) and seven methicillin-susceptible S.aureus (MSSA, all were isolated from nosocomial infection), collected between December 2006-February 2007 period from hospitalized patients. Identification of the isolates were performed by Vitek-2 automated system (BioMérieux, USA), and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing by broth microdilution method and Vitek-2 automated system. The MRSA isolates found susceptible to erythromycin (n= 10) were further investigated for the presence of ermA gene by the PCR method. All the strains were typed by spa-typing and PFGE-pulsotyping methods. Among the isolates with different spa-types, representatives were selected (3 MRSA, 7 MSSA) and typed with MLST typing method. Among the isolates with different spa-types, representatives with different antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were selected (n= 8), and SCCmec types were determined by the multiplex PCR method. Antimicrobial resistance patterns of the isolates were digitized to get standardized antimicrobial resistance phenotypes. Clustering of MRSA isolates in pattern groups on the basis of discriminatory characteristics, namely infectivity, phenotype and genotype were statistically

  14. Consumption of fruits and vegetables and associations with risk factors for non-communicable diseases in the Yangon region of Myanmar: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Htet, Aung Soe; Stigum, Hein; Hla, Ne Yi; Hlaing, Hlaing Hlaing; Khaine, Ei Kay; Khaing, Win; Khant, Aung Kyaw; Khin, Naw Ohn Khin; Mauk, Kay Khine Aye; Moe, Ei Ei; Moe, Hla; Mon, Kyawt Kyawt; Mya, Kyaw Swa; Myint, Chomar Kaung; Myint, Cho Yi; Myint, Maung Maung; Myint, Ohnmar; New, Aye Aye; Oo, Ei Sanda; Oo, Khin Sandar; Pyone, Zin Zin; Soe, Yin Yin; Wai, Myint Myint; Win, Nilar; Bjertness, Espen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore the intake of fruits and vegetables in the Yangon region, Myanmar, and to describe associations between intake of fruits and vegetables (FV) and established risk factors for non-communicable diseases. Design 2 cross-sectional studies, using the STEPs methodology. Setting Urban and rural areas of the Yangon region of Myanmar. Participants 1486, men and women, 25–74 years, were recruited through a multistage cluster sampling method. Institutionalised people, military personnel, Buddhist monks and nuns were not invited. Physically and mentally ill people were excluded. Results Mean intake of fruit was 0.8 (SE 0.1) and 0.6 (0.0) servings/day and of vegetables 2.2 (0.1) and 1.2 (0.1) servings/day, in urban and rural areas, respectively. Adjusted for included confounders (age, sex, location, income, education, smoking and low physical activity), men and women eating ≥2 servings of fruits and vegetables/day had lower odds than others of hypertriglyceridaemia (OR 0.72 (95% CI 0.56 to 0.94)). On average, women eating at least 2 servings of fruits and vegetables per day had cholesterol levels 0.28 mmol/L lower than the levels of other women. When only adjusted for sex and age, men eating at least 2 servings of fruits and vegetables per day had cholesterol levels 0.27 mmol/L higher than other men. Conclusions A high intake of FV was associated with lower odds of hypertriglyceridaemia among men and women. It was also associated with cholesterol levels, negatively among women and positively among men. PMID:27566634

  15. Optical Absorption Cross Section of Individual Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in the Visible Region.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Muhammad Imran; Shahzad, Nadia; Tagliaferro, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to determine the optical absorption cross section for visible radiation of various types of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) having different dimensions through macroscopic optical measurements. This is achieved by dispersing MWCNTs in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and preparing composite films. Different percentages (0.0% to 1.5%) of each MWCNTs type were mixed into the PDMS matrix using high speed mechanical stirring (~1000 rpm) and ultrasonication (~37 kHz) to reach optimal dispersion. By using doctor blading technique, 100 µm thick uniform films were produced on glass. They were then thermally cured and detached from the glass to get flexible and self-standing films. Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) analysis of cryo-fractured composite samples was used to check the dispersion of MWCNTs in PDMS, while Raman spectroscopy and FTIR were employed to rule out possible structural changes of the polymer in the composite that would have altered its optical properties. Total and specular reflection and transmission spectra were measured for all films. The absorption coefficient, which represents the fractional absorption per unit length and is proportional to the concentration of absorbing sites (i.e., MWCNTs at photon energies upon which PDMS is non-absorbing), was extracted. For each MWCNTs type, the absorption cross section of an individual MWCNT was obtained from the slope of absorption coefficient versus MWCNTs number density curve. It was found to be related with MWCNT volume. This method can be applied to all other nanoparticles as far as they can be dispersed in a host transparent matrix. PMID:27398474

  16. Techniques to assess cross-border air pollution and application to a US-Mexico border region.

    PubMed

    Mukerjee, S; Shadwick, D S; Smith, L A; Somerville, M C; Dean, K E; Bowser, J J

    2001-08-10

    A year-long assessment of cross-border air pollution was conducted in the eastmost section of the US-Mexico border region, known as the Lower Rio Grande Valley, in South Texas. Measurements were conducted on the US side and included fine particle mass (PM2.5) and elemental composition, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and meteorology. Wind sector analyses of chemical tracers and diagnostic ratios, in addition to principal component analysis (PCA), were initially applied to assess cross-border and overall air shed influences. Linear-angular correlation statistics [Biometrika, 63, (1976), 403-405] and nonparametric multiple comparisons between wind sectors were computed with the particle element data using principal component scores from PCA to determine the direction of source classes. Findings suggest crustal particles and salts carried or stirred by sea breeze winds from a southerly and southeasterly direction from the Gulf of Mexico heavily influenced the elemental composition of the particulate samples. Pair-wise comparisons of wind directions for the principal component scores suggest possible oil combustion influences from utilities or boilers coming from the south and possible coal combustion influences from the north and northwest. The techniques discussed can provide a methodology to assess future ambient levels and cross-border influences in the Valley as conditions change. PMID:11516137

  17. Techniques to assess cross-border air pollution and application to a US-Mexico border region.

    PubMed

    Mukerjee, S; Shadwick, D S; Smith, L A; Somerville, M C; Dean, K E; Bowser, J J

    2001-08-10

    A year-long assessment of cross-border air pollution was conducted in the eastmost section of the US-Mexico border region, known as the Lower Rio Grande Valley, in South Texas. Measurements were conducted on the US side and included fine particle mass (PM2.5) and elemental composition, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and meteorology. Wind sector analyses of chemical tracers and diagnostic ratios, in addition to principal component analysis (PCA), were initially applied to assess cross-border and overall air shed influences. Linear-angular correlation statistics [Biometrika, 63, (1976), 403-405] and nonparametric multiple comparisons between wind sectors were computed with the particle element data using principal component scores from PCA to determine the direction of source classes. Findings suggest crustal particles and salts carried or stirred by sea breeze winds from a southerly and southeasterly direction from the Gulf of Mexico heavily influenced the elemental composition of the particulate samples. Pair-wise comparisons of wind directions for the principal component scores suggest possible oil combustion influences from utilities or boilers coming from the south and possible coal combustion influences from the north and northwest. The techniques discussed can provide a methodology to assess future ambient levels and cross-border influences in the Valley as conditions change.

  18. Leptin overexpression in VTA trans-activates the hypothalamus whereas prolonged leptin action in either region cross-desensitizes.

    PubMed

    Scarpace, P J; Matheny, M; Kirichenko, N; Gao, Y X; Tümer, N; Zhang, Y

    2013-02-01

    High-fat feeding or CNS leptin overexpression in chow-fed rats results in a region-specific cellular leptin resistance in medial basal hypothalamic regions and the ventral tegmental area (VTA). The present investigation examined the effects of targeted chronic leptin overexpression in the VTA as compared with the medial basal hypothalamus on long-term body weight homeostasis. The study also examined if this targeted intervention conserves regional leptin sensitivity or results in localized leptin resistance. Cellular leptin resistance was assessed by leptin-stimulated phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3). Tyrosine hydroxylase was measured in hypothalamus and VTA along with brown adipose tissue uncoupling protein 1. Leptin overexpression in VTA tempered HF-induced obesity, but to a slightly lesser extent than that with leptin overexpression in the hypothalamus. Moreover, the overexpression of leptin in the VTA stimulated cellular STAT3 phosphorylation in several regions of the medial basal hypothalamus, whereas verexpression in the hypothalamus did not activate STAT3 signaling in the VTA. This unidirectional trans-stimulation did not appear to involve migration of either the vector or the gene product. Long-term leptin overexpression in either the medial basal hypothalamus or VTA caused desensitization of leptin signaling in the treated region and cross-desensitization of leptin signaling in the untreated region. These results demonstrate a role of leptin receptors in the VTA in long-term body weight regulation, but the trans-activation of the hypothalamus following VTA leptin stimulation suggests that an integrative response involving both brain regions may account for the observed physiological outcomes.

  19. Cross-Scale Analysis of the Region Effect on Vascular Plant Species Diversity in Southern and Northern European Mountain Ranges

    PubMed Central

    Lenoir, Jonathan; Gégout, Jean-Claude; Guisan, Antoine; Vittoz, Pascal; Wohlgemuth, Thomas; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Dullinger, Stefan; Pauli, Harald; Willner, Wolfgang; Grytnes, John-Arvid; Virtanen, Risto; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2010-01-01

    Background The divergent glacial histories of southern and northern Europe affect present-day species diversity at coarse-grained scales in these two regions, but do these effects also penetrate to the more fine-grained scales of local communities? Methodology/Principal Findings We carried out a cross-scale analysis to address this question for vascular plants in two mountain regions, the Alps in southern Europe and the Scandes in northern Europe, using environmentally paired vegetation plots in the two regions (n = 403 in each region) to quantify four diversity components: (i) total number of species occurring in a region (total γ-diversity), (ii) number of species that could occur in a target plot after environmental filtering (habitat-specific γ-diversity), (iii) pair-wise species compositional turnover between plots (plot-to-plot β-diversity) and (iv) number of species present per plot (plot α-diversity). We found strong region effects on total γ-diversity, habitat-specific γ-diversity and plot-to-plot β-diversity, with a greater diversity in the Alps even towards distances smaller than 50 m between plots. In contrast, there was a slightly greater plot α-diversity in the Scandes, but with a tendency towards contrasting region effects on high and low soil-acidity plots. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that there are strong regional differences between coarse-grained (landscape- to regional-scale) diversity components of the flora in the Alps and the Scandes mountain ranges, but that these differences do not necessarily penetrate to the finest-grained (plot-scale) diversity component, at least not on acidic soils. Our findings are consistent with the contrasting regional Quaternary histories, but we also consider alternative explanatory models. Notably, ecological sorting and habitat connectivity may play a role in the unexpected limited or reversed region effect on plot α-diversity, and may also affect the larger-scale diversity components. For

  20. Cross-sectional survey of the disaster preparedness of nurses across the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Usher, Kim; Mills, Jane; West, Caryn; Casella, Evan; Dorji, Passang; Guo, Aimin; Koy, Virya; Pego, George; Phanpaseuth, Souksavanh; Phouthavong, Olaphim; Sayami, Jamuna; Lak, Muy Seang; Sio, Alison; Ullah, Mohammad Mofiz; Sheng, Yu; Zang, Yuli; Buettner, Petra; Woods, Cindy

    2015-12-01

    Healthcare workers who have received disaster preparedness education are more likely to report a greater understanding of disaster preparedness. However, research indicates that current nursing curricula do not adequately prepare nurses to respond to disasters. This is the first study to assess Asia-Pacific nurses' perceptions about their level of disaster knowledge, skills, and preparedness. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 757 hospital and community nurses in seven Asia-Pacific countries. Data were collected using the modified Disaster Preparedness Evaluation Tool. Participants were found to have overall low-to-moderate levels of disaster knowledge, skills and preparedness, wherein important gaps were identified. A majority of the variance in disaster preparedness scores was located at the level of the individual respondent, not linked to countries or institutions. Multilevel random effects modelling identified disaster experience and education as significant factors of positive perceptions of disaster knowledge, skills, and management. The first step toward disaster preparedness is to ensure frontline health workers are able to respond effectively to disaster events. The outcomes of this study have important policy and education implications.

  1. Cross-Combined Composite Sampling Designs for Identification of Elevated Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Hathaway, John E.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Sego, Landon H.; Pulsipher, Brent A.

    2013-03-01

    Analyzing soils for contaminants can be costly. Generally, discrete samples are gathered from within a study area, analyzed by a laboratory and the results are used in a site-specific statistical analysis. Because of the heterogeneities that exist in soil samples within study areas, a large amount of variability and skewness may be present in the sample population. This necessitates collecting a large number of samples to obtain reliable inference on the mean contaminant concentration and to understand the spatial patterns for future remediation. Composite or Incremental sampling is a commonly applied method for gathering multiple discrete samples and physically combining them, such that each combination of discrete samples requires a single laboratory analysis, which reduces cost and can improve the estimates of the mean concentration. While incremental sampling can reduce cost and improve mean estimates, current implementations do not readily facilitate the characterization of spatial patterns or the detection of elevated regions within study areas. The methods we present in this work provide efficient estimation and inference for the mean contaminant concentration over the entire spatial area and enable the identification of high contaminant regions within the area of interest. We develop sample design methodologies that explicitly define the characteristics of these designs (such as sample grid layout) and quantify the number of incremental samples that must be obtained under a design criteria to control false positive and false negative (Type I and II) decision errors. We present the sample design theory and specifications as well as results on simulated and real data.

  2. PAPIN: A Fortran-IV program to calculate cross section probability tables, Bondarenko and transmission self-shielding factors for fertile isotopes in the unresolved resonance region

    SciTech Connect

    Munoz-Cobos, J.G.

    1981-08-01

    The Fortran IV code PAPIN has been developed to calculate cross section probability tables, Bondarenko self-shielding factors and average self-indication ratios for non-fissile isotopes, below the inelastic threshold, on the basis of the ENDF/B prescriptions for the unresolved resonance region. Monte-Carlo methods are utilized to generate ladders of resonance parameters in the unresolved resonance region, from average resonance parameters and their appropriate distribution functions. The neutron cross-sections are calculated by the single level Breit-Wigner (SLBW) formalism, with s, p and d-wave contributions. The cross section probability tables are constructed by sampling the Doppler-broadened cross sections. The various self-shielded factors are computed numerically as Lebesgue integrals over the cross section probability tables. The program PAPIN has been validated through extensive comparisons with several deterministic codes.

  3. RR Lyrae stars in the outer region of the globular cluster M 3: A shortage of long periods at r ˜ 3.5 to 6 arcmin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, D. J.

    2004-06-01

    An analysis of the radial distribution of ab-type RR Lyrae star periods in the outer region of the globular cluster M 3 at r ≥0.83' has been performed. That analysis points towards a real shortage of stars with long periods in the radial distance range 3.5' to 6' (or about 7 to 12 core radii). A brief discussion is presented. The origin of the phenomenon remains an open question.

  4. CCD Photometry and Classification of Stars in the North America and Pelican Nebulae Region. IV. The Region of a Supposed Cluster Collinder 428

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laugalys, V.; Straižys, V.; Vrba, F. J.; Černis, K.; Kazlauskas, A.; Boyle, R. P.; Philip, A. G. Davis

    Magnitudes and color indices of 860 stars down to V = 16.7 mag in the seven-color Vilnius photometric system were obtained in the area of the suspected open cluster Collinder 428 in the North America Nebula. Spectral types, interstellar color excesses, extinctions and distances of stars were determined for 290 stars from the photometric data. The plot of extinction vs. distance gives the front edge of the dust cloud at 540 pc. We conclude that Collinder 428 is not a real star cluster.

  5. Private health care expenditure and quality in Beveridge systems: cross-regional differences in the Italian NHS.

    PubMed

    Del Vecchio, Mario; Fenech, Lorenzo; Prenestini, Anna

    2015-03-01

    Private health care expenditure ranges from 15% to 30% of total healthcare spending in OECD countries. The literature suggests that there should be an inverse correlation between quality of public services and private expenditures. The main objective of this study is to explore the association between quality of public healthcare and private expenditures in the Italian Regional Healthcare Systems (RHSs). The institutional framework offered by the Italian NHS allows to investigate on the differences among the regions while controlling for institutional factors. The study uses micro-data from the ISTAT Household Consumption Survey (HCS) and a rich set of regional quality indicators. The results indicate that there is a positive and significant correlation between quality and private spending per capita across regions. The study also points out the strong association between the distribution of private consumption and income. In order to account for the influence of income, the study segmented data in three socio-economic classes and computed cross-regional correlations of RHSs quality and household healthcare expenditure per capita, within each class. No correlation was found between the two variables. These findings are quite surprising and call into question the theory that better quality of public services crowds out private spending, or, at the very least, it undermines the simplistic notions that higher levels of private spending are a direct consequence of poor quality in the public sector. This suggests that policies should avoid to simplistically link private spending with judgements or assessments about the functioning or efficacy of the public system and its organizations. PMID:25467792

  6. Cross layer design for optimised region of interest of ultrasound video data over mobile WiMAX.

    PubMed

    Debono, Carl J; Micallef, Brian W; Philip, Nada Y; Alinejad, Ali; Istepanian, Robert S H; Amso, Nazar N

    2012-11-01

    The application of advanced error concealment techniques applied as a post-process to conceal lost video information in error-prone channels, such as the wireless channel, demand additional processing at the receiver. This increases the delivery delay and needs more computational power. However, in general, only a small region within medical video is of interest to the physician and thus if only this area is considered, the number of computations can be curtailed. In this paper we present a technique whereby the Region of Interest (ROI) specified by the physician is used to delimit the area where the more complex concealment techniques are applied. A cross layer design approach in mobile WiMAX wireless communication environment is adopted in this paper to provide an optimized Quality of Experience (QoE) in the region that matters most to the mobile physician while relaxing the requirements in the background, ensuring real-time delivery. Results show that a diagnostically acceptable Peak Signal-to-Noise-Ratio (PSNR) of about 36 dB can still be achieved within reasonable decoding time. PMID:22652202

  7. Cross layer design for optimised region of interest of ultrasound video data over mobile WiMAX.

    PubMed

    Debono, Carl J; Micallef, Brian W; Philip, Nada Y; Alinejad, Ali; Istepanian, Robert S H; Amso, Nazar N

    2012-11-01

    The application of advanced error concealment techniques applied as a post-process to conceal lost video information in error-prone channels, such as the wireless channel, demand additional processing at the receiver. This increases the delivery delay and needs more computational power. However, in general, only a small region within medical video is of interest to the physician and thus if only this area is considered, the number of computations can be curtailed. In this paper we present a technique whereby the Region of Interest (ROI) specified by the physician is used to delimit the area where the more complex concealment techniques are applied. A cross layer design approach in mobile WiMAX wireless communication environment is adopted in this paper to provide an optimized Quality of Experience (QoE) in the region that matters most to the mobile physician while relaxing the requirements in the background, ensuring real-time delivery. Results show that a diagnostically acceptable Peak Signal-to-Noise-Ratio (PSNR) of about 36 dB can still be achieved within reasonable decoding time.

  8. Cross Scale Coupling of Alfven Turbulence in the Polar Wind Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khazanov, George V.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling phenomena are extremely complex and diverse, involving a whole series of processes operating over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. One of the fundamental aspects of understanding this coupling is the polar wind, which is a dominant mechanism of mass transport from the ionospheric source region to the magnetosphere and strongly influences the plasma parameters above the F2 density peak. The combined effects of photoelectrons, and the ponderomotive force will be presented based on our polar wind model. The presence of photoelectrons and low frequency oscillations (that create the ponderomotive force) increase ion outflows. It is also demonstrated that large-amplitude low-frequency waves (LFW) may generate lower hybrid waves (LHW) in the auroral zone. The excitation of LHW by a LF wave may lead to the appearance of an additional channel of energy transfer from, for example, Alfven or fast magnetosonic waves, to particles. This process then influences the formation of the plasma distribution function at the expense of acceleration in the tail of the distribution during the collapse of the LHW. The ion energization due to the LHW can be comparable with that produced by the ponderomotive force of the LFW.

  9. Fission cross section calculations for 209Bi target nucleus based on fission reaction models in high energy regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Abdullah; Capali, Veli; Ozdogan, Hasan

    2015-07-01

    Implementation of projects of new generation nuclear power plants requires the solving of material science and technological issues in developing of reactor materials. Melts of heavy metals (Pb, Bi and Pb-Bi) due to their nuclear and thermophysical properties, are the candidate coolants for fast reactors and accelerator-driven systems (ADS). In this study, α, γ, p, n and 3He induced fission cross section calculations for 209Bi target nucleus at high-energy regions for (α,f), (γ,f), (p,f), (n,f) and (3He,f) reactions have been investigated using different fission reaction models. Mamdouh Table, Sierk, Rotating Liquid Drop and Fission Path models of theoretical fission barriers of TALYS 1.6 code have been used for the fission cross section calculations. The calculated results have been compared with the experimental data taken from the EXFOR database. TALYS 1.6 Sierk model calculations exhibit generally good agreement with the experimental measurements for all reactions used in this study.

  10. Evaluated 182,183,184,186W Neutron Cross Sections and Covariances in the Resolved Resonance Region

    SciTech Connect

    Pigni, Marco T; Leal, Luiz C

    2015-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has recently completed the resonance parameter evaluation of four tungsten isotopes, i.e., 182,183,184,186W, in the neutron energy range of thermal up to several keV. This nuclear data work was performed with support from the US Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP) in an effort to provide improved tungsten cross section and covariance data for criticality safety analyses. The evaluation methodology uses the Reich-Moore approximation of the R-matrix formalism of the code SAMMY to fit high-resolution measurements performed in 2010 and 2012 at the Geel linear accelerator facility (GELINA), as well as other experimental data sets on natural tungsten available in the EXFOR library. In the analyzed energy range, this work nearly doubles the resolved resonance region (RRR) present in the latest US nuclear data library ENDF/B-VII.1. In view of the interest in tungsten for distinct types of nuclear applications and the relatively homogeneous distribution of the isotopic tungsten—namely, 182W(26.5%), 183W(14.31%), 184W(30.64%), and 186W(28.43%) - the completion of these four evaluations represents a significant contribution to the improvement of the ENDF library. This paper presents an overview of the evaluated resonance parameters and related covariances for total and capture cross sections on the four tungsten isotopes.

  11. Cross-sectional study of cattle lice infestation in the region of Nabeul in north-east Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Gharbi, M; Ben Abdallah, H; Mbarek, Y; Jedidi, M; Darghouth, M A

    2013-12-01

    This cross-sectional study is the first to estimate the prevalence of cattle pediculosis in Tunisia. A total of 39 cattle farms in the region of Nabeul in north-east Tunisia were visited and lice were collected by intensively brushing 789 cattle. The prevalence was estimated to be 20.5% on the farms (8/39) and 4.7% in animals (37/789). Collected parasites were examined under a stereomicroscope and three lice species were identified: Bovicola bovis, Linognathus vituli and Haematopinus eurysternus. Thirty-two animals were infested with the chewing lice B. bovis (4%), three with H. eurysternus (0.4%) and two with L. vituli (0.2%). The infestation prevalence was higher in calves under eight months of age (21.6%)than in adults (0.8%). Decision-makers in animal health should consider this parasitic disease in their control and eradication programmes.

  12. Use of Traditional and Complementary Medicine as Self-Care Strategies in Community Health Centers: Cross-Sectional Study in Urban Pearl River Delta Region of China.

    PubMed

    Chung, Vincent C H; Wong, Samuel Y S; Wang, Harry H X; Wong, Martin C S; Wei, Xiaolin; Wang, Jiaji; Liu, Siya; Ho, Robin S T; Yu, Ellen L M; Griffiths, Sian M

    2016-06-01

    In China, Community Health Centers (CHCs) are major providers of primary care services, but their potential in empowering patients' self-management capacity has not been assessed. This study aims to describe self-care practice patterns amongst CHC attendees in urban China.In this cross-sectional quantitative study, 3360 CHC patients from 6 cities within the Pearl Delta Region were sampled using multistage cluster sampling.Thirty-seven per cent had used with over-the-counter Chinese herbal medicines (OTC CHMs) in the past year and majority of respondents found OTC CHMs effective. OTC CHMs were more popular amongst those who needed to pay out of pocket for CHC services. Less than 10% used vitamins and minerals, and those with a lower socioeconomic background have a higher propensity to consume. Although doubts on their usefulness are expressed, their use by the vulnerable population may reflect barriers to access to conventional health care, cultural affinity, or a defense against negative consequences of illnesses. About 25% performed physical exercise, but the prevalence is lower amongst women and older people. Taiji seems to be an alternative for these populations with promising effectiveness, but overall only 6% of CHC attendees participated.These results suggest that CHCs should start initiatives in fostering appropriate use of OTC CHM, vitamins, and minerals. Engaging community pharmacists in guiding safe and effective use of OTC CHM amongst the uninsured is essential given their low accessibility to CHC services. Prescription of Taiji instead of physical exercises to women and older people could be more culturally appropriate, and the possibility of including this as part of the CHC services worth further exploration. PMID:27281074

  13. Defining regions of interest using cross-frequency coupling in extratemporal lobe epilepsy patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guirgis, Mirna; Chinvarun, Yotin; del Campo, Martin; Carlen, Peter L.; Bardakjian, Berj L.

    2015-04-01

    Objective. Clinicians identify seizure onset zones (SOZs) for resection in an attempt to localize the epileptogenic zone (EZ), which is the cortical tissue that is indispensible for seizure generation. An automated system is proposed to objectively localize this EZ by identifying regions of interest (ROIs). Methods. Intracranial electroencephalogram recordings were obtained from seven patients presenting with extratemporal lobe epilepsy and the interaction between neuronal rhythms in the form of phase-amplitude coupling was investigated. Modulation of the amplitude of high frequency oscillations (HFOs) by the phase of low frequency oscillations was measured by computing the modulation index (MI). Delta- (0.5-4 Hz) and theta- (4-8 Hz) modulation of HFOs (30-450 Hz) were examined across the channels of a 64-electrode subdural grid. Surrogate analysis was performed and false discovery rates were computed to determine the significance of the modulation observed. Mean MI values were subjected to eigenvalue decomposition (EVD) and channels defining the ROIs were selected based on the components of the eigenvector corresponding to the largest eigenvalue. ROIs were compared to the SOZs identified by two independent neurologists. Global coherence values were also computed. Main results. MI was found to capture the seizure in time for six of seven patients and identified ROIs in all seven. Patients were found to have a poorer post-surgical outcome when the number of EVD-selected channels that were not resected increased. Moreover, in patients who experienced a seizure-free outcome (i.e., Engel Class I) all EVD-selected channels were found to be within the resected tissue or immediately adjacent to it. In these Engel Class I patients, delta-modulated HFOs were found to identify more of the channels in the resected tissue compared to theta-modulated HFOs. However, for the Engel Class IV patient, the delta-modulated HFOs did not identify any of the channels in the resected

  14. A novel multi-human location method for distributed binary pyroelectric infrared sensor tracking system: Region partition using PNN and bearing-crossing location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bo; Li, Xiaoshan; Luo, Jing

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel multi-human location method for distributed binary pyroelectric infrared sensor tracking system based on region partition using probabilistic neural network and bearing-crossing location. The detection space of system is divided into many sub-regions and encoded uniformly. The human region is located by an integrated neural network classifier, which is developed based on the probabilistic neural network ensembles and the Bagging algorithm. The location of a human target can be achieved by first determining a coarse location by this classifier and then a fine location using our previous bearing-crossing location method. Simulation and experimental results have shown that the human region can be judged rapidly and the false detection points of multi-human location can be eliminated effectively. Compared with the bearing-crossing location method, the novel method has significantly improved the locating and tracking accuracy of multiple human targets in infrared sensor tracking system.

  15. Energization in regions of CIRs unconnected to shocks are probably not the result of cross-field transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Intriligator, Devrie S.; Siscoe, George

    1995-01-01

    Corotating energetic ion populations (CEIPs) associated with the forward and reverse shocks of corotating interaction regions (CIRs) are observed in CIRs at places where models say are magnetically unconnected to either shock. Such disconnections between CEIPs and shocks are common and have been documented with data from Pioneers 10 and 11 and confirmed with data from Ulysses. They pose a problem for models that account for these CEIPs in terms of ion energization at the shocks followed by ion propagation along field lines. Two possible resolutions to this problem have been suggested: diffusion of the ions across field lines and extension of the ion energization process to regions beyond the shock waves. Here we quantitatively examine the first of these possibilities. We give the Green's function solution to the convection-diffusion equation applied to idealized CIR geometry, with a source at the reverse shock -- the main producer of CEIPs. Two kinds of diffusion are considered: resonant diffusion and stochastic field line diffusion. We find that for resonant diffusion the computed ratio is many orders of magnitudes below the observed ratio. For stochastic field line diffusion, the computed ratio approximately equals the observed ratio if a diffusion coefficient appropriate to the free solar wind is used. It is several orders of magnitude below the observed ratio, however, if a diffusion coefficient appropriate to CIRs is used. We conclude that cross-field diffusion probably does not account for the presence of energetic ions in regions of CIRs that are magnetically unconnected to its shock waves. We suggest that the alternative possibility -- the energetic ions in regions magnetically unconnected to shocks result from an acceleration process that is independent of shocks -- be pursued to the point where quantitative tests can be performed.

  16. Cluster Analysis: A New Tool for Understanding the Role of the Inner City in a Regional Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melnick, Rob; Waits, Mary Jo; Rex, Tom

    1998-01-01

    Research in two inner-city areas of Phoenix (Arizona) and its surrounding suburbs documents the importance of analyzing a metropolitan area's economy from the perspective of industry clusters before determining economic development policies and strategies for urban revitalization. In addition, the project reveals lessons about the role of…

  17. Cross-correlation of SDSS DR7 quasars and DR10 BOSS galaxies: The weak luminosity dependence of quasar clustering at z ∼ 0.5

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Yue; McBride, Cameron K.; Swanson, Molly E. C.; White, Martin; Kirkpatrick, Jessica A.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Schlegel, David J.; Zheng, Zheng; Myers, Adam D.; Guo, Hong; Zehavi, Idit; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Parejko, John K.; Schneider, Donald P.; Streblyanska, Alina; Pan, Kaike; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Ebelke, Garrett; Malanushenko, Viktor; and others

    2013-12-01

    We present the measurement of the two-point cross-correlation function (CCF) of 8198 Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 quasars and 349,608 Data Release 10 CMASS galaxies from the Baryonic Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey at 0.3 < z < 0.9. The CCF can be reasonably well fit by a power-law model ξ{sub QG}(r) = (r/r {sub 0}){sup –γ} on projected scales of r{sub p} = 2-25 h {sup –1} Mpc with r {sub 0} = 6.61 ± 0.25 h {sup –1} Mpc and γ = 1.69 ± 0.07. We estimate a quasar linear bias of b{sub Q} = 1.38 ± 0.10 at (z) = 0.53 from the CCF measurements, which corresponds to a characteristic host halo mass of ∼4 × 10{sup 12} h {sup –1} M {sub ☉}, compared with a ∼10{sup 13} h {sup –1} M {sub ☉} characteristic host halo mass for CMASS galaxies. Based on the clustering measurements, most quasars at z-bar ∼0.5 are not the descendants of their higher luminosity counterparts at higher redshift, which would have evolved into more massive and more biased systems at low redshift. We divide the quasar sample in luminosity and constrain the luminosity dependence of quasar bias to be db{sub Q} /dlog L = 0.20 ± 0.34 or 0.11 ± 0.32 (depending on different luminosity divisions) for quasar luminosities –23.5 > M{sub i} (z = 2) > –25.5, implying a weak luminosity dependence of clustering for luminous quasars at z-bar ∼0.5. We compare our measurements with theoretical predictions, halo occupation distribution (HOD) models, and mock catalogs. These comparisons suggest that quasars reside in a broad range of host halos. The host halo mass distributions significantly overlap with each other for quasars at different luminosities, implying a poor correlation between halo mass and instantaneous quasar luminosity. We also find that the quasar HOD parameterization is largely degenerate such that different HODs can reproduce the CCF equally well, but with different satellite fractions and host halo mass distributions. These results highlight the limitations

  18. THE NEXT GENERATION VIRGO CLUSTER SURVEY. X. PROPERTIES OF ULTRA-COMPACT DWARFS IN THE M87, M49, AND M60 REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chengze; Peng, Eric W.; Zhang, Hong-Xin; Côté, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Gwyn, Stephen; Blakeslee, John P.; Jordán, Andrés; Muñoz, Roberto P.; Puzia, Thomas H.; Mihos, J. Christopher; Lançon, Ariane; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Durrell, Patrick R. E-mail: peng@pku.edu.cn; and others

    2015-10-10

    We use imaging from the Next Generation Virgo cluster Survey (NGVS) to present a comparative study of ultra-compact dwarf (UCD) galaxies associated with three prominent Virgo sub-clusters: those centered on the massive red-sequence galaxies M87, M49, and M60. We show how UCDs can be selected with high completeness using a combination of half-light radius and location in color–color diagrams (u*iK{sub s} or u*gz). Although the central galaxies in each of these sub-clusters have nearly identical luminosities and stellar masses, we find large differences in the sizes of their UCD populations, with M87 containing ∼3.5 and 7.8 times more UCDs than M49 and M60, respectively. The relative abundance of UCDs in the three regions scales in proportion to sub-cluster mass, as traced by X-ray gas mass, total gravitating mass, number of globular clusters (GCs), and number of nearby galaxies. We find that the UCDs are predominantly blue in color, with ∼85% of the UCDs having colors similar to blue GCs and stellar nuclei of dwarf galaxies. We present evidence that UCDs surrounding M87 and M49 may follow a morphological sequence ordered by the prominence of their outer, low surface brightness envelope, ultimately merging with the sequence of nucleated low-mass galaxies, and that envelope prominence correlates with distance from either galaxy. Our analysis provides evidence that tidal stripping of nucleated galaxies is an important process in the formation of UCDs.

  19. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey. X. Properties of Ultra-compact Dwarfs in the M87, M49, and M60 Regions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chengze; Peng, Eric W.; Côté, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Jordán, Andrés; Mihos, J. Christopher; Zhang, Hong-Xin; Muñoz, Roberto P.; Puzia, Thomas H.; Lançon, Ariane; Gwyn, Stephen; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Blakeslee, John P.; Boselli, Alessandro; Durrell, Patrick R.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Guhathakurta, Puragra; MacArthur, Lauren A.; Mei, Simona; Sánchez-Janssen, Rubén; Xu, Haiguang

    2015-10-01

    We use imaging from the Next Generation Virgo cluster Survey (NGVS) to present a comparative study of ultra-compact dwarf (UCD) galaxies associated with three prominent Virgo sub-clusters: those centered on the massive red-sequence galaxies M87, M49, and M60. We show how UCDs can be selected with high completeness using a combination of half-light radius and location in color-color diagrams (u*iKs or u*gz). Although the central galaxies in each of these sub-clusters have nearly identical luminosities and stellar masses, we find large differences in the sizes of their UCD populations, with M87 containing ˜3.5 and 7.8 times more UCDs than M49 and M60, respectively. The relative abundance of UCDs in the three regions scales in proportion to sub-cluster mass, as traced by X-ray gas mass, total gravitating mass, number of globular clusters (GCs), and number of nearby galaxies. We find that the UCDs are predominantly blue in color, with ˜85% of the UCDs having colors similar to blue GCs and stellar nuclei of dwarf galaxies. We present evidence that UCDs surrounding M87 and M49 may follow a morphological sequence ordered by the prominence of their outer, low surface brightness envelope, ultimately merging with the sequence of nucleated low-mass galaxies, and that envelope prominence correlates with distance from either galaxy. Our analysis provides evidence that tidal stripping of nucleated galaxies is an important process in the formation of UCDs.

  20. A brain-specific gene cluster isolated from the region of the mouse obesity locus is expressed in the adult hypothalamus and during mouse development

    SciTech Connect

    Laig-Webster, M.; Lim, M.E.; Chehab, F.F.

    1994-09-01

    The molecular defect underlying an autosomal recessive form of genetic obesity in a classical mouse model C57 BL/6J-ob/ob has not yet been elucidated. Whereas metabolic and physiological disturbances such as diabetes and hypertension are associated with obesity, the site of expression and the nature of the primary lesion responsible for this cascade of events remains elusive. Our efforts aimed at the positional cloning of the ob gene by YAC contig mapping and gene identification have resulted in the cloning of a brain-specific gene cluster from the ob critical region. The expression of this gene cluster is remarkably complex owing to the multitude of brain-specific mRNA transcripts detected on Northern blots. cDNA cloning of these transcripts suggests that they are expressed from different genes as well as by alternate splicing mechanisms. Furthermore, the genomic organization of the cluster appears to consist of at least two identical promoters displaying CpG islands characteristic of housekeeping genes, yet clearly involving tissue-specific expression. Sense and anti-sense synthetic RNA probes were derived from a common DNA sequence on 3 cDNA clones and hybridized to 8-16 days mouse embryonic stages and mouse adult brain sections. Expression in development was noticeable as of the 11th day of gestation and confined to the central nervous system mainly in the telencephalon and spinal cord. Coronal and sagittal sections of the adult mouse brain showed expression only in 3 different regions of the brain stem. In situ hybridization to mouse hypothalamus sections revealed the presence of a localized and specialized group of cells expressing high levels of mRNA, suggesting that this gene cluster may also be involved in the regulation of hypothalamic activities. The hypothalamus has long been hypothesized as a primary candidate tissue for the expression of the obesity gene mainly because of its well-established role in the regulation of energy metabolism and food intake.

  1. Collision cross sections and swarm coefficients of water vapour ion clusters (H2O) n H+ with n = 1, 2 and 3 in N2, O2 and air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekstein, A.; Benhenni, M.; Yousfi, M.

    2011-01-01

    The ion swarm transport coefficients such as reduced mobility, diffusion coefficients and reaction rates of three water vapour ion clusters (H2O) n H+ (with n = 1, 2 and 3) in N2 and O2 have been determined from a Monte Carlo simulation using calculated and measured elastic and inelastic collision cross sections. The elastic momentum transfer cross sections have been determined from a semi-classical JWKB approximation based on a rigid core interaction potential model. The inelastic cross sections have been deduced from the measured ones in the case of similar ion cluster. Then, the cross sections sets are fitted using either the measured reduced mobility at low electric field in the case of (H2O) n H+ in N2 or the zero-field mobility calculated from the Satoh's relation and the measured ones in N2. From the sets of elastic and inelastic collision cross sections thus obtained in pure N2 and O2, the ion transport and reaction coefficients for (H2O) n H+ are then calculated in dry air and also extended over a wide range of reduced electric field in N2 and O2. These ion data are very useful for modelling and simulation of non-equilibrium electrical discharges more particularly in humid gases at atmospheric pressure.

  2. Transverse momentum and total cross section of e(+)e(-) pairs in the Z-boson region from p&pmacr; collisions at sqrt

    PubMed

    Vejcik; Velev; Vidal; Vilar; Vologouev; Vucinic; Wagner; Wagner; Wahl; Wallace; Walsh; Wang; Wang; Wang; Watanabe; Watts; Webb; Wenzel; Wester; Wicklund; Wicklund; Williams; Wilson; Winer; Winn; Wolbers

    2000-01-31

    The transverse momentum and total cross section of e(+)e(-) pairs in the Z-boson region of 66cross section is measured to be 248+/-11 pb. The differential transverse momentum cross section is compared with calculations that match quantum chromodynamics perturbation theory at high transverse momentum with the gluon resummation formalism at low transverse momentum.

  3. Prediction of the fate of Hg and other contaminants in soil around a former chlor-alkali plant using Fuzzy Hierarchical Cross-Clustering approach.

    PubMed

    Frenţiu, Tiberiu; Ponta, Michaela; Sârbu, Costel

    2015-11-01

    An associative simultaneous fuzzy divisive hierarchical algorithm was used to predict the fate of Hg and other contaminants in soil around a former chlor-alkali plant. The algorithm was applied on several natural and anthropogenic characteristics of soil including water leachable, mobile, semi-mobile, non-mobile fractions and total Hg, Al, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Sr, Zn, water leachable fraction of Cl(-), NO3(-) and SO4(2)(-), pH and total organic carbon. The cross-classification algorithm provided a divisive fuzzy partition of the soil samples and associated characteristics. Soils outside the perimeter of the former chlor-alkali plant were clustered based on the natural characteristics and total Hg. In contaminated zones Hg speciation becomes relevant and the assessment of species distribution is necessary. The descending order of concentration of Hg species in the test site was semi-mobile>mobile>non-mobile>water-leachable. Physico-chemical features responsible for similarities or differences between uncontaminated soil samples or contaminated with Hg, Cu, Zn, Ba and NO3(-) were also highlighted. Other characteristics of the contaminated soil were found to be Ca, sulfate, Na and chloride, some of which with influence on Hg fate. The presence of Ca and sulfate in soil induced a higher water leachability of Hg, while Cu had an opposite effect by forming amalgam. The used algorithm provided an in-deep understanding of processes involving Hg species and allowed to make prediction of the fate of Hg and contaminants linked to chlor-alkali-industry.

  4. APG350 induces superior clustering of TRAIL receptors and shows therapeutic antitumor efficacy independent of cross-linking via Fcγ receptors.

    PubMed

    Gieffers, Christian; Kluge, Michael; Merz, Christian; Sykora, Jaromir; Thiemann, Meinolf; Schaal, René; Fischer, Carmen; Branschädel, Marcus; Abhari, Behnaz Ahangarian; Hohenberger, Peter; Fulda, Simone; Fricke, Harald; Hill, Oliver

    2013-12-01

    Cancer cells can be specifically driven into apoptosis by activating Death-receptor-4 (DR4; TRAIL-R1) and/or Death-receptor-5 (DR5; TRAIL-R2). Albeit showing promising preclinical efficacy, first-generation protein therapeutics addressing this pathway, especially agonistic anti-DR4/DR5-monoclonal antibodies, have not been clinically successful to date. Due to their bivalent binding mode, effective apoptosis induction by agonistic TRAIL-R antibodies is achieved only upon additional events leading to antibody-multimer formation. The binding of these multimers to their target subsequently leads to effective receptor-clustering on cancer cells. The research results presented here report on a new class of TRAIL-receptor agonists overcoming this intrinsic limitation observed for antibodies in general. The main feature of these agonists is a TRAIL-mimic consisting of three TRAIL-protomer subsequences combined in one polypeptide chain, termed the single-chain TRAIL-receptor-binding domain (scTRAIL-RBD). In the active compounds, two scTRAIL-RBDs with three receptor binding sites each are brought molecularly in close proximity resulting in a fusion protein with a hexavalent binding mode. In the case of APG350-the prototype of this engineering concept-this is achieved by fusing the Fc-part of a human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1)-mutein C-terminally to the scTRAIL-RBD polypeptide, thereby creating six receptor binding sites per drug molecule. In vitro, APG350 is a potent inducer of apoptosis on human tumor cell lines and primary tumor cells. In vivo, treatment of mice bearing Colo205-xenograft tumors with APG350 showed a dose-dependent antitumor efficacy. By dedicated muteins, we confirmed that the observed in vivo efficacy of the hexavalent scTRAIL-RBD fusion proteins is-in contrast to agonistic antibodies-independent of FcγR-based cross-linking events. PMID:24101228

  5. Diversity, evolution, and functionality of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) regions in the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora.

    PubMed

    Rezzonico, Fabio; Smits, Theo H M; Duffy, Brion

    2011-06-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas system confers acquired heritable immunity against mobile nucleic acid elements in prokaryotes, limiting phage infection and horizontal gene transfer of plasmids. In CRISPR arrays, characteristic repeats are interspersed with similarly sized nonrepetitive spacers derived from transmissible genetic elements and acquired when the cell is challenged with foreign DNA. New spacers are added sequentially and the number and type of CRISPR units can differ among strains, providing a record of phage/plasmid exposure within a species and giving a valuable typing tool. The aim of this work was to investigate CRISPR diversity in the highly homogeneous species Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight. A total of 18 CRISPR genotypes were defined within a collection of 37 cosmopolitan strains. Strains from Spiraeoideae plants clustered in three major groups: groups II and III were composed exclusively of bacteria originating from the United States, whereas group I generally contained strains of more recent dissemination obtained in Europe, New Zealand, and the Middle East. Strains from Rosoideae and Indian hawthorn (Rhaphiolepis indica) clustered separately and displayed a higher intrinsic diversity than that of isolates from Spiraeoideae plants. Reciprocal exclusion was generally observed between plasmid content and cognate spacer sequences, supporting the role of the CRISPR/Cas system in protecting against foreign DNA elements. However, in several group III strains, retention of plasmid pEU30 is inconsistent with a functional CRISPR/Cas system.

  6. The bundle crossing region is responsible for the inwardly rectifying internal spermine block of the Kir2.1 channel.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chiung-Wei; Kuo, Chung-Chin

    2014-02-01

    Inward rectifier potassium channels conduct K(+) across the cell membrane more efficiently in the inward than outward direction in physiological conditions. Voltage-dependent and flow-dependent blocks of outward K(+) currents by intracellular polyamines (e.g., spermine (SPM)) have been proposed as the major mechanisms underlying inward rectification. In this study, we show that the SPM blocking affinity curve is shifted according to the shift in K(+) reversal potential. Moreover, the kinetics of SPM entry to and exit from the binding site are correlatively slowed by specific E224 and E299 mutations, which always also disrupt the flux coupling feature of SPM block. The entry rates carry little voltage dependence, whereas the exit rates are e-fold decelerated per ∼15 mV depolarization. Interestingly, the voltage dependence remains rather constant among WT and quite a few different mutant channels. This voltage dependence offers an unprecedented chance of mapping the location (electrical distance) of the SPM site in the pore because these kinetic data were obtained along the preponderant direction of K(+) current flow (outward currents for the entry rate and inward currents for the exit rate) and thus contamination from flow dependence should be negligible. Moreover, double mutations involving E224 and A178 or M183 seem to alter the height of the same asymmetrical barrier between the SPM binding site and the intracellular milieu. We conclude that the SPM site responsible for the inward rectifying block is located at an electrical distance of ∼0.5 from the inside and is involved in a flux coupling segment in the bundle crossing region of the pore. With preponderant outward K(+) flow, SPM is "pushed" to the outmost site of this segment (∼D172). On the other hand, the blocking SPM would be pushed to the inner end of this segment (∼M183-A184) with preponderant inward K(+) flow. Moreover, E224 and E299 very likely electrostatically interact with the other residues

  7. Joint Inversion of Seismic and Magnetotelluric Data in the Parkfield Region of California Using the Normalized Cross-Gradient Constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennington, Ninfa L.; Zhang, Haijiang; Thurber, Clifford H.; Bedrosian, Paul A.

    2015-05-01

    We present jointly inverted models of P-wave velocity (Vp) and electrical resistivity for a two-dimensional profile centered on the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD). Significant structural similarity between main features of the separately inverted Vp and resistivity models is exploited by carrying out a joint inversion of the two datasets using the normalized cross-gradient constraint. This constraint favors structurally similar Vp and resistivity images that adequately fit the seismic and magnetotelluric (MT) datasets. The new inversion code, tomoDDMT, merges the seismic inversion code tomoDD and the forward modeling and sensitivity kernel subroutines of the MT inversion code OCCAM2DMT. TomoDDMT is tested on a synthetic dataset and demonstrates the code's ability to more accurately resolve features of the input synthetic structure relative to the separately inverted resistivity and velocity models. Using tomoDDMT, we are able to resolve a number of key issues raised during drilling at SAFOD. We are able to infer the distribution of several geologic units including the Salinian granitoids, the Great Valley sequence, and the Franciscan Formation. The distribution and transport of fluids at both shallow and great depths is also examined. Low values of velocity/resistivity attributed to a feature known as the Eastern Conductor (EC) can be explained in two ways: the EC is a brine-filled, high porosity region, or this region is composed largely of clay-rich shales of the Franciscan. The Eastern Wall, which lies immediately adjacent to the EC, is unlikely to be a fluid pathway into the San Andreas Fault's seismogenic zone due to its observed higher resistivity and velocity values.

  8. Two-dimensional magnetization exchange spectroscopy of Anabaena 7120 ferredoxin. Nuclear Overhauser effect and electron self-exchange cross peaks from amino acid residues surrounding the Fe-2S* cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Skjeldal, L.; Westler, W.M.; Oh, Byungha; Krezel, A.M.; Markley, J.L.; Holden, H.M.; Jacobson, B.L.; Rayment, I. Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison )

    1991-07-30

    Hyperfine {sup 1}H NMR signals of the 2 Fe-2S* vegetative ferredoxin from Anabaena 7,120 have been studied by two-dimensional (2D) magnetization exchange spectroscopy. The rapid longitudinal relaxation rates of these signals required the use of very short nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) mixing times (0.5-20 ms). The resulting pattern of NOE cross-relaxation peaks when combined with previous 1D NOE results led to elucidation of the carbon-bound proton spin systems from each of the four cysteines ligated to the 2Fe-2S* cluster in the reduced ferredoxin. Additional NOE cross peaks were observed that provide information about other amino acid residues that interact with the iron-sulfur cluster. NOE cross peaks were assigned tentatively to Leu{sup 27}, Arg{sup 42}, and Ala{sup 43} on the basis of the X-ray coordinates of oxidized Anabaena 7,120 ferredoxin. Three chemical exchange cross peaks were detected in magnetization exchange spectra of half-reduced ferredoxin and assigned to the {sup 1}H{sup {alpha}} protons of Cys{sup 49} and Cys{sup 79} (both of whose sulfur atoms are ligated to Fe(III)) and Arg{sup 42} (whose amide nitrogen is hydrogen-bonded to one of the inorganic sulfurs of the 2Fe-2S* cluster). The chemical exchange cross peaks provide a means of extending assignments in the spectrum of reduced ferredoxin to assignments in the spectrum of the oxidized protein. The results suggest that 2D magnetization exchange spectroscopy employing short mixing times will be useful for the assignment and characterization of hyperfine {sup 1}H peaks in a variety of paramagnetic proteins.

  9. Changes in Hypertension Treatment in the Yaroslavl Region of Russia: Improvements Observed Between 2 Cross-Sectional Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Mozheyko, Maria; Eregin, Sergey; Vigdorchik, Alexey; Tobe, Sheldon; Campbell, Norman; Riahi, Farhad; Hughes, David

    2013-01-01

    This prospective before-and-after survey of hypertensive patients visiting government-run outpatient health facilities in the Yaroslavl Region of Russia assessed blood pressure (BP)–related endpoints following initiation of a comprehensive health system improvement program for hypertension. Two cross-sectional surveys, one at baseline and the other approximately 1 year after program initiation, evaluated the primary measure of BP control rate. Secondary measures included mean BP levels and distribution, cardiovascular risk factors, and associated conditions, heart rate levels, and antihypertensive therapy. From the 2011 survey (n=1794) to the 2012 survey (n=2992), BP control rate (<140/90 mm Hg) significantly increased from 16.8% to 23.0%, reflecting a 37% relative improvement (P<.0001). Mean BP level was significantly reduced from 151/90 mm Hg to 147/88 mm Hg (P<.0001). Severe uncontrolled hypertension (systolic BP ≥180 mm Hg) was reduced from 9.7% to 6.4% (P<.0001). Implementing a guidelines-based treatment protocol with medical and patient education programs resulted in physician behavior change and improved patient BP control. PMID:24118731

  10. Contributions of long-range and regional atmospheric transport on pesticide concentrations along a transect crossing a mountain divide.

    PubMed

    Lavin, Karen S; Hageman, Kimberly J

    2013-02-01

    Twenty-one halogenated legacy and current-use pesticides and pesticide degradation products were measured in pine needles along a coast-to-coast transect that crossed the Southern Alps of New Zealand. Concentration profiles of nine pesticides were used to determine the influence of geographic sources on the atmospheric pesticide burden at the mountain sites. Pesticide concentration profiles were calculated for each source and mountain site by normalizing concentrations (adjusted for temperature at the site and air-needle partitioning) to the sum of all pesticide concentrations at the site. Each mountain site profile was compared to varying mixtures of the potential source profiles to determine the percent contribution of each source. The highest elevation mountain sites were primarily influenced by long-range, synoptic-scale northwesterly winds. Westerly upslope winds had little influence on any of the mountain sites. Easterly upslope winds from the Canterbury Plains, an agricultural region, strongly influenced the mountain sites within close proximity and had progressively less influence with distance.

  11. HIV testing in re-education through labour camps in Guangxi Autonomous Region, China (a cross-sectional survey)

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Lorraine; Reekie, Joanne; Liu, Wei; Chen, Yi; Wu, Zunyou; Li, Jianghong; Zhang, Lei; Wand, Handan; Donovan, Basil; Butler, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Objective HIV testing is mandatory in re-education-through-labour camps (laojiaosuo) in China yet no studies have reported on the process. Methods The survey response rate was 100% although 29 detainees were excluded because they were under 18 years of age. A cross-sectional face-to-face survey was conducted in three labour camps in Guangxi, located in the south-western region of China. Results Of the 755 detainees surveyed, 725 (96%) reported having a blood test in the labour camps of whom 493 (68%) thought this included an HIV test. 61 detainees self-reported they were HIV infected, their status confirmed by medical records, if available. Of these, 53 (87%) recalled receiving post-test HIV education, and 15 (25%) were currently receiving HIV antiretroviral therapy. Pretest education on HIV was provided to 233/725 (32%) detainees. The study further reports on detainees’ reactions and feelings towards non-disclosure and disclosure of their HIV test results in the labour camps. Conclusions Mandatory testing is almost universal in the labour camps although a proportion of detainees were unaware that this included an HIV test. HIV test results should be disclosed to all labour camp detainees to reduce their distress of not knowing and prevent misconceptions about their HIV status. Labour camps provide another opportunity to implement universal treatment (‘Test and Treat’) to prevent the spread of HIV. PMID:25739879

  12. Cloud Structure of Galactic OB Cluster-forming Regions from Combining Ground- and Space-based Bolometric Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yuxin; Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Li, Di; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Ginsburg, Adam; Pineda, Jaime E.; Qian, Lei; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; McLeod, Anna Faye; Rosolowsky, Erik; Dale, James E.; Immer, Katharina; Koch, Eric; Longmore, Steve; Walker, Daniel; Testi, Leonardo

    2016-09-01

    We have developed an iterative procedure to systematically combine the millimeter and submillimeter images of OB cluster-forming molecular clouds, which were taken by ground-based (CSO, JCMT, APEX, and IRAM-30 m) and space telescopes (Herschel and Planck). For the seven luminous (L\\gt {10}6 L ⊙) Galactic OB cluster-forming molecular clouds selected for our analyses, namely W49A, W43-Main, W43-South, W33, G10.6-0.4, G10.2-0.3, and G10.3-0.1, we have performed single-component, modified blackbody fits to each pixel of the combined (sub)millimeter images, and the Herschel PACS and SPIRE images at shorter wavelengths. The ˜10″ resolution dust column density and temperature maps of these sources revealed dramatically different morphologies, indicating very different modes of OB cluster-formation, or parent molecular cloud structures in different evolutionary stages. The molecular clouds W49A, W33, and G10.6-0.4 show centrally concentrated massive molecular clumps that are connected with approximately radially orientated molecular gas filaments. The W43-Main and W43-South molecular cloud complexes, which are located at the intersection of the Galactic near 3 kpc (or Scutum) arm and the Galactic bar, show a widely scattered distribution of dense molecular clumps/cores over the observed ˜10 pc spatial scale. The relatively evolved sources G10.2-0.3 and G10.3-0.1 appear to be affected by stellar feedback, and show a complicated cloud morphology embedded with abundant dense molecular clumps/cores. We find that with the high angular resolution we achieved, our visual classification of cloud morphology can be linked to the systematically derived statistical quantities (i.e., the enclosed mass profile, the column density probability distribution function (N-PDF), the two-point correlation function of column density, and the probability distribution function of clump/core separations). In particular, the massive molecular gas clumps located at the center of G10.6-0.4 and

  13. Regional Technology Assets and Opportunities: The Geographic Clustering of High-Tech Industry, Science and Innovation in Appalachia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feser, Edward; Goldstein, Harvey; Renski, Henry; Renault, Catherine

    A study identified 100 sub-regional concentrations of technology-related employment, research and development, and applied innovation within and immediately adjacent to the 406-county service area of the Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC). Among the findings are that Appalachia's technology sector is comparatively small but expanding, with most…

  14. Mapping of a gene for epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma to the region of the acidic keratin gene cluster at 17q12-q21.

    PubMed

    Reis, A; Küster, W; Eckardt, R; Sperling, K

    1992-01-01

    Epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma (EPPK) (Vörner-Unna-Thost) is an autosomal dominantly inherited skin disease of unknown etiology characterized by diffuse severe hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles and, histologically, by cellular degeneration. We have mapped a gene for EPPK to chromosome 17q11-q23, with linkage analysis using microsatellite DNA-polymorphisms, in a single large family of 7 generations. A maximum lod score of z = 6.66 was obtained with the probe D17S579 at a recombination fraction of theta = 0.00. This locus maps to the same region as the type I (acidic) keratin gene cluster. Keratins, members of the intermediate filament family, the major proteins of the cytoskeleton in epidermis, are differentially expressed in a tissue-specific manner. One acidic keratin, keratin 9 (KRT9), is expressed only in the terminally differentiated epidermis of palms and soles. The KRT9 gene has not yet been cloned; however, since the genes for most acidic keratins are clustered, it is highly probable that it too will map to this region. We therefore propose KRT9 as the candidate gene for EPPK.

  15. Factors associated with dog rabies vaccination in Bhol, Philippines: results of a cross-sectional cluster survey conducted following the island-wide rabies elimination campaign.

    PubMed

    Davlin, S; Lapiz, S M; Miranda, M E; Murray, K

    2013-11-01

    The Philippines has a long history of rabies control efforts in their dog populations; however, long-term success of such programmes and the goal of rabies elimination have not yet been realized. The Bohol Rabies Prevention and Elimination Program was developed as an innovative approach to canine rabies control in 2007. The objective of this study was to assess canine rabies vaccination coverage in the owned-dog population in Bohol and to describe factors associated with rabies vaccination 2 years after implementation of the programme. We utilized a cross-sectional cluster survey based on the World Health Organization's Expanded Programme on Immunization coverage survey technique. We sampled 460 households and collected data on 539 dogs residing within these households. Seventy-seven per cent of surveyed households reported owning at least one dog. The human-to-dog ratio was approximately 4 : 1, and the mean number of dogs owned per household was 1.6. Based on this ratio, we calculated an owned-dog population of almost 300 000. Overall, 71% of dogs were reported as having been vaccinated for rabies at some time in their lives; however, only 64% of dogs were reported as having been recently vaccinated. Dogs in our study were young (median age = 24 months). The odds of vaccination increased with increasing age. Dogs aged 12-23 months had 4.6 times the odds of vaccination compared to dogs aged 3-11 months (95% CI 1.8-12.0; P = 0.002). Confinement of the dog both day and night was also associated with increased odds of vaccination (OR = 2.1; 95% CI 0.9-4.9; P = 0.07), and this result approached statistical significance. While the programme is on track to meet its goal of 80% vaccination coverage, educational efforts should focus on the need to confine dogs and vaccinate young dogs.

  16. Cardiovascular health among healthy population of Northeast region of India: a cross-sectional study comparing urban-tribal difference.

    PubMed

    Saha, Soma; Gupta, Kinnari; Kumar, Soumitra

    2013-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of adult mortality in India but data on the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors are scarce, especially from North-east region of India. This study aims to assess the prevalence and the urban/tribal gradient of cardiovascular disease risk factors among healthy population of Tripura. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 238 healthy individuals (140 urban and 98 tribal) in one urban and five tribal areas of Tripura. Data was collected on sociodemographic profile, medical history, anthropometry, dietary patterns and addiction. Fasting blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors and short-term cardiovascular disease risk score was calculated. The association of independent variables with 10-year cardiovascular disease risk score were examined by using multiple regression model. Prevalence of obesity, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, metabolic syndrome and short-term cardiovascular disease risk score were higher in urban group. Urban people had higher salt, calories and fat intake. No difference was found in the addiction patterns of tobacco and alcohol but frequency and quantity being higher in tribal area. Dyslipidaemia and alcohol consumption showed significant positive association with 10-year cardiovascular disease risk score in both groups. While the non-sedentary lifestyle and dietary habits (low salt, low fat, carbohydrate predominant) of tribal population need to be promoted as a whole across the nation, they need to be protected from the adverse effects of rampant prevalence of tobacco and alcohol addiction among them. Urban population need to be extricated from adverse effects of sedentary lifestyle, modern food habits (high salt, high fat) and tobacco-alcohol addiction.

  17. Health Related Absenteeism of Family Physicians in the Negev Region of Israel: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Khalaila, Ahmed; Margolin, Ilana; Peleg, Roni

    2016-10-01

    Physicians tend to treat their own illnesses differently than the general population, sometimes continuing to come to work when ill. To assess whether family physicians continue to work when ill. A cross-sectional study with a convenience sample. A self-administered, anonymous questionnaire, that included socio-demographic data, questions relating to illness, and reasons for work absenteeism, was completed by family physicians in the Negev region of Israel. 107 physicians participated in the study including 46 women (43 %). The mean age was 45.1 ± 11.4. Forty physicians (37.4 %) said they come to work with an acute illness, 47 (43.9 %) answered that they do so some of the time, and 19 (17.8 %) said that they did not come to work ill. On a scale from 1 to 10 the mean score for the question as to whether physicians are liable to infect their patients was 7.4, with a higher score meaning more likely to infect. Older physicians were more likely to say that the decision to stay away from work was related to the lack of available physicians (P = 0.002), while board certified physicians were more likely than residents to stay away from work due to an acute illness (P = 0.023). Family physicians in the Negev sometimes work when they are ill. This finding has positive sides related to dedication to patients and the work place, but one cannot ignore the fact that patients may be infected by their physicians. Behavioral guidelines, including social, legal, and ethical aspects, should be formulated on this issue.

  18. Strengthening the perception-assessment tools for dengue prevention: a cross-sectional survey in a temperate region (Madeira, Portugal)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Community participation is mandatory in the prevention of Dengue outbreaks. Taking public views into account is crucial to guide more effective planning and quicker community participation in preventing campaigns. This study aims to assess community perceptions of Madeira population in order to explore their involvement in the A. aegypti’s control and reinforce health-educational planning. Due to the lack of accurate methodologies for measuring perception, a new tool to assess the community’s perceptions was built. Methods A cross-sectional survey was performed in the Island’s aegypti-infested area, exploring residents’ perceptions regarding most critical community behaviour: aegypti-source reduction and their domestic aegypti-breeding sites. A novel tool defining five essential topics which underlie the source reduction’s awareness and accession was built, herein called Essential-Perception (EP) analysis. Results Of 1276 individuals, 1182 completed the questionnaire (92 · 6%). EP-Score analysis revealed that community’s perceptions were scarce, inconsistent and possibly incorrect. Most of the population (99 · 6%) did not completely understood the five essential topics explored. An average of 54 · 2% of residents only partially understood each essential topic, revealing inconsistencies in their understanding. Each resident apparently believed in an average of four false assumptions/myths. Significant association (p<0.001) was found between both the EP-Score level and the domestic presence of breeding sites, supporting the validity of this EP-analysis. Aedes aegypti’s breeding sites, consisting of décor/leisure containers, presented an atypical pattern of infestation comparing with dengue prone regions. Conclusions The studied population was not prepared for being fully engaged in dengue prevention. Evidences suggest that EP-methodology was efficient and accurate in assessing the community perception and its compliance to

  19. Quality of work life among primary health care nurses in the Jazan region, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Quality of work life (QWL) is defined as the extent to which an employee is satisfied with personal and working needs through participating in the workplace while achieving the goals of the organization. QWL has been found to influence the commitment and productivity of employees in health care organizations, as well as in other industries. However, reliable information on the QWL of primary health care (PHC) nurses is limited. The purpose of this study was to assess the QWL among PHC nurses in the Jazan region, Saudi Arabia. Methods A descriptive research design, namely a cross-sectional survey, was used in this study. Data were collected using Brooks’ survey of quality of nursing work life and demographic questions. A convenience sample was recruited from 134 PHC centres in Jazan, Saudi Arabia. The Jazan region is located in the southern part of Saudi Arabia. A response rate of 91% (n = 532/585) was achieved (effective response rate = 87%, n = 508). Data analysis consisted of descriptive statistics, t-test and one way-analysis of variance. Total scores and subscores for QWL items and item summary statistics were computed and reported using SPSS version 17 for Windows. Results Findings suggested that the respondents were dissatisfied with their work life. The major influencing factors were unsuitable working hours, lack of facilities for nurses, inability to balance work with family needs, inadequacy of vacations time for nurses and their families, poor staffing, management and supervision practices, lack of professional development opportunities, and an inappropriate working environment in terms of the level of security, patient care supplies and equipment, and recreation facilities (break-area). Other essential factors include the community’s view of nursing and an inadequate salary. More positively, the majority of nurses were satisfied with their co-workers, satisfied to be nurses and had a sense of belonging in their workplaces

  20. Neutron total and scattering cross sections of /sup 6/Li in the few MeV region

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.; Guenther, P.; Whalen, J.

    1980-02-01

    Neutron total cross sections of /sup 6/Li are measured from approx. 0.5 to approx. 4.8 MeV at intervals of approx.< 10 keV. Neutron differential elastic-scattering cross sections are measured from 1.5 to 4.0 MeV at approx.> 10 scattering angles and at incident-neutron intervals of approx.< 100 keV. Neutron differential inelastic-scattering cross sections are measured in the incident-energy range 3.5 to 4.0 MeV. The experimental results are extended to lower energies using measured neutron total cross sections recently reported elsewhere by the authors. The composite experimental data (total cross sections from 0.1 to 4.8 MeV and scattering cross sections from 0.22 to 4.0 MeV) are interpreted in terms of a simple two-level R-matrix model which describes the observed cross sections and implies the reaction cross section in unobserved channels; notably the (n;..cap alpha..)t reaction (Q = 4.783 MeV). The experimental and calculational results are compared with previously reported results as summarized in the ENDF/B-V evaluated nuclear data file.

  1. Determination of (n,{gamma}) cross sections in the rare-earth region using the surrogate ratio method

    SciTech Connect

    Goldblum, B. L.; Prussin, S. G.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Bernstein, L. A.; Bleuel, D. L.; Younes, W.; Guttormsen, M.

    2008-12-15

    The surrogate ratio method was used to convert experimentally determined relative {gamma}-decay probabilities for excited {sup 171}Yb and {sup 161}Dy nuclei, populated using ({sup 3}He, {sup 3}He{sup '}) and ({sup 3}He, {alpha}) reactions, into neutron-induced {gamma}-decay cross sections in an equivalent neutron energy range of 165-465 keV. The relative {gamma}-decay probabilities were measured using the CACTUS array at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory and were found to agree with the ratio of neutron-induced {gamma}-decay cross sections for the same compound nuclei over the range of excitation energies measured. No significant entrance-channel effects on the extracted (n,{gamma}) cross sections were observed. The cross sections obtained using the surrogate ratio method were compared to directly measured neutron-capture cross sections and found to agree within the total estimated uncertainty over the range of equivalent neutron energies measured.

  2. Clusters in an intrinsically disordered protein create a protein-binding site: the TolB-binding region of colicin E9.

    PubMed

    Tozawa, Kaeko; Macdonald, Colin J; Penfold, Christopher N; James, Richard; Kleanthous, Colin; Clayden, Nigel J; Moore, Geoffrey R

    2005-08-30

    The 61-kDa colicin E9 protein toxin enters the cytoplasm of susceptible cells by interacting with outer membrane and periplasmic helper proteins and kills them by hydrolyzing their DNA. The membrane translocation function is located in the N-terminal domain of the colicin, with a key signal sequence being a pentapeptide region that governs the interaction with the helper protein TolB (the TolB box). Previous NMR studies [Collins et al. (2002) J. Mol. Biol. 318, 787-904; MacDonald et al. (2004), J. Biomol. NMR 30, 81-96] have shown that the N-terminal 83 residues of colicin E9, which includes the TolB box, is intrinsically disordered and contains clusters of interacting side chains. To further define the properties of this region of colicin E9, we have investigated the effects on the dynamical and TolB-binding properties of three mutations of colicin E9 that inactivate it as a toxin. The mutations were contained in a fusion protein consisting of residues 1-61 of colicin E9 connected to the N terminus of the E9 DNase by an eight-residue linking sequence. The NMR data reveals that the mutations cause major alterations to the properties of some of the clusters, consistent with some form of association between them and other more distant parts of the amino acid sequence, particularly toward the N terminus of the protein. However, (15)N T(2) measurements indicates that residues 5-13 of the fusion protein bound to the 43-kDa TolB remain as flexible as they are in the free protein. The NMR data point to considerable dynamic ordering within the intrinsically disordered translocation domain of the colicin that is important for creating the TolB-binding site. Furthermore, amino acid sequence considerations suggest that the clusters of amino acids occur because of the size and polarities of the side chains forming them influenced by the propensities of the residues within the clusters and those immediately surrounding them in sequence space to form beta turns. PMID:16114886

  3. “Replicated” genome wide association for dependence on illegal substances: genomic regions identified by overlapping clusters of nominally positive SNPs

    PubMed Central

    Drgon, Tomas; Johnson, Catherine; Nino, Michelle; Drgonova, Jana; Walther, Donna; Uhl, George R

    2010-01-01

    Declaring “replication” from results of genome wide association (GWA) studies is straightforward when major gene effects provide genome-wide significance for association of the same allele of the same SNP in each of multiple independent samples. However, such unambiguous replication may be unlikely when phenotypes display polygenic genetic architecture, allelic heterogeneity, locus heterogeneity and when different samples display linkage disequilibria with different fine structures. We seek chromosomal regions that are tagged by clustered SNPs that display nominally-significant association in each of several independent samples. This approach provides one “nontemplate” approach to identifying overall replication of groups of GWA results in the face of difficult genetic architectures. We apply this strategy to 1M SNP Affymetrix and Illumina GWA results for dependence on illegal substances. This approach provides high confidence in rejecting the null hypothesis that chance alone accounts for the extent to which clustered, nominally-significant SNPs from samples of the same racial/ethnic background identify the same chromosomal regions. There is more modest confidence in: a) identification of individual chromosomal regions and genes and b) overlap between results from samples of different racial/ethnic backgrounds. The strong overlap identified among the samples with similar racial/ethnic backgrounds, together with prior work that identified overlapping results in samples of different racial/ethnic backgrounds, support contributions to individual differences in vulnerability to addictions that come from both relatively older allelic variants that are common in many current human populations and newer allelic variants that are common in fewer current human populations. PMID:21302341

  4. Genomic Regions Identified by Overlapping Clusters of Nominally-Positive SNPs from Genome-Wide Studies of Alcohol and Illegal Substance Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Catherine; Drgon, Tomas; Walther, Donna; Uhl, George R.

    2011-01-01

    Declaring “replication” from results of genome wide association (GWA) studies is straightforward when major gene effects provide genome-wide significance for association of the same allele of the same SNP in each of multiple independent samples. However, such unambiguous replication is unlikely when phenotypes display polygenic genetic architecture, allelic heterogeneity, locus heterogeneity and when different samples display linkage disequilibria with different fine structures. We seek chromosomal regions that are tagged by clustered SNPs that display nominally-significant association in each of several independent samples. This approach provides one “nontemplate” approach to identifying overall replication of groups of GWA results in the face of difficult genetic architectures. We apply this strategy to 1 M SNP GWA results for dependence on: a) alcohol (including many individuals with dependence on other addictive substances) and b) at least one illegal substance (including many individuals dependent on alcohol). This approach provides high confidence in rejecting the null hypothesis that chance alone accounts for the extent to which clustered, nominally-significant SNPs from samples of the same racial/ethnic background identify the same sets of chromosomal regions. It identifies several genes that are also reported in other independent alcohol-dependence GWA datasets. There is more modest confidence in: a) identification of individual chromosomal regions and genes that are not also identified by data from other independent samples, b) the more modest overlap between results from samples of different racial/ethnic backgrounds and c) the extent to which any gene not identified herein is excluded, since the power of each of these individual samples is modest. Nevertheless, the strong overlap identified among the samples with similar racial/ethnic backgrounds supports contributions to individual differences in vulnerability to addictions that come from newer

  5. Novel and recurrent BRCA2 mutations in Italian breast/ovarian cancer families widen the ovarian cancer cluster region boundaries to exons 13 and 14.

    PubMed

    Coppa, Anna; Buffone, Amelia; Capalbo, Carlo; Nicolussi, Arianna; D'Inzeo, Sonia; Belardinilli, Francesca; Colicchia, Valeria; Petroni, Marialaura; Granato, Teresa; Midulla, Cecilia; Zani, Massimo; Ferraro, Sergio; Screpanti, Isabella; Gulino, Alberto; Giannini, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer are mainly linked to mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes which confer a similar cumulative risk of developing breast cancer. Importantly, while BRCA2 mutation carriers generally have a lower cumulative risk for ovarian cancer, mutations clustered in the central portion of BRCA2 are associated with a higher proportion of ovarian compared with breast cancer cases. The boundaries of this ovarian cancer cluster region (OCCR) have been tentatively defined within a 3.3 kb region of BRCA2 exon 11, and herein, we reassessed these boundaries using our series of Italian breast/ovarian cancer families. We used direct sequencing to investigate BRCA mutations in 367 breast/ovarian cancer families. We also studied the association between the location of the mutations and the ovarian cancer phenotype in our cohort of BRCA2-mutated families. We observed the novel c.7309_7309delA frameshift mutation and the c.7007G>A deleterious mutation in BRCA2 exons 14 and 13, respectively, in five independent Italian families characterized by a high proportion of ovarian cancer cases. Of note, a significantly higher proportion of ovarian versus breast cancer cases was associated not only with mutations in the previously defined OCCR (OR = 5.91; p = 0.004), but also with the exon 13-14 region (OR = 7.37; p = 0.001) in our BRCA2-mutated families. Our data provide initial evidence for a novel putative OCCR in BRCA2 exons 13-14.

  6. Star-forming regions at the periphery of the supershell surrounding the Cyg OB1 association - I. The star cluster vdB 130 and its ambient gas and dust medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitnik, T. G.; Egorov, O. V.; Lozinskaya, T. A.; Moiseev, A. V.; Rastorguev, A. S.; Tatarnikov, A. M.; Tatarnikova, A. A.; Wiebe, D. S.; Zabolotskikh, M. V.

    2015-12-01

    Stellar population and the interstellar gas-dust medium in the vicinity of the open star cluster vdB 130 are analysed using optical observations taken with the 6 m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory of Russian Academy of Sciences and the 125 cm telescope of the Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Lomonosov Moscow State University along with the data of Spitzer and Herschel. Based on proper motions and BV and JHKs Two Micron All Sky Survey photometric data, we select additional 36 stars as probable cluster members. Some stars in vdB 130 are classified as B stars. Our estimates of minimum colour excess, apparent distance modulus and the distance are consistent with young age (from 5 to 10 Myr) of the cluster vdB 130. We suppose the large deviations from the conventional extinction law in the cluster direction, with RV ˜ 4-5. The cluster vdB 130 appears to be physically related to the supershell around Cyg OB1, a cometary CO cloud, ionized gas and regions of infrared emission. There are a few regions of bright mid-infrared emission in the vicinity of vdB 130. The largest of them is also visible on Hα and [S II] emission maps. We suggest that the infrared blobs that coincide in projection with the head of the molecular cloud are H II regions, excited by the cluster B stars. Some signatures of a shock front are identified between these IR-bright regions.

  7. Double differential cross sections for proton induced electron emission from molecular analogues of DNA constituents for energies in the Bragg peak region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudek, Benedikt; Bennett, Daniel; Bug, Marion U.; Wang, Mingjie; Baek, Woon Yong; Buhr, Ticia; Hilgers, Gerhard; Champion, Christophe; Rabus, Hans

    2016-09-01

    For track structure simulations in the Bragg peak region, measured electron emission cross sections of DNA constituents are required as input for developing parameterized model functions representing the scattering probabilities. In the present work, double differential cross sections were measured for the electron emission from vapor-phase pyrimidine, tetrahydrofuran, and trimethyl phosphate that are structural analogues to the base, the sugar, and the phosphate residue of the DNA, respectively. The range of proton energies was from 75 keV to 135 keV, the angles ranged from 15° to 135°, and the electron energies were measured from 10 eV to 200 eV. Single differential and total electron emission cross sections are derived by integration over angle and electron energy and compared to the semi-empirical Hansen-Kocbach-Stolterfoht (HKS) model and a quantum mechanical calculation employing the first Born approximation with corrected boundary conditions (CB1). The CB1 provides the best prediction of double and single differential cross section, while total cross sections can be fitted with semi-empirical models. The cross sections of the three samples are proportional to their total number of valence electrons.

  8. Double differential cross sections for proton induced electron emission from molecular analogues of DNA constituents for energies in the Bragg peak region.

    PubMed

    Rudek, Benedikt; Bennett, Daniel; Bug, Marion U; Wang, Mingjie; Baek, Woon Yong; Buhr, Ticia; Hilgers, Gerhard; Champion, Christophe; Rabus, Hans

    2016-09-14

    For track structure simulations in the Bragg peak region, measured electron emission cross sections of DNA constituents are required as input for developing parameterized model functions representing the scattering probabilities. In the present work, double differential cross sections were measured for the electron emission from vapor-phase pyrimidine, tetrahydrofuran, and trimethyl phosphate that are structural analogues to the base, the sugar, and the phosphate residue of the DNA, respectively. The range of proton energies was from 75 keV to 135 keV, the angles ranged from 15° to 135°, and the electron energies were measured from 10 eV to 200 eV. Single differential and total electron emission cross sections are derived by integration over angle and electron energy and compared to the semi-empirical Hansen-Kocbach-Stolterfoht (HKS) model and a quantum mechanical calculation employing the first Born approximation with corrected boundary conditions (CB1). The CB1 provides the best prediction of double and single differential cross section, while total cross sections can be fitted with semi-empirical models. The cross sections of the three samples are proportional to their total number of valence electrons. PMID:27634254

  9. Symbolic clustering

    SciTech Connect

    Reinke, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Clustering is the problem of finding a good organization for data. Because there are many kinds of clustering problems, and because there are many possible clusterings for any data set, clustering programs use knowledge and assumptions about individual problems to make clustering tractable. Cluster-analysis techniques allow knowledge to be expressed in the choice of a pairwise distance measure and in the choice of clustering algorithm. Conceptual clustering adds knowledge and preferences about cluster descriptions. In this study the author describes symbolic clustering, which adds representation choice to the set of ways a data analyst can use problem-specific knowledge. He develops an informal model for symbolic clustering, and uses it to suggest where and how knowledge can be expressed in clustering. A language for creating symbolic clusters, based on the model, was developed and tested on three real clustering problems. The study concludes with a discussion of the implications of the model and the results for clustering in general.

  10. Investigating the limitations of tree species classification using the Combined Cluster and Discriminant Analysis method for low density ALS data from a dense forest region in Aggtelek (Hungary)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koma, Zsófia; Deák, Márton; Kovács, József; Székely, Balázs; Kelemen, Kristóf; Standovár, Tibor

    2016-04-01

    Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) is a widely used technology for forestry classification applications. However, single tree detection and species classification from low density ALS point cloud is limited in a dense forest region. In this study we investigate the division of a forest into homogenous groups at stand level. The study area is located in the Aggtelek karst region (Northeast Hungary) with a complex relief topography. The ALS dataset contained only 4 discrete echoes (at 2-4 pt/m2 density) from the study area during leaf-on season. Ground-truth measurements about canopy closure and proportion of tree species cover are available for every 70 meter in 500 square meter circular plots. In the first step, ALS data were processed and geometrical and intensity based features were calculated into a 5×5 meter raster based grid. The derived features contained: basic statistics of relative height, canopy RMS, echo ratio, openness, pulse penetration ratio, basic statistics of radiometric feature. In the second step the data were investigated using Combined Cluster and Discriminant Analysis (CCDA, Kovács et al., 2014). The CCDA method first determines a basic grouping for the multiple circle shaped sampling locations using hierarchical clustering and then for the arising grouping possibilities a core cycle is executed comparing the goodness of the investigated groupings with random ones. Out of these comparisons difference values arise, yielding information about the optimal grouping out of the investigated ones. If sub-groups are then further investigated, one might even find homogeneous groups. We found that low density ALS data classification into homogeneous groups are highly dependent on canopy closure, and the proportion of the dominant tree species. The presented results show high potential using CCDA for determination of homogenous separable groups in LiDAR based tree species classification. Aggtelek Karst/Slovakian Karst Caves" (HUSK/1101/221/0180, Aggtelek NP

  11. Reduced oscillator strength in the lithium atom, clusters, and the bulk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellert, Christoph; Schmidt, Martin; Schmitt, Christina; Haberland, Hellmut; Guet, Claude

    1999-03-01

    Absolute photoabsorption cross sections have been measured for small lithium cluster ions in the optical range and a significantly smaller oscillator strength than for sodium has been found. This reduction is reproduced in jellium type calculations only if nonlocal effects in the electron-ion interaction are included. It is shown that this reduction is an atomic property which persists throughout the cluster region and into the bulk regime, where it manifests itself as an increased effective electronic mass. The optical spectra of the closed shell clusters are in good agreement with calculations based on the nonlocal jellium model. The smallest cluster, Li+4, is well described by a quantum chemical calculation.

  12. Detailed ordering of markers localizing to the Xq26-Xqter region of the human X chromosome by the use of an interspecific Mus spretus mouse cross

    SciTech Connect

    Avner, P.; Amar, L.; Arnaud, D.; Hanauer, A.; Cambrou, J.

    1987-03-01

    Five probes localizing to the Xq26-Xqter region of the human X chromosome have been genetically mapped on the mouse X chromosome using an interspecific cross involving Mus spretus to a contiguous region lying proximally to the Tabby (Ta) locus. Pedigree and recombinational analysis establish the marker order as being Hprt-FIX-c11-G6PD-St14-1. The size of this contiguous region is such that the X-linked muscular dystrophy (mdx) mouse mutation probably maps within this segment. This in turn suggests that it is highly improbable that the mouse mdx locus represents a model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). It is, however, compatible with the idea that this mutation may correspond in man to Emery Dreifuss muscular dystrophy. The high frequency of restriction fragment length polymorphisms found in this interspecific system for all the human cross-reacting probes examined up until now, using only a limited number of restriction enzymes, suggests that the Mus spretus mapping system may be of great potential value for establishing the linkage relationships existing in man when conserved chromosomal regions are concerned and human/mouse cross-reacting probes are available or can be obtained.

  13. A cluster region of AP-1 responsive elements is required for transcriptional activity of mouse ODC gene by hepatocyte growth factor.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Laura; Tacchini, Lorenza; Matteucci, Emanuela; Desiderio, Maria Alfonsina

    2002-05-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity is regulated by a variety of mechanisms including transcription, translation, and RNA and protein half-life. Since in mouse B16-F1 melanoma cells an early and remarkable (about 6-fold) increase in steady state mRNA levels was observed after hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) treatment, we investigated the transcriptional regulation of mouse ODC promoter. Transient transfection of various ODC-luciferase promoter constructs into the B16-Fl cells in combination with electrophoretic mobility shift assays identified the HGF-responsive element as a cluster of three AP-1 binding sites (-1660 to -1572). Even if each site differs from the canonical TPA responsive element for one nucleotide, only the first two AP-1 consensus sequences seemed to be functional since allowed DNA-binding activity of nuclear proteins after HGF treatment. Comparison of the results of transfection assays with the pOD2.5-luc (2.5 kb gene fragment) and with the construct deprived of the AP-1 cluster pOD-B-luc showed that this 50 bp region was required for ODC transactivating activity in response to HGF. Since in B16-F1 cells HGF increased AP-1 activity and the mRNA expression of various AP-1 subunits, we may conclude that HGF-induced transcription of mouse ODC was largely due to triggering of AP-1 pathway. PMID:12054494

  14. A statistical study of the orientation, motion, and thicknesses of density and electric field structures observed by Cluster~II above the auroral accleration region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, A. J.; Bonnell, J. W.; Mozer, F. S.; Andre, M.; Eriksson, A.; Vaivads, A.; Pedersen, A.; Lindqvist, P.; Laakso, H.

    2003-12-01

    We present the results of a statistical study of the properties of electric field and density structures observed by the Cluster~II spacecraft above the auroral acceleration region. Of particular emphasis is the orientation, motion, and thicknesses of time stationary structures. The multi-point electric field and density measurements from the Cluster~II constellation are used to estimate the direction and propagation speed of structures in the electric fields and plasma density (as inferred from spacecraft floating potential measurements), as well as to quantify the thicknesses of those structures. These spatial structures propagate transverse to the magnetic field at speeds of ˜10 km/s and are characterized by thicknesses that range from a few hundred kilometers to a few thousand kilometers in extent. Thus with these observations we are probing the high-altitude potential and density structures that are associated with relatively fast (1 km/s) proper motions of fairly large scale (10-100 km) features in the auroral zone. The variation in the properties of these spatial structures with other parameters that characterize the auroral zone, such as altitude, local time, invariant latitude, and geomagnetic activity will also be discussed.

  15. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of Saturn's F ring region during the 1995 ring--plane crossings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGhee, C. A.; Nicholson, P. D.; French, R. G.; Hall, K. J.

    1998-09-01

    HST observations of Saturn's ring--plane crossings in May, August and November 1995 revealed the presence of multiple objects orbiting in or near the F ring (Nicholson et\\ al.; Bosh and Rivkin 1996, Science 272, 509; 518). The combination of the May and August data sets, along with refined ring template subtraction, has allowed us to improve our understanding of the distribution of these suspected F ring clumps. In addition to new orbits for objects S/1995 S5, S6 and S7, we have obtained measurements and orbital parameters for S9, first reported in data taken at the CFHT (Roddier et\\ al. 1995, IAUC 6515), and measurements of a host of fainter objects in both HST data sets. An additional 3 F--ring objects in May and 5 in August were found to account for a total of ~ 90 of these fainter clump measurements. S/1995 S1 orbits very close to Atlas, well inside the F ring; S7 and S9 appear to be coorbital with Prometheus; while S3 and S6 fall ~ 500 km on either side of the F ring. These results lend support to Cuzzi and Burns' (1988, Icarus 74, 284) hypothesis of a belt of moonlet--sized (or smaller) objects occupying the entire radial region between Pandora and Prometheus. Object & Semimajor axis (km) & e & RMS residual (km) S/1995 S1 & 137,529+/-87 & 0 & 528.43 Atlas & 137,678 &0 & S/1995 S7 & 139,371+/-93 &0 & 250.64 Prometheus& 139,377.2+/-0.1 & 0.0024 & 214.91 S7+May 358 & 139,382.4+/-0.3 & 0.0024 & 389.67 S/1995 S9 & 139,445+/-139 & 0 & 362.95 S/1995 S6 & 139,594+/-75 & 0 & 350.67 S/1995 S5 & 139,824+/-88 & 0.0029 & 329.44 F ring & 140,209 & 0.0029 & S/1995 S3 & 140,742+/-135 & 0 & 570.33 Pandora & 141,714.8+/-0.2 & 0.0044 & 314.06

  16. Hookworm Infection and Environmental Factors in Mbeya Region, Tanzania: A Cross-Sectional, Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Riess, Helene; Clowes, Petra; Kroidl, Inge; Kowuor, Dickens O.; Nsojo, Anthony; Mangu, Chacha; Schüle, Steffen A.; Mansmann, Ulrich; Geldmacher, Christof; Mhina, Seif; Maboko, Leonard; Hoelscher, Michael; Saathoff, Elmar

    2013-01-01

    Background Hookworm disease is one of the most common infections and cause of a high disease burden in the tropics and subtropics. Remotely sensed ecological data and model-based geostatistics have been used recently to identify areas in need for hookworm control. Methodology Cross-sectional interview data and stool samples from 6,375 participants from nine different sites in Mbeya region, south-western Tanzania, were collected as part of a cohort study. Hookworm infection was assessed by microscopy of duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears from one stool sample from each participant. A geographic information system was used to obtain remotely sensed environmental data such as land surface temperature (LST), vegetation cover, rainfall, and elevation, and combine them with hookworm infection data and with socio-demographic and behavioral data. Uni- and multivariable logistic regression was performed on sites separately and on the pooled dataset. Principal Findings Univariable analyses yielded significant associations for all ecological variables. Five ecological variables stayed significant in the final multivariable model: population density (odds ratio (OR) = 0.68; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.63–0.73), mean annual vegetation density (OR = 0.11; 95% CI = 0.06–0.18), mean annual LST during the day (OR = 0.81; 95% CI = 0.75–0.88), mean annual LST during the night (OR = 1.54; 95% CI = 1.44–1.64), and latrine coverage in household surroundings (OR = 1.02; 95% CI = 1.01–1.04). Interaction terms revealed substantial differences in associations of hookworm infection with population density, mean annual enhanced vegetation index, and latrine coverage between the two sites with the highest prevalence of infection. Conclusion/Significance This study supports previous findings that remotely sensed data such as vegetation indices, LST, and elevation are strongly associated with hookworm prevalence. However, the results indicate

  17. Khat chewing and health related quality of life: cross-sectional study in Jazan region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The chewing of Khat leaves, a natural psychoactive substance is widely chewed in countries of East Africa and the southern Arabian Peninsula, and is reported to be associated with a range of unfavorable health outcomes including khat dependence. The impact of Khat chewing on Health Related Quality of Life is yet to be explored. Aims: to measure and compare the quality of life of the khat chewers and non-khat chewers using a short form health survey (SF36), and to assess factors associated with Khat chewing using SF36 in a sample of adult population in Jazan region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methods A total of 630 participants from two independent male populations of khat chewers and non-khat chewers were recruited into a cross-sectional survey study. A self administrative survey based on the SF-36 questionnaire was used to collect data on measures of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Socioeconomic data of the respondents were also collected for detailed analysis. Data analysis include: descriptive statistics, reliability tests (Cronbach’s alpha and intraclass correlation coefficient), and bivariate analysis (Chi square and Mann–Whitney U-test) to compare HRQoL of Khat chewers and non-Khat chewers. Results The odds of being a khat chewer were higher in respondents with a lower socioeconomic status. The SF-36 scores were significantly lower in all domains for respondents with khat chewing, indicating that non-khat chewers had higher health perceptions compared with those chewing khat. The overall mean score of HRQoL for non-khat chewers was 92.7% (SD 5.53) compared with 63.5% (SD 21.73) for the khat chewing group. The study had shown good internal consistency and reproducibility across the eight subscales of SF-36 questionnaire (α 0.74-0.95). The Mann–Whitney U-test showed a significant difference between khat chewers and non-khat chewers (P < 0.001). Conclusions This study measured and compared the quality of life of khat chewers and non

  18. Definition of the region on NS3 which contains multiple epitopes recognized by dengue virus serotype-cross-reactive and flavivirus-cross-reactive, HLA-DPw2-restricted CD4+ T cell clones.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Y; Kurane, I; Leporati, A M; Ennis, F A

    1998-04-01

    The epitopes recognized by six CD4+ CD8- cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) clones established from a dengue-3 virus-immune donor were defined. (i) Three CTL clones, JK10, JK34 and JK39, were cross-reactive for dengue virus types 1-4. (ii) One clone, JK28, was cross-reactive for dengue virus types 1-4 and West Nile virus. (iii) Two clones, JK26 and JK49, were cross-reactive for dengue virus types 1-4, West Nile virus and yellow fever virus. The clones, except for JK49, recognized the same epitope on NS3 in an HLA-DPw2-restricted fashion. The smallest synthetic peptide recognized by the five CTL clones was a 10 aa peptide which comprises aa 255-264 on dengue virus NS3. JK49 recognized the overlapping epitope which comprises aa 257-266 in an HLA-DPw2-restricted fashion. Analysis of T cell receptor (TCR) usage by these T cell clones revealed that (i) JK10 and JK34 use V alpha11, and JK34 and JK28 use V beta23, and (ii) the amino acid sequences of the V(D)J junctional region of the TCR were different among these five CTL clones. There were, however, single amino acid conservations among TCRs of some of these T cell clones. These results indicate that the region on NS3 which comprises aa 255-266 contains multiple epitopes recognized by dengue serotype-cross-reactive and flavivirus-cross-reactive CD4+ CTL in an HLA-DPw2-restricted fashion and that a single epitope can be recognized by T cells which have heterogeneous virus specificities.

  19. Histone genes in three sea star species: cluster arrangement, transcriptional polarity, and analyses of the flanking regions of H3 and H4 genes.

    PubMed

    Cool, D; Banfield, D; Honda, B M; Smith, M J

    1988-01-01

    The arrangement of core histone genes and their transcriptional polarity has been determined for three species of sea stars (Pisaster ochraceus, P. brevispinus, and Dermasterias imbricata) representing two orders which diverged over 500 million years ago. Each species has approximately 500 core histones cluster repeats per haploid genome. The close phylogenetic relationship between the Pisaster species is evident from the correspondence of restriction sites in the repeat element, identical arrangement of core histones, and high degree of sequence homology in both the coding and spacer regions of the H3 gene. The Dermasterias repeat has the same gene order and transcriptional polarity of core histones, but its restriction map is significantly different. Moreover, the Dermasterias H3 gene has the same amino acid sequence, but in comparison to Pisaster nucleotide sequences, shows a high level of silent substitutions. Analyses of the nucleotide sequence of the 5' and 3' regions surrounding the H3 gene from each species demonstrate the presence of appropriately spaced consensus and processing signal segments. The 3' spacer segment of the Dermasterias H4 gene contains an unusual, threefold tandemly repeated, 21-nucleotide, AT-rich sequence. No similar sequence is seen in the P. brevispinus H4 3' region, but these two species show a striking regularity of distribution of five different homologous oligomers in the 3' spacer.

  20. Use of hierarchical cluster analysis to assess the representativeness of a baseline groundwater quality monitoring network: comparison of New Zealand's national and regional groundwater monitoring programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daughney, Christopher J.; Raiber, Matthias; Moreau-Fournier, Magali; Morgenstern, Uwe; van der Raaij, Rob

    2012-02-01

    Baseline monitoring of groundwater quality aims to characterize the ambient condition of the resource and identify spatial or temporal trends. Sites comprising any baseline monitoring network must be selected to provide a representative perspective of groundwater quality across the aquifer(s) of interest. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) has been used as a means of assessing the representativeness of a groundwater quality monitoring network, using example datasets from New Zealand. HCA allows New Zealand's national and regional monitoring networks to be compared in terms of the number of water-quality categories identified in each network, the hydrochemistry at the centroids of these water-quality categories, the proportions of monitoring sites assigned to each water-quality category, and the range of concentrations for each analyte within each water-quality category. Through the HCA approach, the National Groundwater Monitoring Programme (117 sites) is shown to provide a highly representative perspective of groundwater quality across New Zealand, relative to the amalgamated regional monitoring networks operated by 15 different regional authorities (680 sites have sufficient data for inclusion in HCA). This methodology can be applied to evaluate the representativeness of any subset of monitoring sites taken from a larger network.

  1. Risk assessment of water pollution sources based on an integrated k-means clustering and set pair analysis method in the region of Shiyan, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunhui; Sun, Lian; Jia, Junxiang; Cai, Yanpeng; Wang, Xuan

    2016-07-01

    Source water areas are facing many potential water pollution risks. Risk assessment is an effective method to evaluate such risks. In this paper an integrated model based on k-means clustering analysis and set pair analysis was established aiming at evaluating the risks associated with water pollution in source water areas, in which the weights of indicators were determined through the entropy weight method. Then the proposed model was applied to assess water pollution risks in the region of Shiyan in which China's key source water area Danjiangkou Reservoir for the water source of the middle route of South-to-North Water Diversion Project is located. The results showed that eleven sources with relative high risk value were identified. At the regional scale, Shiyan City and Danjiangkou City would have a high risk value in term of the industrial discharge. Comparatively, Danjiangkou City and Yunxian County would have a high risk value in terms of agricultural pollution. Overall, the risk values of north regions close to the main stream and reservoir of the region of Shiyan were higher than that in the south. The results of risk level indicated that five sources were in lower risk level (i.e., level II), two in moderate risk level (i.e., level III), one in higher risk level (i.e., level IV) and three in highest risk level (i.e., level V). Also risks of industrial discharge are higher than that of the agricultural sector. It is thus essential to manage the pillar industry of the region of Shiyan and certain agricultural companies in the vicinity of the reservoir to reduce water pollution risks of source water areas. PMID:27016678

  2. Assessment of climate change impacts on watershed in cold-arid region: an integrated multi-GCM-based stochastic weather generator and stepwise cluster analysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, X. W.; Li, Y. P.; Huang, G. H.; Liu, J.

    2016-07-01

    An integrated multi-GCM-based stochastic weather generator and stepwise cluster analysis (MGCM-SWG-SCA) method is developed, through incorporating multiple global climate models (MGCM), stochastic weather generator (SWG), and stepwise-clustered hydrological model (SCHM) within a general framework. MGCM-SWG-SCA can investigate uncertainties of projected climate changes as well as create watershed-scale climate projections from large-scale variables. It can also assess climate change impacts on hydrological processes and capture nonlinear relationship between input variables and outputs in watershed systems. MGCM-SWG-SCA is then applied to the Kaidu watershed with cold-arid characteristics in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of northwest China, for demonstrating its efficiency. Results reveal that the variability of streamflow is mainly affected by (1) temperature change during spring, (2) precipitation change during winter, and (3) both temperature and precipitation changes in summer and autumn. Results also disclose that: (1) the projected minimum and maximum temperatures and precipitation from MGCM change with seasons in different ways; (2) various climate change projections can reproduce the seasonal variability of watershed-scale climate series; (3) SCHM can simulate daily streamflow with a satisfactory degree, and a significant increasing trend of streamflow is indicated from future (2015-2035) to validation (2006-2011) periods; (4) the streamflow can vary under different climate change projections. The findings can be explained that, for the Kaidu watershed located in the cold-arid region, glacier melt is mainly related to temperature changes and precipitation changes can directly cause the variability of streamflow.

  3. Identification of segregated regions in the functional brain connectome of autistic patients by a combination of fuzzy spectral clustering and entropy analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sato, João Ricardo; Balardin, Joana; Vidal, Maciel Calebe; Fujita, André

    2016-01-01

    Background Several neuroimaging studies support the model of abnormal development of brain connectivity in patients with autism-spectrum disorders (ASD). In this study, we aimed to test the hypothesis of reduced functional network segregation in autistic patients compared with controls. Methods Functional MRI data from children acquired under a resting-state protocol (Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange [ABIDE]) were submitted to both fuzzy spectral clustering (FSC) with entropy analysis and graph modularity analysis. Results We included data from 814 children in our analysis. We identified 5 regions of interest comprising the motor, temporal and occipito-temporal cortices with increased entropy (p < 0.05) in the clustering structure (i.e., more segregation in the controls). Moreover, we noticed a statistically reduced modularity (p < 0.001) in the autistic patients compared with the controls. Significantly reduced eigenvector centrality values (p < 0.05) in the patients were observed in the same regions that were identified in the FSC analysis. Limitations There is considerable heterogeneity in the fMRI acquisition protocols among the sites that contributed to the ABIDE data set (e.g., scanner type, pulse sequence, duration of scan and resting-state protocol). Moreover, the sites differed in many variables related to sample characterization (e.g., age, IQ and ASD diagnostic criteria). Therefore, we cannot rule out the possibility that additional differences in functional network organization would be found in a more homogeneous data sample of individuals with ASD. Conclusion Our results suggest that the organization of the whole-brain functional network in patients with ASD is different from that observed in controls, which implies a reduced modularity of the brain functional networks involved in sensorimotor, social, affective and cognitive processing. PMID:26505141

  4. Use of satellite-based aerosol optical depth and spatial clustering for PM2.5 prediction and concentration trends in the New England region, U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H.; Coull, B. A.; Bell, M. L.; Kang, C.; Koutrakis, P.

    2012-12-01

    The efficacy of air pollution emission control policies can be evaluated by investigating the concentration trends of ambient air pollutants. Satellite-based PM2.5 monitoring has the potential to complement the ground monitoring networks, especially for regions with sparsely distributed monitors. In our study, we predicted daily ambient PM2.5 concentrations using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aerosol optical depth (AOD) and spatial clustering and subsequently examined the PM2.5 concentration trends in the New England region, U.S. for the period 2000-2008. The daily calibration of MODIS AOD data using ground PM2.5 measurements in the mixed effects model rendered AOD a robust predictor of ground PM2.5 concentrations. Also the spatial clustering made it possible to estimate PM2.5 concentrations when AOD values were not available (i.e., non-retrieval days). Overall, we predicted daily surface PM2.5 concentrations (including both retrieval and non-retrieval days) with reasonably high R2 (0.83) and low percent mean relative error (3.5%). Based on the daily predicted PM2.5 concentrations, we found higher concentration decreases in urban areas than in rural ones and the highest and lowest decreases during the winter and the summer, respectively. These concentration trends provide evidence that primary particle concentrations decreased more relative to secondary particle ones during the study period. This is also supported by ground speciation data which showed stronger downward concentration trend of primary pollutants including black carbon (BC; -4.5% per year) compared to that of secondary ones including sulfate (SO42-, -2.4% per year). The satellite-based approach of examining spatial patterns of concentration trends, in combination with ground PM2.5 speciation data, can be of tremendous regulatory importance.

  5. Clustering of Staphylococcus aureus bovine mastitis strains from regions of Central-Eastern Poland based on their biochemical and genetic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Puacz, E; Ilczyszyn, W M; Kosecka, M; Buda, A; Dudziak, W; Polakowska, K; Panz, T; Białecka, A; Kasprowicz, A; Lisowski, A; Krukowski, H; Cuteri, V; Międzobrodzki, J

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated from mastitic milk of cows with infected mammary glands. The animals were living in 12 different farms near Lublin, in Central-Eastern Poland. A biochemical identification method based on enzymatic assay was performed, followed by haemolytic and proteolytic tests. PCR-RFLP targeted on the gap gene allowed the genetic identification of strains at the species level and verified phenotypic identification results. A molecular typing method using triplex PCR was performed to recognize the genetic similarity of the analyzed strains. DNA microarray hybridization (StaphyType, Alere Technologies) was used for detection of antibiotic resistance and virulence associated markers. The results obtained indicate high genetic similarity in strains isolated from the same sites. High genetic similarities were also detected between strains isolated from cows from different farms of the same region. A slightly lower similarity was noted however, in strains from various regions indicating that the strains are herd specific and that the cow's infections caused by S. aureus were of a clonal character. In 21 representative isolates selected for DNA-microarray testing, only fosfomycin (fosB) and penicillin resistance markers (blaZ, blaI, blaR) were detected. The presence of genes coding for haemolysins (lukF, lukS, hlgA, hla, hld, hlb), proteases (aur, sspA, sspB, sspP), enterotoxins (entA, entD, entG, entI, entJ, entM, entN, entO, entR, entU, egc-cluster), adhesins (icaA, icaC, icaD, bbp, clfA, clfB, fib, fnbA, map, vwb) or immune evasion proteins (scn, chp, sak) was common and, with exceptions, matched triplex PCR-defined clusters. PMID:26172183

  6. Consumer clusters in Denmark based on coarse vegetable intake frequency, explained by hedonics, socio-demographic, health and food lifestyle factors. A cross-sectional national survey.

    PubMed

    Beck, Tove K; Jensen, Sidsel; Simmelsgaard, Sonni Hansen; Kjeldsen, Chris; Kidmose, Ulla

    2015-08-01

    Vegetable intake seems to play a protective role against major lifestyle diseases. Despite this, the Danish population usually eats far less than the recommended daily intake. The present study focused on the intake of 17 coarse vegetables and the potential barriers limiting their intake. The present study drew upon a large Danish survey (n = 1079) to study the intake of coarse vegetables among Danish consumers. Four population clusters were identified based on their intake of 17 different coarse vegetables, and profiled according to hedonics, socio-demographic, health, and food lifestyle factors. The four clusters were characterized by a very low intake frequency of coarse vegetables ('low frequency'), a low intake frequency of coarse vegetables; but high intake frequency of carrots ('carrot eaters'), a moderate coarse vegetable intake frequency and high intake frequency of beetroot ('beetroot eaters'), and a high intake frequency of all coarse vegetables ('high frequency'). There was a relationship between reported liking and reported intake frequency for all tested vegetables. Preference for foods with a sweet, salty or bitter taste, in general, was also identified to be decisive for the reported vegetable intake, as these differed across the clusters. Each cluster had distinct socio-demographic, health and food lifestyle profiles. 'Low frequency' was characterized by uninvolved consumers with lack of interest in food, 'carrot eaters' vegetable intake was driven by health aspects, 'beetroot eaters' were characterized as traditional food consumers, and 'high frequency' were individuals with a strong food engagement and high vegetable liking. 'Low frequency' identified more barriers than other consumer clusters and specifically regarded low availability of pre-cut/prepared coarse vegetables on the market as a barrier. Across all clusters a low culinary knowledge was identified as the main barrier.

  7. Consumer clusters in Denmark based on coarse vegetable intake frequency, explained by hedonics, socio-demographic, health and food lifestyle factors. A cross-sectional national survey.

    PubMed

    Beck, Tove K; Jensen, Sidsel; Simmelsgaard, Sonni Hansen; Kjeldsen, Chris; Kidmose, Ulla

    2015-08-01

    Vegetable intake seems to play a protective role against major lifestyle diseases. Despite this, the Danish population usually eats far less than the recommended daily intake. The present study focused on the intake of 17 coarse vegetables and the potential barriers limiting their intake. The present study drew upon a large Danish survey (n = 1079) to study the intake of coarse vegetables among Danish consumers. Four population clusters were identified based on their intake of 17 different coarse vegetables, and profiled according to hedonics, socio-demographic, health, and food lifestyle factors. The four clusters were characterized by a very low intake frequency of coarse vegetables ('low frequency'), a low intake frequency of coarse vegetables; but high intake frequency of carrots ('carrot eaters'), a moderate coarse vegetable intake frequency and high intake frequency of beetroot ('beetroot eaters'), and a high intake frequency of all coarse vegetables ('high frequency'). There was a relationship between reported liking and reported intake frequency for all tested vegetables. Preference for foods with a sweet, salty or bitter taste, in general, was also identified to be decisive for the reported vegetable intake, as these differed across the clusters. Each cluster had distinct socio-demographic, health and food lifestyle profiles. 'Low frequency' was characterized by uninvolved consumers with lack of interest in food, 'carrot eaters' vegetable intake was driven by health aspects, 'beetroot eaters' were characterized as traditional food consumers, and 'high frequency' were individuals with a strong food engagement and high vegetable liking. 'Low frequency' identified more barriers than other consumer clusters and specifically regarded low availability of pre-cut/prepared coarse vegetables on the market as a barrier. Across all clusters a low culinary knowledge was identified as the main barrier. PMID:25916624

  8. Crossing over between regions of limited homology in Escherichia coli. RecA-dependent and RecA-independent pathways.

    PubMed Central

    Lovett, Susan T; Hurley, Rebecca L; Sutera, Vincent A; Aubuchon, Rachel H; Lebedeva, Maria A

    2002-01-01

    We have developed an assay for intermolecular crossing over between circular plasmids carrying variable amounts of homology. Screens of Escherichia coli mutants demonstrated that known recombination functions can only partially account for the observed recombination. Recombination rates increased three to four orders of magnitude as homology rose from 25 to 411 bp. Loss of recA blocked most recombination; however, RecA-independent crossing over predominated at 25 bp and could be detected at all homology lengths. Products of recA-independent recombination were reciprocal in nature. This suggests that RecA-independent recombination may involve a true break-and-join mechanism, but the genetic basis for this mechanism remains unknown. RecA-dependent crossing over occurred primarily by the RecF pathway but considerable recombination occurred independent of both RecF and RecBCD. In many respects, the genetic dependence of RecA-dependent crossing over resembled that reported for single-strand gap repair. Surprisingly, ruvC mutants, in both recA(+) and recA mutant backgrounds, scored as hyperrecombinational. This may occur because RuvC preferentially resolves Holliday junction intermediates, critical to both RecA-dependent and RecA-independent mechanisms, to the noncrossover configuration. Levels of crossing over were increased by defects in DnaB helicase and by oxidative damage, showing that damaged DNA or stalled replication can initiate genetic recombination. PMID:11901106

  9. 241 Am ( n ,γ) cross section in the neutron energy region between 0.02 eV and 300 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandel, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Bond, E. M.; Chadwick, M. B.; Clement, R. R.; Couture, A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Haight, R. C.; Reifarth, R.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.; Macri, R. A.; Wu, C. Y.; Becker, J. A.

    2008-04-01

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was used for a neutron capture cross section measurement on 241 Am . The high granularity of the DANCE array (160 BaF2 detectors in a 4π geometry) enables an efficient detection of prompt gamma rays following neutron capture. The preliminary results on the 241 Am ( n ,γ) cross section are presented from 0.02 eV to 300 keV. The cross section at thermal energy E n = 0.0253 eV was determined to be 665±33 barns. Resonance parameters were obtained using the SAMMY7 fit to the measured cross section in the resonance region. Significant discrepancies were found between our results and data evaluations for the first three lowest lying resonances. The cross section for neutrons with E n >l keV agrees well with the ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL-3.3 evaluations.

  10. Existence of G-quadruplex structures in promoter region of oncogenes confirmed by G-quadruplex DNA cross-linking strategy

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Libo; Tian, Tian; Chen, Yuqi; Yan, Shengyong; Xing, Xiwen; Zhang, Zhengan; Zhai, Qianqian; Xu, Liang; Wang, Shaoru; Weng, Xiaocheng; Yuan, Bifeng; Feng, Yuqi; Zhou, Xiang

    2013-01-01

    Existence of G-quadruplex DNA in vivo always attract widespread interest in the field of biology and biological chemistry. We reported our findings for the existence of G-quadruplex structures in promoter region of oncogenes confirmed by G-quadruplex DNA cross-linking strategy. Probes for selective G-quadruplex cross-linking was designed and synthesized that show high selectivity for G-quadruplex cross-linking. Further biological studies demonstrated its good inhibition activity against murine melanoma cells. To further investigate if G-quadruplex DNA was formed in vivo and as the target, a derivative was synthesized and pull-down process toward chromosome DNAs combined with circular dichroism and high throughput deep sequencing were performed. Several simulated intracellular conditions, including X. laevis oocytes, Ficoll 70 and PEG, was used to investigate the compound's pure cross-linking ability upon preformed G-quadruplex. Thus, as a potent G-quadruplex cross-linking agent, our strategy provided both valuable evidence of G-quadruplex structures in vivo and intense potential in anti-cancer therapy. PMID:23657205

  11. {sup 241}Am(n,{gamma}) cross section in the neutron energy region between 0.02 eV and 300 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Jandel, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Bond, E. M.; Chadwick, M. B.; Clement, R. R.; Couture, A.; O' Donnell, J. M.; Haight, R. C.; Reifarth, R.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.; Macri, R. A.; Wu, C. Y.; Becker, J. A.

    2008-04-17

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was used for a neutron capture cross section measurement on {sup 241}Am. The high granularity of the DANCE array (160 BaF2 detectors in a 4{pi} geometry) enables an efficient detection of prompt gamma rays following neutron capture. The preliminary results on the {sup 241}Am(n,{gamma}) cross section are presented from 0.02 eV to 300 keV. The cross section at thermal energy E{sub n} = 0.0253 eV was determined to be 665{+-}33 barns. Resonance parameters were obtained using the SAMMY7 fit to the measured cross section in the resonance region. Significant discrepancies were found between our results and data evaluations for the first three lowest lying resonances. The cross section for neutrons with E{sub n}>l keV agrees well with the ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL-3.3 evaluations.

  12. Preferential DNA-protein cross-linking by NiCl2 in magnesium-insoluble regions of fractionated Chinese hamster ovary cell chromatin.

    PubMed

    Patierno, S R; Sugiyama, M; Basilion, J P; Costa, M

    1985-11-01

    Intracellular nickel ions (Ni2+) have been shown to cause single-strand breaks in DNA, that were rapidly repaired, and DNA-protein cross-links, that persisted for at least 24 h following removal of extracellular ionic nickel. In this study, we have used the techniques of alkaline elution, chromatin fractionation, and sodium dodecyl sulfate:polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to examine the DNA-protein cross-linking induced by NiCl2 in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Continuous treatment of logarithmically growing Chinese hamster ovary cells with 2.5 mM NiCl2 in complete medium resulted in DNA single-strand breaks within 1 h, followed by a time-dependent increase in the induction of DNA-protein cross-links at 2, 3, and 6 h. Since the entry of nickel into cells was maximal within 2 h of exposure, the time delay for the formation of DNA-protein cross-links was not limited by metal uptake. The nickel-induced DNA-protein cross-linking appeared to require active cell cycling, since single-strand breaks but no cross-linking could be detected in confluent cells treated with 1, 2.5, or 5 mM NiCl2 for 3 h. DNA-protein cross-linking induced by nickel occurred in late S phase of the cell cycle. High-molecular-weight nonhistone chromatin proteins and possibly histone H1 migrating at the Mr 30,000 range became cross-linked to DNA after treatment of cells with NiCl2. All nickel-cross-linked proteins were concentrated in the magnesium-insoluble regions of fractionated chromatin and were stable to urea, 2-mercaptoethanol, and Nonidet P-40. Some proteins (Mr 48,000, 52,000, 55,000, 70,000, and 95,000), the association of which with DNA was also stable to Sarkosyl, salt, and EDTA, were detectable in DNA rigorously fractionated from untreated cells. Nickel therefore appeared to cause the cross-linking of proteins that normally reside in close association with DNA. Alterations of the normal association of these proteins with DNA by nickel may be an early event in the nickel transformation

  13. Absolute elastic differential electron scattering cross sections in the intermediate energy region. III - SF6 and UF6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, S. K.; Trajmar, S.; Chutjian, A.; Williams, W.

    1976-01-01

    A recently developed technique has been used to measure the ratios of elastic differential electron scattering cross sections (DCS) for SF6 and UF6 to those of He at electron impact energies of 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 75 eV and at scattering angles of 20 to 135 deg. In order to obtain the absolute values of DCS from these ratios, He DCS of McConkey and Preston have been employed in the 20 to 90 deg range. At angles in the 90 to 135 deg range the recently determined cross sections of Srivastava and Trajmar have been utilized. From these DCS, elastic integral and momentum transfer cross sections have been obtained.

  14. Absolute Photoionization Cross Sections for Br2+ in the 4 p --> 4d and 3d --> 4p Energy Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, A.; Juarez, A. M.; Bilodeau, R. C.; Esteves, D. A.; Hardy, D. A.; Red, E. C.

    2011-05-01

    Absolute single photoionization cross-section measurements are reported for Br2+ in the 31 eV to 46 eV and 64 eV to 72 eV photon energy ranges. The first energy range includes the low-lying 2P3 / 2 , 1 / 2 and 2D5 / 2 , 3 / 2 metastable state thresholds and extends for 10 eV above the 4S3 / 2 ground state threshold. Strong photoexcitation-autoionization resonances due to 4p --> nd transitions are seen in the cross-section spectrum and identified based on a quantum-defect analysis of the series. The systematic behavior of the quantum defect parameter of some of the Rydberg series observed in the Br2+ spectrum as well as in previously measured Se+ spectrum, are analyzed as a function of the nuclear charge. The 64 eV to 72 eV energy range contains discrete structure that arises from 3d --> np excitations. The R-matrix photoionization cross section calculations of Cummings and O'Sullivan, PRA, 54 (1996) are compared to our absolute cross section measurements in this energy range. Absolute single photoionization cross-section measurements are reported for Br2+ in the 31 eV to 46 eV and 64 eV to 72 eV photon energy ranges. The first energy range includes the low-lying 2P3 / 2 , 1 / 2 and 2D5 / 2 , 3 / 2 metastable state thresholds and extends for 10 eV above the 4S3 / 2 ground state threshold. Strong photoexcitation-autoionization resonances due to 4p --> nd transitions are seen in the cross-section spectrum and identified based on a quantum-defect analysis of the series. The systematic behavior of the quantum defect parameter of some of the Rydberg series observed in the Br2+ spectrum as well as in previously measured Se+ spectrum, are analyzed as a function of the nuclear charge. The 64 eV to 72 eV energy range contains discrete structure that arises from 3d --> np excitations. The R-matrix photoionization cross section calculations of Cummings and O'Sullivan, PRA, 54 (1996) are compared to our absolute cross section measurements in this energy range. This work is

  15. Two-photon absorption cross sections within equation-of-motion coupled-cluster formalism using resolution-of-the-identity and Cholesky decomposition representations: Theory, implementation, and benchmarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanda, Kaushik D.; Krylov, Anna I.

    2015-02-01

    The equation-of-motion coupled-cluster (EOM-CC) methods provide a robust description of electronically excited states and their properties. Here, we present a formalism for two-photon absorption (2PA) cross sections for the equation-of-motion for excitation energies CC with single and double substitutions (EOM-CC for electronically excited states with single and double substitutions) wave functions. Rather than the response theory formulation, we employ the expectation-value approach which is commonly used within EOM-CC, configuration interaction, and algebraic diagrammatic construction frameworks. In addition to canonical implementation, we also exploit resolution-of-the-identity (RI) and Cholesky decomposition (CD) for the electron-repulsion integrals to reduce memory requirements and to increase parallel efficiency. The new methods are benchmarked against the CCSD and CC3 response theories for several small molecules. We found that the expectation-value 2PA cross sections are within 5% from the quadratic response CCSD values. The RI and CD approximations lead to small errors relative to the canonical implementation (less than 4%) while affording computational savings. RI/CD successfully address the well-known issue of large basis set requirements for 2PA cross sections calculations. The capabilities of the new code are illustrated by calculations of the 2PA cross sections for model chromophores of the photoactive yellow and green fluorescent proteins.

  16. Two-photon absorption cross sections within equation-of-motion coupled-cluster formalism using resolution-of-the-identity and Cholesky decomposition representations: Theory, implementation, and benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    Nanda, Kaushik D.; Krylov, Anna I.

    2015-02-14

    The equation-of-motion coupled-cluster (EOM-CC) methods provide a robust description of electronically excited states and their properties. Here, we present a formalism for two-photon absorption (2PA) cross sections for the equation-of-motion for excitation energies CC with single and double substitutions (EOM-CC for electronically excited states with single and double substitutions) wave functions. Rather than the response theory formulation, we employ the expectation-value approach which is commonly used within EOM-CC, configuration interaction, and algebraic diagrammatic construction frameworks. In addition to canonical implementation, we also exploit resolution-of-the-identity (RI) and Cholesky decomposition (CD) for the electron-repulsion integrals to reduce memory requirements and to increase parallel efficiency. The new methods are benchmarked against the CCSD and CC3 response theories for several small molecules. We found that the expectation-value 2PA cross sections are within 5% from the quadratic response CCSD values. The RI and CD approximations lead to small errors relative to the canonical implementation (less than 4%) while affording computational savings. RI/CD successfully address the well-known issue of large basis set requirements for 2PA cross sections calculations. The capabilities of the new code are illustrated by calculations of the 2PA cross sections for model chromophores of the photoactive yellow and green fluorescent proteins.

  17. Tungsten Cluster Migration on Nanoparticles: Minimum Energy Pathway and Migration Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Dong; Hu, Wangyu; Gao, Fei; Deng, Huiqiu; Sun, Lixian

    2011-03-02

    Transition state searches have been employed to investigate the migration mechanisms of W clusters on W nanoparticles, and to determine the corresponding migration energies for the possible migration paths of these clusters. The tungsten clusters containing up to four adatoms are found to prefer 2D-compact structures with relatively low binding energies. The effect of interface and vertex regions on the migration behavior of the clusters is significantly strong, as compared to that of nanoparticle size. The migration mechanisms are quite different when the clusters are located at the center of the nanoparticle and near the interface or vertex areas. Near the interfaces and vertex areas, the substrate atoms tend to participate in the migration processes of the clusters, and can join the adatoms to form a larger cluster or lead to the dissociation of a cluster via the exchange mechanism, which results in the adatom crossing the facets. The lowest energy paths are used to be determined the energy barriers for W cluster migrations (from 1- to 4-atoms) on the facets, edges and vertex regions. The calculated energy barriers for the trimers suggest that the concerted migration is more probable than the successive jumping of a single adatom in the clusters. In addition, it of interest to note that the dimer shearing is a dominant migration mechanism for the tetramer, but needs to overcome a relatively higher migration energy than other clusters.

  18. Hepatitis C Virus Hypervariable Region 1 Variants Presented on Hepatitis B Virus Capsid-Like Particles Induce Cross-Neutralizing Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Bankwitz, Dorothea; Osburn, William; Viazov, Sergei; Brovko, Olena; Zekri, Abdel-Rahman; Khudyakov, Yury; Nassal, Michael; Pumpens, Paul; Pietschmann, Thomas; Timm, Jörg; Roggendorf, Michael; Walker, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is still a serious global health burden. Despite improved therapeutic options, a preventative vaccine would be desirable especially in undeveloped countries. Traditionally, highly conserved epitopes are targets for antibody-based prophylactic vaccines. In HCV-infected patients, however, neutralizing antibodies are primarily directed against hypervariable region I (HVRI) in the envelope protein E2. HVRI is the most variable region of HCV, and this heterogeneity contributes to viral persistence and has thus far prevented the development of an effective HVRI-based vaccine. The primary goal of an antibody-based HCV vaccine should therefore be the induction of cross-reactive HVRI antibodies. In this study we approached this problem by presenting selected cross-reactive HVRI variants in a highly symmetric repeated array on capsid-like particles (CLPs). SplitCore CLPs, a novel particulate antigen presentation system derived from the HBV core protein, were used to deliberately manipulate the orientation of HVRI and therefore enable the presentation of conserved parts of HVRI. These HVRI-CLPs induced high titers of cross-reactive antibodies, including neutralizing antibodies. The combination of only four HVRI CLPs was sufficient to induce antibodies cross-reactive with 81 of 326 (24.8%) naturally occurring HVRI peptides. Most importantly, HVRI CLPs with AS03 as an adjuvant induced antibodies with a 10-fold increase in neutralizing capability. These antibodies were able to neutralize infectious HCVcc isolates and 4 of 19 (21%) patient-derived HCVpp isolates. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the induction of at least partially cross-neutralizing antibodies is possible. This approach might be useful for the development of a prophylactic HCV vaccine and should also be adaptable to other highly variable viruses. PMID:25014219

  19. CLUSTER CHEMISTRY

    SciTech Connect

    Muetterties, Earl L.

    1980-05-01

    Metal cluster chemistry is one of the most rapidly developing areas of inorganic and organometallic chemistry. Prior to 1960 only a few metal clusters were well characterized. However, shortly after the early development of boron cluster chemistry, the field of metal cluster chemistry began to grow at a very rapid rate and a structural and a qualitative theoretical understanding of clusters came quickly. Analyzed here is the chemistry and the general significance of clusters with particular emphasis on the cluster research within my group. The importance of coordinately unsaturated, very reactive metal clusters is the major subject of discussion.

  20. Size resolved infrared spectroscopy of Na(CH3OH)n (n = 4-7) clusters in the OH stretching region: unravelling the interaction of methanol clusters with a sodium atom and the emergence of the solvated electron.

    PubMed

    Forck, Richard M; Pradzynski, Christoph C; Wolff, Sabine; Ončák, Milan; Slavíček, Petr; Zeuch, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    Size resolved IR action spectra of neutral sodium doped methanol clusters have been measured using IR excitation modulated photoionisation mass spectroscopy. The Na(CH(3)OH)(n) clusters were generated in a supersonic He seeded expansion of methanol by subsequent Na doping in a pick-up cell. A combined analysis of IR action spectra, IP evolutions and harmonic predictions of IR spectra (using density functional theory) of the most stable structures revealed that for n = 4, 5 structures with an exterior Na atom showing high ionisation potentials (IPs) of ~4 eV dominate, while for n = 6, 7 clusters with lower IPs (~3.2 eV) featuring fully solvated Na atoms and solvated electrons emerge and dominate the IR action spectra. For n = 4 simulations of photoionisation spectra using an ab initio MD approach confirm the dominance of exterior structures and explain the previously reported appearance IP of 3.48 eV by small fractions of clusters with partly solvated Na atoms. Only for this cluster size a shift in the isomer composition with cluster temperature has been observed, which may be related to kinetic stabilisation of less Na solvated clusters at low temperatures. Features of slow fragmentation dynamics of cationic Na(+)(CH(3)OH)(6) clusters have been observed for the photoionisation near the adiabatic limit. This finding points to the relevance of previously proposed non-vertical photoionisation dynamics of this system.

  1. COMPARING DENSE GALAXY CLUSTER REDSHIFT SURVEYS WITH WEAK-LENSING MAPS

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Ho Seong; Geller, Margaret J.; Zahid, H. Jabran; Diaferio, Antonaldo; Rines, Kenneth J. E-mail: mgeller@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: diaferio@ph.unito.it

    2014-12-20

    We use dense redshift surveys of nine galaxy clusters at z ∼ 0.2 to compare the galaxy distribution in each system with the projected matter distribution from weak lensing. By combining 2087 new MMT/Hectospec redshifts and the data in the literature, we construct spectroscopic samples within the region of weak-lensing maps of high (70%-89%) and uniform completeness. With these dense redshift surveys, we construct galaxy number density maps using several galaxy subsamples. The shape of the main cluster concentration in the weak-lensing maps is similar to the global morphology of the number density maps based on cluster members alone, mainly dominated by red members. We cross-correlate the galaxy number density maps with the weak-lensing maps. The cross-correlation signal when we include foreground and background galaxies at 0.5z {sub cl} < z < 2z {sub cl} is 10%-23% larger than for cluster members alone at the cluster virial radius. The excess can be as high as 30% depending on the cluster. Cross-correlating the galaxy number density and weak-lensing maps suggests that superimposed structures close to the cluster in redshift space contribute more significantly to the excess cross-correlation signal than unrelated large-scale structure along the line of sight. Interestingly, the weak-lensing mass profiles are not well constrained for the clusters with the largest cross-correlation signal excesses (>20% for A383, A689, and A750). The fractional excess in the cross-correlation signal including foreground and background structures could be a useful proxy for assessing the reliability of weak-lensing cluster mass estimates.

  2. Little genetic differentiation as assessed by uniparental markers in the presence of substantial language variation in peoples of the Cross River region of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Cross River region in Nigeria is an extremely diverse area linguistically with over 60 distinct languages still spoken today. It is also a region of great historical importance, being a) adjacent to the likely homeland from which Bantu-speaking people migrated across most of sub-Saharan Africa 3000-5000 years ago and b) the location of Calabar, one of the largest centres during the Atlantic slave trade. Over 1000 DNA samples from 24 clans representing speakers of the six most prominent languages in the region were collected and typed for Y-chromosome (SNPs and microsatellites) and mtDNA markers (Hypervariable Segment 1) in order to examine whether there has been substantial gene flow between groups speaking different languages in the region. In addition the Cross River region was analysed in the context of a larger geographical scale by comparison to bordering Igbo speaking groups as well as neighbouring Cameroon populations and more distant Ghanaian communities. Results The Cross River region was shown to be extremely homogenous for both Y-chromosome and mtDNA markers with language spoken having no noticeable effect on the genetic structure of the region, consistent with estimates of inter-language gene flow of 10% per generation based on sociological data. However the groups in the region could clearly be differentiated from others in Cameroon and Ghana (and to a lesser extent Igbo populations). Significant correlations between genetic distance and both geographic and linguistic distance were observed at this larger scale. Conclusions Previous studies have found significant correlations between genetic variation and language in Africa over large geographic distances, often across language families. However the broad sampling strategies of these datasets have limited their utility for understanding the relationship within language families. This is the first study to show that at very fine geographic/linguistic scales language differences can be

  3. Evaluation of the γn→π⁻p differential cross section in the Δ-isobar region

    DOE PAGES

    Briscoe, W. J.; Kudryavtsev, A. E.; Pedroni, P.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Tarasov, V. E.; Workman, R. L.

    2012-12-20

    Differential cross sections for the process γn→π⁻p have been extracted from MAMI-B measurements of γd→π⁻pp, accounting for final-state interaction effects, using a diagrammatic technique taking into account the NN and πN final-state interaction amplitudes. Results are compared to previous measurements of the inverse process, π⁻p→nγ, and recent multipole analyses.

  4. Do foreign exchange and equity markets co-move in Latin American region? Detrended cross-correlation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashir, Usman; Yu, Yugang; Hussain, Muntazir; Zebende, Gilney F.

    2016-11-01

    This paper investigates the dynamics of the relationship between foreign exchange markets and stock markets through time varying co-movements. In this sense, we analyzed the time series monthly of Latin American countries for the period from 1991 to 2015. Furthermore, we apply Granger causality to verify the direction of causality between foreign exchange and stock market and detrended cross-correlation approach (ρDCCA) for any co-movements at different time scales. Our empirical results suggest a positive cross correlation between exchange rate and stock price for all Latin American countries. The findings reveal two clear patterns of correlation. First, Brazil and Argentina have positive correlation in both short and long time frames. Second, the remaining countries are negatively correlated in shorter time scale, gradually moving to positive. This paper contributes to the field in three ways. First, we verified the co-movements of exchange rate and stock prices that were rarely discussed in previous empirical studies. Second, ρDCCA coefficient is a robust and powerful methodology to measure the cross correlation when dealing with non stationarity of time series. Third, most of the studies employed one or two time scales using co-integration and vector autoregressive approaches. Not much is known about the co-movements at varying time scales between foreign exchange and stock markets. ρDCCA coefficient facilitates the understanding of its explanatory depth.

  5. Mutation of the RDR1 gene caused genome-wide changes in gene expression, regional variation in small RNA clusters and localized alteration in DNA methylation in rice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Endogenous small (sm) RNAs (primarily si- and miRNAs) are important trans/cis-acting regulators involved in diverse cellular functions. In plants, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRs) are essential for smRNA biogenesis. It has been established that RDR2 is involved in the 24 nt siRNA-dependent RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) pathway. Recent studies have suggested that RDR1 is involved in a second RdDM pathway that relies mostly on 21 nt smRNAs and functions to silence a subset of genomic loci that are usually refractory to the normal RdDM pathway in Arabidopsis. Whether and to what extent the homologs of RDR1 may have similar functions in other plants remained unknown. Results We characterized a loss-of-function mutant (Osrdr1) of the OsRDR1 gene in rice (Oryza sativa L.) derived from a retrotransposon Tos17 insertion. Microarray analysis identified 1,175 differentially expressed genes (5.2% of all expressed genes in the shoot-tip tissue of rice) between Osrdr1 and WT, of which 896 and 279 genes were up- and down-regulated, respectively, in Osrdr1. smRNA sequencing revealed regional alterations in smRNA clusters across the rice genome. Some of the regions with altered smRNA clusters were associated with changes in DNA methylation. In addition, altered expression of several miRNAs was detected in Osrdr1, and at least some of which were associated with altered expression of predicted miRNA target genes. Despite these changes, no phenotypic difference was identified in Osrdr1 relative to WT under normal condition; however, ephemeral phenotypic fluctuations occurred under some abiotic stress conditions. Conclusions Our results showed that OsRDR1 plays a role in regulating a substantial number of endogenous genes with diverse functions in rice through smRNA-mediated pathways involving DNA methylation, and which participates in abiotic stress response. PMID:24980094

  6. Photoabsorption and photoionization cross sections of NH3, PH3, H2S, C2H2, and C2H4 in the VUV region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xia, T. J.; Chien, T. S.; Wu, C. Y. Robert; Judge, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    Using synchrotron radiation as a continuum light source, the photoabsorption and photoionization cross sections of NH3, PH3, H2S, C2H2, and C2H4 have been measured from their respective ionization thresholds to 1060 A. The vibrational constants associated with the nu(2) totally symmetric, out-of-plane bending vibration of the ground electronic state of PH3(+) have been obtained. The cross sections and quantum yields for producing neutral products through photoexcitation of these molecules in the given spectral regions have also been determined. In the present work, autoionization processes were found to be less important than dissociation and predissociation processes in NH3, PH3, and C2H4. Several experimental techniques have been employed in order to examine the various possible systematic errors critically.

  7. Photometric distances to young stars in the inner Galactic disk. II. The region towards the open cluster Trumpler 27 at L = 355°

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perren, G.; Vázquez, R. A.; Carraro, G.

    2012-12-01

    Context. The spiral structure of the Milky Way inside the solar circle is still poorly known because of the high density of the material that causes strong extinction towards the Galactic center. Aims: We present results of the first extensive and deep color-color diagram (CCD) photometric survey carried out in the field of the open cluster Trumpler 27, an object immersed in a region of extremely high visual absorption in the constellation of Sagittarius not far from the Galaxy center. The survey covers almost a quarter of square degree. Methods: We look for young stars clumps that might plausibly be associated with spiral structure. Wide-field UBVI photometry combined with infrared information allows us to reconstruct the distribution in the reddening and distance of young stars in the field using the CCD and color-magnitude diagrams (CMD). Results: The analysis of our data, combined with extensive spectroscopy taken from the literature, shows that the real entity of Trumpler 27 as an open cluster is far from being firmly stated. In fact, instead of finding a relatively compact group of stars confined to a small distance range, we found that stars associated with Trumpler 27 are, indeed, a superposition of early-type stars seen along the line of sight extending over several kiloparsecs beyond even the center of the Galaxy. We demonstrate that at each distance range it becomes possible to generate a CMD resembling that of an open cluster. This way, our analysis indicates that what was considered an open cluster characterized by a significant age spread is a stellar continuum that reaches its maximum number of stars at approximately 3.5 kpc from the Sun, the distance of the Scutum-Crux arm approximately. After analyzing the way early-type stars distribute with distance, we found that some of these stellar groups may be linked, within the distance errors, with other inner spiral arms of our Galaxy, including the Near 3 kpc arm at approximately 5 kpc from the Sun

  8. Cross-shelf exchanges between the Coral Sea and the Great Barrier Reef lagoon determined from a regional-scale numerical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiller, Andreas; Herzfeld, Mike; Brinkman, Richard; Rizwi, Farhan; Andrewartha, John

    2015-10-01

    Analyses of the variability in a 3.5-year run of a hydrodynamic model developed for simulating the circulation of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) are presented. Sea-surface temperature, salinity, currents and cross-shelf transports between the GBR lagoon and the deep ocean offshore are investigated and compare well to available observations. Water mass intrusions and flushing events are critical factors in determining the health of coral reef and continental shelf ecosystems. Results from tracer release experiments provide a synoptic view of the variability of residence times within the GBR and identify critical regions of shelf-ocean exchange. One such region of significant tracer contribution to the shelf is identified in the vicinity of the Pompey Reefs in an area characterised by increased frequency of upslope transported water. Another location of enhanced flux on to the shelf exists in the region bracketing Palm Passage, where the reef matrix is very open, and provides little obstacle to cross-shelf exchange. The Palm Passage location is the origin of a northwards plume of elevated concentration. The model circulation provides a robust and useful picture of the Great Barrier Reef, rendering the model suitable for providing input to biogeochemical and sediment models to simulate, at a broad scale, the ecosystem health, water quality, transport and fate of water and waterborne material, moving through catchments and into the GBR lagoon.

  9. Absorption cross sections of surface-adsorbed H2O in the 295-370 nm region and heterogeneous nucleation of H2O on fused silica surfaces.

    PubMed

    Du, Juan; Huang, Li; Zhu, Lei

    2013-09-12

    We have determined absorption cross sections of a monolayer of H2O adsorbed on the fused silica surfaces in the 295-370 nm region at 293 ± 1 K by using Brewster angle cavity ring-down spectroscopy. Absorption cross sections of surface-adsorbed H2O vary between (4.66 ± 0.83) × 10(-20) and (1.73 ± 0.52) × 10(-21) cm(2)/molecule over this wavelength range, where errors quoted represent experimental scatter (1σ). Our experimental study provides direct evidence that surface-adsorbed H2O is an absorber of the near UV solar radiation. We also varied the H2O pressure in the surface study cell over the 0.01-17 Torr range and obtained probe laser absorptions at 295, 340, and 350 nm by multilayer of adsorbed H2O molecules until the heterogeneous nucleation of water occurred on fused silica surfaces. The average absorption cross sections of multilayer adsorbed H2O are (2.17 ± 0.53) × 10(-20), (2.48 ± 0.67) × 10(-21), and (2.34 ± 0.59) × 10(-21) cm(2)/molecule at 295, 340, and 350 nm. The average absorption cross sections of transitional H2O layer are (6.06 ± 2.73) × 10(-20), (6.48 ± 3.85) × 10(-21), and (8.04 ± 4.92) × 10(-21) cm(2)/molecule at 295, 340, and 350 nm. The average thin water film absorption cross sections are (2.39 ± 0.50) × 10(-19), (3.21 ± 0.81) × 10(-20), and (3.37 ± 0.94) × 10(-20) cm(2)/molecule at 295 nm, 340 nm, and 350 nm. Atmospheric implications of the results are discussed.

  10. Adaptive cluster detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedenberg, David

    2010-10-01

    the rate of falsely detected active regions. Additionally we examine the more general field of clustering and develop a framework for clustering algorithms based around diffusion maps. Diffusion maps can be used to project high-dimensional data into a lower dimensional space while preserving much of the structure in the data. We demonstrate how diffusion maps can be used to solve clustering problems and examine the influence of tuning parameters on the results. We introduce two novel methods, the self-tuning diffusion map which replaces the global scaling parameter in the typical diffusion map framework with a local scaling parameter and an algorithm for automatically selecting tuning parameters based on a cross-validation style score called prediction strength. The methods are tested on several example datasets.

  11. Local and regional components of aerosol in a heavily trafficked street canyon in central London derived from PMF and cluster analysis of single-particle ATOFMS spectra.

    PubMed

    Giorio, Chiara; Tapparo, Andrea; Dall'Osto, Manuel; Beddows, David C S; Esser-Gietl, Johanna K; Healy, Robert M; Harrison, Roy M

    2015-03-17

    Positive matrix factorization (PMF) has been applied to single particle ATOFMS spectra collected on a six lane heavily trafficked road in central London (Marylebone Road), which well represents an urban street canyon. PMF analysis successfully extracted 11 factors from mass spectra of about 700,000 particles as a complement to information on particle types (from K-means cluster analysis). The factors were associated with specific sources and represent the contribution of different traffic related components (i.e., lubricating oils, fresh elemental carbon, organonitrogen and aromatic compounds), secondary aerosol locally produced (i.e., nitrate, oxidized organic aerosol and oxidized organonitrogen compounds), urban background together with regional transport (aged elemental carbon and ammonium) and fresh sea spray. An important result from this study is the evidence that rapid chemical processes occur in the street canyon with production of secondary particles from road traffic emissions. These locally generated particles, together with aging processes, dramatically affected aerosol composition producing internally mixed particles. These processes may become important with stagnant air conditions and in countries where gasoline vehicles are predominant and need to be considered when quantifying the impact of traffic emissions.

  12. Majority of hMLH1 mutations responsible for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer cluster at the exonic region 15-16

    SciTech Connect

    Wijnen, J.; Khan, P.M.; Klift, H. van der

    1996-02-01

    Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is a common autosomal dominant cancer susceptibility condition. Inherited mutations in at least four DNA mismatch repair genes, hMSH2, hMLH1, hPMS1, and hPMS2, are known to cause HNPCC. In this study we used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to screen for hMLH1 mutations in 34 unrelated HNPCC families (30 Dutch, 3 Italian, and 1 Danish). Ten novel pathogenic germ-line mutations (seven affecting splice sites, two frameshifts, and one in-frame deletion of a single amino acid) have been identified in 12 (35%) of these families. In a previous study, hMSH2 mutations were found in 21% of the same families. While the spectrum of mutations at the hMSH2 gene among HNPCC patients appears heterogeneous, a cluster of hMLH1 mutations has been found in the region encompassing exons 15 and 16, which accounts for 50% of all the independent hMLH1 mutations described to date and for >20% of the unrelated HNPCC kindreds here analyzed. This unexpected finding has a great practical value in the clinical scenario of genetic services. 34 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Majority of hMLH1 mutations responsible for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer cluster at the exonic region 15-16.

    PubMed Central

    Wijnen, J.; Khan, P. M.; Vasen, H.; Menko, F.; van der Klift, H.; van den Broek, M.; van Leeuwen-Cornelisse, I.; Nagengast, F.; Meijers-Heijboer, E. J.; Lindhout, D.; Griffioen, G.; Cats, A.; Kleibeuker, J.; Varesco, L.; Bertario, L.; Bisgaard, M. L.; Mohr, J.; Kolodner, R.; Fodde, R.

    1996-01-01

    Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is a common autosomal dominant cancer susceptibility condition. Inherited mutations in at least four DNA mismatch repair genes, hMSH2, hMLH1, hPMS1, and hPMS2, are known to cause HNPCC. In this study we used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to screen for hMLH1 mutations in 34 unrelated HNPCC families (30 Dutch, 3 Italian, and 1 Danish). Ten novel pathogenic germ-line mutations (seven affecting splice sites, two frameshifts, and one in-frame deletion of a single amino acid) have been identified in 12 (35%) of these families. In a previous study, hMSH2 mutations were found in 21% of the same families. While the spectrum of mutations at the hMSH2 gene among HNPCC patients appears heterogeneous, a cluster of hMLH1 mutations has been found in the region encompassing exons 15 and 16, which accounts for 50% of all the independent hMLH1 mutations described to date and for > 20% of the unrelated HNPCC kindreds here analyzed. This unexpected finding has a great practical value in the clinical scenario of genetic services. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:8571956

  14. From superdeformation to extreme deformation and clusterization in the N ≈Z nuclei of the A ≈40 mass region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, D.; Afanasjev, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    A systematic search for extremely deformed structures in the N ≈Z nuclei of the A ≈40 mass region has been performed for the first time in the framework of covariant density functional theory. At spin zero such structures are located at high excitation energies, which prevents their experimental observation. The rotation acts as a tool to bring these exotic shapes to the yrast line or its vicinity so that their observation could become possible with future generation of γ -tracking (or similar) detectors such as GRETA and AGATA. The major physical observables of such structures (such as transition quadrupole moments, as well as kinematic and dynamic moments of inertia), the underlying single-particle structure and the spins at which they become yrast or near yrast, are defined. The search for the fingerprints of clusterization and molecular structures is performed and the configurations with such features are discussed. The best candidates for observation of extremely deformed structures are identified. For several nuclei in this study (such as 36Ar), the addition of several spin units above the currently measured maximum spin of 16 ℏ will inevitably trigger the transition to hyper- and megadeformed nuclear shapes.

  15. Circadian rhythm transcription factor CLOCK regulates the transcriptional activity of the glucocorticoid receptor by acetylating its hinge region lysine cluster: potential physiological implications

    PubMed Central

    Nader, Nancy; Chrousos, George P.; Kino, Tomoshige

    2009-01-01

    Glucocorticoids, end products of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, influence functions of virtually all organs and tissues through the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Circulating levels of glucocorticoids fluctuate naturally in a circadian fashion and regulate the transcriptional activity of GR in target tissues. The basic helix-loop-helix protein CLOCK, a histone acetyltransferase (HAT), and its heterodimer partner BMAL1 are self-oscillating transcription factors that generate circadian rhythms in both the central nervous system and periphery. We found that CLOCK/BMAL1 repressed GR-induced transcriptional activity in a HAT-activity- dependent fashion. In serum-shock-synchronized cells, transactivational activity of GR, accessed by mRNA expression of an endogenous-responsive gene, fluctuated spontaneously in a circadian fashion in reverse phase with CLOCK/BMAL1 mRNA expression. CLOCK and GR interacted with each other physically, and CLOCK suppressed binding of GR to its DNA recognition sequences by acetylating multiple lysine residues located in its hinge region. These findings indicate that CLOCK/BMAL1 functions as a reverse-phase negative regulator of glucocorticoid action in target tissues, possibly by antagonizing biological actions of diurnally fluctuating circulating glucocorticoids. Further, these results suggest that a peripheral target tissue circadian rhythm indirectly influences the functions of every organ and tissue inside the body through modulation of the ubiquitous and diverse actions of glucocorticoids.—Nader, N., Chrousos, G. P., Kino, T. Circadian rhythm transcription factor CLOCK regulates the transcriptional activity of the glucocorticoid receptor by acetylating its hinge region lysine cluster: potential physiological implications. PMID:19141540

  16. Absolute Photoionization Cross Section with an Ultra-high Energy Resolution for Ne in the Region of 1s Rydberg States

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, M.; Morishita, Y.; Suzuki, I. H.; Saito, N.; Oura, M.; Yamaoka, H.; Okada, K.; Matsudo, T.; Gejo, T.

    2007-01-19

    The high-resolution absolute photoabsorption cross section with an absolute photon energy scale for Ne in the energy region of 864-872 eV (1s-1np Rydberg states) has been measured using a multi-electrode ionization chamber and monochromatized synchrotron radiation. The natural lifetime width of Ne 1s-13p resonance state has been obtained to be 252 {+-} 5 meV. The Ne+ (1s-1) ionization potential is determined to be 870.16 {+-} 0.04 eV by using the Rydberg formula. These absolute values are supposed to be more reliable than those previously reported.

  17. Improved GRACE regional mass balance estimates of the Greenland ice sheet cross-validated with the input-output method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zheng; Schrama, Ernst J. O.; van der Wal, Wouter; van den Broeke, Michiel; Enderlin, Ellyn M.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we use satellite gravimetry data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to estimate regional mass change of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and neighboring glaciated regions using a least squares inversion approach. We also consider results from the input-output method (IOM). The IOM quantifies the difference between the mass input and output of the GrIS by studying the surface mass balance (SMB) and the ice discharge (D). We use the Regional Atmospheric Climate Model version 2.3 (RACMO2.3) to model the SMB and derive the ice discharge from 12 years of high-precision ice velocity and thickness surveys. We use a simulation model to quantify and correct for GRACE approximation errors in mass change between different subregions of the GrIS, and investigate the reliability of pre-1990s ice discharge estimates, which are based on the modeled runoff. We find that the difference between the IOM and our improved GRACE mass change estimates is reduced in terms of the long-term mass change when using a reference discharge derived from runoff estimates in several subareas. In most regions our GRACE and IOM solutions are consistent with other studies, but differences remain in the northwestern GrIS. We validate the GRACE mass balance in that region by considering several different GIA models and mass change estimates derived from data obtained by the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat). We conclude that the approximated mass balance between GRACE and IOM is consistent in most GrIS regions. The difference in the northwest is likely due to underestimated uncertainties in the IOM solutions.

  18. Presented by REL Pacific at McREL: A Summary of Cross-Regional Educational Laboratory Studies. Research Digest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Educational Laboratory Pacific, 2013

    2013-01-01

    REL Pacific at McREL, 1 of 10 Regional Educational Laboratories (RELs) funded by the Institute of Education Sciences (IES), serves educators in American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, and Yap), Guam, Hawai'i, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the…

  19. Ratios of 15N/12C and 4He/12C inclusive electroproduction cross sections in the nucleon resonance region

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Bosted; Robert Fersch

    2007-12-14

    The ratio of inclusive electron scattering cross sections for 15N/12C was determined in the kinematic range 0.8<2 GeV and 0.2<1 GeV2 using 2.285 GeV electrons and the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab. The ratio exhibits only slight resonance structure, as predicted by a phenomenological model, and also by quark-hadron duality. Within the super-scaling quasi-elastic model, slight evidence is found for a 1 MeV lower effective nucleon binding energy in 15N than in 12C. Ratios of 4He/12C using 1.6 to 2.5 GeV electrons are in good agreement with the phenomenological model.

  20. Cross-border radon index map 1:100 000 Lausitz - Jizera - Karkonosze - Region (northern part of the Bohemian Massif).

    PubMed

    Barnet, Ivan; Pacherová, Petra; Preusse, Werner; Stec, Bartosz

    2010-10-01

    The first cross-border map describing the radon (Rn) risk from bedrock was assembled in the northern part of the Bohemian Massif at a scale 1:100 000. The map covers the area of Lausitz (Germany), Karkonosze (Czech Republic and Poland) and Jizera (Czech Republic). The map is based on 818 measurements of soil gas Rn in rock types of Precambrian to Mesozoic age with variable geology. Geographic information system (GIS) processing enabled a good coincidence of soil gas Rn concentrations between data from all three countries in lithologically adjacent rock types as well as the direct correlation to georeferenced indoor Rn values, which was tested using the Czech indoor Rn data. The method of data processing can contribute to assembling the European Geogenic Radon Map. PMID:20022148

  1. Time development of high-altitude auroral acceleration region plasma, potentials, and field-aligned current systems observed by Cluster during a substorm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, A. J.; Chaston, C. C.; Fillingim, M. O.; Mozer, F.; Frey, H. U.

    2013-12-01

    The auroral acceleration region is an integral link in the chain of events that transpire during substorms, and the currents, plasma and electric fields undergo significant changes driven by complex dynamical processes deep in the magnetotail. These auroral acceleration processes in turn accelerate and heat the plasma that ultimately leads to some of the most intense global substorm auroral displays. The complex interplay between field-aligned current system formation, the development of parallel electric fields, and resultant changes in the plasma constituents that occur during substorms within or just above the auroral acceleration zone remain unclear. We present Cluster multi-point observations within the high-altitude acceleration region (> 3 Re altitude) at key instances during the development of a substorm. Of particular emphasis is on the time-development of the plasma, potentials and currents that occur therein with the aim of ascertaining high-altitude drivers of substorm active auroral acceleration processes and auroral emission consequences. Preliminary results show that the initial onset is dominated by Alfvenic activity as evidenced by the sudden occurrence of relatively intense, short-spatial scale Alfvenic currents and attendant energy dispersed, counterstreaming electrons poleward of the growth-phase arc. The Alfvenic currents are locally planar structures with characteristic thicknesses on the order of a few tens of kilometers. In subsequent passages by the other spacecraft, the plasma sheet region became hotter and thicker via the injection of new hot, dense plasma of magnetospheric origins poleward of the pre-existing growth phase arc. In association with the heating and/or thickening of the plasma sheet, the currents appeared to broaden to larger scales as Alfven dominated activity gave way to either inverted-V dominated or mixed inverted-V and Alfvenic behavior depending on location. The transition from Alfven dominated to inverted-V dominated

  2. Effects of Superfine Structure Level-Cluster Crossing on Amplitude and Phase Revival Dynamics: Comparing Tetrahedral and Octahedral Spherical Rotors with Icosahedral Rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harter, William G.; Li, Alvason Zhenhua

    2013-06-01

    Quantum revivals or "super-beats" are predicted to occur when angularly localized symmetric tops states are free to evolve. Similar types of dynamics are expected to involve spherical top superfine and superhyperfine level clusters that are labeled by induced representations of octahedral or tetrahedral symmetries for XY_4, XY_6, and related molecules. A considerably more complicated set of effects are expected for the icosahedral molecule C_ {60} and its related isotopomers. An important difference for icosahedral symmetry is that its superfine splitting ratios are most-irrational (Golden-ratio) fractions that preclude perfect Poincare recurrence of quantum phase while the octahedral splitting ratios are rational. William Harter and Justin Mitchell, International Journal of Molecular Science, 14, 714 (2013).

  3. Genomic sequence analysis of the 238-kb swine segment with a cluster of TRIM and olfactory receptor genes located, but with no class I genes, at the distal end of the SLA class I region.

    PubMed

    Ando, Asako; Shigenari, Atsuko; Kulski, Jerzy K; Renard, Christine; Chardon, Patrick; Shiina, Takashi; Inoko, Hidetoshi

    2005-12-01

    Continuous genomic sequence has been previously determined for the swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) class I region from the TNF gene cluster at the border between the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III and class I regions to the UBD gene at the telomeric end of the classical class I gene cluster (SLA-1 to SLA-5, SLA-9, SLA-11). To complete the genomic sequence of the entire SLA class I genomic region, we have analyzed the genomic sequences of two BAC clones carrying a continuous 237,633-bp-long segment spanning from the TRIM15 gene to the UBD gene located on the telomeric side of the classical SLA class I gene cluster. Fifteen non-class I genes, including the zinc finger and the tripartite motif (TRIM) ring-finger-related family genes and olfactory receptor genes, were identified in the 238-kilobase (kb) segment, and their location in the segment was similar to their apparent human homologs. In contrast, a human segment (alpha block) spanning about 375 kb from the gene ETF1P1 and from the HLA-J to HLA-F genes was absent from the 238-kb swine segment. We conclude that the gene organization of the MHC non-class I genes located in the telomeric side of the classical SLA class I gene cluster is remarkably similar between the swine and the human segments, although the swine lacks a 375-kb segment corresponding to the human alpha block.

  4. *omeSOM: a software for clustering and visualization of transcriptional and metabolite data mined from interspecific crosses of crop plants

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Modern biology uses experimental systems that involve the exploration of phenotypic variation as a result of the recombination of several genomes. Such systems are useful to investigate the functional evolution of metabolic networks. One such approach is the analysis of transcript and metabolite profiles. These kinds of studies generate a large amount of data, which require dedicated computational tools for their analysis. Results This paper presents a novel software named *omeSOM (transcript/metabol-ome Self Organizing Map) that implements a neural model for biological data clustering and visualization. It allows the discovery of relationships between changes in transcripts and metabolites of crop plants harboring introgressed exotic alleles and furthermore, its use can be extended to other type of omics data. The software is focused on the easy identification of groups including different molecular entities, independently of the number of clusters formed. The *omeSOM software provides easy-to-visualize interfaces for the identification of coordinated variations in the co-expressed genes and co-accumulated metabolites. Additionally, this information is linked to the most widely used gene annotation and metabolic pathway databases. Conclusions *omeSOM is a software designed to give support to the data mining task of metabolic and transcriptional datasets derived from different databases. It provides a user-friendly interface and offers several visualization features, easy to understand by non-expert users. Therefore, *omeSOM provides support for data mining tasks and it is applicable to basic research as well as applied breeding programs. The software and a sample dataset are available free of charge at http://sourcesinc.sourceforge.net/omesom/. PMID:20796314

  5. Identification of a recent recombination event within the human beta-globin gene cluster.

    PubMed Central

    Gerhard, D S; Kidd, K K; Kidd, J R; Egeland, J A; Housman, D E

    1984-01-01

    In a detailed study of inheritance of DNA sequence polymorphism in a large reference pedigree, an individual was identified with an apparent genetic recombination event within the human beta-globin gene cluster. Analysis of the haplotypes of relevant individuals within this pedigree suggested that the meiotic crossing-over event is likely to have occurred within a 19.8-kilobase-pair region of the beta-globin gene cluster. Analysis of other DNA markers closely linked to the beta-globin gene cluster--segment 12 of chromosome 11 (D11S12) and loci for insulin, the cellular oncogene c-Ha-ras, and preproparathyroid hormone--confirmed that a crossover event must have occurred within the region of chromosome 11 between D11S12 and the beta-globin gene cluster. It is suggested that the event observed has occurred within a DNA region compatible with recombinational "hot spots" suggested by population studies. PMID:6096866

  6. The youngest globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Sara

    2015-11-01

    It is likely that all stars are born in clusters, but most clusters are not bound and disperse. None of the many protoclusters in our Galaxy are likely to develop into long-lived bound clusters. The super star clusters (SSCs) seen in starburst galaxies are more massive and compact and have better chances of survival. The birth and early development of SSCs takes place deep in molecular clouds, and during this crucial stage the embedded clusters are invisible to optical or UV observations but are studied via the radio-infrared supernebulae (RISN) they excite. We review observations of embedded clusters and identify RISN within 10 Mpc whose exciting clusters have ≈ 106 M⊙ or more in volumes of a few pc3 and which are likely to not only survive as bound clusters, but to evolve into objects as massive and compact as Galactic globulars. These clusters are distinguished by very high star formation efficiency η, at least a factor of 10 higher than the few percent seen in the Galaxy, probably due to the violent disturbances their host galaxies have undergone. We review recent observations of the kinematics of the ionized gas in RISN showing outflows through low-density channels in the ambient molecular cloud; this may protect the cloud from feedback by the embedded H II region.

  7. Assessing a cross-border logistics policy using a performance measurement system framework: the case of Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, David W. C.; Choy, K. L.; Chow, Harry K. H.; Lin, Canhong

    2014-06-01

    For the most rapidly growing economic entity in the world, China, a new logistics operation called the indirect cross-border supply chain model has recently emerged. The primary idea of this model is to reduce logistics costs by storing goods at a bonded warehouse with low storage cost in certain Chinese regions, such as the Pearl River Delta (PRD). This research proposes a performance measurement system (PMS) framework to assess the direct and indirect cross-border supply chain models. The PMS covers four categories including cost, time, quality and flexibility in the assessment of the performance of direct and indirect models. Furthermore, a survey was conducted to investigate the logistics performance of third party logistics (3PLs) at the PRD regions, including Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Hong Kong. The significance of the proposed PMS framework allows 3PLs accurately pinpoint the weakness and strengths of it current operations policy at four major performance measurement categories. Hence, this helps 3PLs further enhance the competitiveness and operations efficiency through better resources allocation at the area of warehousing and transportation.

  8. ST5 Observations of the Imbalance of Region 1 and 2 Field-Aligned Currents and Its Implication to the Cross-Polar Cap Pedersen Currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Guan; Slavin, J. A.; Strangeway, Robert

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we use the in-situ magnetic field observations from Space Technology 5 mission to quantify the imbalance of Region 1 (R1) and Region 2 (R2) currents. During the three-month duration of the ST5 mission, geomagnetic conditions range from quiet to moderately active. We find that the R1 current intensity is consistently stronger than the R2 current intensity both for the dawnside and the duskside large-scale field-aligned current system. The net currents flowing into (out of) the ionosphere in the dawnside (duskside) are in the order of 5% of the total R1 currents. We also find that the net currents flowing into or out of the ionosphere are controlled by the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction in the same way as the field-aligned currents themselves are. Since the net currents due to the imbalance of the R1 and R2 currents require that their closure currents flow across the polar cap from dawn to dusk as Pedersen currents, our results indicate that the total amount of the cross-polar cap Pedersen currents is in the order of 0.1 MA. This study, although with a very limited dataset, is one of the first attempts to quantify the cross-polar cap Pedersen currents. Given the importance of the Joule heating due to Pedersen currents to the high-latitude ionospheric electrodynamics, quantifying the cross-polar cap Pedersen currents and associated Joule heating is needed for developing models of the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling.

  9. Analysis of the long control region of bovine papillomavirus type 1 associated with sarcoids in equine hosts indicates multiple cross-species transmission events and phylogeographical structure

    PubMed Central

    Trewby, Hannah; Ayele, Gizachew; Borzacchiello, Giuseppe; Brandt, Sabine; Campo, M. Saveria; Del Fava, Claudia; Marais, Johan; Leonardi, Leonardo; Vanselow, Barbara; Biek, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Papillomaviruses are a family of slowly evolving DNA viruses and their evolution is commonly linked to that of their host species. However, whilst bovine papillomavirus-1 (BPV-1) primarily causes warts in its natural host, the cow, it can also cause locally aggressive and invasive skin tumours in equids, known as sarcoids, and thus provides a rare contemporary example of cross-species transmission of a papillomavirus. Here, we describe the first phylogenetic analysis of BPV-1 in equine sarcoids to our knowledge, allowing us to explore the evolutionary history of BPV-1 and investigate its cross-species association with equids. A phylogenetic analysis of the BPV-1 transcriptional promoter region (the long control region or LCR) was conducted on 15 bovine and 116 equine samples from four continents. Incorporating previous estimates for evolutionary rates in papillomavirus implied that the genetic diversity in the LCR variants was ancient and predated domestication of both equids and cattle. The phylogeny demonstrated geographical segregation into an ancestral group (African, South American and Australian samples), and a more recently derived, largely European clade. Whilst our data are consistent with BPV-1 originating in cattle, we found evidence of multiple, probably relatively recent, cross-species transmission events into horses. We also demonstrated the high prevalence of one particular sequence variant (variant 20), and suggest this may indicate that this variant shows a fitness advantage in equids. Although strong host specificity remains the norm in papillomaviruses, our results demonstrate that exceptions to this rule exist and can become epidemiologically relevant. PMID:25185436

  10. Human Puumala and Dobrava Hantavirus Infections in the Black Sea Region of Turkey: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Kalaycioglu, Handan; Uyar, Yavuz; Sevindi, Demet Furkan; Turkyilmaz, Bedia; Çakir, Vedat; Cindemir, Cengiz; Unal, Belgin; Yağçi-Çağlayik, Dilek; Korukluoglu, Gulay; Ertek, Mustafa; Heyman, Paul; Lundkvist, Åke

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This study was carried out to better understand the epidemiology of hantaviruses in a province of Turkey (Giresun) where human hantavirus disease has recently been detected. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 626 blood samples from healthy people aged 15 and 84 years old were collected both in urban and rural areas in 2009. The sera were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunoblotting assay, and the focus reduction neutralization test (FRNT). We screened the samples by an ELISA and found that 65/626 samples reacted positively for the presence of hantavirus-reactive immunoglobulin G (IgG). Twenty of the 65 ELISA-positive samples could be confirmed by an immunobloting assay, and the overall seroprevalence was thereby calculated to 3.2% (20/626). The seroprevalence of the people living in wood areas or adobe houses 9/17 (52.9%) was significantly higher than among people living in concrete houses 10/47 (21.3%) (p=0.014). Finally, 3 of the 20 immunoblot-positive sera were confirmed as specific for the Puumala hantavirus serotype by FRNT, 1 serum was confirmed as Dobrava virus-specific, whereas 1 serum was found to be equally reactive to Dobrava and Saaremaa viruses. We will now focus on further investigations of the ecology and epidemiology of hantaviruses in humans and their carrier animals in Turkey, studies that have already been started and will be further intensified. PMID:23289396

  11. Hydrochemistry of surface water and groundwater in the shale bedrock, Cross River Basin and Niger Delta Region, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nganje, T. N.; Hursthouse, A. S.; Edet, Aniekan; Stirling, D.; Adamu, C. I.

    2015-07-01

    Water chemistry in the shale bedrock of the Cretaceous-Tertiary of the Cross River and Niger Delta hydrological basins has been investigated using major ions. To carry out a characterization of the water bearing units, 30 and 16 representatives surface and groundwater samples were collected. The evolution of the water is characterized by enhanced content of sodium, calcium and sulphate as a result of leaching of shale rock. The spatial changes in groundwater quality of the area shows an anomalous concentrations of ions in the central parts, while lower values characterize the eastern part of the basin covering Ogoja, Ikom and Odukpani areas. The values of total dissolved solids (TDS) and ions increases down gradient in the direction of groundwater flow. The dissolution of halite and gypsum explains part of the contained Na+, Ca2+, Cl- and SO4 2-, but other processes such as ion exchange, silicate weathering and pyrite oxidation also contribute to water composition. The assessment with contamination indicators such as TDS, hardness, chloride, nitrate and sulphate indicates that the water in area is suitable for human consumption in some locations. Modelling using MINTEQA2 program shows that the water from all the shale water bearing units are under saturated with respect to gypsum.

  12. Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene in Schools in Low Socio-Economic Regions in Nicaragua: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Jordanova, Tania; Cronk, Ryan; Obando, Wanda; Medina, Octavio Zeledon; Kinoshita, Rinko; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) in schools contributes to better health and educational outcomes among school-aged children. In 2012, UNICEF Nicaragua and partners conducted a cross-sectional survey of WaSH in 526 schools in 12 low socio-economic status municipalities in Nicaragua. The survey gathered information on: school characteristics; teacher and community participation; water and sanitation infrastructure; and hygiene education and habits. Survey results were analyzed for associations between variables. WaSH coverage was significantly higher in urban than rural areas. Presence of drinking water infrastructure (43%) was lower than sanitation infrastructure (64%). Eighty-one percent of schools had no hand washing stations and 74% of schools lacked soap. Sanitation facilities were not in use at 28% of schools with sanitation infrastructure and 26% of schools with water infrastructure had non-functional systems. Only 8% of schools had budgets to purchase toilet-cleaning supplies and 75% obtained supplies from students’ families. This study generates transferable WaSH sector learnings and new insights from monitoring data. Results can be used by donors, service providers, and policy makers to better target resources in Nicaraguan schools. PMID:26035665

  13. Water, sanitation, and hygiene in schools in low socio-economic regions in Nicaragua: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Jordanova, Tania; Cronk, Ryan; Obando, Wanda; Medina, Octavio Zeledon; Kinoshita, Rinko; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-05-29

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) in schools contributes to better health and educational outcomes among school-aged children. In 2012, UNICEF Nicaragua and partners conducted a cross-sectional survey of WaSH in 526 schools in 12 low socio-economic status municipalities in Nicaragua. The survey gathered information on: school characteristics; teacher and community participation; water and sanitation infrastructure; and hygiene education and habits. Survey results were analyzed for associations between variables. WaSH coverage was significantly higher in urban than rural areas. Presence of drinking water infrastructure (43%) was lower than sanitation infrastructure (64%). Eighty-one percent of schools had no hand washing stations and 74% of schools lacked soap. Sanitation facilities were not in use at 28% of schools with sanitation infrastructure and 26% of schools with water infrastructure had non-functional systems. Only 8% of schools had budgets to purchase toilet-cleaning supplies and 75% obtained supplies from students' families. This study generates transferable WaSH sector learnings and new insights from monitoring data. Results can be used by donors, service providers, and policy makers to better target resources in Nicaraguan schools.

  14. A cross-sectional study of Taenia solium in a multiple taeniid-endemic region reveals competition may be protective.

    PubMed

    Conlan, James V; Vongxay, Khamphouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Dorny, Pierre; Sripa, Banchob; Elliot, Aileen; Blacksell, Stuart D; Fenwick, Stanley; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2012-08-01

    We conducted cross-sectional surveys for taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans, pigs, and dogs in four northern provinces of Laos. Human cysticercosis and taeniasis prevalence was 2.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4-3.0%) and 8.4% (95% CI = 6.9-9.9%), respectively. Eating uncooked beef, being male, province of residence, age, and ethnicity were significant risk factors for taeniasis and only province of residence was a significant risk factor for cystiercosis. Thirty-five human tapeworms were recovered during the survey and 33 (94.3%) and 2 (5.7%) were identified as Taenia saginata and T. solium, respectively. Maximum-likelihood adjusted prevalence of T. solium and T. hydatigena in pigs was 4.2% (95% CI = 0.5-7.9%) and 55.9% (95% CI = 47.5-64.3%), respectively, and T. hydatigena taeniasis in dogs was 4.8% (95% CI = 0.0-11.3%). Taenia hydatigena and T. saginata were the most prevalent taeniids in the respective pig and human populations and together may suppress T. solium transmission.

  15. Cluster headache

    MedlinePlus

    Histamine headache; Headache - histamine; Migrainous neuralgia; Headache - cluster; Horton's headache; Vascular headache - cluster ... be related to the body's sudden release of histamine (chemical in the body released during an allergic ...

  16. Infrared Coronet Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    While perhaps not quite as well known as its star formation cousin of Orion, the Corona Australis region (containing, at its heart, the Coronet cluster) is one of the nearest and most active regions of ongoing star formation. The Spitzer image shows young stars plus diffuse emission from dust.

  17. Calodium hepaticum: Household Clustering Transmission and the Finding of a Source of Human Spurious Infection in a Community of the Amazon Region

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Alessandra Queiroga; Ascaso, Carlos; Santos, Ivanildes; Serra, Paula Taquita; Julião, Genimar Rebouças; Orlandi, Patricia Puccinelli

    2012-01-01

    Background: Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) is a worldwide helminth parasite of which several aspects of transmission still remain unclear. In the Amazon region, the mechanism of transmission based on the ingestion of eggs present in the liver of wild mammals has been suggested as the cause of the spurious infections described. We performed an epidemiological investigation to determine the incidence, risk of spurious infection and the dynamics of transmission of C. hepaticum in a community of the Brazilian Amazon. Methodology/Principal Findings: Stool samples of 135 individuals, two dog feces and liver tissue from a peccary (captured and eaten by the residents) were analyzed by conventional microscopy. Dog feces were collected from the gardens of households presenting human cases of spurious C. hepaticum infections. Community practices and feeding habits related to the transmission of the parasite were investigated. The individual incidence of spurious infection was 6.7% (95% CI: 2.08–11.24). Cases of spurious infection were observed in 7.5% of the families and the household incidence was from 50% to 83.3%. The risk of spurious infection was 10-fold greater in persons consuming the liver of wild mammals (p = 0.02). The liver tissue of a peccary and one feces sample of a dog presented eggs of C. hepaticum. The consumption of the infected liver was the cause of the spurious infections reported in one household. Conclusions/Significance: This is the first identification of a source of spurious infection by C. hepaticum in humans and we describe a high rate of incidence in household clusters related to game liver alimentary habits. The finding of a dog feces contaminating peridomiciliary ground suggests the risk of new infections. We conclude that the mechanism of transmission based on the ingestion of liver is important for the dynamics of transmission of C. hepaticum in the studied area. PMID:23285301

  18. The Effect of Improved Water Supply on Diarrhea Prevalence of Children under Five in the Volta Region of Ghana: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Seungman; Kang, Douk; Tuffuor, Benedict; Lee, Gyuhong; Cho, Jungmyung; Chung, Jihye; Kim, Myongjin; Lee, Hoonsang; Lee, Jaeeun; Oh, Chunghyeon

    2015-01-01

    Although a number of studies have been conducted to explore the effect of water quality improvement, the majority of them have focused mainly on point-of-use water treatment, and the studies investigating the effect of improved water supply have been based on observational or inadequately randomized trials. We report the results of a matched cluster randomized trial investigating the effect of improved water supply on diarrheal prevalence of children under five living in rural areas of the Volta Region in Ghana. We compared the diarrheal prevalence of 305 children in 10 communities of intervention with 302 children in 10 matched communities with no intervention (October 2012 to February 2014). A modified Poisson regression was used to estimate the prevalence ratio. An intention-to-treat analysis was undertaken. The crude prevalence ratio of diarrhea in the intervention compared with the control communities was 0.85 (95% CI 0.74–0.97) for Krachi West, 0.96 (0.87–1.05) for Krachi East, and 0.91 (0.83–0.98) for both districts. Sanitation was adjusted for in the model to remove the bias due to residual imbalance since it was not balanced even after randomization. The adjusted prevalence ratio was 0.82 (95% CI 0.71–0.96) for Krachi West, 0.95 (0.86–1.04) for Krachi East, and 0.89 (0.82–0.97) for both districts. This study provides a basis for a better approach to water quality interventions. PMID:26404337

  19. A 2-Mb YAC contig and physical map covering the chromosome 8q12 breakpoint cluster region in pleomorphic adenomas of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Kas, K; Röijer, E; Voz, M; Meyen, E; Stenman, G; Van de Ven, W J

    1997-08-01

    Pleomorphic adenomas are benign epithelial tumors originating from the major and minor salivary glands. Extensive cytogenetic studies have demonstrated that they frequently show chromosome abnormalities involving chromosome 8, with consistent breakpoints at 8q12. In previous studies, we have shown that these breakpoints are located in a 9-cM interval between MOS/D8S285 and D8S260. Here, we describe directional chromosome walking studies starting from D8S260 as well as D8S285. Using the CEPH and ICRF YAC libraries, these studies resulted in the construction of two nonoverlapping YAC contigs of about 2 and 5 Mb, respectively. Initial fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis suggested that the majority of 8q12 breakpoints clustered within the 2-Mb contig, which was mapped to the centromeric part of chromosome band 8q12. This contig has at least double coverage and consists of 34 overlapping YAC clones. The localization of the YACs was confirmed by FISH analysis. On the basis of mapping data of landmarks with an average spacing of 65 kb as well as restriction enzyme analysis, a long-range physical map was established for the chromosome region spanned by the 2-Mb contig. The relative positions of various known genes and expressed sequence tags within this contig were also determined. Subsequent FISH analyses of pleomorphic adenomas using YACs as well as cosmids revealed that all but two of the 8q12 breakpoints in the primary tumors tested mapped within a 300-kb interval between the MOS proto-oncogene and STS EM156. The target gene affected by the chromosome aberrations mapping within this interval was recently shown to be the PLAG1 gene, which encodes a novel zinc finger protein.

  20. Clustering of risk factors for non-communicable disease and healthcare expenditure in employees with private health insurance presenting for health risk appraisal: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The global increase in the prevalence of NCD’s is accompanied by an increase in risk factors for these diseases such as insufficient physical activity and poor nutritional habits. The main aims of this research study were to determine the extent to which insufficient physical activity (PA) clustered with other risk factors for non-communicable disease (NCD) in employed persons undergoing health risk assessment, and whether these risk factors were associated with higher healthcare costs. Methods Employees from 68 companies voluntarily participated in worksite wellness days, that included an assessment of self-reported health behaviors and clinical measures, such as: blood pressure (BP), Body Mass Index (BMI), as well as total cholesterol concentrations from capillary blood samples. A risk-related age, ‘Vitality Risk Age’ was calculated for each participant using an algorithm that incorporated multiplicative pooled relative risks for all cause mortality associated with smoking, PA, fruit and vegetable intake, BMI, BP and cholesterol concentration. Healthcare cost data were obtained for employees (n = 2 789). Results Participants were 36 ± 10 years old and the most prevalent risk factors were insufficient PA (67%) and BMI ≥ 25 (62%). Employees who were insufficiently active also had a greater number of other NCD risk factors, compared to those meeting PA recommendations (chi2 = 43.55; p < 0.0001). Moreover, employees meeting PA guidelines had significantly fewer visits to their family doctor (GP) (2.5 versus 3.11; p < 0.001) than those who were insufficiently PA, which was associated with an average cost saving of ZAR100 per year (p < 0.01). Furthermore, for every additional year that the ‘Vitality Risk Age’ was greater than chronological age, there was a 3% increased likelihood of at least one additional visit to the doctor (OR = 1.03; 95% CI = 1.01 – 1.05). Conclusion Physical inactivity was associated with clustering of risk

  1. Atomic form factors and photoelectric absorption cross-sections near absorption edges in the soft X-ray region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chantler, C. T.

    2003-01-01

    Reliable knowledge of the complex X-ray form factor [Re(f) and Im(f)] and the photoelectric attenuation coefficient (σPE) is required for crystallography, medical diagnosis, radiation safety and XAFS studies. Key discrepancies in earlier theoretical work are due to the smoothing of edge structure, the use of non-relativistic wave functions, and the lack of appropriate convergence of wave functions. These discrepancies lead to significant corrections for most comprehensive (i.e. all-Z) tabulations. This work has led to a major comprehensive database tabulation [Chantler, C. T. (2000). J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 29, 597-1048] which serves as a sequel and companion to earlier relativistic Dirac-Fock computations [Chantler, C. T. (1995). J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 24, 71-643]. The paper finds that earlier work needs improvement in the near-edge region for soft X-ray energies, and derives new theoretical results of substantially higher accuracy in near-edge soft X-ray regions. Fine grids near edges are tabulated demonstrating the current comparison with alternate theory and with available experimental data. The best experimental data and the observed experimental structure as a function of energy are strong indicators of the validity of the current approach. New developments in experimental measurement hold great promise in making critical comparisons with theory in the near future. This work forms the latest component of the FFAST NIST database [http://physics.nist.gov/PhysRefData/FFast02/Text/cover.html].

  2. Meaningful Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Calapristi, Augustin J.; Crow, Vernon L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2004-05-26

    We present an approach to the disambiguation of cluster labels that capitalizes on the notion of semantic similarity to assign WordNet senses to cluster labels. The approach provides interesting insights on how document clustering can provide the basis for developing a novel approach to word sense disambiguation.

  3. Abell Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katgert, P.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Abell clusters are the most conspicuous groupings of galaxies identified by George Abell on the plates of the first photographic survey made with the SCHMIDT TELESCOPE at Mount Palomar in the 1950s. Sometimes, the term Abell clusters is used as a synonym of nearby, optically selected galaxy clusters....

  4. Factors Associated with Job Satisfaction among University Teachers in Northeastern Region of China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Bochen; Shen, Xue; Liu, Li; Yang, Yilong; Wang, Lie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Teachers’ job satisfaction is one of the key factors in institutional dynamics and is generally considered to be the primary variable by which the effectiveness of an organization’s human resource is evaluated. The objectives of this study were to assess the level of job satisfaction among university teachers and to clarify the associated factors. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted between November 2013 and January 2014. Teachers from six universities in Shenyang, China were randomly sampled. The job satisfaction scale Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ), perceived organizational support (POS), psychological capital questionnaire (PCQ-24), and effort-reward imbalance scale (ERI) together with questions about demographic and working factors were administered in questionnaires distributed to 1500 university teachers. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to explore the related factors. Results: 1210 effective responses were obtained (effective respondent rate 80.7%). The average score of overall job satisfaction was 69.71. Hierarchical linear regression analysis revealed that turnover intention, occupational stress and chronic disease all had negative impacts on job satisfaction, whereas perceived organizational support, psychological capital and higher monthly income were positively associated with job satisfaction among the university teachers. Age was also linked to the level of job satisfaction. All the variables explained 60.7% of the variance in job satisfaction. Conclusions: Chinese university teachers had a moderate level of job satisfaction. Demographic and working characteristics were associated factors for job satisfaction. Perceived organizational support showed the strongest association with job satisfaction. Results of the study indicate that improving the perceived organizational support may increase the level of job satisfaction for university teachers. PMID:26473906

  5. A cross-sectional study of the appropriateness of colonoscopy requests in the Spanish region of Catalonia

    PubMed Central

    Puente, Diana; Cantero, Francesc Xavier; Llagostera, Maria; Piñeiro, Pilar; Nieto, Raquel; Saladich, Rosa; Mascort, Juanjo; Marzo, Mercè; Almeda, Jesús; Segarra, Manel

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Colonoscopies are being requested with increasing frequency in the last few years, as they are used both as a diagnostic and therapeutic procedure in several gastrointestinal diseases. Our purpose is to describe the appropriateness of colonoscopy requests issued both from primary care centres and from hospitals, according to the EPAGE II guidelines (European Panel on the Appropriateness of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy). Methods and analysis Cross-sectional study. Colonoscopy requests issued since January 2011 and received at the endoscopy units of all six reference hospitals serving the primary care centres of the South Metropolitan and Central Catalonia districts will be collected (total=1500 requests). Variables to be collected include gender, date of birth, origin of the request and reference hospital, priority of the procedure, type of clinician requesting the procedure, date and indication of request, abdominal examination performed, anal inspection examination performed, date of last colonoscopy if applicable, diagnosis and date of diagnosis. Using the available information and the EPAGE II website, colonoscopy requests will be assigned as an appropriateness score. The association between the variables collected and the EPAGE II scores will be assessed using a Student's t test and a χ2 test. A multilevel logistic model will be generated on the factors associated with the appropriateness of the requests. Ethics and dissemination Colonoscopy is a costly procedure and not free from complications. In order to increase cost effectiveness, reduce waiting lists and optimise resources, it is necessary to use tools such as the EPAGE II guidelines, which establish criteria to assess the appropriateness of colonoscopies. The purpose of this study is to describe the current situation and to discuss whether current clinical practice is appropriate. The results of the study will be published in the next few years. In consideration of the ethical principles and

  6. Revised geologic cross sections of parts of the Colorado, White River, and Death Valley regional groundwater flow systems, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, William R.; Scheirer, Daniel S.; Langenheim, V.E.; Berger, Mary A.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents revisions to parts of seven of the ten cross sections originally published in U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2006-1040. The revisions were necessary to correct errors in some of the original cross sections, and to show new parts of several sections that were extended and (or) appended to the original section profiles. Revisions were made to cross sections C-C', D-D', E-E', F-F', G-G', I-I', and J-J', and the parts of the sections revised or extended are highlighted below the sections on plate 1 by red brackets and the word "revised," or "extended." Sections not listed above, as well as the interpretive text and figures, are generally unchanged from the original report. Cross section C-C' includes revisions in the east Mormon Mountains in the east part of the section; D-D' includes revisions in the Mormon Mesa area in the east part of the section; E-E' includes revisions in the Muddy Mountains in the east part of the section; F-F' includes revisions from the Muddy Mountains to the south Virgin Mountains in the east part of the section; and J-J' includes some revisions from the east Mormon Mountains to the Virgin Mountains. The east end of G-G' was extended about 16 km from the Black Mountains to the southern Virgin Mountains, and the northern end of I-I' was extended about 45 km from the Muddy Mountains to the Mormon Mountains, and revisions were made in the Muddy Mountains part of the original section. This report contains 10 interpretive cross sections and an integrated text describing the geology of parts of the Colorado, White River, and Death Valley regional groundwater flow systems in Nevada, Utah, and Arizona. The primary purpose of the report is to provide geologic framework data for input into a numerical groundwater model. Therefore, the stratigraphic and structural summaries are written in a hydrogeologic context. The oldest rocks (basement) are Early Proterozoic metamorphic and intrusive crystalline rocks that are considered

  7. Cross-regional prediction of long-term trajectory of stream water DOC response to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laudon, Hjalmar; Buttle, Jim; Carey, Sean K.; McDonnell, Jeff; McGuire, Kevin; Seibert, Jan; Shanley, Jamie; Soulsby, Chris; Tetzlaff, Doerthe

    2012-09-01

    There is no scientific consensus about how dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in surface waters is regulated. Here we combine recent literature data from 49 catchments with detailed stream and catchment process information from nine well established research catchments at mid- to high latitudes to examine the question of how climate controls stream water DOC. We show for the first time that mean annual temperature (MAT) in the range from -3° to +10° C has a strong control over the regional stream water DOC concentration in catchments, with highest concentrations in areas ranging between 0° and +3° C MAT. Although relatively large deviations from this model occur for individual streams, catchment topography appears to explain much of this divergence. These findings suggest that the long-term trajectory of stream water DOC response to climate change may be more predictable than previously thought.

  8. Enhancement of cross-field transport into the private region of detached-divertor in Large Helical Device

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, H.; Ohno, N.; Tsuji, Y.; Kajita, S.; Masuzaki, S.; Kobayashi, M.; Morisaki, T.; Tsuchiya, H.; Komori, A.

    2010-10-15

    The fluctuation of ion saturation currents in the attached- and detached-divertor plasmas of the Large Helical Device [Fujiwara et al., Nucl. Fusion 41, 1355 (2001)] has been measured using a Langmuir probe array embedded in a divertor plate. Analytical results indicate that these fluctuation properties differ considerably from each other; for instance, the mean value distribution expands to and positive spikes propagate toward a private region from the divertor leg in the detached-divertor. We investigated the magnetic field lines traced from probe electrodes by using the KMAG code [Nakamura et al., J. Plasma Fusion Res. 69, 41 (1993)], and it is then confirmed that the propagation direction of positive spikes corresponds to that predicted by the theory of blobby plasma transport. This phenomenon is expected to lead to the broadening of plasma particle and heat fluxes to the divertor plate.

  9. Diffusion maps clustering for magnetic resonance q-ball imaging segmentation.

    PubMed

    Wassermann, Demian; Descoteaux, Maxime; Deriche, Rachid

    2008-01-01

    White matter fiber clustering aims to get insight about anatomical structures in order to generate atlases, perform clear visualizations, and compute statistics across subjects, all important and current neuroimaging problems. In this work, we present a diffusion maps clustering method applied to diffusion MRI in order to segment complex white matter fiber bundles. It is well known that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is restricted in complex fiber regions with crossings and this is why recent high-angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) such as Q-Ball imaging (QBI) has been introduced to overcome these limitations. QBI reconstructs the diffusion orientation distribution function (ODF), a spherical function that has its maxima agreeing with the underlying fiber populations. In this paper, we use a spherical harmonic ODF representation as input to the diffusion maps clustering method. We first show the advantage of using diffusion maps clustering over classical methods such as N-Cuts and Laplacian eigenmaps. In particular, our ODF diffusion maps requires a smaller number of hypothesis from the input data, reduces the number of artifacts in the segmentation, and automatically exhibits the number of clusters segmenting the Q-Ball image by using an adaptive scale-space parameter. We also show that our ODF diffusion maps clustering can reproduce published results using the diffusion tensor (DT) clustering with N-Cuts on simple synthetic images without crossings. On more complex data with crossings, we show that our ODF-based method succeeds to separate fiber bundles and crossing regions whereas the DT-based methods generate artifacts and exhibit wrong number of clusters. Finally, we show results on a real-brain dataset where we segment well-known fiber bundles. PMID:18317506

  10. Deprivation, clubs and drugs: results of a UK regional population-based cross-sectional study of weight management strategies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite rising levels of obesity in England, little is known about slimming club and weight loss drug (medication) use or users. In order to inform future commissioning, we report the prevalence of various weight management strategies and examine the associations between slimming club and medication use and age, gender, deprivation and body mass index. Methods A population based cross-sectional survey of 26,113 adults was conducted in South Yorkshire using a self-completed health questionnaire. Participants were asked whether they had ever used the following interventions to manage their weight: increasing exercise, healthy eating, controlling portion size, slimming club, over the counter weight loss medication, or meal replacements. Factors associated with slimming club and weight-loss medication use were explored using logistic regression. Results Over half of the sample was either overweight (36.6%) or obese (19.6%). Obesity was more common in the most deprived areas compared to the least deprived (26.3% vs. 12.0%). Healthy eating (49.0%), controlling portion size (43.4%), and increasing exercise (43.0%) were the most commonly reported weight management strategies. Less common strategies were attending a slimming club (17.2%), meal replacements (3.4%) and weight-loss medication (3.2%). Adjusting for BMI, age, deprivation and long standing health conditions, women were significantly more likely to report ever using a slimming club (adjusted OR = 18.63, 95% CI = 16.52–21.00) and more likely to report ever using over the counter weight-loss medications (AOR = 3.73, 95% CI = 3.10-4.48), while respondents from the most deprived areas were less likely to report using slimming clubs (AOR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.53-0.68), and more likely to reporting using weight loss medications (AOR =1.38, 95% CI = 1.05-1.82). Conclusion A large proportion of individuals report having used weight management strategies. Slimming clubs and over-the-counter weight loss medication

  11. Isolation and partial structural characterization of an equine fibrinogen CNBr fragment that exhibits immunologic cross-reactivity with an A alpha-chain cross-linking region of human fibrinogen.

    PubMed

    Sobel, J H; Thibodeau, C A; Kolks, M A; Canfield, R E

    1990-09-25

    Immunochemical studies of equine fibrinogen were conducted to characterize the structural basis for the immunologic cross-reactivity observed between human and equine A alpha chains when employing an antiserum to the 26K, human cyanogen bromide (CNBr) fragment, A alpha 241-476 (CNBr VIII). A 38K, equine CNBr fragment that reacts with this antiserum was isolated from CNBr-digested equine fibrinogen by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration. It was further purified by sequential hydrophobic chromatography on phenyl-Sepharose CL-4B, followed by reversed-phased (C-8) high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). NH2-Terminal analysis of the purified fragment, designated EqA alpha CNBr, identified one major sequence whose first three residues, E-L-E, were identical with those of human CNBr VIII. Tryptic and staphylococcal protease digests of the equine fragment were resolved by reversed-phase HPLC (C-4, C-18), and the separated components were characterized by amino acid analysis and automated Edman degradation. A total of 34 tryptic and 20 staph protease peptides yielded sequence information that permitted the alignment of 271 equine residues with residues A alpha 241-517 from the COOH-terminal two-thirds of the human A alpha chain so that 63% of the possible matches were identical. Other features of interest included (1) an amino acid substitution in which the methionine residue at A alpha 476 in the human A alpha chain was replaced by a valine residue, thus accounting, in part, for the larger EqA alpha CNBr fragment obtained from the equine molecule, and (2) a region of striking homology in which 36 successive residues, corresponding to A alpha 428-464 in the human A alpha chain, were identical in both species. These findings, together with available structural data for the COOH-terminal portion of the rat and bovine A alpha chains, indicate that the region corresponding to (human) A alpha 240-517 represents a conserved portion of the fibrinogen molecule. This may, in turn

  12. Health effects of air pollution due to coal combustion in the Chestnut Ridge region of Pennsylvania: cross-section survey of children

    SciTech Connect

    Schenker, M.B.; Vedal, S.; Batterman, S.; Samet, J.; Speizer, F.E.

    1986-03-01

    A cross-sectional study of 4071 children aged 6-11 yr of age from a rural region of Western Pennsylvania was conducted in spring of 1979. Standardized children's questionnaires were distributed to the parents and returned by the children to school, where spirometry was performed. The region was divided into low-, moderate-, and high-pollution areas on the basis of the 1974-1978, 3-hr, 24-hr, and annual averages for sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/). Seventeen monitoring stations in the region and a triangulation procedure were used to estimate centroid levels in each geographic residence area. After adjusting the respiratory symptom response outcomes and the pulmonary function levels for known predictors, no significant association was noted for level of SO/sub 2/. However, the highest exposure categories were only slightly above the present annual and 24-hr National Air Quality Standards for SO/sub 2/. We conclude that at levels of exposure to which these children were exposed, only by study of potentially sensitive subsets or measures of acute response would it be possible to detect respiratory outcomes associated with ambient air pollution.

  13. Bovine trypanosomosis in the Upper West Region of Ghana: entomological, parasitological and serological cross-sectional surveys.

    PubMed

    Adam, Y; Marcotty, T; Cecchi, G; Mahama, C I; Solano, P; Bengaly, Z; Van den Bossche, P

    2012-06-01

    Baseline surveys were conducted in the Upper West Region of Ghana to assess the distribution and densities of tsetse species, as well as the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis. The entomological survey was designed to cover the suitable tsetse habitats along the three main rivers in the study area (i.e. Black Volta, Kulpawn and Sissili). Results indicated the presence of Glossina tachinoides in all three river basins, whilst Glossina palpalis gambiensis was only found close to the southern limit of the study area. A random sampling of 1800 cattle of the West African Short Horn, Sanga and Zebu breeds from 36 randomly selected grid cells covering the study area showed substantial differences between parasitological and serological prevalences. The average parasitological prevalence was estimated at 2.5% (95% CI: 1.06-5.77) with the majority of the infections due to Trypanosoma vivax. Most of the infected cattle were found close to the major river systems. The serological prevalence, measured using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), test was 19% (95% CI: 14.03-25.35). Cattle with anti-trypanosomal antibodies were also found throughout the study area. PMID:21550616

  14. Bovine trypanosomosis in the Upper West Region of Ghana: entomological, parasitological and serological cross-sectional surveys.

    PubMed

    Adam, Y; Marcotty, T; Cecchi, G; Mahama, C I; Solano, P; Bengaly, Z; Van den Bossche, P

    2012-06-01

    Baseline surveys were conducted in the Upper West Region of Ghana to assess the distribution and densities of tsetse species, as well as the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis. The entomological survey was designed to cover the suitable tsetse habitats along the three main rivers in the study area (i.e. Black Volta, Kulpawn and Sissili). Results indicated the presence of Glossina tachinoides in all three river basins, whilst Glossina palpalis gambiensis was only found close to the southern limit of the study area. A random sampling of 1800 cattle of the West African Short Horn, Sanga and Zebu breeds from 36 randomly selected grid cells covering the study area showed substantial differences between parasitological and serological prevalences. The average parasitological prevalence was estimated at 2.5% (95% CI: 1.06-5.77) with the majority of the infections due to Trypanosoma vivax. Most of the infected cattle were found close to the major river systems. The serological prevalence, measured using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), test was 19% (95% CI: 14.03-25.35). Cattle with anti-trypanosomal antibodies were also found throughout the study area.

  15. Patient refusal for regional anesthesia in elderly orthopedic population: A cross-sectional survey at a tertiary care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Salam, Asma Abdus; Afshan, Gauhar

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Improvements in pain management techniques in the last decade have had a major impact on the practice of orthopedic surgeries, for example, total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty. Although there are a number of treatment options for postoperative pain, a gold standard has not been established. In our institution, both general anesthesia and regional anesthesia (RA), are being offered to the elderly orthopedic population but RA is not frequently accepted by elderly population. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of various reasons for refusal of RA in elderly patients undergoing orthopedic surgeries. Material and Methods: A prospective study conducted over a period of 1 year, had 549 patients with ages above 60 years who underwent different types of elective orthopedic procedures 182 patients who refused RA were interviewed according to a structured questionnaire designed to assess the reasons of refusal. Results: Most common reason for the refusal of RA was surgeon's choice (38.5%), whereas 20.3% of the patients were unaware about the RA. There was a significant association between female gender and refusing RA due to backache (17.2%) and fear of being awake during the operation (24.1%) respectively. Conclusion: This survey showed that the main reasons among elderly female population were the fear of remaining awake and backache. However, overall it was the surgeon's choice which made patients refuse RA, and the anesthesiologists were the main source of information. PMID:27006550

  16. An assessment of cross-infection control procedures among English-speaking Caribbean general dental practitioners. A regional preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Vignarajah, S; Eastmond, V H; Ashraph, A; Rashad, M

    1998-04-01

    A survey was undertaken to assess the level of compliance with recommended infection control procedures among English-speaking Caribbean general dental practitioners. A four page questionnaire was sent to all practitioners in 18 English-speaking Caribbean islands. A response rate of 32 per cent was obtained. A large proportion of dentists followed the recommended barrier techniques particularly the use of gloves and facemasks. The most commonly available methods of sterilisation were steam autoclaves (82 per cent) and cold solutions (94 per cent). Seventy four per cent of respondents had received hepatitis B vaccination. A high percentage of dentists showed willingness to treat HBV (95 per cent) and HIV (84 per cent) carriers and this level of willingness to treat infectious patients has rarely been reported previously. There is an urgent need for further improvements to avoid getting inoculation injuries and splatters in the face or eyes with body fluids. Disposal of sharps and collection of solid waste are to be upgraded. The Caribbean Atlantic Regional Dental Association is planning to carry out similar research before the end of the year 2000.

  17. Cross-institutional Flood Forecasting in Regional Water Systems;Innovative application of Delft-FEWS in The Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Heeringen, Klaas-Jan; Douben, Klaas-Jan; van de Wouw, Mark; IJpelaar, Ruben; van Loenen, Arnejan

    2015-04-01

    The regional water system in the North-Brabant province in The Netherlands is (operationally) managed by four different Water Authorities: Rijkswaterstaat Southern-Netherlands, and the three Regional Water Authorities (RWA's) Aa & Maas, De Dommel and Brabantse Delta. The water systems basically consist of mid-sized (navigable) canals, semi-natural brook valleys in mildly sloping sandy soils, and man-made watercourses in clayey polder areas. The management areas of the De Dommel and Brabantse Delta RWA's are bordering Belgium over a total length of approx. 185 km, and are prone to transboundary flood flows. The current project 'Dynamic Water Management' intends to improve the mutual cooperation and communication between the RWA's and Rijkswaterstaat during periods of both high and low water stages. The project deals with governance issues such as water agreements and water systems analyses. A powerful product of the project is a DSS for flood forecasting ('DSS Brabant'). One of the main benefits of cooperation between the RWA's and Rijkswaterstaat is to enable assistance during peak flows and flood events and to try to optimise operational water systems management by deploying drainage and storage facilities by using the connecting (navigable) canals. A set of hydraulic structures like pumps, weirs and sluices facilitate the control and routing of the water flows. Especially during peak flow and flood events, these canals allow to deviate excess flow to neighbours who suffer less from flooding. During regular conditions the water systems are fully independent, but during floods connections are made by using the canal system. The heart of DSS Brabant consists of a Delft-FEWS application, containing several RTC (1st) and hydrodynamic Sobek (2nd order) models FEWS is receiving a variety of data on hourly or six-hourly basis, consisting of measured and forecasted meteorological input (radar-precipitation/HIRLAM, evaporation and wind), water levels and discharges at

  18. Bypassing primary care clinics for childbirth: a cross-sectional study in the Pwani region, United Republic of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Hermosilla, Sabrina; Larson, Elysia; Mbaruku, Godfrey M

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To measure the extent, determinants and results of bypassing local primary care clinics for childbirth among women in rural parts of the United Republic of Tanzania. Methods Women were selected in 2012 to complete a structured interview from a full census of all 30 076 households in clinic catchment areas in Pwani region. Eligibility was limited to those who had delivered between 6 weeks and 1 year before the interview, were at least 15 years old and lived within the catchment areas. Demographic and delivery care information and opinions on the quality of obstetric care were collected through interviews. Clinic characteristics were collected from staff via questionnaires. Determinants of bypassing (i.e. delivery of the youngest child at a health centre or hospital without provider referral) were analysed using multivariate logistic regression. Bypasser and non-bypasser birth experiences were compared in bivariate analyses. Findings Of 3019 eligible women interviewed (93% response rate), 71.0% (2144) delivered in a health facility; 41.8% (794) were bypassers. Bypassing likelihood increased with primiparity (odds ratio, OR: 2.5; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.9–3.3) and perceived poor quality at clinics (OR: 1.3; 95% CI: 1.0–1.7) and decreased if clinics recently underwent renovations (OR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.18–0.84) and/or performed ≥ 4 obstetric signal functions (OR: 0.19; 95% CI: 0.08–0.41). Bypassers reported better quality of care on six of seven quality of care measures. Conclusion Many pregnant women, especially first-time mothers, choose to bypass local primary care clinics for childbirth. Perceived poor quality of care at clinics was an important reason for bypassing. Primary care is failing to meet the obstetric needs of many women in this rural, low-income setting. PMID:24700992

  19. A cluster randomized controlled cross-over bed net acceptability and preference trial in Solomon Islands: community participation in shaping policy for malaria elimination

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background A key component of the malaria elimination strategy in Solomon Islands (SI) is widespread coverage of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). The success of this strategy is dependent on LLIN acceptability and compliance. There has been unresolved debate among policy makers and donors as to which type of LLIN would be most appropriate for large-scale distribution in SI, and anecdotal reports of a lack of acceptability of certain brands of LLINs. A cluster randomized controlled crossover bed net acceptability and preference trial was therefore carried out from July to September, 2008 to inform policy and to facilitate community engagement and participation in the selection of the most appropriate LLIN for use in SI. Method A three-stage sampling method was used to randomly select the study population from Malaita Province, SI. Three brands of LLINs were assessed in this study: Olyset®, PermaNet® and DuraNet®. Bed net acceptability and preference were evaluated through surveys at three defined time points after short and longer-term trial of each LLIN. Results The acceptability of PermaNet® after short-term use (96.5%) was significantly greater than Olyset® (67.3%, p < 0.001) and DuraNet® (69.8%, p < 0.001). The acceptability of DuraNet® and Olyset® after short-term use was not significantly different at the 5% level. LLINs that were perceived not to prevent mosquito bites were significantly less acceptable than LLINs that were perceived to prevent mosquito bites (OR 0.15; 95%CI 0.03 to 0.6). LLINs that allow a pleasant night's sleep (OR 6.3; 95%CI:3.3-12.3) and have a soft texture (OR 5.7; 95%CI:1.9-20.5) were considered more acceptable than those that did not. Olyset®'s acceptability decreased over time and this was due to net wrinkling/shrinkage after washing resulting in reduced efficiency in preventing mosquito bites. The increase in DuraNet® acceptability was a result of a reduction in minor adverse events following longer-term use

  20. Cluster AAR Campaign Summary Plots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazakerley, A. N.; Walsh, A. P.; Garza, K. J.; Christopher, I.; Sadeghi, S.; Lindqvist, P.; Mihaljcic, B.; Forsyth, C.; Pickett, J. S.; Marklund, G. T.; Lucek, E. A.; Dandouras, I. S.

    2010-12-01

    Since late 2008 the Cluster spacecraft have been making the first four-point measurements of the Auroral Acceleration Region, opening up an exciting new opportunity for the auroral science, Cluster and wider magnetospheric physics communities. In order to stimulate auroral research with Cluster and aid in event selection, we have produced a set of summary plots for those Cluster perigee passes best suited for addressing open questions in auroral physics. The plots incorporate data from WBD, FGM, EFW, PEACE and CIS and are available from the Cluster PEACE website.

  1. Amino Acid Transport Associated to Cluster of Differentiation 98 Heavy Chain (CD98hc) Is at the Cross-road of Oxidative Stress and Amino Acid Availability.

    PubMed

    de la Ballina, Laura R; Cano-Crespo, Sara; González-Muñoz, Elena; Bial, Susanna; Estrach, Soline; Cailleteau, Laurence; Tissot, Floriane; Daniel, Hannelore; Zorzano, Antonio; Ginsberg, Mark H; Palacín, Manuel; Féral, Chloé C

    2016-04-29

    CD98hc functions as an amino acid (AA) transporter (together with another subunit) and integrin signaling enhancer. It is overexpressed in highly proliferative cells in both physiological and pathological conditions. CD98hc deletion induces strong impairment of cell proliferation in vivo and in vitro Here, we investigate CD98hc-associated AA transport in cell survival and proliferation. By using chimeric versions of CD98hc, the two functions of the protein can be uncoupled. Although recovering the CD98hc AA transport capacity restores the in vivo and in vitro proliferation of CD98hc-null cells, reconstitution of the integrin signaling function of CD98hc is unable to restore in vitro proliferation of those cells. CD98hc-associated transporters (i.e. xCT, LAT1, and y(+)LAT2 in wild-type cells) are crucial to control reactive oxygen species and intracellular AA levels, thus sustaining cell survival and proliferation. Moreover, in CD98hc-null cells the deficiency of CD98hc/xCT cannot be compensated, leading to cell death by ferroptosis. Supplementation of culture media with β-mercaptoethanol rescues CD98hc-deficient cell survival. Under such conditions null cells show oxidative stress and intracellular AA imbalance and, consequently, limited proliferation. CD98hc-null cells also present reduced intracellular levels of branched-chain and aromatic amino acids (BCAAs and ARO AAs, respectively) and induced expression of peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1). Interestingly, external supply of dipeptides containing BCAAs and ARO AAs rescues cell proliferation and compensates for impaired uptake of CD98hc/LAT1 and CD98hc/y(+)LAT2. Our data establish CD98hc as a master protective gene at the cross-road of redox control and AA availability, making it a relevant therapeutic target in cancer. PMID:26945935

  2. DYNAMICS OF PLANETARY SYSTEMS IN STAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Spurzem, R.; Giersz, M.; Heggie, D. C.; Lin, D. N. C.

    2009-05-20

    At least 10%-15% of nearby Sunlike stars have known Jupiter-mass planets. In contrast, very few planets are found in mature open and globular clusters such as the Hyades and 47 Tuc. We explore here the possibility that this dichotomy is due to the postformation disruption of planetary systems associated with the stellar encounters in long-lived clusters. One supporting piece of evidence for this scenario is the discovery of freely floating low-mass objects in star forming regions. We use two independent numerical approaches, a hybrid Monte Carlo and a direct N-body method, to simulate the impact of the encounters. We show that the results of numerical simulations are in reasonable agreement with analytical determinations in the adiabatic and impulsive limits. They indicate that distant stellar encounters generally do not significantly modify the compact and nearly circular orbits. However, moderately close stellar encounters, which are likely to occur in dense clusters, can excite planets' orbital eccentricity and induce dynamical instability in systems that are closely packed with multiple planets. The disruption of planetary systems occurs primarily through occasional nearly parabolic, nonadiabatic encounters, though eccentricity of the planets evolves through repeated hyperbolic adiabatic encounters that accumulate small-amplitude changes. The detached planets are generally retained by the potential of their host clusters as free floaters in young stellar clusters such as {sigma} Orionis. We compute effective cross sections for the dissolution of planetary systems and show that, for all initial eccentricities, dissolution occurs on timescales that are longer than the dispersion of small stellar associations, but shorter than the age of typical open and globular clusters. Although it is much more difficult to disrupt short-period planets, close encounters can excite modest eccentricity among them, such that subsequent tidal dissipation leads to orbital decay

  3. Evaporation residue cross-section in the decay of 254No* formed in 206Pb + 48Ca and its isotopic dependence using other Pb targets within the dynamical cluster-decay model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niyti; Gupta, Raj K.; Hess, Peter Otto

    2015-06-01

    The dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM), with deformation and orientation effects included, is used to calculate the fusion evaporation residue cross-sections σxn for x = 1, 2, 3 and 4 neutrons emission in a fusion reaction 206Pb + 48Ca → 254No* at various 48Ca-beam energies Elab = 212.7- 242.5 MeV (equivalently, E* = 19.8- 43.9 MeV). Considering the higher multipole deformations up to hexadecapole deformation β4i and the sticking moment-of-inertia IS, the DCM with pocket formula for nuclear proximity potential is shown to give a good description of the measured individual light-particle (here neutrons) decay channels for configurations of "hot, compact" orientations θci, within one parameter fitting of the neck-length ΔR. A check on some of the variables involved in DCM shows that (i) spherical configurations give nearly the same result as above for deformed and oriented ones; (ii) the non-sticking moment-of-inertia INS gives unphysical results; and (iii) configurations of "cold, elongated" orientations do not fit the data at all. Furthermore, for the four different isotopes of 204,206,207,208Pb-based reactions, the dependence of, say, the 2n-emission yield σ2n on the isotopic composition of the compound nucleus is also studied within the DCM for "hot" fusion process. Of all the four Pb-isotopes and three excitation energies E* considered, at each E*, the ΔR is largest for compound system 256No*, followed by 255No*, 254No* and smallest for 252No*, which means to suggest that the neutrons emission occur earliest for 256No*, then for 255No*, 254No* and finally by 252No*, in complete agreement with experimental data according to which compound system 256No* has the highest cross-section and 252No* the lowest with 255No* and 254No* lying in between. This result is related to the double magicity of both the target (208Pb) and projectile (48Ca) nuclei, as well as to the experimentally known result of projectile with a larger number of neutrons (here the target

  4. The Earth's ULF Wave Foreshock: Cluster Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, N.; Meziane, K.; Mazelle, C. X.; Gomez, D. O.; Bertucci, C.

    2014-12-01

    The interaction between backstreaming ions and the incoming solar wind in the upstream region of the bow shock, gives rise to a number of plasma instabilities from which ultra-low frequency (ULF) waves can grow. The region of ULF wave activity is spatially localized in the ion foreshock. Observational evidence of the ULF wave foreshock boundary has accumulated over the last three decades. In particular, it has been shown that the geometrical characteristics of the boundary are very sensitive to the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) cone angle. In the present work, we aim at investigating the statistical properties of the ULF wave foreshock boundary. For this purpose, we make use of the first three years of magnetic field data from the flux gate magnetometer (FGM), and the plasma densities and velocities from the Hot Ion Analyzer (HIA) on board Cluster (SC-1). A new identification of the ULF wave foreshock boundary is presented, using specific and accurate criteria for a correct determination of boundary crossings. In particular, the criteria are based on the degree of IMF rotation as Cluster crosses the boundary. To reconstruct the foreshock geometry, we use two different 3-D gas dynamic bow shock models. The ULF wave foreshock boundary is compared with previous results reported in the literature as well as with theoretical predictions.

  5. Flux Transfer Events Simultaneously Observed by Polar and Cluster: Flux Rope in the Subsolar Region and Flux Tube Addition to the Polar Cusp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, G.; Zheng, Y.; Russell, C. T.; Pfaff, R. F.; Lin, N.; Slavin, J. A.; Parks, G.; Wilber, M.; Petrinec, S. M.; Lucek, E. A.; Reme, H.

    2007-01-01

    The phenomenon called flux transfer events (FTEs) is widely accepted as the manifestation of time-dependent reconnection. In this paper, we present observational evidence of a flux transfer event observed simultaneously at low-latitude by Polar and at high-latitude by Cluster. This event occurs on March 21, 2002, when both Cluster and Polar are located near local noon but with a large latitudinal separation. During the event, Cluster is moving outbound from the polar cusp to the magnetosheath, and Polar is in the magnetosheath near the equatorial magnetopause. The observations show that a flux transfer event occurs between the equator and the northern cusp. Polar and Cluster observe the FTE s two open flux tubes: Polar encounters the southward moving flux tube near the equator; and Cluster the northward moving flux tube at high latitude. The low latitude FTE appears to be a flux rope with helical magnetic field lines as it has a strong core field and the magnetic field component in the boundary normal direction exhibits a strong bi-polar variation. Unlike the low-latitude FTE, the high-latitude FTE observed by Cluster does not exhibit the characteristic bi-polar perturbation in the magnetic field. But the plasma data clearly reveal its open flux tube configuration. It shows that the magnetic field lines have straightened inside the FTE and become more aligned to the neighboring flux tubes as it moves to the cusp. Enhanced electrostatic fluctuations have been observed within the FTE core, both at low- and high-latitudes. This event provides a unique opportunity to understand high-latitude FTE signatures and the nature of time-varying reconnection.

  6. Cross-sectional study assessing HIV related knowledge, attitudes and behavior in Namibian public sector employees in capital and regional settings.

    PubMed

    Kiderlen, Til R; Conteh, Michael; Roll, Stephanie; Seeling, Stefanie; Weinmann, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The study objective was to assess the current status of HIV knowledge, attitudes and behavior (KAB) among employees of Namibian ministries. As most HIV campaigning takes place in the capital of Windhoek, an additional aim was to compare Windhoek to four regions (Hardap, Erongo, Oshana, and Caprivi). Between January and March 2011 a cross-sectional survey was conducted in two Namibian ministries, with participants selected randomly from the workforce. Data collection was based on questionnaires. 832 participants were included in the study (51.6% male). Nearly 90% of participants reported to have been tested for HIV before. Knowledge about HIV transmission ranged from 67% to 95% of correct answers, with few differences between the capital and regions. However, a knowledge gap regarding HIV transmission and prevention was seen. In particular, we found significantly lower knowledge regarding transmission from mother-to-child during pregnancy and higher rate of belief in a supernatural role in HIV transmission. In addition, despite many years of HIV prevention activities, a substantial proportion of employees had well-known HIV risk factors including multiple concurrent partnership rates (21%), intergenerational sex (19%), and lower testing rates for men (82% compared to women with 91%). PMID:24073273

  7. Cross-Permeability of the Semisolid Region in Directional Solidification: A Combined Phase-Field and Lattice-Boltzmann Simulation Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttger, B.; Haberstroh, C.; Giesselmann, N.

    2016-01-01

    Based on the results of microstructure simulations, fluid flow through the semisolid region during directional solidification of the technical Ni-base alloy 718 has been studied. Three-dimensional microstructures at different positions in the semisolid region were obtained by using a multicomponent multiphase-field model that was online coupled to a commercial thermodynamic database. For the range of five different primary dendrite distances λ 1 between 50 µm and 250 µm, the flow velocity and the permeability perpendicular to the dendrite growth direction was evaluated by using a proprietary Lattice-Boltzmann model. The commercial CFD software ANSYS FLUENT was alternatively applied for reference. Consistent values of the average flow velocity along the dendrites were obtained for both methods. From the results of the fluid flow simulations, the cross-permeability was evaluated as a function of temperature and fraction liquid for each of the five different primary dendrite distances λ 1. The obtained permeability values can be approximated by a single analytical function of the fraction liquid and λ 1 and are discussed and compared with known relations from the literature.

  8. 2015-2018 Regional Prevention Plan of Lombardy (Northern Italy) and sedentary prevention: a cross-sectional strategy to develop evidence-based programmes.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Liliana; Ripamonti, Ennio; Cereda, Danilo; Gelmi, Giusi; Pirrone, Lucia; Rebecchi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sector, life-course, and setting approaches are identified in the 2015-2018 Regional Prevention Plan (PRP) of Lombardy Region (Northern Italy) as valuable strategies to ensure the efficacy and sustainable prevention of the non-communicable disease (NCDs). The involvement of non-health sectors in health promotion activities represents a suitable strategy to affect on social, economic, and political determinants and to change environmental factors that could cause NCDs. A dialogue among communities, urban planning, and prevention know-how is a prerequisite to develop a system of policies suitable to promote healthy lifestyle in general and, specifically, active lifestyles. The 2015-2018 Lombardy PRP pursues its aims of health promotion and behavioural risk factors for NCDs prevention through programmes that implement their own setting networks (Health Promoting Schools - SPS; Workplace Health Promotion - WHP) and develop new networks. Sedentary lifestyle prevention and active lifestyle promotion are performed through the approach promoted by the Healthy Cities Programme (WHO), encouraging two main processes: 1. creating integrated capacity-building among health and social prevention services, academic research, and local stakeholders on different urban planning and design issues; 2. promoting community empowerment through active citizens participation. Through this process, Lombardy Region aims to orient its services developing evidence-based programmes and enhancing advocacy and mediating capacity skills in order to create a profitable partnership with non-health sectors. This paper reports the main impact data: 26,000 children that reach school by foot thanks to walking buses, 57% of 145 companies joining WHP are involved in promoting physical activity, 18,891 citizens who attend local walking groups. PMID:27436259

  9. 2015-2018 Regional Prevention Plan of Lombardy (Northern Italy) and sedentary prevention: a cross-sectional strategy to develop evidence-based programmes.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Liliana; Ripamonti, Ennio; Cereda, Danilo; Gelmi, Giusi; Pirrone, Lucia; Rebecchi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sector, life-course, and setting approaches are identified in the 2015-2018 Regional Prevention Plan (PRP) of Lombardy Region (Northern Italy) as valuable strategies to ensure the efficacy and sustainable prevention of the non-communicable disease (NCDs). The involvement of non-health sectors in health promotion activities represents a suitable strategy to affect on social, economic, and political determinants and to change environmental factors that could cause NCDs. A dialogue among communities, urban planning, and prevention know-how is a prerequisite to develop a system of policies suitable to promote healthy lifestyle in general and, specifically, active lifestyles. The 2015-2018 Lombardy PRP pursues its aims of health promotion and behavioural risk factors for NCDs prevention through programmes that implement their own setting networks (Health Promoting Schools - SPS; Workplace Health Promotion - WHP) and develop new networks. Sedentary lifestyle prevention and active lifestyle promotion are performed through the approach promoted by the Healthy Cities Programme (WHO), encouraging two main processes: 1. creating integrated capacity-building among health and social prevention services, academic research, and local stakeholders on different urban planning and design issues; 2. promoting community empowerment through active citizens participation. Through this process, Lombardy Region aims to orient its services developing evidence-based programmes and enhancing advocacy and mediating capacity skills in order to create a profitable partnership with non-health sectors. This paper reports the main impact data: 26,000 children that reach school by foot thanks to walking buses, 57% of 145 companies joining WHP are involved in promoting physical activity, 18,891 citizens who attend local walking groups.

  10. Socioeconomic disadvantage and its implications for population health planning of obesity and overweight, using cross-sectional data from general practices from a regional catchment in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Abhijeet; Charlton, Karen E; Batterham, Marijka J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To identify smaller geographic and region-specific evidence to inform population health planning for overweight and obesity. Design Cross-sectional secondary analysis of data. Setting Primary healthcare—17 general practices located in the Illawarra-Shoalhaven region of New South Wales (NSW). Participants A subset (n=36 674) of the Sentinel Practices Data Sourcing project adult persons data set (n=118 794) that included information on disease status of all adult patients who had height and weight measurements recorded in their electronic health records and had visited the included general practices within the Illawarra-Shoalhaven region of NSW between September 2011 and September 2013. Main outcome measures Age-adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of overweight and obesity was determined for high and low levels of socioeconomic disadvantage based on Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA)—Index of Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage (IRSD) scores of patients' residential statistical local area. Results In men, overweight was lowest in areas of highest socioeconomic disadvantage (aOR=0.910; 95% CI 0.830 to 0.998; p<0.001); but no statistically significant association with socioeconomic score was found for women. Overall obesity was associated with high socioeconomic disadvantage (aOR=1.292; 95% CI 1.210 to 1.379; p<0.001). Conclusions This type of data analysis reveals multiple layers of evidence that should be assessed for population health approaches to curb the epidemic of obesity and overweight. It strongly highlights the need for preventive health initiatives to be specific to gender and socioeconomic attributes of the target population. PMID:27142857

  11. Deep observation of the NGC 1275 region with MAGIC: search of diffuse γ-ray emission from cosmic rays in the Perseus cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahnen, M. L.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Babic, A.; Banerjee, B.; Bangale, P.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Bernardini, E.; Biasuzzi, B.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Borracci, F.; Bretz, T.; Buson, S.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Clavero, R.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Lotto, B.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Di Pierro, F.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Einecke, S.; Eisenacher Glawion, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Fernández-Barral, A.; Fidalgo, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Frantzen, K.; Fruck, C.; Galindo, D.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido Terrats, D.; Gaug, M.; Giammaria, P.; Godinović, N.; González Muñoz, A.; Gora, D.; Guberman, D.; Hadasch, D.; Hahn, A.; Hanabata, Y.; Hayashida, M.; Herrera, J.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Hughes, G.; Idec, W.; Kodani, K.; Konno, Y.; Kubo, H.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; López-Coto, R.; Lorenz, E.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, M.; Mallot, K.; Maneva, G.; Manganaro, M.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Moretti, E.; Nakajima, D.; Neustroev, V.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nievas Rosillo, M.; Nilsson, K.; Nishijima, K.; Noda, K.; Orito, R.; Overkemping, A.; Paiano, S.; Palacio, J.; Palatiello, M.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Pedaletti, G.; Persic, M.; Poutanen, J.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rodriguez Garcia, J.; Saito, T.; Satalecka, K.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Stamerra, A.; Steinbring, T.; Strzys, M.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Thaele, J.; Torres, D. F.; Toyama, T.; Treves, A.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Verguilov, V.; Vovk, I.; Ward, J. E.; Will, M.; Wu, M. H.; Zanin, R.; Pfrommer, C.; Pinzke, A.; Zandanel, F.

    2016-05-01

    Clusters of galaxies are expected to be reservoirs of cosmic rays (CRs) that should produce diffuse γ-ray emission due to their hadronic interactions with the intra-cluster medium. The nearby Perseus cool-core cluster, identified as the most promising target to search for such an emission, has been observed with the MAGIC telescopes at very-high energies (VHE, E ≳ 100 GeV) for a total of 253 h from 2009 to 2014. The active nuclei of NGC 1275, the central dominant galaxy of the cluster, and IC 310, lying at about 0.6° from the centre, have been detected as point-like VHE γ-ray emitters during the first phase of this campaign. We report an updated measurement of the NGC 1275 spectrum, which is described well by a power law with a photon index Γ = 3.6 ± 0.2stat ± 0.2syst between 90 GeV and 1200 GeV. We do not detect any diffuse γ-ray emission from the cluster and so set stringent constraints on its CR population. To bracket the uncertainties over the CR spatial and spectral distributions, we adopt different spatial templates and power-law spectral indexes α. For α = 2.2, the CR-to-thermal pressure within the cluster virial radius is constrained to be ≲ 1-2%, except if CRs can propagate out of the cluster core, generating a flatter radial distribution and releasing the CR-to-thermal pressure constraint to ≲ 20%. Assuming that the observed radio mini-halo of Perseus is generated by secondary electrons from CR hadronic interactions, we can derive lower limits on the central magnetic field, B0, that depend on the CR distribution. For α = 2.2, B0 ≳ 5-8 μG, which is below the ~25 μG inferred from Faraday rotation measurements, whereas for α ≲ 2.1, the hadronic interpretation of the diffuse radio emission contrasts with our γ-ray flux upper limits independently of the magnetic field strength.

  12. FISH analysis of hematological neoplasias with 1p36 rearrangements allows the definition of a cluster of 2.5 Mb included in the minimal region deleted in 1p36 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lahortiga, Idoya; Vázquez, Iria; Belloni, Elena; Román, José P; Gasparini, Patrizia; Novo, Francisco J; Zudaire, Isabel; Pelicci, Pier G; Hernández, Jesús M; Calasanz, María J; Odero, María D

    2005-05-01

    Rearrangements in the distal region of the short arm of chromosome 1 are recurrent aberrations in a broad spectrum of human neoplasias. However, neither the location of the breakpoints (BP) on 1p36 nor the candidate genes have been fully determined. We have characterized, by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), the BP in 26 patients with hematological neoplasias and 1p36 rearrangements in the G-banding karyotype. FISH allowed a better characterization of all samples analyzed. Nine cases (35%) showed reciprocal translocations, 15 (58%) unbalanced rearrangements, and two (7%) deletions. We describe two new recurrent aberrations. In 18 of the 26 cases analyzed the BP were located in band 1p36, which is 25.5 Mb long. In 14 of these 18 cases (78%) and without distinction between myeloid and lymphoid neoplasias, the BP clustered in a 2.5 Mb region located between 1p36.32 and the telomere. Interestingly, this region is contained in the 10.5 Mb cluster on 1p36.22-1pter defined in cases with 1p36 deletion syndrome. The 2.5 Mb region, located on 1p36.32-1pter, has a higher frequency of occurrence of tandem repeats and segmental duplications larger than 1 kb, when compared with the 25.5 Mb of the complete 1p36 band. This could explain its proneness for involvement in chromosomal rearrangements in hematological neoplasias.

  13. Coral diversity and the severity of disease outbreaks: a cross-regional comparison of Acropora white syndrome in a species-rich region (American Samoa) with a species-poor region (Northwestern Hawaiian Islands).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aeby, G.S.; Bourne, D.G.; Wilson, B.; Work, Thierry M.

    2011-01-01

    The dynamics of the coral disease, Acropora white syndrome (AWS), was directly compared on reefs in the species-poor region of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) and the species-rich region of American Samoa (AS) with results suggesting that biodiversity, which can affect the abundance of susceptible hosts, is important in influencing the impacts of coral disease outbreaks. The diversity-disease hypothesis predicts that decreased host species diversity should result in increased disease severity of specialist pathogens. We found that AWS was more prevalent and had a higher incidence within the NWHI as compared to AS. Individual Acropora colonies affected by AWS showed high mortality in both regions, but case fatality rate and disease severity was higher in the NWHI. The site within the NWHI had a monospecific stand of A. cytherea; a species that is highly susceptible to AWS. Once AWS entered the site, it spread easily amongst the abundant susceptible hosts. The site within AS contained numerous Acropora species, which differed in their apparent susceptibility to infection and disease severity, which in turn reduced disease spread. Manipulative studies showed AWS was transmissible through direct contact in three Acropora species. These results will help managers predict and respond to disease outbreaks.

  14. Quintuplet Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Penetrating 25,000 light-years of obscuring dust and myriad stars, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has provided the clearest view yet of one of the largest young clusters of stars inside our Milky Way galaxy, located less than 100 light-years from the very center of the Galaxy. Having the equivalent mass greater than 10,000 stars like our sun, the monster cluster is ten times larger than typical young star clusters scattered throughout our Milky Way. It is destined to be ripped apart in just a few million years by gravitational tidal forces in the galaxy's core. But in its brief lifetime it shines more brightly than any other star cluster in the Galaxy. Quintuplet Cluster is 4 million years old. It has stars on the verge of blowing up as supernovae. It is the home of the brightest star seen in the galaxy, called the Pistol star. This image was taken in infrared light by Hubble's NICMOS camera in September 1997. The false colors correspond to infrared wavelengths. The galactic center stars are white, the red stars are enshrouded in dust or behind dust, and the blue stars are foreground stars between us and the Milky Way's center. The cluster is hidden from direct view behind black dust clouds in the constellation Sagittarius. If the cluster could be seen from earth it would appear to the naked eye as a 3rd magnitude star, 1/6th of a full moon's diameter apart.

  15. Color segmentation using MDL clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Richard S.; Suenaga, Yasuhito

    1991-02-01

    This paper describes a procedure for segmentation of color face images. A cluster analysis algorithm uses a subsample of the input image color pixels to detect clusters in color space. The clustering program consists of two parts. The first part searches for a hierarchical clustering using the NIHC algorithm. The second part searches the resultant cluster tree for a level clustering having minimum description length (MDL). One of the primary advantages of the MDL paradigm is that it enables writing robust vision algorithms that do not depend on user-specified threshold parameters or other " magic numbers. " This technical note describes an application of minimal length encoding in the analysis of digitized human face images at the NTT Human Interface Laboratories. We use MDL clustering to segment color images of human faces. For color segmentation we search for clusters in color space. Using only a subsample of points from the original face image our clustering program detects color clusters corresponding to the hair skin and background regions in the image. Then a maximum likelyhood classifier assigns the remaining pixels to each class. The clustering program tends to group small facial features such as the nostrils mouth and eyes together but they can be separated from the larger classes through connected components analysis.

  16. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Diabetes Mellitus among Tuberculosis Patients in South-Eastern Amhara Region, Ethiopia: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Workneh, Mahteme Haile; Bjune, Gunnar Aksel; Yimer, Solomon Abebe

    2016-01-01

    Background The association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and tuberculosis (TB) is re-emerging worldwide. Recently, the prevalence of DM is increasing in resource poor countries where TB is of high burden. The objective of the current study was to determine the prevalence and analyze associated factors of TB and DM comorbidity in South-Eastern Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Methods This was a facility based cross-sectional study. All newly diagnosed TB patients attending selected health facilities in the study area were consecutively screened for DM. DM was diagnosed based on the World Health Organization diagnostic criteria. A pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic, lifestyles and clinical data. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with TB and DM comorbidity. Result Among a total of 1314 patients who participated in the study, the prevalence of DM was estimated at 109 (8.3%). Being female [odds ratio (OR) 1.70; 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.10–2.62)], patients age [41–64 years (OR 3.35; 95% CI (2.01–5.57), 65–89 years (OR 3.18; 95% CI (1.52–6.64)], being a pulmonary TB case [(OR 1.69; 95% CI 1.09–2.63)] and having a family history of DM [(OR 4.54; 95% CI (2.36–8.73)] were associated factors identified with TB and DM comorbidity. Conclusion The prevalence of DM among TB patients in South-Eastern Amahra Region is high. Routine screening of TB patients for DM is recommended in the study area. PMID:26808967

  17. H-cluster stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, X. Y.; Gao, C. Y.; Xu, R. X.

    2013-06-01

    The study of dense matter at ultrahigh density has a very long history, which is meaningful for us to understand not only cosmic events in extreme circumstances but also fundamental laws of physics. It is well known that the state of cold matter at supranuclear density depends on the non-perturbative nature of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and is essential for modelling pulsars. A so-called H-cluster matter is proposed in this paper as the nature of dense matter in reality. In compact stars at only a few nuclear densities but low temperature, quarks could be interacting strongly with each other there. That might render quarks grouped in clusters, although the hypothetical quark clusters in cold dense matter have not been confirmed due to the lack of both theoretical and experimental evidence. Motivated by recent lattice QCD simulations of the H-dibaryons (with structure uuddss), we therefore consider here a possible kind of quark clusters, H-clusters, that could emerge inside compact stars during their initial cooling as the dominant components inside (the degree of freedom could then be H-clusters there). Taking into account the in-medium stiffening effect, we find that at baryon densities of compact stars H-cluster matter could be more stable than nuclear matter. We also find that for the H-cluster matter with lattice structure, the equation of state could be so stiff that it would seem to be `superluminal' in the most dense region. However, the real sound speed for H-cluster matter is in fact difficult to calculate, so at this stage we do not put constraints on our model from the usual requirement of causality. We study the stars composed of H-clusters, i.e. H-cluster stars, and derive the dependence of their maximum mass on the in-medium stiffening effect, showing that the maximum mass could be well above 2 M⊙ as observed and that the resultant mass-radius relation fits the measurement of the rapid burster under reasonable parameters. Besides a general

  18. A GMBCG Galaxy Cluster Catalog of 55,424 Rich Clusters from SDSS DR7

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Jiangang; McKay, Timothy A.; Koester, Benjamin P.; Rykoff, Eli S.; Rozo, Eduardo; Annis, James; Wechsler, Risa H.; Evrard, August; Siegel, Seth R.; Becker, Matthew; Busha, Michael; Gerdes, David; Johnston, David E.; Sheldon, Erin; /Brookhaven

    2011-08-22

    We present a large catalog of optically selected galaxy clusters from the application of a new Gaussian Mixture Brightest Cluster Galaxy (GMBCG) algorithm to SDSS Data Release 7 data. The algorithm detects clusters by identifying the red sequence plus Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) feature, which is unique for galaxy clusters and does not exist among field galaxies. Red sequence clustering in color space is detected using an Error Corrected Gaussian Mixture Model. We run GMBCG on 8240 square degrees of photometric data from SDSS DR7 to assemble the largest ever optical galaxy cluster catalog, consisting of over 55,000 rich clusters across the redshift range from 0.1 < z < 0.55. We present Monte Carlo tests of completeness and purity and perform cross-matching with X-ray clusters and with the maxBCG sample at low redshift. These tests indicate high completeness and purity across the full redshift range for clusters with 15 or more members.

  19. A GMBCG galaxy cluster catalog of 55,880 rich clusters from SDSS DR7

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Jiangang; McKay, Timothy A.; Koester, Benjamin P.; Rykoff, Eli S.; Rozo, Eduardo; Annis, James; Wechsler, Risa H.; Evrard, August; Siegel, Seth R.; Becker, Matthew; Busha, Michael; /Fermilab /Michigan U. /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr. /UC, Santa Barbara /KICP, Chicago /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Caltech /Brookhaven

    2010-08-01

    We present a large catalog of optically selected galaxy clusters from the application of a new Gaussian Mixture Brightest Cluster Galaxy (GMBCG) algorithm to SDSS Data Release 7 data. The algorithm detects clusters by identifying the red sequence plus Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) feature, which is unique for galaxy clusters and does not exist among field galaxies. Red sequence clustering in color space is detected using an Error Corrected Gaussian Mixture Model. We run GMBCG on 8240 square degrees of photometric data from SDSS DR7 to assemble the largest ever optical galaxy cluster catalog, consisting of over 55,000 rich clusters across the redshift range from 0.1 < z < 0.55. We present Monte Carlo tests of completeness and purity and perform cross-matching with X-ray clusters and with the maxBCG sample at low redshift. These tests indicate high completeness and purity across the full redshift range for clusters with 15 or more members.

  20. Case studies, cross-site comparisons, and the challenge of generalization: comparing agent-based models of land-use change in frontier regions.

    PubMed

    Parker, Dawn C; Entwisle, Barbara; Rindfuss, Ronald R; Vanwey, Leah K; Manson, Steven M; Moran, Emilio; An, Li; Deadman, Peter; Evans, Tom P; Linderman, Marc; Rizi, S Mohammad Mussavi; Malanson, George

    2008-01-01

    Cross-site comparisons of case studies have been identified as an important priority by the land-use science community. From an empirical perspective, such comparisons potentially allow generalizations that may contribute to production of global-scale land-use and land-cover change projections. From a theoretical perspective, such comparisons can inform development of a theory of land-use science by identifying potential hypotheses and supporting or refuting evidence. This paper undertakes a structured comparison of four case studies of land-use change in frontier regions that follow an agent-based modeling approach. Our hypothesis is that each case study represents a particular manifestation of a common process. Given differences in initial conditions among sites and the time at which the process is observed, actual mechanisms and outcomes are anticipated to differ substantially between sites. Our goal is to reveal both commonalities and differences among research sites, model implementations, and ultimately, conclusions derived from the modeling process.

  1. Dynamics of regional brain activity in epilepsy: a cross-disciplinary study on both intracranial and scalp-recorded epileptic seizures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minadakis, George; Ventouras, Errikos; Gatzonis, Stylianos D.; Siatouni, Anna; Tsekou, Hara; Kalatzis, Ioannis; Sakas, Damianos E.; Stonham, John

    2014-04-01

    Objective. Recent cross-disciplinary literature suggests a dynamical analogy between earthquakes and epileptic seizures. This study extends the focus of inquiry for the applicability of models for earthquake dynamics to examine both scalp-recorded and intracranial electroencephalogram recordings related to epileptic seizures. Approach. First, we provide an updated definition of the electric event in terms of magnitude and we focus on the applicability of (i) a model for earthquake dynamics, rooted in a nonextensive Tsallis framework, (ii) the traditional Gutenberg and Richter law and (iii) an alternative method for the magnitude-frequency relation for earthquakes. Second, we apply spatiotemporal analysis in terms of nonextensive statistical physics and we further examine the behavior of the parameters included in the nonextensive formula for both types of electroencephalogram recordings under study. Main results. We confirm the previously observed power-law distribution, showing that the nonextensive formula can adequately describe the sequences of electric events included in both types of electroencephalogram recordings. We also show the intermittent behavior of the epileptic seizure cycle which is analogous to the earthquake cycles and we provide evidence of self-affinity of the regional electroencephalogram epileptic seizure activity. Significance. This study may provide a framework for the analysis and interpretation of epileptic brain activity and other biological phenomena with similar underlying dynamical mechanisms.

  2. Case studies, cross-site comparisons, and the challenge of generalization: comparing agent-based models of land-use change in frontier regions

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Dawn C.; Entwisle, Barbara; Rindfuss, Ronald R.; Vanwey, Leah K.; Manson, Steven M.; Moran, Emilio; An, Li; Deadman, Peter; Evans, Tom P.; Linderman, Marc; Rizi, S. Mohammad Mussavi; Malanson, George

    2009-01-01

    Cross-site comparisons of case studies have been identified as an important priority by the land-use science community. From an empirical perspective, such comparisons potentially allow generalizations that may contribute to production of global-scale land-use and land-cover change projections. From a theoretical perspective, such comparisons can inform development of a theory of land-use science by identifying potential hypotheses and supporting or refuting evidence. This paper undertakes a structured comparison of four case studies of land-use change in frontier regions that follow an agent-based modeling approach. Our hypothesis is that each case study represents a particular manifestation of a common process. Given differences in initial conditions among sites and the time at which the process is observed, actual mechanisms and outcomes are anticipated to differ substantially between sites. Our goal is to reveal both commonalities and differences among research sites, model implementations, and ultimately, conclusions derived from the modeling process. PMID:19960107

  3. Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Christopher J. Miller

    2012-03-01

    There are many examples of clustering in astronomy. Stars in our own galaxy are often seen as being gravitationally bound into tight globular or open clusters. The Solar System's Trojan asteroids cluster at the gravitational Langrangian in front of Jupiter’s orbit. On the largest of scales, we find gravitationally bound clusters of galaxies, the Virgo cluster (in the constellation of Virgo at a distance of ˜50 million light years) being a prime nearby example. The Virgo cluster subtends an angle of nearly 8◦ on the sky and is known to contain over a thousand member galaxies. Galaxy clusters play an important role in our understanding of theUniverse. Clusters exist at peaks in the three-dimensional large-scale matter density field. Their sky (2D) locations are easy to detect in astronomical imaging data and their mean galaxy redshifts (redshift is related to the third spatial dimension: distance) are often better (spectroscopically) and cheaper (photometrically) when compared with the entire galaxy population in large sky surveys. Photometric redshift (z) [Photometric techniques use the broad band filter magnitudes of a galaxy to estimate the redshift. Spectroscopic techniques use the galaxy spectra and emission/absorption line features to measure the redshift] determinations of galaxies within clusters are accurate to better than delta_z = 0.05 [7] and when studied as a cluster population, the central galaxies form a line in color-magnitude space (called the the E/S0 ridgeline and visible in Figure 16.3) that contains galaxies with similar stellar populations [15]. The shape of this E/S0 ridgeline enables astronomers to measure the cluster redshift to within delta_z = 0.01 [23]. The most accurate cluster redshift determinations come from spectroscopy of the member galaxies, where only a fraction of the members need to be spectroscopically observed [25,42] to get an accurate redshift to the whole system. If light traces mass in the Universe, then the locations

  4. Active matter clusters at interfaces.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copenhagen, Katherine; Gopinathan, Ajay

    2016-03-01

    Collective and directed motility or swarming is an emergent phenomenon displayed by many self-organized assemblies of active biological matter such as clusters of embryonic cells during tissue development, cancerous cells during tumor formation and metastasis, colonies of bacteria in a biofilm, or even flocks of birds and schools of fish at the macro-scale. Such clusters typically encounter very heterogeneous environments. What happens when a cluster encounters an interface between two different environments has implications for its function and fate. Here we study this problem by using a mathematical model of a cluster that treats it as a single cohesive unit that moves in two dimensions by exerting a force/torque per unit area whose magnitude depends on the nature of the local environment. We find that low speed (overdamped) clusters encountering an interface with a moderate difference in properties can lead to refraction or even total internal reflection of the cluster. For large speeds (underdamped), where inertia dominates, the clusters show more complex behaviors crossing the interface multiple times and deviating from the predictable refraction and reflection for the low velocity clusters. We then present an extreme limit of the model in the absence of rotational damping where clusters can become stuck spiraling along the interface or move in large circular trajectories after leaving the interface. Our results show a wide range of behaviors that occur when collectively moving active biological matter moves across interfaces and these insights can be used to control motion by patterning environments.

  5. Occupational Clusters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pottawattamie County School System, Council Bluffs, IA.

    The 15 occupational clusters (transportation, fine arts and humanities, communications and media, personal service occupations, construction, hospitality and recreation, health occupations, marine science occupations, consumer and homemaking-related occupations, agribusiness and natural resources, environment, public service, business and office…

  6. Cluster generator

    DOEpatents

    Donchev, Todor I.; Petrov, Ivan G.

    2011-05-31

    Described herein is an apparatus and a method for producing atom clusters based on a gas discharge within a hollow cathode. The hollow cathode includes one or more walls. The one or more walls define a sputtering chamber within the hollow cathode and include a material to be sputtered. A hollow anode is positioned at an end of the sputtering chamber, and atom clusters are formed