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Sample records for cross regional cluster

  1. Cross-entropy clustering framework for catchment classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tongal, Hakan; Sivakumar, Bellie

    2017-09-01

    There is an increasing interest in catchment classification and regionalization in hydrology, as they are useful for identification of appropriate model complexity and transfer of information from gauged catchments to ungauged ones, among others. This study introduces a nonlinear cross-entropy clustering (CEC) method for classification of catchments. The method specifically considers embedding dimension (m), sample entropy (SampEn), and coefficient of variation (CV) to represent dimensionality, complexity, and variability of the time series, respectively. The method is applied to daily streamflow time series from 217 gauging stations across Australia. The results suggest that a combination of linear and nonlinear parameters (i.e. m, SampEn, and CV), representing different aspects of the underlying dynamics of streamflows, could be useful for determining distinct patterns of flow generation mechanisms within a nonlinear clustering framework. For the 217 streamflow time series, nine hydrologically homogeneous clusters that have distinct patterns of flow regime characteristics and specific dominant hydrological attributes with different climatic features are obtained. Comparison of the results with those obtained using the widely employed k-means clustering method (which results in five clusters, with the loss of some information about the features of the clusters) suggests the superiority of the cross-entropy clustering method. The outcomes from this study provide a useful guideline for employing the nonlinear dynamic approaches based on hydrologic signatures and for gaining an improved understanding of streamflow variability at a large scale.

  2. Cross-Clustering: A Partial Clustering Algorithm with Automatic Estimation of the Number of Clusters

    PubMed Central

    Tellaroli, Paola; Bazzi, Marco; Donato, Michele; Brazzale, Alessandra R.; Drăghici, Sorin

    2016-01-01

    Four of the most common limitations of the many available clustering methods are: i) the lack of a proper strategy to deal with outliers; ii) the need for a good a priori estimate of the number of clusters to obtain reasonable results; iii) the lack of a method able to detect when partitioning of a specific data set is not appropriate; and iv) the dependence of the result on the initialization. Here we propose Cross-clustering (CC), a partial clustering algorithm that overcomes these four limitations by combining the principles of two well established hierarchical clustering algorithms: Ward’s minimum variance and Complete-linkage. We validated CC by comparing it with a number of existing clustering methods, including Ward’s and Complete-linkage. We show on both simulated and real datasets, that CC performs better than the other methods in terms of: the identification of the correct number of clusters, the identification of outliers, and the determination of real cluster memberships. We used CC to cluster samples in order to identify disease subtypes, and on gene profiles, in order to determine groups of genes with the same behavior. Results obtained on a non-biological dataset show that the method is general enough to be successfully used in such diverse applications. The algorithm has been implemented in the statistical language R and is freely available from the CRAN contributed packages repository. PMID:27015427

  3. 75 FR 53667 - Space Coast Regional Innovation Cluster Competition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ....: 1008270400-0400-01] Space Coast Regional Innovation Cluster Competition AGENCY: Economic Development... announces the upcoming availability of funding for the Space Coast Regional Innovation Cluster (RIC... catalyze the advancement of Central Florida's key regional industry clusters. Additional information can...

  4. REGION OF GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 6397

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Right A NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of a small region (1.4 light-years across) in the globular star cluster NGC 6397 shows far fewer stars than would be expected in faint red dwarf stars were abundant. HST resolves about 200 stars. The stellar density is so low that HST can literally see right through the cluster and resolve far more distant background galaxies. This observation shows the surprising cutoff point below which nature apparently doesn't make many stars smaller that 1/5 the mass of our Sun. If there were lower mass stars in the cluster, then the image would contain an estimated 500 stars. This observation provides new insights into star formation in our Galaxy. Left A ground-based sky survey photograph of the globular cluster NGC 6397, one of the nearest and densest agglomerations of stars to Earth. The cluster is located 7,200 light-years away in the southern constellation Ara, and is one of 150 such objects which orbit our Milky Way Galaxy. Globular clusters are ideal laboratories for studying the formation and evolution of stars. This visible light picture was taken on March 3, 1994 with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, as part of the HST parallel observing program. Credit: F. Paresce, ST ScI and ESA and NASA

  5. Cluster in the Auroral Acceleration Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickett, Jolene S.; Fazakerley, Andrew N.; Marklund, Gorun; Dandouras, Iannis; Christopher, Ivar W.; Kistler, Lynn; Lucek, Elizabeth; Masson, Arnaud; Taylor, Matthew G.; Mutel, Robert L.; Santolik, Ondrej; Bell, Timothy F.; Fung, Shing; Pottelette, Raymond; Hanasz, Jan; Schreiber, Roman; Hull, Arthur J.

    2010-01-01

    Due to a fortuitous evolution of the Cluster orbit, the Cluster spacecraft penetrated for the first time in its mission the heart of Earth's auroral acceleration region (AAR) in December 2009 and January 2010. During this time a special AAR campaign was carried out by the various Cluster instrument teams with special support from ESA and NASA facilities. We present some of the first multi-spacecraft observations of the waves, particles and fields made during that campaign. The Cluster spacecraft configuration during these AAR passages was such that it allowed us to explore the differences in the signatures of waves, particles, and fields on the various spacecraft in ways not possible with single spacecraft. For example, one spacecraft was more poleward than the other three (C2), one was at higher altitude (C1), and one of them (0) followed another (C4) through the AAR on approximately the same track but delayed by three minutes. Their separations were generally on the order of a few thousand km or less and occasionally two of them were lying along the same magnetic field line. We will show some of the first analyses of the data obtained during the AAR campaign, where upward and downward current regions, and the waves specifically associated with those regions, as well as the auroral cavities, were observed similarly and differently on the various spacecraft, helping us to explore the spatial, as well as the temporal, aspects of processes occurring in the AAR.

  6. [Regional and local clusters of railway suicides].

    PubMed

    Erazo, N; Baumert, J; Ladwig, K-H

    2004-11-01

    Suicide research has identified regional and local clusters of increased suicide prevalence. As part of a comprehensive prevention strategy to fight railway suicides, we sought to identify such particular clusters on the German Railway net (total length 37,080 km) during a 6-year observation period (1997-2002). Data stem from the central registry of all person accidents on the German Railway net. During the observation period, a total of 5,731 suicides (in average 18 cases per week) were registered. Against expectation derived from distribution patterns in the general suicide research, we found a preponderance in the southern part compared to the northern part of Germany and a significant downward trend from west to east ( p=0.004). Most suicides occurred on open track (66%) compared to suicides at railway platforms (34%). We identified 16 places of high risk with 6 to 29 suicides per railway km. Of these high risk places, 75% were in the proximity of psychiatric hospitals. Increased awareness for regional and local suicide clusters, initiatives to reduce the accessibility and warning infra-red beams are among recommendations for suicide prevention derived from these data.

  7. Electron impact ionization cross sections of beryllium-tungsten clusters*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukuba, Ivan; Kaiser, Alexander; Huber, Stefan E.; Urban, Jan; Probst, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We report calculated electron impact ionization cross sections (EICSs) of beryllium-tungsten clusters, BenW with n = 1,...,12, from the ionization threshold to 10 keV using the Deutsch-Märk (DM) and the binary-encounter-Bethe (BEB) formalisms. The positions of the maxima of DM and BEB cross sections are mostly close to each other. The DM cross sections are more sensitive with respect to the cluster size. For the clusters smaller than Be4W they yield smaller cross sections than BEB and vice versa larger cross sections than BEB for clusters larger than Be6W. The maximum cross section values for the singlet-spin groundstate clusters range from 7.0 × 10-16 cm2 at 28 eV (BeW) to 54.2 × 10-16 cm2 at 43 eV (Be12W) for the DM cross sections and from 13.5 × 10-16 cm2 at 43 eV (BeW) to 38.9 × 10-16 cm2 at 43 eV (Be12W) for the BEB cross sections. Differences of the EICSs in different isomers and between singlet and triplet states are also explored. Both the DM and BEB cross sections could be fitted perfectly to a simple expression used in modeling and simulation codes in the framework of nuclear fusion research. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Atomic Cluster Collisions (7th International Symposium)", edited by Gerardo Delgado Barrio, Andrey Solov'Yov, Pablo Villarreal, Rita Prosmiti.Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjd/e2015-60583-7

  8. Cluster-tic syndrome: a cross-sectional study of cluster headache patients.

    PubMed

    Wilbrink, Leopoldine A; Weller, Claudia M; Cheung, Carlo; Haan, Joost; Ferrari, Michel D

    2013-09-01

    To determine the prevalence and nature of trigeminal neuralgia in a large group of cluster headache patients. Cluster-tic syndrome is a rare headache syndrome in which trigeminal neuralgia and cluster headache co-occur. The existence of cluster-tic syndrome as a separate entity is questioned, and figures on prevalence of simultaneous existence of cluster headache and trigeminal neuralgia are not available. As part of a nationwide study on headache mechanisms in cluster headache (Leiden University Medical Centre Cluster headache Neuro Analysis programme), we collected clinical data of 244 cluster headache patients using a semistructured telephone interview in a cross-sectional design. In 11 (4.5%) cluster headache patients, attacks fulfilling International Headache Society criteria for trigeminal neuralgia were also present. In all cases, trigeminal neuralgia occurred ipsilateral to cluster headache and in the majority (82%) in the ophthalmic branch. In 8 of these 11 patients (73%), the frequency and time pattern of trigeminal neuralgia seemed to parallel cluster headache and was likely a part of the cluster headache spectrum. In the 3 remaining patients, cluster headache and trigeminal neuralgia were unrelated in time and appeared to occur independently. Trigeminal neuralgia co-occurred in 11/244 (4.5%) of cluster headache patients. In only 3 (1.2%) patients, trigeminal neuralgia seemed to occur independently from cluster headache episodes. Trigeminal neuralgia (-like) attacks in cluster headache patients are most of the time part of the cluster headache spectrum and should then probably not be treated separately. A shared underlying pathophysiological mechanism of cluster headache and trigeminal neuralgia is not supported by this study. © 2013 American Headache Society.

  9. Cluster Multi-Point Studies of the Auroral Acceleration Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marklund, G. T.

    2014-12-01

    Multi-point studies of the auroral acceleration region (AAR) by the Cluster spacecraft has enabled a number of open issues on the auroral acceleration to be addressed and revealed. Data from AAR crossings of Inverted-V aurora, by the C1 and C3 spacecraft at different altitudes, enabled a detailed reconstruction of the acceleration potential and a verification of its stability on a five min time scale. The relative role of quasi-static and Alfvénic acceleration behind aurora are addressed in two event studies. In one of these, the two processes are shown to operate jointly on the plasma population within the polar cap boundary. In the other, the electron energy flux producing multiple arcs within a surge is found to be generally dominated by the quasi-static contribution. Acceleration features and the FAC closure associated with surge-horn aurora crossed by the Cluster fleet were derived in another event study. A study of the density distribution within the auroral cavity, showed for all included events, exponential density decreases, relative to the ambient densities, from the mid to top of the AAR. In another study, cavities were found to extend well beyond the top of the AAR. Finally, statistical high-latitude electric field and plasma density distributions are presented based on 10 years of Cluster data collected between 2 and 4 RE altitudes. Intense electric fields appear in two altitude regimes on the nightside, separated by a gap at 2.8 RE. The upper altitude fields were interpreted to be Alfvénic and the lower altitude fields quasi-static, related to the AAR. The gap in the electric field intensity indicates a partial closure of the potentials in the lower region, with similarities to model results of reflected Alfvén waves and earlier reported observations

  10. Membership determination of open cluster with parametric method: cross entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoirul Fitriana, Itsna; Ikbal Arifiyanto, M.

    2016-11-01

    Stellar open clusters are useful for studying the structure and evolution of Galaxy. Determination of the open cluster members can be viewed from their kinematics: proper motion and radial velocity. It is because the star cluster members will have a motion in the same direction, towards a convergent point. Parametric method with a double elliptic bivariate gaussian function which contains 11 parameters is used as a model of the proper motion distribution. The value of these parameters are determined numerically by cross entropy method. This method is a method of data fitting using the likelihood function whose value is maximized to get the proper parameters. This method solves the problem of determining the initial value that is often difficult to determine in other numerical methods. There are four open clusters which we have analysed: NGC 2244, ASCC 100, NGC 5168, and NGC 2169. The resulting of proper motion parameters of this method matches the parameters in the literature.

  11. K-region-based Clustering Algorithm for Image Segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, R.; Arthanariee, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, authors have proposed K-region-based clustering algorithm which is based on performing the clustering techniques in K number of regions of given image of size N × N. The K and N are power of 2 and K < N. The authors have divided the given image into 4 regions, 16 regions, 64 regions, 256 regions, 1024 regions, 4096 regions and 16384 regions based on the value of K. Authors have grouped the adjacent pixels of similar intensity value into same cluster in each region. The clusters of similar values in each adjacent region are grouped together to form the bigger clusters. The authors have obtained the different segmented images based on the K number of regions. These segmented images are useful for image understanding. The authors have been taken four parameters: Probabilistic rand index, variation of information, global consistency error and boundary displacement error. These parameters have used to evaluate and analyze the performance of the K-region-based clustering algorithm.

  12. Electron impact ionisation cross sections of iron hydrogen clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Stefan E.; Sukuba, Ivan; Urban, Jan; Limtrakul, Jumras; Probst, Michael

    2016-09-01

    We computed electron impact ionisation cross sections (EICSs) of iron hydrogen clusters, FeH n with n = 1,2, ...,10, from the ionisation threshold to 10 keV using the Deutsch-Märk (DM) and the binary-encounter-Bethe (BEB) formalisms. The maxima of the cross sections for the iron hydrogen clusters range from 6.13 × 10-16 cm2 at 60 eV to 8.76 × 10-16 cm2 at 76 eV for BEB-AE (BEB method based on quantum-chemical data from all-electron basis sets) calculations, from 4.15 × 10-16 cm2 at 77 eV to 7.61 × 10-16 cm2 at 80 eV for BEB-ECP (BEB method based on quantum-chemical data from effective-core potentials for inner-core electrons) calculations and from 2.49 × 10-16 cm2 at 43.5 eV to 7.04 × 10-16 cm2 at 51 eV for the DM method. Cross sections calculated via the BEB method are substantially higher than the ones obtained via the DM method, up to a factor of about two for FeH and FeH2. The formation of Fe-H bonds depopulates the iron 4 s orbital, causing significantly lower cross sections for the small iron hydrides compared to atomic iron. Both the DM and BEB cross sections can be fitted perfectly against a simple expression used in modelling and simulation codes in the framework of nuclear fusion research. The energetics of the iron hydrogen clusters change substantially when exact exchange is present in the density functional, while the cluster geometries do not depend on this choice.

  13. The Clusters - Collaborative Models of Sustainable Regional Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mănescu, Gabriel; Kifor, Claudiu

    2014-12-01

    The clusters are the subject of actions and of whole series of documents issued by national and international organizations, and, based on experience, many authorities promote the idea that because of the clusters, competitiveness increases, the workforce specializes, regional businesses and economies grow. The present paper is meant to be an insight into the initiatives of forming clusters in Romania. Starting from a comprehensive analysis of the development potential offered by each region of economic development, we present the main types of clusters grouped according to fields of activity and their overall objectives

  14. Experimental investigations of size distribution through large van der Waals cluster beam cross-section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shenghong; Daineka, D. V.; Châtelet, M.

    2003-08-01

    Size distributions through large van der Waals cluster beam cross-section are studied with the pick-up technique. Based on our experimental results, we observed that the larger cluster is always concentrated in the center of the beam. From the center to the periphery, the cluster size gradually decreases. The size distributions through the beam cross-section depend on incoming cluster size and incoming cluster velocity. The larger the incoming cluster size or the faster the incoming cluster velocity, the flatter the size distributions through the beam cross-section are found. These experimental results are interpreted by the Mack focusing effect.

  15. Clusters, deformation, and dilation: Diagnostics for material accumulation regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntley, Helga S.; Lipphardt, B. L.; Jacobs, Gregg; Kirwan, A. D.

    2015-10-01

    Clusters of material at the ocean surface have been frequently observed. Such accumulations of material play an important role in a variety of applications, from biology to pollution mitigation. Identifying where clusters will form can aid in locating, for example, hotspots of biological activity or regions of high pollutant concentration. Here cluster strength is introduced as a new metric for defining clusters when all particle positions are known. To diagnose regions likely to contain clusters without the need to integrate millions of particle trajectories, we propose to use dilation, which quantifies area changes of Lagrangian patches. Material deformation is decomposed into dilation and area-preserving stretch processes to refine previous approaches based on finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLE) by splitting the FTLE into fundamental kinematic properties. The concepts are developed theoretically and illustrated in the context of a state-of-the-art data-assimilating predictive ocean model of the Gulf of Mexico. Regions of dilation less than one are shown to be much more likely (6 times more likely in the given example) to be visited by particles than those of dilation greater than one. While the relationship is nonlinear, dilation and cluster strength exhibit a fairly good correlation. In contrast, both stretch and Eulerian divergence are found to be uncorrelated with cluster strength. Thus, dilation maps can be used as guides for identifying cluster locations, while saving some of the computational cost of trajectory integrations.

  16. Probabilistic cross-identification of galaxies with realistic clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallinar, N.; Budavári, T.; Lemson, G.

    2017-07-01

    Probabilistic cross-identification has been successfully applied to a number of problems in astronomy from matching simple point sources to associating stars with unknown proper motions and even radio observations with realistic morphology. Here we study the Bayes factor for clustered objects and focus in particular on galaxies to assess the effect of typical angular correlations. Numerical calculations provide the modified relationship, which (as expected) suppresses the evidence for the associations at the shortest separations where the 2-point auto-correlation function is large. Ultimately this means that the matching probability drops at somewhat shorter scales than in previous models.

  17. Using cluster analysis to organize and explore regional GPS velocities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpson, Robert W.; Thatcher, Wayne; Savage, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Cluster analysis offers a simple visual exploratory tool for the initial investigation of regional Global Positioning System (GPS) velocity observations, which are providing increasingly precise mappings of actively deforming continental lithosphere. The deformation fields from dense regional GPS networks can often be concisely described in terms of relatively coherent blocks bounded by active faults, although the choice of blocks, their number and size, can be subjective and is often guided by the distribution of known faults. To illustrate our method, we apply cluster analysis to GPS velocities from the San Francisco Bay Region, California, to search for spatially coherent patterns of deformation, including evidence of block-like behavior. The clustering process identifies four robust groupings of velocities that we identify with four crustal blocks. Although the analysis uses no prior geologic information other than the GPS velocities, the cluster/block boundaries track three major faults, both locked and creeping.

  18. The efficiency of star formation in clustered and distributed regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnell, Ian A.; Smith, Rowan J.; Clark, Paul C.; Bate, Matthew R.

    2011-02-01

    We investigate the formation of both clustered and distributed populations of young stars in a single molecular cloud. We present a numerical simulation of a 104 M⊙ elongated, turbulent, molecular cloud and the formation of over 2500 stars. The stars form both in stellar clusters and in a distributed mode, which is determined by the local gravitational binding of the cloud. A density gradient along the major axis of the cloud produces bound regions that form stellar clusters and unbound regions that form a more distributed population. The initial mass function (IMF) also depends on the local gravitational binding of the cloud with bound regions forming full IMFs whereas in the unbound, distributed regions the stellar masses cluster around the local Jeans mass and lack both the high-mass and the low-mass stars. The overall efficiency of star formation is ≈ 15 per cent in the cloud when the calculation is terminated, but varies from less than 1 per cent in the regions of distributed star formation to ≈ 40 per cent in regions containing large stellar clusters. Considering that large-scale surveys are likely to catch clouds at all evolutionary stages, estimates of the (time-averaged) star formation efficiency (SFE) for the giant molecular cloud reported here is only ≈ 4 per cent. This would lead to the erroneous conclusion of slow star formation when in fact it is occurring on a dynamical time-scale.

  19. Spatiotemporal patterns of clustered and non-clustered seismic activity in the Shin-etsu and Tokai regions, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Akio; Maeda, Kenji; Takayama, Hiroyuki

    1994-05-01

    We investigated spatiotemporal patterns of seismicity in the Shin-etsu region and Tokai region, central Japan, by separating the seismicity into clustered and non-clustered activity. We found that clustered activity occurred at various sites during short periods in each investigated region and that an alternation of active and quiet periods was clear for the clustered activity. In contrast, non-clustered earthquakes occur at an almost constant rate, and active or quiet periods can not be distinguished in the non-clustered activity. Some evidence suggests that an increase of clustered activity indicates a buildup of the regional stress field.

  20. Spatial connectivity of urban clusters and regional climate effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, G.; Hu, Y.; Xu, R.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid urbanization in East Asia in past three decades is considered as a remarkable process that featured with expansion of urban clusters and tightened linkages within and among clusters. Such process could lead to much larger scale climate effects, and could even contribute to sub-regional and regional climate change. In large area of urban clusters with significant expansion of built-up in relatively short period, local urban heat islands could contribute to sub-regional climate forcing. Here we use visible/near infrared and thermal infrared satellite data to estimate multiple scale structure of urban clusters, and to assess effects of urban heat islands at local and regional scales in East Asia. Our estimates of urban extent were greater than previously reported in most global datasets. Strong spatial connection and internal expansion were found in major urban clusters in past 30 years, and was accelerated in past 10 years. Many city clusters were merging into each other, with gradual blurring boundaries and disappearing of gaps among member cities. Cities and towns were more connected with roads and commercial corridors, while wildland and urban greens became more isolated as patches among built-up areas. We would argue that in many cases in this region, urban clusters are no longer "islands", they are now "seas" in term of climate related urban canopy. Urban greens such as parks and plantation were long recognized for their cooling effects that buffer the urban heat island effect, however, such cooling effects tend to be weakened as their patches became smaller and isolated, and over dominated by urban surfaces. There were significant positive relations between urban fraction and urban heat island effects as demonstrated by VNIR and TIR data from multiple satellites. Those new estimates are expected to effectively improve climate simulation for better understanding the impacts of inter-connected urban clusters on air temperature, precipitation, wind speed

  1. Cluster Prototypes and Fuzzy Memberships Jointly Leveraged Cross-Domain Maximum Entropy Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Pengjiang; Jiang, Yizhang; Deng, Zhaohong; Hu, Lingzhi; Sun, Shouwei; Wang, Shitong; Muzic, Raymond F.

    2016-01-01

    The classical maximum entropy clustering (MEC) algorithm usually cannot achieve satisfactory results in the situations where the data is insufficient, incomplete, or distorted. To address this problem, inspired by transfer learning, the specific cluster prototypes and fuzzy memberships jointly leveraged (CPM-JL) framework for cross-domain MEC (CDMEC) is firstly devised in this paper, and then the corresponding algorithm referred to as CPM-JL-CDMEC and the dedicated validity index named fuzzy memberships-based cross-domain difference measurement (FM-CDDM) are concurrently proposed. In general, the contributions of this paper are fourfold: 1) benefiting from the delicate CPM-JL framework, CPM-JL-CDMEC features high-clustering effectiveness and robustness even in some complex data situations; 2) the reliability of FM-CDDM has been demonstrated to be close to well-established external criteria, e.g., normalized mutual information and rand index, and it does not require additional label information. Hence, using FM-CDDM as a dedicated validity index significantly enhances the applicability of CPM-JL-CDMEC under realistic scenarios; 3) the performance of CPM-JL-CDMEC is generally better than, at least equal to, that of MEC because CPM-JL-CDMEC can degenerate into the standard MEC algorithm after adopting the proper parameters, and which avoids the issue of negative transfer; and 4) in order to maximize privacy protection, CPM-JL-CDMEC employs the known cluster prototypes and their associated fuzzy memberships rather than the raw data in the source domain as prior knowledge. The experimental studies thoroughly evaluated and demonstrated these advantages on both synthetic and real-life transfer datasets. PMID:26684257

  2. HotRegion: a database of predicted hot spot clusters

    PubMed Central

    Cukuroglu, Engin; Keskin, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    Hot spots are energetically important residues at protein interfaces and they are not randomly distributed across the interface but rather clustered. These clustered hot spots form hot regions. Hot regions are important for the stability of protein complexes, as well as providing specificity to binding sites. We propose a database called HotRegion, which provides the hot region information of the interfaces by using predicted hot spot residues, and structural properties of these interface residues such as pair potentials of interface residues, accessible surface area (ASA) and relative ASA values of interface residues of both monomer and complex forms of proteins. Also, the 3D visualization of the interface and interactions among hot spot residues are provided. HotRegion is accessible at http://prism.ccbb.ku.edu.tr/hotregion. PMID:22080558

  3. 75 FR 16739 - EDA Participation in the Energy Efficient Building Systems Regional Innovation Cluster Initiative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... Innovation Cluster Initiative AGENCY: Economic Development Administration (EDA), Department of Commerce... Efficient Building Systems Regional Innovation Cluster Initiative (Initiative), the first pilot project of the Interagency Regional Innovation Clusters Taskforce (Taskforce). The Taskforce has been...

  4. A statistical method (cross-validation) for bone loss region detection after spaceflight

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qian; Li, Wenjun; Li, Caixia; Chu, Philip W.; Kornak, John; Lang, Thomas F.

    2010-01-01

    Astronauts experience bone loss after the long spaceflight missions. Identifying specific regions that undergo the greatest losses (e.g. the proximal femur) could reveal information about the processes of bone loss in disuse and disease. Methods for detecting such regions, however, remains an open problem. This paper focuses on statistical methods to detect such regions. We perform statistical parametric mapping to get t-maps of changes in images, and propose a new cross-validation method to select an optimum suprathreshold for forming clusters of pixels. Once these candidate clusters are formed, we use permutation testing of longitudinal labels to derive significant changes. PMID:20632144

  5. A statistical method (cross-validation) for bone loss region detection after spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qian; Li, Wenjun; Li, Caixia; Chu, Philip W; Kornak, John; Lang, Thomas F; Fang, Jiqian; Lu, Ying

    2010-06-01

    Astronauts experience bone loss after the long spaceflight missions. Identifying specific regions that undergo the greatest losses (e.g. the proximal femur) could reveal information about the processes of bone loss in disuse and disease. Methods for detecting such regions, however, remains an open problem. This paper focuses on statistical methods to detect such regions. We perform statistical parametric mapping to get t-maps of changes in images, and propose a new cross-validation method to select an optimum suprathreshold for forming clusters of pixels. Once these candidate clusters are formed, we use permutation testing of longitudinal labels to derive significant changes.

  6. The smart cluster method. Adaptive earthquake cluster identification and analysis in strong seismic regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Andreas M.; Daniell, James E.; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2017-07-01

    Earthquake clustering is an essential part of almost any statistical analysis of spatial and temporal properties of seismic activity. The nature of earthquake clusters and subsequent declustering of earthquake catalogues plays a crucial role in determining the magnitude-dependent earthquake return period and its respective spatial variation for probabilistic seismic hazard assessment. This study introduces the Smart Cluster Method (SCM), a new methodology to identify earthquake clusters, which uses an adaptive point process for spatio-temporal cluster identification. It utilises the magnitude-dependent spatio-temporal earthquake density to adjust the search properties, subsequently analyses the identified clusters to determine directional variation and adjusts its search space with respect to directional properties. In the case of rapid subsequent ruptures like the 1992 Landers sequence or the 2010-2011 Darfield-Christchurch sequence, a reclassification procedure is applied to disassemble subsequent ruptures using near-field searches, nearest neighbour classification and temporal splitting. The method is capable of identifying and classifying earthquake clusters in space and time. It has been tested and validated using earthquake data from California and New Zealand. A total of more than 1500 clusters have been found in both regions since 1980 with M m i n = 2.0. Utilising the knowledge of cluster classification, the method has been adjusted to provide an earthquake declustering algorithm, which has been compared to existing methods. Its performance is comparable to established methodologies. The analysis of earthquake clustering statistics lead to various new and updated correlation functions, e.g. for ratios between mainshock and strongest aftershock and general aftershock activity metrics.

  7. The smart cluster method - Adaptive earthquake cluster identification and analysis in strong seismic regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Andreas M.; Daniell, James E.; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2017-03-01

    Earthquake clustering is an essential part of almost any statistical analysis of spatial and temporal properties of seismic activity. The nature of earthquake clusters and subsequent declustering of earthquake catalogues plays a crucial role in determining the magnitude-dependent earthquake return period and its respective spatial variation for probabilistic seismic hazard assessment. This study introduces the Smart Cluster Method (SCM), a new methodology to identify earthquake clusters, which uses an adaptive point process for spatio-temporal cluster identification. It utilises the magnitude-dependent spatio-temporal earthquake density to adjust the search properties, subsequently analyses the identified clusters to determine directional variation and adjusts its search space with respect to directional properties. In the case of rapid subsequent ruptures like the 1992 Landers sequence or the 2010-2011 Darfield-Christchurch sequence, a reclassification procedure is applied to disassemble subsequent ruptures using near-field searches, nearest neighbour classification and temporal splitting. The method is capable of identifying and classifying earthquake clusters in space and time. It has been tested and validated using earthquake data from California and New Zealand. A total of more than 1500 clusters have been found in both regions since 1980 with M m i n = 2.0. Utilising the knowledge of cluster classification, the method has been adjusted to provide an earthquake declustering algorithm, which has been compared to existing methods. Its performance is comparable to established methodologies. The analysis of earthquake clustering statistics lead to various new and updated correlation functions, e.g. for ratios between mainshock and strongest aftershock and general aftershock activity metrics.

  8. Galaxy Population in the Infall Regions of Intermediate Redshift Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdugo, Miguel; Ziegler, Bodo L.

    2007-05-01

    We investigate 6 clusters of galaxies at intermediate redshift (0.18region is often called the infall region since here newly arriving galaxies from the surrounding field encounter the special environment of clusters for the first time. We selected 3 fields containing 2 clusters each from the X-ray Dark Cluster Survey (XDC, Gilbank et al. 2004 MNRAS, 348, 551G, G04). Each 40'x 40' field was observed with 7-8 slit-masks yielding 553 low-resolution galaxy spectra (R≈500). The results for the first field (R285) were already published by Gerken et al. (2004A&A, 421, 59G). We select [OII]λ3717 and Hα equivalent widths as indicators of star formation activity. In the analysis, we "averaged" 4 clusters: VMF73 (z=0.254) & VMF74 (z=0.18) in XDCS field R285 and VMF131 (z=0.295) & VMF132 (z=0.246) in field R265. We have found an increase of the star forming activity towards larger cluster-centric distances as well as towards shallower projected galaxy densities. Galaxies in the third field R220 exhibit a complex redshift structure which makes membership determination difficulty and were excluded of the overall analysis. However, we clearly identified the cluster VMF194 (z=0.211) and confirm another cluster at z=0.261 detected by G04. In addition, a group of galaxies with similar coordinates to VMF194 at z=0.243 is significant. We also detected a population of red star-forming galaxies, belonging to the red-sequence of the clusters and even redder. Those galaxies show a moderate star-forming activity and do not show any other spectral peculiarities. We do not detect any post-starburst galaxy nor AGN in our cluster sample.

  9. Observational and Numerical Diagnostics of Galaxy Cluster Outer Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, D.; Vazza, F.; Ettori, S.; Molendi, S.; Nagai, D.; Lau, E.; Roncarelli, M.; Rossetti, M.; Snowden, S. L.; Gastaldello, F.

    2011-01-01

    Aims. We present the analysis of a local (z = 0.04 - 0.2) sample of 31 galaxy clusters with the aim of measuring the density of the X-ray emitting gas in cluster outskirts. We compare our results with numerical simulations to set constraints on the azimuthal symmetry and gas clumping in the outer regions of galaxy clusters. Methods. We exploit the large field-of-view and low instrumental background of ROSAT/PSPC to trace the density of the intracluster gas out to the virial radius. We perform a stacking of the density profiles to detect a signal beyond r(sub 200) and measure the typical density and scatter in cluster outskirts. We also compute the azimuthal scatter of the profiles with respect to the mean value to look for deviations from spherical symmetry. Finally, we compare our average density and scatter profiles with the results of numerical simulations. Results. As opposed to several recent results, we observe a steepening of the density profiles beyond approximately 0.3r(sub 500). Comparing our density profiles with simulations, we find that non-radiative runs predict too steep density profiles, whereas runs including additional physics and/or gas clumping are in better agreement with the observed gas distribution. We note a systematic difference between cool-core and non-cool core clusters beyond approximately 0.3r(sub 200), which we explain by a different distribution of the gas in the two classes. Beyond approximately r(sub 500), galaxy clusters deviate significantly from spherical symmetry, with only little differences between relaxed and disturbed systems. We find good agreement between the observed and predicted scatter profiles, but only when the 1% densest clumps are filtered out in the simulations. Conclusions. The general trend of steepening density around the virial radius indicates that the shallow density profiles found in several recent works were probably obtained along particular directions (e.g., filaments) and are not representative of the

  10. Observational and Numerical Diagnostics of Galaxy Cluster Outer Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, D.; Vazza, F.; Ettori, S.; Molendi, S.; Nagai, D.; Lau, E.; Roncarelli, M.; Rossetti, M.; Snowden, S. L.; Gastaldello, F.

    2011-01-01

    Aims. We present the analysis of a local (z = 0.04 - 0.2) sample of 31 galaxy clusters with the aim of measuring the density of the X-ray emitting gas in cluster outskirts. We compare our results with numerical simulations to set constraints on the azimuthal symmetry and gas clumping in the outer regions of galaxy clusters. Methods. We exploit the large field-of-view and low instrumental background of ROSAT/PSPC to trace the density of the intracluster gas out to the virial radius. We perform a stacking of the density profiles to detect a signal beyond r(sub 200) and measure the typical density and scatter in cluster outskirts. We also compute the azimuthal scatter of the profiles with respect to the mean value to look for deviations from spherical symmetry. Finally, we compare our average density and scatter profiles with the results of numerical simulations. Results. As opposed to several recent results, we observe a steepening of the density profiles beyond approximately 0.3r(sub 500). Comparing our density profiles with simulations, we find that non-radiative runs predict too steep density profiles, whereas runs including additional physics and/or gas clumping are in better agreement with the observed gas distribution. We note a systematic difference between cool-core and non-cool core clusters beyond approximately 0.3r(sub 200), which we explain by a different distribution of the gas in the two classes. Beyond approximately r(sub 500), galaxy clusters deviate significantly from spherical symmetry, with only little differences between relaxed and disturbed systems. We find good agreement between the observed and predicted scatter profiles, but only when the 1% densest clumps are filtered out in the simulations. Conclusions. The general trend of steepening density around the virial radius indicates that the shallow density profiles found in several recent works were probably obtained along particular directions (e.g., filaments) and are not representative of the

  11. Cluster cross sections from pickup measurements: Are the established methods consistent?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedor, J.; Poterya, V.; Pysanenko, A.; Fárník, M.

    2011-09-01

    Pickup of several molecules, H2O, HBr, and CH3OH, and Ar atoms on free ArN clusters has been investigated in a molecular beam experiment. The pickup cross sections of the clusters with known mean sizes, bar{N}≈ 150 and 260 were measured by two independent methods: (i) the cluster beam velocity decrease due to the momentum transfer of the picked up molecules to the clusters, and (ii) Poisson distribution of a selected cluster fragment ion as a function of the pickup pressure. In addition, the pickup cross sections were calculated using molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations. The simulations support the results of the velocity measurements. On the other hand, the Poisson distributions yield significantly smaller cross sections, inconsistent with the known ArN cluster sizes. These results are discussed in terms of: (i) an incomplete coagulation of guest molecules on the argon clusters when two or more molecules are picked up; and (ii) the fragmentation pattern of the embedded molecules and their clusters upon ionization on the Ar cluster. We conclude that the Poisson distribution method has to be cautiously examined, if conclusions should be drawn about the cluster cross section, or the mean cluster size bar{N}, and the number of picked up molecules.

  12. The Gas Distribution in the Outer Regions of Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, D.; Vazza, F.; Ettori, S.; Molendi, S.; Nagai, D.; Lau, E. T.; Roncarelli, M.; Rossetti, M.; Snowden, L.; Gastaldello, F.

    2012-01-01

    Aims. We present our analysis of a local (z = 0.04 - 0.2) sample of 31 galaxy clusters with the aim of measuring the density of the X-ray emitting gas in cluster outskirts. We compare our results with numerical simulations to set constraints on the azimuthal symmetry and gas clumping in the outer regions of galaxy clusters. Methods. We have exploited the large field-of-view and low instrumental background of ROSAT/PSPC to trace the density of the intracluster gas out to the virial radius, We stacked the density profiles to detect a signal beyond T200 and measured the typical density and scatter in cluster outskirts. We also computed the azimuthal scatter of the profiles with respect to the mean value to look for deviations from spherical symmetry. Finally, we compared our average density and scatter profiles with the results of numerical simulations. Results. As opposed to some recent Suzaku results, and confirming previous evidence from ROSAT and Chandra, we observe a steepening of the density profiles beyond approximately r(sub 500). Comparing our density profiles with simulations, we find that non-radiative runs predict density profiles that are too steep, whereas runs including additional physics and/ or treating gas clumping agree better with the observed gas distribution. We report high-confidence detection of a systematic difference between cool-core and non cool-core clusters beyond approximately 0.3r(sub 200), which we explain by a different distribution of the gas in the two classes. Beyond approximately r(sub 500), galaxy clusters deviate significantly from spherical symmetry, with only small differences between relaxed and disturbed systems. We find good agreement between the observed and predicted scatter profiles, but only when the 1% densest clumps are filtered out in the ENZO simulations. Conclusions. Comparing our results with numerical simulations, we find that non-radiative simulations fail to reproduce the gas distribution, even well outside

  13. The Gas Distribution in Galaxy Cluster Outer Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, D.; Vazza, F.; Ettori, S.; Molendi, S.; Nagai, D.; Laue, E. T.; Roncarelli, M.; Rossetti, M.; Snowden, S. L.; Gastaldello, F.

    2012-01-01

    Aims. We present the analysis of a local (z = 0.04 - 0.2) sample of 31 galaxy clusters with the aim of measuring the density of the X-ray emitting gas in cluster outskirts. We compare our results with numerical simulations to set constraints on the azimuthal symmetry and gas clumping in the outer regions of galaxy clusters. Methods. We exploit the large field-of-view and low instrumental background of ROSAT/PSPC to trace the density of the intracluster gas out to the virial radius. We perform a stacking of the density profiles to detect a signal beyond r200 and measure the typical density and scatter in cluster outskirts. We also compute the azimuthal scatter of the profiles with respect to the mean value to look for deviations from spherical symmetry. Finally, we compare our average density and scatter profiles with the results of numerical simulations. Results. As opposed to some recent Suzaku results, and confirming previous evidence from ROSAT and Chandra, we observe a steepening of the density profiles beyond approximately r(sub 500). Comparing our density profiles with simulations, we find that non-radiative runs predict too steep density profiles, whereas runs including additional physics and/or treating gas clumping are in better agreement with the observed gas distribution. We report for the first time the high-confidence detection of a systematic difference between cool-core and non-cool core clusters beyond 0.3r(sub 200), which we explain by a different distribution of the gas in the two classes. Beyond r(sub 500), galaxy clusters deviate significantly from spherical symmetry, with only little differences between relaxed and disturbed systems. We find good agreement between the observed and predicted scatter profiles, but only when the 1% densest clumps are filtered out in the simulations. Conclusions. Comparing our results with numerical simulations, we find that non-radiative simulations fail to reproduce the gas distribution, even well outside cluster

  14. nIFTy galaxy cluster simulations - V. Investigation of the cluster infall region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, Jake; Pearce, Frazer R.; Gray, Meghan E.; Elahi, Pascal J.; Knebe, Alexander; Beck, Alexander M.; Cui, Weiguang; Cunnama, Daniel; Davé, Romeel; February, Sean; Huang, Shuiyao; Katz, Neal; Kay, Scott T.; McCarthy, Ian G.; Murante, Giuseppe; Perret, Valentin; Power, Chris; Puchwein, Ewald; Saro, Alexandro; Sembolini, Federico; Teyssier, Romain; Yepes, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    We examine the properties of the galaxies and dark matter haloes residing in the cluster infall region surrounding the simulated Λ cold dark matter galaxy cluster studied by Elahi et al. at z = 0. The 1.1 × 1015 h-1 M⊙ galaxy cluster has been simulated with eight different hydrodynamical codes containing a variety of hydrodynamic solvers and sub-grid schemes. All models completed a dark-matter-only, non-radiative and full-physics run from the same initial conditions. The simulations contain dark matter and gas with mass resolution mDM = 9.01 × 108 h-1 M⊙ and mgas = 1.9 × 108 h-1 M⊙, respectively. We find that the synthetic cluster is surrounded by clear filamentary structures that contain ˜60 per cent of haloes in the infall region with mass ˜1012.5-1014 h-1 M⊙, including 2-3 group-sized haloes (>1013 h-1 M⊙). However, we find that only ˜10 per cent of objects in the infall region are sub-haloes residing in haloes, which may suggest that there is not much ongoing pre-processing occurring in the infall region at z = 0. By examining the baryonic content contained within the haloes, we also show that the code-to-code scatter in stellar fraction across all halo masses is typically ˜2 orders of magnitude between the two most extreme cases, and this is predominantly due to the differences in sub-grid schemes and calibration procedures that each model uses. Models that do not include active galactic nucleus feedback typically produce too high stellar fractions compared to observations by at least ˜1 order of magnitude.

  15. REGIONAL-SCALE WIND FIELD CLASSIFICATION EMPLOYING CLUSTER ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Glascoe, L G; Glaser, R E; Chin, H S; Loosmore, G A

    2004-06-17

    The classification of time-varying multivariate regional-scale wind fields at a specific location can assist event planning as well as consequence and risk analysis. Further, wind field classification involves data transformation and inference techniques that effectively characterize stochastic wind field variation. Such a classification scheme is potentially useful for addressing overall atmospheric transport uncertainty and meteorological parameter sensitivity issues. Different methods to classify wind fields over a location include the principal component analysis of wind data (e.g., Hardy and Walton, 1978) and the use of cluster analysis for wind data (e.g., Green et al., 1992; Kaufmann and Weber, 1996). The goal of this study is to use a clustering method to classify the winds of a gridded data set, i.e, from meteorological simulations generated by a forecast model.

  16. Angular cross-relations of Abell clusters in different distance classes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szalay, A. S.; Hollosi, J.; Toth, G.

    1989-01-01

    The angular autocorrelation and cross-correlation functions of the D = 1 ... 4, D = 5, and D = 6 distance class Abell clusters are estimated. There is a strong anticorrelation between the most distant D = 6 and the closest D = 1 ... 4 subsamples. It is suggested that an artifact of the cluster identification process presumably due to the finite angular size of the cluster. This anticorrelation seems to contradict some recent estimations of projection contaminations in the Abell catalog. The angular proximity of a foreground cluster may have caused a background cluster not to be counted as it was thought to be a subcluster or it was erroneously assigned to a nearer distance class.

  17. Hypervariable minisatellite regions are sites for crossing-over at meiosis in man.

    PubMed

    Chandley, A C; Mitchell, A R

    1988-01-01

    In situ hybridization to human meiotic metaphase I (MI) preparations, using the labeled minisatellite core sequence lambda 33.15, showed clustering of autoradiographic grains principally at or around chiasmata, autosomal sites where crossing-over had occurred. For the XY bivalent, the pairing region formed between the terminal regions of the two short arms (Xpter Ypter), was also a principal site of labeling; in addition, the terminal region of the X long arm (Xqter) was labeled. Control experiments using a member of the human Alu family of dispersed repeated DNA sequences showed a much more randomized grain distribution, with clustering over chiasmata being far less obvious. The data provide support for the suggestion that polymorphic minisatellite regions within the human genome might play a significant role in pairing and/or recombination.

  18. A coupled-cluster study of photodetachment cross sections of closed-shell anions.

    PubMed

    Cukras, Janusz; Decleva, Piero; Coriani, Sonia

    2014-11-07

    We investigate the performance of Stieltjes Imaging applied to Lanczos pseudo-spectra generated at the coupled cluster singles and doubles, coupled cluster singles and approximate iterative doubles and coupled cluster singles levels of theory in modeling the photodetachment cross sections of the closed shell anions H(-), Li(-), Na(-), F(-), Cl(-), and OH(-). The accurate description of double excitations is found to play a much more important role than in the case of photoionization of neutral species.

  19. Real-Time MEG Source Localization using Regional Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Dinh, Christoph; Strohmeier, Daniel; Luessi, Martin; Güllmar, Daniel; Baumgarten, Daniel; Haueisen, Jens; Hämäläinen, Matti S.

    2015-01-01

    With its millisecond temporal resolution, Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is well suited for real-time monitoring of brain activity. Real-time feedback allows the adaption of the experiment to the subject’s reaction and increases time efficiency by shortening acquisition and offline analysis. Two formidable challenges exist in real-time analysis: the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the limited time available for computations. Since the low SNR reduces the number of distinguishable sources, we propose an approach which downsizes the source space based on a cortical atlas and allows to discern the sources in the presence of noise. Each cortical region is represented by a small set of dipoles, which is obtained by a clustering algorithm. Using this approach, we adapted dynamic statistical parametric mapping (dSPM) for real-time source localization. In terms of point spread and crosstalk between regions the proposed clustering technique performs better than selecting spatially evenly distributed dipoles. We conducted real-time source localization on MEG data from an auditory experiment. The results demonstrate that the proposed real-time method localizes sources reliably in the superior temporal gyrus. We conclude that real-time source estimation based on MEG is a feasible, useful addition to the standard on-line processing methods, and enables feedback based on neural activity during the measurements. PMID:25782980

  20. Real-Time MEG Source Localization Using Regional Clustering.

    PubMed

    Dinh, Christoph; Strohmeier, Daniel; Luessi, Martin; Güllmar, Daniel; Baumgarten, Daniel; Haueisen, Jens; Hämäläinen, Matti S

    2015-11-01

    With its millisecond temporal resolution, Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is well suited for real-time monitoring of brain activity. Real-time feedback allows the adaption of the experiment to the subject's reaction and increases time efficiency by shortening acquisition and off-line analysis. Two formidable challenges exist in real-time analysis: the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the limited time available for computations. Since the low SNR reduces the number of distinguishable sources, we propose an approach which downsizes the source space based on a cortical atlas and allows to discern the sources in the presence of noise. Each cortical region is represented by a small set of dipoles, which is obtained by a clustering algorithm. Using this approach, we adapted dynamic statistical parametric mapping for real-time source localization. In terms of point spread and crosstalk between regions the proposed clustering technique performs better than selecting spatially evenly distributed dipoles. We conducted real-time source localization on MEG data from an auditory experiment. The results demonstrate that the proposed real-time method localizes sources reliably in the superior temporal gyrus. We conclude that real-time source estimation based on MEG is a feasible, useful addition to the standard on-line processing methods, and enables feedback based on neural activity during the measurements.

  1. Cognitive variability in psychotic disorders: a cross-diagnostic cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, K E; Sperry, S H; Cohen, B M; Ongür, D

    2014-11-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is a core feature of psychotic disorders; however, substantial variability exists both within and between subjects in terms of cognitive domains of dysfunction, and a clear 'profile' of cognitive strengths and weaknesses characteristic of any diagnosis or psychosis as a whole has not emerged. Cluster analysis provides an opportunity to group individuals using a data-driven approach rather than predetermined grouping criteria. While several studies have identified meaningful cognitive clusters in schizophrenia, no study to date has examined cognition in a cross-diagnostic sample of patients with psychotic disorders using a cluster approach. We aimed to examine cognitive variables in a sample of 167 patients with psychosis using cluster methods. Subjects with schizophrenia (n = 41), schizo-affective disorder (n = 53) or bipolar disorder with psychosis (n = 73) were assessed using a battery of cognitive and clinical measures. Cognitive data were analysed using Ward's method, followed by a K-means cluster approach. Clusters were then compared on diagnosis and measures of clinical symptoms, demographic variables and community functioning. A four-cluster solution was selected, including a 'neuropsychologically normal' cluster, a globally and significantly impaired cluster, and two clusters of mixed cognitive profiles. Clusters differed on several clinical variables; diagnoses were distributed amongst all clusters, although not evenly. Identification of groups of patients who share similar neurocognitive profiles may help pinpoint relevant neural abnormalities underlying these traits. Such groupings may also hasten the development of individualized treatment approaches, including cognitive remediation tailored to patients' specific cognitive profiles.

  2. Drama of HII regions: Clustered and Triggered Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinzeng; YUAN, Jinghua; LIU, Hongli; Wu, Yuefang; Huang, Yafang

    2015-08-01

    Intense ultraviolet radiation from young massive stars ionizes ambient material leading to the formation of HII regions which have keen impact upon the birth of new stars in the vicinities. The strong radiation may be responsible for the dispersal of molecular clouds to hinder star formation, while the expansion of HII regions would collect neutral material to form dense layers which may be gravitationally unstable to collapse to give birth to new stars.In order to understand the star formation process under the influence of HII regions, we have carried out extensive investigations to well selected star-forming regions which all have been profoundly affected by existing massive O type stars. On the basis of multi-wavelength data from mid-infrared to millimeter collected using Spitzer, Herschel, and ground based radio telescope, the physical status of interstellar medium and star formation in these regions have been revealed. Clustered and sequential star formation have been detected toward well known HII regions, such as IC1396 and Sh-155. In a relatively large infrared dust bubble, active star formation is undergoing and the shell is still expanding. Socked features and signs of triggered star formation have been tentatively detected in a relatively small bubble. The dense cores in the Rosette Molecular Complex detected at 1.1 mm using SMA have been speculated to have a likely triggered origin according to their spatial distribution. Although some observational results have been obtained, more efforts are necessary to reach trustworthy conclusions. And more regions will be extensively explored based on multi-wavelength observations, especially the data collected using the Herschel Space Observatory.

  3. 75 FR 40856 - Federal Register Meeting Notice; Webinar About Regional Innovation Clusters RFP

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... ADMINISTRATION Federal Register Meeting Notice; Webinar About Regional Innovation Clusters RFP AGENCY: U.S. Small... Clusters (RIC) Request for Proposals (RFP) No. SBAHQ-10-R-0021. SUMMARY: The SBA is issuing this notice to... Innovation Clusters RFP. For more information please go to http://www.sba.gov/clusters/index.html . The...

  4. Hartree-Fock calculation of the differential photoionization cross sections of small Li clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Galitskiy, S. A.; Artemyev, A. N.; Jänkälä, K.; Lagutin, B. M.; Demekhin, Ph. V.

    2015-01-21

    Cross sections and angular distribution parameters for the single-photon ionization of all electron orbitals of Li{sub 2−8} are systematically computed in a broad interval of the photoelectron kinetic energies for the energetically most stable geometry of each cluster. Calculations of the partial photoelectron continuum waves in clusters are carried out by the single center method within the Hartree-Fock approximation. We study photoionization cross sections per one electron and analyze in some details general trends in the photoionization of inner and outer shells with respect to the size and geometry of a cluster. The present differential cross sections computed for Li{sub 2} are in a good agreement with the available theoretical data, whereas those computed for Li{sub 3−8} clusters can be considered as theoretical predictions.

  5. Hartree-Fock calculation of the differential photoionization cross sections of small Li clusters.

    PubMed

    Galitskiy, S A; Artemyev, A N; Jänkälä, K; Lagutin, B M; Demekhin, Ph V

    2015-01-21

    Cross sections and angular distribution parameters for the single-photon ionization of all electron orbitals of Li2-8 are systematically computed in a broad interval of the photoelectron kinetic energies for the energetically most stable geometry of each cluster. Calculations of the partial photoelectron continuum waves in clusters are carried out by the single center method within the Hartree-Fock approximation. We study photoionization cross sections per one electron and analyze in some details general trends in the photoionization of inner and outer shells with respect to the size and geometry of a cluster. The present differential cross sections computed for Li2 are in a good agreement with the available theoretical data, whereas those computed for Li3-8 clusters can be considered as theoretical predictions.

  6. Cross-space-time clustering of childhood cancer in Great Britain: evidence for a common aetiology.

    PubMed

    McNally, Richard J Q; Stiller, Charles; Vincent, Tim J; Murphy, Michael F G

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we identified space-time clustering in certain childhood cancers. This study aimed to determine whether there was cross-space-time clustering between different diagnostic groups. A total of 32,295 cases were diagnosed during 1969-1993. Cross-space-time clustering was analyzed by a second-order procedure based on Diggle's method. Locations were birth and diagnosis addresses. The following space-time combinations were examined: address and date of birth; address at birth and date of diagnosis; address and date of diagnosis. Cross-space-time clustering analyses considered clustering pairs of cases from two different diagnostic groups. Formal statistical significance was taken as p < 0.00067 and marginal significance 0.01 > p ≥ 0.00067. Based on address at birth and date of diagnosis, there was statistically significant cross-clustering between cases of HL and intracranial and intraspinal embryonal tumors (IIET), both aged 0-14 years (p < 0.0001). Based on address and date of birth, there was marginally significant cross-clustering between cases of lymphoid leukemia (LL) aged 5-14 years and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) aged 0-14 years (p = 0.0019). Based on address and date of diagnosis there was marginally significant cross-clustering between cases of LL aged 1-4 years and soft tissue sarcoma (STS) aged 0-14 years (p = 0.0041). Findings from this study are consistent with possible common aetiological factors between different diagnostic groups. They suggest a common aetiology for the following pairs of diagnostic groups: HL and IIET; older cases of LL and HL; younger cases of LL and STS. The possibility of common infectious mechanisms should be explored. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of UICC.

  7. The global monsoon division combining the k-means clustering method and low-level cross-equatorial flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ning; Qian, Weihong; Leung, Jeremy Cheuk-Hin

    2016-10-01

    The global monsoon domain has been recently determined utilizing two criteria: difference of local maximum and minimum pentad-mean precipitation rates exceeding 4 mm day-1, and wind reversal of low-level cross-equatorial flow. In this paper, 22 major dry-wet alteration regions under six categories were first derived through the k-means clustering method from the climatological evolution of global precipitation. Considering the seasonal influences of the low-level cross-equatorial flow in these major dry-wet alternation regions, the global monsoon was objectively divided into 16 major regions under five climatological precipitation categories. Nine monsoon regions are distributed between Asia and Australia while four regions are from Africa to the Southwest Indian Ocean and three regions in Americas. Precipitation trends during rainy seasons of 1981-2010 were examined in the 16 monsoon regions. Four regions with decreasing trends of precipitation are located in Africa and the Southwest Indian Ocean while three regions with increasing trends are situated in Americas. Six regions of increasing precipitation trends are concentrated in Asia and the biggest increasing trend is found in south China.

  8. Scale size and life time of energy conversion regions observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamrin, M.; Norqvist, P.; Marghitu, O.; Vaivads, A.; Klecker, B.; Kistler, L. M.; Dandouras, I.

    2009-11-01

    In this article, and in a companion paper by Hamrin et al. (2009) [Occurrence and location of concentrated load and generator regions observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet], we investigate localized energy conversion regions (ECRs) in Earth's plasma sheet. From more than 80 Cluster plasma sheet crossings (660 h data) at the altitude of about 15-20 RE in the summer and fall of 2001, we have identified 116 Concentrated Load Regions (CLRs) and 35 Concentrated Generator Regions (CGRs). By examining variations in the power density, E·J, where E is the electric field and J is the current density obtained by Cluster, we have estimated typical values of the scale size and life time of the CLRs and the CGRs. We find that a majority of the observed ECRs are rather stationary in space, but varying in time. Assuming that the ECRs are cylindrically shaped and equal in size, we conclude that the typical scale size of the ECRs is 2 RE≲ΔSECR≲5 RE. The ECRs hence occupy a significant portion of the mid altitude plasma sheet. Moreover, the CLRs appear to be somewhat larger than the CGRs. The life time of the ECRs are of the order of 1-10 min, consistent with the large scale magnetotail MHD simulations of Birn and Hesse (2005). The life time of the CGRs is somewhat shorter than for the CLRs. On time scales of 1-10 min, we believe that ECRs rise and vanish in significant regions of the plasma sheet, possibly oscillating between load and generator character. It is probable that at least some of the observed ECRs oscillate energy back and forth in the plasma sheet instead of channeling it to the ionosphere.

  9. Fission cross sections in the intermediate energy region

    SciTech Connect

    Lisowski, P.W.; Gavron, A.; Parker, W.E.; Ullmann, J.L.; Balestrini, S.J. ); Carlson, A.D.; Wasson, O.A. ); Hill, N.W. )

    1991-01-01

    Until recently there has been very little cross section data for neutron-induced fission in the intermediate energy region, primarily because no suitable neutron source has existed. At Los Alamos, the WNR target-4 facility provides a high-intensity source of neutrons nearly ideal for fission measurements extending from a fraction of a MeV to several hundred MeV. This paper summarizes the status of fission cross section data in the intermediate energy range (En > 30 MeV) and presents our fission cross section data for {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U compared to intranuclear cascade and statistical model predictions.

  10. The cluster-galaxy cross spectrum. An additional probe of cosmological and halo parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hütsi, G.; Lahav, O.

    2008-12-01

    Context: There are several wide field galaxy and cluster surveys planned for the near future, e.g. BOSS, WFMOS, ADEPT, Hetdex, SPT, eROSITA. In the simplest approach, one would analyze these independently, thus neglecting the extra information provided by the cluster-galaxy cross pairs. Aims: In this paper we have focused on the possible synergy between these surveys by investigating the amount of information encoded in the cross pairs. Methods: We present a model for the cluster-galaxy cross spectrum within the halo model framework. To assess the gain in performance due to inclusion of the cluster-galaxy cross pairs, we carry out a Fisher matrix analysis for a BOSS-like galaxy redshift survey targeting luminous red galaxies and a hypothetical mass-limited cluster redshift survey with a lower mass threshold of 1.7 × 1014 h-1 M⊙ over the same volume. Results: On small scales, a cluster-galaxy cross spectrum directly probes the density profile of the halos, instead of the density profile convolved with itself, as is the case for the galaxy power spectrum. Due to this different behavior, adding information from the cross pairs helps to tighten constraints on the halo occupation distribution (e.g. a factor of ~2 compression of the error ellipses on the m_glow-α plane) and offers an alternative mechanism compared with techniques that directly fit halo density profiles. By inclusion of the cross pairs, a factor of ~2 stronger constraints are obtained for σ_8, while the improvement for the dark energy figure-of-merit is somewhat weaker: an increase by a factor of 1.4. We have also written down the formalism for the case when only photometric redshifts are available for both the clusters and the galaxies. For the analysis of the photometric surveys the inclusion of the cluster-galaxy cross pairs might be very beneficial since the photo-z errors for the clusters are usually significantly smaller than for the typical galaxies.

  11. Probing the Microscopic with the Macroscopic: from Properties of Star Cluster Systems to Properties of Cluster-Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmentier, G.

    To understand how systems of star clusters have reached their presently observed properties constitutes a powerful probe into the physics of cluster formation, without needing to resort to high spatial resolution observations of individual cluster-forming regions (CFRg) in distant galaxies. In this contribution I focus on the mass-radius relation of CFRgs, how it can be uncovered by studying the gas expulsion phase of forming star clusters, and what the implications are. I demonstrate that, through the tidal field impact upon exposed star clusters, the CFRg mass-radius relation rules cluster infant weight-loss in dependence of cluster mass. The observational constraint of a time-invariant slope for the power-law young cluster mass function is robustly satisfied by CFRgs with a constant mean volume density. In contrast, a constant mean surface density would be conducive to the preferential destruction of high-mass clusters. A purely dynamical line-of-reasoning leads therefore to a conclusion consistent with star formation a process driven by a volume density threshold. Developing this concept further, properties of molecular clumps and CFRgs naturally get dissociated. This allows to understand: (i) why the star cluster mass function is steeper than the molecular cloud/clump mass function; (ii) the presence of a massive star formation limit in the mass-size space of molecular structures.

  12. Identification of the cluster control region for the protocadherin-beta genes located beyond the protocadherin-gamma cluster.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Shinnichi; Hirayama, Teruyoshi; Hirano, Keizo; Kaneko, Ryosuke; Toyoda, Shunsuke; Kawamura, Yoshimi; Hirabayashi, Masumi; Hirabayashi, Takahiro; Yagi, Takeshi

    2011-09-09

    The clustered protocadherins (Pcdhs), Pcdh-α, -β, and -γ, are transmembrane proteins constituting a subgroup of the cadherin superfamily. Each Pcdh cluster is arranged in tandem on the same chromosome. Each of the three Pcdh clusters shows stochastic and combinatorial expression in individual neurons, thus generating a hugely diverse set of possible cell surface molecules. Therefore, the clustered Pcdhs are candidates for determining neuronal molecular diversity. Here, we showed that the targeted deletion of DNase I hypersensitive (HS) site HS5-1, previously identified as a Pcdh-α regulatory element in vitro, affects especially the expression of specific Pcdh-α isoforms in vivo. We also identified a Pcdh-β cluster control region (CCR) containing six HS sites (HS16, 17, 17', 18, 19, and 20) downstream of the Pcdh-γ cluster. This CCR comprehensively activates the expression of the Pcdh-β gene cluster in cis, and its deletion dramatically decreases their expression levels. Deleting the CCR nonuniformly down-regulates some Pcdh-γ isoforms and does not affect Pcdh-α expression. Thus, the CCR effect extends beyond the 320-kb region containing the Pcdh-γ cluster to activate the upstream Pcdh-β genes. Thus, we concluded that the CCR is a highly specific regulatory unit for Pcdh-β expression on the clustered Pcdh genomic locus. These findings suggest that each Pcdh cluster is controlled by distinct regulatory elements that activate their expression and that the stochastic gene regulation of the clustered Pcdhs is controlled by the complex chromatin architecture of the clustered Pcdh locus.

  13. Identification of the Cluster Control Region for the Protocadherin-β Genes Located beyond the Protocadherin-γ Cluster*

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Shinnichi; Hirayama, Teruyoshi; Hirano, Keizo; Kaneko, Ryosuke; Toyoda, Shunsuke; Kawamura, Yoshimi; Hirabayashi, Masumi; Hirabayashi, Takahiro; Yagi, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    The clustered protocadherins (Pcdhs), Pcdh-α, -β, and -γ, are transmembrane proteins constituting a subgroup of the cadherin superfamily. Each Pcdh cluster is arranged in tandem on the same chromosome. Each of the three Pcdh clusters shows stochastic and combinatorial expression in individual neurons, thus generating a hugely diverse set of possible cell surface molecules. Therefore, the clustered Pcdhs are candidates for determining neuronal molecular diversity. Here, we showed that the targeted deletion of DNase I hypersensitive (HS) site HS5-1, previously identified as a Pcdh-α regulatory element in vitro, affects especially the expression of specific Pcdh-α isoforms in vivo. We also identified a Pcdh-β cluster control region (CCR) containing six HS sites (HS16, 17, 17′, 18, 19, and 20) downstream of the Pcdh-γ cluster. This CCR comprehensively activates the expression of the Pcdh-β gene cluster in cis, and its deletion dramatically decreases their expression levels. Deleting the CCR nonuniformly down-regulates some Pcdh-γ isoforms and does not affect Pcdh-α expression. Thus, the CCR effect extends beyond the 320-kb region containing the Pcdh-γ cluster to activate the upstream Pcdh-β genes. Thus, we concluded that the CCR is a highly specific regulatory unit for Pcdh-β expression on the clustered Pcdh genomic locus. These findings suggest that each Pcdh cluster is controlled by distinct regulatory elements that activate their expression and that the stochastic gene regulation of the clustered Pcdhs is controlled by the complex chromatin architecture of the clustered Pcdh locus. PMID:21771796

  14. Scalable Integrated Region-Based Image Retrieval Using IRM and Statistical Clustering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, James Z.; Du, Yanping

    Statistical clustering is critical in designing scalable image retrieval systems. This paper presents a scalable algorithm for indexing and retrieving images based on region segmentation. The method uses statistical clustering on region features and IRM (Integrated Region Matching), a measure developed to evaluate overall similarity between images…

  15. The clustering of smear-positive tuberculosis in Dabat, Ethiopia: a population based cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tadesse, Takele; Demissie, Meaza; Berhane, Yemane; Kebede, Yigzaw; Abebe, Markos

    2013-01-01

    In Ethiopia where tuberculosis epidemic remains high, studies that describe hotspots of the disease are unavailable. This study tried to detect the spatial distribution and clustering of smear-positive tuberculosis cases in Dabat, Ethiopia. A population-based cross sectional study conducted in the Dabat Health and Demographic Surveillance System site from October 2010 to September 2011 identified smear-positive tuberculosis cases. Trained field workers collected demographic and location data from each study participant through house-to-house visits. A spatial scan statistic was used to identify purely spatial and space-time clusters of tuberculosis among permanent residents. Two significant (p<0.001) spatial and space-time clusters were identified in the study district. Tuberculosis is concentrated in certain geographic locations in Dabat, Ethiopia. This kind of clustering can be common in the country, so the National Tuberculosis Control Program can be more effective by identifying such clusters and targeting interventions.

  16. Photoionization cross section by Stieltjes imaging applied to coupled cluster Lanczos pseudo-spectra.

    PubMed

    Cukras, Janusz; Coriani, Sonia; Decleva, Piero; Christiansen, Ove; Norman, Patrick

    2013-09-07

    A recently implemented asymmetric Lanczos algorithm for computing (complex) linear response functions within the coupled cluster singles (CCS), coupled cluster singles and iterative approximate doubles (CC2), and coupled cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) is coupled to a Stieltjes imaging technique in order to describe the photoionization cross section of atoms and molecules, in the spirit of a similar procedure recently proposed by Averbukh and co-workers within the Algebraic Diagrammatic Construction approach. Pilot results are reported for the atoms He, Ne, and Ar and for the molecules H2, H2O, NH3, HF, CO, and CO2.

  17. Photoionization cross section by Stieltjes imaging applied to coupled cluster Lanczos pseudo-spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Cukras, Janusz; Coriani, Sonia; Decleva, Piero; Christiansen, Ove; Norman, Patrick

    2013-09-07

    A recently implemented asymmetric Lanczos algorithm for computing (complex) linear response functions within the coupled cluster singles (CCS), coupled cluster singles and iterative approximate doubles (CC2), and coupled cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) is coupled to a Stieltjes imaging technique in order to describe the photoionization cross section of atoms and molecules, in the spirit of a similar procedure recently proposed by Averbukh and co-workers within the Algebraic Diagrammatic Construction approach. Pilot results are reported for the atoms He, Ne, and Ar and for the molecules H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, NH{sub 3}, HF, CO, and CO{sub 2}.

  18. A coupled-cluster study of photodetachment cross sections of closed-shell anions

    SciTech Connect

    Cukras, Janusz; Decleva, Piero; Coriani, Sonia

    2014-11-07

    We investigate the performance of Stieltjes Imaging applied to Lanczos pseudo-spectra generated at the coupled cluster singles and doubles, coupled cluster singles and approximate iterative doubles and coupled cluster singles levels of theory in modeling the photodetachment cross sections of the closed shell anions H{sup −}, Li{sup −}, Na{sup −}, F{sup −}, Cl{sup −}, and OH{sup −}. The accurate description of double excitations is found to play a much more important role than in the case of photoionization of neutral species.

  19. Complete four-photon cluster-state analyzer based on cross-Kerr nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-Hui; Zhu, Long; Su, Shi-Lei; Guo, Qi; Cheng, Liu-Yong; Zhu, Ai-Dong; Zhang, Shou

    2013-09-01

    We propose a method to construct an optical cluster-state analyzer based on cross-Kerr nonlinearity combined with linear optics elements. In the scheme, we employ two four-qubit parity gates and the controlled phase gate (CPG) from only the cross-Kerr nonlinearity and show that all the orthogonal four-qubit cluster states can be completely identified. The scheme is significant for the large-scale quantum communication and quantum information processing networks. In addition, the scheme is feasible and deterministic under current experimental conditions.

  20. Formation of plant metabolic gene clusters within dynamic chromosomal regions

    PubMed Central

    Field, Ben; Fiston-Lavier, Anna-Sophie; Kemen, Ariane; Geisler, Katrin; Quesneville, Hadi; Osbourn, Anne E.

    2011-01-01

    In bacteria, genes with related functions often are grouped together in operons and are cotranscribed as a single polycistronic mRNA. In eukaryotes, functionally related genes generally are scattered across the genome. Notable exceptions include gene clusters for catabolic pathways in yeast, synthesis of secondary metabolites in filamentous fungi, and the major histocompatibility complex in animals. Until quite recently it was thought that gene clusters in plants were restricted to tandem duplicates (for example, arrays of leucine-rich repeat disease-resistance genes). However, operon-like clusters of coregulated nonhomologous genes are an emerging theme in plant biology, where they may be involved in the synthesis of certain defense compounds. These clusters are unlikely to have arisen by horizontal gene transfer, and the mechanisms behind their formation are poorly understood. Previously in thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana) we identified an operon-like gene cluster that is required for the synthesis and modification of the triterpene thalianol. Here we characterize a second operon-like triterpene cluster (the marneral cluster) from A. thaliana, compare the features of these two clusters, and investigate the evolutionary events that have led to cluster formation. We conclude that common mechanisms are likely to underlie the assembly and control of operon-like gene clusters in plants. PMID:21876149

  1. Deconstructing Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia: A cross-diagnostic cluster analysis of cognitive phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Junghee; Rizzo, Shemra; Altshuler, Lori; Glahn, David C; Miklowitz, David J; Sugar, Catherine A; Wynn, Jonathan K; Green, Michael F

    2017-02-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SZ) show substantial overlap. It has been suggested that a subgroup of patients might contribute to these overlapping features. This study employed a cross-diagnostic cluster analysis to identify subgroups of individuals with shared cognitive phenotypes. 143 participants (68 BD patients, 39 SZ patients and 36 healthy controls) completed a battery of EEG and performance assessments on perception, nonsocial cognition and social cognition. A K-means cluster analysis was conducted with all participants across diagnostic groups. Clinical symptoms, functional capacity, and functional outcome were assessed in patients. A two-cluster solution across 3 groups was the most stable. One cluster including 44 BD patients, 31 controls and 5 SZ patients showed better cognition (High cluster) than the other cluster with 24 BD patients, 35 SZ patients and 5 controls (Low cluster). BD patients in the High cluster performed better than BD patients in the Low cluster across cognitive domains. Within each cluster, participants with different clinical diagnoses showed different profiles across cognitive domains. All patients are in the chronic phase and out of mood episode at the time of assessment and most of the assessment were behavioral measures. This study identified two clusters with shared cognitive phenotype profiles that were not proxies for clinical diagnoses. The finding of better social cognitive performance of BD patients than SZ patients in the Lowe cluster suggest that relatively preserved social cognition may be important to identify disease process distinct to each disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Choosing appropriate analysis methods for cluster randomised cross-over trials with a binary outcome.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Katy E; Forbes, Andrew B; Keogh, Ruth H; Jairath, Vipul; Kahan, Brennan C

    2017-01-30

    In cluster randomised cross-over (CRXO) trials, clusters receive multiple treatments in a randomised sequence over time. In such trials, there is usual correlation between patients in the same cluster. In addition, within a cluster, patients in the same period may be more similar to each other than to patients in other periods. We demonstrate that it is necessary to account for these correlations in the analysis to obtain correct Type I error rates. We then use simulation to compare different methods of analysing a binary outcome from a two-period CRXO design. Our simulations demonstrated that hierarchical models without random effects for period-within-cluster, which do not account for any extra within-period correlation, performed poorly with greatly inflated Type I errors in many scenarios. In scenarios where extra within-period correlation was present, a hierarchical model with random effects for cluster and period-within-cluster only had correct Type I errors when there were large numbers of clusters; with small numbers of clusters, the error rate was inflated. We also found that generalised estimating equations did not give correct error rates in any scenarios considered. An unweighted cluster-level summary regression performed best overall, maintaining an error rate close to 5% for all scenarios, although it lost power when extra within-period correlation was present, especially for small numbers of clusters. Results from our simulation study show that it is important to model both levels of clustering in CRXO trials, and that any extra within-period correlation should be accounted for. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. GNGA for general regions: Semilinear elliptic PDE and crossing eigenvalues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hineman, Jay L.; Neuberger, John M.

    2007-07-01

    We consider the semilinear elliptic PDE Δ u + f( λ, u) = 0 with the zero-Dirichlet boundary condition on a family of regions, namely stadions. Linear problems on such regions have been widely studied in the past. We seek to observe the corresponding phenomena in our nonlinear setting. Using the Gradient Newton Galerkin Algorithm (GNGA) of Neuberger and Swift, we document bifurcation, nodal structure, and symmetry of solutions. This paper provides the first published instance where the GNGA is applied to general regions. Our investigation involves both the dimension of the stadions and the value λ as parameters. We find that the so-called crossings and avoided crossings of eigenvalues as the dimension of the stadions vary influences the symmetry and variational structure of nonlinear solutions in a natural way.

  4. Fuzzy hierarchical cross-clustering of data from abandoned mine site contaminated with heavy metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourjabbar, A.; Sârbu, C.; Kostarelos, K.; Einax, J. W.; Büchel, G.

    2014-11-01

    The characteristics of pore water and slate samples are critically analyzed using fuzzy hierarchical cross-clustering statistical techniques. The main aim of this study was to investigate the source of contamination near an abandoned uranium mine in Germany. The mining activities were abandoned in 1990 the site was closed, and the surrounding area was remediated. However, heavy metal contamination is still detectable in water, soil and plants today. Hence, investigating the source of the current contamination is an important task. In order to achieve the goal, results from chemical analysis of both pore water samples and leachates from slate samples were initially analyzed using hard (classical) hierarchical clustering algorithms that did not provide meaningful results. By using two fuzzy clustering algorithms, Fuzzy Divisive Hierarchical Clustering (FDHC) and Fuzzy Hierarchical Cross-Clustering (FHCC), a relationship between the leachate from Ordovician-Silurian slate samples (10 samples collected from the test site and the surrounding area) and pore water samples (53 samples collected from 3 locations within the test site at 3 depths over the course of 4 years) was identified. The leachate data formed a cluster which was statistically similar to the cluster formed by the pore water samples collected from two of three locations. In addition, the fuzzy cross-clustering approach allowed for the identification of the characteristics (qualitative and quantitative) responsible for the observed similarities between all the samples. We conclude that the fuzzy algorithms were a better tool for the analysis and interpretation of geological/hydrogeological data where the data sets have an inherent vagueness/uncertainty.

  5. XMM-Newton and Chandra cross-calibration using HIFLUGCS galaxy clusters . Systematic temperature differences and cosmological impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schellenberger, G.; Reiprich, T. H.; Lovisari, L.; Nevalainen, J.; David, L.

    2015-03-01

    Context. Robust X-ray temperature measurements of the intracluster medium (ICM) of galaxy clusters require an accurate energy-dependent effective area calibration. Since the hot gas X-ray emission of galaxy clusters does not vary on relevant timescales, they are excellent cross-calibration targets. Moreover, cosmological constraints from clusters rely on accurate gravitational mass estimates, which in X-rays strongly depend on cluster gas temperature measurements. Therefore, systematic calibration differences may result in biased, instrument-dependent cosmological constraints. This is of special interest in light of the tension between the Planck results of the primary temperature anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich-plus-X-ray cluster-count analyses. Aims: We quantify in detail the systematics and uncertainties of the cross-calibration of the effective area between five X-ray instruments, EPIC-MOS1/MOS2/PN onboard XMM-Newton and ACIS-I/S onboard Chandra, and the influence on temperature measurements. Furthermore, we assess the impact of the cross-calibration uncertainties on cosmology. Methods: Using the HIFLUGCS sample, consisting of the 64 X-ray brightest galaxy clusters, we constrain the ICM temperatures through spectral fitting in the same, mostly isothermal regions and compare the different instruments. We use the stacked residual ratio method to evaluate the cross-calibration uncertainties between the instruments as a function of energy. Our work is an extension to a previous one using X-ray clusters by the International Astronomical Consortium for High Energy Calibration (IACHEC) and is carried out in the context of IACHEC. Results: Performing spectral fitting in the full energy band, (0.7-7) keV, as is typical of the analysis of cluster spectra, we find that best-fit temperatures determined with XMM-Newton/EPIC are significantly lower than Chandra/ACIS temperatures. This confirms the previous IACHEC results obtained

  6. Cluster decay in the superallowed α decay region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhagwat, A.; Liotta, R. J.

    2017-09-01

    The emissions of α particles and protons are the dominant decay channels in the neutron-deficient nuclei corresponding to the s d g major shell. The possibility of cluster emission is explored here. It is shown that the cluster decay mode has a small yet sizable branching ratio.

  7. Finding common task-related regions in fMRI data from multiple subjects by periodogram clustering and clustering ensemble.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jun; Li, Yehua; Lazar, Nicole A; Schaeffer, David J; McDowell, Jennifer E

    2016-07-10

    We propose an innovative and practically relevant clustering method to find common task-related brain regions among different subjects who respond to the same set of stimuli. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) time series data, we first cluster the voxels within each subject on a voxel by voxel basis. To extract signals out of noisy data, we estimate a new periodogram at each voxel using multi-tapering and low-rank spline smoothing and then use the periodogram as the main feature for clustering. We apply a divisive hierarchical clustering algorithm to the estimated periodograms within a single subject and identify the task-related region as the cluster of voxels that have periodograms with a peak frequency matching that of the stimulus sequence. Finally, we apply a machine learning technique called clustering ensemble to find common task-related regions across different subjects. The efficacy of the proposed approach is illustrated via a simulation study and a real fMRI data set. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Photoabsorption cross section of acetylene in the EUV region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C. Y. R.; Judge, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    The measurement of the absolute photoabsorption cross sections of C2H2 in the 175-740 A region by means of a double ionization chamber is reported. The continuum background source is the synchrotron radiation emitted by the Wisconsin 240 MeV electron storage ring. It is found that the cross sections range from 2 to a maximum of 36 Mb. Two new Rydberg series are identified and the cross section data are applied in the analysis of various sum rules. From the rules, it is shown that the data of C2H2 in the 580-1088 A range may be too low, while the measured ionization transition moment may be too high.

  9. Epidemiology of La Crosse Virus Emergence, Appalachia Region, United States

    PubMed Central

    Agusto, Folashade; Calabrese, Justin M.; Muturi, Ephantus J.; Fagan, William F.

    2016-01-01

    La Crosse encephalitis is a viral disease that has emerged in new locations across the Appalachian region of the United States. Conventional wisdom suggests that ongoing emergence of La Crosse virus (LACV) could stem from the invasive Asian tiger (Aedes albopictus) mosquito. Efforts to prove this, however, are complicated by the numerous transmission routes and species interactions involved in LACV dynamics. To analyze LACV transmission by Asian tiger mosquitoes, we constructed epidemiologic models. These models accurately predict empirical infection rates. They do not, however, support the hypothesis that Asian tiger mosquitoes are responsible for the recent emergence of LACV at new foci. Consequently, we conclude that other factors, including different invasive mosquitoes, changes in climate variables, or changes in wildlife densities, should be considered as alternative explanations for recent increases in La Crosse encephalitis. PMID:27767009

  10. The 2mrad Crossing Angle Interaction Region and Extraction Line

    SciTech Connect

    Appleby, R.; U., Manchester; Angal-Kalinin, D.; Dadoun, O.; Bambade, P.; Parker, B.; Keller, L.; Moffeit, K.; Nosochkov, Y.; Seryi, A.; Spencer, C.; Carter, J.; Royal Holloway, U.of London; Napoly, O.; /DAPNIA, Saclay

    2006-07-12

    A complete optics design for the 2mrad crossing angle interaction region and extraction line was presented at Snowmass 2005. Since this time, the design task force has been working on developing and improving the performance of the extraction line. The work has focused on optimizing the final doublet parameters and on reducing the power losses resulting from the disrupted beam transport. In this paper, the most recent status of the 2mrad layout and the corresponding performance are presented.

  11. Cross-domain, soft-partition clustering with diversity measure and knowledge reference

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Pengjiang; Sun, Shouwei; Jiang, Yizhang; Su, Kuan-Hao; Ni, Tongguang; Wang, Shitong; Muzic, Raymond F.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional, soft-partition clustering approaches, such as fuzzy c-means (FCM), maximum entropy clustering (MEC) and fuzzy clustering by quadratic regularization (FC-QR), are usually incompetent in those situations where the data are quite insufficient or much polluted by underlying noise or outliers. In order to address this challenge, the quadratic weights and Gini-Simpson diversity based fuzzy clustering model (QWGSD-FC), is first proposed as a basis of our work. Based on QWGSD-FC and inspired by transfer learning, two types of cross-domain, soft-partition clustering frameworks and their corresponding algorithms, referred to as type-I/type-II knowledge-transfer-oriented c-means (TI-KT-CM and TII-KT-CM), are subsequently presented, respectively. The primary contributions of our work are four-fold: (1) The delicate QWGSD-FC model inherits the most merits of FCM, MEC and FC-QR. With the weight factors in the form of quadratic memberships, similar to FCM, it can more effectively calculate the total intra-cluster deviation than the linear form recruited in MEC and FC-QR. Meanwhile, via Gini-Simpson diversity index, like Shannon entropy in MEC, and equivalent to the quadratic regularization in FC-QR, QWGSD-FC is prone to achieving the unbiased probability assignments, (2) owing to the reference knowledge from the source domain, both TI-KT-CM and TII-KT-CM demonstrate high clustering effectiveness as well as strong parameter robustness in the target domain, (3) TI-KT-CM refers merely to the historical cluster centroids, whereas TII-KT-CM simultaneously uses the historical cluster centroids and their associated fuzzy memberships as the reference. This indicates that TII-KT-CM features more comprehensive knowledge learning capability than TI-KT-CM and TII-KT-CM consequently exhibits more perfect cross-domain clustering performance and (4) neither the historical cluster centroids nor the historical cluster centroid based fuzzy memberships involved in TI-KT-CM or TII

  12. Young star clusters in the circumnuclear region of NGC 2110

    SciTech Connect

    Durré, Mark; Mould, Jeremy

    2014-03-20

    High-resolution observations in the near infrared show star clusters around the active galactic nucleus (AGN) of the Seyfert 1 NGC 2110, along with a 90 × 35 pc bar of shocked gas material around its nucleus. These are seen for the first time in our imaging and gas kinematics of the central 100 pc with the Keck OSIRIS instrument with adaptive optics. Each of these clusters is two to three times brighter than the Arches cluster close to the center of the Milky Way. The core star formation rate is 0.3 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. The photoionized gas (He I) dynamics imply an enclosed mass of 3-4 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉}. These observations demonstrate the physical linkage between AGN feedback, which triggers star formation in massive clusters, and the resulting stellar (and supernovae) winds, which cause the observed [Fe II] emission and feed the black hole.

  13. The Awareness and Educational Status on Oral Health of Elite Athletes: A Cross-Sectional Study with Cluster Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozgur, Bahar Odabas

    2016-01-01

    In this cross-sectional survey, this study aimed to determine the factors associated with oral health of elite athletes and to determine the clustering tendency of the variables by dendrogram, and to determine the relationship between predefined clusters and see how these clusters can converge. A total of 97 elite (that is, top-level performing)…

  14. [Regional development of patents of traditional Chinese medicine compounds on basis of cluster analysis].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xujie; Xiao, Shiying

    2012-08-01

    To study current regional development and optimization schemes of patents of traditional Chinese medicine compounds. Simple statistics and cluster analysis were adopted for calculating application quantity, maintenance quantity and quantity of scientific research papers related to patents of traditional Chinese medicine compounds in different regions. On that basis, cluster analysis was used for studying current development patents of traditional Chinese medicine compounds in different regions. The 34 regions, including Chinese mainland, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan, were divided into four groups by cluster analysis according to the difference in quantities of patents and research papers. The first and third region are better, the second region is medium, while the forth region is not ideal. Different regions shall adopt suitable development schemes for the development of traditional Chinese medicine compounds according to their actual situations. Reasonable regional alliance is helpful for inter-regional win-win and co-flourishing.

  15. Exploring spatially adjacent TFBS-clustered regions with Hi-C data.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hebing; Jiang, Shuai; Zhang, Zhuo; Li, Hao; Lu, Yiming; Bo, Xiaochen

    2017-09-01

    Transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) are clustered in the human genome, forming the TFBS-clustered regions that regulate gene transcription, which requires dynamic chromatin configurations between promoters and distal regulatory elements. Here, we propose a regulatory model called spatially adjacent TFBS-clustered regions (SATs), in which TFBS-clustered regions are connected by spatial proximity as identified by high-resolution Hi-C data. TFBS-clustered regions forming SATs appeared less frequently in gene promoters than did isolated TFBS-clustered regions, whereas SATs as a whole appeared more frequently. These observations indicate that multiple distal TFBS-clustered regions combined to form SATs to regulate genes. Further examination confirmed that a substantial portion of genes regulated by SATs were located between the paired TFBS-clustered regions instead of the downstream. We reconstructed the chromosomal conformation of the H1 human embryonic stem cell line using the ShRec3D algorithm and proposed the SAT regulatory model. ylu.phd@gmail.com or boxc@bmi.ac.cn. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  16. Cluster Observations of Channels of Enhanced Convection Velocity in the Ring Current Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puhl-Quinn, P. A.; Foerster, M.; Labelle, J.; Linder, J.; Matsui, H.; Treumann, R.

    2003-12-01

    For decades, spacecraft-borne instruments have detected enhanced convection features in the duskside and premidnight subauroral region, variously known as polarization jet [Galperin et al., 1973] or subauroral ion drifts (SAID) [Spiro et al., 1979]. We report Cluster observations of this phenomenon, detected with the electron drift instrument (EDI) which uses a novel particle-detection method to measure electric fields in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field. We have identified enhanced convection velocity striations within the dusk-side ring current region. Such striations with durations 1-5 minutes were observed in AMPTE/IRM data [LaBelle et al., 1988] and also may be the source of fine features observed recently in ground-based radar observations of SAID [Erickson et al., 2002]. Cluster, due to its more polar orbit, finds them on time scales of tens of minutes implying that the channels are extended along magnetic flux tubes. A survey of Cluster/EDI data from February, 2001 until July, 2003 was performed, using data from 14 to 24 hours local time, from 60-69 degrees invariant latitude, and for Kp > 4. Enhanced electric fields were defined as those in the anti-corotation direction (westward) with amplitude exceeding twice the corotation speed. The data show a tendency for the enhanced electric fields to occur at lower latitudes in premidnight/midnight local time than on the duskside, consistent with previous observations. Many previous observations report widths as narrow as 0.1 degrees for SAID events, and for example the 1-5 minute crossing times at IRM imply striation widths on the order of 1000-2000 km. The variable separations of the Cluster spacecraft over the multi-year data set provides a unique opportunity to improve the determination of this width. In this paper, we elaborate about statistical properties, theoretical implications, and association with the SAPS (sub-auroral polarization streams) and SAID phenomena. Erickson, P.J., et al

  17. Mapping hotspots of threatened species traded in bushmeat markets in the Cross-Sanaga rivers region.

    PubMed

    Fa, John E; Farfán, Miguel Angel; Marquez, Ana Luz; Duarte, Jesús; Nackoney, Janet; Hall, Amy; Dupain, Jef; Seymour, Sarah; Johnson, Paul J; MacDonald, David W; Vargas, J Mario

    2014-02-01

    Bushmeat markets exist in many countries in West and Central Africa, and data on species sold can be used to detect patterns of wildlife trade in a region. We surveyed 89 markets within the Cross-Sanaga rivers region, West Africa. In each market, we counted the number of carcasses of each taxon sold. During a 6-month period (7594 market days), 44 mammal species were traded. Thirteen species were on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List or protected under national legislation, and at least 1 threatened species was traded in 88 of the 89 markets. We used these data to identify market groups that traded similar species assemblages. Using cluster analyses, we detected 8 market groups that were also geographically distinct. Market groups differed in the diversity of species, evenness of species, and dominant, prevalent, and characteristic species traded. We mapped the distribution of number of threatened species traded across the study region. Most threatened species were sold in markets nearest 2 national parks, Korup National Park in Cameroon and Cross River in Nigeria. To assess whether the threatened-species trade hotspots coincided with the known ranges of these species, we mapped the overlap of all threatened species traded. Markets selling more threatened species overlapped with those regions that had higher numbers of these. Our study can provide wildlife managers in the region with better tools to discern zones within which to focus policing efforts and reduce threats to species that are threatened by the bushmeat trade.

  18. Central San Juan caldera cluster: Regional volcanic framework

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipman, Peter W.

    2000-01-01

    Eruption of at least 8800 km3 of dacitic-rhyolitic magma as 9 major ash-slow sheets (individually 150-5000 km3) was accompanied by recurrent caldera subsidence between 28.3 and about 26.5 Ma in the central San Juan Mountains, Colorado. Voluminous andesitic-decitic lavas and breccias were erupted from central volcanoes prior to the ash-flow eruptions, and similar lava eruptions continued within and adjacent to the calderas during the period of explosive volcanism, making the central San Juan caldera cluster an exceptional site for study of caldera-related volcanic processes. Exposed calderas vary in size from 10 to 75 km in maximum diameter, the largest calderas being associated with the most voluminous eruptions. After collapse of the giant La Garita caldera during eruption if the Fish Canyon Tuff at 17.6 Ma, seven additional explosive eruptions and calderas formed inside the La Garita depression within about 1 m.y. Because of the nested geometry, maximum loci of recurrently overlapping collapse events are inferred to have subsided as much as 10-17 km, far deeper than the roof of the composite subvolcanic batholith defined by gravity data, which represents solidified caldera-related magma bodies. Erosional dissection to depths of as much as 1.5 km, although insufficient to reach the subvolcanic batholith, has exposed diverse features of intracaldera ash-flow tuff and interleaved caldera-collapse landslide deposits that accumulated to multikilometer thickness within concurrently subsiding caldera structures. The calderas display a variety of postcollapse resurgent uplift structures, and caldera-forming events produced complex fault geometries that localized late mineralization, including the epithermal base- and precious-metal veins of the well-known Creede mining district. Most of the central San Juan calderas have been deeply eroded, and their identification is dependent on detailed geologic mapping. In contrast, the primary volcanic morphology of the

  19. Dissociative recombination of water cluster ions with free electrons: cross sections and branching ratios.

    PubMed

    Ojekull, J; Andersson, P U; Pettersson, J B C; Marković, N; Thomas, R D; Al Khalili, A; Ehlerding, A; Osterdahl, F; af Ugglas, M; Larsson, M; Danared, H; Källberg, A

    2008-01-28

    Dissociative recombination (DR) of water cluster ions H(+)(H(2)O)(n) (n=4-6) with free electrons has been studied at the heavy-ion storage ring CRYRING (Manne Siegbahn Laboratory, Stockholm University). For the first time, branching ratios have been determined for the dominating product channels and absolute DR cross sections have been measured in the energy range from 0.001 to 0.7 eV. Dissociative recombination is concluded to result in extensive fragmentation for all three cluster ions, and a maximum number of heavy oxygen-containing fragments is produced with a probability close to unity. The branching ratio results agree with earlier DR studies of smaller water cluster ions where the channel nH(2)O+H has been observed to dominate and where energy transfer to internal degrees of freedom has been concluded to be highly efficient. The absolute DR cross sections for H(+)(H(2)O)(n) (n=4-6) decrease monotonically with increasing energy with an energy dependence close to E(-1) in the lower part of the energy range and a faster falloff at higher energies, in agreement with the behavior of other studied heavy ions. The cross section data have been used to calculate DR rate coefficients in the temperature range of 10-2000 K. The results from storage ring experiments with water cluster ions are concluded to partly confirm the earlier results from afterglow experiments. The DR rate coefficients for H(+)(H(2)O)(n) (n=1-6) are in general somewhat lower than reported from afterglow experiments. The rate coefficient tends to increase with increasing cluster size, but not in the monotonic way that has been reported from afterglow experiments. The needs for further experimental studies and for theoretical models that can be used to predict the DR rate of polyatomic ions are discussed.

  20. Dissociative recombination of water cluster ions with free electrons: Cross sections and branching ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öjekull, J.; Andersson, P. U.; Pettersson, J. B. C.; Marković, N.; Thomas, R. D.; Al Khalili, A.; Ehlerding, A.; Österdahl, F.; af Ugglas, M.; Larsson, M.; Danared, H.; Källberg, A.

    2008-01-01

    Dissociative recombination (DR) of water cluster ions H+(H2O)n (n=4-6) with free electrons has been studied at the heavy-ion storage ring CRYRING (Manne Siegbahn Laboratory, Stockholm University). For the first time, branching ratios have been determined for the dominating product channels and absolute DR cross sections have been measured in the energy range from 0.001to0.7eV. Dissociative recombination is concluded to result in extensive fragmentation for all three cluster ions, and a maximum number of heavy oxygen-containing fragments is produced with a probability close to unity. The branching ratio results agree with earlier DR studies of smaller water cluster ions where the channel nH2O +H has been observed to dominate and where energy transfer to internal degrees of freedom has been concluded to be highly efficient. The absolute DR cross sections for H+(H2O)n (n=4-6) decrease monotonically with increasing energy with an energy dependence close to E-1 in the lower part of the energy range and a faster falloff at higher energies, in agreement with the behavior of other studied heavy ions. The cross section data have been used to calculate DR rate coefficients in the temperature range of 10-2000K. The results from storage ring experiments with water cluster ions are concluded to partly confirm the earlier results from afterglow experiments. The DR rate coefficients for H+(H2O)n (n=1-6) are in general somewhat lower than reported from afterglow experiments. The rate coefficient tends to increase with increasing cluster size, but not in the monotonic way that has been reported from afterglow experiments. The needs for further experimental studies and for theoretical models that can be used to predict the DR rate of polyatomic ions are discussed.

  1. Cross-correlating the γ-ray Sky with Catalogs of Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branchini, Enzo; Camera, Stefano; Cuoco, Alessandro; Fornengo, Nicolao; Regis, Marco; Viel, Matteo; Xia, Jun-Qing

    2017-01-01

    We report the detection of a cross-correlation signal between Fermi Large Area Telescope diffuse γ-ray maps and catalogs of clusters. In our analysis, we considered three different catalogs: WHL12, redMaPPer, and PlanckSZ. They all show a positive correlation with different amplitudes, related to the average mass of the objects in each catalog, which also sets the catalog bias. The signal detection is confirmed by the results of a stacking analysis. The cross-correlation signal extends to rather large angular scales, around 1°, that correspond, at the typical redshift of the clusters in these catalogs, to a few to tens of megaparsecs, i.e., the typical scale-length of the large-scale structures in the universe. Most likely this signal is contributed by the cumulative emission from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) associated with the filamentary structures that converge toward the high peaks of the matter density field in which galaxy clusters reside. In addition, our analysis reveals the presence of a second component, more compact in size and compatible with a point-like emission from within individual clusters. At present, we cannot distinguish between the two most likely interpretations for such a signal, i.e., whether it is produced by AGNs inside clusters or if it is a diffuse γ-ray emission from the intracluster medium. We argue that this latter, intriguing, hypothesis might be tested by applying this technique to a low-redshift large-mass cluster sample.

  2. CROSS-CORRELATING THE γ-RAY SKY WITH CATALOGS OF GALAXY CLUSTERS

    DOE PAGES

    Branchini, Enzo; Camera, Stefano; Cuoco, Alessandro; ...

    2017-01-18

    In this article, we report the detection of a cross-correlation signal between Fermi Large Area Telescope diffuse γ-ray maps and catalogs of clusters. In our analysis, we considered three different catalogs: WHL12, redMaPPer, and PlanckSZ. They all show a positive correlation with different amplitudes, related to the average mass of the objects in each catalog, which also sets the catalog bias. The signal detection is confirmed by the results of a stacking analysis. The cross-correlation signal extends to rather large angular scales, around 1°, that correspond, at the typical redshift of the clusters in these catalogs, to a few tomore » tens of megaparsecs, i.e., the typical scale-length of the large-scale structures in the universe. Most likely this signal is contributed by the cumulative emission from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) associated with the filamentary structures that converge toward the high peaks of the matter density field in which galaxy clusters reside. In addition, our analysis reveals the presence of a second component, more compact in size and compatible with a point-like emission from within individual clusters. At present, we cannot distinguish between the two most likely interpretations for such a signal, i.e., whether it is produced by AGNs inside clusters or if it is a diffuse γ-ray emission from the intracluster medium. Lastly, we argue that this latter, intriguing, hypothesis might be tested by applying this technique to a low-redshift large-mass cluster sample.« less

  3. MOLECULAR CLUMPS AND INFRARED CLUSTERS IN THE S247, S252, AND BFS52 REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Shimoikura, Tomomi; Dobashi, Kazuhito; Saito, Hiro; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Matsumoto, Tomoaki; Nishimura, Atsushi; Kimura, Kimihiro; Onishi, Toshikazu; Ogawa, Hideo

    2013-05-01

    We present results of the observations carried out toward the S247, S252, and BFS52 H II regions with various molecular lines using the 1.85 m radio telescope and the 45 m telescope at Nobeyama Radio Observatory. There are at least 11 young infrared clusters (IR clusters) within the observed region. We found that there are two velocity components in {sup 12}CO (J = 2-1), and also that their spatial distributions show an anti-correlation. The IR clusters are located at their interfaces, suggesting that two distinct clouds with different velocities are colliding with each other, which may have induced the cluster formation. Based on {sup 13}CO (J = 1-0) and C{sup 18}O (J = 1-0) observations, we identified 16 clumps in and around the three H II regions. Eleven of the clumps are associated with the IR clusters and the other five clumps are not associated with any known young stellar objects. We investigated variations in the velocity dispersions of the 16 clumps as a function of the distance from the center of the clusters or the clumps. Clumps with clusters tend to have velocity dispersions that increase with distance from the cluster center, while clumps without clusters show a flat velocity dispersion over the clump extents. A {sup 12}CO outflow has been found in some of the clumps with IR clusters but not in the other clumps, supporting a strong relation of these clumps to the broader velocity dispersion region. We also estimated a mean star formation efficiency of {approx}30% for the clumps with IR clusters in the three H II regions.

  4. Regional SAR Image Segmentation Based on Fuzzy Clustering with Gamma Mixture Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X. L.; Zhao, Q. H.; Li, Y.

    2017-09-01

    Most of stochastic based fuzzy clustering algorithms are pixel-based, which can not effectively overcome the inherent speckle noise in SAR images. In order to deal with the problem, a regional SAR image segmentation algorithm based on fuzzy clustering with Gamma mixture model is proposed in this paper. First, initialize some generating points randomly on the image, the image domain is divided into many sub-regions using Voronoi tessellation technique. Each sub-region is regarded as a homogeneous area in which the pixels share the same cluster label. Then, assume the probability of the pixel to be a Gamma mixture model with the parameters respecting to the cluster which the pixel belongs to. The negative logarithm of the probability represents the dissimilarity measure between the pixel and the cluster. The regional dissimilarity measure of one sub-region is defined as the sum of the measures of pixels in the region. Furthermore, the Markov Random Field (MRF) model is extended from pixels level to Voronoi sub-regions, and then the regional objective function is established under the framework of fuzzy clustering. The optimal segmentation results can be obtained by the solution of model parameters and generating points. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm can be proved by the qualitative and quantitative analysis from the segmentation results of the simulated and real SAR images.

  5. Cross-correlation Weak Lensing of SDSS Galaxy Clusters I: Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldon, Erin S.; Johnston, David E.; Scranton, Ryan; Koester, Ben P.; McKay, Timothy A.; Oyaizu, Hiroaki; Cunha, Carlos; Lima, Marcos; Lin, Huan; Frieman, Joshua A.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Annis, James; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Bahcall, Neta A.; Fukugita, Masataka

    2007-09-28

    This is the first in a series of papers on the weak lensing effect caused by clusters of galaxies in Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The photometrically selected cluster sample, known as MaxBCG, includes {approx}130,000 objects between redshift 0.1 and 0.3, ranging in size from small groups to massive clusters. We split the clusters into bins of richness and luminosity and stack the surface density contrast to produce mean radial profiles. The mean profiles are detected over a range of scales, from the inner halo (25 kpc/h) well into the surrounding large scale structure (30 Mpc/h), with a significance of 15 to 20 in each bin. The signal over this large range of scales is best interpreted in terms of the cluster-mass cross-correlation function. We pay careful attention to sources of systematic error, correcting for them where possible and bounding them where not. We find that the profiles scale strongly with richness and luminosity. We find the signal within a given richness bin depends upon luminosity, suggesting that luminosity is more closely correlated with mass than galaxy counts. We split the samples by redshift but detect no significant evolution. The profiles are not well described by power laws. In a subsequent series of papers we invert the profiles to three-dimensional mass profiles, show that they are well fit by a halo model description, measure mass-to-light ratios and provide a cosmological interpretation.

  6. Cross-Genome Clustering of Human and C. elegans G-Protein Coupled Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Nagarathnam, Balasubramanian; Kalaimathy, Singaravelu; Balakrishnan, Veluchamy; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan

    2012-01-01

    G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are one of the largest groups of membrane proteins and are popular drug targets. The work reported here attempts to perform cross-genome phylogeny on GPCRs from two widely different taxa, human versus C. elegans genomes and to address the issues on evolutionary plasticity, to identify functionally related genes, orthologous relationship, and ligand binding properties through effective bioinformatic approaches. Through RPS blast around 1106 nematode GPCRs were given chance to associate with previously established 8 types of human GPCR profiles at varying E-value thresholds and resulted 32 clusters were illustrating co-clustering and class-specific retainsionship. In the significant thresholds, 81% of the C. elegans GPCRs were associated with 32 clusters and 27 C. elegans GPCRs (2%) inferred for orthology. 177 hypothetical proteins were observed in cluster association and could be reliably associated with one of 32 clusters. Several nematode-specific GPCR clades were observed suggesting lineage-specific functional recruitment in response to environment. PMID:22807621

  7. Health region development from the perspective of system theory - an empirical cross-regional case study.

    PubMed

    Volgger, Michael; Mainil, Tomas; Pechlaner, Harald; Mitas, Ondrej

    2015-01-01

    Governments are increasingly establishing health regions to deal with current challenges of public health service. These regions are seen as instruments to balance public and private stakeholders, and offer health care to regional citizens as well as to medical/health tourists. However, it is still unclear how the development of such health regions as well as their governance may be conceptualized. We apply Luhmann's system theory approach in the context of a cross-regional case study that compares health region developments in the Autonomous Province of Bolzano-South Tyrol (Italy) with particular regard to the Eastern Dolomites and in the province of Zeeland (the Netherlands). We suggest that Luhmann's system theory provides a useful set of criteria to evaluate and judge health region development. Fully developed health regions can be understood as auto-poietic systems. By emphasizing programs, personnel, and communication channels, these case studies illustrate the suitability of the system theory toolset to analyze the governance and spatial embeddedness of health regions. Additionally, the study contributes to literature by indicating that health regions are closely related to identity issues and to decision making in regions.

  8. Cross-layer cluster-based energy-efficient protocol for wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Mammu, Aboobeker Sidhik Koyamparambil; Hernandez-Jayo, Unai; Sainz, Nekane; de la Iglesia, Idoia

    2015-04-09

    Recent developments in electronics and wireless communications have enabled the improvement of low-power and low-cost wireless sensors networks (WSNs). One of the most important challenges in WSNs is to increase the network lifetime due to the limited energy capacity of the network nodes. Another major challenge in WSNs is the hot spots that emerge as locations under heavy traffic load. Nodes in such areas quickly drain energy resources, leading to disconnection in network services. In such an environment, cross-layer cluster-based energy-efficient algorithms (CCBE) can prolong the network lifetime and energy efficiency. CCBE is based on clustering the nodes to different hexagonal structures. A hexagonal cluster consists of cluster members (CMs) and a cluster head (CH). The CHs are selected from the CMs based on nodes near the optimal CH distance and the residual energy of the nodes. Additionally, the optimal CH distance that links to optimal energy consumption is derived. To balance the energy consumption and the traffic load in the network, the CHs are rotated among all CMs. In WSNs, energy is mostly consumed during transmission and reception. Transmission collisions can further decrease the energy efficiency. These collisions can be avoided by using a contention-free protocol during the transmission period. Additionally, the CH allocates slots to the CMs based on their residual energy to increase sleep time. Furthermore, the energy consumption of CH can be further reduced by data aggregation. In this paper, we propose a data aggregation level based on the residual energy of CH and a cost-aware decision scheme for the fusion of data. Performance results show that the CCBE scheme performs better in terms of network lifetime, energy consumption and throughput compared to low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH) and hybrid energy-efficient distributed clustering (HEED).

  9. Cross-Layer Cluster-Based Energy-Efficient Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Mammu, Aboobeker Sidhik Koyamparambil; Hernandez-Jayo, Unai; Sainz, Nekane; de la Iglesia, Idoia

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in electronics and wireless communications have enabled the improvement of low-power and low-cost wireless sensors networks (WSNs). One of the most important challenges in WSNs is to increase the network lifetime due to the limited energy capacity of the network nodes. Another major challenge in WSNs is the hot spots that emerge as locations under heavy traffic load. Nodes in such areas quickly drain energy resources, leading to disconnection in network services. In such an environment, cross-layer cluster-based energy-efficient algorithms (CCBE) can prolong the network lifetime and energy efficiency. CCBE is based on clustering the nodes to different hexagonal structures. A hexagonal cluster consists of cluster members (CMs) and a cluster head (CH). The CHs are selected from the CMs based on nodes near the optimal CH distance and the residual energy of the nodes. Additionally, the optimal CH distance that links to optimal energy consumption is derived. To balance the energy consumption and the traffic load in the network, the CHs are rotated among all CMs. In WSNs, energy is mostly consumed during transmission and reception. Transmission collisions can further decrease the energy efficiency. These collisions can be avoided by using a contention-free protocol during the transmission period. Additionally, the CH allocates slots to the CMs based on their residual energy to increase sleep time. Furthermore, the energy consumption of CH can be further reduced by data aggregation. In this paper, we propose a data aggregation level based on the residual energy of CH and a cost-aware decision scheme for the fusion of data. Performance results show that the CCBE scheme performs better in terms of network lifetime, energy consumption and throughput compared to low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH) and hybrid energy-efficient distributed clustering (HEED). PMID:25860073

  10. Temporal Clustering of Regional-Scale Extreme Precipitation Events in Southern Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Yannick; Giannakaki, Paraskevi; Von Waldow, Harald; Chevalier, Clément; Pfhal, Stephan; Martius, Olivia

    2017-04-01

    Temporal clustering of extreme precipitation events on subseasonal time scales is a form of compound extremes and is of crucial importance for the formation of large-scale flood events. Here, the temporal clustering of regional-scale extreme precipitation events in southern Switzerland is studied. These precipitation events are relevant for the flooding of lakes in southern Switzerland and northern Italy. This research determines whether temporal clustering is present and then identifies the dynamics that are responsible for the clustering. An observation-based gridded precipitation dataset of Swiss daily rainfall sums and ECMWF reanalysis datasets are used. To analyze the clustering in the precipitation time series a modified version of Ripley's K function is used. It determines the average number of extreme events in a time period, to characterize temporal clustering on subseasonal time scales and to determine the statistical significance of the clustering. Significant clustering of regional-scale precipitation extremes is found on subseasonal time scales during the fall season. Four high-impact clustering episodes are then selected and the dynamics responsible for the clustering are examined. During the four clustering episodes, all heavy precipitation events were associated with an upperlevel breaking Rossby wave over western Europe and in most cases strong diabatic processes upstream over the Atlantic played a role in the amplification of these breaking waves. Atmospheric blocking downstream over eastern Europe supported this wave breaking during two of the clustering episodes. During one of the clustering periods, several extratropical transitions of tropical cyclones in the Atlantic contributed to the formation of high-amplitude ridges over the Atlantic basin and downstream wave breaking. During another event, blocking over Alaska assisted the phase locking of the Rossby waves downstream over the Atlantic.

  11. A cross-species bi-clustering approach to identifying conserved co-regulated genes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiangwen; Jiang, Zongliang; Tian, Xiuchun; Bi, Jinbo

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: A growing number of studies have explored the process of pre-implantation embryonic development of multiple mammalian species. However, the conservation and variation among different species in their developmental programming are poorly defined due to the lack of effective computational methods for detecting co-regularized genes that are conserved across species. The most sophisticated method to date for identifying conserved co-regulated genes is a two-step approach. This approach first identifies gene clusters for each species by a cluster analysis of gene expression data, and subsequently computes the overlaps of clusters identified from different species to reveal common subgroups. This approach is ineffective to deal with the noise in the expression data introduced by the complicated procedures in quantifying gene expression. Furthermore, due to the sequential nature of the approach, the gene clusters identified in the first step may have little overlap among different species in the second step, thus difficult to detect conserved co-regulated genes. Results: We propose a cross-species bi-clustering approach which first denoises the gene expression data of each species into a data matrix. The rows of the data matrices of different species represent the same set of genes that are characterized by their expression patterns over the developmental stages of each species as columns. A novel bi-clustering method is then developed to cluster genes into subgroups by a joint sparse rank-one factorization of all the data matrices. This method decomposes a data matrix into a product of a column vector and a row vector where the column vector is a consistent indicator across the matrices (species) to identify the same gene cluster and the row vector specifies for each species the developmental stages that the clustered genes co-regulate. Efficient optimization algorithm has been developed with convergence analysis. This approach was first validated on

  12. Revisiting the region of the open cluster NGC 5606

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsatti, A. M.; Feinstein, C.; Vega, E. I.; Vergne, M. M.

    2007-08-01

    We present polarimetric observations in the UBVRI bands corresponding to 54 stars located in the direction of NGC 5606. Our intention is to analyze the dust characteristics between the Sun and the cluster, as well as to confirm doubtful memberships using polarimetric tools. We also want to determine if a group of 11 B and A stars identified in the past by Vázquez & Feinstein (1991, A&AS, 87, 383) in front of NGC 5606 has any physical entity. From polarimetric data we have found at least two dust layers along the line of sight to the open cluster. The observations show that both dust layers have their local magnetic field with an orientation which is close to the direction of the Galactic Plane (θ = 70.0 °), but the direction of the polarimetric vector for the members of the cluster seems to be lower than this value. NGC 5606 can be polarimetrically characterized with P_max = 2.97% and θv = 63.5 °. The internal dispersion of the polarization values for the members of NGC 5606 seems to be compatible with intracluster dust. We were able to add four possible new members to the list of stars in NGC 5606, and to reject others accepted as members in past investigations; and we identified 17 (out of the 54 observed stars) with intrinsic polarization in their light. The group of late B- and A-type stars could be physically related, with characteristics of an open cluster of intermediate age (between 0.79 and 1. × 108 yr). For this group we obtained representative values of P = 2.12% and θv = 70.0 °. The new cluster, which we have provisionally named Anon (La Plata 1), extends from NE to SW across the face of NGC 5606 covering about 10'. The fitting procedure of Schmidt-Kaler's ZAMS (1982, in Landolt/Bornstein, Neue Series VI/2b) was used to derive the distance to the group, obtaining a distance modulus of Vo - Mv = 9.90 (649 pc from the Sun). The mean color excess associated with the small group is EB-V = 0.27 ± 0.08 mag and the dust distribution shows great

  13. Massive Stellar Content of Stellar Clusters in M 31's Giant HII Region Pellet 550

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandner, W.; Bik, A.; Rochau, B.; Gennaro, M.; Kudryavtseva, N.; Stolte, A.; Hussmann, B.; Zinnecker, H.

    We report on the first set of LBT/LUCIFER near infrared observations of Pellet 550, one of the most massive star-forming regions in the disk of M 31. Compared to the Milky Way, M 31 offers a complete census of star-forming regions and starburst clusters, all located at virtually the same distance. The regions under study have been selected to include the most luminous HII regions as well as still partially embedded star-forming regions recently revealed by Spitzer. For the first time we are able to establish the massive stellar content, identify young, massive clusters, and study the nature of still partially embedded luminous infrared sources. The M 31 study is a first application of our previous studies to establish the properties of Milky Way starburst clusters as templates for extragalactic massive star-forming regions.

  14. Advantages and Limitations of Cluster Analysis in Interpreting Regional GPS Velocity Fields in California and Elsewhere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thatcher, W. R.; Savage, J. C.; Simpson, R.

    2012-12-01

    Regional Global Positioning System (GPS) velocity observations are providing increasingly precise mappings of actively deforming continental lithosphere. Cluster analysis, a venerable data analysis method, offers a simple, visual exploratory tool for the initial organization and investigation of GPS velocities (Simpson et al., 2012 GRL). Here we describe the application of cluster analysis to GPS velocities from three regions, the Mojave Desert and the San Francisco Bay regions in California, and the Aegean in the eastern Mediterranean. Our goal is to illustrate the strengths and shortcomings of the method in searching for spatially coherent patterns of deformation, including evidence for and against block-like behavior in these 3 regions. The deformation fields from dense regional GPS networks can often be concisely described in terms of relatively coherent blocks bounded by active faults, although the choice of blocks, their number and size, is subjective and usually guided by the distribution of known faults. Cluster analysis applied to GPS velocities provides a completely objective method for identifying groups of observations ranging in size from 10s to 100s of km in characteristic dimension based solely on the similarities of their velocity vectors. In the three regions we have studied, statistically significant clusters are almost invariably spatially coherent, fault bounded, and coincide with elastic, geologically identified structural blocks. Often, higher order clusters that are not statistically significant are also spatially coherent, suggesting the existence of additional blocks, or defining regions of other tectonic importance (e.g. zones of localized elastic strain accumulation near locked faults). These results can be used to both formulate tentative tectonic models with testable consequences and to suggest focused new measurements in under-sampled regions. Cluster analysis applied to GPS velocities has several potential limitations, aside from the

  15. Clustered magnetite nanocrystals cross-linked with PEI for efficient siRNA delivery.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Won; Bae, Ki Hyun; Kim, Chunsoo; Park, Tae Gwan

    2011-02-14

    Magnetofection has been utilized as a powerful tool to enhance gene transfection efficiency via magnetic field-enforced cellular transport processes. The accelerated accumulation of nucleic acid molecules by applying an external magnetic force enables the rapid and improved transduction efficiency. In this study, we developed magnetite nanocrystal clusters (PMNCs) cross-linked with polyethylenimine (PEI) to magnetically trigger intracellular delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA). PMNCs were produced by cross-linked assembly of catechol-functionalized branched polyethylenimine (bPEI) around magnetite nanocrystals through an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion and solvent evaporation method. The physical properties of PMNC were characterized by TEM, DLS, TSA, and FT-IR. Finely tuned formulation of clustered magnetite nanocrystals with controlled size and shape exhibited superior saturation of magnetization value. Magnetite nanocrystal clusters could form nanosized polyelectrolyte complexes with negatively charged siRNA molecules, enabling efficient delivery of siRNA into cells upon exposure to an external magnetic field within a short time. This study introduces a new class of magnetic nanomaterials that can be utilized for magnetically driven intracellular siRNA delivery.

  16. Image patch analysis of sunspots and active regions. II. Clustering via matrix factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Kevin R.; Delouille, Véronique; Li, Jimmy J.; De Visscher, Ruben; Watson, Fraser; Hero, Alfred O.

    2016-01-01

    Context. Separating active regions that are quiet from potentially eruptive ones is a key issue in Space Weather applications. Traditional classification schemes such as Mount Wilson and McIntosh have been effective in relating an active region large scale magnetic configuration to its ability to produce eruptive events. However, their qualitative nature prevents systematic studies of an active region's evolution for example. Aims: We introduce a new clustering of active regions that is based on the local geometry observed in Line of Sight magnetogram and continuum images. Methods: We use a reduced-dimension representation of an active region that is obtained by factoring the corresponding data matrix comprised of local image patches. Two factorizations can be compared via the definition of appropriate metrics on the resulting factors. The distances obtained from these metrics are then used to cluster the active regions. Results: We find that these metrics result in natural clusterings of active regions. The clusterings are related to large scale descriptors of an active region such as its size, its local magnetic field distribution, and its complexity as measured by the Mount Wilson classification scheme. We also find that including data focused on the neutral line of an active region can result in an increased correspondence between our clustering results and other active region descriptors such as the Mount Wilson classifications and the R-value. Conclusions: Matrix factorization of image patches is a promising new way of characterizing active regions. We provide some recommendations for which metrics, matrix factorization techniques, and regions of interest to use to study active regions.

  17. Drama of HII regions: Clustered and Triggered Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jin-Zeng; Yuan, Jinghua; Liu, Hong-Li; Wu, Yuefang; Huang, Ya-Fang

    2017-03-01

    In order to understand the star formation process under the influence of H ii regions, we have carried out extensive investigations to well selected star-forming regions which all have been profoundly affected by existing massive O type stars. On the basis of multi-wavelength data from mid-infrared to millimeter collected using Spitzer, Herschel, and ground based radio telescopes, the physical status of interstellar medium and star formation in these regions have been revealed. In a relatively large infrared dust bubble, active star formation is undergoing and the shell is still expanding. Signs of compressed gas and triggered star formation have been tentatively detected in a relatively small bubble. The dense cores in the Rosette Molecular Complex detected at 1.1 mm using SMA have been speculated to have a likely triggered origin according to their spatial distribution. Although some observational results have been obtained, more efforts are necessary to reach trustworthy conclusions.

  18. Cross-correlation Weak Lensing of SDSS Galaxy Clusters III: Mass-to-light Ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldon, Erin S.; Johnston, David E.; Masjedi, Morad; McKay, Timothy A.; Blanton, Michael R.; Scranton, Ryan; Wechsler, Risa H.; Koester, Ben P.; Hansen, Sarah M.; Frieman, Joshua A.; Annis, James

    2007-09-28

    We present measurements of the excess mass-to-light ratio measured around MaxBCG galaxy clusters observed in the SDSS. This red sequence cluster sample includes objects from small groups with M{sub 200} {approx} 5 x 10{sup 12}h{sup -1}M{sub {circle_dot}} to clusters with M{sub 200} {approx} 5 x 10{sup 15}h{sup -1}M{sub {circle_dot}}. Using cross-correlation weak lensing, we measure the excess mass density profile above the universal mean {Delta}{yields}(r) = {rho}(r) -- {bar {rho}} for clusters in bins of richness and optical luminosity. We also measure the excess {sup 0.25}i-band luminosity density {Delta}{ell}(r) = {ell}(r) -- {bar {ell}}. For both mass and light, we de-project the profiles to produce 3D mass and light profiles over scales from 25h{sup -1} kpc to 22h{sup -1} Mpc. From these profiles we calculate the cumulative excess mass {Delta}M(r) and excess light {Delta}L(r) as a function of separation from the BCG. On small scales, where {rho}(r) >> {bar {rho}}, the integrated mass-to-light profile ({Delta}M/{Delta}L)(r) may be interpreted as the cluster mass-to-light ratio. We find the ({Delta}M/{Delta}L){sub 200}, the mass-to-light ratio within r{sub 200}, scales with cluster mass as a power law with index 0.33{+-}0.02. On large scales, where {rho}(r) {approx} {bar {rho}}, the {Delta}M/{Delta}L approaches an asymptotic value independent of scale or cluster richness. For small groups, the mean ({Delta}M/{Delta}L){sub 200} is much smaller than the asymptotic value, while for large clusters ({Delta}M/{Delta}L)200 is consistent with the asymptotic value. This asymptotic value should be proportional to the mean mass-to-light ratio of the universe {l_angle}M/L{r_angle}. We find {l_angle}M/L{r_angle} b{sup -2}{sub M/L} = 362 {+-} 54h measured in the {sup 0.25}i-bandpass. The parameter b{sup 2}{sub M/L} is primarily a function of the bias of the L {approx}< L* galaxies used as light tracers, and should be of order unity. Multiplying by the luminosity density in

  19. CROSS-CORRELATION WEAK LENSING OF SDSS GALAXY CLUSTERS. III. MASS-TO-LIGHT RATIOS

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldon, Erin S.; Johnston, David E.; Masjedi, Morad; Blanton, Michael R.; McKay, Timothy A.; Scranton, Ryan; Wechsler, Risa H.; Koester, Benjamin P.; Hansen, Sarah M.; Frieman, Joshua A.; Annis, James

    2009-10-01

    We present measurements of the excess mass-to-light ratio (M/L) measured around MaxBCG galaxy clusters observed in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. This red-sequence cluster sample includes objects from small groups with M {sub 200} approx 5 x 10{sup 12} h {sup -1} M {sub sun} to clusters with M {sub 200} approx 10{sup 15} h {sup -1} M {sub sun}. Using cross-correlation weak lensing, we measure the excess mass density profile above the universal mean DELTArho(r)=rho(r)-rho-bar for clusters in bins of richness and optical luminosity. We also measure the excess luminosity density DELTAl(r)=l(r)-l-bar measured in the z = 0.25 i band. For both mass and light, we de-project the profiles to produce three-dimensional mass and light profiles over scales from 25 h {sup -1} kpc to 22 h {sup -1} Mpc. From these profiles we calculate the cumulative excess mass DELTAM(r) and excess light DELTAL(r) as a function of separation from the BCG. On small scales, where rho(r)>>rho-bar, the integrated mass-to-light profile (DELTAM/DELTAL)(r) may be interpreted as the cluster M/L. We find the (DELTAM/DELTAL){sub 200}, the M/L within r {sub 200}, scales with cluster mass as a power law with index 0.33 +- 0.02. On large scales, where rho(r)approxrho-bar, the DELTAM/DELTAL approaches an asymptotic value independent of cluster richness. For small groups, the mean (DELTAM/DELTAL){sub 200} is much smaller than the asymptotic value, while for large clusters (DELTAM/DELTAL){sub 200} is consistent with the asymptotic value. This asymptotic value should be proportional to the mean M/L of the universe (M/L). We find (M/L)b{sup -2} {sub M/L} = 362 +- 54h (statistical). There is additional uncertainty in the overall calibration at the approx10% level. The parameter b {sup 2} {sub M/L} is primarily a function of the bias of the L approx< L {sub *} galaxies used as light tracers, and should be of order unity. Multiplying by the luminosity density in the same bandpass we find OMEGA {sub m}b{sup -2} {sub M

  20. Globular clusters in the inner regions of NGC 5128 (CENTAURUS A)

    SciTech Connect

    Minniti, D. |; Alonso, M.V.; Goudfrooij, P.; Jablonka, P.; Meylan, G.

    1996-08-01

    We have identified 26 new globular cluster candidates in the inner 3 kpc of NGC 5128 (Centaurus A), the nearest known large galaxy that is the probable product of a merger. The clusters are selected on the basis of their structural parameters (observed core diameters and ellipticities), as measured from archival Wide Field Planetary Camera (WFPC) {ital Hubble} {ital Space} {ital Telescope} ({ital HST}) images. IR photometry obtained with IRAC2B at the ESO/MPI 2.2 m telescope is combined with the optical HST photometry. Most of these clusters have normal colors typical of old globular clusters like those found in the Milky Way and M31. We estimate their metal abundances based on the {ital R}{minus}{ital K}{sub 0} color, confirming the existence of a metallicity gradient in the inner regions of NGC 5128. The presence of metal-rich globular clusters suggests that one of the colliding galaxies was a bulge-dominated galaxy ({ital E} or early {ital S}). A few clusters have colors and magnitudes similar to intermediate-age clusters containing carbon stars in the Magellanic Clouds. If the intermediate-age clusters were formed during a merger, then this episode must have occurred a few gigayears ago. Alternatively, we are looking at the cluster members of one of the colliding galaxies, which would then have been a late-type disk galaxy. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Astronomical Society.}

  1. High mass and spatial resolution mass spectrometry imaging of Nicolas Poussin painting cross section by cluster TOF-SIMS.

    PubMed

    Noun, Manale; Van Elslande, Elsa; Touboul, David; Glanville, Helen; Bucklow, Spike; Walter, Philippe; Brunelle, Alain

    2016-12-01

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) imaging using cluster primary ion beams is used for the identification of the pigments in the painting of Rebecca and Eliezer at the Well by Nicolas Poussin. The combination of the high mass resolution of the technique with a sub-micrometer spatial resolution offered by a delayed extraction of the secondary ions, together with the possibility to simultaneously identifying both minerals and organics, has proved to be the method of choice for the study of the stratigraphy of a paint cross section. The chemical compositions of small grains are shown with the help of a thorough processing of the data, with images of specific ions, mass spectra extracted from small regions of interest, and profiles drawn along the different painting layers. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Sequence breakpoints in the aflatoxin biosynthesis gene cluster and flanking regions in nonaflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus isolates.

    PubMed

    Chang, Perng-Kuang; Horn, Bruce W; Dorner, Joe W

    2005-11-01

    Aspergillus flavus populations are genetically diverse. Isolates that produce either, neither, or both aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) are present in the field. We investigated defects in the aflatoxin gene cluster in 38 nonaflatoxigenic A. flavus isolates collected from southern United States. PCR assays using aflatoxin-gene-specific primers grouped these isolates into eight (A-H) deletion patterns. Patterns C, E, G, and H, which contain 40 kb deletions, were examined for their sequence breakpoints. Pattern C has one breakpoint in the cypA 3' untranslated region (UTR) and another in the verA coding region. Pattern E has a breakpoint in the amdA coding region and another in the ver1 5'UTR. Pattern G contains a deletion identical to the one found in pattern C and has another deletion that extends from the cypA coding region to one end of the chromosome as suggested by the presence of telomeric sequence repeats, CCCTAATGTTGA. Pattern H has a deletion of the entire aflatoxin gene cluster from the hexA coding region in the sugar utilization gene cluster to the telomeric region. Thus, deletions in the aflatoxin gene cluster among A. flavus isolates are not rare, and the patterns appear to be diverse. Genetic drift may be a driving force that is responsible for the loss of the entire aflatoxin gene cluster in nonaflatoxigenic A. flavus isolates when aflatoxins have lost their adaptive value in nature.

  3. Clustering in Engineering Education in the Baltic Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahrens, Andreas; Zascerinska, Jelena

    2011-01-01

    The contemporary situation in the Baltic region, namely, the lack of working places due to the structural problems, a high unemployment rate, the migration of highly qualified people and the low rate of self-employees, demands on innovation as an engine of the economic development with a strong impact on sustainable development in the European…

  4. Dissociative recombination of water cluster ions with free electrons: Cross sections and branching ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Oejekull, J.; Andersson, P. U.; Pettersson, J. B. C.; Markovic, N.; Thomas, R. D.; Al Khalili, A.; Ehlerding, A.; Oesterdahl, F.; Ugglas, M. af; Larsson, M.; Danared, H.; Kaellberg, A.

    2008-01-28

    Dissociative recombination (DR) of water cluster ions H{sup +}(H{sub 2}O){sub n} (n=4-6) with free electrons has been studied at the heavy-ion storage ring CRYRING (Manne Siegbahn Laboratory, Stockholm University). For the first time, branching ratios have been determined for the dominating product channels and absolute DR cross sections have been measured in the energy range from 0.001 to 0.7 eV. Dissociative recombination is concluded to result in extensive fragmentation for all three cluster ions, and a maximum number of heavy oxygen-containing fragments is produced with a probability close to unity. The branching ratio results agree with earlier DR studies of smaller water cluster ions where the channel nH{sub 2}O+H has been observed to dominate and where energy transfer to internal degrees of freedom has been concluded to be highly efficient. The absolute DR cross sections for H{sup +}(H{sub 2}O){sub n} (n=4-6) decrease monotonically with increasing energy with an energy dependence close to E{sup -1} in the lower part of the energy range and a faster falloff at higher energies, in agreement with the behavior of other studied heavy ions. The cross section data have been used to calculate DR rate coefficients in the temperature range of 10-2000 K. The results from storage ring experiments with water cluster ions are concluded to partly confirm the earlier results from afterglow experiments. The DR rate coefficients for H{sup +}(H{sub 2}O){sub n} (n=1-6) are in general somewhat lower than reported from afterglow experiments. The rate coefficient tends to increase with increasing cluster size, but not in the monotonic way that has been reported from afterglow experiments. The needs for further experimental studies and for theoretical models that can be used to predict the DR rate of polyatomic ions are discussed.

  5. Study of Seismic Clusters at Bahía de Banderas Region, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Rutz-Lopez, M.; Suarez-Plascencia, C.; Trejo-Gomez, E.

    2010-12-01

    Given that the coast in the states of Jalisco and south of the state of Nayarit is located within a region of high seismic potential and also because population is increasing, perhaps motivated by the development of tourism, the Civil Defense authorities of Jalisco and the Centro de Sismología y Volcanología de Occidente-SisVOc of Universidad de Guadalajara started in the year 2000 a joint project to study the seismic risk of the region, including the seismic monitoring of Colima volcano (located between the states of Jalisco and Colima). This work focuses on the study of seismicity in the area of Bahía de Banderas and northern coast of Jalisco. To this end, we perform an analysis of available seismograms to characterize active structures, their relationship to surface morphology, and possible reach of these structures into the shallow parts of the bay. The data used in this work are waveforms recorded during the year 2003 during which the seismograph network spanned the region of study. Our method is based on the identification of seismic clusters or families using cross-correlation of waveforms, earthquake relocation and modeling of fault planes. From an initial data set of 404 earthquakes located during 2003, 96 earthquakes could be related to 17 potentially active continental structures. A modeling of fault planes was possible for 11 of these structures. Subgroups of 7 structures are aligned parallel to the Middle America Trench, a possible consequence of oblique subduction. The magnitudes of earthquakes grouped into families is less than 3.6 (Ml), corresponding to fault dimensions of hundreds of meters.

  6. 197Au(n,gamma) Cross Section in the Unresolved Resonance Region

    SciTech Connect

    Lederer, C.; Koehler, Paul Edward

    2011-03-01

    The cross section of the reaction {sup 197}Au(n,{gamma}) was measured with the time-of-flight technique at the n{_}TOF (neutron time-of-flight) facility in the unresolved resonance region between 5 and 400 keV using a pair of C{sub 6}D{sub 6} (where D denotes {sup 2}H) liquid scintillators for the detection of prompt capture {gamma} rays. The results with a total uncertainty of 3.9%-6.7% for a resolution of 20 bins per energy decade show fair agreement with the Evaluated Nuclear Data File Version B-VII.0 (ENDF/B-VII.0), which contains the standard evaluation. The Maxwellian-averaged cross section (MACS) at 30 keV is in excellent agreement with the one according to the ENDF/B-VII.0 evaluation and 4.7% higher than the MACS measured independently by activation technique. Structures in the cross section, which had also been reported earlier, have been interpreted as being due to clusters of resonances.

  7. Au197(n,γ) cross section in the unresolved resonance region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederer, C.; Colonna, N.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Gunsing, F.; Käppeler, F.; Massimi, C.; Mengoni, A.; Wallner, A.; Abbondanno, U.; Aerts, G.; Álvarez, H.; Álvarez-Velarde, F.; Andriamonje, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Audouin, L.; Badurek, G.; Barbagallo, M.; Baumann, P.; Bečvář, F.; Belloni, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Calviani, M.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Capote, R.; Carrapiço, C.; Carrillo de Albornoz, A.; Cennini, P.; Chepel, V.; Chiaveri, E.; Cortes, G.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; Dahlfors, M.; David, S.; Dillmann, I.; Dolfini, R.; Dridi, W.; Duran, I.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Embid-Segura, M.; Ferrant, L.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Fitzpatrick, L.; Frais-Koelbl, H.; Fujii, K.; Furman, W.; Goncalves, I.; González-Romero, E.; Goverdovski, A.; Gramegna, F.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Haas, B.; Haight, R.; Heil, M.; Herrera-Martinez, A.; Igashira, M.; Isaev, S.; Jericha, E.; Kadi, Y.; Karadimos, D.; Karamanis, D.; Kerveno, M.; Ketlerov, V.; Koehler, P.; Konovalov, V.; Kossionides, E.; Krtička, M.; Lampoudis, C.; Leeb, H.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, I.; Losito, R.; Lozano, M.; Lukic, S.; Marganiec, J.; Marques, L.; Marrone, S.; Martínez, T.; Mastinu, P.; Mendoza, E.; Milazzo, P. M.; Moreau, C.; Mosconi, M.; Neves, F.; Oberhummer, H.; O'Brien, S.; Oshima, M.; Pancin, J.; Papachristodoulou, C.; Papadopoulos, C.; Paradela, C.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perrot, L.; Pigni, M. T.; Plag, R.; Plompen, A.; Plukis, A.; Poch, A.; Praena, J.; Pretel, C.; Quesada, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rosetti, M.; Rubbia, C.; Rudolf, G.; Rullhusen, P.; Salgado, J.; Santos, C.; Sarchiapone, L.; Sarmento, R.; Savvidis, I.; Stephan, C.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tarrío, D.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tavora, L.; Terlizzi, R.; Vannini, G.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Villamarin, D.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wendler, H.; Wiescher, M.; Wisshak, K.

    2011-03-01

    The cross section of the reaction Au197(n,γ) was measured with the time-of-flight technique at the n_TOF (neutron time-of-flight) facility in the unresolved resonance region between 5 and 400 keV using a pair of C6D6 (where D denotes H2) liquid scintillators for the detection of prompt capture γ rays. The results with a total uncertainty of 3.9%-6.7% for a resolution of 20 bins per energy decade show fair agreement with the Evaluated Nuclear Data File Version B-VII.0 (ENDF/B-VII.0), which contains the standard evaluation. The Maxwellian-averaged cross section (MACS) at 30 keV is in excellent agreement with the one according to the ENDF/B-VII.0 evaluation and 4.7% higher than the MACS measured independently by activation technique. Structures in the cross section, which had also been reported earlier, have been interpreted as being due to clusters of resonances.

  8. CROSS-CORRELATION WEAK LENSING OF SDSS GALAXY CLUSTERS. I. MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldon, Erin S.; Johnston, David E.; Scranton, Ryan; Koester, Benjamin P.; Oyaizu, Hiroaki; Cunha, Carlos; Lima, Marcos; Frieman, Joshua A.; McKay, Timothy A.; Lin Huan; Annis, James; Wechsler, Risa H.; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Bahcall, Neta A.; Fukugita, Masataka

    2009-10-01

    This is the first in a series of papers on the weak lensing effect caused by clusters of galaxies in Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The photometrically selected cluster sample, known as MaxBCG, includes approx130,000 objects between redshift 0.1 and 0.3, ranging in size from small groups to massive clusters. We split the clusters into bins of richness and luminosity and stack the surface density contrast to produce mean radial profiles. The mean profiles are detected over a range of scales, from the inner halo (25 kpc h {sup -1}) well into the surrounding large-scale structure (30 Mpc h {sup -1}), with a significance of 15 to 20 in each bin. The signal over this large range of scales is best interpreted in terms of the cluster-mass cross-correlation function. We pay careful attention to sources of systematic error, correcting for them where possible. The resulting signals are calibrated to the approx10% level, with the dominant remaining uncertainty being the redshift distribution of the background sources. We find that the profiles scale strongly with richness and luminosity. We find that the signal within a given richness bin depends upon luminosity, suggesting that luminosity is more closely correlated with mass than galaxy counts. We split the samples by redshift but detect no significant evolution. The profiles are not well described by power laws. In a subsequent series of papers, we invert the profiles to three-dimensional mass profiles, show that they are well fit by a halo model description, measure mass-to-light ratios, and provide a cosmological interpretation.

  9. A DEEP UBVRI CCD PHOTOMETRY OF SIX OPEN STAR CLUSTERS IN THE GALACTIC ANTICENTER REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Lata, Sneh; Pandey, Anil K.; Kumar, Brijesh; Bhatt, Himali; Pace, Giancarlo; Sharma, Saurabh

    2010-02-15

    We present deep UBVRI CCD photometry of six open star clusters situated in the Galactic anticenter region (l{approx} 120-200 deg.). The sample includes three unstudied (Be 6, Be 77, King 17) and three partly studied open clusters (Be 9, NGC 2186, and NGC 2304). The fundamental parameters have been determined by comparing color-color and color-magnitude diagrams with the theoretical models. The structural parameters and morphology of the clusters were discussed on the basis of radial density profiles and isodensity contours, respectively. The isodensity contours show that all the clusters have asymmetric shapes. An investigation of structural parameters indicates that the evolution of core and corona of the clusters is mainly controlled by internal relaxation processes.

  10. Extragalactic Ultracompact HII Regions: Probing the Birth Environments of Super Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, K. E.

    2004-12-01

    In recent years, a number of extragalactic massive star clusters that are still deeply embedded in their birth material have been discovered. These objects represent the youngest stage of massive star cluster evolution yet observed, and the most massive and dense of these may be proto globular clusters. Their properties appear to be similar to those of ultracompact HII regions in the Galaxy, but scaled up in total mass and luminosity. In many cases, these clusters are only visible at mid-IR to radio wavelengths, and they have typically been detected as ``inverted'' spectrum radio sources. However, the set of existing observations is anemic, and our current physical model for these natal clusters in simplistic. This article will overview what we think we know about these objects based on existing observations and outline some of the most significant gaps in our current understanding.

  11. Detail studies of the physical properties in the outer regions of galaxy clusters using Suzaku observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babyk, Yu. V.

    2016-06-01

    A detailed physical analysis of five nearby galaxy clusters using Suzaku observationsis presented. The low and stable level of the instrumental background at large radii facilitate the determination of the main physical characteristics in clusters at the virial radius. The temperatures, metal abundances, and entropy profiles have been constructed out to the outskirts of the clusters. The temperature profiles all display the same shape, with a negative gradient towards to the center and a flat outer plateau. The strong temperature gradients in the central parts of the clusters are usually associated with strong peaks of the surface brightness profiles. The temperature systematically decrease outward from the central regions, by a factor of three at and slightly beyond the cluster outskirts. The temperature profiles are compared with profiles predicted by N-body and hydrodynamical simulations obtained using several numerical algorithms. The slopes in the observed and simulated temperature profiles are consistent with each other in the cluster outskirts. The central regions of the clusters are characterized by low entropy and high metallicity. The possible influence of cool cores on the cluster outskirts is also discussed. The total mass profiles were determined using the observed gas-density and temperature profiles, assuming hydrostatic equilibriumand spherical symmetry. The gas-density profiles were fitted using an improved three-dimensional model to fit the inner and outer regions of the cluster independently. The total mass profiles were described using an NFW model out to R 200. The measurements show clear evidence for universality of the total mass distribution. The scaled mass profiles in units of R 200 and M 200 display a dispersion of ~15% at 0.1 R 200. The fraction of gas out to R 200 was also found.

  12. Regional health care planning: a methodology to cluster facilities using community utilization patterns.

    PubMed

    Delamater, Paul L; Shortridge, Ashton M; Messina, Joseph P

    2013-08-22

    Community-based health care planning and regulation necessitates grouping facilities and areal units into regions of similar health care use. Limited research has explored the methodologies used in creating these regions. We offer a new methodology that clusters facilities based on similarities in patient utilization patterns and geographic location. Our case study focused on Hospital Groups in Michigan, the allocation units used for predicting future inpatient hospital bed demand in the state's Bed Need Methodology. The scientific, practical, and political concerns that were considered throughout the formulation and development of the methodology are detailed. The clustering methodology employs a 2-step K-means + Ward's clustering algorithm to group hospitals. The final number of clusters is selected using a heuristic that integrates both a statistical-based measure of cluster fit and characteristics of the resulting Hospital Groups. Using recent hospital utilization data, the clustering methodology identified 33 Hospital Groups in Michigan. Despite being developed within the politically charged climate of Certificate of Need regulation, we have provided an objective, replicable, and sustainable methodology to create Hospital Groups. Because the methodology is built upon theoretically sound principles of clustering analysis and health care service utilization, it is highly transferable across applications and suitable for grouping facilities or areal units.

  13. Regional health care planning: a methodology to cluster facilities using community utilization patterns

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Community-based health care planning and regulation necessitates grouping facilities and areal units into regions of similar health care use. Limited research has explored the methodologies used in creating these regions. We offer a new methodology that clusters facilities based on similarities in patient utilization patterns and geographic location. Our case study focused on Hospital Groups in Michigan, the allocation units used for predicting future inpatient hospital bed demand in the state’s Bed Need Methodology. The scientific, practical, and political concerns that were considered throughout the formulation and development of the methodology are detailed. Methods The clustering methodology employs a 2-step K-means + Ward’s clustering algorithm to group hospitals. The final number of clusters is selected using a heuristic that integrates both a statistical-based measure of cluster fit and characteristics of the resulting Hospital Groups. Results Using recent hospital utilization data, the clustering methodology identified 33 Hospital Groups in Michigan. Conclusions Despite being developed within the politically charged climate of Certificate of Need regulation, we have provided an objective, replicable, and sustainable methodology to create Hospital Groups. Because the methodology is built upon theoretically sound principles of clustering analysis and health care service utilization, it is highly transferable across applications and suitable for grouping facilities or areal units. PMID:23964905

  14. Noise cross correlation functions in a noisy region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudot, I.; Beucler, E.; Mocquet, A.; Schimmel, M.; Le Feuvre, M.; Leparoux, D.; Côte, P.

    2013-12-01

    The geology of the western France can be roughly split into two main domains: the Armorican massif that contains imprints of the old Cadomian and Variscan orogens; and the Bay of Biscay which present signatures of more recent tectonic events closely related to the opening of North Atlantic ocean. Due to the lack of seismic stations deployment, it exists very few pictures of the deep structures below the Armorican Massif and the Bay of Biscay. Recently, a broadband array of seismometers has been deployed over the south and west of France, providing a good opportunity to get reliable images at depth. Since the region is surrounded by the seas, the seismic ambient noise tomography technique has been proposed to reveal the crustal and uppermost mantle features beneath this area. The first step consists in the computation of noise correlation functions (NCFs) between each station pairs. The ability to obtain empirical Green's functions from NCFs relies on the efficiency of the randomization. Classic ambient noise tomography studies use long-time series (typically several months) to help the randomization including all the scattering effects due to Earth's heterogeneities. However, additionnal signal processing steps such as temporal and/or spectral whitening are most often required for the signals to be representative of a random wavefield. These techniques rely on nonlinear operations which corrupt the integrity of the original record. In the literature, alternatives have been proposed to avoid, at least partially, such non linear operations. One of them is the instantaneous phase cross correlation (PCC). This correlation technique is intrinsically little sensitive to large amplitude transient signals. Using a set of data from a temporary broad band array, we explore the features of the PCC as compared to the time domain geometrically normalized cross correlation (CCGN). In the 0.02Hz-1Hz frequency band, different time series are extracted to investigate the effects of

  15. Manual hierarchical clustering of regional geochemical data using a Bayesian finite mixture model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellefsen, Karl J.; Smith, David

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation of regional scale, multivariate geochemical data is aided by a statistical technique called “clustering.” We investigate a particular clustering procedure by applying it to geochemical data collected in the State of Colorado, United States of America. The clustering procedure partitions the field samples for the entire survey area into two clusters. The field samples in each cluster are partitioned again to create two subclusters, and so on. This manual procedure generates a hierarchy of clusters, and the different levels of the hierarchy show geochemical and geological processes occurring at different spatial scales. Although there are many different clustering methods, we use Bayesian finite mixture modeling with two probability distributions, which yields two clusters. The model parameters are estimated with Hamiltonian Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior probability density function, which usually has multiple modes. Each mode has its own set of model parameters; each set is checked to ensure that it is consistent both with the data and with independent geologic knowledge. The set of model parameters that is most consistent with the independent geologic knowledge is selected for detailed interpretation and partitioning of the field samples.

  16. Minimum number of clusters and comparison of analysis methods for cross sectional stepped wedge cluster randomised trials with binary outcomes: A simulation study.

    PubMed

    Barker, Daniel; D'Este, Catherine; Campbell, Michael J; McElduff, Patrick

    2017-03-09

    Stepped wedge cluster randomised trials frequently involve a relatively small number of clusters. The most common frameworks used to analyse data from these types of trials are generalised estimating equations and generalised linear mixed models. A topic of much research into these methods has been their application to cluster randomised trial data and, in particular, the number of clusters required to make reasonable inferences about the intervention effect. However, for stepped wedge trials, which have been claimed by many researchers to have a statistical power advantage over the parallel cluster randomised trial, the minimum number of clusters required has not been investigated. We conducted a simulation study where we considered the most commonly used methods suggested in the literature to analyse cross-sectional stepped wedge cluster randomised trial data. We compared the per cent bias, the type I error rate and power of these methods in a stepped wedge trial setting with a binary outcome, where there are few clusters available and when the appropriate adjustment for a time trend is made, which by design may be confounding the intervention effect. We found that the generalised linear mixed modelling approach is the most consistent when few clusters are available. We also found that none of the common analysis methods for stepped wedge trials were both unbiased and maintained a 5% type I error rate when there were only three clusters. Of the commonly used analysis approaches, we recommend the generalised linear mixed model for small stepped wedge trials with binary outcomes. We also suggest that in a stepped wedge design with three steps, at least two clusters be randomised at each step, to ensure that the intervention effect estimator maintains the nominal 5% significance level and is also reasonably unbiased.

  17. Functional analysis of the upstream regulatory region of chicken miR-17-92 cluster.

    PubMed

    Min, Cheng; Wenjian, Zhang; Tianyu, Xing; Xiaohong, Yan; Yumao, Li; Hui, Li; Ning, Wang

    2016-08-01

    miR-17-92 cluster plays important roles in cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, animal development and tumorigenesis. The transcriptional regulation of miR-17-92 cluster has been extensively studied in mammals, but not in birds. To date, avian miR-17-92 cluster genomic structure has not been fully determined. The promoter location and sequence of miR-17-92 cluster have not been determined, due to the existence of a genomic gap sequence upstream of miR-17-92 cluster in all the birds whose genomes have been sequenced. In this study, genome walking was used to close the genomic gap upstream of chicken miR-17-92 cluster. In addition, bioinformatics analysis, reporter gene assay and truncation mutagenesis were used to investigate functional role of the genomic gap sequence. Genome walking analysis showed that the gap region was 1704 bp long, and its GC content was 80.11%. Bioinformatics analysis showed that in the gap region, there was a 200 bp conserved sequence among the tested 10 species (Gallus gallus, Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes, Bos taurus, Sus scrofa, Rattus norvegicus, Mus musculus, Possum, Danio rerio, Rana nigromaculata), which is core promoter region of mammalian miR-17-92 host gene (MIR17HG). Promoter luciferase reporter gene vector of the gap region was constructed and reporter assay was performed. The result showed that the promoter activity of pGL3-cMIR17HG (-4228/-2506) was 417 times than that of negative control (empty pGL3 basic vector), suggesting that chicken miR-17-92 cluster promoter exists in the gap region. To further gain insight into the promoter structure, two different truncations for the cloned gap sequence were generated by PCR. One had a truncation of 448 bp at the 5'-end and the other had a truncation of 894 bp at the 3'-end. Further reporter analysis showed that compared with the promoter activity of pGL3-cMIR17HG (-4228/-2506), the reporter activities of the 5'-end truncation and the 3'-end truncation were reduced by 19

  18. A modified procedure for mixture-model clustering of regional geochemical data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellefsen, Karl J.; Smith, David B.; Horton, John D.

    2014-01-01

    A modified procedure is proposed for mixture-model clustering of regional-scale geochemical data. The key modification is the robust principal component transformation of the isometric log-ratio transforms of the element concentrations. This principal component transformation and the associated dimension reduction are applied before the data are clustered. The principal advantage of this modification is that it significantly improves the stability of the clustering. The principal disadvantage is that it requires subjective selection of the number of clusters and the number of principal components. To evaluate the efficacy of this modified procedure, it is applied to soil geochemical data that comprise 959 samples from the state of Colorado (USA) for which the concentrations of 44 elements are measured. The distributions of element concentrations that are derived from the mixture model and from the field samples are similar, indicating that the mixture model is a suitable representation of the transformed geochemical data. Each cluster and the associated distributions of the element concentrations are related to specific geologic and anthropogenic features. In this way, mixture model clustering facilitates interpretation of the regional geochemical data.

  19. Improving hot region prediction by parameter optimization of density clustering in PPI.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jing; Zhang, Xiaolong

    2016-11-01

    This paper proposed an optimized algorithm which combines density clustering of parameter selection with feature-based classification for hot region prediction. First, all the residues are classified by SVM to remove non-hot spot residues, then density clustering of parameter selection is used to find hot regions. In the density clustering, this paper studies how to select input parameters. There are two parameters radius and density in density-based incremental clustering. We firstly fix density and enumerate radius to find a pair of parameters which leads to maximum number of clusters, and then we fix radius and enumerate density to find another pair of parameters which leads to maximum number of clusters. Experiment results show that the proposed method using both two pairs of parameters provides better prediction performance than the other method, and compare these two predictive results, the result by fixing radius and enumerating density have slightly higher prediction accuracy than that by fixing density and enumerating radius. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. INTER- AND INTRA-CLUSTER AGE GRADIENTS IN MASSIVE STAR FORMING REGIONS AND INDIVIDUAL NEARBY STELLAR CLUSTERS REVEALED BY MYStIX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getman, Konstantin V.; Feigelson, Eric; Kuhn, Michael A.; Broos, Patrick S; Townsley, Leisa K.; Naylor, Tim; Povich, Matthew S.; Luhman, Kevin; Garmire, Gordon

    2014-08-01

    The MYStIX (Massive Young Star-Forming Complex Study in Infrared and X-ray) project seeks to characterize 20 OB-dominated young star forming regions (SFRs) at distances <4 kpc using photometric catalogs from the Chandra X-ray Observatory, Spitzer Space Telescope, UKIRT and 2MASS surveys. As part of the MYStIX project, we developed a new stellar chronometer that employs near-infrared and X-ray photometry data, AgeJX. Computing AgeJX averaged over MYStIX (sub)clusters reveals previously unknown age gradients across most of the MYStIX regions as well as within some individual rich clusters. Within the SFRs, the inferred AgeJX ages are youngest in obscured locations in molecular clouds, intermediate in revealed stellar clusters, and oldest in distributed stellar populations. Noticeable intra-cluster gradients are seen in the NGC 2024 (Flame Nebula) star cluster and the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC): stars in cluster cores appear younger and thus were formed later than stars in cluster halos. The latter result has two important implications for the formation of young stellar clusters. Clusters likely form slowly: they do not arise from a single nearly-instantaneous burst of star formation. The simple models where clusters form inside-out are likely incorrect, and more complex models are needed. We provide several star formation scenarios that alone or in combination may lead to the observed core-halo age gradients.

  1. X-ray survey of galaxy clusters in the SDSS Stripe 82 region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durret, Florence; Takey, Ali

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a survey of galaxy clusters detected from XMM-Newton observations covering an area of 11.25 deg^2 in the Stripe 82 region of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We found 94 X-ray cluster candidates from the third XMM-Newton serendipitous source catalogue (3XMM-DR5) and correlated this list with recently published X-ray and optically selected cluster catalogues to obtain optical confirmations and redshifts (between 0.05 and 1.19, with a median of 0.36) for 54 galaxy groups/clusters. Of these, 17 are newly X-ray discovered clusters and 45 systems with spectroscopic confirmations. Among the remaining candidates, 25 sources are distant cluster candidates (beyond a redshift of 0.6). We will present preliminary results on the X-ray and optical properties of these clusters: luminosities and temperatures of the X-ray gas, and optical properties of the galaxies (morphology, luminosity functions).

  2. Photometry and spectroscopy of stars in the region of a highly reddened cluster in ARA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerlund, B. E.

    1987-09-01

    VRI photographic photometry is presented for 258 stars in the region of the cluster Wd1 in Ara together with near-infrared spectrophotometry of the brightest stars. The brightest member stars of the cluster are shown to be of spectral types B2 Ia to M2 Ia, forming a well defined sequence of supergiants with the maximum visual luminosity being reached in classes A2 and G0. One of the stars is of type Be with an extremely extended shell. Weak hydrogen emission can be traced in the spectra of a number of the stars as well as in between the stars. The interstellar absorption is very heavy, reaching A(V) = 10 mag; the surrounding field has an average absorption of about 3 mag. A redetermination of the distance of the cluster leads to a value of about 5 kpc as most likely. The age of the cluster is estimated to about seven million years.

  3. Cross-correlation Weak Lensing of SDSS galaxy Clusters II: Cluster Density Profiles and the Mass--Richness Relation

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, David E.; Sheldon, Erin S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Rozo, Eduardo; Koester, Benjamin P.; Frieman, Joshua A.; McKay, Timothy A.; Evrard, August E.; Becker, Matthew R.; Annis, James

    2007-09-28

    We interpret and model the statistical weak lensing measurements around 130,000 groups and clusters of galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey presented by Sheldon et al. (2007). We present non-parametric inversions of the 2D shear profiles to the mean 3D cluster density and mass profiles in bins of both optical richness and cluster i-band luminosity. Since the mean cluster density profile is proportional to the cluster-mass correlation function, the mean profile is spherically symmetric by the assumptions of large-scale homogeneity and isotropy. We correct the inferred 3D profiles for systematic effects, including non-linear shear and the fact that cluster halos are not all precisely centered on their brightest galaxies. We also model the measured cluster shear profile as a sum of contributions from the brightest central galaxy, the cluster dark matter halo, and neighboring halos. We infer the relations between mean cluster virial mass and optical richness and luminosity over two orders of magnitude in cluster mass; the virial mass at fixed richness or luminosity is determined with a precision of {approx} 13% including both statistical and systematic errors. We also constrain the halo concentration parameter and halo bias as a function of cluster mass; both are in good agreement with predictions from N-body simulations of LCDM models. The methods employed here will be applicable to deeper, wide-area optical surveys that aim to constrain the nature of the dark energy, such as the Dark Energy Survey, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and space-based surveys.

  4. Comparison of calculated cross sections for secondary electron emission from a water molecule and clusters of water molecules by protons

    SciTech Connect

    Long, K.A.; Paretzke, H.G. )

    1991-07-15

    Double-differential cross sections for the emission of secondary electrons, as a function of emission angle and energy, from a water molecule, a cluster of water molecules, and liquid water due to proton impact have been calculated using the dielectric response function of the target material and a method which uses an integral formulation of the density-functional theory. From these double-differential cross sections, single-differential and total cross sections, and the energy loss per unit path length, have been calculated by successive integration. The results have been compared to available experimental results and, in the case of single-differential cross sections, also to empirical models. A comparison has been made between the results for the molecule and the central molecule of the cluster in order to obtain insight into how the cross sections might change in the condensed phase, namely in liquid water.

  5. Long regional magnetotelluric profile crossing geotectonic structures of central Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefaniuk, M.; Pokorski, J.; Wojdyla, M.

    2009-04-01

    Introduction The magnetotelluric survey was made along a regional profile, which runs across Poland from south-west to north-east during 2005-2006 years. The profile crosses major geological structures of Central Poland, including the Variscan Externides and Variscan foredeep, the Transeuropean Suture Zone and the marginal zone of East European Craton. The main objectives of the project include identification of sub-Zechstein sedimentary structures and evaluation of resistivity distribution within the deep crust, especially at the contact of East European Precambrian Craton and Central Europe Paleozoic structures. The length of the profile is about 700 km; 161 deep magnetotelluric sounding sites were made with a medium spacing of about 4 km. Data acquisition and processing The recording of the components of natural electromagnetic field was made with a broad range of frequencies, varying from 0.0003 Hz up to 575 Hz with use of MT-1 system of Electromagnetic Instruments Incorporation. This frequency band allowed obtaining the information about geology ranging from a few dozen meters to approximately 100 km, depending on the vertical distribution of the resistivity inside geological medium. To reduce the electromagnetic noise, magnetic and electric remote reference was applied. A remote reference site was located at a distance of over 100 km of field sites. Processing of the recorded data included the estimation of the components of impedance tensor (Zxx, Zxy, Zyx and Zyy ), with use of robust type procedures. The components of the impedance tensor allowed in a subsequent step for calculation of field curves for two orientations of the measurement system (XY - described further as the TM mode and YX - TE mode) and additional parameters of the medium like skew, strike, pole diagrams etc. Recording of the vertical component of electromagnetic field (Hz) allowed calculation of tipper parameter T. Magnetotelluric soundings interpretation Geophysical interpretation of MT

  6. On the formation mechanisms of kinetic Alfven waves in the mid-altitude cusp region: Cluster observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, S. P.; Liu, Z. X.; Cao, J. B.; Reme, H.; Balogh, A.; Fazakerley, A. N.

    According to the observation data by the Cluster spacecraft encountering the mid-altitude cusp region and the theory research work of the formation mechanism of kinetic Alfven waves it can be concluded that kinetic Alfven waves can be come into being in the mid-altitude polar cusp Using the observation data detected by the Cluster CIS FGM and PEACE crossing through the mid-altitude cusp region on 4 July 2001 we find that ion and electron number densities are obviously disturbed and protons are always in the down-going direction We obtain that the values of plasma beta are in the range between 0 002 and 0 01 from 13 24 00 to 13 39 00 They are larger than the mass ratio value of electron and proton That implies the mid-altitude polar cusp is a kinetic region Ion and electron density inhomogeneity and the ion beam with down-going direction are the main factors for the formation of kinetic Alfven waves The observational results are consonant with the results obtained from the theory research that the plasma density inhomogeneity and ions motion play important roles in the formation process of kinetic Alfven waves The observational properties of kinetic Alfven waves will be investigated in our following research work

  7. Recursive Hierarchical Image Segmentation by Region Growing and Constrained Spectral Clustering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes an algorithm for hierarchical image segmentation (referred to as HSEG) and its recursive formulation (referred to as RHSEG). The HSEG algorithm is a hybrid of region growing and constrained spectral clustering that produces a hierarchical set of image segmentations based on detected convergence points. In the main, HSEG employs the hierarchical stepwise optimization (HS WO) approach to region growing, which seeks to produce segmentations that are more optimized than those produced by more classic approaches to region growing. In addition, HSEG optionally interjects between HSWO region growing iterations merges between spatially non-adjacent regions (i.e., spectrally based merging or clustering) constrained by a threshold derived from the previous HSWO region growing iteration. While the addition of constrained spectral clustering improves the segmentation results, especially for larger images, it also significantly increases HSEG's computational requirements. To counteract this, a computationally efficient recursive, divide-and-conquer, implementation of HSEG (RHSEG) has been devised and is described herein. Included in this description is special code that is required to avoid processing artifacts caused by RHSEG s recursive subdivision of the image data. Implementations for single processor and for multiple processor computer systems are described. Results with Landsat TM data are included comparing HSEG with classic region growing. Finally, an application to image information mining and knowledge discovery is discussed.

  8. Recursive Hierarchical Image Segmentation by Region Growing and Constrained Spectral Clustering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes an algorithm for hierarchical image segmentation (referred to as HSEG) and its recursive formulation (referred to as RHSEG). The HSEG algorithm is a hybrid of region growing and constrained spectral clustering that produces a hierarchical set of image segmentations based on detected convergence points. In the main, HSEG employs the hierarchical stepwise optimization (HS WO) approach to region growing, which seeks to produce segmentations that are more optimized than those produced by more classic approaches to region growing. In addition, HSEG optionally interjects between HSWO region growing iterations merges between spatially non-adjacent regions (i.e., spectrally based merging or clustering) constrained by a threshold derived from the previous HSWO region growing iteration. While the addition of constrained spectral clustering improves the segmentation results, especially for larger images, it also significantly increases HSEG's computational requirements. To counteract this, a computationally efficient recursive, divide-and-conquer, implementation of HSEG (RHSEG) has been devised and is described herein. Included in this description is special code that is required to avoid processing artifacts caused by RHSEG s recursive subdivision of the image data. Implementations for single processor and for multiple processor computer systems are described. Results with Landsat TM data are included comparing HSEG with classic region growing. Finally, an application to image information mining and knowledge discovery is discussed.

  9. Dynamical Evolution of Globular Clusters Moving within the Galactic Central Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miocchi, P.; Capuzzo-Dolcetta, R.

    The decaying of globular clusters towards galactic nuclei can be an efficient dynamical mechanism to concentrate high amounts of stellar matter in the very inner galactic regions, so to contribute significantly to the accretion and feeding of a central massive black hole. Such decaying is made possible by the dynamical friction which dissipates the cluster orbital kinetic energy in a reasonably short time. Quantitative indications that this mechanism is capable to sustain the observed AGN luminosities have been already given. However, there is need of a more refined numerical approach. In particular, while in normal conditions dynamical friction is well understood and its effects sufficiently well described, it is not clear what happens when a cluster decays into a region which ``encloses'' a bulge mass comparable with that of the cluster itself. In this case the gravitational feed-back of the cluster on the bulge is very important and cannot be neglected. Moreover, it is quite difficult to predict, by just analytical means, the tidal effects due to the presence of the massive black hole on clusters' dynamics. We want to show the results obtained by our simulations in this context. The simulations have been performed both with a serial and a parallel `tree-code' (on a CRAY T3E), using a leap-frog scheme for the integration of particles' trajectories, with individual and variable time steps. A completely self-consistent particle representation has been used, not only for the globular cluster but also for the nuclear region of the bulge and for the massive black hole.

  10. 75 FR 7464 - Energy Efficient Building Systems Regional Innovation Cluster Initiative-Joint Federal Funding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... (the ``Energy Regional Innovation Cluster'' or ``E-RIC'') and will work to disseminate new technologies... innovation in energy efficient building technologies and systems design. The DOE funded Energy Efficient... technologies and systems design. The Hub, one of three Energy Innovation Hubs to be created by the DOE in...

  11. FIESTA 3: Cluster-parallelizable multiloop numerical calculations in physical regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, A. V.

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a new major release of the program FIESTA (Feynman Integral Evaluation by a Sector decomposiTion Approach). This version presents features like cluster-parallelization, new asymptotic expansion algorithms, calculations in physical regions, new sector-decomposition strategies, as well as multiple speed, memory, and stability improvements.

  12. The W40 region in the gould belt: An embedded cluster and H II region at the junction of filaments

    SciTech Connect

    Mallick, K. K.; Ojha, D. K.; Kumar, M. S. N.; Samal, M. R.; Pirogov, L.

    2013-12-20

    We present a multiwavelength study of the W40 star-forming region using infrared (IR) observations in the UKIRT JHK bands, Spitzer Infrared Array Camera bands, and Herschel PACS bands, 2.12 μm H{sub 2} narrowband imaging, and radio continuum observations from GMRT (610 and 1280 MHz), in a field of view (FoV) of ∼34' × 40'. Archival Spitzer observations in conjunction with near-IR observations are used to identify 1162 Class II/III and 40 Class I sources in the FoV. The nearest-neighbor stellar surface density analysis shows that the majority of these young stellar objects (YSOs) constitute the embedded cluster centered on the high-mass source IRS 1A South. Some YSOs, predominantly the younger population, are distributed along and trace the filamentary structures at lower stellar surface density. The cluster radius is measured to be 0.44 pc—matching well with the extent of radio emission—with a peak density of 650 pc{sup –2}. The JHK data are used to map the extinction in the region, which is subsequently used to compute the cloud mass—126 M {sub ☉} and 71 M {sub ☉} for the central cluster and the northern IRS 5 region, respectively. H{sub 2} narrowband imaging shows significant emission, which prominently resembles fluorescent emission arising at the borders of dense regions. Radio continuum analysis shows that this region has a blister morphology, with the radio peak coinciding with a protostellar source. Free-free emission spectral energy distribution analysis is used to obtain physical parameters of the overall photoionized region and the IRS 5 sub-region. This multiwavelength scenario is suggestive of star formation having resulted from the merging of multiple filaments to form a hub. Star formation seems to have taken place in two successive epochs, with the first epoch traced by the central cluster and the high-mass star(s)—followed by a second epoch that is spreading into the filaments as uncovered by the Class I sources and even younger

  13. Qgrid: clustering tool for detecting charged and hydrophobic regions in proteins.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Shandar; Sarai, Akinori

    2004-07-01

    We have developed a simple but powerful method and web server to quickly locate charged and hydrophobic clusters in proteins (http://www.netasa.org/qgrid/index.html). For the charged clusters, each atom in the protein is first assigned a charge according to a standard force field. Then a box is created with dimensions corresponding to the range of atomic coordinates. This box is then divided into cubic grids of selected size, which now have one or more charged atoms in them. This leaves each grid with a certain amount of charge. Cubic grids with more than a cutoff charge are then clustered using a hierarchical clustering method based on Euclidean distance. A tree diagram made from the resulting clusters indicates the distribution of charged and hydrophobic regions of the protein. Hydrophobic clusters are developed by grouping the positions of C(alpha) atoms of such residues. We propose that such a tree representation will be helpful in detecting protein-protein interfaces, structure similarity and motif detection.

  14. Magnetic self-assembly of microparticle clusters in an aqueous two-phase microfluidic cross-flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, Niki; Jones, Steven G.; Moon, Byeong-Ui; Tsai, Scott S. H.

    2015-11-01

    We present a technique that self-assembles paramagnetic microparticles on the interface of aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) fluids in a microfluidic cross-flow. A co-flow of the ATPS is formed in the microfluidic cross channel as the flows of a dilute dextran (DEX) phase, along with a flow-focused particle suspension, converges with a dilute polyethylene glycol (PEG) phase. The microparticles arrive at the liquid-liquid interface and self-assemble into particle clusters due to forces on the particles from an applied external magnetic field gradient, and the interfacial tension of the ATPS. The microparticles form clusters at the interface, and once the cluster size grows to a critical value, the cluster passes through the interface. We control the size of the self-assembled clusters, as they pass through the interface, by varying the strength of the applied magnetic field gradient and the ATPS interfacial tension. We observe rich assembly dynamics, from the formation of Pickering emulsions to clusters that are completely encapsulated inside DEX phase droplets. We anticipate that this microparticle self-assembly method may have important biotechnological applications that require the controlled assembly of cells into clusters.

  15. Cluster of solar active regions and onset of coronal mass ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, JingXiu; Zhang, YuZong; He, Han; Chen, AnQin; Jin, ChunLan; Zhou, GuiPing

    2015-09-01

    Abstract round-the-clock solar observations with full-disk coverage of vector magnetograms and multi-wavelength images demonstrate that solar active regions (ARs) are ultimately connected with magnetic field. Often two or more ARs are clustered, creating a favorable magnetic environment for the onset of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). In this work, we describe a new type of magnetic complex: cluster of solar ARs. An AR cluster is referred to as the close connection of two or more ARs which are located in nearly the same latitude and a narrow span of longitude. We illustrate three examples of AR clusters, each of which has two ARs connected and formed a common dome of magnetic flux system. They are clusters of NOAA (i.e., National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) ARs 11226 & 11227, 11429 & 11430, and 11525 & 11524. In these AR clusters, CME initiations were often tied to the instability of the magnetic structures connecting two partner ARs, in the form of inter-connecting loops and/or channeling filaments between the two ARs. We show the evidence that, at least, some of the flare/CMEs in an AR cluster are not a phenomenon of a single AR, but the result of magnetic interaction in the whole AR cluster. The observations shed new light on understanding the mechanism(s) of solar activity. Instead of the simple bipolar topology as suggested by the so-called standard flare model, a multi-bipolar magnetic topology is more common to host the violent solar activity in solar atmosphere.

  16. Galaxy populations in the infall regions of z ˜ 0.25 clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdugo, M.; Ziegler, B. L.

    2006-06-01

    We investigate 6 clusters of galaxies at intermediate redshift ( 0.18 < z < 0.3), in particular the star formation activity of galaxies. Our Calar Alto MOSCA spectra cover large fields of view reaching out to 2-4 virial radii. This outer region is often called the infall region since here newly arriving galaxies from the surrounding field encounter the special environment of clusters for the first time. We selected 3 fields containing 2 clusters each from the X-ray Dark Cluster Survey (XDC, Gilbank et al. 2004 MNRAS, 348, 551, G04) Each 40'×40' field was observed with 7-8 slit-masks yielding 553 low-resolution galaxy spectra (R ˜ 500). The results for the first field (R285), were already published by Gerken et al. (2004, A&A, 421, 59). We select [OII]λ3717 and Hα equivalent widths as indicators of star formation activity. In the analysis, we ``averaged'' 4 clusters: VMF73 (z=0.254) and VMF74 (z=0.18) in XDCS field R285 and VMF131 (z=0.295) and VMF132 (z=0.246) in field R265 and we found an increase of the star forming activity towards larger cluster-centric distances as well as towards shallower projected galaxy densities. Galaxies in the third field R220 exhibit a complex redshift structure which makes membership determination difficulty and were excluded of the overall analysis. However, we clearly identified the cluster VMF194 (z=0.211) and confirm another cluster at z=0.261 detected by G04. In addition, a group of galaxies with similar coordinates to VMF194 at z=0.243 is significant. We also detected a population of red star-forming galaxies, belonging to the red-sequence of the clusters and even redder. Those galaxies show a moderate star-forming activity and do not show any other spectral peculiarities. We do not detect any post-starburst galaxy nor AGN in our cluster sample.

  17. Hierarchical Regional Disparities and Potential Sector Identification Using Modified Agglomerative Clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munandar, T. A.; Azhari; Mushdholifah, A.; Arsyad, L.

    2017-03-01

    Disparities in regional development methods are commonly identified using the Klassen Typology and Location Quotient. Both methods typically use the data on the gross regional domestic product (GRDP) sectors of a particular region. The Klassen approach can identify regional disparities by classifying the GRDP sector data into four classes, namely Quadrants I, II, III, and IV. Each quadrant indicates a certain level of regional disparities based on the GRDP sector value of the said region. Meanwhile, the Location Quotient (LQ) is usually used to identify potential sectors in a particular region so as to determine which sectors are potential and which ones are not potential. LQ classifies each sector into three classes namely, the basic sector, the non-basic sector with a competitive advantage, and the non-basic sector which can only meet its own necessities. Both Klassen Typology and LQ are unable to visualize the relationship of achievements in the development clearly of each region and sector. This research aimed to develop a new approach to the identification of disparities in regional development in the form of hierarchical clustering. The method of Hierarchical Agglomerative Clustering (HAC) was employed as the basis of the hierarchical clustering model for identifying disparities in regional development. Modifications were made to HAC using the Klassen Typology and LQ. Then, HAC which had been modified using the Klassen Typology was called MHACK while HAC which had been modified using LQ was called MACLoQ. Both algorithms can be used to identify regional disparities (MHACK) and potential sectors (MACLoQ), respectively, in the form of hierarchical clusters. Based on the MHACK in 31 regencies in Central Java Province, it is identified that 3 regencies (Demak, Jepara, and Magelang City) fall into the category of developed and rapidly-growing regions, while the other 28 regencies fall into the category of developed but depressed regions. Results of the MACLo

  18. DISCOVERY OF A POSSIBLY SINGLE BLUE SUPERGIANT STAR IN THE INTRA-CLUSTER REGION OF VIRGO CLUSTER OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Ohyama, Youichi; Hota, Ananda

    2013-04-20

    IC 3418 is a dwarf irregular galaxy falling into the Virgo cluster, and a 17 kpc long trail is seen behind the galaxy, which is considered to have formed due to ram pressure stripping. The trail contains compact knots and diffuse blobs of ultraviolet and blue optical emission and, thus, it is a clear site of recent star formation but in an unusual environment, surrounded by a million degree intra-cluster medium. We report on our optical spectroscopy of a compact source in the trail, SDSS J122952.66+112227.8, and show that the optical spectrum is dominated by emission from a massive blue supergiant star. If confirmed, our report would mark the farthest star with spectroscopic observation. We interpret that a massive O-type star formed in situ in the trail has evolved recently out of the main sequence into this blue supergiant phase, and now lacks any detectable spectral sign of its associated H II region. We argue that turbulence within the ram pressure striped gaseous trail may play a dominant role for the star formation within such trails.

  19. A statistical study of the cross-shock electric potential at low Mach number, quasi-perpendicular bow shock crossings using Cluster data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimmock, A. P.; Balikhin, M. A.; Krasnoselskikh, V. V.; Walker, S. N.; Bale, S. D.; Hobara, Y.

    2012-02-01

    The cross-shock electrostatic potential at the front of collision-less shocks plays a key role in the distribution of energy at the shock front. Multipoint measurements such as those provided by the Cluster II mission provide an ideal framework for the study of the cross-shock potential because of their ability to distinguish between temporal and spacial variations at the shock front. We present a statistical study of the cross-shock potential calculated for around 50 crossings of the terrestrial bow shock. The statistical dependency of the normalized (with resect to upstream ion kinetic energy) cross-shock potential (ΦK) on the upstream Alfvén Mach number is in good agreement with analytical results that predict decrease of Φk with increasing Mach number.

  20. The impact of a massive star cluster on its surrounding matter in the Antennae overlap region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, C. N.; Boulanger, F.

    2017-04-01

    Super star clusters (SSCs), likely the progenitors of globular clusters, are one of the most extreme forms of star formation. Understanding how SSCs form is an observational challenge. Theoretical studies establish that, to form such clusters, the dynamical timescale of their parent clouds has to be shorter than the timescale of the disruption of their parent clouds by stellar feedback. However, due to insufficient observational support, it is still unclear how feedback from SSCs acts on the matter surrounding them. Studying feedback in SSCs is essential to understanding how such clusters form. Based on ALMA and VLT observations, we study this process in a SSC in the overlap region of the Antennae galaxies (22 Mpc), a spectacular example of a burst of star formation triggered by the encounter of two galaxies. We analyze a unique massive ( 107M⊙) and young (1-3.5 Myr) SSC, still associated with compact molecular and ionized gas emission, which suggest that it may still be embedded in its parent molecular cloud. The cluster has two CO velocity components, a low-velocity one spatially associated with the cluster, and a high-velocity one distributed in a bubble-like shape around the cluster. Our results on the low-velocity component suggest that this gas did not participate in the formation of the SSC. We propose that most of the parent cloud has already been blown away, accelerated at the early stages of the SSC evolution by radiation pressure, in a timescale 1 Myr. The high-velocity component may trace outflowing molecular gas from the parent cloud. Supporting evidence is found in shock-heated H2 gas and escaping Brγ gas associated with this component. The low-velocity component may be gas that was near the SSC when it formed but not part of its parent cloud or clumps that migrated from the SGMC environment. This gas would be dispersed by stellar winds and supernova explosions. The existing data is inconclusive as to whether or not the cluster is bound and will

  1. Clustering and classification of regional peak plantar pressures of diabetic feet.

    PubMed

    Bennetts, Craig J; Owings, Tammy M; Erdemir, Ahmet; Botek, Georgeanne; Cavanagh, Peter R

    2013-01-04

    High plantar pressures have been associated with foot ulceration in people with diabetes, who can experience loss of protective sensation due to peripheral neuropathy. Therefore, characterization of elevated plantar pressure distributions can provide a means of identifying diabetic patients at potential risk of foot ulceration. Plantar pressure distribution classification can also be used to determine suitable preventive interventions, such as the provision of an appropriately designed insole. In the past, emphasis has primarily been placed on the identification of individual focal areas of elevated pressure. The goal of this study was to utilize k-means clustering analysis to identify typical regional peak plantar pressure distributions in a group of 819 diabetic feet. The number of clusters was varied from 2 to 10 to examine the effect on the differentiation and classification of regional peak plantar pressure distributions. As the number of groups increased, so too did the specificity of their pressure distributions: starting with overall low or overall high peak pressure groups and extending to clusters exhibiting several focal peak pressures in different regions of the foot. However, as the number of clusters increased, the ability to accurately classify a given regional peak plantar pressure distribution decreased. The balance between these opposing constraints can be adjusted when assessing patients with feet that are potentially "at risk" or while prescribing footwear to reduce high regional pressures. This analysis provides an understanding of the variability of the regional peak plantar pressure distributions seen within the diabetic population and serves as a guide for the preemptive assessment and prevention of diabetic foot ulcers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Clustering and Classification of Regional Peak Plantar Pressures of Diabetic Feet

    PubMed Central

    Bennetts, Craig J.; Owings, Tammy M.; Erdemir, Ahmet; Botek, Georgeanne; Cavanagh, Peter R.

    2012-01-01

    High plantar pressures have been associated with foot ulceration in people with diabetes, who can experience loss of protective sensation due to peripheral neuropathy. Therefore, characterization of elevated plantar pressure distributions can provide a means of identifying diabetic patients at potential risk of foot ulceration. Plantar pressure distribution classification can also be used to determine suitable preventive interventions, such as the provision of an appropriately designed insole. In the past, emphasis has primarily been placed on the identification of individual focal areas of elevated pressure. The goal of this study was to utilize k-means clustering analysis to identify typical regional peak plantar pressure distributions in a group of 819 diabetic feet. The number of clusters was varied from 2 to 10 to examine the effect on the differentiation and classification of regional peak plantar pressure distributions. As the number of groups increased, so too did the specificity of their pressure distributions: starting with overall low or overall high peak pressure groups and extending to clusters exhibiting several focal peak pressures in different regions of the foot. However, as the number of clusters increased, the ability to accurately classify a given regional peak plantar pressure distribution decreased. The balance between these opposing constraints can be adjusted when assessing patients with feet that are potentially “at risk” or while prescribing footwear to reduce high regional pressures. This analysis provides an understanding of the variability of the regional peak plantar pressure distributions seen within the diabetic population and serves as a guide for the preemptive assessment and prevention of diabetic foot ulcers. PMID:23089457

  3. Observational Study of Ion Diffusion Region tailward of the Cusp: Polar and Cluster Observations in 1998-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzamil, F. M.; Farrugia, C. J.; Torbert, R. B.; Argall, M. R.; Wang, S.

    2015-12-01

    Asymmetries in plasma density and the presence of a guide field significantly alter the structure of the ion diffusion region (IDR) in symmetric, collisionless reconnection. These features have been shown by numerical simulations under moderate density asymmetries (~10), and theoretical analyses. However, very few studies have addressed these issues with in-situ observations. We have compiled a collection of Cluster and Polar crossings of the high-latitude magnetopause poleward of the cusp under northward interplanetary magnetic field in the years 1998-2008 when signatures of reconnection inside the IDR are observed. They encompass a wide range of density asymmetries (~10 to 1000), magnetic field asymmetries (~0.2 to 0.9), and guide fields (~10 to ~60 %). In this dedicated observational study, we target the following topics: (1) The alteration of the structure of the IDR -- i.e., its width, the non-colocation of stagnation and X-lines, jet outflow speed, and biasing of the reconnection outflow jet toward the magnetosphere -- as a function of increasing density asymmetry, and (2) the diamagnetic drift of the X-line. Further, focusing on IDR crossings during plasma flow reversals and/or near-simultaneous crossings on either side of the X-line by two spacecraft under steady ambient conditions, we report on the contrast in the Hall fields and the plasma behavior on the sunward versus the tailward sides of the X-line in its dependence on the strength of the guide field.

  4. Regions of micro-calcifications clusters detection based on new features from imbalance data in mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Keju; Dong, Min; Yang, Zhen; Guo, Yanan; Ma, Yide

    2017-02-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. Micro-calcification cluster on X-ray mammogram is one of the most important abnormalities, and it is effective for early cancer detection. Surrounding Region Dependence Method (SRDM), a statistical texture analysis method is applied for detecting Regions of Interest (ROIs) containing microcalcifications. Inspired by the SRDM, we present a method that extract gray and other features which are effective to predict the positive and negative regions of micro-calcifications clusters in mammogram. By constructing a set of artificial images only containing micro-calcifications, we locate the suspicious pixels of calcifications of a SRDM matrix in original image map. Features are extracted based on these pixels for imbalance date and then the repeated random subsampling method and Random Forest (RF) classifier are used for classification. True Positive (TP) rate and False Positive (FP) can reflect how the result will be. The TP rate is 90% and FP rate is 88.8% when the threshold q is 10. We draw the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve and the Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) value reaches 0.9224. The experiment indicates that our method is effective. A novel regions of micro-calcifications clusters detection method is developed, which is based on new features for imbalance data in mammography, and it can be considered to help improving the accuracy of computer aided diagnosis breast cancer.

  5. Semi-supervised clustering for parcellating brain regions based on resting state fMRI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hewei; Fan, Yong

    2014-03-01

    Many unsupervised clustering techniques have been adopted for parcellating brain regions of interest into functionally homogeneous subregions based on resting state fMRI data. However, the unsupervised clustering techniques are not able to take advantage of exiting knowledge of the functional neuroanatomy readily available from studies of cytoarchitectonic parcellation or meta-analysis of the literature. In this study, we propose a semi-supervised clustering method for parcellating amygdala into functionally homogeneous subregions based on resting state fMRI data. Particularly, the semi-supervised clustering is implemented under the framework of graph partitioning, and adopts prior information and spatial consistent constraints to obtain a spatially contiguous parcellation result. The graph partitioning problem is solved using an efficient algorithm similar to the well-known weighted kernel k-means algorithm. Our method has been validated for parcellating amygdala into 3 subregions based on resting state fMRI data of 28 subjects. The experiment results have demonstrated that the proposed method is more robust than unsupervised clustering and able to parcellate amygdala into centromedial, laterobasal, and superficial parts with improved functionally homogeneity compared with the cytoarchitectonic parcellation result. The validity of the parcellation results is also supported by distinctive functional and structural connectivity patterns of the subregions and high consistency between coactivation patterns derived from a meta-analysis and functional connectivity patterns of corresponding subregions.

  6. Characterization of Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium Clusters in the Human Axillary Region

    PubMed Central

    Callewaert, Chris; Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten; Granitsiotis, Michael S.; Van Gele, Mireille; Van de Wiele, Tom; Boon, Nico

    2013-01-01

    The skin microbial community is regarded as essential for human health and well-being, but likewise plays an important role in the formation of body odor in, for instance, the axillae. Few molecular-based research was done on the axillary microbiome. This study typified the axillary microbiome of a group of 53 healthy subjects. A profound view was obtained of the interpersonal, intrapersonal and temporal diversity of the human axillary microbiota. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and next generation sequencing on 16S rRNA gene region were combined and used as extent to each other. Two important clusters were characterized, where Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium species were the abundant species. Females predominantly clustered within the Staphylococcus cluster (87%, n = 17), whereas males clustered more in the Corynebacterium cluster (39%, n = 36). The axillary microbiota was unique to each individual. Left-right asymmetry occurred in about half of the human population. For the first time, an elaborate study was performed on the dynamics of the axillary microbiome. A relatively stable axillary microbiome was noticed, although a few subjects evolved towards another stable community. The deodorant usage had a proportional linear influence on the species diversity of the axillary microbiome. PMID:23950955

  7. Ionizing Sources of Extragalactic HII Regions: Tight Clusters vs. Distributed OB Associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Jessica Marie; Chu, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Extragalactic giant HII regions (EGHRs) are sites of active, concentrated star formation, providing ideal labs to analyze starburst phenomenon. The most interesting starburst issue is whether a tight cluster forms and later becomes a globular cluster or distributed OB associations form and later disperse. The two nearest EGHRs serve as standards for each; 30 Dor in the Large Magellanic Cloud hosts a dominant cluster and NGC 604 in M33 hosts multiple OB associations. To investigate the mode of star formation in EGHRs, we have searched the Hubble Legacy Archives (HLA) and identified a sample of >50 EGHRs in galaxies closer than 15 Mpc, limiting our selection by an H-alpha luminosity threshold of 1.5 x 1040 ergs s-1. Binned images of 30 Dor and NGC 604 in continuum bands are used to simulate clusters and distributed OB associations at distances of the EGHRs in our HLA sample. We have analyzed the continuum images of the EGHRs and compared them with the simulated images of 30 Dor and NGC 604 in order to assess whether the ionizing source is dominated by a tight cluster or distributed OB associations. We have also correlated the modes of star formation in EGHRs with the types of their host galaxies and their location within them. Implications of our results on starbursts and formation of EGHRs will be discussed.

  8. Identification of geographic clustering and regions spared by cutaneous T-cell lymphoma in Texas using 2 distinct cancer registries.

    PubMed

    Litvinov, Ivan V; Tetzlaff, Michael T; Rahme, Elham; Habel, Youssef; Risser, David R; Gangar, Pamela; Jennings, Michelle A; Pehr, Kevin; Prieto, Victor G; Sasseville, Denis; Duvic, Madeleine

    2015-06-15

    Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) (mycosis fungoides and its leukemic variant, Sezary syndrome) are rare malignancies. Reports of the occurrence of mycosis fungoides in married couples and families raise the possibility of an environmental trigger for this cancer. Although it has been suggested that CTCL arises from inappropriate T-cell stimulation, to the authors' knowledge no preventable trigger has been identified to date. Using region, zip code, age, sex, and ethnicity, the authors analyzed the demographic data of 1047 patients from Texas who were seen in a CTCL clinic at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center during 2000 through 2012 (the MDACC database) and 1990 patients who were recorded in the population-based Texas Cancer Registry between 1996 and 2010. Subsequently, data from both databases were cross-analyzed and compared. The current study findings, based on the MDACC database, documented geographic clustering of patients in 3 communities within the Houston metropolitan area, in which CTCL incidence rates were 5 to 20 times higher than the expected population rate. Analysis of the Texas Cancer Registry database defined the CTCL population rate for the state to be 5.8 cases per million individuals per year (95% confidence interval, 5.5-6.0 per million individuals per year), thus confirming the observations from the MDACC database and further highlighting additional areas of geographic clustering and regions spared from CTCL in Texas. The current study documented geographic clustering of CTCL cases in Texas and argued for the existence of yet unknown external causes/triggers for this rare malignancy. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  9. Brazilian Anopheles darlingi Root (Diptera: Culicidae) Clusters by Major Biogeographical Region

    PubMed Central

    Bergo, Eduardo S.; Randel, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    The major drivers of the extensive biodiversity of the Neotropics are proposed to be geological and tectonic events together with Pliocene and Pleistocene environmental and climatic change. Geographical barriers represented by the rivers Amazonas/Solimões, the Andes and the coastal mountain ranges in eastern Brazil have been hypothesized to lead to diversification within the primary malaria vector, Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) darlingi Root, which primarily inhabits rainforest. To test this biogeographical hypothesis, we analyzed 786 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 12 populations of An. darlingi from across the complex Brazilian landscape. Both model-based (STRUCTURE) and non-model-based (Principal Components and Discriminant Analysis) analysis of population structure detected three major genetic clusters that correspond with newly described Neotropical biogeographical regions: 1) Atlantic Forest province (= southeast population); 2) Parana Forest province (= West Atlantic forest population, with one Chacoan population - SP); and 3) Brazilian dominion population (= Amazonian population with one Chacoan population - TO). Significant levels of pairwise genetic divergences were found among the three clusters, allele sharing among clusters was negligible, and geographical distance did not contribute to differentiation. We infer that the Atlantic forest coastal mountain range limited dispersal between the Atlantic Forest province and the Parana Forest province populations, and that the large, diagonal open vegetation region of the Chacoan dominion dramatically reduced dispersal between the Parana and Brazilian dominion populations. We hypothesize that the three genetic clusters may represent three putative species. PMID:26172559

  10. Near-infrared surface photometry and morphology in virgo cluster spiral galaxy nuclear regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauscher, Bernard J.

    1995-04-01

    This paper presents very high spatial resolution (seeing 0.75 arcsec FWHM) K band surface photometry of 15 Virgo cluster spiral galaxy nuclear regions (radii less then 1 kpc). It presents B and I CCD images of 13 of these galaxies. The goals of the study were: (1) to begin to establish a K band baseline of normal spiral galaxy nuclear regions against which peculiar galaxies may be compared, (2) to provide better contsraints on N-body models, and (3) to complement near-infrared studies of large scale structure in spiral galaxies with very high resolution imaging of the important nuclear regions. The principle findings are (1) between 1/4 and 1/3 of these nuclear regions show K band evidence of traxiality, (2) approximately 1/2 of these galaxies have axisymmetric nuclear regions, and (3) NGC 4321 has a bar that is not detectable in the optical images.

  11. THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY CO-ADD: CROSS-CORRELATION WEAK LENSING AND TOMOGRAPHY OF GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Simet, Melanie; Dodelson, Scott; Kubo, Jeffrey M.; Annis, James T.; Hao Jiangang; Johnston, David; Lin, Huan; Soares-Santos, Marcelle; Reis, Ribamar R. R.; Seo, Hee-Jong

    2012-04-01

    The shapes of distant galaxies are sheared by intervening galaxy clusters. We examine this effect in Stripe 82, a 275 deg{sup 2} region observed multiple times in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and co-added to achieve greater depth. We obtain a mass-richness calibration that is similar to other SDSS analyses, demonstrating that the co-addition process did not adversely affect the lensing signal. We also propose a new parameterization of the effect of tomography on the cluster lensing signal which does not require binning in redshift, and we show that using this parameterization we can detect tomography for stacked clusters at varying redshifts. Finally, due to the sensitivity of the tomographic detection to accurately marginalize over the effect of the cluster mass, we show that tomography at low redshift (where dependence on exact cosmological models is weak) can be used to constrain mass profiles in clusters.

  12. Molecular characterization of the PR-toxin gene cluster in Penicillium roqueforti and Penicillium chrysogenum: cross talk of secondary metabolite pathways.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Pedro I; Ullán, Ricardo V; Albillos, Silvia M; Montero, Olimpio; Fernández-Bodega, María Ángeles; García-Estrada, Carlos; Fernández-Aguado, Marta; Martín, Juan-Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The PR-toxin is a potent mycotoxin produced by Penicillium roqueforti in moulded grains and grass silages and may contaminate blue-veined cheese. The PR-toxin derives from the 15 carbon atoms sesquiterpene aristolochene formed by the aristolochene synthase (encoded by ari1). We have cloned and sequenced a four gene cluster that includes the ari1 gene from P. roqueforti. Gene silencing of each of the four genes (named prx1 to prx4) resulted in a reduction of 65-75% in the production of PR-toxin indicating that the four genes encode enzymes involved in PR-toxin biosynthesis. Interestingly the four silenced mutants overproduce large amounts of mycophenolic acid, an antitumor compound formed by an unrelated pathway suggesting a cross-talk of PR-toxin and mycophenolic acid production. An eleven gene cluster that includes the above mentioned four prx genes and a 14-TMS drug/H(+) antiporter was found in the genome of Penicillium chrysogenum. This eleven gene cluster has been reported to be very poorly expressed in a transcriptomic study of P. chrysogenum genes under conditions of penicillin production (strongly aerated cultures). We found that this apparently silent gene cluster is able to produce PR-toxin in P. chrysogenum under static culture conditions on hydrated rice medium. Noteworthily, the production of PR-toxin was 2.6-fold higher in P. chrysogenum npe10, a strain deleted in the 56.8kb amplifiable region containing the pen gene cluster, than in the parental strain Wisconsin 54-1255 providing another example of cross-talk between secondary metabolite pathways in this fungus. A detailed PR-toxin biosynthesis pathway is proposed based on all available evidence.

  13. Young open clusters in the Galactic star forming region NGC 6357

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massi, F.; Giannetti, A.; Di Carlo, E.; Brand, J.; Beltrán, M. T.; Marconi, G.

    2015-01-01

    Context. NGC 6357 is an active star forming region with very young massive open clusters. These clusters contain some of the most massive stars in the Galaxy and strongly interact with nearby giant molecular clouds. Aims: We study the young stellar populations of the region and of the open cluster Pismis 24, focusing on their relationship with the nearby giant molecular clouds. We seek evidence of triggered star formation "propagating" from the clusters. Methods: We used new deep JHKs photometry, along with unpublished deep Spitzer/IRAC mid-infrared photometry, complemented with optical HST/WFPC2 high spatial resolution photometry and X-ray Chandra observations, to constrain age, initial mass function, and star formation modes in progress. We carefully examine and discuss all sources of bias (saturation, confusion, different sensitivities, extinction). Results: NGC 6357 hosts three large young stellar clusters, of which Pismis 24 is the most prominent. We found that Pismis 24 is a very young (~1-3 Myr) open cluster with a Salpeter-like initial mass function and a few thousand members. A comparison between optical and infrared photometry indicates that the fraction of members with a near-infrared excess (i.e., with a circumstellar disk) is in the range 0.3-0.6, consistent with its photometrically derived age. We also find that Pismis 24 is likely subdivided into a few different subclusters, one of which contains almost all the massive members. There are indications of current star formation triggered by these massive stars, but clear age trends could not be derived (although the fraction of stars with a near-infrared excess does increase towards the Hii region associated with the cluster). The gas out of which Pismis 24 formed must have been distributed in dense clumps within a cloud of less dense gas ~1 pc in radius. Conclusions: Our findings provide some new insight into how young stellar populations and massive stars emerge, and evolve in the first few Myr after

  14. DMRT gene cluster analysis in the platypus: new insights into genomic organization and regulatory regions.

    PubMed

    El-Mogharbel, Nisrine; Wakefield, Matthew; Deakin, Janine E; Tsend-Ayush, Enkhjargal; Grützner, Frank; Alsop, Amber; Ezaz, Tariq; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A

    2007-01-01

    We isolated and characterized a cluster of platypus DMRT genes and compared their arrangement, location, and sequence across vertebrates. The DMRT gene cluster on human 9p24.3 harbors, in order, DMRT1, DMRT3, and DMRT2, which share a DM domain. DMRT1 is highly conserved and involved in sexual development in vertebrates, and deletions in this region cause sex reversal in humans. Sequence comparisons of DMRT genes between species have been valuable in identifying exons, control regions, and conserved nongenic regions (CNGs). The addition of platypus sequences is expected to be particularly valuable, since monotremes fill a gap in the vertebrate genome coverage. We therefore isolated and fully sequenced platypus BAC clones containing DMRT3 and DMRT2 as well as DMRT1 and then generated multispecies alignments and ran prediction programs followed by experimental verification to annotate this gene cluster. We found that the three genes have 58-66% identity to their human orthologues, lie in the same order as in other vertebrates, and colocate on 1 of the 10 platypus sex chromosomes, X5. We also predict that optimal annotation of the newly sequenced platypus genome will be challenging. The analysis of platypus sequence revealed differences in structure and sequence of the DMRT gene cluster. Multispecies comparison was particularly effective for detecting CNGs, revealing several novel potential regulatory regions within DMRT3 and DMRT2 as well as DMRT1. RT-PCR indicated that platypus DMRT1 and DMRT3 are expressed specifically in the adult testis (and not ovary), but DMRT2 has a wider expression profile, as it does for other mammals. The platypus DMRT1 expression pattern, and its location on an X chromosome, suggests an involvement in monotreme sexual development.

  15. Nucleus and cytoplasm segmentation in microscopic images using K-means clustering and region growing

    PubMed Central

    Sarrafzadeh, Omid; Dehnavi, Alireza Mehri

    2015-01-01

    Background: Segmentation of leukocytes acts as the foundation for all automated image-based hematological disease recognition systems. Most of the time, hematologists are interested in evaluation of white blood cells only. Digital image processing techniques can help them in their analysis and diagnosis. Materials and Methods: The main objective of this paper is to detect leukocytes from a blood smear microscopic image and segment them into their two dominant elements, nucleus and cytoplasm. The segmentation is conducted using two stages of applying K-means clustering. First, the nuclei are segmented using K-means clustering. Then, a proposed method based on region growing is applied to separate the connected nuclei. Next, the nuclei are subtracted from the original image. Finally, the cytoplasm is segmented using the second stage of K-means clustering. Results: The results indicate that the proposed method is able to extract the nucleus and cytoplasm regions accurately and works well even though there is no significant contrast between the components in the image. Conclusions: In this paper, a method based on K-means clustering and region growing is proposed in order to detect leukocytes from a blood smear microscopic image and segment its components, the nucleus and the cytoplasm. As region growing step of the algorithm relies on the information of edges, it will not able to separate the connected nuclei more accurately in poor edges and it requires at least a weak edge to exist between the nuclei. The nucleus and cytoplasm segments of a leukocyte can be used for feature extraction and classification which leads to automated leukemia detection. PMID:26605213

  16. Nucleus and cytoplasm segmentation in microscopic images using K-means clustering and region growing.

    PubMed

    Sarrafzadeh, Omid; Dehnavi, Alireza Mehri

    2015-01-01

    Segmentation of leukocytes acts as the foundation for all automated image-based hematological disease recognition systems. Most of the time, hematologists are interested in evaluation of white blood cells only. Digital image processing techniques can help them in their analysis and diagnosis. The main objective of this paper is to detect leukocytes from a blood smear microscopic image and segment them into their two dominant elements, nucleus and cytoplasm. The segmentation is conducted using two stages of applying K-means clustering. First, the nuclei are segmented using K-means clustering. Then, a proposed method based on region growing is applied to separate the connected nuclei. Next, the nuclei are subtracted from the original image. Finally, the cytoplasm is segmented using the second stage of K-means clustering. The results indicate that the proposed method is able to extract the nucleus and cytoplasm regions accurately and works well even though there is no significant contrast between the components in the image. In this paper, a method based on K-means clustering and region growing is proposed in order to detect leukocytes from a blood smear microscopic image and segment its components, the nucleus and the cytoplasm. As region growing step of the algorithm relies on the information of edges, it will not able to separate the connected nuclei more accurately in poor edges and it requires at least a weak edge to exist between the nuclei. The nucleus and cytoplasm segments of a leukocyte can be used for feature extraction and classification which leads to automated leukemia detection.

  17. Energy Efficient Medium Access Control Protocol for Clustered Wireless Sensor Networks with Adaptive Cross-Layer Scheduling.

    PubMed

    Sefuba, Maria; Walingo, Tom; Takawira, Fambirai

    2015-09-18

    This paper presents an Energy Efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol for clustered wireless sensor networks that aims to improve energy efficiency and delay performance. The proposed protocol employs an adaptive cross-layer intra-cluster scheduling and an inter-cluster relay selection diversity. The scheduling is based on available data packets and remaining energy level of the source node (SN). This helps to minimize idle listening on nodes without data to transmit as well as reducing control packet overhead. The relay selection diversity is carried out between clusters, by the cluster head (CH), and the base station (BS). The diversity helps to improve network reliability and prolong the network lifetime. Relay selection is determined based on the communication distance, the remaining energy and the channel quality indicator (CQI) for the relay cluster head (RCH). An analytical framework for energy consumption and transmission delay for the proposed MAC protocol is presented in this work. The performance of the proposed MAC protocol is evaluated based on transmission delay, energy consumption, and network lifetime. The results obtained indicate that the proposed MAC protocol provides improved performance than traditional cluster based MAC protocols.

  18. Energy Efficient Medium Access Control Protocol for Clustered Wireless Sensor Networks with Adaptive Cross-Layer Scheduling

    PubMed Central

    Sefuba, Maria; Walingo, Tom; Takawira, Fambirai

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an Energy Efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol for clustered wireless sensor networks that aims to improve energy efficiency and delay performance. The proposed protocol employs an adaptive cross-layer intra-cluster scheduling and an inter-cluster relay selection diversity. The scheduling is based on available data packets and remaining energy level of the source node (SN). This helps to minimize idle listening on nodes without data to transmit as well as reducing control packet overhead. The relay selection diversity is carried out between clusters, by the cluster head (CH), and the base station (BS). The diversity helps to improve network reliability and prolong the network lifetime. Relay selection is determined based on the communication distance, the remaining energy and the channel quality indicator (CQI) for the relay cluster head (RCH). An analytical framework for energy consumption and transmission delay for the proposed MAC protocol is presented in this work. The performance of the proposed MAC protocol is evaluated based on transmission delay, energy consumption, and network lifetime. The results obtained indicate that the proposed MAC protocol provides improved performance than traditional cluster based MAC protocols. PMID:26393608

  19. Analysis of the properties of the molecular-cluster xenon mixture in the mesoscopic phase transition region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurlapov, L. I.; Kassymov, A. B.

    2016-04-01

    We report on the results of calculation of the concentrations of cluster subcomponents in a molecular-cluster xenon mixture at temperatures and pressures at which the gas experiences a mesoscopic phase transition. The existence of such a transition follows from singularities of the temperature dependence of viscosity, from the behavior of the cluster thermodiffusion coefficient, and from the features of the distributions of cluster subcomponents in the centrifuge. The mesoscopic phase transition is manifested in the intermediate position of the molecular-cluster mixture between the gas and the liquid judging from its properties in the transition region.

  20. Predicted emission lines from giant HII regions ionized by aging star clusters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Vargas, M. L.; Bressan, A.; Diaz, A. I.

    1995-07-01

    We have computed theoretical models of the emission line spectra of giant extragalactic HII regions (GEHR) in which a single star cluster is assumed to be responsible for the ionization. Ionizing clusters, of different masses and metallicities, were constructed assuming that they formed in a single burst and with a Salpeter Initial Mass Function. Their evolution was then followed in detail up to an age of 5.4Myr after which they lack the high energy photons needed to keep the regions ionized. The integrated spectral energy distribution of every cluster has been computed for a set of discrete ages representative of relevant phases of their evolution and have been processed by the photoionization code CLOUDY, in order to obtain the corresponding emission line spectra of the ionized gas at optical and infrared wavelengths. A wide range of initial compositions, spanning from about 1/20 (Z=0.001) to 2.5 solar (Z=0.05), and total masses, between about 1-6x10^4^Msun_ has been considered. Gas and stars are assumed to have the same metallicity and this has been taken into account both in the stellar evolution and atmosphere models and in the nebular gas producing a consistent set of models. In this paper we present the synthetic emission line spectra of the ionized regions which are discussed in detail in Garcia-Vargas et al. (1995).

  1. Proper motions and CCD photometry of stars in the region of the open cluster NGC 6866

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, V. N.; Ananjevskaja, Yu. K.; Gorshanov, D. L.; Polyakov, E. V.

    2010-05-01

    We present the results of our comprehensive study of the Galactic open star cluster NGC 6866. The positions of stars in the investigated region have been obtained with the “Fantasy” automatic measuring machine from 10 plates of the normal astrograph at the Pulkovo Astronomical Observatory. The size of the investigated field is 40' × 40', the limiting magnitude is B ˜ 16{·/ m }6, and the maximum epoch difference is 79 yr. For 1202 field stars, we have determined the relative proper motions with an rms error of 2.5 mas yr-1. Out of them, 423 stars may be considered cluster members with a probability P > 70% according to the astrometric criterion. Photometric diagrams have been used as an additional criterion. We have performed two-color BV CCD photometry of stars with the Pulkovo ZA-320M mirror astrograph. The U magnitudes from the literature have also been used to construct the two-color diagrams. A total of 267 stars have turned out to be members of NGC 6866 according to the two criteria. We present refined physical parameters of the cluster and its age estimate (5.6 × 108 yr). The cluster membership of red and blue giants, variable, double, and multiple stars is considered. We have found an almost complete coincidence of the positions of one of the stars in the region (a cluster nonmember) and a soft X-ray source in the ROSAT catalog. The “Fantasy” automatic measuring machine is described in the Appendix.

  2. Cross-sectional TEM Observations of Si Wafers Irradiated With Gas Cluster Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Isogai, Hiromichi; Toyoda, Eiji; Senda, Takeshi; Izunome, Koji; Kashima, Kazuhiko; Toyoda, Noriaki; Yamada, Isao

    2006-11-13

    Irradiation by a Gas Cluster Ion Beam (GCIB) is a promising technique for precise surface etching and planarization of Si wafers. However, it is very important to understand the crystalline structure of Si wafers after GCIB irradiation. In this study, the near surface structure of a Si (100) wafer was analyzed after GCIB irradiation, using a cross-sectional transmission electron microscope (XTEM). Ar-GCIB, that physically sputters Si atoms, and SF6-GCIB, that chemically etches the Si surface, were both used. After GCIB irradiation, high temperature annealing was performed in a hydrogen atmosphere. From XTEM observations, the surface of a virgin Si wafer exhibited completely crystalline structures, but the existence of an amorphous Si and a transition layer was confirmed after GCIB irradiation. The thickness of amorphous layer was about 30 nm after Ar-GCIB irradiation at 30 keV. However, a very thin (< 5 nm) layer was observed when 30 keV SF6-GCIB was used. The thickness of the transition layer was the same both Ar and SF6-GCIB irradiation. After annealing, the amorphous Si and transition layers had disappeared, and a complete crystalline structure with an atomically smooth surface was observed.

  3. THE CLUSTERED NATURE OF STAR FORMATION. PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE CLUSTERS IN THE STAR-FORMING REGION NGC 602/N90 IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Gouliermis, Dimitrios A.; Gennaro, Mario; Schmeja, Stefan; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Tognelli, Emanuele; Prada Moroni, Pier Giorgio

    2012-03-20

    Located at the tip of the wing of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), the star-forming region NGC 602/N90 is characterized by the H II nebular ring N90 and the young cluster of pre-main-sequence (PMS) and early-type main-sequence stars NGC 602, located in the central area of the ring. We present a thorough cluster analysis of the stellar sample identified with Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys in the region. We show that apart from the central cluster low-mass PMS stars are congregated in 13 additional small, compact sub-clusters at the periphery of NGC 602, identified in terms of their higher stellar density with respect to the average background density derived from star counts. We find that the spatial distribution of the PMS stars is bimodal, with an unusually large fraction ({approx}60%) of the total population being clustered, while the remaining is diffusely distributed in the intercluster area, covering the whole central part of the region. From the corresponding color-magnitude diagrams we disentangle an age difference of {approx}2.5 Myr between NGC 602 and the compact sub-clusters, which appear younger, on the basis of comparison of the brighter PMS stars with evolutionary models, which we accurately calculated for the metal abundance of the SMC. The diffuse PMS population appears to host stars as old as those in NGC 602. Almost all detected PMS sub-clusters appear to be centrally concentrated. When the complete PMS stellar sample, including both clustered and diffused stars, is considered in our cluster analysis, it appears as a single centrally concentrated stellar agglomeration, covering the whole central area of the region. Considering also the hot massive stars of the system, we find evidence that this agglomeration is hierarchically structured. Based on our findings, we propose a scenario according to which the region NGC 602/N90 experiences an active clustered star formation for the last {approx}5 Myr. The central cluster NGC 602 was

  4. Regional spatially adaptive total variation super-resolution with spatial information filtering and clustering.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Liangpei; Shen, Huanfeng

    2013-06-01

    Total variation is used as a popular and effective image prior model in the regularization-based image processing fields. However, as the total variation model favors a piecewise constant solution, the processing result under high noise intensity in the flat regions of the image is often poor, and some pseudoedges are produced. In this paper, we develop a regional spatially adaptive total variation model. Initially, the spatial information is extracted based on each pixel, and then two filtering processes are added to suppress the effect of pseudoedges. In addition, the spatial information weight is constructed and classified with k-means clustering, and the regularization strength in each region is controlled by the clustering center value. The experimental results, on both simulated and real datasets, show that the proposed approach can effectively reduce the pseudoedges of the total variation regularization in the flat regions, and maintain the partial smoothness of the high-resolution image. More importantly, compared with the traditional pixel-based spatial information adaptive approach, the proposed region-based spatial information adaptive total variation model can better avoid the effect of noise on the spatial information extraction, and maintains robustness with changes in the noise intensity in the super-resolution process.

  5. Cross ranking of cities and regions: population versus income

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerqueti, Roy; Ausloos, Marcel

    2015-07-01

    This paper explores the relationship between the inner economical structure of communities and their population distribution through a rank-rank analysis of official data, along statistical physics ideas within two techniques. The data is taken on Italian cities. The analysis is performed both at a global (national) and at a more local (regional) level in order to distinguish ‘macro’ and ‘micro’ aspects. First, the rank-size rule is found not to be a standard power law, as in many other studies, but a doubly decreasing power law. Next, the Kendall τ and the Spearman ρ rank correlation coefficients which measure pair concordance and the correlation between fluctuations in two rankings, respectively,—as a correlation function does in thermodynamics, are calculated for finding rank correlation (if any) between demography and wealth. Results show non only global disparities for the whole (country) set, but also (regional) disparities, when comparing the number of cities in regions, the number of inhabitants in cities and that in regions, as well as when comparing the aggregated tax income of the cities and that of regions. Different outliers are pointed out and justified. Interestingly, two classes of cities in the country and two classes of regions in the country are found. ‘Common sense’ social, political, and economic considerations sustain the findings. More importantly, the methods show that they allow to distinguish communities, very clearly, when specific criteria are numerically sound. A specific modeling for the findings is presented, i.e. for the doubly decreasing power law and the two phase system, based on statistics theory, e.g. urn filling. The model ideas can be expected to hold when similar rank relationship features are observed in fields. It is emphasized that the analysis makes more sense than one through a Pearson Π value-value correlation analysis

  6. Refuge fortifications and Linienbandkeramik site clustering in the Hesbaye region of Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quick, Russell Spencer

    The location and function of Neolithic Linienbandkeramik enclosures eastern Belgium was examined. A hypothesis that answers a long-standing question about Linienbandkeramik village clusters---in the Hesbaye region of Belgium and perhaps in other regions of Linienbandkeramik settlement---was developed. The dissertation also explores the response of Linienbandkeramik peoples to the threat of warfare, either from other Linienbandkeramik villages in the region or from the Mesolithic foragers living beyond the frontier of Linienbandkeramik settlement. The key response to the threat of warfare was the enclosing, or fortification, of certain locations. A total of 114 Linienbandkeramik sites, 108 unfortified and 6 fortified, were examined. Twelve were subjected to a variety of geophysical surveying methods to determine the presence or absence of fortifications and their extent. Following the geophysical surveys and ground truthing of the survey results, a geographic information system of Linienbandkeramik sites, environmental data and other features was created to test the importance of various factors. The results of the study suggest that---apart from being close to water---being close to a fortification is the most important predictor for the location of unfortified village sites. This suggests that fortifications may have been a factor in the creation of Linienbandkeramik village clusters because the fortified sites are too extensive to have been constructed by the number of people apparently living within them. Linienbandkeramik fortifications were therefore most likely communal constructions surrounded by the "satellite" villages responsible for building them. The data also suggest that fortifications were not erected against other Linienbandkeramik people, but rather the Mesolithic peoples on the boundary of Linienbandkeramik expansion. Demonstrating that fortifications were central to clusters of villages fills a major gap in our understanding of Linienbandkeramik

  7. Earthquake clustering and recurrence intervals in the Puget Sound region, Washington: A statistical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styron, R. H.; Sherrod, B. L.

    2016-12-01

    While active upper-crustal faulting in the Cascadian forearc has long been recognized, analysis of LiDAR topographic data has allowed for the construction of a fairly complete record of surface faulting of the 16 ka glacial landscape of the Puget Lowland (WA). We have recently compiled all of the existing age data and refined the estimates of timing for each event in OxCal through synthesis of the paleoearthquake sequences at 68 trenches. We then performed a Monte Carlo analysis of the earthquake history by creating millions of synthetic earthquake histories from direct sampling of the earthquake timing probability density functions; in this way we are able to explore the dataset while accounting for the uncertainty in each event. A striking feature of the earthquake history is the highly irregular strain release over the Holocene; the region seems to undergo long periods of seismic quiescence punctuated by episodes of more intense earthquake activity. These temporal clusters of earthquakes involve faults throughout the Puget Lowland and are not restricted to certain faults or sub-regions. The regional earthquake recurrence interval probability shows a mode at 20-50 years, which then declines monotonically to 5,000 years. This very short mode is a sign of earthquake clustering, which may reflect static or dynamic earthquake triggering by other events. Furthermore, it strongly suggests that the earthquake hazard following a moderate to large earthquake in the region will remain elevated for decades afterward. We are now focusing on the probabilistic reconstruction of the rupture extents and magnitudes of all the paleoearthquakes in the dataset through analysis of LiDAR- and trench-derived displacement measurements and fault characteristics. This will allow us to better understand regional strain rates and earthquake frequency-magnitude relationships, and allow for physical as well as statistical modeling of earthquake clustering.

  8. Unsupervised clustering for logo images using singular values region covariance matrices on Lie groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuguang; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Shengyong; Chen, Dan; Li, Xiaoli

    2012-04-01

    Toward the unsupervised clustering for color logo images corrupted by noise, we propose a novel framework in which the logo images are described by a model called singular values based region covariance matrices (SVRCM), and the mean shift algorithm is performed on Lie groups for clustering covariance matrices. To decrease the influence of noise, we choose the larger singular values, which can better represent the original image and discard the smaller singular values. Therefore, the chosen singular values are grouped and fused by a covariance matrix to form a SVRCM model that can represent the correlation and variance between different singular value features to enhance the discriminating ability of the model. In order to cluster covariance matrices, which do not lie on Euclidean space, the mean shift algorithm is performed on manifolds by iteratively transforming points between the Lie group and Lie algebra. Experimental results on 38 categories of logo images demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method whose clustering rate can be achieved at 88.55%.

  9. A Cluster Analysis of Constant Ambient Air Monitoring Data from the Kanto Region of Japan

    PubMed Central

    Iizuka, Atsushi; Shirato, Shintaro; Mizukoshi, Atsushi; Noguchi, Miyuki; Yamasaki, Akihiro; Yanagisawa, Yukio

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates an application of cluster analysis to constant ambient air monitoring data of four pollutants in the Kanto region: NOx, photochemical oxidant (Ox), suspended particulate matter, and non-methane hydrocarbons. Constant ambient air monitoring can provide important information about the surrounding atmospheric pollution. However, at the same time, ambient air monitoring can place a significant financial burden on some autonomous communities. Thus, it has been necessary to reduce both the number of monitoring stations and the number of chemicals monitored. To achieve this, it is necessary to identify those monitoring stations and pollutants that are least significant, while minimizing the loss of data quality and mitigating the effects on the determination of any spatial and temporal trends of the pollutants. Through employing cluster analysis, it was established that the ambient monitoring stations in the Kanto region could be clustered topologically for NOx and Ox into eight groups. From the results of this analysis, it was possible to identify the similarities in site characteristics and pollutant behaviors. PMID:24995597

  10. A cluster analysis of constant ambient air monitoring data from the Kanto region of Japan.

    PubMed

    Iizuka, Atsushi; Shirato, Shintaro; Mizukoshi, Atsushi; Noguchi, Miyuki; Yamasaki, Akihiro; Yanagisawa, Yukio

    2014-07-03

    This study demonstrates an application of cluster analysis to constant ambient air monitoring data of four pollutants in the Kanto region: NOx, photochemical oxidant (Ox), suspended particulate matter, and non-methane hydrocarbons. Constant ambient air monitoring can provide important information about the surrounding atmospheric pollution. However, at the same time, ambient air monitoring can place a significant financial burden on some autonomous communities. Thus, it has been necessary to reduce both the number of monitoring stations and the number of chemicals monitored. To achieve this, it is necessary to identify those monitoring stations and pollutants that are least significant, while minimizing the loss of data quality and mitigating the effects on the determination of any spatial and temporal trends of the pollutants. Through employing cluster analysis, it was established that the ambient monitoring stations in the Kanto region could be clustered topologically for NOx and Ox into eight groups. From the results of this analysis, it was possible to identify the similarities in site characteristics and pollutant behaviors.

  11. A spectroscopic census in young stellar regions: the σ Orionis cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Hernández, Jesús; Perez, Alice; Hernan, Ramírez; Calvet, Nuria; Hartmann, Lee; Briceño, Cesar; Olguin, Lorenzo; Contreras, Maria E.; Allen, Lori; Espaillat, Catherine

    2014-10-10

    We present a spectroscopic survey of the stellar population of the σ Orionis cluster. We have obtained spectral types for 340 stars. Spectroscopic data for spectral typing come from several spectrographs with similar spectroscopic coverage and resolution. More than half of the stars in our sample are members confirmed by the presence of lithium in absorption, strong Hα in emission or weak gravity-sensitive features. In addition, we have obtained high-resolution (R ∼ 34,000) spectra in the Hα region for 169 stars in the region. Radial velocities were calculated from this data set. The radial velocity distribution for members of the cluster is in agreement with previous work. Analysis of the profile of the Hα line and infrared observations reveals two binary systems or fast rotators that mimic the Hα width expected in stars with accretion disks. On the other hand, there are stars with optically thick disks and narrow Hα profiles not expected in stars with accretion disks. This contribution constitutes the largest homogeneous spectroscopic data set of the σ Orionis cluster to date.

  12. Identification of clustered YY1 binding sites in Imprinting Control Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J D; Hinz, A; Bergmann, A; Huang, J; Ovcharenko, I; Stubbs, L; Kim, J

    2006-04-19

    Mammalian genomic imprinting is regulated by Imprinting Control Regions (ICRs) that are usually associated with tandem arrays of transcription factor binding sites. In the current study, the sequence features derived from a tandem array of YY1 binding sites of Peg3-DMR (differentially methylated region) led us to identify three additional clustered YY1 binding sites, which are also localized within the DMRs of Xist, Tsix, and Nespas. These regions have been shown to play a critical role as ICRs for the regulation of surrounding genes. These ICRs have maintained a tandem array of YY1 binding sites during mammalian evolution. The in vivo binding of YY1 to these regions is allele-specific and only to the unmethylated active alleles. Promoter/enhancer assays suggest that a tandem array of YY1 binding sites function as a potential orientation-dependent enhancer. Insulator assays revealed that the enhancer-blocking activity is detected only in the YY1 binding sites of Peg3-DMR but not in the YY1 binding sites of other DMRs. Overall, our identification of three additional clustered YY1 binding sites in imprinted domains suggests a significant role for YY1 in mammalian genomic imprinting.

  13. Infant immunization coverage in Italy: estimates by simultaneous EPI cluster surveys of regions. ICONA Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Salmaso, S.; Rota, M. C.; Ciofi Degli Atti, M. L.; Tozzi, A. E.; Kreidl, P.

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, a series of regional cluster surveys (the ICONA Study) was conducted simultaneously in 19 out of the 20 regions in Italy to estimate the mandatory immunization coverage of children aged 12-24 months with oral poliovirus (OPV), diphtheria-tetanus (DT) and viral hepatitis B (HBV) vaccines, as well as optional immunization coverage with pertussis, measles and Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib) vaccines. The study children were born in 1996 and selected from birth registries using the Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI) cluster sampling technique. Interviews with parents were conducted to determine each child's immunization status and the reasons for any missed or delayed vaccinations. The study population comprised 4310 children aged 12-24 months. Coverage for both mandatory and optional vaccinations differed by region. The overall coverage for mandatory vaccines (OPV, DT and HBV) exceeded 94%, but only 79% had been vaccinated in accord with the recommended schedule (i.e. during the first year of life). Immunization coverage for pertussis increased from 40% (1993 survey) to 88%, but measles coverage (56%) remained inadequate for controlling the disease; Hib coverage was 20%. These results confirm that in Italy the coverage of only mandatory immunizations is satisfactory. Pertussis immunization coverage has improved dramatically since the introduction of acellular vaccines. A greater effort to educate parents and physicians is still needed to improve the coverage of optional vaccinations in all regions. PMID:10593033

  14. Engineering a regulatory region of jadomycin gene cluster to improve jadomycin B production in Streptomyces venezuelae.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jian-Ting; Wang, Sheng-Lan; Yang, Ke-Qian

    2007-09-01

    Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230 produces a group of jadomycin congeners with cytotoxic activities. To improve jadomycin fermentation process, a genetic engineering strategy was designed to replace a 3.4-kb regulatory region of jad gene cluster that contains four regulatory genes (3' end 272 bp of jadW2, jadW3, jadR2, and jadR1) and the native promoter upstream of jadJ (P(J)) with the ermEp* promoter sequence so that ermEp* drives the expression of the jadomycin biosynthetic genes from jadJ in the engineered strain. As expected, the mutant strain produced jadomycin B without ethanol treatment, and the yield increased to about twofold that of the stressed wild-type. These results indicated that manipulation of the regulation of a biosynthetic gene cluster is an effective strategy to increase product yield.

  15. Deep UV Luminosity Functions at the Infall Region of the Coma Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, D. M.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Salim, S.; Smith, R.; Jenkins, L.; Mobasher, B.; Miller, N.; Ferguson, H.

    2011-01-01

    We have used deep GALEX observations at the infall region of the Coma cluster to measure the faintest UV luminosity functions (LFs) presented for a rich galaxy cluster thus far. The Coma UV LFs are measured to M(sub uv) = -10.5 in the GALEX FUV and NUV bands, or 3.5 mag fainter than previous studies, and reach the dwarf early-type galaxy population in Coma for the first time. The Schechter faint-end slopes (alpha approximately equal to -1.39 in both GALEX bands) are shallower than reported in previous Coma UV LF studies owing to a flatter LF at faint magnitudes. A Gaussian-plus-Schechter model provides a slightly better parametrization of the UV LFs resulting in a faint-end slope of alpha approximately equal to -1.15 in both GALEX bands. The two-component model gives faint-end slopes shallower than alpha = -1 (a turnover) for the LFs constructed separately for passive and star forming galaxies. The UV LFs for star forming galaxies show a turnover at M(sub UV) approximately equal to -14 owing to a deficit of dwarf star forming galaxies in Coma with stellar masses below M(sub *) = 10(sup 8) solar mass. A similar turnover is identified in recent UV LFs measured for the Virgo cluster suggesting this may be a common feature of local galaxy clusters, whereas the field UV LFs continue to rise at faint magnitudes. We did not identify an excess of passive galaxies as would be expected if the missing dwarf star forming galaxies were quenched inside the cluster. In fact, the LFs for both dwarf passive and star forming galaxies show the same turnover at faint magnitudes. We discuss the possible origin of the missing dwarf star forming galaxies in Coma and their expected properties based on comparisons to local field galaxies.

  16. DEEP ULTRAVIOLET LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS AT THE INFALL REGION OF THE COMA CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Hammer, D. M.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Jenkins, L.; Salim, S.; Smith, R.; Mobasher, B.; Miller, N.; Ferguson, H.

    2012-02-01

    We have used deep GALEX observations at the infall region of the Coma cluster to measure the faintest ultraviolet (UV) luminosity functions (LFs) presented for a rich galaxy cluster thus far. The Coma UV LFs are measured to M{sub UV} = -10.5 in the GALEX FUV and NUV bands, or 3.5 mag fainter than previous studies, and reach the dwarf early-type galaxy population in Coma for the first time. The Schechter faint-end slopes ({alpha} Almost-Equal-To -1.39 in both GALEX bands) are shallower than reported in previous Coma UV LF studies owing to a flatter LF at faint magnitudes. A Gaussian-plus-Schechter model provides a slightly better parameterization of the UV LFs resulting in a faint-end slope of {alpha} Almost-Equal-To -1.15 in both GALEX bands. The two-component model gives faint-end slopes shallower than {alpha} = -1 (a turnover) for the LFs constructed separately for passive and star-forming galaxies. The UV LFs for star-forming galaxies show a turnover at M{sub UV} Almost-Equal-To -14 owing to a deficit of dwarf star-forming galaxies in Coma with stellar masses below M{sub *} = 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }. A similar turnover is identified in recent UV LFs measured for the Virgo cluster suggesting this may be a common feature of local galaxy clusters, whereas the field UV LFs continue to rise at faint magnitudes. We did not identify an excess of passive galaxies as would be expected if the missing dwarf star-forming galaxies were quenched inside the cluster. In fact, the LFs for both dwarf passive and star-forming galaxies show the same turnover at faint magnitudes. We discuss the possible origin of the missing dwarf star-forming galaxies in Coma and their expected properties based on comparisons to local field galaxies.

  17. Detection of long-living neutral hydrated clusters in laboratory simulation of ionospheric D region plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, H. S. S.; Oyama, Koh-Ichiro; Watanabe, S.

    2013-01-01

    The existence of hydrated cluster ions is known through in situ measurements in the D region of the ionosphere and laboratory simulation experiments. A series of experiments were conducted at Sagamihara, Japan with the intention of detecting some of the ions which, although predicted, had eluded detection in laboratory simulation. The other motivation was to look for heavier ions in laboratory simulations in conditions close to those in the D region. With the availability of better ion mass spectrometers, these could supposedly be detected by rocket measurements. Results of these experiments point to a new aspect, namely, the production of a neutral hydrated cluster molecule, which (a) has ionization potential of less than 10.2 eV, (b) has lifetimes in excess of 90 min, and (c) is formed within a limited pressure range. As this neutral cluster molecule has a mass number of 102, most probably it is NOṡ(H2O)4. A number of other important ions, which were detected earlier in laboratory experiments, were also seen in our data. These include NO+(H2O)n, NO+(H2O)nX, NO2+(H2O)n, H3O+(H2O)n, H3O+(H2O)nX, and O2+(H2O)n series. A few clusters {36+(H3O+OH), 60+(NO+NO) and 63+(NO+HO2)} and molecular ions {29+(N2H+), 33+(HO2+) and 43+(N3H+)} were also detected in these experiments. It was also found that, like the earlier experiments, the concentration of most of the hydrated ions showed an oscillatory behavior. The ion formation was observed only within a limited pressure range, which corresponds to the 50 to 100 km altitude range of the ionosphere.

  18. Proper motions and membership probabilities of stars in the region of globular cluster NGC 6366

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sariya, Devesh P.; Yadav, R. K. S.

    2015-12-01

    Context. NGC 6366 is a metal-rich globular cluster that is relatively unstudied. It is a kinematically interesting cluster, reported as belonging to the slowly rotating halo system, which is unusual given its metallicity and spatial location in the Galaxy. Aims: The purpose of this research is to determine the relative proper motion and membership probability of the stars in the region of globular cluster NGC 6366. To target cluster members reliably during spectroscopic surveys without including field stars, a good proper motion and membership probability catalogue of NGC 6366 is needed. Methods: To derive relative proper motions, the archival data from the Wide Field Imager mounted on the ESO 2.2 m telescope have been reduced using a high precision astrometric software. The images used are in the B,V, and I photometric bands with an epoch gap of ~3.2 yr. The calibrated BVI magnitudes have been determined using recent data for secondary standard stars. Results: We determined relative proper motions and cluster membership probabilities for 2530 stars in the field of globular cluster NGC 6366. The median proper motion rms errors for stars brighter than V ~ 18 mag is ~2 mas yr-1, which gradually increases to ~5 mas yr-1 for stars having magnitudes V ~ 20 mag. Based on the membership catalogue, we checked the membership status of the X-ray sources and variable stars of NGC 6366 mentioned in the literature. We also provide the astronomical community with an electronic catalogue that includes B, V, and I magnitudes; relative proper motions; and membership probabilities of the stars in the region of NGC 6366. Based on observations with the MPG/ESO 2.2 m and ESO/VLT telescopes, located at La Silla and Paranal Observatory, Chile, under DDT programs 164.O-0561(F), 71.D-0220(A) and the archive material.Full Table 4 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/584/A59

  19. The outer regions of galaxy clusters: Chandra constraints on the X-ray surface brightness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettori, S.; Balestra, I.

    2009-03-01

    Context: We study the properties of the X-ray surface brightness profiles in a sample of galaxy clusters that were observed with Chandra and have emission detectable with a signal-to-noise ratio higher than 2 per radial bin at a radius beyond R500 ≈ 0.7 × R200. Aims: Our study aims to measure the slopes in both the X-ray surface brightness and gas density profiles in the outskirts of massive clusters. These constraints are compared with similar results obtained from observations and numerical simulations of the temperature and dark-matter density profiles with the intention of presenting a consistent picture of the outer regions of galaxy clusters. Methods: We extract the surface brightness profiles S_b(r) of 52 X-ray luminous galaxy clusters at z>0.3 from X-ray exposures obtained with Chandra. These objects, which are of both high X-ray surface brightness and high redshift, allow us to use Chandra either in ACIS-I or even ACIS-S configuration to survey the cluster outskirts. We estimate R200 using both a β-model that reproduces the surface brightness profiles and scaling relations from the literature. The two methods converge to comparable values. We determine the radius, R_S2N, at which the signal-to-noise ratio is higher than 2, and select the objects in the sample that satisfy the criterion R_S2N/R200 > 0.7. For the eleven selected objects, we model by a power-law function the behaviour of S_b(r) to estimate the slope at several characteristic radii expressed as a fraction of R200. Results: We measure a consistent steepening of the S_b(r) profile moving outward from 0.4R200, where an average slope of -3.6 (σ = 0.8) is estimated. At R200, we evaluate a slope of -4.3 (σ = 0.9) that implies a slope in the gas density profile of ≈-2.6 and a predicted mean value of the surface brightness in the 0.5-2 keV band of 2 × 10-12 erg s-1 cm-2 deg-2. Conclusions: Combined with estimates of the outer slope of the gas temperature profile and expectations about the

  20. Clustering of murine lung metastases reflects fractal nonuniformity in regional lung blood flow.

    PubMed

    Kendal, W S

    In the experimental metastasis assay certain animals, from groups of similarly treated animals, develop more lung metastases than expected from random chance alone. This clustering of metastases is characterized by a power function relationship, sigma(2) = amu(b), between the variance, sigma(2), and mean, mu, of the numbers of lung metastases per animal (a and b are constants). To determine whether this clustering could be an artifact of experimental metastasis, whether it could be influenced by different experimental conditions, and to attempt to clarify its cause, 22 published data sets from experimental metastasis utilizing 2,145 mice, as well as 8 data sets from spontaneous metastasis utilizing 1,020 mice were analyzed. In these experiments cell cloning, cell-cell fusion, treatment with a protein kinase C inhibitor, treatment with cell adhesion compounds, and transfection with either the ras oncogene, the sialidase gene, or the urokinase sense and antisense genes were used to influence metastasis. They employed 14 different cell lines and 6 different strains of inbred mice. Clustering of metastasis was evident in animals from the spontaneous metastasis assays as well as from the experimental metastasis assays. It was apparent whether mice were injected with tumor cells derived from clones or from cell lines. Clustering was demonstrated within each data set, regardless of the experimental conditions employed. A single variance to mean power function (with a = 2.2 and b = 1.51) characterized the clustering in the 30 data sets. The regional distribution of blood flow through lungs and other organs is nonuniform, exhibiting a fractal symmetry on change of scale. This symmetry implies that the variance of a region's blood flow is related to its mean by the same power function as was observed with metastasis. Indeed, measurements of blood flow from isolated canine lungs yield b = 1.56, similar to the corresponding figure from murine lung metastasis. These findings

  1. [Fuzzy cluster for analysis of the relationship between the structure of cephalosporins and immune cross-reaction].

    PubMed

    Hu, C Q; Jin, S H; Sun, X L; Ren, M D

    1990-09-01

    Six parameters (molecular negentropy, acidic group number, basic group number, proton donor group number, proton acceptor group number, and a ratio of C atomic group number to total atomic group number) for characterizing the structure of an antibody combining site in a R1 chain of cephalosporins were selected. Although 12 parameters characterized the site A and site B in a R1 chain were used in fuzzy cluster, Fischer weighting ratio (Fi) indicated that only 5 parameters, 4 of them characterized the structure of site A, play an important part in the cluster. Therefore it was speculated that the site A was the major combining site in the antigen-antibody interaction. According to the similarity of the R1 chains, cephalosporins could be clustered into 4 groups among which less cross-reaction took place. Using the "relative Hamming distance" of the R1 chains for description of their similarity, we found that the intensity of the cross-reaction assayed by immune tests had a close correlation with the "relative Hamming distance", so the distance was used for prediction of the intensity of the cross-reaction of cephalosporins.

  2. Paternal origin of the rearranged major breakpoint cluster region in chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Litz, C E; Copenhaver, C M

    1994-06-15

    The Philadelphia chromosome, t(9;22), is present in virtually all cases of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). It has previously been shown by cytogenetic studies that the rearranged chromosome 22 in patients with CML is exclusively maternal in origin. To address this issue at a molecular level, the major breakpoint cluster region (M-bcr) on chromosome 22 was examined using Southern blot assays and M-bcr Pvu II and Mae II restriction site polymorphisms in three CML patients. In all three cases, the rearranged allele was paternal in origin. These results indicate that the paternally derived M-bcr allele may also be involved in the M-bcr rearrangement.

  3. Failure of lysosome clustering and positioning in the juxtanuclear region in cells deficient in rapsyn

    PubMed Central

    Aittaleb, Mohamed; Chen, Po-Ju; Akaaboune, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rapsyn, a scaffold protein, is required for the clustering of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) at contacts between motor neurons and differentiating muscle cells. Rapsyn is also expressed in cells that do not express AChRs. However, its function in these cells remains unknown. Here, we show that rapsyn plays an AChR-independent role in organizing the distribution and mobility of lysosomes. In cells devoid of AChRs, rapsyn selectively induces the clustering of lysosomes at high density in the juxtanuclear region without affecting the distribution of other intracellular organelles. However, when the same cells overexpress AChRs, rapsyn is recruited away from lysosomes to colocalize with AChR clusters on the cell surface. In rapsyn-deficient (Rapsn−/−) myoblasts or cells overexpressing rapsyn mutants, lysosomes are scattered within the cell and highly dynamic. The increased mobility of lysosomes in Rapsn−/− cells is associated with a significant increase in lysosomal exocytosis, as evidenced by increased release of lysosomal enzymes and plasma membrane damage when cells were challenged with the bacterial pore-forming toxin streptolysin-O. These findings uncover a new link between rapsyn, lysosome positioning, exocytosis and plasma membrane integrity. PMID:26330529

  4. Abundant cyanopolyynes as a probe of infall in the Serpens South cluster-forming region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, R. K.; Medeiros, L.; Schnee, S.; Bourke, T. L.; di Francesco, J.; Gutermuth, R.; Myers, P. C.

    2013-12-01

    We have detected bright HC7N J = 21 - 20 emission towards multiple locations in the Serpens South cluster-forming region using the K-Band Focal Plane Array at the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope. HC7N is seen primarily towards cold filamentary structures that have yet to form stars, largely avoiding the dense gas associated with small protostellar groups and the main central cluster of Serpens South. Where detected, the HC7N abundances are similar to those found in other nearby star-forming regions. Towards some HC7N `clumps', we find consistent variations in the line centroids relative to NH3 (1,1) emission, as well as systematic increases in the HC7N non-thermal line widths, which we argue reveal infall motions on to dense filaments within Serpens South with minimum mass accretion rates of M ˜ 2-5 M⊙ Myr-1. The relative abundance of NH3 to HC7N suggests that the HC7N is tracing gas that has been at densities n ˜ 104 cm-3 for time-scales t ≲ 1-2 × 105 yr. Since HC7N emission peaks are rarely co-located with those of either NH3 or continuum, it is likely that Serpens South is not particularly remarkable in its abundance of HC7N, but instead the serendipitous mapping of HC7N simultaneously with NH3 has allowed us to detect HC7N at low abundances in regions where it otherwise may not have been looked for. This result extends the known star-forming regions containing significant HC7N emission from typically quiescent regions, like the Taurus molecular cloud, to more complex, active environments.

  5. Eastern region represents a worrying cluster of active hepatitis C in Algeria in 2012.

    PubMed

    Bensalem, Aïcha; Selmani, Karima; Hihi, Narjes; Bencherifa, Nesrine; Mostefaoui, Fatma; Kerioui, Cherif; Pineau, Pascal; Debzi, Nabil; Berkane, Saadi

    2016-08-01

    Algeria is the largest country of Africa, peopled with populations living a range of traditional/rural and modern/urban lifestyles. The variations of prevalence of chronic active hepatitis care poorly known on the Algerian territory. We conducted a retrospective survey on all patients (n = 998) referred to our institution in 2012 and confirmed by us for an active hepatitis C. Half of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) isolates were genotyped. Forty Algerian regions out of the 48 were represented in our study. Three geographical clusters (Aïn-Temouchent/SidiBelAbbes, Algiers, and a large Eastern region) with an excess of active hepatitis C were observed. Patients coming from the Eastern cluster (Batna, Khenchela, Oum el Bouaghi, and Tebessa) were strongly over-represented (49% of cases, OR = 14.5, P < 0.0001). The hallmarks of Eastern region were an excess of women (65% vs. 46% in the remaining population, P < 0.0001) and the almost exclusive presence of HCV genotype 1 (93% vs. 63%, P = 0.0001). The core of the epidemics was apparently located in Khenchela (odds ratio = 24.6, P < 0.0001). This situation is plausibly connected with nosocomial transmission or traditional practices as scarification (Hijama), piercing or tattooing, very lively in this region. Distinct hepatitis C epidemics are currently affecting Algerian population. The most worrying situation is observed in rural regions located east of Algeria. J. Med. Virol. 88:1394-1403, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Ensemble ROCK Methods and Ensemble SWFM Methods for Clustering of Cross Citrus Accessions Based on Mixed Numerical and Categorical Dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvionita; Sutikno; Suharsono, A.

    2017-03-01

    Cluster analysis is a technique in multivariate analysis methods that reduces (classifying) data. This analysis has the main purpose to classify the objects of observation into groups based on characteristics. In the process, a cluster analysis is not only used for numerical data or categorical data but also developed for mixed data. There are several methods in analyzing the mixed data as ensemble methods and methods Similarity Weight and Filter Methods (SWFM). There is a lot of research on these methods, but the study did not compare the performance given by both of these methods. Therefore, this paper will be compared the performance between the clustering ensemble ROCK methods and ensemble SWFM methods. These methods will be used in clustering cross citrus accessions based on the characteristics of fruit and leaves that involve variables that are a mixture of numerical and categorical. Clustering methods with the best performance determined by looking at the ratio of standard deviation values within groups (SW) with a standard deviation between groups (SB). Methods with the best performance has the smallest ratio. From the result, we get that the performance of ensemble ROCK methods is better than ensemble SWFM methods.

  7. Extended phenotype and clinical subgroups in unilateral Meniere disease: A cross-sectional study with cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Frejo, L; Martin-Sanz, E; Teggi, R; Trinidad, G; Soto-Varela, A; Santos-Perez, S; Manrique, R; Perez, N; Aran, I; Almeida-Branco, M S; Batuecas-Caletrio, A; Fraile, J; Espinosa-Sanchez, J M; Perez-Guillen, V; Perez-Garrigues, H; Oliva-Dominguez, M; Aleman, O; Benitez, J; Perez, P; Lopez-Escamez, J A

    2017-02-06

    To define clinical subgroups by cluster analysis in patients with unilateral Meniere disease (MD) and to compare them with the clinical subgroups found in bilateral MD. A cross-sectional study with a two-step cluster analysis. A tertiary referral multicenter study. Nine hundred and eighty-eight adult patients with unilateral MD. best predictors to define clinical subgroups with potential different aetiologies. We established five clusters in unilateral MD. Group 1 is the most frequently found, includes 53% of patients, and it is defined as the sporadic, classic MD without migraine and without autoimmune disorder (AD). Group 2 is found in 8% of patients, and it is defined by hearing loss, which antedates the vertigo episodes by months or years (delayed MD), without migraine or AD in most of cases. Group 3 involves 13% of patients, and it is considered familial MD, while group 4, which includes 15% of patients, is linked to the presence of migraine in all cases. Group 5 is found in 11% of patients and is defined by a comorbid AD. We found significant differences in the distribution of AD in clusters 3, 4 and 5 between patients with uni- and bilateral MD. Cluster analysis defines clinical subgroups in MD, and it extends the phenotype beyond audiovestibular symptoms. This classification will help to improve the phenotyping in MD and facilitate the selection of patients for randomised clinical trials. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. HST Snapshot Study of Variable Stars in Globular Clusters: Inner Region of NGC 6441

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritzl, Barton J.; Smith, Horace A.; Stetson, Peter B.; Catelan, Marcio; Sweigart, Allen V.; Layden, Andrew C.; Rich, R. Michael

    2003-01-01

    We present the results of a Hubble Space Telescope snapshot program to survey the inner region of the metal-rich globular cluster NGC 6441 for its variable stars. A total of 57 variable stars was found including 38 RR Lyrae stars, 6 Population II Cepheids, and 12 long period variables. Twenty-four of the RR Lyrae stars and all of the Population II Cepheids were previously undiscovered in ground-based surveys. Of the RR Lyrae stars observed in h s survey, 26 are pulsating in the fundamental mode with a mean period of 0.753 d and 12 are first-overtone mode pulsators with a mean period of 0.365 d. These values match up very well with those found in ground-based surveys. Combining all the available data for NGC 6441, we find mean periods of 0.759 d and 0.375 d for the RRab and RRc stars, respectively. We also find that the RR Lyrae in this survey are located in the same regions of a period-amplitude diagram as those found in ground-based surveys. The overall ratio of RRc to total RR Lyrae is 0.33. Although NGC 6441 is a metal-rich globular cluster and would, on that ground, be expected either to have few RR Lyrae stars, or to be an Oosterhoff type I system, its RR Lyrae more closely resemble those in Oosterhoff type II globular clusters. However, even compared to typical Oosterhoff type II systems, the mean period of its RRab stars is unusually long. We also derived I-band period-luminosity relations for the RR Lyrae stars. Of the six Population II Cepheids, five are of W Virginis type and one is a BL Herculis variable star. This makes NGC 6441, along with NGC 6388, the most metal-rich globular cluster known to contain these types of variable stars. Another variable, V118, may also be a Population II Cepheid given its long period and its separation in magnitude from the RR Lyrae stars. We examine the period-luminosity relation for these Population II Cepheids and compare it to those in other globular clusters and in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We argue that there does

  9. A DOZEN NEW GALAXIES CAUGHT IN THE ACT: GAS STRIPPING AND EXTENDED EMISSION LINE REGIONS IN THE COMA CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Yagi, Masafumi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Furusawa, Hisanori; Okamura, Sadanori; Graham, Alister W.; Miller, Neal A.; Carter, David; Mobasher, Bahram; Jogee, Shardha

    2010-12-15

    We present images of extended H{alpha} clouds associated with 14 member galaxies in the Coma cluster obtained from deep narrowband imaging observations with the Suprime-Cam at the Subaru Telescope. The parent galaxies of the extended H{alpha} clouds are distributed farther than 0.2 Mpc from the peak of the X-ray emission of the cluster. Most of the galaxies are bluer than g - r {approx} 0.5 and they account for 57% of the blue (g - r < 0.5) bright (r < 17.8 mag) galaxies in the central region of the Coma cluster. They reside near the red- and blueshifted edges of the radial velocity distribution of Coma cluster member galaxies. Our findings suggest that most of the parent galaxies were recently captured by the Coma cluster potential and are now infalling toward the cluster center with their disk gas being stripped off and producing the observed H{alpha} clouds.

  10. Proper motions and CCD-photometry of stars in the region of the open cluster Trumpler 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, V. N.; Ananjevskaja, J. K.; Jilinski, E. G.; Gorshanov, D. L.; Bronnikova, N. M.

    2006-06-01

    The results of a complex study of the galactic open cluster Trumpler 2 are presented. In order to obtain the proper motions, the positions of approximately 3000 stars up to the limit magnitude B˜16.25 mag in the area 80 arcmin×80 arcmin around the cluster were measured on 6 plates with a maximal epoch difference of 63 years. The root-mean error of the relative proper motions is 4.2 mas yr-1. The catalogue of {BV} magnitudes of all the stars in the investigated area was compiled. The selection of the cluster members within the region of R<16 arcmin from the center of the cluster was made. Altogether, 148 stars were considered to be cluster members by both astrometrical and photometrical criteria. We present the estimated age (8.91×107 yr) and physical parameters of the cluster and append the catalogues of the proper motions and of the photometry of the stars.

  11. Study of waves in the magnetotail region with cluster and DSP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volwerk, M.; Zhang, T. L.; Glassmeier, K. H.; Runov, A.; Baumjohann, W.; Balogh, A.; Rème, H.; Klecker, B.; Carr, C.

    The study of the neutral sheet is of fundamental importance in understanding the dynamics of the Earth’s magnetosphere. From the earliest observation of the magnetotail, it has been found that the neutral sheet frequently appears to be in motion due to changing solar wind conditions and geomagnetic activity. Multiple crossings of the neutral sheet by spacecraft have been attributed to a flapping motion of the neutral sheet in the north south direction, a wavy profile either along the magnetotail or the dawn dusk direction. Cluster observations have revealed that the flapping motions of the Earth’s magnetotail are of internal origin and that kink-like waves are emitted from the central part of the tail and propagate toward the tail flanks. This flapping motion is shown here to propagate at an angle of ˜45° with xGSM. A possible assumption that the flapping could be created by a wake travelling away from a fast flow in the current sheet is rejected. Other waves in the magnetotail are found in the ULF range. One conjunction event between Cluster and DoubleStar TC1 is presented where all spacecraft show ULF wave activity at a period of approximately 5 min during fast Earthward flow. These waves are shown to be Kelvin Helmholtz waves on the boundaries of the flow channel. Calculations show that the conversion of flow energy into magnetic energy through the Kelvin Helmholtz instability can contribute to a significant part of flow breaking between Cluster and DoubleStar TC1.

  12. Cross-correlation of galaxies and galaxy clusters in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the importance of non-Poissonian shot noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paech, Kerstin; Hamaus, Nico; Hoyle, Ben; Costanzi, Matteo; Giannantonio, Tommaso; Hagstotz, Steffen; Sauerwein, Georg; Weller, Jochen

    2017-09-01

    We present measurements of angular cross power spectra between galaxies and optically-selected galaxy clusters in the final photometric sample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We measure the autocorrelations and cross correlations between galaxy and cluster samples, from which we extract the effective biases and study the shot noise properties. We model the non-Poissonian shot noise by introducing an effective number density of tracers and fit for this quantity. We find that we can only describe the cross-correlation of galaxies and galaxy clusters, as well as the autocorrelation of galaxy clusters, on the relevant scales using a non-Poissonian shot noise contribution. The values of effective bias we finally measure for a volume-limited sample are bcc = 4.09 ± 0.47 for the cluster autocorrelation and bgc = 2.15 ± 0.09 for the galaxy-cluster cross-correlation. We find that these results are consistent with expectations from the autocorrelations of galaxies and clusters and are in good agreement with previous studies. The main result is two-fold: first we provide a measurement of the cross-correlation of galaxies and clusters, which can be used for further cosmological analysis; and secondly we describe an effective treatment of the shot noise.

  13. A new methodology to define homogeneous regions through an entropy based clustering method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridolfi, E.; Rianna, M.; Trani, G.; Alfonso, L.; Di Baldassarre, G.; Napolitano, F.; Russo, F.

    2016-10-01

    One of the most crucial steps in flow frequency studies is the definition of Homogenous Regions (HRs), i.e. areas with similar hydrological behavior. This is essential in ungauged catchments, as HR allows information to be transferred from a neighboring river basin. This study proposes a new, entropy-based approach to define HRs, in which regions are defined as homogeneous if their hydrometric stations capture redundant information. The problem is handled through the definition of the Information Transferred Index (ITI) as the ratio between redundant information and the total information provided by pairs of stations. The methodology is compared with a traditional, distance-based clustering method through a Monte Carlo experiment and a jack-knife procedure. Results indicate that the ITI-based method performs well, adding value to current methodologies to define HRs.

  14. Toward an SSC test lattice design with two chromatic clusters of interaction regions

    SciTech Connect

    Garren, A.; Steffen, K.

    1985-10-01

    Various ideas on how to design a cluster of interaction regions (IR) with local chromaticity correction were investigated, all of them employing pairs of sextupoles with betatron phase advances of (2n+{lambda}){pi} between them so that their geometric aberrations cancel. Some of these ideas were discarded. Even when, at the sextupoles, one amplitude function is made very small as compared to the other, and the two interleaving pairs are thus decoupled regarding their horizontal and vertical chromaticity correction, they can still not be considered `non-interleaved` regarding their compensation of chromatic aberrations. What remains, then, are schemes that have one or more complete sextupole pairs in a periodic focusing structure between interaction points. This periodic structure may be specially tailored to suit the purpose, or it may even be the normal arc FODO structure. In any case, it must have a strong horizontal dispersion for the sextupoles to act on. Probably the best and most elegant structure the authors found is the one described at the end of this note; it has a 2200 m long periodic channel of arc cells with four pairs of sextupoles between interaction points. In this scheme, the three interaction points forming a `cluster` are within five miles of each other, and thus the denotation may still be justified. However, the FODO channels may be increased in this scheme to any length, until an equidistant spacing of IR`s is obtained. The elegance of the scheme lies in the way the vertical separation and the horizontal and vertical dispersions are handled at the end of the FODO channel and matched into the interaction region, and it is applicable to clustered as well as distributed IR`s. However at first a simpler scheme will be described which has only one pair of sextupoles between IR`s, placed in a specially tailored FODO channel with long cells and very large dispersion.

  15. Enhanced performance of anion exchange membranes via crosslinking of ion cluster regions for fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Ao Nan; Guo, Dong; Lin, Chen Xiao; Zhang, Qiu Gen; Zhu, Ai Mei; Ye, Mei Ling; Liu, Qing Lin

    2016-09-01

    Development of anion exchange membranes (AEMs) with high hydroxide conductivity, good dimensional and alkaline stabilities is still a challenge for the practical application of AEM fuel cells. In this study, we report a new strategy to prepare high-performance AEMs with crosslinked ionic regions. A series of phenolphthalein-containing poly(arylene ether sulfone)s crosslinked AEMs was synthesized by grafting ion groups selectively and densely on the phenolphthalein units to form ion clusters that are further crosslinked to generate the hydrophilic ionic regions. The crosslinking reaction not only improved the dimensional stability of the AEMs, but also increased the aggregation of the ion clusters leading to the formation of hydrophilic/hydrophobic phase-separated morphology and ion-conducting channels. As a result, enhancements in both ion conductivity and dimensional stability can be achieved. The crosslinked AEMs showed high hydroxide conductivities in the range of 52.2-143.4 mS cm-1 from 30 to 80 °C and a superb ratio of relative conductivity to relative swelling at 80 °C. Furthermore, the crosslinked AEMs also exhibited good mechanical properties, thermal and alkaline stabilities and desirable single cell performance. This work presents a promising strategy for the synthesis of high-performance AEMs for fuel cells.

  16. Symptom clusters on primary care medical service trips in five regions in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Dainton, Christopher; Chu, Charlene

    2015-09-01

    Short-term primary care medical service trips organized by the North American non-governmental organizations (NGOs) serve many communities in Latin America that are poorly served by the national health system. This descriptive study contributes to the understanding of the epidemiology of patients seen on such low-resource trips. An analysis was conducted on epidemiologic data collected from anonymized electronic medical records on patients seen during 34 short-term medical service trips in five regions in Ecuador, Guatemala, and the Dominican Republic between April 2013 and April 2014. A total of 22,977 patients were assessed by North American clinicians (physicians, nurse practitioners, physician assistants) on primary care, low-resource medical service trips. The majority of patients were female (67.1%), and their average age was 36. The most common presenting symptoms in all regions were general pain, upper respiratory tract symptoms, skin disorders, eye irritation, dyspepsia, and nonspecific abdominal complaints; 71-78% of primary care complaints were easily aggregated into well-defined symptom clusters. The results suggest that guideline development for clinicians involved in these types of medical service trips should focus on management of the high-yield symptom clusters described by these data. Copyright © 2015 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Radial Mass Profile within the Entire Virial Region of a Fossil Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buote, David A.; Su, Yuanyuan; Gastaldello, Fabio; Brighenti, Fabrizio

    2016-06-01

    We present a hydrostatic analysis of the azimuthally averaged hot intracluster medium (ICM) of the entire virial region of the relaxed fossil cluster RXJ 1159+5531. For a model consisting of ICM, stellar mass from the central galaxy (BCG), and an NFW dark matter (DM) halo, we obtain a good description of the projected radial profiles of ICM temperature and emission-measure that yield precise constraints on the total mass profile. The BCG stellar mass component is clearly detected with a K-band stellar mass-to-light ratio, M_star/L_K = 0.61 +/- 0.11 solar, consistent with stellar population synthesis models. We obtain a halo concentration, c_200 = 8.4 +/- 1.0, and virial mass, M_200 = 7.9 +/- 0.6 x 10^{13} M_sun. For its mass, the inferred concentrationis larger than most relaxed halos produced in cosmological simulations with Planck parameters, consistent with RXJ 1159+5531 forming earlier than the general halo population. The detection of a plausible stellar BCG mass component distinct from the NFW DM halo in the total gravitational potential supports the suggestion by Newman et al. (2015) that 10^{14} M_sun represents the mass scale above which dissipation is unimportant in the formation of the central regions of galaxy clusters.

  18. A novel method for discovering local spatial clusters of genomic regions with functional relationships from DNA contact maps

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xihao; Shi, Christina Huan; Yip, Kevin Y.

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: The three-dimensional structure of genomes makes it possible for genomic regions not adjacent in the primary sequence to be spatially proximal. These DNA contacts have been found to be related to various molecular activities. Previous methods for analyzing DNA contact maps obtained from Hi-C experiments have largely focused on studying individual interactions, forming spatial clusters composed of contiguous blocks of genomic locations, or classifying these clusters into general categories based on some global properties of the contact maps. Results: Here, we describe a novel computational method that can flexibly identify small clusters of spatially proximal genomic regions based on their local contact patterns. Using simulated data that highly resemble Hi-C data obtained from real genome structures, we demonstrate that our method identifies spatial clusters that are more compact than methods previously used for clustering genomic regions based on DNA contact maps. The clusters identified by our method enable us to confirm functionally related genomic regions previously reported to be spatially proximal in different species. We further show that each genomic region can be assigned a numeric affinity value that indicates its degree of participation in each local cluster, and these affinity values correlate quantitatively with DNase I hypersensitivity, gene expression, super enhancer activities and replication timing in a cell type specific manner. We also show that these cluster affinity values can precisely define boundaries of reported topologically associating domains, and further define local sub-domains within each domain. Availability and implementation: The source code of BNMF and tutorials on how to use the software to extract local clusters from contact maps are available at http://yiplab.cse.cuhk.edu.hk/bnmf/. Contact: kevinyip@cse.cuhk.edu.hk Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27307607

  19. Equation-Of Coupled-Cluster Calculations of Photodetachment Cross Sections for Atomic Negative Ions across the Periodic Table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichino, Takatoshi; Cheng, Lan; Stanton, John F.

    2016-06-01

    The innovative application of the ion-trap technique by Wester and coworkers has yielded definitive experimental values of photodetachment cross sections for the atomic oxygen radical anion (Obullet -) [Hlavenka et al., J. Chem. Phys. 130, 061105 (2009)]. In the present study, equation-of-motion coupled-cluster (EOM-CC) calculations have been performed to derive theoretical values of photodetachment cross sections for the negative ions of atoms in the first two periods of the periodic table as well as of those which belong to the alkali metal and halogen groups. Two methods have been employed to derive the cross sections. One involves the Dyson orbitals obtained from EOM-CC calculations and plane wave functions for the detached electron in the transition dipole moment integrals. The other method utilizes the moment theory following EOM-CC calculations of transition dipole moments for a large number of pseudo-states. The cross sections so evaluated for Obullet - match the experimental values very well. Generally good agreement has been found between the theoretical and experimental values of the cross sections for the atoms in the first two periods, while the present calculations cast some doubt on reported experimental values for some atoms beyond the second period. Substantial relativistic effects on the cross section have been observed for heavy elements in the alkali metal and halogen groups.

  20. Exotic clusters in an unbound region of light neutron-rich systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Makoto

    2009-10-01

    In light neutron-rich systems, many kinds of molecular structures are discussed from the view point of the clustering phenomena.In particular, much attention has been concentrated on Be isotopes. The molecular orbital (MO), such as &-circ; and &+circ; associated with the covalent binding of atomic molecules, have been shown to give a good description for the low-lying states of these isotopes. In their highly-excited states, furthermore, recent experiments revealed the existence of the interesting resonant states which dominantly decay to the ^6,8He fragments. In this report, we show the unified study of the exotic structures of ^12Be=α+α+4N in an unbound region and the α+^6,8He resonant scattering. We applied the generalized two-center cluster model in which the covalent MO and the atomic orbital (AO) configurations with ^xHe+^yHe could be described in a unified manner. First, we calculated the energy spectra below an α decay-threshold. The (π32^-)^2 (σ12^+)^2 configuration corresponding to ν(0p)^4(sd)^2 becomes the ground state, while (π3 2^-)^2(π12^-)^2 having a large overlap with ν(0p)^6 appears as the first excited state. The rotational band of the ground state reaches to the maximum spin of J^π = 8^+. This result means that the magicity of N=8 is broken in ^12Be due to the formation of (π3 2^-)^2(σ12^+)^2. Next, we solved the scattering problem of α+^8He and identified the several resonance poles. In the continuum region, we found the rotational bands having the AO configurations of α+^8He, ^6He+^6He, and ^5He+^7 He. Furthermore, a much more exotic band appears in the same energy region. In this band, two valence neutrons are localized at individual α-cores (the ^5He+^5He cluster), while the other two neutrons form the covalent &+circ;- bonding between two ^5He clusters; hence, it has a ``hybrid structure'' between the MO configuration and the AO one. In the J^π=0^+ state, it is strongly excited by the two-neutron transfer reaction, α+^8He

  1. An X-ray View of Galaxies in Compact Groups and the Coma Cluster Infall Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjardins, Tyler D.

    2015-01-01

    As the majority of galaxies in the nearby universe exist in groups and clusters, it is imperative for our understanding of galaxy evolution to examine the effects these environments have on their member galaxies. In particular, compact groups of galaxies (CGs) occupy an interesting part of the parameter space having low velocity dispersions and high number densities. These characteristics increase the likelihood of multi-galaxy interactions over long timescales. Infrared observations of galaxies in CGs have suggested that CG members experience accelerated evolution from star-forming to passive. Using X-ray imaging spectroscopy from the Chandra X-ray Observatory, I characterize the luminosity and morphology of the hot intragroup gas in 19 CGs and compare the results with known galaxy cluster scaling relations and other group properties. Only the most massive CGs have hot intragroup gas similar to galaxy clusters. At low group masses, the hot gas becomes associated with individual galaxies and is linked to star formation. The low derived hot gas densities and low galaxy velocities imply that ram-pressure stripping, a common quenching process in galaxy clusters, is probably not the cause of the accelerated evolution in CGs. Using deep XMM observations, I also examine the X-ray emission from individual galaxies in the Coma cluster infall region, inside which the galaxies have infrared properties suggestive of accelerated evolution similar to CG members. While the Coma galaxies have X-ray emission consistent with known scaling relations between X-ray luminosity, star formation rate, and stellar mass, a CG galaxy comparison sample shows enhanced X-ray emission sometimes an order of magnitude more luminous than the expected value. Thus, while the mid-infrared properties of CG and Coma infall galaxies are similar, the X-ray data reveal that there are marked differences between these environments. While it has been hypothesized that low gas-phase metallicity may cause

  2. Automated regional registration and characterization of corresponding microcalcification clusters on temporal pairs of mammograms for interval change analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Filev, Peter; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Chan, Heang-Ping; Sahiner, Berkman; Ge Jun; Helvie, Mark A.; Roubidoux, Marilyn; Zhou Chuan

    2008-12-15

    A computerized regional registration and characterization system for analysis of microcalcification clusters on serial mammograms is being developed in our laboratory. The system consists of two stages. In the first stage, based on the location of a detected cluster on the current mammogram, a regional registration procedure identifies the local area on the prior that may contain the corresponding cluster. A search program is used to detect cluster candidates within the local area. The detected cluster on the current image is then paired with the cluster candidates on the prior image to form true (TP-TP) or false (TP-FP) pairs. Automatically extracted features were used in a newly designed correspondence classifier to reduce the number of false pairs. In the second stage, a temporal classifier, based on both current and prior information, is used if a cluster has been detected on the prior image, and a current classifier, based on current information alone, is used if no prior cluster has been detected. The data set used in this study consisted of 261 serial pairs containing biopsy-proven calcification clusters. An MQSA radiologist identified the corresponding clusters on the mammograms. On the priors, the radiologist rated the subtlety of 30 clusters (out of the 261 clusters) as 9 or 10 on a scale of 1 (very obvious) to 10 (very subtle). Leave-one-case-out resampling was used for feature selection and classification in both the correspondence and malignant/benign classification schemes. The search program detected 91.2%(238/261) of the clusters on the priors with an average of 0.42 FPs/image. The correspondence classifier identified 86.6%(226/261) of the TP-TP pairs with 20 false matches (0.08 FPs/image) relative to the entire set of 261 image pairs. In the malignant/benign classification stage the temporal classifier achieved a test A{sub z} of 0.81 for the 246 pairs which contained a detection on the prior. In addition, a classifier was designed by using the

  3. Functional definition of the mutation cluster region of adenomatous polyposis coli in colorectal tumours.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Eva Maria; Derungs, Adrian; Daum, Gabriele; Behrens, Jürgen; Schneikert, Jean

    2008-07-01

    The mutation cluster region (MCR) of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is located within the central part of the open reading frame, overlapping with the region encoding the 20 amino acid repeats (20R) that are beta-catenin-binding sites. Each mutation in the MCR leads to the synthesis of a truncated APC product expressed in a colorectal tumour. The MCR extends from the 3' border of the first 20R coding region to approximately the middle of the third 20R coding region, reflecting both positive and negative selections of the N- and C-terminal halves of the APC protein in colon cancer cells, respectively. In contrast, the second 20R escapes selection and can be either included or excluded from the truncated APC products found in colon cancer cells. To specify the functional outcome of the selection of the mutations, we investigated the beta-catenin binding capacity of the first three 20R in N-terminal APC fragments. We found in co-immunoprecipitation and intracellular co-localization experiments that the second 20R is lacking any beta-catenin binding activity. Similarly, we also show that the tumour-associated truncations abolish the interaction of beta-catenin with the third 20R. Thus, our data provide a functional definition of the MCR: the APC fragments typical of colon cancer are selected for the presence of a single functional 20R, the first one, and are therefore equivalent relative to beta-catenin binding.

  4. Individualism, authoritarianism, and attitudes toward assisted death: cross-cultural, cross-regional, and experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Kemmelmeier, Markus; Wieczorkowska, Grazyna; Erb, Hans-Peter; Burnstein, Eugene

    2002-01-01

    We hypothesized that in individualistic cultures, individualism predicts positive attitudes toward assisted death, whereas authoritarianism is negatively associated with favorable views of this issue. Study 1 confirmed this hypothesis in a Polish sample (n=100). Study 2, using a German sample (n=102), found the predicted relationships for forms of assisted death that involved the individual self-determination of a terminally ill patient. In Study 3 (n=72), we found experimental evidence that priming individualistic aspects of the self-concept results in more favorable views of physician-assisted suicide. Using a representative sample (n=1158), Study 4 found that across the United States, regional levels of individualism are reflected in corresponding patterns of support for assisted suicide. The discussion focuses on assisted suicide as a cultural phenomenon and explores the implications of growing levels of individualism for public opinion and policy on assisted suicide.

  5. Fine mapping of a yield-enhancing QTL cluster associated with transgressive variation in an Oryza sativa x O. rufipogon cross.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaobo; Jin, Fengxue; Song, Mi-Hee; Suh, Jung-Pil; Hwang, Hung-Goo; Kim, Yeon-Gyu; McCouch, Susan R; Ahn, Sang-Nag

    2008-03-01

    A high-resolution physical map targeting a cluster of yield-related QTLs on the long arm of rice chromosome 9 has been constructed across a 37.4 kb region containing seven predicted genes. Using a series of BC3F4 nearly isogenic lines (NILs) derived from a cross between the Korean japonica cultivar Hwaseongbyeo and Oryza rufipogon (IRGC 105491), a total of seven QTLs for 1,000-grain weight, spikelets per panicle, grains per panicle, panicle length, spikelet density, heading date and plant height were identified in the cluster (Pregion out-yielded sibling NILs containing Hwaseongbyeo DNA by 14.2-17.7%, and out-yielded the Hwaseongbyeo parent by 16.2-23.7%. While higher yielding plants containing the O. rufipogon introgression were also taller and later than controls, the fact that all seven of the QTLs were co-localized in the same 37.4 kb interval suggests the possibility that a single, pleiotropic gene acting as a major regulator of plant development may control this suite of agronomically important plant phenotypes.

  6. Probing Electronic Wave Functions of Sodium-Doped Clusters: Dyson Orbitals, Anisotropy Parameters, and Ionization Cross-Sections.

    PubMed

    Gunina, Anastasia O; Krylov, Anna I

    2016-12-15

    We apply high-level ab initio methods to describe the electronic structure of small clusters of ammonia and dimethyl ether (DME) doped with sodium, which provide a model for solvated electrons. We investigate the effect of the solvent and cluster size on the electronic states. We consider both energies and properties, with a focus on the shape of the electronic wave function and the related experimental observables such as photoelectron angular distributions. The central quantity in modeling photoionization experiments is the Dyson orbital, which describes the difference between the initial N-electron and final (N-1)-electron states of a system. Dyson orbitals enter the expression of the photoelectron matrix element, which determines total and partial photoionization cross-sections. We compute Dyson orbitals for the Na(NH3)n and Na(DME)m clusters using correlated wave functions (obtained with equation-of-motion coupled-cluster model for electron attachment with single and double substitutions) and compare them with more approximate Hartree-Fock and Kohn-Sham orbitals. We also analyze the effect of correlation and basis sets on the shapes of Dyson orbitals and the experimental observables.

  7. Probing electronic wave functions of sodium-doped clusters: Dyson orbitals, anisotropy parameters, and ionization cross-sections

    DOE PAGES

    Gunina, Anastasia O.; Krylov, Anna I.

    2016-11-14

    We apply high-level ab initio methods to describe the electronic structure of small clusters of ammonia and dimethylether (DME) doped with sodium, which provide a model for solvated electrons. We investigate the effect of the solvent and cluster size on the electronic states. We consider both energies and properties, with a focus on the shape of the electronic wave function and the related experimental observables such as photoelectron angular distributions. The central quantity in modeling photoionization experiments is the Dyson orbital, which describes the difference between the initial N-electron and final (N-1)-electron states of a system. Dyson orbitals enter themore » expression of the photoelectron matrix element, which determines total and partial photoionization cross-sections. We compute Dyson orbitals for the Na(NH3)n and Na(DME)m clusters using correlated wave functions (obtained with equation-of-motion coupled-cluster model for electron attachment with single and double substitutions) and compare them with more approximate Hartree-Fock and Kohn-Sham orbitals. As a result, we also analyze the effect of correlation and basis sets on the shapes of Dyson orbitals and the experimental observables.« less

  8. Probing electronic wave functions of sodium-doped clusters: Dyson orbitals, anisotropy parameters, and ionization cross-sections

    SciTech Connect

    Gunina, Anastasia O.; Krylov, Anna I.

    2016-11-14

    We apply high-level ab initio methods to describe the electronic structure of small clusters of ammonia and dimethylether (DME) doped with sodium, which provide a model for solvated electrons. We investigate the effect of the solvent and cluster size on the electronic states. We consider both energies and properties, with a focus on the shape of the electronic wave function and the related experimental observables such as photoelectron angular distributions. The central quantity in modeling photoionization experiments is the Dyson orbital, which describes the difference between the initial N-electron and final (N-1)-electron states of a system. Dyson orbitals enter the expression of the photoelectron matrix element, which determines total and partial photoionization cross-sections. We compute Dyson orbitals for the Na(NH3)n and Na(DME)m clusters using correlated wave functions (obtained with equation-of-motion coupled-cluster model for electron attachment with single and double substitutions) and compare them with more approximate Hartree-Fock and Kohn-Sham orbitals. As a result, we also analyze the effect of correlation and basis sets on the shapes of Dyson orbitals and the experimental observables.

  9. Intra-cluster and inter-period correlation coefficients for cross-sectional cluster randomised controlled trials for type-2 diabetes in UK primary care.

    PubMed

    Martin, James; Girling, Alan; Nirantharakumar, Krishnarajah; Ryan, Ronan; Marshall, Tom; Hemming, Karla

    2016-08-15

    Clustered randomised controlled trials (CRCTs) are increasingly common in primary care. Outcomes within the same cluster tend to be correlated with one another. In sample size calculations, estimates of the intra-cluster correlation coefficient (ICC) are needed to allow for this nonindependence. In studies with observations over more than one time period, estimates of the inter-period correlation (IPC) and the within-period correlation (WPC) are also needed. This is a retrospective cross-sectional study of all patients aged 18 or over with a diagnosis of type-2 diabetes, from The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database, between 1 October 2007 and 31 March 2010. We report estimates of the ICC, IPC, and WPC for typical outcomes using unadjusted and adjusted generalised linear mixed models with cluster and cluster by period random effects. For binary outcomes we report on the proportions scale, which is the appropriate scale for trial design. Estimated ICCs were compared to those reported from a systematic search of CRCTs undertaken in primary care in the UK in type-2 diabetes. Data from 430 general practices, with a median [IQR] number of diabetics per practice of 241 [150-351], were analysed. The ICC for HbA1c was 0.032 (95 % CI 0.026-0.038). For a two-period (each of 12 months) design, the WPC for HbA1c was 0.035 (95 % CI 0.030-0.040) and the IPC was 0.019 (95 % CI 0.014-0.026). The difference between the WPC and the IPC indicates a decay of correlation over time. Following dichotomisation at 7.5 %, the ICC for HbA1c was 0.026 (95 % CI 0.022-0.030). ICCs for other clinical measurements and clinical outcomes are presented. A systematic search of ICCs used in the design of CRCTs involving type-2 diabetes with HbA1c (undichotomised) as the outcome found that published trials tended to use more conservative ICC values (median 0.047, IQR 0.047-0.050) than those reported here. These estimates of ICCs, IPCs, and WPCs for a variety of outcomes commonly used in diabetes

  10. Multimorbidity Patterns in Elderly Primary Health Care Patients in a South Mediterranean European Region: A Cluster Analysis.

    PubMed

    Foguet-Boreu, Quintí; Violán, Concepción; Rodriguez-Blanco, Teresa; Roso-Llorach, Albert; Pons-Vigués, Mariona; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta; Cossio Gil, Yolima; Valderas, Jose M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify clusters of diagnoses in elderly patients with multimorbidity, attended in primary care. Cross-sectional study. 251 primary care centres in Catalonia, Spain. Individuals older than 64 years registered with participating practices. Multimorbidity, defined as the coexistence of 2 or more ICD-10 disease categories in the electronic health record. Using hierarchical cluster analysis, multimorbidity clusters were identified by sex and age group (65-79 and ≥80 years). 322,328 patients with multimorbidity were included in the analysis (mean age, 75.4 years [Standard deviation, SD: 7.4], 57.4% women; mean of 7.9 diagnoses [SD: 3.9]). For both men and women, the first cluster in both age groups included the same two diagnoses: Hypertensive diseases and Metabolic disorders. The second cluster contained three diagnoses of the musculoskeletal system in the 65- to 79-year-old group, and five diseases coincided in the ≥80 age group: varicose veins of the lower limbs, senile cataract, dorsalgia, functional intestinal disorders and shoulder lesions. The greatest overlap (54.5%) between the three most common diagnoses was observed in women aged 65-79 years. This cluster analysis of elderly primary care patients with multimorbidity, revealed a single cluster of circulatory-metabolic diseases that were the most prevalent in both age groups and sex, and a cluster of second-most prevalent diagnoses that included musculoskeletal diseases. Clusters unknown to date have been identified. The clusters identified should be considered when developing clinical guidance for this population.

  11. Early Transition Metal Oxides as Catalysts: Crossing Scales from Clusters to Single Crystals to Functioning Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lai-Sheng Wang

    2009-07-07

    The overall goal of this program is to investigate the electronic structure and chemical bonding of early transition metal oxide clusters and use them as well-defined molecular models to obtain insight into properties and mechanisms of oxide catalysts, as well as to provide accurate spectroscopic and molecular information to verify theoretical methods used to predict materials properties. A laser vaporization cluster source is used to produce metal oxide clusters with different sizes, structures, and compositions. Well-defined inorganic polyoxometalate clusters in solution are transported in the gas phase using electrospray. Two state-of-the-art photoelectron spectroscopy apparatuses are used to interrogate the oxide clusters and polyoxometalate anions in the gas phase to obtain spectroscopic and electronic structure information. The experimental effort is assisted by theoretical calculations to understanding the structures, chemical bonding, and catalytical properties of the transition metal oxide clusters. The research approach combines novel and flexible experimental techniques and advanced theoretical/computational methodologies and seeks molecular-level information to aiding the design of new catalysts, as well as mechanistic understanding. We have focused on the investigation of tungsten oxide clusters containing three W atoms: W{sub 3}O{sub x}{sup -} (x = 7-11). A number of interesting findings have been made. We observed that the oxygen-poor W{sub 3}O8 cluster contains a localized W{sup 4+} center, which can be used as a molecular model for O-deficient defect sites. A chemisorption energy was obtained through density functional calculations for W{sub 3}O8 + O{sub 2} {yields} W{sub 3}O{sub 10} as -78 kcal/mol. We further found that the neutral stoichiometric W{sub 2}O{sub 6} and W{sub 3}O{sub 9} clusters do not react with O{sub 2} and they only form physi-sorbed complexes, W{sub 2}O{sub 6}(O{sub 2}) and W{sub 3}O{sub 9}(O{sub 2}). However, the negatively

  12. Multi-spacecraft studies of the auroral acceleration region: From cluster to nanosatellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, S.; Emami, M. R.

    2017-03-01

    This paper discusses the utilization of multiple Cubesats in various formations for studies in the auroral acceleration region. The focus is on the quasi-static properties, spatio-temporal features, electric potential structures, field-aligned currents, and their relationships, all of which are fundamentally important for an understanding of the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. It is argued that a multitude of nanosatellites can address some of the relevant outstanding questions in a broader range of spatial, temporal, and geometrical features, with higher redundancy and data consistency, potentially resulting in a shorter mission period and a higher chance of mission success. A number of mission concepts consisting of a cluster of 6-12 Cubesats with their specific onboard payloads are suggested for such missions over a period of as short as two months.

  13. Nonlinear functional connectivity network recovery in the human brain with mutual connectivity analysis (MCA): convergent cross-mapping and non-metric clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wismüller, Axel; Abidin, Anas Z.; D'Souza, Adora M.; Wang, Xixi; Hobbs, Susan K.; Leistritz, Lutz; Nagarajan, Mahesh B.

    2015-03-01

    We explore a computational framework for functional connectivity analysis in resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) data acquired from the human brain for recovering the underlying network structure and understanding causality between network components. Termed mutual connectivity analysis (MCA), this framework involves two steps, the first of which is to evaluate the pair-wise cross-prediction performance between fMRI pixel time series within the brain. In a second step, the underlying network structure is subsequently recovered from the affinity matrix using non-metric network clustering approaches, such as the so-called Louvain method. Finally, we use convergent cross-mapping (CCM) to study causality between different network components. We demonstrate our MCA framework in the problem of recovering the motor cortex network associated with hand movement from resting state fMRI data. Results are compared with a ground truth of active motor cortex regions as identified by a task-based fMRI sequence involving a finger-tapping stimulation experiment. Our results regarding causation between regions of the motor cortex revealed a significant directional variability and were not readily interpretable in a consistent manner across subjects. However, our results on whole-slice fMRI analysis demonstrate that MCA-based model-free recovery of regions associated with the primary motor cortex and supplementary motor area are in close agreement with localization of similar regions achieved with a task-based fMRI acquisition. Thus, we conclude that our MCA methodology can extract and visualize valuable information concerning the underlying network structure between different regions of the brain in resting state fMRI.

  14. Employing post-DEA cross-evaluation and cluster analysis in a sample of Greek NHS hospitals.

    PubMed

    Flokou, Angeliki; Kontodimopoulos, Nick; Niakas, Dimitris

    2011-10-01

    To increase Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) discrimination of efficient Decision Making Units (DMUs), by complementing "self-evaluated" efficiencies with "peer-evaluated" cross-efficiencies and, based on these results, to classify the DMUs using cluster analysis. Healthcare, which is deprived of such studies, was chosen as the study area. The sample consisted of 27 small- to medium-sized (70-500 beds) NHS general hospitals distributed throughout Greece, in areas where they are the sole NHS representatives. DEA was performed on 2005 data collected from the Ministry of Health and the General Secretariat of the National Statistical Service. Three inputs -hospital beds, physicians and other health professionals- and three outputs -case-mix adjusted hospitalized cases, surgeries and outpatient visits- were included in input-oriented, constant-returns-to-scale (CRS) and variable-returns-to-scale (VRS) models. In a second stage (post-DEA), aggressive and benevolent cross-efficiency formulations and clustering were employed, to validate (or not) the initial DEA scores. The "maverick index" was used to sort the peer-appraised hospitals. All analyses were performed using custom-made software. Ten benchmark hospitals were identified by DEA, but using the aggressive and benevolent formulations showed that two and four of them respectively were at the lower end of the maverick index list. On the other hand, only one 100% efficient (self-appraised) hospital was at the higher end of the list, using either formulation. Cluster analysis produced a hierarchical "tree" structure which dichotomized the hospitals in accordance to the cross-evaluation results, and provided insight on the two-dimensional path to improving efficiency. This is, to our awareness, the first study in the healthcare domain to employ both of these post-DEA techniques (cross efficiency and clustering) at the hospital (i.e. micro) level. The potential benefit for decision-makers is the capability to examine high

  15. Coronal Mass Ejections from the Same Active Region Cluster: Two Different Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremades, H.; Mandrini, C. H.; Schmieder, B.; Crescitelli, A. M.

    2015-06-01

    The cluster formed by active regions (ARs) NOAA 11121 and 11123, approximately located on the solar central meridian on 11 November 2010, is of great scientific interest. This complex was the site of violent flux emergence and the source of a series of Earth-directed events on the same day. The onset of the events was nearly simultaneously observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) telescope onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and the Extreme-Ultraviolet Imagers (EUVI) on the Sun-Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation (SECCHI) suite of telescopes onboard the Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) twin spacecraft. The progression of these events in the low corona was tracked by the Large Angle Spectroscopic Coronagraphs (LASCO) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and the SECCHI/COR coronagraphs on STEREO. SDO and SOHO imagers provided data from the Earth's perspective, whilst the STEREO twin instruments procured images from the orthogonal directions. This spatial configuration of spacecraft allowed optimum simultaneous observations of the AR cluster and the coronal mass ejections that originated in it. Quadrature coronal observations provided by STEREO revealed many more ejective events than were detected from Earth. Furthermore, joint observations by SDO/AIA and STEREO/SECCHI EUVI of the source region indicate that all events classified by GOES as X-ray flares had an ejective coronal counterpart in quadrature observations. These results directly affect current space weather forecasting because alarms might be missed when there is a lack of solar observations in a view direction perpendicular to the Sun-Earth line.

  16. Waveform cross correlation at the International Data Centre: comparison with Reviewed Event Bulletin and regional catalogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitov, Ivan; Bobrov, Dmitry; Rozhkov, Mikhail; Johansson, Peder

    2013-04-01

    Waveform cross correlation substantially improves detection, phase association, and event building procedures at the International Data Centre (IDC) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization. There were 50% to 100% events extra to the official Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) were found in the aftershock sequences of small, middle size, and very big earthquakes. Several per cent of the events reported in the REB were not found with cross correlation even when all aftershocks were used as master events. These REB events are scrutinized in interactive analysis in order to reveal the reason of the cross correlation failure. As a corroborative method, we use detailed regional catalogues, which often include aftershocks with magnitudes between 2.0 and 3.0. Since the resolution of regional networks is by at least one unit of magnitude higher, the REB events missed from the relevant regional catalogues are considered as bogus. We compare events by origin time and location because the regional networks and the International Monitoring System are based on different sets of seismic stations and phase comparison is not possible. Three intracontinental sequences have been studied: after the March 20, 2008 earthquake in China (mb(IDC)=5.4), the May 20, 2012 event in Italy (mb(IDC)=5.3), and one earthquake (mb(IDC)=5.6) in Virginia, USA (August 23, 2011). Overall, most of the events not found by cross correlation are missing from the relevant regional catalogues. At the same time, these catalogues confirm most of additional REB events found only by cross correlation. This observation supports all previous findings of the improved quality of events built by cross correlation.

  17. Photometric and Spectroscopic Survey of the Cluster [DBS2003] 156 Associated with the H II Region G331.1-0.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, M. C.; Ortiz, R.; Abraham, Z.; Copetti, M. V. F.

    2016-05-01

    The Norma section of the Milky Way is especially interesting because it crosses three spiral arms: Sagittarius-Carina, Scutum-Crux and the Norma arm itself. Distance determinations of embedded young stellar clusters can contribute to define the spiral structure in this part of the Galaxy. However, spectrophotometric distances were obtained for only a few of these clusters in Norma. We present a photometric and spectroscopic study in the NIR of the [DBS2003] 156 stellar cluster, associated with the H II region G331.1-0.5. We aim to find the ionizing sources of the H II region and determine its distance. The cluster was observed in the J, H, and {K}{{s}} bands and eight potential massive stars were chosen among the detected sources according to color criteria; subsequent spectroscopy of these candidates was performed with the Ohio State Infrared Imager/Spectrometer spectrograph attached to the Southern Observatory for Astrophysical Research 4.1 m telescope. We identified and classified spectroscopically four early-type stars: IRS 176 (O8 V), IRS 308 (O-type), IRS 310 (O6 V), and IRS 71 (B1 Iab). Based on the proximity of IRS 176 and 308 with the radio continuum emission peaks and their relative positions with respect to the warm dust mid-infrared emission, we concluded that these two stars are the main ionizing sources of the H ii region G331.1-0.5. The mean spectrophotometric distance of IRS 176 and 310 of 3.38 ± 0.58 kpc is similar to that obtained in a previous work for two early-type stars of the neighbor cluster [DBS2003] 157 of 3.29 ± 0.58 kpc. The narrow range of radial velocities of radio sources in the area of the clusters [DBS2003] 156 and 157 and their similar visual extinction indicate that these clusters are physically associated. A common distance of 3.34 ± 0.34 kpc is derived for the system [DBS2003] 156 and 157. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Observatory for Astrophysical Research (SOAR), a joint project of the Ministério de Ci

  18. Identification of geographic clustering and regions spared by the Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma (CTCL) in Texas using two distinct cancer registries

    PubMed Central

    Litvinov, Ivan V.; Tetzlaff, Michael T.; Rahme, Elham; Habel, Youssef; Risser, David R.; Gangar, Pamela; Jennings, Michelle A.; Pehr, Kevin; Prieto, Victor G.; Sasseville, Denis; Duvic, Madeleine

    2015-01-01

    Background Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphomas (Mycosis Fungoides and its leukemic variant, Sézary Syndrome) are rare malignancies. Reports of occurrence of Mycosis Fungoides in married couples and families raise the possibility of an environmental trigger for this cancer. While it was suggested that CTLC arises from inappropriate T cell stimulation, currently no preventable trigger has been identified. Methods We analyzed by region, zip code, age, sex and ethnicity the demographic data of 1047 patients from Texas, who were seen in a CTCL clinic at the MD Anderson Cancer Center during 2000-2012 (the MDACC database) and 1990 patients that were recorded in the population-based Texas Cancer Registry (TCR) between 1996-2010. Subsequently data from both databases was cross analyzed and compared. Results Our findings, based on the MDACC database, document geographic clustering of patients in three communities within the Houston metropolitan area, where CTCL incidence rates were 5-20 times higher than the expected population rate. Analysis of the TCR database defined the CTCL population rate for the state to be 5.8 [95% CI 5.5, 6.0] cases per million individuals per year, confirmed the observations from the MDACC database and further highlighted additional areas of geographic clustering and regions spared by CTCL in Texas. Conclusions Our study documents geographic clustering of CTCL cases in Texas and argues for the existence of yet unknown external causes/triggers for this rare malignancy. PMID:25728286

  19. Rocket observations of E-region ionization irregularities produced through cross field instability mechanism - Current status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, H. S. S.; Prakash, Satya

    1987-02-01

    The paper reviews the properties of large, medium and small irregularities produced by the cross-field instability mechanism in the equatorial E-region. These studies were mainly carried out with rocket-borne Langmuir probes, resonance probes, proton precession magnetometers and electric field probes flown from an equatorial station Thumba. Results on the regions of occurrence, shapes, amplitudes, spectrum, and direction of propagation of the irregularities are described.

  20. Variation in Loblolly pine cross-sectional microfibril angle with tree height and physiographic region

    Treesearch

    Lewis Jordon; Rechum Re; Daniel B. Hall; Alexander Clark; Richard F. Daniels

    2006-01-01

    The effect of height and physiographic region on whole disk cross-sectional microfibril angle (CSMFA) in loblolly pine (Pinus raeda L.) in the southern United States was evaluated. Whole disk CSMFA was determined at 1.4, 4.6, 7.6, 10.7, and 13.7 m up the stem of 59 trees, representing five physiographic regions. A mixed-effects analysis of variance was performed to...

  1. Clustered somatic mutations are frequent in transcription factor binding motifs within proximal promoter regions in melanoma and other cutaneous malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Colebatch, Andrew J.; Di Stefano, Leon; Wong, Stephen Q.; Hannan, Ross D.; Waring, Paul M.; Dobrovic, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Most cancer DNA sequencing studies have prioritized recurrent non-synonymous coding mutations in order to identify novel cancer-related mutations. Although attention is increasingly being paid to mutations in non-coding regions, standard approaches to identifying significant mutations may not be appropriate and there has been limited analysis of mutational clusters in functionally annotated non-coding regions. We sought to identify clustered somatic mutations (hotspot regions across samples) in functionally annotated regions in melanoma and other cutaneous malignancies (cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma and Merkel cell carcinoma). Sliding window analyses revealed numerous recurrent clustered hotspot mutations in proximal promoters, with some specific clusters present in up to 25% of cases. Mutations in melanoma were clustered within ETS and Sp1 transcription factor binding motifs, had a UV signature and were identified in other cutaneous malignancies. Clinicopathologic correlation and mutation analysis support a causal role for chronic UV irradiation generating somatic mutations in transcription factor binding motifs of proximal promoters. PMID:27611953

  2. DNA repair and crossing over favor similar chromosome regions as discovered in radiation hybrid of Triticum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The uneven distribution of recombination across the length of chromosomes results in inaccurate estimates of genetic to physical distances. In wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) chromosome 3B, it has been estimated that 90% of the cross over occurs in distal sub-telomeric regions representing 40% of the...

  3. Formalism for neutron cross section covariances in the resonance region using kernel approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Oblozinsky, P.; Cho,Y-S.; Matoon,C.M.; Mughabghab,S.F.

    2010-04-09

    We describe analytical formalism for estimating neutron radiative capture and elastic scattering cross section covariances in the resolved resonance region. We use capture and scattering kernels as the starting point and show how to get average cross sections in broader energy bins, derive analytical expressions for cross section sensitivities, and deduce cross section covariances from the resonance parameter uncertainties in the recently published Atlas of Neutron Resonances. The formalism elucidates the role of resonance parameter correlations which become important if several strong resonances are located in one energy group. Importance of potential scattering uncertainty as well as correlation between potential scattering and resonance scattering is also examined. Practical application of the formalism is illustrated on {sup 55}Mn(n,{gamma}) and {sup 55}Mn(n,el).

  4. Factors associated with genotype clustering of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in an ethnically diverse region of southern California, United States.

    PubMed

    Rodwell, Timothy C; Kapasi, Anokhi J; Barnes, Richard F W; Moser, Kathleen S

    2012-12-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) isolates with identical genotypes, found in different patients, are most likely the result of recent transmission. Mtb strains with closely related genotypes, called clonal complexes, are most likely derived from one another. We examined Mtb genotypes from southern California TB patients from 2005 through 2008 to complete the first comprehensive molecular epidemiology analysis of this complicated and ethnically diverse region. Mtb genotypes were characterized with spoligotype and MIRU-12 typing. MIRU-VNTRplus was utilized to assign genotypes to global lineages and complete cluster analyses. Associations between patient characteristics and genotype clustering and clonal complexes were evaluated using logistic regression and frequency analysis. Of 832 Mtb isolates analyzed, 480 (58%) fell into 94 strain clusters. The majority of isolates were identified as being in the EA1 (31%), LAM (17%) and Haarlem (15%) lineages, but 13 different lineages were found in this region. TB patients with clustered isolates were more likely to be homeless (AOR 3.44, 95% CI 1.65, 7.18) and male (AOR 1.57, 95% CI 1.17, 2.10). Of the 480 clustered strains, 388 aggregated into six clonal complexes. Over 45% of reported TB cases were clustered and likely resulted from recent transmission events. Patients with clustered Mtb isolates that were grouped into clonal complexes had unique socio-demographic characteristics. These data suggest that TB is being transmitted in relatively insular community networks defined by race/ethnicity and country of origin. The addition of clonal complex analysis to simple cluster analysis provides important public health insights into the local transmission of TB in ethnically diverse regions with diverse Mtb genotypes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Interhemispheric currents in the ring current region as seen by the Cluster spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenfjord, P.; Ostgaard, N.; Haaland, S.; Laundal, K.; Reistad, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    The existence of interhemispheric currents has been predicted by several authors, but their extent in the ring current has to our knowledge never been studied systematically by using in-situ measurements. These currents have been suggested to be associated with observed asymmetries of the aurora. We perform a statistical study of current density and direction during ring current crossings using the Cluster spacecraft. We analyse the extent of the interhemispheric field aligned currents for a wide range of solar wind conditions. Direct estimations of equatorial current direction and density are achieved through the curlometer technique. The curlometer technique is based on Ampere's law and requires magnetic field measurements from all four spacecrafts. The use of this method requires careful study of factors that limit the accuracy, such as tetrahedron shape and configuration. This significantly limits our dataset, but is a necessity for accurate current calculations. Our goal is to statistically investigate the occurrence of interhemispheric currents, and determine if there are parameters or magnetospheric states on which the current magnitude and directions depend upon.

  6. Images in the rocket ultraviolet - Young clusters in H II regions of M83

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohlin, Ralph C.; Cornett, Robert H.; Hill, Jesse K.; Stecher, Theodore P.

    1990-01-01

    UV images of M83 at 1540 and 2360 A reveal 18 compact sources that are associated with H II regions. E(B - V) values were estimated individually from the observed UV and optical colors and the Galactic UV extinction curve, using theoretical flux distributions. The dereddened colors are consistent with ages up to 3 x 10 to the 6th yr. A maximum possible age of 6.5 x 10 to the 6th yr is obtained assuming foreground reddening only. The distribution of observed colors is consistent with the Galactic reddening curve but not with enhanced far-UV extinction, as in the LMC 30 Dor curve. The H-alpha fluxes suggest either that dust within the H II regions absorbs up to 70 percent of the Lyman continuum radiation or that a similar fraction of the H-alpha flux is below the surface brightness detection limit. Cluster mass estimates depend on the range of stellar masses present but are probably in the range 10,000-100,000 solar masses.

  7. Images in the rocket ultraviolet - Young clusters in H II regions of M83

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohlin, Ralph C.; Cornett, Robert H.; Hill, Jesse K.; Stecher, Theodore P.

    1990-11-01

    UV images of M83 at 1540 and 2360 A reveal 18 compact sources that are associated with H II regions. E(B - V) values were estimated individually from the observed UV and optical colors and the Galactic UV extinction curve, using theoretical flux distributions. The dereddened colors are consistent with ages up to 3 x 10 to the 6th yr. A maximum possible age of 6.5 x 10 to the 6th yr is obtained assuming foreground reddening only. The distribution of observed colors is consistent with the Galactic reddening curve but not with enhanced far-UV extinction, as in the LMC 30 Dor curve. The H-alpha fluxes suggest either that dust within the H II regions absorbs up to 70 percent of the Lyman continuum radiation or that a similar fraction of the H-alpha flux is below the surface brightness detection limit. Cluster mass estimates depend on the range of stellar masses present but are probably in the range 10,000-100,000 solar masses.

  8. Images in the rocket ultraviolet - Young clusters in H II regions of M83

    SciTech Connect

    Bohlin, R.C.; Cornett, R.H.; Hill, J.K.; Stecher, T.P. ST Systems Corp., Lanham, MD NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD )

    1990-11-01

    UV images of M83 at 1540 and 2360 A reveal 18 compact sources that are associated with H II regions. E(B - V) values were estimated individually from the observed UV and optical colors and the Galactic UV extinction curve, using theoretical flux distributions. The dereddened colors are consistent with ages up to 3 x 10 to the 6th yr. A maximum possible age of 6.5 x 10 to the 6th yr is obtained assuming foreground reddening only. The distribution of observed colors is consistent with the Galactic reddening curve but not with enhanced far-UV extinction, as in the LMC 30 Dor curve. The H-alpha fluxes suggest either that dust within the H II regions absorbs up to 70 percent of the Lyman continuum radiation or that a similar fraction of the H-alpha flux is below the surface brightness detection limit. Cluster mass estimates depend on the range of stellar masses present but are probably in the range 10,000-100,000 solar masses. 25 refs.

  9. Images in the rocket ultraviolet - Young clusters in H II regions of M83

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohlin, Ralph C.; Cornett, Robert H.; Hill, Jesse K.; Stecher, Theodore P.

    1990-01-01

    UV images of M83 at 1540 and 2360 A reveal 18 compact sources that are associated with H II regions. E(B - V) values were estimated individually from the observed UV and optical colors and the Galactic UV extinction curve, using theoretical flux distributions. The dereddened colors are consistent with ages up to 3 x 10 to the 6th yr. A maximum possible age of 6.5 x 10 to the 6th yr is obtained assuming foreground reddening only. The distribution of observed colors is consistent with the Galactic reddening curve but not with enhanced far-UV extinction, as in the LMC 30 Dor curve. The H-alpha fluxes suggest either that dust within the H II regions absorbs up to 70 percent of the Lyman continuum radiation or that a similar fraction of the H-alpha flux is below the surface brightness detection limit. Cluster mass estimates depend on the range of stellar masses present but are probably in the range 10,000-100,000 solar masses.

  10. Metallicities and radial velocities of two stellar clusters located in the outer regions of the Small Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramajo, L. V.; Parisi, M. C.; Clariá, J. J.; Geisler, D.; Vásquez, S.; Da Costa, G.; Grebel, E. K.

    2016-08-01

    We studied near-infrared spectra of red giant stars in two Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) clusters. We used the Caii lines to measure radial velocities as well as the equivalent widths of these lines to determine metallicity. The two studied clusters (L32 and L38) are projected on the outer regions of the SMC so they are particularly interesting to examine the possible existence of a change of sign in the metallicity gradient in the outer regions, as suggested by a recent study.

  11. Measurements of absolute absorption cross sections of ozone in the 185- to 254-nm wavelength region and the temperature dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshino, K.; Esmond, J. R.; Freeman, D. E.; Parkinson, W. H.

    1993-01-01

    Laboratory measurements of the relative absorption cross sections of ozone at temperatures 195, 228, and 295 K have been made throughout the 185 to 254 nm wavelength region. The absolute absorption cross sections at the same temperatures have been measured at several discrete wavelengths in the 185 to 250 nm region. The absolute cross sections of ozone have been used to put the relative cross sections on a firm absolute basis throughout the 185 to 255 nm region. These recalibrated cross sections are slightly lower than those of Molina and Molina (1986), but the differences are within a few percent and would not be significant in atmospheric applications.

  12. Measurements of absolute absorption cross sections of ozone in the 185- to 254-nm wavelength region and the temperature dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshino, K.; Esmond, J. R.; Freeman, D. E.; Parkinson, W. H.

    1993-01-01

    Laboratory measurements of the relative absorption cross sections of ozone at temperatures 195, 228, and 295 K have been made throughout the 185 to 254 nm wavelength region. The absolute absorption cross sections at the same temperatures have been measured at several discrete wavelengths in the 185 to 250 nm region. The absolute cross sections of ozone have been used to put the relative cross sections on a firm absolute basis throughout the 185 to 255 nm region. These recalibrated cross sections are slightly lower than those of Molina and Molina (1986), but the differences are within a few percent and would not be significant in atmospheric applications.

  13. High time resolution observations of HF cross-modulation within the D region ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langston, J.; Moore, R. C.

    2013-05-01

    High-frequency cross-modulation is employed to probe the D region ionosphere during HF heating experiments at the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) observatory. We have adapted Fejer's well-known cross-modulation probing method to determine the extent of ionospheric conductivity modification in the D region ionosphere with high (5 μsec) time resolution. We demonstrate that the method can be used to analyze D region conductivity changes produced by HF heating both during the initial stages of heating and under steady state conditions. The sequence of CW probe pulses used allow the separation of cross-modulation effects that occur as the probe pulse propagates upward and downward through the heated region. We discuss how this probing technique can be applied to benefit ELF/VLF wave generation experiments and ionospheric irregularities experiments at higher altitudes. We demonstrate that large phase changes equivalent to Doppler shift velocities >60 km/s can be imposed on HF waves propagating through the heated D region ionosphere.

  14. Methylation status of the major breakpoint cluster region in Philadelphia chromosome negative leukemias.

    PubMed

    Litz, C E; McClure, J S; Coad, J E; Goldfarb, A N; Brunning, R D

    1992-01-01

    It has been shown that a 600 bp long cluster of cell lineage specific hypomethylated sites in the major breakpoint cluster region (M-bcr) on chromosome 22 exists in hematopoietic cells. To determine possible relationships between methylation patterns within the M-bcr and the stage of hematopoietic cell development, the M-bcr methylation status of 39 patients with leukemia and lymphoma and two patients with myelodysplastic syndrome with non-rearranged M-bcrs was examined by BgIII-HpaII digestion. In the myeloid malignancies, the presence of a hypermethylated 4.8 kb BgIII-BgIII M-bcr allele was directly proportional to the combined myeloblast and promyelocyte percentage of the specimen, whereas the presence of a 2.5 kb BgIII-HpaII allele was directly proportional to the combined percentage of monocytic cells and neutrophils. All five acute monoblastic leukemias showed a methylation pattern that closely resembled neutrophils. All of thirteen surface immunoglobulin positive B-cell malignancies showed a distinct methylation pattern consisting of three or more BgIII-HpaII restriction fragments of 2.5 kb or less in length. The B-cell precursor leukemias showed heterogeneous M-bcr methylation patterns, with four of seven showing a B-cell pattern and three showing a hypermethylated pattern with 4.8, 3.1/3.0 and/or 2.5 kb BgIII-HpaII M-bcr alleles. It is concluded that the M-bcr methylation status is related to the maturation of the neutrophil series; the surface immunoglobulin positive B-cell malignancies are characterized by a distinct, extreme hypomethylation pattern of the M-bcr; and the B-cell precursor malignancies appear to have a heterogeneous M-bcr methylation pattern.

  15. High Resolution Spectra of Carbon Dioxide Clusters in the νb{3} Band Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKellar, A. R. W.; Afshari, Mahin; Dehghany, M.; Moazzen-Ahmadi, N.

    2010-06-01

    There is widespread interest in carbon dioxide clusters from a variety of experimental and theoretical perspectives. But in terms of high resolution spectroscopy, the only definitive information concerns (CO_2)_2 and (CO_2)_3. The dimer has a planar slipped parallel geometry with C2h symmetry. Two isomers are known for the trimer: a planar cyclic form with C3h symmetry and a sort of "barrel-shaped" form with C_2 symmetry. Here we analyze two new bands in the CO_2 νb{3} region. The first is a dimer combination band near 2382 wn whose assignment raises interesting questions about the intermolecular vibrations of (CO_2)_2. The second band is a trimer band near 2370 wn which is very similar to one we observed previously near 2364 wn. We assign it to a combination involving another out-of-plane vibration of the cyclic trimer. In addition to these newly assigned bands, we also discuss a number of clear and (mostly) well-resolved bands which apparently must belong to (CO_2)_N clusters with N in the range 6 ˜ 15. Although they cannot be precisely assigned at this time, these bands offer intriguing future prospects for learning more about the structures and vibrational dynamics of CO_2 clusters in a challenging and important size range. K.W. Jucks, Z.S. Huang, D. Dayton, R.E. Miller, and W.J. Lafferty, J. Chem. Phys. 86, 4341 (1987); M.A. Walsh, T.H. England, T.R. Dyke, and B.J. Howard, Chem. Phys. Lett. 142, 265 (1987). G.T. Fraser, A.S. Pine, W.J. Lafferty and R.E. Miller, J. Chem. Phys. 87, 1502 (1987). M.J. Weida and D.J. Nesbitt, J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10210 (1996). H. Chen and J.C. Light, J. Chem. Phys. 112, 5070 (2000). M. Dehghany, M. Afshari, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, and A.R.W. McKellar, J. Chem. Phys. 128, 064308 (2008).

  16. Imaging active faulting in a region of distributed deformation from the joint clustering of focal mechanisms and hypocentres: Application to the Azores-western Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custódio, Susana; Lima, Vânia; Vales, Dina; Cesca, Simone; Carrilho, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    The matching between linear trends of hypocentres and fault planes indicated by focal mechanisms (FMs) is frequently used to infer the location and geometry of active faults. This practice works well in regions of fast lithospheric deformation, where earthquake patterns are clear and major structures accommodate the bulk of deformation, but typically fails in regions of slow and distributed deformation. We present a new joint FM and hypocentre cluster algorithm that is able to detect systematically the consistency between hypocentre lineations and FMs, even in regions of distributed deformation. We apply the method to the Azores-western Mediterranean region, with particular emphasis on western Iberia. The analysis relies on a compilation of hypocentres and FMs taken from regional and global earthquake catalogues, academic theses and technical reports, complemented by new FMs for western Iberia. The joint clustering algorithm images both well-known and new seismo-tectonic features. The Azores triple junction is characterised by FMs with vertical pressure (P) axes, in good agreement with the divergent setting, and the Iberian domain is characterised by NW-SE oriented P axes, indicating a response of the lithosphere to the ongoing oblique convergence between Nubia and Eurasia. Several earthquakes remain unclustered in the western Mediterranean domain, which may indicate a response to local stresses. The major regions of consistent faulting that we identify are the mid-Atlantic ridge, the Terceira rift, the Trans-Alboran shear zone and the north coast of Algeria. In addition, other smaller earthquake clusters present a good match between epicentre lineations and FM fault planes. These clusters may signal single active faults or wide zones of distributed but consistent faulting. Mainland Portugal is dominated by strike-slip earthquakes with fault planes coincident with the predominant NNE-SSW and WNW-ESE oriented earthquake lineations. Clusters offshore SW Iberia are

  17. Analysis of Hydrogen Bonding in the OH Stretch Region of Protonated Water Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzugan, Laura C.; McCoy, Anne B.

    2015-06-01

    There are two types of bands in the OH stretch region of the vibrational spectra of hydrogen-bonded complexes; narrow peaks due to isolated OH stretches and a broadened feature reflecting the OH stretches involved in strong hydrogen bonding. This second region can be as wide as several hundred wavenumbers and is shifted to the red of the narrow peaks. In this work we focus on H+(H2O)n, where n = 3 or 4. Both of these systems exhibit a very intense, broad H-bonded band. This breadth arises from coupling between the OH stretches and the low frequency modes. To understand the broadening observed in the spectra, we have developed a computational scheme in which we sample displacement geometries from the equilibrium structure based on the ground state harmonic wavefunction. Then we combine the harmonic spectra in the OH stretch region for each computed geometry to generate the spectrum for each protonated water structure. Based on the large anharmonicities at play in these modes, we extend the approach using second-order perturbation theory to solve the reduced-dimensional Hamiltonian that involves only the HOH bends and the OH stretches. This is done by expressing the normal modes used to expand the Hamiltonian as linear combinations of internal coordinates. In this talk we will describe the approach used for these anharmonic calculations and report preliminary results for these protonated water clusters. Relph, R. A.; Guasco, T. L.; Elliot, B. M.; Kamrath, M. Z.; McCoy, A. B.; Steele, R. P.; Schofield, D. P.; Jordan, K. D.; Viggiano, A. A.; Ferguson, E. E.; Johnson, M. A. Science, 2010, 327(5963), 308-312. Johnson, C. J.; Dzugan, L. C.; Wolk, A. B.; Leavitt, C. M.; Fournier, J. A.; McCoy, A. B.; Johnson, M. A. J. Phys. Chem. A, 2014, 118, 7590-7597.

  18. Regionalizing aquatic ecosystems based on the river subbasin taxonomy concept and spatial clustering techniques.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yongnian; Gao, Junfeng; Chen, Jiongfeng; Xu, Yan; Zhao, Jiahu

    2011-11-01

    Aquatic ecoregions were increasingly used as spatial units for aquatic ecosystem management at the watershed scale. In this paper, the principle of including land area, comprehensiveness and dominance, conjugation and hierarchy were selected as regionalizing principles. Elevation and drainage density were selected as the regionalizing indicators for the delineation of level I aquatic ecoregions, and percent of construction land area, percent of cultivated land area, soil type and slope for the level II. Under the support of GIS technology, the spatial distribution maps of the two indicators for level I and the four indicators for level II aquatic ecoregion delineation were generated from the raster data based on the 1,107 subwatersheds. River subbasin taxonomy concept, two-step spatial clustering analysis approach and manual-assisted method were used to regionalize aquatic ecosystems in the Taihu Lake watershed. Then the Taihu Lake watershed was divided into two level I aquatic ecoregions, including Ecoregion I1 and Ecoregion I2, and five level II aquatic subecoregions, including Subecoregion II11, Subecoregion II12, Subecoregion II21, Subecoregion II22 and Subecoregion II23. Moreover, the characteristics of the two level I aquatic ecoregions and five level II aquatic subecoregions in the Taihu Lake watershed were summarized, showing that there were significant differences in topography, socio-economic development, water quality and aquatic ecology, etc. The results of quantitative comparison of aquatic life also indicated that the dominant species of fish, benthic density, biomass, dominant species, Shannon-Wiener diversity index, Margalef species richness index, Pielou evenness index and ecological dominance showed great spatial variability between the two level I aquatic ecoregions and five level II aquatic subecoregions. It reflected the spatial heterogeneities and the uneven natures of aquatic ecosystems in the Taihu Lake watershed.

  19. The Collision Cross Sections of Iodide Salt Cluster Ions in Air via Differential Mobility Analysis-Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Hui; Larriba-Andaluz, Carlos; Oberreit, Derek R.; Hogan, Christopher J.

    2013-12-01

    To date, most collision cross section (CCS) predictions have invoked gas molecule impingement-reemission rules in which specular and elastic scattering of spherical gas molecules from rigid polyatomic surfaces are assumed. Although such predictions have been shown to agree well with CCSs measured in helium bath gas, a number of studies reveal that these predictions do not agree with CCSs for ions in diatomic gases, namely, air and molecular nitrogen. To further examine the validity of specular-elastic versus diffuse-inelastic scattering models, we measured the CCSs of positively charged metal iodide cluster ions of the form [MI]n[M+]z, where M = Na, K, Rb, or Cs, n = 1 - 25, and z = 1 - 2. Measurements were made in air via differential mobility analysis mass spectrometry (DMA-MS). The CCSs measured are compared with specular-elastic as well as diffuse-inelastic scattering model predictions with candidate ion structures determined from density functional theory. It is found that predictions from diffuse-inelastic collision models agree well (within 5 %) with measurements from sodium iodide cluster ions, while specular-elastic collision model predictions are in better agreement with cesium iodide cluster ion measurements. The agreement with diffuse-inelastic and specular-elastic predictions decreases and increases, respectively, with increasing cation mass. However, even when diffuse-inelastic cluster ion predictions disagree with measurements, the disagreement is of a near-constant factor for all ions, indicating that a simple linear rescaling collapses predictions to measurements. Conversely, rescaling cannot be used to collapse specular-elastic predictions to measurements; hence, although the precise impingement reemission rules remain ambiguous, they are not specular-elastic.

  20. Cross-national evidence for the clustering and psychosocial correlates of adolescent risk behaviours in 27 countries.

    PubMed

    de Looze, Margaretha; Ter Bogt, Tom F M; Raaijmakers, Quinten A W; Pickett, William; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2015-02-01

    According to Jessor's Problem Behaviour Theory (PBT) and Moffitt's theory of adolescence-limited antisocial behaviour, adolescent risk behaviours cluster and can be predicted by various psychosocial factors including parent, peer and school attachment. This study tested the potential influence of the sociocultural, or macro-level, environment on the clustering and correlates of adolescent risk behaviour across 27 European and North American countries. Analyses were based on data from the 2009-10 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. Participants compromised 56,090 adolescents (M(age) = 15.5 years) who self-reported on substance use (tobacco, alcohol, cannabis) and early sexual activity as well as on psychosocial factors (parent, peer and school attachment). Multiple group confirmatory factor analyses (with country as grouping variable) showed that substance use and early sexual activity loaded on a single underlying factor across countries. In addition, multiple group path analyses (with country as grouping variable) showed that associations between this factor and parent, peer and school attachment were identical across countries. Cross-national consistencies exist in the clustering and psychosocial correlates of substance use and early sexual activity across western countries. While Jessor's PBT stresses the problematic aspects of adolescent risk behaviours, Moffitt emphasizes their normative character. Although the problematic nature of risk behaviours overall receives more attention in the literature, it is important to consider both perspectives to fully understand why they cluster and correlate with psychosocial factors. This is essential for the development and implementation of prevention programmes aimed at reducing adolescent risk behaviours across Europe and North America. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  1. The collision cross sections of iodide salt cluster ions in air via differential mobility analysis-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Hui; Larriba-Andaluz, Carlos; Oberreit, Derek R; Hogan, Christopher J

    2013-12-01

    To date, most collision cross section (CCS) predictions have invoked gas molecule impingement-reemission rules in which specular and elastic scattering of spherical gas molecules from rigid polyatomic surfaces are assumed. Although such predictions have been shown to agree well with CCSs measured in helium bath gas, a number of studies reveal that these predictions do not agree with CCSs for ions in diatomic gases, namely, air and molecular nitrogen. To further examine the validity of specular-elastic versus diffuse-inelastic scattering models, we measured the CCSs of positively charged metal iodide cluster ions of the form [MI]n[M(+)]z, where M = Na, K, Rb, or Cs, n = 1 - 25, and z = 1 - 2. Measurements were made in air via differential mobility analysis mass spectrometry (DMA-MS). The CCSs measured are compared with specular-elastic as well as diffuse-inelastic scattering model predictions with candidate ion structures determined from density functional theory. It is found that predictions from diffuse-inelastic collision models agree well (within 5%) with measurements from sodium iodide cluster ions, while specular-elastic collision model predictions are in better agreement with cesium iodide cluster ion measurements. The agreement with diffuse-inelastic and specular-elastic predictions decreases and increases, respectively, with increasing cation mass. However, even when diffuse-inelastic cluster ion predictions disagree with measurements, the disagreement is of a near-constant factor for all ions, indicating that a simple linear rescaling collapses predictions to measurements. Conversely, rescaling cannot be used to collapse specular-elastic predictions to measurements; hence, although the precise impingement reemission rules remain ambiguous, they are not specular-elastic.

  2. High accuracy 234U(n,f) cross section in the resonance energy region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Durán, I.; Paradela, C.; Tassan-Got, L.; Audouin, L.; Leal, L. C.; Naour, C. Le; Noguere, G.; Tarrío, D.; Leong, L. S.; Altstadt, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Barbagallo, M.; Bécares, V.; Bečvář, F.; Belloni, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Boccone, V.; Bosnar, D.; Brugger, M.; Calviani, M.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Carrapiço, C.; Cerutti, F.; Chiaveri, E.; Chin, M.; Colonna, N.; Cortés, G.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dressler, R.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Ferrari, A.; Fraval, K.; Ganesan, S.; García, A. R.; Giubrone, G.; Gómez-Hornillos, M. B.; Gonçalves, I. F.; González-Romero, E.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Gurusamy, P.; Hernández-Prieto, A.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jericha, E.; Kadi, Y.; Käppeler, F.; Karadimos, D.; Kivel, N.; Kokkoris, M.; Krtička, M.; Kroll, J.; Lampoudis, C.; Langer, C.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Losito, R.; Mallick, A.; Manousos, A.; Marganiec, J.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P. F.; Mastromarco, M.; Meaze, M.; Mendoza, E.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mingrone, F.; Mirea, M.; Mondelaers, W.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Plompen, A.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J. M.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Riego, A.; Robles, M. S.; Roman, F.; Rubbia, C.; Sabaté-Gilarte, M.; Sarmento, R.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schumann, D.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Versaci, R.; Vermeulen, M. J.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Ware, T.; Weigand, M.; Weiß, C.; Wright, T.; Žugec, P.

    2017-09-01

    New results are presented of the 234U neutron-induced fission cross section, obtained with high accuracy in the resonance region by means of two methods using the 235U(n,f) as reference. The recent evaluation of the 235U(n,f) obtained with SAMMY by L. C. Leal et al. (these Proceedings), based on previous n_TOF data [1], has been used to calculate the 234U(n,f) cross section through the 234U/235U ratio, being here compared with the results obtained by using the n_TOF neutron flux.

  3. Regional structural cross sections, mid-permian to quaternary strata, Texas Panhandle and Eastern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    McGookey, D.A.; Gustavson, T.C.; Hoadley, A.D.

    1989-01-01

    Twelve regional cross sections (with text) of the Palo Duro, Dalhart, and Anadarko Basins illustrating the tabular geometry of Permian evaporite beds, areas where salt has been lost by dissolution, and the effects of dissolution-induced subsidence on Permian and post-Permian strata. The authors identify areas of dissolution beneath the High Plains, the Caprock Escarpment, the Rolling Plains, the Pecos Plains, and along the Canadian River valley. The cross sections are printed at a vertical scale of 1 inch equals 400 feet and a horizontal scale of 1 inch equals approximately 8 miles and were constructed using geophysical logs, sample logs, and surficial geologic data.

  4. Double diffractive cross-section measurement in the forward region at the LHC.

    PubMed

    Antchev, G; Aspell, P; Atanassov, I; Avati, V; Baechler, J; Berardi, V; Berretti, M; Bossini, E; Bottigli, U; Bozzo, M; Brücken, E; Buzzo, A; Cafagna, F S; Catanesi, M G; Covault, C; Csanád, M; Csörgő, T; Deile, M; Eggert, K; Eremin, V; Ferro, F; Fiergolski, A; Garcia, F; Giani, S; Greco, V; Grzanka, L; Heino, J; Hilden, T; Karev, A; Kašpar, J; Kopal, J; Kundrát, V; Kurvinen, K; Lami, S; Latino, G; Lauhakangas, R; Leszko, T; Lippmaa, E; Lippmaa, J; Lokajíček, M; Losurdo, L; Lo Vetere, M; Lucas Rodríguez, F; Macrí, M; Mäki, T; Mercadante, A; Minafra, N; Minutoli, S; Nemes, F; Niewiadomski, H; Oliveri, E; Oljemark, F; Orava, R; Oriunno, M; Österberg, K; Palazzi, P; Procházka, J; Quinto, M; Radermacher, E; Radicioni, E; Ravotti, F; Robutti, E; Ropelewski, L; Ruggiero, G; Saarikko, H; Scribano, A; Smajek, J; Snoeys, W; Sziklai, J; Taylor, C; Turini, N; Vacek, V; Vítek, M; Welti, J; Whitmore, J; Wyszkowski, P

    2013-12-27

    The first double diffractive cross-section measurement in the very forward region has been carried out by the TOTEM experiment at the LHC with a center-of-mass energy of sqrt[s]=7  TeV. By utilizing the very forward TOTEM tracking detectors T1 and T2, which extend up to |η|=6.5, a clean sample of double diffractive pp events was extracted. From these events, we determined the cross section σDD=(116±25)  μb for events where both diffractive systems have 4.7<|η|min<6.5.

  5. Neutron cross section covariances in the resonance region: 52Cr, 56Fe, 58Ni

    SciTech Connect

    Oblozinsky, P.; Cho, Y.-S.; Mattoon, C.M.; Mughabghab, S.F.

    2010-08-03

    We evaluated covariances for neutron capture and elastic scattering cross sections on major structural materials, {sup 52}Cr, {sup 56}Fe and {sup 58}Ni, in the resonance region which extends beyond 800 keV for each of them. Use was made of the recently developed covariance formalism based on kernel approximation along with data in the Atlas of Neutron Resonances. The data of most interest for AFCI applications, elastic scattering cross section uncertainties at energies above about few hundred keV, are on the level of about 12% for {sup 52}Cr, 7-8% for {sup 56}Fe and 5-6% for {sup 58}Ni.

  6. Career Indecision: Cross Cultural Differences in a Cluster Analysis among Two Groups of Undergraduate Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arce, Elsa M.

    A study determined differences among the levels and types of career indecision within and between two cross-cultural groups of undergraduate students from two counseling centers. The groups were 88 University of Pittsburgh students and 79 Universidad del Pacifico, Peru, students. The Indecision Scale of the Career Decision Scale (CDS) was used to…

  7. User’s guide for GcClust—An R package for clustering of regional geochemical data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellefsen, Karl J.; Smith, David B.

    2016-04-08

    GcClust is a software package developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for statistical clustering of regional geochemical data, and similar data such as regional mineralogical data. Functions within the software package are written in the R statistical programming language. These functions, their documentation, and a copy of the user’s guide are bundled together in R’s unit of sharable code, which is called a “package.” The user’s guide includes step-by-step instructions showing how the functions are used to cluster data and to evaluate the clustering results. These functions are demonstrated in this report using test data, which are included in the package.

  8. Regulatory Feedback Loop of Two phz Gene Clusters through 5′-Untranslated Regions in Pseudomonas sp. M18

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yaqian; Du, Xilin; Lu, Zhi John; Wu, Daqiang; Zhao, Yilei; Ren, Bin; Huang, Jiaofang; Huang, Xianqing; Xu, Yuhong; Xu, Yuquan

    2011-01-01

    Background Phenazines are important compounds produced by pseudomonads and other bacteria. Two phz gene clusters called phzA1-G1 and phzA2-G2, respectively, were found in the genome of Pseudomonas sp. M18, an effective biocontrol agent, which is highly homologous to the opportunistic human pathogen P. aeruginosa PAO1, however little is known about the correlation between the expressions of two phz gene clusters. Methodology/Principal Findings Two chromosomal insertion inactivated mutants for the two gene clusters were constructed respectively and the correlation between the expressions of two phz gene clusters was investigated in strain M18. Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) molecules produced from phzA2-G2 gene cluster are able to auto-regulate expression itself and activate the expression of phzA1-G1 gene cluster in a circulated amplification pattern. However, the post-transcriptional expression of phzA1-G1 transcript was blocked principally through 5′-untranslated region (UTR). In contrast, the phzA2-G2 gene cluster was transcribed to a lesser extent and translated efficiently and was negatively regulated by the GacA signal transduction pathway, mainly at a post-transcriptional level. Conclusions/Significance A single molecule, PCA, produced in different quantities by the two phz gene clusters acted as the functional mediator and the two phz gene clusters developed a specific regulatory mechanism which acts through 5′-UTR to transfer a single, but complex bacterial signaling event in Pseudomonas sp. strain M18. PMID:21559370

  9. Mutations in the ligand-binding domain of the androgen receptor gene cluster in two regions of the gene.

    PubMed

    McPhaul, M J; Marcelli, M; Zoppi, S; Wilson, C M; Griffin, J E; Wilson, J D

    1992-11-01

    We have analyzed the nucleotide sequence of the androgen receptor from 22 unrelated subjects with substitution mutations of the hormone-binding domain. Eleven had the phenotype of complete testicular feminization, four had incomplete testicular feminization, and seven had Reifenstein syndrome. The underlying functional defect in cultured skin fibroblasts included individuals with absent, qualitative, or quantitative defects in ligand binding. 19 of the 21 substitution mutations (90%) cluster in two regions that account for approximately 35% of the hormone-binding domain, namely, between amino acids 726 and 772 and between amino acids 826 and 864. The fact that one of these regions is homologous to a region of the human thyroid hormone receptor (hTR-beta) which is a known cluster site for mutations that cause thyroid hormone resistance implies that this localization of mutations is not a coincidence. These regions of the androgen receptor may be of particular importance for the formation and function of the hormone-receptor complex.

  10. Variability among Cucurbitaceae species (melon, cucumber and watermelon) in a genomic region containing a cluster of NBS-LRR genes.

    PubMed

    Morata, Jordi; Puigdomènech, Pere

    2017-02-08

    Cucurbitaceae species contain a significantly lower number of genes coding for proteins with similarity to plant resistance genes belonging to the NBS-LRR family than other plant species of similar genome size. A large proportion of these genes are organized in clusters that appear to be hotspots of variability. The genomes of the Cucurbitaceae species measured until now are intermediate in size (between 350 and 450 Mb) and they apparently have not undergone any genome duplications beside those at the origin of eudicots. The cluster containing the largest number of NBS-LRR genes has previously been analyzed in melon and related species and showed a high degree of interspecific and intraspecific variability. It was of interest to study whether similar behavior occurred in other cluster of the same family of genes. The cluster of NBS-LRR genes located in melon chromosome 9 was analyzed and compared with the syntenic regions in other cucurbit genomes. This is the second cluster in number within this species and it contains nine sequences with a NBS-LRR annotation including two genes, Fom1 and Prv, providing resistance against Fusarium and Ppapaya ring-spot virus (PRSV). The variability within the melon species appears to consist essentially of single nucleotide polymorphisms. Clusters of similar genes are present in the syntenic regions of the two species of Cucurbitaceae that were sequenced, cucumber and watermelon. Most of the genes in the syntenic clusters can be aligned between species and a hypothesis of generation of the cluster is proposed. The number of genes in the watermelon cluster is similar to that in melon while a higher number of genes (12) is present in cucumber, a species with a smaller genome than melon. After comparing genome resequencing data of 115 cucumber varieties, deletion of a group of genes is observed in a group of varieties of Indian origin. Clusters of genes coding for NBS-LRR proteins in cucurbits appear to have specific variability in

  11. Prospects for Formation and Development of the Geographical (Territorial) Industrial Clusters in West Kazakhstan Region of the Republic of Kazakhstan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imashev, Eduard Zh.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop and implement an economic and geographic approach to forming and developing geographic (territorial) industrial clusters in regions of Kazakhstan. The purpose necessitates the accomplishment of the following scientific objectives: to investigate scientific approaches and experience of territorial economic…

  12. SERA Scenarios of Early Market Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Introductions: Modeling Framework, Regional Markets, and Station Clustering

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, B.; Melaina, M.; Penev, M.; Daniel, W.

    2013-09-01

    This report describes the development and analysis of detailed temporal and spatial scenarios for early market hydrogen fueling infrastructure clustering and fuel cell electric vehicle rollout using the Scenario Evaluation, Regionalization and Analysis (SERA) model. The report provides an overview of the SERA scenario development framework and discusses the approach used to develop the nationwidescenario.

  13. Chronic low back pain patient groups in primary care--a cross sectional cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Viniol, Annika; Jegan, Nikita; Hirsch, Oliver; Leonhardt, Corinna; Brugger, Markus; Strauch, Konstantin; Barth, Jürgen; Baum, Erika; Becker, Annette

    2013-10-16

    Due to the heterogeneous nature of chronic low back pain (CLBP), it is necessary to identify patient groups and evaluate treatments within these groups. We aimed to identify groups of patients with CLBP in the primary care setting. We performed a k-means cluster analysis on a large data set (n = 634) of primary care patients with CLBP. Variables of sociodemographic data, pain characteristics, psychological status (i.e., depression, anxiety, somatization), and the patient resources of resilience and coping strategies were included. We found three clusters that can be characterized as "pensioners with age-associated pain caused by degenerative diseases", "middle-aged patients with high mental distress and poor coping resources", and "middle-aged patients who are less pain-affected and better positioned with regard to their mental health". Our results supported current knowledge concerning groups of CLBP patients in primary care. In particular, we identified a group that was most disabled and distressed, and which was mainly characterized by psychological variables. As shown in our study, pain-related coping strategies and resilience were low in these patients and might be addressed in differentiating treatment strategies. Future studies should focus on the identification of this group in order to achieve effective treatment allocation. German Clinical Trial Register DRKS00003123.

  14. Clustering of diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour among Australian children: cross-sectional and longitudinal associations with overweight and obesity.

    PubMed

    Leech, R M; McNaughton, S A; Timperio, A

    2015-07-01

    Evidence suggests diet, physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour cluster together in children, but research supporting an association with overweight/obesity is equivocal. Furthermore, the stability of clusters over time is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the clustering of diet, PA and sedentary behaviour in Australian children and cross-sectional and longitudinal associations with overweight/obesity. Stability of obesity-related clusters over 3 years was also examined. Data were drawn from the baseline (T1: 2002/2003) and follow-up waves (T2: 2005/2006) of the Health Eating and Play Study. Parents of Australian children aged 5-6 (n=87) and 10-12 years (n=123) completed questionnaires. Children wore accelerometers and height and weight were measured. Obesity-related clusters were determined using K-medians cluster analysis. Multivariate regression models assessed cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between cluster membership, and body mass index (BMI) Z-score and weight status. Kappa statistics assessed cluster stability over time. Three clusters, labelled 'most healthy', 'energy-dense (ED) consumers who watch TV' and 'high sedentary behaviour/low moderate-to-vigorous PA' were identified at baseline and at follow-up. No cross-sectional associations were found between cluster membership, and BMI Z-score or weight status at baseline. Longitudinally, children in the 'ED consumers who watch TV' cluster had a higher odds of being overweight/obese at follow-up (odds ratio=2.8; 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 6.9; P<0.05). Tracking of cluster membership was fair to moderate in younger (K=0.24; P=0.0001) and older children (K=0.46; P<0.0001). This study identified an unhealthy cluster of TV viewing with ED food/drink consumption, which predicted overweight/obesity in a small longitudinal sample of Australian children. Cluster stability was fair to moderate over 3 years and is a novel finding. Prospective research in larger samples is needed to

  15. Manipulation of the 'zinc cluster' region of transcriptional activator LEU3 by site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Y L; Kohlhaw, G B

    1991-01-01

    The transcriptional activator LEU3 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae belongs to a family of lower eukaryotic DNA binding proteins with a well-conserved DNA binding motif known as the Zn(II)2Cys6 binuclear cluster. We have constructed mutations in LEU3 that affect either one of the conserved cysteines (Cys47) or one of several amino acids located within a variable subregion of the DNA binding motif. LEU3 proteins with a mutation at Cys47 were very poor activators which could not be rescued by supplying Zn(II) to the growth medium. Mutations within the variable subregion were generally well-tolerated. Only two of seven mutations in this region generated poor activators, and both could be reactivated by Zn(II) supplements. Three of the other five mutations gave rise to activators that were better than wild type. One of these, His50Cys, exhibited a 1.5 fold increase in in vivo target gene activation and a notable increase in the affinity for target DNA. The properties of the His50Cys mutant are discussed in terms of a variant structure of the DNA binding motif. During the course of this work, evidence was obtained suggesting that only one of the two LEU3 protein-DNA complexes routinely seen actually activates transcription. The other (which may contain an additional protein factor) does not. Images PMID:1945883

  16. Aberrant methylation of the major breakpoint cluster region in chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Litz, C E; Vos, J A; Copenhaver, C M

    1996-09-15

    Isolated hypomethylated sites exist in the major breakpoint cluster region (M-bcr) where most Philadelphia chromosome (Ph) breakpoints are located. Twenty of 50 (40%) chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients were found to have aberrant hypermethylation of these sites on the rearranged M-bcr when compared with control marrows. The aberrancy correlated strongly with M-bcr breakpoint location; 19 of 20 cases had breakpoints located 5' of the M-bcr Sca I site, and 28 of 30 cases with normal M-bcr methylation had breakpoints located 3' of the M-bcr Sca I site. Sequence analysis of the Ph M-bcr breakpoints failed to find an M-bcr nucleotide position that delineated the transition between abnormally and normally methylated cases, indicating that the translocation of a critical M-bcr sequence was not responsible for the methylation abnormality. In 3 of 8 CML patients, cells without the t(9;22) were found to have abnormally methylated, unrearranged M-bcrs. The data indicate that abnormally methylated rearranged M-bcrs are present in CML cases with Ph breakpoints 5' of the M-bcr Sca I site and that the M-bcr in Ph- cells of patients with CML may also be abnormally methylated.

  17. Huntingtin-Associated Protein 1 Interacts with Breakpoint Cluster Region Protein to Regulate Neuronal Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Pai-Tsang; Chen, Chien-Ho; Hsu, I-Uen; Salim, Shaima’a Ahmad; Kao, Shu-Huei; Cheng, Chao-Wen; Lai, Chang-Hao; Lee, Cheng-Fan; Lin, Yung-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in microtubule-dependent trafficking and certain signaling pathways in neuronal cells represent critical pathogenesis in neurodegenerative diseases. Huntingtin (Htt)-associated protein-1 (Hap1) is a brain-enriched protein and plays a key role in the trafficking of neuronal surviving and differentiating cargos. Lack of Hap1 reduces signaling through tropomyosin-related kinases including extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK), resulting in inhibition of neurite outgrowth, hypothalamic dysfunction and postnatal lethality in mice. To examine how Hap1 is involved in microtubule-dependent trafficking and neuronal differentiation, we performed a proteomic analysis using taxol-precipitated microtubules from Hap1-null and wild-type mouse brains. Breakpoint cluster region protein (Bcr), a Rho GTPase regulator, was identified as a Hap1-interacting partner. Bcr was co-immunoprecipitated with Hap1 from transfected neuro-2a cells and co-localized with Hap1A isoform more in the differentiated than in the nondifferentiated cells. The Bcr downstream effectors, namely ERK and p38, were significantly less activated in Hap1-null than in wild-type mouse hypothalamus. In conclusion, Hap1 interacts with Bcr on microtubules to regulate neuronal differentiation. PMID:25671650

  18. Fuzzy spectral clustering for automated delineation of chronic wound region using digital images.

    PubMed

    Manohar Dhane, Dhiraj; Maity, Maitreya; Mungle, Tushar; Bar, Chittaranjan; Achar, Arun; Kolekar, Maheshkumar; Chakraborty, Chandan

    2017-04-23

    Chronic wound is an abnormal disease condition of localized injury to the skin and its underlying tissues having physiological impaired healing response. Assessment and management of such wound is a significant burden on the healthcare system. Currently, precise wound bed estimation depends on the clinical judgment and remains a difficult task. The paper introduces a novel method for ulcer boundary demarcation and estimation, using optical images captured by a hand-held digital camera. The proposed approach involves gray based fuzzy similarity measure using spatial knowledge of an image. The fuzzy measure is used to construct similarity matrix. The best color channel was chosen by calculating the mean contrast for 26 different color channels of 14 color spaces. It was found that Db color channel has highest mean contrast which provide best segmentation result in comparison with other color channels. The fuzzy spectral clustering (FSC) method was applied on Db color channel for effective delineation of wound region. The segmented wound regions were effectively post-processed using various morphological operations. The performance of proposed segmentation technique was validated by ground-truth images labeled by two experienced dermatologists and a surgeon. The FSC approach was tested on 70 images. FSC effectively segmented targeted ulcer boundary yielding 91.5% segmentation accuracy, 86.7%, Dice index and 79.0%. Jaccard score. The sensitivity and specificity was found to be 87.3% and 95.7% respectively. The performance evaluation shows the robustness of the proposed method of wound area segmentation and its potential to be used for designing patient comfort centric wound care system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Cross reactivity of mimotopes of hepatitis C virus hypervariable region 1].

    PubMed

    Yang, Miao; Zhao, Ping; Bian, Zhong-qi; Ren, Yan-li; Gong, Yu-ping; Qi, Zhong-tian

    2008-07-01

    The cross reactivity of mimotopes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) was investigated to obtain epitopes that have high cross reactivity. Five expression vectors encoding B cell mimotopes fused with Trx were constructed, and the mimotope proteins were purified. The cross reactivity of mimotope proteins with HCV positive sera was determined by ELISA. HCV pseudotype particles (HCVpp) were generated and applied to evaluate neutralization effects of the sera of BALB/c mice immuned with the mimotope proteins on infection of Huh7. 5 cells. Our data showed that the mimotope proteins (P1, P2, P5, P6, P8) could react to the HCV positive sera. The HCVpp infection inhibition of the sera of BALB/c mice immuned with P6 or P8 was detectable. These results suggest that the mimotopes may be valuable in the studies of anti-HCV infection and development of HCV vaccines.

  20. Assessing regional public health preparedness: a new tool for considering cross-border issues.

    PubMed

    Jones, Maggie; O'Carroll, Patrick; Thompson, Jack; D'Ambrosio, Luann

    2008-01-01

    To provide regional, state, and local public health officials a conceptual framework and checklist for assessing regional public health emergency preparedness, specifically in regard to cross-border public health preparedness needs. The project had four phases that are as follows: defining the scope, conducting a literature review, soliciting expert opinion, and creating the assessment framework and checklist. A conceptual framework was developed to define the scope of the project on the basis of the kinds of resources likely to be shared across borders in a public health response (eg, data, supplies, staff), in support of the public health functions likely to be important in a health emergency (eg, epidemiology, laboratory). A literature review was then conducted to identify key articles and tools addressing regional preparedness. Key informant interviews (n = 23) were conducted with public health and emergency management professionals in the Pacific Northwest to identify a set of systems, agreements, and protocols that should be systematically considered in assessing regional public health preparedness. Using the literature review and themes from interviews, a checklist was developed. A checklist was developed for use by public health leaders, which recommends 24 specific agreements, protocols, systems, and management structures that should be considered to foster cross-border public health preparedness. Regional public health preparedness represents not only the sum of state-level preparedness of the states in a region but also the capacity of those states to collaborate across state and international borders during a public health emergency. This checklist provides a tool to systematically consider cross-border preparedness issues.

  1. Metal concentration and X-ray cool spectral component in the central region of the Centaurus cluster of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fukazawa, Yasushi; Ohashi, Takaya; Fabian, Andrew C.; Canizares, Claude R.; Ikebe, Yasushi; Makishima, Kazuo; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Yamashita, Koujun

    1994-01-01

    Spatially resolved energy spectra in the energy range 0.5-10 keV have been measured for the Centaurus cluster of galaxies with Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA). Within 10 min (200 kpc) from the cluster center, the helium-like iron K emission line exhibits a dramatic increase toward the center rising from an equivalent width approximately 500 eV to approximately 1500 eV corresponding to an abundance change from 0.3 to 1.0 solar. The presence of strong iron L lines indicates an additional cool component (kT approximately 1 keV) within 10 min from the center. The cool component requires absorption in excess of the galactic value and this excess absorption increases towards the central region of the cluster. In the surrounding region with radius greater than 10 min, the spectra are well described by a single temperature thermal model with kT approximately 4 keV and spatially uniform abundances at about 0.3-0.4 times solar. The detection of metal-rich hot and cool gas in the cluster center implies a complex nature of the central cluster gas which is likely to be related to the presence of the central cD galaxy NGC 4696.

  2. A Dozen New Galaxies Caught in the Act: Gas Stripping and Extended Emission Line Regions in the Coma Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Masafumi; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Furusawa, Hisanori; Okamura, Sadanori; Graham, Alister W.; Miller, Neal A.; Carter, David; Mobasher, Bahram; Jogee, Shardha

    2010-12-01

    We present images of extended Hα clouds associated with 14 member galaxies in the Coma cluster obtained from deep narrowband imaging observations with the Suprime-Cam at the Subaru Telescope. The parent galaxies of the extended Hα clouds are distributed farther than 0.2 Mpc from the peak of the X-ray emission of the cluster. Most of the galaxies are bluer than g - r ≈ 0.5 and they account for 57% of the blue (g - r < 0.5) bright (r < 17.8 mag) galaxies in the central region of the Coma cluster. They reside near the red- and blueshifted edges of the radial velocity distribution of Coma cluster member galaxies. Our findings suggest that most of the parent galaxies were recently captured by the Coma cluster potential and are now infalling toward the cluster center with their disk gas being stripped off and producing the observed Hα clouds. Based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  3. Computing the cross sections of nuclear reactions with nuclear clusters emission for proton energies between 30 MeV and 2.6 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Korovin, Yu. A.; Maksimushkina, A. V. Frolova, T. A.

    2016-12-15

    The cross sections of nuclear reactions involving emission of clusters of light nuclei in proton collisions with a heavy-metal target are computed for incident-proton energies between 30 MeV and 2.6 GeV. The calculation relies on the ALICE/ASH and CASCADE/INPE computer codes. The parameters determining the pre-equilibrium cluster emission are varied in the computation.

  4. Cross-modal activation of auditory regions during visuo-spatial working memory in early deafness.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hao; Qin, Wen; Liang, Meng; Ming, Dong; Wan, Baikun; Li, Qiang; Yu, Chunshui

    2015-09-01

    Early deafness can reshape deprived auditory regions to enable the processing of signals from the remaining intact sensory modalities. Cross-modal activation has been observed in auditory regions during non-auditory tasks in early deaf subjects. In hearing subjects, visual working memory can evoke activation of the visual cortex, which further contributes to behavioural performance. In early deaf subjects, however, whether and how auditory regions participate in visual working memory remains unclear. We hypothesized that auditory regions may be involved in visual working memory processing and activation of auditory regions may contribute to the superior behavioural performance of early deaf subjects. In this study, 41 early deaf subjects (22 females and 19 males, age range: 20-26 years, age of onset of deafness < 2 years) and 40 age- and gender-matched hearing controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during a visuo-spatial delayed recognition task that consisted of encoding, maintenance and recognition stages. The early deaf subjects exhibited faster reaction times on the spatial working memory task than did the hearing controls. Compared with hearing controls, deaf subjects exhibited increased activation in the superior temporal gyrus bilaterally during the recognition stage. This increased activation amplitude predicted faster and more accurate working memory performance in deaf subjects. Deaf subjects also had increased activation in the superior temporal gyrus bilaterally during the maintenance stage and in the right superior temporal gyrus during the encoding stage. These increased activation amplitude also predicted faster reaction times on the spatial working memory task in deaf subjects. These findings suggest that cross-modal plasticity occurs in auditory association areas in early deaf subjects. These areas are involved in visuo-spatial working memory. Furthermore, amplitudes of cross-modal activation during the maintenance stage were

  5. Regional incentives and patient cross-border mobility: evidence from the Italian experience

    PubMed Central

    Brenna, Elenka; Spandonaro, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Background: In recent years, accreditation of private hospitals followed by decentralisation of the Italian National Health Service (NHS) into 21 regional health systems has provided a good empirical ground for investigating the Tiebout principle of "voting with their feet". We examine the infra-regional trade-off between greater patient choice (due to an increase in hospital services supply) and financial equilibrium, and we relate it to the significant phenomenon of Cross-Border Mobility (CBM) between Italian regions. Focusing on the rules supervising the financial agreements between regional authorities and providers of hospital care, we find incentives for private accredited providers in attracting patient inflows. Methods: The analysis is undertaken from an institutional, regulatory and empirical perspective. We select a sample of five regions with higher positive CBM balance and we examine regional regulations governing the contractual agreements between purchasers and providers of hospital care. According to this sample, we provide a statistical analysis of CBM and apply a Regional Attraction Ability Index (RAAI), aimed at testing patient preferences for private/public accredited providers. Results: We find that this index is systematically higher for private providers, both in the case of distance/boundary patients and of excellence/general hospitals. Conclusion: Conclusions address both financial issues regarding the coverage of regional healthcare systems and equity issues on patient healthcare access. They also raise concerns on the new European Union (EU) directive inherent to patient mobility across Europe. PMID:26029895

  6. Potential risk of regional disease spread in West Africa through cross-border cattle trade.

    PubMed

    Dean, Anna S; Fournié, Guillaume; Kulo, Abalo E; Boukaya, G Aboudou; Schelling, Esther; Bonfoh, Bassirou

    2013-01-01

    Transboundary animal movements facilitate the spread of pathogens across large distances. Cross-border cattle trade is of economic and cultural importance in West Africa. This study explores the potential disease risk resulting from large-scale, cross-border cattle trade between Togo, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Benin, and Nigeria for the first time. A questionnaire-based survey of livestock movements of 226 cattle traders was conducted in the 9 biggest cattle markets of northern Togo in February-March 2012. More than half of the traders (53.5%) operated in at least one other country. Animal flows were stochastically simulated based on reported movements and the risk of regional disease spread assessed. More than three quarters (79.2%, range: 78.1-80.0%) of cattle flowing into the market system originated from other countries. Through the cattle market system of northern Togo, non-neighbouring countries were connected via potential routes for disease spread. Even for diseases with low transmissibility and low prevalence in a given country, there was a high risk of disease introduction into other countries. By stochastically simulating data collected by interviewing cattle traders in northern Togo, this study identifies potential risks for regional disease spread in West Africa through cross-border cattle trade. The findings highlight that surveillance for emerging infectious diseases as well as control activities targeting endemic diseases in West Africa are likely to be ineffective if only conducted at a national level. A regional approach to disease surveillance, prevention and control is essential.

  7. Clustering Regional Ozone Concentrations to Reveal Meteorological Regimes Influencing Air Quality in California's Central Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, L.; Brown, N. J.; Harley, R. A.

    2008-12-01

    California's central valley suffers from serious ozone air pollution problems due to its unique geography as well as diverse emission sources from both local and upwind areas. The primary flows in the region are produced by the thermal contrast between the ocean and land, and between the valley and surrounding mountains. On typical summer days, westerly winds are funneled into the valley through gaps in the coastal range, along with the Bay area pollutants. During the day, the flow is directed up the Sierra Nevada Mountain slope, while at night it reverses and recirculates the local pollutants. Meteorological factors are important in governing the spatial distribution and variation of air pollutants in this region. Such knowledge is mainly obtained in previous studies using multi-year historical observations at limited measurement sites. There are concerns about spatial representativeness of these measurement locations, and confounding effects from changes in anthropogenic emissions over the analysis period. While modeling studies can control and minimize these limitations, the short simulation period usually makes temporally representative patterns difficult to discern. Our study simulates ozone formation in central California for the entire summer of 2000, with wide meteorological and air quality variations seen in both space and time, and thus provides a good opportunity to examine meteorological regimes that lead to different ozone production, transport, and accumulation in the Central valley. Using cluster analysis and principal component analysis, we determined distinctive meteorological regimes that are associated with different ozone spatial patterns in the Central Valley. In general, average ozone levels in the valley increase with temperature, while their spatial distribution depend on flow regimes, in particular, the strength of sea breezes and upslope flows. The regional meteorological effects are shown to explain the different ozone patterns in the

  8. Investigating Regional Disparities of China's Human Development with Cluster Analysis: A Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yongheng; Hu, Angang

    2008-01-01

    This paper adopts both one-dimensional and multi-dimensional cluster analysis to analyze China's HDI data for 1982, 1995, 1999, and 2003, and to classify China's provinces into four tiers based on the three basic developmental aspects embedded in HDI. The classifications by cluster analysis depends on the observations' similarities with respect to…

  9. 75 FR 17700 - Energy Efficient Building Systems Regional Innovation Cluster Initiative-Joint Federal Funding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... work to disseminate new technologies into the marketplace and share best practices with the public and... innovation cluster focused on innovation in energy efficient building technologies and systems design. The... innovation cluster focused on energy efficient buildings technologies and systems design. The Hub, one of...

  10. Investigating Regional Disparities of China's Human Development with Cluster Analysis: A Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yongheng; Hu, Angang

    2008-01-01

    This paper adopts both one-dimensional and multi-dimensional cluster analysis to analyze China's HDI data for 1982, 1995, 1999, and 2003, and to classify China's provinces into four tiers based on the three basic developmental aspects embedded in HDI. The classifications by cluster analysis depends on the observations' similarities with respect to…

  11. A Cross-Sectional, Randomized Cluster Sample Survey of Household Vulnerability to Extreme Heat among Slum Dwellers in Ahmedabad, India

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Kathy V.; Azhar, Gulrez S.; Nair, Rajesh; Knowlton, Kim; Jaiswal, Anjali; Sheffield, Perry; Mavalankar, Dileep; Hess, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Extreme heat is a significant public health concern in India; extreme heat hazards are projected to increase in frequency and severity with climate change. Few of the factors driving population heat vulnerability are documented, though poverty is a presumed risk factor. To facilitate public health preparedness, an assessment of factors affecting vulnerability among slum dwellers was conducted in summer 2011 in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. Indicators of heat exposure, susceptibility to heat illness, and adaptive capacity, all of which feed into heat vulnerability, was assessed through a cross-sectional household survey using randomized multistage cluster sampling. Associations between heat-related morbidity and vulnerability factors were identified using multivariate logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to account for clustering effects. Age, preexisting medical conditions, work location, and access to health information and resources were associated with self-reported heat illness. Several of these variables were unique to this study. As sociodemographics, occupational heat exposure, and access to resources were shown to increase vulnerability, future interventions (e.g., health education) might target specific populations among Ahmedabad urban slum dwellers to reduce vulnerability to extreme heat. Surveillance and evaluations of future interventions may also be worthwhile. PMID:23778061

  12. A cross-sectional, randomized cluster sample survey of household vulnerability to extreme heat among slum dwellers in ahmedabad, india.

    PubMed

    Tran, Kathy V; Azhar, Gulrez S; Nair, Rajesh; Knowlton, Kim; Jaiswal, Anjali; Sheffield, Perry; Mavalankar, Dileep; Hess, Jeremy

    2013-06-18

    Extreme heat is a significant public health concern in India; extreme heat hazards are projected to increase in frequency and severity with climate change. Few of the factors driving population heat vulnerability are documented, though poverty is a presumed risk factor. To facilitate public health preparedness, an assessment of factors affecting vulnerability among slum dwellers was conducted in summer 2011 in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. Indicators of heat exposure, susceptibility to heat illness, and adaptive capacity, all of which feed into heat vulnerability, was assessed through a cross-sectional household survey using randomized multistage cluster sampling. Associations between heat-related morbidity and vulnerability factors were identified using multivariate logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to account for clustering effects. Age, preexisting medical conditions, work location, and access to health information and resources were associated with self-reported heat illness. Several of these variables were unique to this study. As sociodemographics, occupational heat exposure, and access to resources were shown to increase vulnerability, future interventions (e.g., health education) might target specific populations among Ahmedabad urban slum dwellers to reduce vulnerability to extreme heat. Surveillance and evaluations of future interventions may also be worthwhile.

  13. Evidence that Plasmodium falciparum chromosome end clusters are cross-linked by protein and are the sites of both virulence gene silencing and activation.

    PubMed

    Marty, Allison J; Thompson, Jennifer K; Duffy, Michael F; Voss, Till S; Cowman, Alan F; Crabb, Brendan S

    2006-10-01

    The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum undergoes antigenic variation through allelic exclusion and variant expression of surface proteins encoded by the var gene family. Regulation of var genes is under epigenetic control and involves reversible silencing and activation that requires the physical repositioning of a var locus into a transcriptionally permissive zone of the nuclear periphery. P. falciparum chromosome ends appear to aggregate into large perinuclear clusters which house both subtelomeric and chromosome central var genes. In this study we further define the composition of telomeric clusters using fluorescent in situ hybridization, and provide evidence that chromosome end clusters are formed by cross-linking protein. In addition, we demonstrate that a subtelomeric reporter gene and a var gene remain within clusters regardless of their transcriptional status. Our findings support a model whereby a highly localized structure dedicated to the activation of a single var gene can be housed within a gene dense chromosome end cluster that is otherwise transcriptionally silent.

  14. Clustering of neutral hydrogen with intensity mapping - 2dFGRS cross-correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi-Chao; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Pen, Ue-Li; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Peterson, Jeff; Bandura, Kevin; Chen, Xuelei; Wang, Xin; Price, Danny; Anderson, Christopher; Voytek, Tabitha; Masui, Kiyoshi; Switzer, Eric; Wu, Feng-Quan; Timbie, Peter; Liao, Yu-Wei Victor; Li, zhigang; Oppermann, Niels; Kuo, Chen-Yu; Yadav, Jaswant K.

    2014-04-01

    We propose a large scale structure survey of the 2 Degree Field (2dF) using 21cm intensity mapping and the Parkes multibeam array. The survey would cover the redshift to 0.154 and use 200 hours of telescope time. This will cover a volume of about 10^7 h^-3Mpc^3, allowing the distribution of neutral hydrogen to be cross-correlated with 2dF galaxies. It enables a measure of the large scale power of 21cm structure and the redshift space distortion (RSD). RSD allows an independent measure of bias and total HI content. Our team has significant experience using the intensity mapping technique at the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). Cross-correlation power is purely thermal noise limited. Foregrounds are much weaker in our redshift range. This proposal complements our previous project P641 and extends the stacking analysis of Delhaize et al. (P669) by measuring cosmological large scale structure instead of neighborhoods of galaxies. It is also related to the intensity mapping proposal of Staveley-Smith et al. (P819) and our GBT observations, which pursue similar observations at z ~ 1. Together, these experiments are providing important science demonstration for future instrumentation such as Phased Array Feeds for Parkes, GBT, Effelsberg and WSRT, which can map the whole sky and improve dark energy constraints through BAO measurements.

  15. Untreated surgical conditions in Sierra Leone: a cluster randomised, cross-sectional, countrywide survey.

    PubMed

    Groen, Reinou S; Samai, Mohamed; Stewart, Kerry-Ann; Cassidy, Laura D; Kamara, Thaim B; Yambasu, Sahr E; Kingham, T Peter; Kushner, Adam L

    2012-09-22

    Surgical care is increasingly recognised as an important part of global health yet data for the burden of surgical disease are scarce. The Surgeons OverSeas Assessment of Surgical Need (SOSAS) was developed to measure the prevalence of surgical conditions and surgically treatable deaths in low-income and middle-income countries. We administered this survey countrywide in Sierra Leone, which ranks 180 of the 187 nations on the UN Development Index. The study was done between Jan 9 and Feb 3, 2012. 75 of 9671 enumeration areas, the smallest administrative units in Sierra Leone, were randomly selected for the study clusters, with a probability proportional to the population size. In each cluster 25 households were randomly selected to take part in the survey. Data were collected via handheld tablets by trained local medical and nursing students. A household representative was interviewed to establish the number of household members (defined as those who ate from the same pot and slept in the same structure the night before the interview), identify deaths in the household during the previous year, and establish whether any of the deceased household members had a condition needing surgery in the week before death. Two randomly selected household members underwent a head-to-toe verbal examination and need for surgical care was recorded on the basis of the response to whether they had a condition that they believed needed surgical assessment or care. Of the 1875 targeted households, data were analysed for 1843 (98%). 896 of 3645 (25%; 95% CI 22·9-26·2) respondents reported a surgical condition needing attention and 179 of 709 (25%; 95% CI 22·5-27·9) deaths of household members in the previous year might have been averted by timely surgical care. Our results show a large unmet need for surgical consultations in Sierra Leone and provide a baseline against which future surgical programmes can be measured. Additional surveys in other low-income and middle-income countries

  16. NEUTRON CROSS SECTION EVALUATIONS OF FISSION PRODUCTS BELOW THE FAST ENERGY REGION

    SciTech Connect

    OH,S.Y.; CHANG,J.; MUGHABGHAB,S.

    2000-05-11

    Neutron cross section evaluations of the fission-product isotopes, {sup 95}Mo, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 101}Ru, {sup 103}Rh, {sup 105}Pd, {sup 109}Ag, {sup 131}Xe, {sup 133}Cs, {sup 141}Pr, {sup 141}Nd, {sup 147}Sm, {sup 149}Sm, {sup 150}Sm, {sup 151}Sm, {sup 152}Sm, {sup 153}Eu, {sup 155}Gd, and {sup 157}Gd were carried out below the fast neutron energy region within the framework of the BNL-KAERI international collaboration. In the thermal energy region, the energy dependence of the various cross-sections was calculated by applying the multi-level Breit-Wigner formalism. In particular, the strong energy dependence of the coherent scattering lengths of {sup 155}Gd and {sup 157}Gd were determined and were compared with recent calculations of Lynn and Seeger. In the resonance region, the recommended resonance parameters, reported in the BNL compilation, were updated by considering resonance parameter information published in the literature since 1981. The s-wave and, if available, p-wave reduced neutron widths were analyzed in terms of the Porter-Thomas distribution to determine the average level spacings and the neutron strength functions. Average radiative widths were also calculated from measured values of resolved energy resonances. The average resonance parameters determined in this study were compared with those in the BNL and other compilations, as well as the ENDF/B-VI, JEF-2.2, and JENDL-3.2 data libraries. The unresolved capture cross sections of these isotopes, computed with the determined average resonance parameters, were compared with measurements, as well as the ENDF/B-VI evaluations. To achieve agreement with the measurements, in a few cases minor adjustments in the average resonance parameters were made. Because of astrophysical interest, the Maxwellian capture cross sections of these nuclides at a neutron temperature of 30 keV were computed and were compared with other compilations and evaluations.

  17. Cross-scale Efficient Tensor Contractions for Coupled Cluster Computations Through Multiple Programming Model Backends

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, Khaled Z.; Epifanovsky, Evgeny; Williams, Samuel W.; Krylov, Anna I.

    2016-07-26

    Coupled-cluster methods provide highly accurate models of molecular structure by explicit numerical calculation of tensors representing the correlation between electrons. These calculations are dominated by a sequence of tensor contractions, motivating the development of numerical libraries for such operations. While based on matrix-matrix multiplication, these libraries are specialized to exploit symmetries in the molecular structure and in electronic interactions, and thus reduce the size of the tensor representation and the complexity of contractions. The resulting algorithms are irregular and their parallelization has been previously achieved via the use of dynamic scheduling or specialized data decompositions. We introduce our efforts to extend the Libtensor framework to work in the distributed memory environment in a scalable and energy efficient manner. We achieve up to 240 speedup compared with the best optimized shared memory implementation. We attain scalability to hundreds of thousands of compute cores on three distributed-memory architectures, (Cray XC30&XC40, BlueGene/Q), and on a heterogeneous GPU-CPU system (Cray XK7). As the bottlenecks shift from being compute-bound DGEMM's to communication-bound collectives as the size of the molecular system scales, we adopt two radically different parallelization approaches for handling load-imbalance. Nevertheless, we preserve a uni ed interface to both programming models to maintain the productivity of computational quantum chemists.

  18. Cross-scale efficient tensor contractions for coupled cluster computations through multiple programming model backends

    DOE PAGES

    Ibrahim, Khaled Z.; Epifanovsky, Evgeny; Williams, Samuel; ...

    2017-03-08

    Coupled-cluster methods provide highly accurate models of molecular structure through explicit numerical calculation of tensors representing the correlation between electrons. These calculations are dominated by a sequence of tensor contractions, motivating the development of numerical libraries for such operations. While based on matrix–matrix multiplication, these libraries are specialized to exploit symmetries in the molecular structure and in electronic interactions, and thus reduce the size of the tensor representation and the complexity of contractions. The resulting algorithms are irregular and their parallelization has been previously achieved via the use of dynamic scheduling or specialized data decompositions. We introduce our efforts tomore » extend the Libtensor framework to work in the distributed memory environment in a scalable and energy-efficient manner. We achieve up to 240× speedup compared with the optimized shared memory implementation of Libtensor. We attain scalability to hundreds of thousands of compute cores on three distributed-memory architectures (Cray XC30 and XC40, and IBM Blue Gene/Q), and on a heterogeneous GPU-CPU system (Cray XK7). As the bottlenecks shift from being compute-bound DGEMM's to communication-bound collectives as the size of the molecular system scales, we adopt two radically different parallelization approaches for handling load-imbalance, tasking and bulk synchronous models. Nevertheless, we preserve a unified interface to both programming models to maintain the productivity of computational quantum chemists.« less

  19. PDZK1 Prevents Neointima Formation via Suppression of Breakpoint Cluster Region Kinase in Vascular Smooth Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wan Ru; Sacharidou, Anastasia; Behling-Kelly, Erica; Oltmann, Sarah C.; Zhu, Weifei; Ahmed, Mohamed; Gerard, Robert D.; Hui, David Y.; Abe, Jun-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI) and its adaptor protein PDZK1 mediate responses to HDL cholesterol in endothelium. Whether the receptor-adaptor protein tandem serves functions in other vascular cell types is unknown. The current work determined the roles of SR-BI and PDZK1 in vascular smooth muscle (VSM). To evaluate possible VSM functions of SR-BI and PDZK1 in vivo, neointima formation was assessed 21 days post-ligation in the carotid arteries of wild-type, SR-BI-/- or PDZK1-/- mice. Whereas neointima development was negligible in wild-type and SR-BI-/-, there was marked neointima formation in PDZK1-/- mice. PDZK1 expression was demonstrated in primary mouse VSM cells, and compared to wild-type cells, PDZK1-/- VSM displayed exaggerated proliferation and migration in response to platelet derived growth factor (PDGF). Tandem affinity purification-mass spectrometry revealed that PDZK1 interacts with breakpoint cluster region kinase (Bcr), which contains a C-terminal PDZ binding sequence and is known to enhance responses to PDGF in VSM. PDZK1 interaction with Bcr in VSM was demonstrated by pull-down and by coimmunoprecipitation, and the augmented proliferative response to PDGF in PDZK1-/- VSM was abrogated by Bcr depletion. Furthermore, compared with wild-type Bcr overexpression, the introduction of a Bcr mutant incapable of PDZK1 binding into VSM cells yielded an exaggerated proliferative response to PDGF. Thus, PDZK1 has novel SR-BI-independent function in VSM that affords protection from neointima formation, and this involves PDZK1 suppression of VSM cell proliferation via an inhibitory interaction with Bcr. PMID:25886360

  20. PDZK1 prevents neointima formation via suppression of breakpoint cluster region kinase in vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wan Ru; Sacharidou, Anastasia; Behling-Kelly, Erica; Oltmann, Sarah C; Zhu, Weifei; Ahmed, Mohamed; Gerard, Robert D; Hui, David Y; Abe, Jun-ichi; Shaul, Philip W; Mineo, Chieko

    2015-01-01

    Scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI) and its adaptor protein PDZK1 mediate responses to HDL cholesterol in endothelium. Whether the receptor-adaptor protein tandem serves functions in other vascular cell types is unknown. The current work determined the roles of SR-BI and PDZK1 in vascular smooth muscle (VSM). To evaluate possible VSM functions of SR-BI and PDZK1 in vivo, neointima formation was assessed 21 days post-ligation in the carotid arteries of wild-type, SR-BI-/- or PDZK1-/- mice. Whereas neointima development was negligible in wild-type and SR-BI-/-, there was marked neointima formation in PDZK1-/- mice. PDZK1 expression was demonstrated in primary mouse VSM cells, and compared to wild-type cells, PDZK1-/- VSM displayed exaggerated proliferation and migration in response to platelet derived growth factor (PDGF). Tandem affinity purification-mass spectrometry revealed that PDZK1 interacts with breakpoint cluster region kinase (Bcr), which contains a C-terminal PDZ binding sequence and is known to enhance responses to PDGF in VSM. PDZK1 interaction with Bcr in VSM was demonstrated by pull-down and by coimmunoprecipitation, and the augmented proliferative response to PDGF in PDZK1-/- VSM was abrogated by Bcr depletion. Furthermore, compared with wild-type Bcr overexpression, the introduction of a Bcr mutant incapable of PDZK1 binding into VSM cells yielded an exaggerated proliferative response to PDGF. Thus, PDZK1 has novel SR-BI-independent function in VSM that affords protection from neointima formation, and this involves PDZK1 suppression of VSM cell proliferation via an inhibitory interaction with Bcr.

  1. A novel region-based level set method initialized with mean shift clustering for automated medical image segmentation.

    PubMed

    Bai, Pei Rui; Liu, Qing Yi; Li, Lei; Teng, Sheng Hua; Li, Jing; Cao, Mao Yong

    2013-11-01

    Appropriate initialization and stable evolution are desirable criteria to satisfy in level set methods. In this study, a novel region-based level set method utilizing both global and local image information complementarily is proposed. The global image information is extracted from mean shift clustering without any prior knowledge. Appropriate initial contours are obtained by regulating the clustering results. The local image information, as extracted by a data fitting energy, is employed to maintain a stable evolution of the zero level set curves. The advantages of the proposed method are as follows. First, the controlling parameters of the evolution can be easily estimated by the clustering results. Second, the automaticity of the model increases because of a reduction in computational cost and manual intervention. Experimental results confirm the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method for medical image segmentation.

  2. Statistical investigation of the cross sections of wave clusters in the three-dimensional Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dashti-Naserabadi, H.; Najafi, M. N.

    2015-05-01

    We consider the three-dimensional (3D) Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld model in a cubic lattice. Along with analyzing the 3D problem, the geometrical structure of the two-dimensional (2D) cross section of waves is investigated. By analyzing the statistical observables defined in the cross sections, it is shown that the model in that plane (named as 2D-induced model) is in the critical state and fulfills the finite-size scaling hypothesis. The analysis of the critical loops that are interfaces of the 2D-induced model is of special importance in this paper. Most importantly, we see that their fractal dimension is Df=1.387 ±0.005 , which is compatible with the fractal dimension of the external perimeter of geometrical spin clusters of 2D critical Ising model. Some hyperscaling relations between the exponents of the model are proposed and numerically confirmed. We then address the problem of conformal invariance of the mentioned domain walls using Schramm-Lowener evolution (SLE). We found that they are described by SLE with the diffusivity parameter κ =2.8 ±0.2 , nearly consistent with observed fractal dimension.

  3. Searching for Distant Galaxy Clusters: Utilizing the Virtual Observatory for Multiwavelength Images and Survey Cross-correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Duyne, J.; Lucas, R.; Tamura, T.; Rohde, D.

    2004-12-01

    Through the tools and technology made available via the Virtual Observatory, we have explored the multiwavelength properties, survey coverage, and environments of a sample of 71 steep (-1.0 < α < 0.5) spectrum radio sources taken from the Texas Interferometer Radio catalog (Douglas et al. 1996). Through the VLA proposal by Lucas & Chambers (1989), these radio sources were observed with the A-array configuration at 20 cm and 1485 MHz and with 1 full Schmidt SRC-J, high-latitude sky survey plate ( ˜ 6 sq deg) down to J ˜ 22 with the purpose of finding optical counterparts of mid-to-high z galaxy clusters. With the knowledge that this field had been imaged via the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS DR2, r=22.2), we submitted the coordinates of the Lucas & Chambers survey sources to the VO image access protocol (SIAP) to quickly and efficiently explore the SDSS ugriz 5-band color images of these sources, specifically looking for u-band drop-outs. Additionally, we used this same technique to explore the multiwavelength coverage of this field with all surveys registered with the VO (2MASS, ROSAT, VLA FIRST/NVSS, Chandra, XMM) via ˜ 1 arcminute snapshots. This revealed a multitude of interesting objects, such as double-lobed radio galaxies with bent jets, implying intercluster medium interactions, extremely faint optical sources with point source 2MASS/J-band detections, and the re-discovery of 3C 273. Finally, as a proof of concept, we utilized the VO tool Topcat to cross-correlate the radio and X-ray positions of known galaxy clusters via the RBSC-NVSS Sample (Bauer et al. 2000) and ROSAT Brightest Cluster Sample (Ebeling et al. 1998), resulting in 17 clusters matched at < 15 arcsec separation. These results demonstrate the simple, yet highly effective utility of the Virtual Observatory on a sample data set to reveal scientifically interesting objects on a short timescale. We would like to acknowledge the National Virtual Observatory Summer School for supplying the

  4. Accuracies of genomic breeding values in American Angus beef cattle using K-means clustering for cross-validation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Genomic selection is a recently developed technology that is beginning to revolutionize animal breeding. The objective of this study was to estimate marker effects to derive prediction equations for direct genomic values for 16 routinely recorded traits of American Angus beef cattle and quantify corresponding accuracies of prediction. Methods Deregressed estimated breeding values were used as observations in a weighted analysis to derive direct genomic values for 3570 sires genotyped using the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip. These bulls were clustered into five groups using K-means clustering on pedigree estimates of additive genetic relationships between animals, with the aim of increasing within-group and decreasing between-group relationships. All five combinations of four groups were used for model training, with cross-validation performed in the group not used in training. Bivariate animal models were used for each trait to estimate the genetic correlation between deregressed estimated breeding values and direct genomic values. Results Accuracies of direct genomic values ranged from 0.22 to 0.69 for the studied traits, with an average of 0.44. Predictions were more accurate when animals within the validation group were more closely related to animals in the training set. When training and validation sets were formed by random allocation, the accuracies of direct genomic values ranged from 0.38 to 0.85, with an average of 0.65, reflecting the greater relationship between animals in training and validation. The accuracies of direct genomic values obtained from training on older animals and validating in younger animals were intermediate to the accuracies obtained from K-means clustering and random clustering for most traits. The genetic correlation between deregressed estimated breeding values and direct genomic values ranged from 0.15 to 0.80 for the traits studied. Conclusions These results suggest that genomic estimates of genetic merit can be

  5. Regionalization of Europe based on a K-Means Cluster Analysis of the climate change of temperatures and precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, M. J.; Melo-Gonçalves, P.; Teixeira, J. C.; Rocha, A.

    2016-08-01

    In order to study climate change on a regional scale using Earth System Models, it is useful to partition the spatial domain into regions according to their climate changes. The aim of this work is to divide the European domain into regions of similar projected climate changes using a simulation of daily total precipitation, minimum and maximum temperatures for the recent-past (1986-2005) and long-term future (2081-2100) provided by the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). The difference between the long-term future and recent-past daily climatologies of these three variables is determined. Aiming to objectively identify the grid points with coherent climate changes, a K-Mean Cluster Analysis is applied to these differences. This method is performed for each variable independently (univariate version) and for the aggregation of the three variables (multivariate version). A mathematical approach to determine the optimal number of clusters is pursued. However, due to the method characteristics, a sensitivity test to the number of clusters is performed by analysing the consistency of the results. This is a novel method, allowing for the determination of regions based on the climate change of multiple variables. Results from the univariate application of this method are in accordance with results found in the literature, showing overall similar regions of changes. The regions obtained for the multivariate version are mainly defined by latitude over European land, with some features of land-sea interaction. Furthermore, all regions have statistically different distributions of at least one of the variables, providing confidence to the regions obtained.

  6. Governance and Regional Variation of Homicide Rates: Evidence From Cross-National Data.

    PubMed

    Cao, Liqun; Zhang, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Criminological theories of cross-national studies of homicide have underestimated the effects of quality governance of liberal democracy and region. Data sets from several sources are combined and a comprehensive model of homicide is proposed. Results of the spatial regression model, which controls for the effect of spatial autocorrelation, show that quality governance, human development, economic inequality, and ethnic heterogeneity are statistically significant in predicting homicide. In addition, regions of Latin America and non-Muslim Sub-Saharan Africa have significantly higher rates of homicides ceteris paribus while the effects of East Asian countries and Islamic societies are not statistically significant. These findings are consistent with the expectation of the new modernization and regional theories. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Isosbestic points: How a narrow crossing region of curves determines their leading parameter dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greger, M.; Kollar, M.; Vollhardt, D.

    2013-05-01

    We analyze the sharpness of crossing (“isosbestic”) points of a family of curves which are observed in many quantities described by a function f(x,p), where x is a variable (e.g., the frequency) and p is a parameter (e.g., the temperature). We show that if a narrow crossing region is observed near x* for a range of parameters p, then f(x,p) can be approximated by a perturbative expression in p for a wide range of x. This allows us, e.g., to extract the temperature dependence of several experimentally obtained quantities, such as the Raman response of HgBa2CuO4+δ, photoemission spectra of thin VO2 films, and the reflectivity of CaCu3Ti4O12, all of which exhibit narrow crossing regions near certain frequencies. We also explain the sharpness of isosbestic points in the optical conductivity of the Falicov-Kimball model and the spectral function of the Hubbard model.

  8. Analysis of D-Region Absorption via HF Cross-Modulation Experiments at HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, E. M.; Moore, R. C.

    2010-12-01

    Experimental observations performed near the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) HF transmitter in Gakona, Alaska are used to implement a new method quantifying the rate of absorption of HF radio waves in the D-region ionosphere. Quantifying the ambient and HF-modified characteristics of the D-region ionosphere in the vicinity of ionospheric HF heaters has historically proven to be a difficult task. For example, the electron density in the 60-90 km altitude range is typically too low to employ radio-sounding techniques; LIDAR observations typically require significant temporal averaging, precluding the investigation of physical processes that occur on sub-millisecond time scales; ELF/VLF wave generation experiments typically have difficulty providing reliable spatial resolution and also cannot experimentally distinguish between the spatial distribution of the ionospheric conductivity modulation produced by modulated HF heating and that of the current-driving electric fields associated with the auroral electrojet. Yet, the majority of HF signal absorption occurs in this region of the ionosphere, and the ability to characterize HF absorption in this region benefits a wide range of ionospheric HF heating experiments. The technique described and demonstrated in this paper combines ionosonde-style radio sounding with ELF/VLF cross-modulation experiments to identify the altitude of maximum D-region absorption as a function of HF frequency. Observations are presented and compared with the predictions of a theoretical model, demonstrating excellent agreement between experiment and theory and indicating that the technique may be used successfully in practice. Based on the success of this first experiment, another HF cross-modulation experiment has been performed at HAARP and analyzed theoretically. Pulsed-modulation experiments are used to assess the relative absorption as a function of altitude within the D-region ionosphere, and a method to chart the

  9. Stagnant exterior cusp region as viewed by energetic electrons and ions: A statistical study using Cluster Research with Adaptive Particle Imaging Detectors (RAPID) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Fritz, T. A.; Zong, Q.-G.; Daly, P. W.

    2005-05-01

    We present statistical results based on the data set obtained by Cluster when these spacecraft were in the dayside cusp and magnetopause. Forty clearest stagnant exterior cusp (SEC) events have been selected from ˜150 cusp crossings from 1 January to 30 April 2001 and from 1 March to 30 April 2002. The identification of the SECs was made on the basis of the following criteria: high-density plasma (comparable to the sheath level) and small or stagnant plasma flow (Vx < 60 km s-1). We found that energetic ions are observed in the high-latitude magnetospheric region for 32 SEC crossings (80%) and energetic electrons are observed on 9 of 40 events (22.5%). The SEC is found to lie predominantly within 1000-1300 magnetic local time (MLT); however, there are some cases where this region extends to both earlier and later MLTs. Twenty-nine SEC events (72.5%) have been found in association with depressed magnetic field. The angular difference between the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and local clock angles is a good criterion for 29 SEC events (72.5%). The particle spectra are characterized by a power law, and the power law index is found to be closely related to solar wind velocity. The spectra seem to be harder for higher solar wind velocity. We also found that the higher the solar wind velocity, the higher the ion flux in the SEC region. The magnetic shear angle is the difference between local B vector and IMF clock angle projected on the plane perpendicular to the shock normal. The larger the magnetic shear angle, the more turbulent the magnetic field in the SEC. The turbulence in the SEC region does not affect the power law index, but it is one of the factors controlling of the SEC region. Further, there is no clear relationship found between the power law index and IMF Bz, Dst, or the magnetic shear angle.

  10. Low and room temperature photoabsorption cross sections of NH3 in the UV region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, F. Z.; Judge, D. L.; Wu, C. Y. R.; Caldwell, J.

    1998-12-01

    Using synchrotron radiation as a continuum light source, we have measured the absolute absorption cross sections of NH3 with a spectral bandwidth (FWHM) of 0.5 Å. The photoabsorption cross sections of NH3 have been measured from 1750 to 2250 Å under temperature conditions of 295, 195, and 175 K. Significant temperature effects in the absorption threshold region which are mainly due to the presence of hot band absorption are observed. The cross section value at peaks and valleys for the vibrational progressions of the (0,0) to (4,0) bands vary between -80% and +40% as the temperature of NH3 changes from 295 to 175 K. In contrast to this, the changes of cross section values, Pc,T, are found to vary less than 20% for the (v', 0) vibrational progressions with v' >= 5. The measured separations between the doublet features of the (0,0), (1,0), and (2,0) bands are found to decrease as the temperature of NH3 decreases. The shifts of peak positions of Pc,T with respect to the corresponding room temperature absorption peaks show a sudden change at v' = 3 which appears to agree with the trend observed in the homogeneous line widths of the vibrational bands of NH3 ([Vaida et al., 1987]; [Ziegler, 1985]; [Ziegler, 1986]). The unusual behavior of the line widths has been attributed to the A~ state potential surface which has a dissociation barrier.

  11. Molecular analysis of region 1 of the Escherichia coli K5 antigen gene cluster: a region encoding proteins involved in cell surface expression of capsular polysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Pazzani, C; Rosenow, C; Boulnois, G J; Bronner, D; Jann, K; Roberts, I S

    1993-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of region 1 of the K5 antigen gene cluster of Escherichia coli was determined. This region is postulated to encode functions which, at least in part, participate in translocation of polysaccharide across the periplasmic space and onto the cell surface. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence revealed five genes that encode proteins with predicted molecular masses of 75.7, 60.5, 44, 43, and 27 kDa. The 27-kDa protein was 70.7% homologous to the CMP-2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonic acid synthetase enzyme encoded by the E. coli kdsB gene, indicating the presence of a structural gene for a similar enzyme within the region 1 operon. The 43-kDa protein was homologous to both the Ctrb and BexC proteins encoded by the Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae capsule gene clusters, respectively, indicating common stages in the expression of capsules in these gram-negative bacteria. However, no homology was detected between the 75.7, 60.5-, and 44-kDa proteins and any of the proteins so far described for the H. influenzae and N. meningitidis capsule gene clusters. Images PMID:8397187

  12. Spatial inequalities in life expectancy within postindustrial regions of Europe: a cross-sectional observational study

    PubMed Central

    Taulbut, Martin; Walsh, David; McCartney, Gerry; Parcell, Sophie; Hartmann, Anja; Poirier, Gilles; Strniskova, Dana; Hanlon, Phil

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare spatial inequalities in life expectancy (LE) in West Central Scotland (WCS) with nine other postindustrial European regions. Design A cross-sectional observational study. Setting WCS and nine other postindustrial regions across Europe. Participants Data for WCS and nine other comparably deindustrialised European regions were analysed. Male and female LEs at birth were obtained or calculated for the mid-2000s for 160 districts within selected regions. Districts were stratified into two groups: small (populations of between 141 000 and 185 000 people) and large (populations between 224 000 and 352 000). The range and IQR in LE were used to describe within-region disparities. Results In small districts, the male LE range was widest in WCS and Merseyside, while the IQR was widest in WCS and Northern Ireland. For women, the LE range was widest in WCS, though the IQR was widest in Northern Ireland and Merseyside. In large districts, the range and IQR in LE was widest in WCS and Wallonia for both sexes. Conclusions Subregional spatial inequalities in LE in WCS are wide compared with other postindustrial mainland European regions, especially for men. Future research could explore the contribution of economic, social and political factors in reducing these inequalities. PMID:24889851

  13. Star formation activity of intermediate redshift cluster galaxies out to the infall regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerken, B.; Ziegler, B.; Balogh, M.; Gilbank, D.; Fritz, A.; Jäger, K.

    2004-07-01

    We present a spectroscopic analysis of two galaxy clusters at z≈0.2, out to ˜4 Mpc. The two clusters VMF73 and VMF74 as identified by \\citet{VMFJQH98} were observed with multiple object spectroscopy using MOSCA at the Calar Alto 3.5 m telescope. Both clusters lie in the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter field R285 and were selected from the X-ray Dark Cluster Survey \\citep{GBCZ04} that provides optical V- and I-band data. VMF73 and VMF74 are located at respective redshifts of z=0.25 and z=0.18 with velocity dispersions of 671 km s-1 and 442 km s-1, respectively. Both cluster velocity dispersions are consistent with Gaussians. The spectroscopic observations reach out to ˜2.5 virial radii. Line strength measurements of the emission lines Hα and [O II]λ3727 are used to assess the star formation activity of cluster galaxies which show radial and density dependences. The mean and median of both line strength distributions as well as the fraction of star forming galaxies increase with increasing clustercentric distance and decreasing local galaxy density. Except for two galaxies with strong Hα and [O II] emission, all of the cluster galaxies are normal star forming or passive galaxies. Our results are consistent with other studies that show the truncation in star formation occurs far from the cluster centre. Table A.1 is only available in electronic from at http//www.edpsciences.org

  14. Large-scale characteristics of reconnection diffusion regions and associated magnetopause crossings observed by MMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuselier, S. A.; Vines, S. K.; Burch, J. L.; Petrinec, S. M.; Trattner, K. J.; Cassak, P. A.; Chen, L.-J.; Ergun, R. E.; Eriksson, S.; Giles, B. L.; Graham, D. B.; Khotyaintsev, Yu V.; Lavraud, B.; Lewis, W. S.; Mukherjee, J.; Norgren, C.; Phan, T.-D.; Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R. J.; Torbert, R. B.; Webster, J. M.

    2017-05-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission was designed to make observations in the very small electron diffusion region (EDR), where magnetic reconnection takes place. From a data set of over 4500 magnetopause crossings obtained in the first phase of the mission, MMS had encounters near or within 12 EDRs. These 12 events and associated magnetopause crossings are considered as a group to determine if they span the widest possible range of external and internal conditions (i.e., in the solar wind and magnetosphere). In addition, observations from MMS are used to determine if there are multiple X-lines present and also to provide information on X-line location relative to the spacecraft. These 12 events represent nearly the widest possible range of conditions at the dayside magnetopause. They occur over a wide range of local times and magnetic shear angles between the magnetosheath and magnetospheric magnetic fields. Most show evidence for multiple reconnection sites.

  15. Photoionization cross section measurements of the excited states of cobalt in the near-threshold region

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Xianfeng Zhou, Xiaoyu; Cheng, Zaiqi; Jia, Dandan; Qu, Zehua; Yao, Guanxin; Zhang, Xianyi; Cui, Zhifeng

    2014-10-15

    We present measurements of photoionization cross-sections of the excited states of cobalt using a two-color, two-step resonance ionization technique in conjunction with a molecular beam time of flight (TOF) mass spectrometer. The atoms were produced by the laser vaporization of a cobalt rod, coupled with a supersonic gas jet. The absolute photoionization cross-sections at threshold and near-threshold regions (0-1.2 eV) were measured, and the measured values ranged from 4.2±0.7 Mb to 10.5±1.8 Mb. The lifetimes of four odd parity energy levels are reported for the first time.

  16. Neutron capture cross section measurements for 238U in the resonance region at GELINA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H. I.; Paradela, C.; Sirakov, I.; Becker, B.; Capote, R.; Gunsing, F.; Kim, G. N.; Kopecky, S.; Lampoudis, C.; Lee, Y.-O.; Massarczyk, R.; Moens, A.; Moxon, M.; Pronyaev, V. G.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Wynants, R.

    2016-06-01

    Measurements were performed at the time-of-flight facility GELINA to determine the 238U(n, γ) cross section in the resonance region. Experiments were carried out at a 12.5 and 60m measurement station. The total energy detection principle in combination with the pulse height weighting technique was applied using C6D6 liquid scintillators as prompt γ-ray detectors. The energy dependence of the neutron flux was measured with ionisation chambers based on the 10B(n, α) reaction. The data were normalised to the isolated and saturated 238U resonance at 6.67 eV. Special procedures were applied to reduce bias effects due to the weighting function, normalization, dead time and background corrections, and corrections related to the sample properties. The total uncertainty due to the weighting function, normalization, neutron flux and sample characteristics is about 1.5%. Resonance parameters were derived from a simultaneous resonance shape analysis of the GELINA capture data and transmission data obtained previously at a 42m and 150m station of ORELA. The parameters of resonances below 500 eV are in good agreement with those resulting from an evaluation that was adopted in the main data libraries. Between 500 eV and 1200 eV a systematic difference in the neutron width is observed. Average capture cross section data were derived from the experimental capture yield in the energy region between 3.5 keV and 90 keV. The results are in good agreement with an evaluated cross section resulting from a least squares fit to experimental data available in the literature prior to this work. The average cross section data derived in this work were parameterised in terms of average resonance parameters and included in a least squares analysis together with other experimental data reported in the literature.

  17. The galaxy populations from the centers to the infall regions in z ≈ 0.25 clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdugo, M.; Ziegler, B. L.; Gerken, B.

    2008-07-01

    Context: In the local universe, the relative fractions of galaxy types differs in galaxy clusters in comparison to the field. Observations at higher redshift provide evidence that cluster galaxies evolve with lookback time. This could be due either to the late assembly of clusters, which is predicted by bottom-up scenarios of structure formation, or to cluster-specific interaction processes. Aims: To disentangle various effects, we explore the evolutionary status of galaxies from the center of clusters out to their infall regions in z≈0.25 clusters. Methods: We conducted a panoramic spectroscopic campaign with MOSCA at the Calar Alto observatory. We acquired low-resolution spectra of more than 500 objects. Approximately 150 of these spectra were of galaxies that are members of six different clusters, which differ in intrinsic X-ray luminosity. The wavelength range allows us to quantify the star formation activity by using the [Oii] and the Hα emission lines. This activity is examined in terms of the large-scale environment expressed by the clustercentric distance of the galaxies as well as on local scales given by the spatial galaxy densities. Results: The general decline in star-formation activity observed for galaxies inside nearby clusters is also seen at z≈0.25. A global suppression of star-formation is detected in the outskirts of clusters, at about 3R_virial, where the galaxy densities are low and the intra-cluster medium is very shallow. Galaxies with ongoing star-formation have similar activity, regardless of the environment. Therefore, the decline of the star-formation activity inside the investigated clusters is driven mainly by the significant change in the fraction of active versus passive populations. This suggests that the suppression of the star-formation activity occurs on short timescales. We detect a significant population of red star-forming galaxies whose colors are consistent with the red-sequence of passive galaxies. They appear to be in

  18. A Young Stellar Cluster within the RCW41 H II Region: Deep NIR Photometry and Optical/NIR Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Fábio P.; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Franco, Gabriel A. P.

    2012-06-01

    The RCW41 star-forming region is embedded within the Vela Molecular Ridge, hosting a massive stellar cluster surrounded by a conspicuous H II region. Understanding the role of interstellar magnetic fields and studying the newborn stellar population is crucial to building a consistent picture of the physical processes acting on this kind of environment. We carried out a detailed study of the interstellar polarization toward RCW41 with data from an optical and near-infrared polarimetric survey. Additionally, deep near-infrared images from the 3.5 meter New Technology Telescope were used to study the photometric properties of the embedded young stellar cluster, revealing several YSO candidates. By using a set of pre-main-sequence isochrones, a mean cluster age in the range 2.5-5.0 million years was determined, and evidence of sequential star formation was revealed. An abrupt decrease in R-band polarization degree was noticed toward the central ionized area, probably due to low grain alignment efficiency caused by the turbulent environment and/or the weak intensity of magnetic fields. The distortion of magnetic field lines exhibits dual behavior, with the mean orientation outside the area approximately following the borders of the star-forming region and directed radially toward the cluster inside the ionized area, in agreement with simulations of expanding H II regions. The spectral dependence of polarization allowed a meaningful determination of the total-to-selective extinction ratio by fittings of the Serkowski relation. Furthermore, a large rotation of polarization angle as a function of wavelength was detected toward several embedded stars. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory (La Silla, Chile), National Optical Astronomy Observatory (CTIO, Chile), and Observatório do Pico dos Dias, operated by Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica (LNA/MCT, Brazil).

  19. A YOUNG STELLAR CLUSTER WITHIN THE RCW41 H II REGION: DEEP NIR PHOTOMETRY AND OPTICAL/NIR POLARIMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, Fabio P.; Franco, Gabriel A. P.; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre E-mail: franco@fisica.ufmg.br

    2012-06-01

    The RCW41 star-forming region is embedded within the Vela Molecular Ridge, hosting a massive stellar cluster surrounded by a conspicuous H II region. Understanding the role of interstellar magnetic fields and studying the newborn stellar population is crucial to building a consistent picture of the physical processes acting on this kind of environment. We carried out a detailed study of the interstellar polarization toward RCW41 with data from an optical and near-infrared polarimetric survey. Additionally, deep near-infrared images from the 3.5 meter New Technology Telescope were used to study the photometric properties of the embedded young stellar cluster, revealing several YSO candidates. By using a set of pre-main-sequence isochrones, a mean cluster age in the range 2.5-5.0 million years was determined, and evidence of sequential star formation was revealed. An abrupt decrease in R-band polarization degree was noticed toward the central ionized area, probably due to low grain alignment efficiency caused by the turbulent environment and/or the weak intensity of magnetic fields. The distortion of magnetic field lines exhibits dual behavior, with the mean orientation outside the area approximately following the borders of the star-forming region and directed radially toward the cluster inside the ionized area, in agreement with simulations of expanding H II regions. The spectral dependence of polarization allowed a meaningful determination of the total-to-selective extinction ratio by fittings of the Serkowski relation. Furthermore, a large rotation of polarization angle as a function of wavelength was detected toward several embedded stars.

  20. Cross-reactivity of hypervariable region 1 chimera of hepatitis C virus

    PubMed Central

    Xiu, Bing-Shui; Ling, Shi-Gan; Song, Xiao-Guo; Zhang, He-Qiu; Chen, Kun; Zhu, Cui-Xia

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the amino acid sequences of hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) of HCV isolates in China and to construct a combinatorial chimeric HVR1 protein having a very broad high cross-reactivity. METHODS: All of the published HVR1 sequences from China were collected and processed with a computer program. Several representative HVR1's sequences were formulated based on a consensus profile and homology within certain subdivision. A few reported HVR1 mimotope sequences were also included for a broader representation. All of them were cloned and expressed in E.coli. The cross-reactivity of the purified recombinant HVR1 antigens was tested by ELISA with a panel of sera from HCV infected patients in China. Some of them were further ligated together to form a combinatorial HVR1 chimera. RESULTS: Altogether 12 HVR1s were selected and expressed in E.coli and purified to homogeneity. All of these purified antigens showed some cross-reactivity with sera in a 27 HCV positive panel. Recombinant HVR1s of No. 1, 2, 4, and 8# showing broad cross-reactivities and complementarity with each other, were selected for the ligation elements. The chimera containing these 4 HVR1s was highly expressed in E.coli. The purified chimeric antigen could react not only with all the HCV antibody positive sera in the panel but also with 90/91 sera of HCV -infected patients. CONCLUSION: The chimeric antigen was shown to have a broad cross-reactivity. It may be helpful for solving the problem caused by high variability of HCV, and in the efforts for a novel vaccine against the virus. PMID:12800235

  1. Potential Risk of Regional Disease Spread in West Africa through Cross-Border Cattle Trade

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Anna S.; Fournié, Guillaume; Kulo, Abalo E.; Boukaya, G. Aboudou; Schelling, Esther; Bonfoh, Bassirou

    2013-01-01

    Background Transboundary animal movements facilitate the spread of pathogens across large distances. Cross-border cattle trade is of economic and cultural importance in West Africa. This study explores the potential disease risk resulting from large-scale, cross-border cattle trade between Togo, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Benin, and Nigeria for the first time. Methods and Principal Findings A questionnaire-based survey of livestock movements of 226 cattle traders was conducted in the 9 biggest cattle markets of northern Togo in February-March 2012. More than half of the traders (53.5%) operated in at least one other country. Animal flows were stochastically simulated based on reported movements and the risk of regional disease spread assessed. More than three quarters (79.2%, range: 78.1–80.0%) of cattle flowing into the market system originated from other countries. Through the cattle market system of northern Togo, non-neighbouring countries were connected via potential routes for disease spread. Even for diseases with low transmissibility and low prevalence in a given country, there was a high risk of disease introduction into other countries. Conclusions By stochastically simulating data collected by interviewing cattle traders in northern Togo, this study identifies potential risks for regional disease spread in West Africa through cross-border cattle trade. The findings highlight that surveillance for emerging infectious diseases as well as control activities targeting endemic diseases in West Africa are likely to be ineffective if only conducted at a national level. A regional approach to disease surveillance, prevention and control is essential. PMID:24130721

  2. Lack of small-scale clustering in 21-cm intensity maps crossed with 2dF galaxy densities at z ~ 0.08

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Christopher; Luciw, Nicholas; Li, Yi-Chao; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Yadav, Jaswant; Masui, Kiyoshi; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Chen, Xuelei; Oppermann, Niels; Pen, Ue-Li; Timbie, Peter T.

    2017-06-01

    I report results from 21-cm intensity maps acquired from the Parkes radio telescope and cross-correlated with galaxy maps from the 2dF galaxy survey. The data span the redshift range 0.057cross-power spectrum exhibits a dip in power at small scales, around k~1.0 hMpc^-1, compared to the 2dF auto-power spectrum and the theoretical dark matter power spectrum. This indicates either a lack of clustering of neutral hydrogen (HI) at small scales or a small correlation coefficient between optical galaxies and HI, or some combination of the two. A lack of small scale HI clustering would be qualitatively similar to measurements of HI-selected galaxy clustering from the HIPASS and ALFALFA surveys at slightly lower redshifts.

  3. Pathway-specific regulation revisited: cross-regulation of multiple disparate gene clusters by PAS-LuxR transcriptional regulators.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Cláudia M; Payero, Tamara D; Santos-Aberturas, Javier; Barreales, Eva G; de Pedro, Antonio; Aparicio, Jesús F

    2015-06-01

    PAS-LuxR regulators are highly conserved proteins devoted to the control of antifungal production by binding to operators located in given promoters of polyene biosynthetic genes. The canonical operator of PimM, archetype of this class of regulators, has been used here to search for putative targets of orthologous protein PteF in the genome of Streptomyces avermitilis, finding 97 putative operators outside the pentaene filipin gene cluster (pte). The processes putatively affected included genetic information processing; energy, carbohydrate, and lipid metabolism; DNA replication and repair; morphological differentiation; secondary metabolite biosynthesis; and transcriptional regulation, among others. Seventeen of these operators were selected, and their binding to PimM DNA-binding domain was assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Strikingly, the protein bound all predicted operators suggesting a direct control over targeted processes. As a proof of concept, we studied the biosynthesis of the ATP-synthase inhibitor oligomycin whose gene cluster included two operators. Regulator mutants showed a severe loss of oligomycin production, whereas gene complementation of the mutant restored phenotype, and gene duplication in the wild-type strain boosted oligomycin production. Comparative gene expression analyses in parental and mutant strains by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction of selected olm genes corroborated production results. These results demonstrate that PteF is able to cross-regulate the biosynthesis of two related secondary metabolites, filipin and oligomycin, but might be extended to all the processes indicated above. This study highlights the complexity of the network of interactions in which PAS-LuxR regulators are involved and opens new possibilities for the manipulation of metabolite production in Streptomycetes.

  4. The Central Regions of Early-Type Galaxies in Nearby Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, Lisa Anne

    Remarkably, the central regions of galaxies are very important in shaping and influencing galaxies as a whole. As such, galaxy cores can be used for classification, to determine which processes may be important in galaxy formation and evolution. Past studies, for example, have found a dichotomy in the inner slopes of early-type galaxy surface brightness profiles. Using deprojections of the galaxies from the ACS Virgo and Fornax Cluster Surveys (ACSVCS/FCS), we show that, in fact, this dichotomy does not exist. Instead, we demonstrate that the brightest early-type galaxies tend to have central light deficits, a trend which gradually transitions to central light excesses -- also known as compact stellar nuclei -- as we go to fainter galaxies. This effect is quantified, and can be used to determine what evolutionary factors are important as we move along the galaxy luminosity function. The number of stellar nuclei that we observe is, in fact, an unexpected result emerging from the ACSVCS/FCS. Being three times more common than previously thought, they are present in the vast majority of intermediate and low-luminosity galaxies. Conversely, it has been known for over a decade that there is likely a supermassive black hole weighing millions to billions of solar masses at the center of virtually every galaxy of sufficient size. These black holes are known to follow scaling relations with their host galaxies. Using the ACSVCS, along with new kinematical data from long-slit spectroscopy, we measure the dynamical masses of 83 galaxies, and show that supermassive black holes and nuclei appear to fall along the same scaling relation with host mass. Both represent approximately 0.2% of their host's mass, implying an important link between the two types of central massive objects. Finally, we extract elliptical isophotes and fit parameterized models to the surface brightness profiles of new Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the ACSVCS galaxies, observed in infrared and

  5. Duplication of small segments within the major breakpoint cluster region in chronic myelogenous leukemia.

    PubMed

    Litz, C E; McClure, J S; Copenhaver, C M; Brunning, R D

    1993-03-15

    The t(9;22) in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) may be reciprocal or, in a minority of cases, may result in an extensive deletion of a portion of the major breakpoint cluster region (M-bcr) of the BCR. This report provides evidence of the duplication of small segments within the M-bcr in a small group of patients with CML. Southern blots of Bgl II and Bgl II/BamHI double-digested DNA from the blood or bone marrow of 46 patients with CML were probed with a 5' 1.4-kb Taq I/HindIII M-bcr probe and a 3' 2-kb HindIII/BamHI M-bcr probe. In three patients, rearrangements were noted with both probes in Bgl II-digested DNA, but were not present in Bgl II/BamHI-digested DNA with either probe. Southern analysis of DNA samples double-digested with Bgl II and BspHI from two of these three cases showed no rearrangements with either probe; the M-bcr BspHI site is located 26 bp 3' of the BamHI site in the second intron of the M-bcr. The presence of a rearranged M-bcr with both probes in Bgl II-digested DNA and the lack of rearrangement in Bgl II/BamHI and Bgl II/BspHI double-digested DNA suggest the presence of M-bcr BamHI and BspHI sites on both 9q+ chromosome (9q+) and the Philadelphia chromosome (Ph). This implies a duplication of at least the 26-bp M-bcr BamHI/BspHI fragment in these two samples. Sequence data from one of these two cases confirmed the M-bcr breakpoints to be staggered; the Ph M-bcr breakpoint occurred 258 bp downstream from the 9q+ M-bcr breakpoint. It is concluded that a duplication of small segments within the M-bcr occurs in a small group of patients with CML, which may lead to pseudogermline patterns on Southern blot. Such a duplication may provide insight into the mechanism of some chromosomal translocations in neoplasia.

  6. Derivation of water vapour absorption cross-sections in the red region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lal, M.; Chakrabarty, D. K.

    1994-01-01

    Absorption spectrum in 436 to 448 nm wavelength region gives NO2 and O3 column densities. This spectrum can also give H2O column density. The spectrum in the range of 655 to 667 nm contains absorption due to NO3 and H2O. Combining the absorption spectra in the wavelength ranges of 436 to 448 and 655 to 667 nm, water vapor absorption cross-sections in this range comes out to be of the order of 2.0 x 10(exp -24) cm(exp -2).

  7. Flux Transfer Event in the Subsolar Region and Near the Cusp: Simultaneous Polar and Cluster Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, G.; Zheng, Y.; Russell, C. T.; Pfaff, R. F.; Slavin, J. A.; Lin, N.; Mozer, F.; Parks, G.; Petrinec, S. M.; Lucek, e. A.; Reme, Henri

    2005-01-01

    The phenomenon called flux transfer events (FTEs) is widely accepted as the manifestation of time-dependent reconnection. In this paper, we present an observational evidence of a flux transfer event observed simultaneously at low-latitude by Polar and high-latitude by Cluster. This event occurred on March 21, 2002, when both Cluster and Polar were located near the local noon but with large latitudinal distance. Cluster was moving outbound from polar cusp to the magnetosheath, and Polar was in the magnetosheath near the equatorial magnetopause. The observations show that a flux transfer event was formed between the equator and the northern cusp. Polar and Cluster observed the FTE's two open flux tubes: Polar saw the southward moving flux tube near the equator; and Cluster the , northward moving flux tube at high latitude. Unlike low-latitude FTEs, the high-latitude FTE did not exhibit the characteristic bi-polar BN signature. But the plasma data clearly showed its open flux tube configuration. Enhanced electric field fluctuations were observed within the FTE core, both at low- and high-attitudes. This event provides us a unique opportunity to understand high-latitude FTE signatures and the nature of time-varying reconnection.

  8. Measuring the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect through the cross correlation of Planck and WMAP maps with ROSAT galaxy cluster catalogs

    SciTech Connect

    Hajian, Amir; Bond, J. Richard; Battaglia, Nicholas; Spergel, David N.; Pfrommer, Christoph; Sievers, Jonathan L. E-mail: nbattaglia@cmu.edu E-mail: bond@cita.utoronto.ca E-mail: sievers@cita.utoronto.ca

    2013-11-01

    We measure a significant correlation between the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect in the Planck and WMAP maps and an X-ray cluster map based on ROSAT. We use the 100, 143 and 343 GHz Planck maps and the WMAP 94 GHz map to obtain this cluster cross spectrum. We check our measurements for contamination from dusty galaxies using the cross correlations with the 217, 545 and 857 GHz maps from Planck. Our measurement yields a direct characterization of the cluster power spectrum over a wide range of angular scales that is consistent with large cosmological simulations. The amplitude of this signal depends on cosmological parameters that determine the growth of structure (σ{sub 8} and Ω M) and scales as σ{sub 8}{sup 7.4} and Ω M{sup 1.9} around the multipole (ℓ) ∼ 1000. We constrain σ{sub 8} and Ω M from the cross-power spectrum to be σ{sub 8}(Ω M/0.30){sup 0.26} = 0.8±0.02. Since this cross spectrum produces a tight constraint in the σ{sub 8} and Ω M plane the errors on a σ{sub 8} constraint will be mostly limited by the uncertainties from external constraints. Future cluster catalogs, like those from eRosita and LSST, and pointed multi-wavelength observations of clusters will improve the constraining power of this cross spectrum measurement. In principle this analysis can be extended beyond σ{sub 8} and Ω M to constrain dark energy or the sum of the neutrino masses.

  9. Representation of the neutron cross sections of several fertile and fissile nuclei in the resonance regions

    SciTech Connect

    de Saussure, G.; Perez, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    Several aspects of the measurement, analysis and evaluation of the cross sections of the fertile and fissile nuclides in the resonance regions are discussed. In the resolved range, for the fertile nuclides it is thought that the principal requirement for improved evaluations is for a practical methodology to deal with systematic errors and their correlations. For the fissile nuclides /sup 235/U and /sup 239/Pu, the ENDF/B-V evaluations are not consistent with ENDF/B procedures recommendations and fall short of the goals of resonance analysis. New evaluations of these two isotopes should be performed. In the unresolved resonance region it is shown that the ENDF/B representation is ambiguous and is not theoretically justified. A better representation may be desirable, and a validation of the representation with experimental self-shielding and transmission measurements is certainly required. 105 references. (WHK)

  10. Socioeconomic inequality in clusters of health-related behaviours in Europe: latent class analysis of a cross-sectional European survey.

    PubMed

    Kino, Shiho; Bernabé, Eduardo; Sabbah, Wael

    2017-05-23

    Modifiable health-related behaviours tend to cluster among most vulnerable sectors of the population, particularly those at the bottom of the social hierarchy. This study aimed to identify the clusters of health-related behaviours in 27 European countries and to examine the socioeconomic inequalities in these clusters. Data were from Eurobarometer 72.3-2009, a cross-sectional survey of 27 European countries. The analyses were conducted in 2016. The main sections of the survey included questions pertaining to sociodemographic factors, health-related behaviours, and use of services. In this study, those aged 18 years and older were included. We selected five health-related behaviours, namely smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, frequent fresh fruit consumption, physical activity and dental check-ups. Socioeconomic position was indicated by education, subjective social status and difficulty in paying bills. Latent class analysis was conducted to explore the clusters of these five behaviours. Multinomial logistic regression model was used to examine the relationships between the clusters and socioeconomic positions adjusting for age, gender, marital status and urbanisation. The eligible total population was 23,842. Latent class analysis identified three clusters; healthy, moderate and risky clusters in this European population. Individuals with the lowest socioeconomic position were more likely to have risky and moderate clusters than healthy cluster compared to those with the highest socioeconomic position. There were clear socioeconomic gradients in clusters of health-related behaviours. The findings highlight the importance of adopting interventions that address multiple health risk behaviours and policies that tackle the social determinants of health-related behaviours.

  11. Seismic Hazard and risk assessment for Romania -Bulgaria cross-border region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeonova, Stela; Solakov, Dimcho; Alexandrova, Irena; Vaseva, Elena; Trifonova, Petya; Raykova, Plamena

    2016-04-01

    Among the many kinds of natural and man-made disasters, earthquakes dominate with regard to their social and economical impact on the urban environment. Global seismic hazard and vulnerability to earthquakes are steadily increasing as urbanization and development occupy more areas that are prone to effects of strong earthquakes. The assessment of the seismic hazard and risk is particularly important, because it provides valuable information for seismic safety and disaster mitigation, and it supports decision making for the benefit of society. Romania and Bulgaria, situated in the Balkan Region as a part of the Alpine-Himalayan seismic belt, are characterized by high seismicity, and are exposed to a high seismic risk. Over the centuries, both countries have experienced strong earthquakes. The cross-border region encompassing the northern Bulgaria and southern Romania is a territory prone to effects of strong earthquakes. The area is significantly affected by earthquakes occurred in both countries, on the one hand the events generated by the Vrancea intermediate-depth seismic source in Romania, and on the other hand by the crustal seismicity originated in the seismic sources: Shabla (SHB), Dulovo, Gorna Orjahovitza (GO) in Bulgaria. The Vrancea seismogenic zone of Romania is a very peculiar seismic source, often described as unique in the world, and it represents a major concern for most of the northern part of Bulgaria as well. In the present study the seismic hazard for Romania-Bulgaria cross-border region on the basis of integrated basic geo-datasets is assessed. The hazard results are obtained by applying two alternative approaches - probabilistic and deterministic. The MSK64 intensity (MSK64 scale is practically equal to the new EMS98) is used as output parameter for the hazard maps. We prefer to use here the macroseismic intensity instead of PGA, because it is directly related to the degree of damages and, moreover, the epicentral intensity is the original

  12. Interpretive geologic cross sections for the Death Valley regional flow system and surrounding areas, Nevada and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweetkind, D.S.; Dickerson, R.P.; Blakely, R.J.; Denning, P.D.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents a network of 28 geologic cross sections that portray subsurface geologic relations within the Death Valley regional ground-water system, a ground-water basin that encompasses a 3? x 3? area (approximately 70,000 km2) in southern Nevada and eastern California. The cross sections transect that part of the southern Great Basin that includes Death Valley, the Nevada Test Site, and the potential high-level nuclear waste underground repository at Yucca Mountain. The specific geometric relationships portrayed on the cross sections are discussed in the context of four general sub-regions that have stratigraphic similarities and general consistency of structural style: (1) the Nevada Test Site vicinity; (2) the Spring Mountains, Pahrump Valley and Amargosa Desert region; (3) the Death Valley region; and (4) the area east of the Nevada Test Site. The subsurface geologic interpretations portrayed on the cross sections are based on an integration of existing geologic maps, measured stratigraphic sections, published cross sections, well data, and geophysical data and interpretations. The estimated top of pre-Cenozoic rocks in the cross sections is based on inversion of gravity data, but the deeper parts of the sections are based on geologic conceptual models and are more speculative. The region transected by the cross sections includes part of the southern Basin and Range Province, the northwest-trending Walker Lane belt, the Death Valley region, and the northern Mojave Desert. The region is structurally complex, where a locally thick Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary section unconformably overlies previously deformed Proterozoic through Paleozoic rocks. All of these rocks have been deformed by complex Neogene ex-tensional normal and strike-slip faults. These cross sections form a three-dimensional network that portrays the interpreted stratigraphic and structural relations in the region; the sections form part of the geologic framework that will be

  13. 245CM Fission Cross Section Measurement in the Thermal Energy Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serot, O.; Wagemans, C.; Vermote, S.; van Gils, J.

    2011-10-01

    A new cross section measurement for the 245Cm(n,f) reaction in the thermal energy region has been performed at the GELINA neutron facility of the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) in Geel, Belgium. The energy of the neutrons is determined applying the time of flight method using a flight path length of about 9 m. In the present work, the incident neutron energy covers 10 meV up to a few eV. A 98.48% enriched 245Cm sample was mounted back-to-back with a 10B sample in the centre of a vacuum chamber together with two surface barrier detectors positioned outside the neutron beam. One detector measured the 10B(n,α)7Li reaction products for the neutron flux determination, while the second one registered the 245Cm(n,f) fragments. In this way, the neutron flux can be determined simultaneously with the fission fragments. A control measurement has been performed replacing the 245Cm sample with a 235U sample in order to check that the well-known 235U(n,f) cross section can be reproduced. Our measurement yielded a 245Cm(nth,f) cross section of 2131±43±173 b and a Westcott factor gf=0.939±0.019.

  14. [Medicen Paris Région: A world-class ''competitiveness cluster'' in the Paris region incorporating a neuroscience ''subcluster''].

    PubMed

    Canet, Emmanuel

    2007-04-01

    The French public-private partnerships known as "competitive clusters" [pôles de compétitivité (PdC)] are intended to be novel and ambitious engines of regional growth, employment and biomedical innovation. Partly funded by government and local councils, they aim to capitalize on regional expertise by bringing together basic scientists, clinicians, innovative entrepreneurs and local decision-makers around specific themes that have become too costly and complex for any of these actors to tackle alone. Clusters provide the critical mass required both to underpin innovation potential and to authenticate regional claims to international competitiveness. Medicen is a biomedicine and therapeutics cluster comprising 120 partners from four broad "colleges" in the greater Paris region: major industry, small and medium-sized businesses, teaching hospitals/State research bodies, and local councils. Chief among its cooperative R&D projects is the neuroscience subcluster, in which "TransAl" the neurodegenerative disease project, counts Sanofi-Aventis, Servier and the French Atomic Energy Commission [Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA)] as key partners. One main aim is to develop an experimental model in rhesus monkeys in which a putative cause of Alzheimer's disease, intracerebral accumulation of b-amyloid peptide, is generated by impairing the peptide's clearance. The other aim, in which the nuclear medicine expertise of the CEA will be crucial, is to identify, characterize and validate markers for magnetic resonance and positron emission tomography imaging, and to source biomarkers from cerebrospinal fluid proteomics. A human biological resource centre (DNA and tissue banks) project dedicated to neurological and psychiatric disease should be up and running in 2007. Only through fundamental restructuring of resources on such a large cooperative scale are solutions likely to be found to the major problems of modern medicine, bringing healthcare and regional

  15. Long-range looping of a locus control region drives tissue-specific chromatin packing within a multigene cluster

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Yu-Cheng; Cooke, Nancy E.; Liebhaber, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The relationships of higher order chromatin organization to mammalian gene expression remain incompletely defined. The human Growth Hormone (hGH) multigene cluster contains five gene paralogs. These genes are selectively activated in either the pituitary or the placenta by distinct components of a remote locus control region (LCR). Prior studies have revealed that appropriate activation of the placental genes is dependent not only on the actions of the LCR, but also on the multigene composition of the cluster itself. Here, we demonstrate that the hGH LCR ‘loops’ over a distance of 28 kb in primary placental nuclei to make specific contacts with the promoters of the two GH genes in the cluster. This long-range interaction sequesters the GH genes from the three hCS genes which co-assemble into a tightly packed ‘hCS chromatin hub’. Elimination of the long-range looping, via specific deletion of the placental LCR components, triggers a dramatic disruption of the hCS chromatin hub. These data reveal a higher-order structural pathway by which long-range looping from an LCR impacts on local chromatin architecture that is linked to tissue-specific gene regulation within a multigene cluster. PMID:26893355

  16. Neutron and Charged-Particle Induced Cross Sections for Radiochemistry in the Region of Bromine and Krypton

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, R; Dietrich, F; Bauer, R; Kelley, K; Mustafa, M

    2004-07-23

    We have developed a set of modeled nuclear reaction cross sections for use in radiochemical diagnostics. Systematics for the input parameters required by the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model were developed and used to calculate neutron and proton induced nuclear reaction cross sections in the mass region of bromine and krypton (34 {le} Z {le} 37, 40 {le} N {le} 47).

  17. Neutron and Charged-Particle Induced Cross Sections for Radiochemistry in the Region of Samarium, Europium, and Gadolinium

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, R D; Kelley, K; Dietrich, F S; Bauer, R; Mustafa, M

    2004-11-30

    We have developed a set of modeled nuclear reaction cross sections for use in radiochemical diagnostics. Systematics for the input parameters required by the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model were developed and used to calculate neutron and proton induced nuclear reaction cross sections in the mass region of samarium, europium and gadolinium (62 {le} Z {le} 64, 82 {le} N {le} 96).

  18. Nutrition, environment and cardiovascular health (NESCAV): protocol of an inter-regional cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite the remarkable technological progress in health care and treatment, cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of premature death, prolonged hospitalization and disability in most European countries. In the population of the Greater Region (Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg, Wallonia in Belgium, and Lorraine in France), the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and disease is among the highest in Europe, warranting the need for a better understanding of factors contributing to this pattern. In this context, the cross-border "Nutrition, Environment and Cardiovascular Health-NESCAV" project is initiated by an inter-regional multi-disciplinary consortium and supported by the INTERREG IV A program "Greater Region", 2007-2013, to fight synergically and harmoniously against this major public health problem. Methods/design The objectives of the three-year planned project are to assess, in a representative sample of 3000 randomly selected individuals living at the Greater Region, 1) the cardiovascular health and risk profile, 2) the association between the dietary habits and the cardiovascular risk, 3) the association of occupational and environmental pollution markers with the cardiovascular risk, 4) the knowledge, awareness and level of control of cardiovascular risk factors, 5) the potential gaps in the current primary prevention, and finally, to address evidence-based recommendations enabling the development of inter-regional guidance to help policy-makers and health care workers for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Discussion The findings will provide tools that may enable the Greater Region's decision-makers and health professionals to implement targeted and cost-effective prevention strategies. PMID:21078172

  19. Clustering of and risk factors for the porcine high fever disease in a region of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Le, H; Poljak, Z; Deardon, R; Dewey, C E

    2012-02-01

    Porcine high fever disease (PHFD) emerged in 2006 in China and spread to Vietnam. Little work has been carried out to investigate PHFD risk factors and space-time dynamics. To fill this gap, we investigated probable cases of PHFD at household level as the outcome. A study area, approximately 100 sq. km, was selected from a province of southern Vietnam that had reported the outbreak of PHFD in 2008. A survey was conducted in the study area to collect information about swine health problems during 2008. The questionnaire included three sections: general information, clinical signs of disease in pigs and production factors believed to be risk factors. Cases were defined at the household level and included interpretation of clinical signs in series. Logistic regression with a random intercept at the hamlet level was used to assess risk factors for PHFD at the household level. Spatial clustering was investigated using the D-function and a Cuzick-Edward's test. Spatial clusters were evaluated using a spatial relative risk surface and the spatial scan statistic using a Bernoulli model. Space-time clustering was explored using a space-time K-function and Knox's test. Space-time clusters were evaluated using a space-time permutation model in SaTScan. Of 955 households with questionnaire data, 33.4% were classified as cases. The statistical significance of space and space-time clustering differed between methods employed. The risk factors associated with occurrence of cases were higher numbers of sows and finishing pigs (log 2 transformed), receiving pigs from an external source and the interaction between using 'water green crop' (WGC) as pig feed and owning ducks with or without direct contact with pigs. The interaction between the presence of ducks and feeding WGC to pigs suggested the involvement of pathogens that might be present in water (environment) and could further replicate in or on ducks.

  20. Multi-scale visual analysis of time-varying electrocorticography data via clustering of brain regions.

    PubMed

    Murugesan, Sugeerth; Bouchard, Kristofer; Chang, Edward; Dougherty, Max; Hamann, Bernd; Weber, Gunther H

    2017-06-06

    There exists a need for effective and easy-to-use software tools supporting the analysis of complex Electrocorticography (ECoG) data. Understanding how epileptic seizures develop or identifying diagnostic indicators for neurological diseases require the in-depth analysis of neural activity data from ECoG. Such data is multi-scale and is of high spatio-temporal resolution. Comprehensive analysis of this data should be supported by interactive visual analysis methods that allow a scientist to understand functional patterns at varying levels of granularity and comprehend its time-varying behavior. We introduce a novel multi-scale visual analysis system, ECoG ClusterFlow, for the detailed exploration of ECoG data. Our system detects and visualizes dynamic high-level structures, such as communities, derived from the time-varying connectivity network. The system supports two major views: 1) an overview summarizing the evolution of clusters over time and 2) an electrode view using hierarchical glyph-based design to visualize the propagation of clusters in their spatial, anatomical context. We present case studies that were performed in collaboration with neuroscientists and neurosurgeons using simulated and recorded epileptic seizure data to demonstrate our system's effectiveness. ECoG ClusterFlow supports the comparison of spatio-temporal patterns for specific time intervals and allows a user to utilize various clustering algorithms. Neuroscientists can identify the site of seizure genesis and its spatial progression during various the stages of a seizure. Our system serves as a fast and powerful means for the generation of preliminary hypotheses that can be used as a basis for subsequent application of rigorous statistical methods, with the ultimate goal being the clinical treatment of epileptogenic zones.

  1. Multi-scale visual analysis of time-varying electrocorticography data via clustering of brain regions

    DOE PAGES

    Murugesan, Sugeerth; Bouchard, Kristofer; Chang, Edward; ...

    2017-06-06

    There exists a need for effective and easy-to-use software tools supporting the analysis of complex Electrocorticography (ECoG) data. Understanding how epileptic seizures develop or identifying diagnostic indicators for neurological diseases require the in-depth analysis of neural activity data from ECoG. Such data is multi-scale and is of high spatio-temporal resolution. Comprehensive analysis of this data should be supported by interactive visual analysis methods that allow a scientist to understand functional patterns at varying levels of granularity and comprehend its time-varying behavior. We introduce a novel multi-scale visual analysis system, ECoG ClusterFlow, for the detailed exploration of ECoG data. Our systemmore » detects and visualizes dynamic high-level structures, such as communities, derived from the time-varying connectivity network. The system supports two major views: 1) an overview summarizing the evolution of clusters over time and 2) an electrode view using hierarchical glyph-based design to visualize the propagation of clusters in their spatial, anatomical context. We present case studies that were performed in collaboration with neuroscientists and neurosurgeons using simulated and recorded epileptic seizure data to demonstrate our system's effectiveness. ECoG ClusterFlow supports the comparison of spatio-temporal patterns for specific time intervals and allows a user to utilize various clustering algorithms. Neuroscientists can identify the site of seizure genesis and its spatial progression during various the stages of a seizure. Our system serves as a fast and powerful means for the generation of preliminary hypotheses that can be used as a basis for subsequent application of rigorous statistical methods, with the ultimate goal being the clinical treatment of epileptogenic zones.« less

  2. Prediction of maize single cross hybrids using the total effects of associated markers approach assessed by cross-validation and regional trials.

    PubMed

    Melo, Wagner Mateus Costa; Pinho, Renzo Garcia Von; Balestre, Marcio

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to predict the performance of maize hybrids and assess whether the total effects of associated markers (TEAM) method can correctly predict hybrids using cross-validation and regional trials. The training was performed in 7 locations of Southern Brazil during the 2010/11 harvest. The regional assays were conducted in 6 different South Brazilian locations during the 2011/12 harvest. In the training trial, 51 lines from different backgrounds were used to create 58 single cross hybrids. Seventy-nine microsatellite markers were used to genotype these 51 lines. In the cross-validation method the predictive accuracy ranged from 0.10 to 0.96, depending on the sample size. Furthermore, the accuracy was 0.30 when the values of hybrids that were not used in the training population (119) were predicted for the regional assays. Regarding selective loss, the TEAM method correctly predicted 50% of the hybrids selected in the regional assays. There was also loss in only 33% of cases; that is, only 33% of the materials predicted to be good in training trial were considered to be bad in regional assays. Our results show that the predictive validation of different crop conditions is possible, and the cross-validation results strikingly represented the field performance.

  3. NEAR-INFRARED IMAGING AND SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY OF THE SOUTHERN REGION OF THE YOUNG OPEN CLUSTER NGC 2264

    SciTech Connect

    Marinas, Naibi; Lada, Elizabeth A.; Teixiera, Paula S.; Lada, Charles J.

    2013-08-01

    We have obtained JHK near-IR images and JH band low-resolution spectra of candidate members of the southern region of the young open cluster NGC 2264. We have determined spectral types from H-band spectra for 54 sources, 25 of which are classified for the first time. The stars in our sample cover a large range of spectral types (A8-M8). Using a cluster distance of 780 pc, we determined a median age of 1 Myr for this region of NGC 2264, with 90% of the stars being 5 Myr or younger. To improve the statistical significance of our sample, we included 66 additional cluster members within our field of view with optical spectral classification in the literature. We derived infrared excesses using stellar properties to model the photospheric emission for each source and the extinction to correct FLAMINGOS near-IR and Spitzer mid-IR photometry, and obtained a disk fraction of 51% {+-} 5% for the region. Binning the stars by stellar mass, we find a disk fraction of 38% {+-} 9% for the 0.1-0.3 solar mass group, 55% {+-} 6% for 0.3-1 solar masses, and 58% {+-} 10% for the higher than 1 solar mass group. The lower disk fraction for the lower mass stars is similar to the results found in non-cluster regions like Taurus and Chamaeleon, but differs from the older 3 Myr cluster IC 348 in which the disk fraction is lower for the higher mass stars. This mass-dependent disk fraction is accentuated in the sample with isochrone ages younger than 2 Myr. Here, we find that 45% {+-} 11% of the 0.1-0.3 solar mass stars have disks, 60% {+-} 7% of the 0.3-1 solar mass stars have disks, and all 1-3 solar mass stars have disks. Stellar masses might be an important factor in the ability of a system to form or retain a disk early on. However, regardless of the stellar mass, the large infrared excesses expected from optically thick disks disappear within the first 2 Myr for all stars in our study and small excesses from optically thin disks are found mostly in sources younger than 4 Myr.

  4. Near-infrared Imaging and Spectroscopic Survey of the Southern Region of the Young Open Cluster NGC 2264

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariñas, Naibí; Lada, Elizabeth A.; Teixeira, Paula S.; Lada, Charles J.

    2013-08-01

    We have obtained JHK near-IR images and JH band low-resolution spectra of candidate members of the southern region of the young open cluster NGC 2264. We have determined spectral types from H-band spectra for 54 sources, 25 of which are classified for the first time. The stars in our sample cover a large range of spectral types (A8-M8). Using a cluster distance of 780 pc, we determined a median age of 1 Myr for this region of NGC 2264, with 90% of the stars being 5 Myr or younger. To improve the statistical significance of our sample, we included 66 additional cluster members within our field of view with optical spectral classification in the literature. We derived infrared excesses using stellar properties to model the photospheric emission for each source and the extinction to correct FLAMINGOS near-IR and Spitzer mid-IR photometry, and obtained a disk fraction of 51% ± 5% for the region. Binning the stars by stellar mass, we find a disk fraction of 38% ± 9% for the 0.1-0.3 solar mass group, 55% ± 6% for 0.3-1 solar masses, and 58% ± 10% for the higher than 1 solar mass group. The lower disk fraction for the lower mass stars is similar to the results found in non-cluster regions like Taurus and Chamaeleon, but differs from the older 3 Myr cluster IC 348 in which the disk fraction is lower for the higher mass stars. This mass-dependent disk fraction is accentuated in the sample with isochrone ages younger than 2 Myr. Here, we find that 45% ± 11% of the 0.1-0.3 solar mass stars have disks, 60% ± 7% of the 0.3-1 solar mass stars have disks, and all 1-3 solar mass stars have disks. Stellar masses might be an important factor in the ability of a system to form or retain a disk early on. However, regardless of the stellar mass, the large infrared excesses expected from optically thick disks disappear within the first 2 Myr for all stars in our study and small excesses from optically thin disks are found mostly in sources younger than 4 Myr. Based on observations

  5. Designing of the Information Advising System to Assess the Potential of Creation and Development of Cluster Agglomeration in the Industrial Complex of the Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averchenkova, E. E.; Averchenkov, A. V.; Kulagina, N. A.

    2017-01-01

    The theoretical aspects of creation of the information advising system to assess the potential of development of the cluster agglomeration are described in this article. The algorithm provided in the article estimates possibilities of creation and development of the regional industrial cluster agglomeration. This article describes the possible use of the information advising system of the evaluation and diagnostic type in making managerial decisions by the participants of the technology innovation cluster.

  6. Integrated land use and regional resource management--a cross-disciplinary dialogue on future perspectives for a sustainable development of regional resources.

    PubMed

    Fürst, Christine; Helming, Katharina; Lorz, Carsten; Müller, Felix; Verburg, Peter H

    2013-09-01

    Our paper introduces objectives and ideas of the special issue "Integrated land use and regional resource management - A cross-disciplinary dialogue on future perspectives for a sustainable development of regional resources" and provides an overview on the contributions of the single papers in the special issue to this topic. Furthermore, we discuss and present major challenges and demands on integrated land use and regional resource management and we come up with an analytical framework how to correspond these demands.

  7. Spatial clusters of violent deaths in a newly urbanized region of Brazil: highlighting the social disparities

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Deaths due to homicides and traffic accidents among youth are a public health issue worldwide. Studies of the complex network of cause and effect on this topic point to both poverty and health inequalities. Different investigational approaches to intentional and unintentional deaths combined with socioeconomic variables can help create a better understanding of the association between violence and socioeconomic conditions. This study analyzed the spatial distribution and potential clusters of risk for intentional and unintentional deaths among youths aged 15-24 years in Goiânia, a newly urbanized city in central Brazil. Methods Death data and residential addresses were extracted from the national Mortality Information System and validated by household visits. To detect all potential cases, we prospectively investigated every death classified as a transport accident, assault, legal intervention, intentional self-harm, unknown underlying cause, and undetermined intent according to the ICD-10. The Geographical Information System was used to plot residential addresses, and cases were interactively geocoded to the residential address level using a digital map of the municipality. Spatial scan statistic was applied (Poisson model) to identify clusters of census tracts with high mortality due to intentional injuries and traffic accidents. The socioeconomic variables obtained using census data were compared between the most likely cluster and other areas of the municipality. Results The most violent deaths among young people were due to intentional injuries. Between August 2005 and August 2006, 145 addresses for cases of intentional injuries and traffic accidents were located and geocoded. No significant clusters for deaths due to traffic accidents were found within the municipality. One significant cluster (RR = 4.65; p = 0.029) composed of 14 cases of intentional deaths, mostly homicides, was detected in an emergent, populated, and very poor area on the

  8. Is human Achilles tendon deformation greater in regions where cross-sectional area is smaller?

    PubMed

    Reeves, Neil D; Cooper, Glen

    2017-05-01

    The Achilles is a long tendon varying in cross-sectional area (CSA) considerably along its length. For the same force, a smaller CSA would experience higher tendon stress and we hypothesised that these areas would therefore undergo larger transverse deformations. A novel magnetic resonance imaging-based approach was implemented to quantify changes in tendon CSA from rest along the length of the Achilles tendon under load conditions corresponding to 10%, 20% and 30% of isometric plantar flexor maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Reductions in tendon CSA occurring during contraction from the resting condition were assumed to be proportional to the longitudinal elongations within those regions (Poisson's ratio). Rather than tendon regions of smallest CSA undergoing the greatest deformations, the outcome was region specific, with the proximal (gastrocnemius) tendon portion showing larger transverse deformations upon loading compared with the distal portion of the Achilles (P<0.01). Transverse tendon deformation only occurred in selected regions of the distal Achilles tendon at 20% and 30% of MVC, but in contrast occurred throughout the proximal portion of the Achilles at all contraction levels (10%, 20% and 30% of MVC; P<0.01). Calculations showed that force on the proximal tendon portion was ∼60% lower, stress ∼70% lower, stiffness ∼30% lower and Poisson's ratio 6-fold higher compared with those for the distal portion of the Achilles tendon. These marked regional differences in mechanical properties may allow the proximal portion to function as a mechanical buffer to protect the stiffer, more highly stressed, distal portion of the Achilles tendon from injury. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Photonuclear reaction as a probe for α -clustering nuclei in the quasi-deuteron region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, B. S.; Ma, Y. G.; He, W. B.

    2017-03-01

    Photon-nuclear reaction in a transport model frame, namely an extended quantum molecular dynamics model, has been realized at the photon energy of 70-140 MeV in the quasi-deuteron regime. For an important application, we pay a special focus on photonuclear reactions of 12C(γ ,n p )10B where 12C is considered as different configurations including α clustering. Obvious differences for some observables have been observed among different configurations, which can be attributed to spatial-momentum correlation of a neutron-proton pair inside nucleus, and therefore it gives us a sensitive probe to distinguish the different configurations including α clustering with the help of the photonuclear reaction mechanism.

  10. Using generalized cross-validation to select parameters in inversions for regional carbon fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krakauer, Nir Y.; Schneider, Tapio; Randerson, James T.; Olsen, Seth C.

    2004-10-01

    Estimating CO2 fluxes from the pattern of atmospheric CO2 concentrations with atmospheric transport models is an ill-posed inverse problem, whose solution is stabilized using prior information. Weights assigned to prior information and to CO2 concentrations at different locations are quantified by parameters that are not well known, and differences in the choice of these parameters contribute to differences among published estimates of the regional partitioning of CO2 fluxes. Following the TransCom 3 protocol to estimate CO2 fluxes for 1992-1996, we find that the partitioning of the CO2 sink between land and oceans and between North America and Eurasia depends on parameters that quantify the relative weight given to prior flux estimates and the extent to which CO2 concentrations at different stations are differentially weighted. Parameter values that minimize an estimated prediction error can be chosen by generalized cross-validation (GCV). The GCV parameter values yield fluxes in northern regions similar to those obtained with the TransCom parameter values, but the GCV fluxes are smaller in the poorly constrained equatorial and southern regions.

  11. Regional and global variations in the temporal clustering of tectonic tremor activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idehara, Koki; Yabe, Suguru; Ide, Satoshi

    2014-12-01

    The temporal distribution of tremor activity exhibits a highly non-Poissonian behavior, and its maximum period of non-Poissonian clustering statistically describes the recurrence interval of major tremor bursts. Here, we examine variations in the temporal clustering properties of tremor activity by assessing their characteristic times, which are determined by the maximum period of the non-Poissonian distribution. By applying a two-point correlation integral to some of the world's major tremor zones, including Shikoku, Kii-Tokai, and Kyushu in Japan; Cascadia, Jalisco, and Guerrero in Mexico; southern Chile; Taiwan; and Manawatu in New Zealand, we reveal local spatial variations in the temporal clustering properties in each tremor zone and show global-scale variations in tremor activity. The spatial variation in local tremor activity is characterized by a gradual transition in the along-dip direction and shorter-wavelength heterogeneities in the along-strike direction, possibly associated with a spatial change in frictional conditions at the plate interface and rheological conditions in the surrounding materials. The characteristic time correlates positively with locally measured median tremor duration, implying an inherent correlation between the moment release rate and the recurrence interval of tremors.

  12. Association between payments from manufacturers of pharmaceuticals to physicians and regional prescribing: cross sectional ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Shantanu; King, Marissa; Venkatesh, Arjun K; Krumholz, Harlan M; McKee, Douglas; Brown, Douglas; Ross, Joseph S

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between payments made by the manufacturers of pharmaceuticals to physicians and prescribing by physicians within hospital referral regions. Design Cross sectional analysis of 2013 and 2014 Open Payments and Medicare Part D prescribing data for two classes of commonly prescribed, commonly marketed drugs: oral anticoagulants and non-insulin diabetes drugs, overall and stratified by physician and payment type. Setting 306 hospital referral regions, United States. Participants 45 949 454 Medicare Part D prescriptions written by 623 886 physicians to 10 513 173 patients for two drug classes: oral anticoagulants and non-insulin diabetes drugs. Main outcome measures Proportion, or market share, of marketed oral anticoagulants and non-insulin diabetes drugs prescribed by physicians among all drugs in each class and within hospital referral regions. Results Among 306 hospital referral regions, there were 977 407 payments to physicians totaling $61 026 140 (£46 174 600; €54 632 500) related to oral anticoagulants, and 1 787 884 payments totaling $108 417 616 related to non-insulin diabetes drugs. The median market share of the hospital referral regions was 21.6% for marketed oral anticoagulants and 12.6% for marketed non-insulin diabetes drugs. Among hospital referral regions, one additional payment (median value $13, interquartile range, $10-$18) was associated with 94 (95% confidence interval 76 to 112) additional days filled of marketed oral anticoagulants and 107 (89 to 125) additional days filled of marketed non-insulin diabetes drugs (P<0.001). Payments to specialists were associated with greater prescribing of marketed drugs than payments to non-specialists (212 v 100 additional days filled per payment of marketed oral anticoagulants, 331 v 114 for marketed non-insulin diabetes drugs, P<0.001). Payments for speaker and consulting fees for non-insulin diabetes drugs were associated with

  13. Space, energy and anisotropy effects on effective cross sections and diffusion coefficients in the resonance region

    SciTech Connect

    Meftah, B.

    1982-01-01

    Present methods used in reactor analysis do not include adequately the effect of anisotropic scattering in the calculation of resonance effective cross sections. Also the assumption that the streaming term ..cap omega...del Phi is conserved when the total, absorption and transfer cross sections are conserved, is bad because the leakage from a heterogeneous cell will not be conserved and is strongly anisotropic. A third major consideration is the coupling between different regions in a multiregion reactor; currently this effect is being completely ignored. To assess the magnitude of these effects, a code based on integral transport formalism with linear anisotropic scattering was developed. Also, a more adequate formulation of the diffusion coefficient in a heterogeneous cell was derived. Two reactors, one fast, ZPR-6/5, and one thermal, TRX-3, were selected for the study. The study showed that, in general, the inclusion of linear scattering anisotropy increases the cell effective capture cross section of U-238. The increase was up to 2% in TRX-3 and 0.5% in ZPR-6/5. The effect on the multiplication factor was -0.003% ..delta..k/k for ZPR-6/5 and -0.05% ..delta..k/k for TRX-3. For the case of the diffusion coefficient, the combined effect of heterogeneity and linear anisotropy gave an increase of up to 29% in the parallel diffusion coefficient of TRX-3 and 5% in the parallel diffusion coefficient of ZPR-6/5. In contrast, the change in the perpendicular diffusion coefficient did not exceed 2% in both systems.

  14. Fluids confined in wedges and by edges: From cluster integrals to thermodynamic properties referred to different regions.

    PubMed

    Urrutia, Ignacio

    2015-06-28

    Recently, new insights into the relation between the geometry of the vessel that confines a fluid and its thermodynamic properties were traced through the study of cluster integrals for inhomogeneous fluids. In this work, I analyze the thermodynamic properties of fluids confined in wedges or by edges, emphasizing on the question of the region to which these properties refer. In this context, the relations between the line-thermodynamic properties referred to different regions are derived as analytic functions of the dihedral angle α, for 0 < α < 2π, which enables a unified approach to both edges and wedges. As a simple application of these results, I analyze the properties of the confined gas in the low-density regime. Finally, using recent analytic results for the second cluster integral of the confined hard sphere fluid, the low density behavior of the line thermodynamic properties is analytically studied up to order two in the density for 0 < α < 2π and by adopting different reference regions.

  15. Fluids confined in wedges and by edges: From cluster integrals to thermodynamic properties referred to different regions

    SciTech Connect

    Urrutia, Ignacio

    2015-06-28

    Recently, new insights into the relation between the geometry of the vessel that confines a fluid and its thermodynamic properties were traced through the study of cluster integrals for inhomogeneous fluids. In this work, I analyze the thermodynamic properties of fluids confined in wedges or by edges, emphasizing on the question of the region to which these properties refer. In this context, the relations between the line-thermodynamic properties referred to different regions are derived as analytic functions of the dihedral angle α, for 0 < α < 2π, which enables a unified approach to both edges and wedges. As a simple application of these results, I analyze the properties of the confined gas in the low-density regime. Finally, using recent analytic results for the second cluster integral of the confined hard sphere fluid, the low density behavior of the line thermodynamic properties is analytically studied up to order two in the density for 0 < α < 2π and by adopting different reference regions.

  16. Measurement of Neutron Capture Cross Section of 62Ni in the keV-Region

    SciTech Connect

    Alpizar-Vicente, A. M.; Hatarik, R.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Esch, E.-I.; Haight, R. C.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Reifarth, R.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.; Greife, U.

    2006-03-13

    The neutron capture cross section of 62Ni, relative to gold as a standard, was determined in the energy range from 250 eV to 100 keV. This energy range covers the region between 5 keV to 20 keV, which is not available in ENDF. Capture events are detected with the 160-fold 4{pi} BaF2 Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. One of the challenges was to process the high count rate of 4 MHz, which required an optimization of the data acquisition software. The neutron energy was determined by the time-of-flight technique using a flight path of 20.25 m. The sample mass of the 96% enriched 62Ni target was 210 mg and it was mounted in a 1.5 {mu}m thick Mylar foil.

  17. Cross-region reduction in 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in Alzheimer's disease brain.

    PubMed

    Condliffe, Daniel; Wong, Andrew; Troakes, Claire; Proitsi, Petroula; Patel, Yogen; Chouliaras, Leonidas; Fernandes, Cathy; Cooper, Jonathan; Lovestone, Simon; Schalkwyk, Leonard; Mill, Jonathan; Lunnon, Katie

    2014-08-01

    Epigenetic processes play a key role in the central nervous system and altered levels of 5-methylcytosine have been associated with a number of neurologic phenotypes, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, 3 additional cytosine modifications have been identified (5-hydroxymethylcytosine, 5-formylcytosine, and 5-carboxylcytosine), which are thought to be intermediate steps in the demethylation of 5-methylcytosine to unmodified cytosine. Little is known about the frequency of these modifications in the human brain during health or disease. In this study, we used immunofluorescence to confirm the presence of each modification in human brain and investigate their cross-tissue abundance in AD patients and elderly control samples. We identify a significant AD-associated decrease in global 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in entorhinal cortex and cerebellum, and differences in 5-formylcytosine levels between brain regions. Our study further implicates a role for epigenetic alterations in AD.

  18. Cross-sectional survey on helminth infections of chickens in the Samsun region, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kurt, M; Acici, M

    2008-06-01

    A cross-sectional survey was performed to determine the prevalence and intensity of helminth infections in 185 chickens from nine districts in the Samsun region, northern Turkey between July 1999 and June 2000. In total, 88% of 83 scavenging chickens and 4% of 52 layers from laying batteries were infected, but none of the 50 broilers harboured helminths in the alimentary tract or trachea. The difference in prevalence was statistically significant among broilers, layers from laying batteries and scavenging chickens. A total of 16 different species were detected. The helminth species found were: Davainea proglottina (23%), Raillietina echinobothrida (13%), Raillietina cesticillus (12%), Hymenolepis carioca (10%), Raillietina tetragona (6%), Choanotaenia. infundibulum (2%), Amoebotaenia cuneata (2%), Echinoparyhium recurvatum (1%), Echinostoma revolutum (1%), Heterakis gallinarum (29%), Ascaridia galli (16%), Capillaria caudinflata (12%), Capillaria retusa (6%), Capillaria bursata (4%), Capillaria annulata (1%) and Syngamus trachea (2%).

  19. Cross-comparison of leaching strains isolated from two different regions: Chambishi and Dexing copper mines.

    PubMed

    Ngom, Baba; Liang, Yili; Liu, Xueduan

    2014-01-01

    A cross-comparison of six strains isolated from two different regions, Chambishi copper mine (Zambia, Africa) and Dexing copper mine (China, Asia), was conducted to study the leaching efficiency of low grade copper ores. The strains belong to the three major species often encountered in bioleaching of copper sulfide ores under mesophilic conditions: Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, and Leptospirillum ferriphilum. Prior to their study in bioleaching, the different strains were characterized and compared at physiological level. The results revealed that, except for copper tolerance, strains within species presented almost similar physiological traits with slight advantages of Chambishi strains. However, in terms of leaching efficiency, native strains always achieved higher cell density and greater iron and copper extraction rates than the foreign microorganisms. In addition, microbial community analysis revealed that the different mixed cultures shared almost the same profile, and At. ferrooxidans strains always outcompeted the other strains.

  20. Cross-Comparison of Leaching Strains Isolated from Two Different Regions: Chambishi and Dexing Copper Mines

    PubMed Central

    Ngom, Baba; Liang, Yili; Liu, Xueduan

    2014-01-01

    A cross-comparison of six strains isolated from two different regions, Chambishi copper mine (Zambia, Africa) and Dexing copper mine (China, Asia), was conducted to study the leaching efficiency of low grade copper ores. The strains belong to the three major species often encountered in bioleaching of copper sulfide ores under mesophilic conditions: Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, and Leptospirillum ferriphilum. Prior to their study in bioleaching, the different strains were characterized and compared at physiological level. The results revealed that, except for copper tolerance, strains within species presented almost similar physiological traits with slight advantages of Chambishi strains. However, in terms of leaching efficiency, native strains always achieved higher cell density and greater iron and copper extraction rates than the foreign microorganisms. In addition, microbial community analysis revealed that the different mixed cultures shared almost the same profile, and At. ferrooxidans strains always outcompeted the other strains. PMID:25478575

  1. Studying the Permian cross-section (Volga region) using chemical and isotopic investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gareev, Bulat; Georgii, Batalin; Nurgaliev, Danis; Nurgalieva, Nuriya

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a study of international important site: the cross-section of Permian system's Urzhumian Stage in the ravine "Pechischy". Outcrop is located on the right bank of the Volga River (about 10 km West of Kazan). It has local, regional and planetary correlation features and also footprints of different geographical scale events. The main objective in the research is the deep study of sediments using chemical and isotopic investigations. XRF spectrometer was used for chemical investigations of samples. Chemistry of carbonates and clastic rocks includes the analysis of chemical elements, compounds, petrochemical (lithogeochemical) modules for the interpretation of the genesis of lithotypes. For the review of the geochemistry of stable isotopes of carbon (oxygen) we used IRMS. The main objective is the nature of the isotope fractionation issues, to addressing the issues of stratigraphy and paleogeography. The measurements have shown the variability of chemical parameters in cross-section. It gives us opportunity to see small changes in sedimentation and recognize the factors that influence to the process. The work was carried out according to the Russian Government's Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University, supported by the grant provided to the Kazan State University for performing the state program in the field of scientific research.

  2. Towards tract-specific fractional anisotropy (TSFA) at crossing-fiber regions with clinical diffusion MRI

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Virendra; Guo, Xiaohu; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Huang, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Purpose White matter fractional anisotropy (FA), a measure implying microstructure, is significantly underestimated with single diffusion tensor model at crossing-fiber regions (CFR). We propose a tract-specific FA (TSFA), corrected for the effects of crossing-fiber geometry and free water at CFR, and adapted for tract analysis with diffusion MRI (dMRI) in clinical research. Methods At CFR voxels, the proposed technique estimates free water fraction (fiso) as a linear function of mean apparent diffusion coefficient (mADC), fits the dual tensors and estimates TSFA. Digital phantoms were designed for testing the accuracy of fiso and fitted dual-anisotropies at CFR. The technique was applied to clinical dMRI of normal subjects and hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) patients to test the effectiveness of TSFA. Results Phantom simulation showed unbiased estimates of dual-tensor anisotropies at CFR and high accuracy of fiso as a linear function of mADC. TSFA at CFR was highly consistent to the single tensor FA at non-CFR within the same tract with normal human dMRI. Additional HSP imaging biomarkers with significant correlation to clinical motor function scores could be identified with TSFA. Conclusion Results suggest the potential of the proposed technique in estimating unbiased TSFA at CFR and conducting tract analysis in clinical research. PMID:25447208

  3. Cross-stream ejection in the inter-wheel region of aircraft landing gears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Philip; Ekmekci, Alis

    2014-11-01

    The reduction of aircraft noise is an important challenge currently faced by aircraft manufacturers. During approach and landing, the landing gears contribute a significant proportion of the aircraft generated noise. It is therefore critical that the key noise sources be identified and understood in order for effective mitigation methods to be developed. For a simplified two-wheel nose landing gear, a strong cross stream flow ejection phenomena has been observed to occur in the inter-wheel region in presence of wheel wells. The location and orientation of these flow ejections causes highly unsteady, three dimensional flow between the wheels that may impinge on other landing gear components, thereby potentially acting as a significant noise generator. The effects of changing the inter-wheel geometry (inter-wheel spacing, the wheel well depth and main strut geometry) upon the cross-stream ejection behaviour has been experimentally investigated using both qualitative flow visualisation and quantitative PIV techniques. A summary of the key results will be presented for the three main geometrical parameters under examination and the application of these findings to real life landing gears will be discussed. Thanks to Messier-Bugatti-Dowty and NSERC for their support for this project.

  4. Studying the Permian Cross-section (Volga Region) Using Chemical and Isotopic Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gareev, B. I.; Batalin, G. A.; Nurgalieva, N. G.; Nourgaliev, D. K.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a study of international important site: the cross-section of Permian system's Urzhumian Stagein the ravine "Pechischy". Outcrop is located on the right bank of the Volga River (about 10 km West of Kazan). Ithas local, regional and planetary correlation features and also footprints of different geographical scale events.The main objective in the research is the deep study of sediments using chemical and isotopic investigations. XRFspectrometer was used for chemical investigations of samples. Chemistry of carbonates and clastic rocks includesthe analysis of chemical elements, compounds, petrochemical (lithogeochemical) modules for the interpretationof the genesis of lithotypes. For the review of the geochemistry of stable isotopes of carbon (oxygen) we usedIRMS. The main objective is the nature of the isotope fractionation issues, to addressing the issues of stratigraphyand paleogeography.The measurements have shown the variability of chemical parameters in cross-section. It gives us opportunity tosee small changes in sedimentation and recognize the factors that influence to the process.The work was carried out according to the Russian Government's Program of Competitive Growth of KazanFederal University, supported by the grant provided to the Kazan State University for performing the state programin the field of scientific research.

  5. Regional stratigraphic cross sections of Cretaceous rocks from east-central Arizona to the Oklahoma Panhandle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Molenaar, C.M.; Cobban, W.A.; Merewether, E.A.; Pillmore, C.L.; Wolfe, D.G.; Holbrook, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Sedimentary rocks of Cretaceous age along Transect DD'' in eastern Arizona, northern New Mexico, southern Colorado, and western Oklahoma consist mainly of sandstone, siltstone, shale, limestone, and bentonite. They accumulated as sediments in continental, nearshore marine, and offshore marine environments on the west side of a north-trending epicontinental sea. The rocks record intermittent deposition and erosion as well as regional and local subsidence and uplift possibly beginning in Aptian time (about 121-112 Ma) and occurring in Albian through Maastrichtian time (about 112-65.4 Ma). Most of the Lower Cretaceous (Berriasian through Aptian, 142-112 Ma) in this transect is represented by a basal unconformity. The Cretaceous rocks and unconformities along the transect are depicted on the attached lithostratigraphic cross sections (sheets 1 and 2); one extending from the Mogollon Rim in eastern Arizona to Pagosa Springs in southwestern Colorado and the other from Pagosa Springs, Colorado, to Kenton in western Oklahoma. The same rocks and unconformities are also represented on the attached chronostratigraphic profile (sheet 3), which was prepared mainly from surface and subsurface data shown on the lithostratigraphic cross sections.

  6. Absorption cross-sections of ozone in the ultraviolet and visible spectral regions: Status report 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orphal, Johannes; Staehelin, Johannes; Tamminen, Johanna; Braathen, Geir; De Backer, Marie-Renée; Bais, Alkiviadis; Balis, Dimitris; Barbe, Alain; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Birk, Manfred; Burkholder, James B.; Chance, Kelly; von Clarmann, Thomas; Cox, Anthony; Degenstein, Doug; Evans, Robert; Flaud, Jean-Marie; Flittner, David; Godin-Beekmann, Sophie; Gorshelev, Viktor; Gratien, Aline; Hare, Edward; Janssen, Christof; Kyrölä, Erkki; McElroy, Thomas; McPeters, Richard; Pastel, Maud; Petersen, Michael; Petropavlovskikh, Irina; Picquet-Varrault, Benedicte; Pitts, Michael; Labow, Gordon; Rotger-Languereau, Maud; Leblanc, Thierry; Lerot, Christophe; Liu, Xiong; Moussay, Philippe; Redondas, Alberto; Van Roozendael, Michel; Sander, Stanley P.; Schneider, Matthias; Serdyuchenko, Anna; Veefkind, Pepijn; Viallon, Joële; Viatte, Camille; Wagner, Georg; Weber, Mark; Wielgosz, Robert I.; Zehner, Claus

    2016-09-01

    . For ground-based Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) measurements the use of BDM (1995) or SER (2014) is recommended. For satellite retrieval the presently widely used data of BDM (1995) should be used because SER (2014) seems less suitable for retrievals that use wavelengths close to 300 nm due to a deficiency in the signal-to-noise ratio in the SER (2014) dataset. The work of ACSO also showed: The need to continue laboratory cross-section measurements of ozone of highest quality. The importance of careful characterization of the uncertainties of the laboratory measurements. The need to extend the scope of such studies to other wavelength ranges (particularly to cover not only the Huggins band but also the comparison with the mid-infrared region). The need for regular cooperation of experts in spectral laboratory measurements and specialists in atmospheric (ozone) measurements.

  7. Absorption Cross-Sections of Ozone in the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectral Regions: Status report 2015

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orphal, Johannes; Staehelin, Johannes; Tamminen, Johanna; Braathen, Geir; De Backer, Marie-Renee; Bais, Alkiviadis; Balis, Dimitris; Barbe, Alain; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Birk, Manfred; hide

    2016-01-01

    diminished.(c) For ground-based Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) measurements the use of BDM (1995) or SER (2014) is recommended.(d) For satellite retrieval the presently widely used data of BDM (1995) should be used because SER (2014) seems less suitable for retrievals that use wavelengths close to 300 nm due to a deficiency in the signal-to-noise ratio in the SER (2014) dataset.The work of ACSO also showed: The need to continue laboratory cross-section measurements of ozone of highest quality. The importance of careful characterization of the uncertainties of the laboratory measurements. The need to extend the scope of such studies to other wavelength ranges (particularly to cover not only the Huggins band but also the comparison with the mid-infrared region). The need for regular cooperation of experts in spectral laboratory measurements and specialists in atmospheric (ozone) measurements.

  8. The heptide repeat 2 and upstream region of TGEV induces potent cross-neutralizing antibodies against group I coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Shi, Huiling; Wu, Nannan; Wang, Xiaoming; Wang, Tianhou

    2012-10-01

    The coronavirus heptide repeat (HR) region in the spike protein induces neutralizing antibodies that block the postfusion core formation and inhibit virus entry into target cells. The HR2 regions for coronaviruses of the same serogroup share high homology. We found that polyclonal antibodies derived from transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus HR2 and upstream region were cross-reactive with the S proteins of the same serogroup in western blotting. The polyclonal antibodies also potently cross-neutralized viruses from the same serogroup. This study provides new insight for designing vaccine and therapeutic reagents against coronavirus infections.

  9. Clustering of diet- and activity-related parenting practices: cross-sectional findings of the INPACT study.

    PubMed

    Rodenburg, Gerda; Oenema, Anke; Kremers, Stef P J; van de Mheen, Dike

    2013-03-25

    Various diet- and activity-related parenting practices are positive determinants of child dietary and activity behaviour, including home availability, parental modelling and parental policies. There is evidence that parenting practices cluster within the dietary domain and within the activity domain. This study explores whether diet- and activity-related parenting practices cluster across the dietary and activity domain. Also examined is whether the clusters are related to child and parental background characteristics. Finally, to indicate the relevance of the clusters in influencing child dietary and activity behaviour, we examined whether clusters of parenting practices are related to these behaviours. Data were used from 1480 parent-child dyads participating in the Dutch IVO Nutrition and Physical Activity Child cohorT (INPACT). Parents of children aged 8-11 years completed questionnaires at home assessing their diet- and activity-related parenting practices, child and parental background characteristics, and child dietary and activity behaviours. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify clusters of parenting practices. Backward regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between child and parental background characteristics with cluster scores, and partial correlations to examine associations between cluster scores and child dietary and activity behaviours. PCA revealed five clusters of parenting practices: 1) high visibility and accessibility of screens and unhealthy food, 2) diet- and activity-related rules, 3) low availability of unhealthy food, 4) diet- and activity-related positive modelling, and 5) positive modelling on sports and fruit. Low parental education was associated with unhealthy cluster 1, while high(er) education was associated with healthy clusters 2, 3 and 5. Separate clusters were related to both child dietary and activity behaviour in the hypothesized directions: healthy clusters were positively related to

  10. Clustering of diet- and activity-related parenting practices: cross-sectional findings of the INPACT study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Various diet- and activity-related parenting practices are positive determinants of child dietary and activity behaviour, including home availability, parental modelling and parental policies. There is evidence that parenting practices cluster within the dietary domain and within the activity domain. This study explores whether diet- and activity-related parenting practices cluster across the dietary and activity domain. Also examined is whether the clusters are related to child and parental background characteristics. Finally, to indicate the relevance of the clusters in influencing child dietary and activity behaviour, we examined whether clusters of parenting practices are related to these behaviours. Methods Data were used from 1480 parent–child dyads participating in the Dutch IVO Nutrition and Physical Activity Child cohorT (INPACT). Parents of children aged 8–11 years completed questionnaires at home assessing their diet- and activity-related parenting practices, child and parental background characteristics, and child dietary and activity behaviours. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify clusters of parenting practices. Backward regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between child and parental background characteristics with cluster scores, and partial correlations to examine associations between cluster scores and child dietary and activity behaviours. Results PCA revealed five clusters of parenting practices: 1) high visibility and accessibility of screens and unhealthy food, 2) diet- and activity-related rules, 3) low availability of unhealthy food, 4) diet- and activity-related positive modelling, and 5) positive modelling on sports and fruit. Low parental education was associated with unhealthy cluster 1, while high(er) education was associated with healthy clusters 2, 3 and 5. Separate clusters were related to both child dietary and activity behaviour in the hypothesized directions: healthy clusters

  11. Effect of classroom air quality on students' concentration: results of a cluster-randomized cross-over experimental study.

    PubMed

    Twardella, D; Matzen, W; Lahrz, T; Burghardt, R; Spegel, H; Hendrowarsito, L; Frenzel, A C; Fromme, H

    2012-10-01

    To assess the effect of indoor air quality as indicated by the median carbon dioxide (CO₂) level in the classroom on the concentration performance (CP) of students, a cross-over cluster-randomized experimental study was conducted in 20 classrooms with mechanical ventilation systems. Test conditions 'worse' (median CO₂ level on average 2115 ppm) and 'better' (median CO₂ level on average 1045 ppm) were established by the regulation of the mechanical ventilation system on two days in one week each in every classroom. Concentration performance was quantified in students of grade three and four by the use of the d2-test and its primary parameter 'CP' and secondary parameters 'total number of characters processed' (TN) and 'total number of errors' (TE). 2366 d2-tests from 417 students could be used in analysis. In hierarchical linear regression accounting for repeated measurements, no significant effect of the experimental condition on CP or TN could be observed. However, TE was increased significantly by 1.65 (95% confidence interval 0.42-2.87) in 'worse' compared to 'better' condition. Thus, low air quality in classrooms as indicated by increased CO₂ levels does not reduce overall short-term CP in students, but appears to increase the error rate. This study could not confirm that low air quality in classrooms as indicated by increased CO₂ levels reduces short-term concentration performance (CP) in students; however, it appears to affect processing accuracy negatively. To ensure a high level of accuracy, good air quality characterized, for example, by low CO₂ concentration should be maintained in classrooms. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Visualization of heterogeneity and regional grading of gliomas by multiple features using magnetic resonance-based clustered images

    PubMed Central

    Inano, Rika; Oishi, Naoya; Kunieda, Takeharu; Arakawa, Yoshiki; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Miyamoto, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Preoperative glioma grading is important for therapeutic strategies and influences prognosis. Intratumoral heterogeneity can cause an underestimation of grading because of the sampling error in biopsies. We developed a voxel-based unsupervised clustering method with multiple magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived features using a self-organizing map followed by K-means. This method produced novel magnetic resonance-based clustered images (MRcIs) that enabled the visualization of glioma grades in 36 patients. The 12-class MRcIs revealed the highest classification performance for the prediction of glioma grading (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.928; 95% confidential interval = 0.920–0.936). Furthermore, we also created 12-class MRcIs in four new patients using the previous data from the 36 patients as training data and obtained tissue sections of the classes 11 and 12, which were significantly higher in high-grade gliomas (HGGs), and those of classes 4, 5 and 9, which were not significantly different between HGGs and low-grade gliomas (LGGs), according to a MRcI-based navigational system. The tissues of classes 11 and 12 showed features of malignant glioma, whereas those of classes 4, 5 and 9 showed LGGs without anaplastic features. These results suggest that the proposed voxel-based clustering method provides new insights into preoperative regional glioma grading. PMID:27456199

  13. Neutron Cross Section Processing Methods for Improved Integral Benchmarking of Unresolved Resonance Region Evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Jonathan A.; Forget, Benoit; Smith, Kord S.; Brown, Forrest B.

    2016-03-01

    In this work we describe the development and application of computational methods for processing neutron cross section data in the unresolved resonance region (URR). These methods are integrated with a continuous-energy Monte Carlo neutron transport code, thereby enabling their use in high-fidelity analyses. Enhanced understanding of the effects of URR evaluation representations on calculated results is then obtained through utilization of the methods in Monte Carlo integral benchmark simulations of fast spectrum critical assemblies. First, we present a so-called on-the-fly (OTF) method for calculating and Doppler broadening URR cross sections. This method proceeds directly from ENDF-6 average unresolved resonance parameters and, thus, eliminates any need for a probability table generation pre-processing step in which tables are constructed at several energies for all desired temperatures. Significant memory reduction may be realized with the OTF method relative to a probability table treatment if many temperatures are needed. Next, we examine the effects of using a multi-level resonance formalism for resonance reconstruction in the URR. A comparison of results obtained by using the same stochastically-generated realization of resonance parameters in both the single-level Breit-Wigner (SLBW) and multi-level Breit-Wigner (MLBW) formalisms allows for the quantification of level-level interference effects on integrated tallies such as keff and energy group reaction rates. Though, as is well-known, cross section values at any given incident energy may differ significantly between single-level and multi-level formulations, the observed effects on integral results are minimal in this investigation. Finally, we demonstrate the calculation of true expected values, and the statistical spread of those values, through independent Monte Carlo simulations, each using an independent realization of URR cross section structure throughout. It is observed that both probability table

  14. Search for OB stars running away from young star clusters. II. The NGC 6357 star-forming region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Kroupa, P.; Oh, S.

    2011-11-01

    Dynamical few-body encounters in the dense cores of young massive star clusters are responsible for the loss of a significant fraction of their massive stellar content. Some of the escaping (runaway) stars move through the ambient medium supersonically and can be revealed via detection of their bow shocks (visible in the infrared, optical or radio). In this paper, which is the second of a series of papers devoted to the search for OB stars running away from young ( ≲ several Myr) Galactic clusters and OB associations, we present the results of the search for bow shocks around the star-forming region NGC 6357. Using the archival data of the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) satellite and the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the preliminary data release of the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), we discovered seven bow shocks, whose geometry is consistent with the possibility that they are generated by stars expelled from the young (~1-2 Myr) star clusters, Pismis 24 and AH03 J1725-34.4, associated with NGC 6357. Two of the seven bow shocks are driven by the already known OB stars, HD 319881 and [N78] 34. Follow-up spectroscopy of three other bow-shock-producing stars showed that they are massive (O-type) stars as well, while the 2MASS photometry of the remaining two stars suggests that they could be B0 V stars, provided that both are located at the same distance as NGC 6357. Detection of numerous massive stars ejected from the very young clusters is consistent with the theoretical expectation that star clusters can effectively lose massive stars at the very beginning of their dynamical evolution (long before the second mechanism for production of runaway stars, based on a supernova explosion in a massive tight binary system, begins to operate) and lends strong support to the idea that probably all field OB stars have been dynamically ejected from their birth clusters. A by-product of our search for bow shocks around NGC 6357 is the detection of three circular

  15. Dynamic Trajectory Extraction from Stereo Vision Using Fuzzy Clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onishi, Masaki; Yoda, Ikushi

    In recent years, many human tracking researches have been proposed in order to analyze human dynamic trajectory. These researches are general technology applicable to various fields, such as customer purchase analysis in a shopping environment and safety control in a (railroad) crossing. In this paper, we present a new approach for tracking human positions by stereo image. We use the framework of two-stepped clustering with k-means method and fuzzy clustering to detect human regions. In the initial clustering, k-means method makes middle clusters from objective features extracted by stereo vision at high speed. In the last clustering, c-means fuzzy method cluster middle clusters based on attributes into human regions. Our proposed method can be correctly clustered by expressing ambiguity using fuzzy clustering, even when many people are close to each other. The validity of our technique was evaluated with the experiment of trajectories extraction of doctors and nurses in an emergency room of a hospital.

  16. Interpretive geologic cross sections for the Death Valley regional flow system and surrounding areas, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect

    D.S. Sweetkind; R.P. Dickerson; R.J. Blakely; P.D. Denning

    2001-11-09

    This report presents a network of 28 geologic cross sections that portray subsurface geologic relations within the Death Valley regional ground-water system, a ground-water basin that encompasses a 3 degree x 3 degree area (approximately 70,000 square kilometers) in southern Nevada and eastern California. The cross sections transect that part of the southern Great Basin that includes Death Valley, the Nevada Test Site, and the potential high-level nuclear waste underground repository at Yucca Mountain. The specific geometric relationships portrayed on the cross sections are discussed in the context of four general sub-regions that have stratigraphic similarities and general consistency of structural style: (1) the Nevada Test Site vicinity; (2) the Spring Mountains, Pahrump Valley and Amargosa Desert region; (3) the Death Valley region; and (4) the area east of the Nevada Test Site. The subsurface geologic interpretations portrayed on the cross sections are based on an integration of existing geologic maps, measured stratigraphic sections, published cross sections, well data, and geophysical data and interpretations. The estimated top of pre-Cenozoic rocks in the cross sections is based on inversion of gravity data, but the deeper parts of the sections are based on geologic conceptual models and are more speculative.

  17. Stars and Star Clusters: A Look at Intermediate-Mass Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, Michael J.; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Lau, Ryan M.

    2017-01-01

    Star-forming regions hosting intermediate-mass stars straddle the boundary separating the the low- and high-mass regimes. These intermediate-mass star-forming regions can be used to probe this transition from low- to high-mass star formation. Our team has assembled an all-sky catalog of 616 candidate intermediate-mass star forming regions (IMSFRs) selected by IRAS colors and refined by visual inspection of WISE imagery. We present here two outer-Galaxy star-forming regions, IRAS22451+6154 and IRAS23448+6010, that despite having similar IRAS colors and mid-infrared morphologies, have vastly different stellar content. We combine Gemini and IRTF NIR spectroscopy with WIYN and SOFIA imaging for a thorough look at the stellar content of these two regions.

  18. Antigenic cross-reactivity and immunogenicity of Bothrops venoms from snakes of the Amazon region.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Maria de Fátima D; Cardoso, Silvia Travaglia; Soares, Oscar Espellet; Pereira, Aparecida Pietro; Fernandes, Daniel Silva; Tambourgi, Denise Vilarinho; Sant'Anna, Osvaldo Augusto

    2010-04-01

    Snakebites are still a critical public health problem in developing countries or isolated areas. In Brazil, the North Region has a high distribution coefficient worsened by the significant number of eventually unreported cases, due to difficulties in access to health services, to the natural geographic barriers and the vast territory. In the Rio Negro area, the species Bothrops atrox, Bothrops brazili, Lachesis muta muta and Bothriopsis taeniata are thought to be the major species responsible for snakebites. The aim of this study was to qualitatively and quantitatively determine the antigenic cross-reactivity and expression of toxins and the immunogenicity of Bothrops venom species of the Amazon and to evaluate the general efficacy of the therapeutic sera. The in vivo assays demonstrated that the defibrinating activity of B. taeniata venom was absent but that the lethal and hemorrhagic properties were more intense than in the B. atrox venom. The results evidence venom variability among the two B. atrox populations from two distinct Amazonian regions, which may reveal a subjacent speciation process. The results point to new aspects that may guide the improvement of anti-Bothropic therapeutic serum. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Activation of a Silent Fungal Polyketide Biosynthesis Pathway through Regulatory Cross Talk with a Cryptic Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase Gene Cluster ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, Sebastian; Funk, Alexander N.; Scherlach, Kirstin; Schroeckh, Volker; Shelest, Ekaterina; Horn, Uwe; Hertweck, Christian; Brakhage, Axel A.

    2010-01-01

    Filamentous fungi produce numerous natural products that constitute a consistent source of potential drug leads, yet it seems that the majority of natural products are overlooked since most biosynthesis gene clusters are silent under standard cultivation conditions. Screening secondary metabolite genes of the model fungus Aspergillus nidulans, we noted a silent gene cluster on chromosome II comprising two nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes, inpA and inpB, flanked by a regulatory gene that we named scpR for secondary metabolism cross-pathway regulator. The induced expression of the scpR gene using the promoter of the alcohol dehydrogenase AlcA led to the transcriptional activation of both the endogenous scpR gene and the NRPS genes. Surprisingly, metabolic profiling of the supernatant of mycelia overexpressing scpR revealed the production of the polyketide asperfuranone. Through transcriptome analysis we found that another silent secondary metabolite gene cluster located on chromosome VIII coding for asperfuranone biosynthesis was specifically induced. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR proved the transcription not only of the corresponding polyketide synthase (PKS) biosynthesis genes, afoE and afoG, but also of their activator, afoA, under alcAp-scpR-inducing conditions. To exclude the possibility that the product of the inp cluster induced the asperfuranone gene cluster, a strain carrying a deletion of the NRPS gene inpB and, in addition, the alcAp-scpR overexpression cassette was generated. In this strain, under inducing conditions, transcripts of the biosynthesis genes of both the NRPS-containing gene cluster inp and the asperfuranone gene cluster except gene inpB were detected. Moreover, the existence of the polyketide product asperfuranone indicates that the transcription factor ScpR controls the expression of the asperfuranone biosynthesis gene cluster. This expression as well as the biosynthesis of asperfuranone was abolished after the deletion

  20. Toward Regional Clusters: Networking Events, Collaborative Research, and the Business Finder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichling, Tim; Moos, Benjamin; Rohde, Markus; Wulf, Volker

    Networks of regionally collocated organizations improve the competitiveness of their member companies. This is not only a result of lower transportation costs when delivering or purchasing physical goods but also other matters such as mutual trust or a higher diffusion of specialized knowledge among companies that have emerged as important aspects of regional networks. Even increased competition among collocated companies can lead to comparative advantages over externals as a result of an increased pressure for innovation. While the reasons why regional networks of companies offer comparative advantages has been widely investigated, the question arises as to how networks can be developed in terms of higher interconnectedness and deeper connections.

  1. Iridium Complexes and Clusters in Dealuminated Zeolite HY: Distribution between Crystalline and Impurity Amorphous Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Macias, Claudia; Xu, Pinghong; Hwang, Son-Jong; Lu, Jing; Chen, Cong-Yan; Browning, Nigel D.; Gates, Bruce C.

    2014-07-08

    Dealuminated zeolite HY was used to support Ir(CO)2 complexes formed from Ir(CO)2(C5H7O2). Infrared and X-ray absorption spectra and atomic-resolution electron microscopy images identify these complexes, and the images and 27Al NMR spectra identify impurity amorphous regions in the zeolite where the iridium is more susceptible to aggregation than in the crystalline regions. The results indicate a significant stability limitation of metal in amorphous impurity regions of zeolites.

  2. Clustering of Pre-Main-Sequence Stars in the Orion, Ophiuchus, Chamaeleon, Vela, and Lupus Star-forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Yasushi; Tachihara, Kengo; Hanawa, Tomoyuki; Nakano, Makoto

    1998-04-01

    We study clustering of pre-main-sequence stars in the Orion, Ophiuchus, Chamaeleon, Vela, and Lupus star-forming regions. We calculate the average surface density of companions, Σ(θ), as a function of angular distance, θ, from each star. We employ the method developed by Larson in a 1995 study for the calculation. In most of the regions studied, the function can be fitted by two power laws (Σ ~ θγ) with a break as found by Larson for the Taurus star-forming region. The power index, γ, is smaller at small separations than at large separations. The power index at large separations shows significant variation from region to region (-0.8 < γ < -0.1), while the power index at small separations does not (γ ~ -2). The power index at large separations relates to the distribution of the nearest-neighbor distance. When the latter can be fitted by the Poisson distribution, the power index is close to 0. When the latter is broader than the Poisson distribution, the power index is negatively large. This correlation can be interpreted as the result of the variation in the surface density within the region. At large separations, the power-law fit may indicate star formation history in the region and not the spatial structure like the self-similar hierarchical, or fractal, one. Because of the velocity dispersion, stars move from their birthplaces, and the surface density of coeval stars decreases with their age. When a star-forming region contains several groups of stars with different ages, a power law may fit the average surface density of companions for it. The break of the power law is located around 0.01-0.1 pc. There is a clear correlation between the break position and the mean nearest-neighbor distance. The break position may reflect dispersal of newly formed stars.

  3. Analyzing Flood Vulnerability Due to Sea Level Rise Using K-Means Clustering: Implications for Regional Flood Mitigation Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummel, M.; Wood, N. J.; Stacey, M. T.; Schweikert, A.; Barnard, P.; Erikson, L. H.

    2016-12-01

    The threat of tidal flooding in coastal regions is exacerbated by sea level rise (SLR), which can lead to more frequent and persistent nuisance flooding and permanent inundation of low-lying areas. When coupled with extreme storm events, SLR also increases the extent and depth of flooding due to storm surges. To mitigate these impacts, bayfront communities are considering a variety of options for shoreline protection, including restoration of natural features such as wetlands and hardening of the shoreline using levees and sea walls. These shoreline modifications can produce changes in the tidal dynamics in a basin, either by increasing dissipation of tidal energy or enhancing tidal amplification [1]. As a result, actions taken by individual communities not only impact local inundation, but can also have implications for flooding on a regional scale. However, regional collaboration is lacking in flood mitigation planning, which is often done on a community-by-community basis. This can lead to redundancy in planning efforts and can also have adverse effects on communities that are not included in discussions about shoreline infrastructure improvements. Using flooding extent outputs from a hydrodynamic model of San Francisco Bay, we performed a K-means clustering analysis to identify similarities between 65 bayfront communities in terms of the spatial, demographic, and economic characteristics of their vulnerable assets for a suite of SLR and storm scenarios. Our clustering analysis identifies communities with similar vulnerabilities and allows for more effective collaboration and decision-making at a regional level by encouraging comparable communities to work together and pool resources to find effective adaptation strategies as flooding becomes more frequent and severe. [1] Holleman RC, Stacey MT (2014) Coupling of sea level rise, tidal amplification, and inundation. Journal of Physical Oceanography 44:1439-1455.

  4. Multiple large clusters of tuberculosis in London: a cross-sectional analysis of molecular and spatial data.

    PubMed

    Smith, Catherine M; Maguire, Helen; Anderson, Charlotte; Macdonald, Neil; Hayward, Andrew C

    2017-01-01

    Large outbreaks of tuberculosis (TB) represent a particular threat to disease control because they reflect multiple instances of active transmission. The extent to which long chains of transmission contribute to high TB incidence in London is unknown. We aimed to estimate the contribution of large clusters to the burden of TB in London and identify risk factors. We identified TB patients resident in London notified between 2010 and 2014, and used 24-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number tandem repeat strain typing data to classify cases according to molecular cluster size. We used spatial scan statistics to test for spatial clustering and analysed risk factors through multinomial logistic regression. TB isolates from 7458 patients were included in the analysis. There were 20 large molecular clusters (with n>20 cases), comprising 795 (11%) of all cases; 18 (90%) large clusters exhibited significant spatial clustering. Cases in large clusters were more likely to be UK born (adjusted odds ratio 2.93, 95% CI 2.28-3.77), of black-Caribbean ethnicity (adjusted odds ratio 3.64, 95% CI 2.23-5.94) and have multiple social risk factors (adjusted odds ratio 3.75, 95% CI 1.96-7.16). Large clusters of cases contribute substantially to the burden of TB in London. Targeting interventions such as screening in deprived areas and social risk groups, including those of black ethnicities and born in the UK, should be a priority for reducing transmission.

  5. Multiple large clusters of tuberculosis in London: a cross-sectional analysis of molecular and spatial data

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Helen; Anderson, Charlotte; Macdonald, Neil; Hayward, Andrew C.

    2017-01-01

    Large outbreaks of tuberculosis (TB) represent a particular threat to disease control because they reflect multiple instances of active transmission. The extent to which long chains of transmission contribute to high TB incidence in London is unknown. We aimed to estimate the contribution of large clusters to the burden of TB in London and identify risk factors. We identified TB patients resident in London notified between 2010 and 2014, and used 24-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units–variable number tandem repeat strain typing data to classify cases according to molecular cluster size. We used spatial scan statistics to test for spatial clustering and analysed risk factors through multinomial logistic regression. TB isolates from 7458 patients were included in the analysis. There were 20 large molecular clusters (with n>20 cases), comprising 795 (11%) of all cases; 18 (90%) large clusters exhibited significant spatial clustering. Cases in large clusters were more likely to be UK born (adjusted odds ratio 2.93, 95% CI 2.28–3.77), of black-Caribbean ethnicity (adjusted odds ratio 3.64, 95% CI 2.23–5.94) and have multiple social risk factors (adjusted odds ratio 3.75, 95% CI 1.96–7.16). Large clusters of cases contribute substantially to the burden of TB in London. Targeting interventions such as screening in deprived areas and social risk groups, including those of black ethnicities and born in the UK, should be a priority for reducing transmission. PMID:28149918

  6. Constraining galaxy cluster velocity field with the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich and kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich cross-bispectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurier, G.

    2017-08-01

    The Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effects are produced by the interaction of cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons with the ionized and diffuse gas of electrons inside galaxy clusters integrated along the line of sight. The two main effects are the thermal SZ (tSZ) produced by thermal pressure inside galaxy clusters and the kinematic SZ (kSZ) produced by peculiar motion of galaxy clusters compared to CMB rest-frame. The kSZ effect is particularly challenging to measure as it follows the same spectral behavior as the CMB, and consequently cannot be separated from the CMB using spectral considerations. In this paper, we explore the feasibility of detecting the kSZ through the computation of the tSZ-CMB-CMB cross-correlation bispectrum for current and future CMB experiments. We conclude that the next generation of CMB experiments will offer the possibility to detect the tSZ-kSZ-kSZ bispectrum at high signal-to-noise ration (S/N). This measurement will constraints the intra-cluster dynamics and the velocity field of galaxy cluster that is extremely sensitive to the growth rate of structures and thus to dark energy properties. Additionally, we also demonstrate that the tSZ-kSZ-kSZ bispectrum can be used to break the degeneracies between the mass-observable relation and the cosmological parameters to set tight constraints, up to 4%, on the Y - M relation calibration.

  7. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease prevalence in urban school-aged children and adolescents from the Yangtze River delta region: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaomin; Wan, Yanping; Zhang, Shijun; Lu, Liping; Chen, Zhiqi; Liu, Hong; Jiang, Xiaomin; Luo, Kaili; Cai, Wei

    2015-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and explore the relationship of NAFLD with anthropometric parameters among school children from the Yangtze River delta region. A cross sectional study on childhood NAFLD was conducted using the stratified cluster sampling method in four regions of the Yangtze River delta in September 2009 to October 2011. In all, 7,229 students, aged 7-18 years, from 12 primary, middle and high schools participated in the study. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured; body mass index (BMI) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) were calculated and liver ultrasonography was performed. The overall NAFLD prevalence was 5.0%; 7.5% in boys, 2.5% in girls, 5.6% in subjects with peripheral obesity, 12.9% in those with abdominal obesity and 44.8% in those with mixed obesity. The prevalence was also increased with regional difference. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that WHtR was the major independent risk factor for childhood NAFLD, causing a 14.4-fold increase in NAFLD risk. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis also showed that WHtR was the best obesity index to evaluate the presence of NAFLD in Chinese schoolchildren with the optimal cutoff of 0.47. Mixed obesity had the strongest association with NAFLD. Male gender and regional urbanization also influenced NAFLD prevalence among schoolchildren. WHtR may be an effective indicator to predict NAFLD.

  8. The assembly and evolution of the outter regions of Brightest Cluster Galaxies as traced by the star light and globular clusters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laporte, Chervin Fabien Pierre

    2015-08-01

    In this talk I will present high-resolution cosmological zoom-in N-body simulations of the assembly of galaxy clusters focussed on the late assembly of the Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs) and their globular clusters. At z=2 dark matter halos are populated with stellar components (and globular clusters) following the scaling relations of z=2 massive quiescent galaxies and their subsequent evolution is followed to the present-day. This leads to a significant build up of the outter envelope of BCGs through accretion and stripping of galaxies consistent with the observed surface brightness profiles of real objects strongly suggesting a dissipationless merger scenario for their assembly with little star formation involved. I will show how it is possible to also study the evolution of the red and blue globular cluster populations in BCGs under the dissipationless merger scenario. I will present predictions on their spatial distribution and kinematics in clusters and how these compare with observations of globular clusters in Virgo and also depend on the accretion history inside the galaxy clusters. Finally, I will also discuss how blue globular clusters in particular can be used to infer the past accretion history of BCGs by tracing low-surface brightness features of shredded galaxies in BCGs otherwise not recognisable/detectable in the light.

  9. Single-link cluster analysis of earthquake aftershocks: Decay laws and regional variations

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.D.; Frohlich, C. )

    1991-04-10

    Using single-link cluster analysis, the authors investigate how various properties of aftershock sequences depend on their tectonic regime and focal depth. For International Seismological Centre earthquakes of m{sub b}{ge}4.8, they find that earthquakes deeper than 70 km have the fewest and smallest aftershock sequences. Even after accounting for differences in detectability and maximum magnitude, they find that ridge-transform earthquakes have smaller aftershock sequences that shallow subduction zone earthquakes. Among different subduction zones, they find that zones with high moment release rates possess larger aftershock sequences. Comparing ridge-transform zones, they find those with slower spreading rates possess larger aftershock sequences. By transposing origin times of several different aftershock sequences as if all had main shocks occurring at time zero, they are able to study the properties of aftershock sequences which individually have too few aftershocks to study by other means. Secondary events determined by single-link cluster analysis follow a modified Omori's (power law) decay for time separations of 0.1 day to 20 days from the parent event, with p values ranging from 0.539 {plus minus} 0.022 (intermediate- and deep-focus earthquakes) to 0.928 {plus minus} 0.024 (ridge-transform earthquakes). They find that earthquake foreshocks and multiplets also follow a modified Omori's law. At greater times from the main shock the decay is steeper than a power law decay, more like an exponential decay. Aftershocks in the Adak catalog (m{sub b}{ge}2.0) show a marked decrease in activity between 40 and 50 km depth. They speculate that the observed differences in number of aftershocks and p values may be caused by variations in fault heterogeneity or in fluid pressures.

  10. High resolution absorption cross sections for propylene in the 3 μm region at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzan, Eric M.; Hargreaves, Robert J.; Bernath, Peter F.

    2016-04-01

    High resolution infrared spectra in the 3 μm region for propylene (C3H6) were recorded at temperatures up to 700 K. Measurements were taken using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer at a resolution of 0.005 cm-1 using a quartz cell inside a tube furnace. Calculated cross sections were calibrated against composite spectra from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. These cross sections are provided with this work and will find use in remote sensing and combustion monitoring.

  11. Comparison of Waveform Cross Correlation Performance Across Different Broad Area Seismic Source Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaff, D. P.; Kim, W.; Waldhauser, F.; Richards, P. G.

    2004-12-01

    We are evaluating a method of locating seismic sources (earthquakes, explosions) based on the large-scale use of waveform cross-correlation (WCC) measurements instead of the conventional measurements of seismic wave arrival time (phase picks). WCC measurements have been demonstrated to be 10 to 100 times more accurate, where they can be obtained. The principal issue we are exploring is the extent to which a significant fraction of seismicity can be located using WCC measurements. We are studying the Charlevoix region in eastern Canada, the New Madrid seismic zone in the central United States, and northern California. In the first two regions the datasets have been assembled from scratch working in conjunction with regional network operators. For Charlevoix, courtesy of the Geological Survey of Canada, we now have 2,470 events with corresponding catalog, phase, and waveform data. For New Madrid, two datasets have been acquired. The first is from the PANDA deployment between 1989 and 1992, which consists of 884 events with bulletin and waveform information. The second is from the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) network, operated by University of Memphis, from which we currently have waveform data for 1995-2003, with extensive catalog and phase data. Preliminary WCC results of the PANDA network indicate that 68% (597 out of 884 events) correlate with cross-correlation coefficients (CC) above 0.7 at four or more stations. Four stations are the minimum required to obtain a location estimate. Both P- and S-waves are correlated on all three components. The window lengths are 1 s and the lags searched over are also 1 s. It appears in a few examples that similar correlations are possible over 1 to 10 kilometer inter-event separation distances due to a site resonance from soft sediments underneath certain stations. In the Charlevoix seismic zone there are only 10% of the events that meet the criteria of CC > 0.7 at four or more stations. To explain this

  12. Cooperation control strategies for China's cross-region pollution in a lake basin based on green reduction cost.

    PubMed

    Li, Changmin; Sun, Dong; Xie, Xiaoqiang; Xue, Jian

    2016-05-01

    The cross-region water pollution issue has always been the widespread concern around the world. It becomes especially critical for China due to the imbalance relates to environmental costs that have accompanied rapid growth of economy. Though the government makes great efforts to improve it, the potential for water pollution conflict is still great. We consider the problem of determining combined control strategies for China's cross-region lake pollution based on the environmental green costs. The problem is first formulated as a generalized bilevel mathematical program where the upper level consists in each region that reduces environmental green costs including three parts: the reduction cost, pollution permit trade cost and cost of environment damage, while the lower level is represented by pollution permit equilibrium market. Finally, we take an empirical analysis in Taihu lake. The numerical study shows that the minimum costs of both total and regional are obviously superior to the current processing costs, which provides theoretical basis for the price of emission permits. Today, China's rapid gross domestic product (GDP) growth has come at a very high cost, as real estate prices have skyrocketed, the wealth gap has widened, and environmental pollution has worsened. China's central government is urged to correct the GDP-oriented performance evaluation system that is used to judge administrative region leaders. The cross-region water pollution issue has become a troubling issue that urgently needs to be resolved in China. This paper will not only actively aid efforts to govern Lake Taihu and other cross-region valleys, but it will also provide a supplement for theoretical research on cross-region pollution issues.

  13. Clustering patterns of obesity-related multiple lifestyle behaviours and their associations with overweight and family environments: a cross-sectional study in Japanese preschool children

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Etsuko; Lee, Jung Su; Mori, Katsumi; Kawakubo, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study is (1) to identify obesity-related lifestyle behaviour patterns of diet, physical activity, sedentary and sleep behaviours in preschool children, (2) to examine the association between identified behaviour clusters and overweight/obesity and (3) to investigate differences in children's family environments according to clusters. Design setting and participants A cross-sectional study on 2114 preschool children aged 3–6 years who attended childcare facilities (24 nursery schools and 10 kindergartens) in Tsuruoka city, Japan in April 2003 was conducted. Main outcome measures Children's principal caregivers completed a questionnaire on children's lifestyle behaviours (dinner timing, outside playtime, screen time and night-time sleep duration), family environment (family members, maternal employment, mealtime regularity and parents' habitual exercise and screen time) and measurements of weight and height. Cluster analysis was performed using children's 4 lifestyle behaviours based on those non-missing values (n=1545). The χ2 tests and analysis of variance (ANOVA) estimated cluster differences in overweight/obesity and family environments. Results 6 clusters were identified. Children's overweight/obesity varied across clusters (p=0.007). The cluster with the most screen time, shorter night-time sleep duration, average dinner timing and outside playtime had the highest overweight/obesity prevalence (15.1%), while the cluster with the least screen time, the longest sleep duration, the earliest dinner timing and average outside playtime had the lowest prevalence (4.0%). Family environments regarding mealtime regularity and both parents' screen time also significantly varied across clusters. The cluster having the highest overweight/obesity prevalence had the highest proportion of irregular mealtimes and the most screen time for both parents. Conclusions This study suggests that public health approaches to prevent children

  14. A Study of Cross-linked Regions of Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Gels by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Mathias B.; Desa, J. A. E.; Aswal, V. K.

    2011-07-01

    A poly(vinyl alcohol)-borax cross-linked hydrogel has been studied by Small Angle Neutron Scattering as a function of borax concentration in the wave-vector transfer (Q) range of 0.017 Å-1 to 0.36 Å-1. It is found that as the concentration of borax increases, so does the intensity of scattering in this range. Beyond a borax concentration of 2 mg/ml, the increase in cross-linked PVA chains leads to cross-linked units larger than 150 Å as evidenced by a reduction in intensity in the lower Q region.

  15. Geographical clustering of Trypanosoma cruzi I groups from Colombia revealed by low-stringency single specific primer-PCR of the intergenic regions of spliced-leader genes.

    PubMed

    Mejía-Jaramillo, Ana María; Arboleda-Sánchez, Sair; Rodríguez, Ingrid Bibiana; Cura, Carolina; Salazar, Alexander; Del Mazo, Jesús; Triana-Chávez, Omar; Schijman, Alejandro Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    A low-stringency single-primer polymerase chain reaction (LSSP-PCR) typing procedure targeted to the intergenic regions of spliced-leader genes (SL) was designed to profile Trypanosoma cruzi I stocks from endemic regions of Colombia. Comparison between SL-LSSP-PCR profiles of parasite DNA from vector faeces and cultures isolated from those faeces showed more conservative signatures than profiles using LSSP-PCR targeted to the minicircle variable regions (kDNA). This was also observed by analysing 15 parasite clones from one stock as well as serial samples of a same stock after in vitro culturing or inoculation into mice. Thus, SL-LSSP-PCR appears more appropriate than kDNA-LSSP-PCR for reliable typing of major T. cruzi I groups from in vitro cultured stocks and triatomine faeces. SL-LSSP-PCR grouped 46 of 47 T. cruzi I Colombian stocks according to their geographical procedences in four clusters: Cluster Cas from Casanare Department, Cluster Mg from Northern Magdalena department, Cluster Mom from Momposina Depression in Southern Magdalena and finally Cluster NW from northwestern Colombia, including Sucre, Chocó, Córdoba and Antioquia departments. Sequence analysis identified punctual mutations among amplicons from each cluster. Within Cluster Mg, sequence polymorphism allowed association with different sylvatic vector species. Novel SL sequences and LSSP-PCR profiles are reported from T. cruzi I infecting Eratyrus cuspidatus, Panstrongylus geniculatus and Rhodnius pallescens vectors.

  16. Clustering and meso-level variables in cross-sectional surveys: an example of food aid during the Bosnian crisis.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Neil; Lamothe, Gilles

    2011-12-21

    Focus groups, rapid assessment procedures, key informant interviews and institutional reviews of local health services provide valuable insights on health service resources and performance. A long-standing challenge of health planning is to combine this sort of qualitative evidence in a unified analysis with quantitative evidence from household surveys. A particular challenge in this regard is to take account of the neighbourhood or clustering effects, recognising that these can be informative or incidental. An example of food aid and food sufficiency from the Bosnian emergency (1995-96) illustrates two Lamothe cluster-adjustments of the Mantel Haenszel (MH) procedure, one assuming a fixed odds ratio and the other allowing for informative clustering by not assuming a fixed odds ratio. We compared these with conventional generalised estimating equations and a generalised linear mixed (GLMM) model, using a Laplace adjustment. The MH adjustment assuming incidental clustering generated a final model very similar to GEE. The adjustment that does not assume a fixed odds ratio produced a final multivariate model and effect sizes very similar to GLMM. In medium or large data sets with stratified last stage random sampling, the cluster adjusted MH is substantially more conservative than the naïve MH computation. In the example of food aid in the Bosnian crisis, the cluster adjusted MH that does not assume a fixed odds ratio produced similar results to the GLMM, which identified informative clustering.

  17. STAR-FORMING REGION Sh 2-233IR. I. DEEP NEAR-INFRARED OBSERVATIONS TOWARD THE EMBEDDED STELLAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Chi-Hung; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Su, Yu-Nang; Minh, Y. C.; Ginsburg, Adam

    2010-09-01

    We observed the Sh 2-233IR (S233IR) region with better sensitivity in the near-infrared than in previous studies of this region. By applying statistical subtraction of the background stars, we identified member sources and derived the age and mass of three distinguishable sub-groups in this region: Sh 2-233IR NE, Sh 2-233IR SW, and the 'distributed stars' over the whole cloud. Star formation may occur sequentially with a relatively small age difference ({approx}0.2-0.3 Myr) between subclusters. We found that the slopes for the initial mass function ({Gamma} {approx} -0.5) of two subclusters are flatter than those of Salpeter, which suggests that more massive stars were preferentially formed in those clusters compared to other Galactic star-forming regions. These subclusters may not result from the overall collapse of the whole cloud, but have formed by triggering before the previous star formation activities disturbed the natal molecular cloud. Additionally, high star formation efficiency ({approx}>40%) of the subclusters may also suggest that stars form very efficiently in the center of the northeast.

  18. Beta-globin gene cluster haplotypes in Afro-Uruguayans from two geographical regions (South and North).

    PubMed

    Da Luz, Julio; Kimura, Elza Miyuki; Costa, Fernando Ferreira; Sonati, Maria de Fatima; Sans, Mónica

    2010-01-01

    The beta-globin gene cluster haplotypes were identified in 52 and 40 chromosomes from two Afro-Uruguayan populations located in the South and North of the country, respectively. In both regions, the 5' haplotype 2 (+ - - - -), characteristic of non-African populations, was the most frequent, reflecting a strong process of admixture in Afro-Uruguayans (0.355 and 0.262, respectively). The haplotypes 3 (- - - - +) and 4 (- + - - +), characteristics of African sub-Saharan populations, present inverse frequencies in North and South: whereas in the South haplotype 3 is the second most frequent (0.232), and haplotype 4 presents a low frequency (0.019), in the North haplotype 4 is the third most frequent (0.140), and haplotype 3 only reaches an intermediate frequency (0.088). The pairwise F(ST) and the exact test of differentiation show genetic heterogeneity between both regions. Nei's genetic distance show that South and North present affinities with Bantu groups, although the North present the smallest genetic distance with the Mandenka, a Senegalese population. With respect to 3' haplotypes, haplotype I was the most frequent in both populations, followed by haplotype II, characteristic of sub-Saharan Africans. The high frequencies of haplotype III-Asian could indicate admixture with Native American populations. The differences observed between both Uruguayan regions could be explained by microevolutionary events as genetic drift, founder effects, differential admixture, and/or distinct origin of the African slaves introduced in those regions.

  19. Genus Calliophis of Asiatic coral snakes: A deficiency of venom cross-reactivity and neutralization against seven regional elapid antivenoms.

    PubMed

    Tan, Choo Hock; Liew, Jia Lee; Tan, Kae Yi; Tan, Nget Hong

    2016-10-01

    Venoms of Calliophis bivirgata and Calliophis intestinalis exhibited moderate binding activities toward Neuro Bivalent Antivenom (Taiwan) but not the other six elapid monovalent or bivalent antivenoms available in the region. All antivenoms failed to neutralize C. bivirgata venom lethality in mice. The findings indicate the need to validate antivenom cross-reactivity with in vivo cross-neutralization, and imply that distinct antigens of Calliophis venoms should be incorporated in the production of a pan-regional poly-specific antivenom.

  20. THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF PROTOPLANETARY DISKS: THE SERPENS CLUSTER COMPARED WITH OTHER REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, Isa; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Merin, Bruno; Pontoppidan, Klaus M.

    2013-01-10

    Spectral energy distributions are presented for 94 young stars surrounded by disks in the Serpens Molecular Cloud, based on photometry and Spitzer/IRS spectra. Most of the stars have spectroscopically determined spectral types. Taking a distance to the cloud of 415 pc rather than 259 pc, the distribution of ages is shifted to lower values, in the 1-3 Myr range, with a tail up to 10 Myr. The mass distribution spans 0.2-1.2 M {sub Sun }, with median mass of 0.7 M {sub Sun }. The distribution of fractional disk luminosities in Serpens resembles that of the young Taurus Molecular Cloud, with most disks consistent with optically thick, passively irradiated disks in a variety of disk geometries (L {sub disk}/L {sub star} {approx} 0.1). In contrast, the distributions for the older Upper Scorpius and {eta} Chamaeleontis clusters are dominated by optically thin lower luminosity disks (L {sub disk}/L {sub star} {approx} 0.02). This evolution in fractional disk luminosities is concurrent with that of disk fractions: with time disks become fainter and the disk fractions decrease. The actively accreting and non-accreting stars (based on H{alpha} data) in Serpens show very similar distributions in fractional disk luminosities, differing only in the brighter tail dominated by strongly accreting stars. In contrast with a sample of Herbig Ae/Be stars, the T Tauri stars in Serpens do not have a clear separation in fractional disk luminosities for different disk geometries: both flared and flat disks present wider, overlapping distributions. This result is consistent with previous suggestions of a faster evolution for disks around Herbig Ae/Be stars. Furthermore, the results for the mineralogy of the dust in the disk surface (grain sizes, temperatures and crystallinity fractions, as derived from Spitzer/IRS spectra) do not show any correlation to either stellar and disk characteristics or mean cluster age in the 1-10 Myr range probed here. A possible explanation for the lack of

  1. "Replicated" genome wide association for dependence on illegal substances: genomic regions identified by overlapping clusters of nominally positive SNPs.

    PubMed

    Drgon, Tomas; Johnson, Catherine A; Nino, Michelle; Drgonova, Jana; Walther, Donna M; Uhl, George R

    2011-03-01

    Declaring "replication" from results of genome wide association (GWA) studies is straightforward when major gene effects provide genome-wide significance for association of the same allele of the same SNP in each of multiple independent samples. However, such unambiguous replication may be unlikely when phenotypes display polygenic genetic architecture, allelic heterogeneity, locus heterogeneity, and when different samples display linkage disequilibria with different fine structures. We seek chromosomal regions that are tagged by clustered SNPs that display nominally significant association in each of several independent samples. This approach provides one "nontemplate" approach to identifying overall replication of groups of GWA results in the face of difficult genetic architectures. We apply this strategy to 1 million (1M) SNP Affymetrix and Illumina GWA results for dependence on illegal substances. This approach provides high confidence in rejecting the null hypothesis that chance alone accounts for the extent to which clustered, nominally significant SNPs from samples of the same racial/ethnic background identify the same chromosomal regions. There is more modest confidence in: (a) identification of individual chromosomal regions and genes and (b) overlap between results from samples of different racial/ethnic backgrounds. The strong overlap identified among the samples with similar racial/ethnic backgrounds, together with prior work that identified overlapping results in samples of different racial/ethnic backgrounds, support contributions to individual differences in vulnerability to addictions that come from both relatively older allelic variants that are common in many current human populations and newer allelic variants that are common in fewer current human populations.

  2. Hubble Space Telescope photometry of the central regions of Virgo cluster elliptical galaxies. 3: Brightness profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrarese, Laura; Bosch, Frank C. Van Den; Ford, Holland C.; Jaffe, Walter; O'Connell, Robert W.

    1994-01-01

    We have used the Planetary Camera on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to study the morphology and surface brightness parameters of a luminosity-limited sample of fourteen elliptical galaxies in the Virgo cluster. The total apparent blue magnitudes of the galaxies range between 9.4 and 13.4. In this paper, the core brightness profiles are presented, while the overall morphology and the isophotal shapes are discussed in two companion papers (Jaffe et al. (1994); van den Bosch et al. (1994)). We show that, in spite of the spherical aberration affecting the HST primary mirror, deconvolution techniques allow recovery of the brightness profile up to 0.2 arcsec from the center of the galaxies. We find that none of the galaxies has an isothermal core. On the basis of their morphological and photometrical properties, the galaxies can be divided in two physically distinct groups, referred to as Type I and Type II. All of the Type I galaxies are classified as E1 to E3 in the Revised Shapley Ames Catalog (Sandage & Tammann 1981), while Type II galaxies are classified as E5 to E7. The characteristics of Type II galaxies are explained by the presence of disks component on both the 1 arcsec and the 10 arcsec scales, while Type I galaxies correspond to the classical disk-free ellipticals.

  3. Hubble Space Telescope photometry of the central regions of Virgo cluster elliptical galaxies. 3: Brightness profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrarese, L.; van den Bosch, F. C.; Ford, H. C.; Jaffe, W.; O'Connell, R. W.

    1994-11-01

    We have used the Planetary Camera on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to study the morphology and surface brightness parameters of a luminosity-limited sample of fourteen elliptical galaxies in the Virgo cluster. The total apparent blue magnitudes of the galaxies range between 9.4 and 13.4. In this paper, the core brightness profiles are presented, while the overall morphology and the isophotal shapes are discussed in two companion papers (Jaffe et al. (1994); van den Bosch et al. (1994)). We show that, in spite of the spherical aberration affecting the HST primary mirror, deconvolution techniques allow recovery of the brightness profile up to 0.2 arcsec from the center of the galaxies. We find that none of the galaxies has an isothermal core. On the basis of their morphological and photometrical properties, the galaxies can be divided in two physically distinct groups, referred to as Type I and Type II. All of the Type I galaxies are classified as E1 to E3 in the Revised Shapley Ames Catalog (Sandage & Tammann 1981), while Type II galaxies are classified as E5 to E7. The characteristics of Type II galaxies are explained by the presence of disks component on both the 1 arcsec and the 10 arcsec scales, while Type I galaxies correspond to the classical disk-free ellipticals.

  4. Holocene coastal notches in the Mediterranean region: Indicators of palaeoseismic clustering?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulton, S. J.; Stewart, I. S.

    2015-05-01

    Marine tidal notches are developed by bioerosion in the intertidal zones of rocky coasts, but a combination of sea-level change and crustal movements can result in them being raised above or submerged below the water line. For that reason, the present-day elevation of these former shorelines relative to the mean sea level has long been used to quantify relative coastal uplift and subsidence in tectonically active areas, assuming that the sea-level (eustatic) change component is known. Along the microtidal Mediterranean littoral, it is generally assumed that notches develop during relative stillstands of sea level, when tectonic and eustatic trends are in unison, and that discrete notch levels record abrupt shoreline changes caused by local seismic displacements. Recently, however, a climatic model for notch formation has been proposed, in which stable periods of Holocene climate favour enhanced erosion; in this competing model, the rate of sea-level rise is lower than the tectonic uplift rate and individual notches are not specific seismic indicators. Because marine notches are widely used as geomorphic markers of tectonic, and in some cases palaeoseismic, movements, a reappraisal of the geological significance of these strandlines is warranted. In this paper, we explore the two conflicting notch models using a database of Eastern Mediterranean palaeoshorelines. Although we conclude that the spatial and temporal distribution of the notches supports a dominantly tectonic control on notch genesis as a result of earthquake clustering, we highlight how the diachronous timing of notch development tempers their value as tectonic markers.

  5. Presence of cell lineage-specific hypomethylated sites in the major breakpoint cluster region.

    PubMed

    Litz, C E; Goldfarb, A N; Strickler, J G; Brunning, R D

    1990-08-15

    To examine the role of DNA methylation in breakpoint location of chromosomal translocation, HpaII sites in and flanking the M-bcr on chromosome 22 were mapped in DNA from blood granulocytes and lymphocytes, bone marrow cells, thymic tissue, and spermatozoa from normal individuals. Allelic HpaII sites were identified clustered in a 600-base pair genomic area of the M-bcr. Bone marrow cells and blood granulocyte DNA showed identical allelic patterns. Thymic tissue and blood lymphocytes showed identical allelic patterns distinct from bone marrow cells and blood granulocytes. Spermatozoa showed a third methylation pattern. In all individuals, the HpaII sites were present within the BamHI/BglII fragment of the M-bcr, the same area associated with high breakpoint frequency in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Three of 15 patients with chronic phase CML showed fully methylated rearranged BglII/BglII M-bcr restriction fragments not seen in normal bone marrow cells. These methylation patterns of the M-bcr may be important in CML breakpoint location and may be a marker for tissue differentiation.

  6. Cardiomyopathy mutations reveal variable region of myosin converter as major element of cross-bridge compliance.

    PubMed

    Seebohm, B; Matinmehr, F; Köhler, J; Francino, A; Navarro-Lopéz, F; Perrot, A; Ozcelik, C; McKenna, W J; Brenner, B; Kraft, T

    2009-08-05

    The ability of myosin to generate motile forces is based on elastic distortion of a structural element of the actomyosin complex (cross-bridge) that allows strain to develop before filament sliding. Addressing the question, which part of the actomyosin complex experiences main elastic distortion, we suggested previously that the converter domain might be the most compliant region of the myosin head domain. Here we test this proposal by studying functional effects of naturally occurring missense mutations in the beta-myosin heavy chain, 723Arg --> Gly (R723G) and 736Ile --> Thr (I736T), in comparison to 719Arg --> Trp (R719W). All three mutations are associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and are located in the converter region of the myosin head domain. We determined several mechanical parameters of single skinned slow fibers isolated from Musculus soleus biopsies of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients and healthy controls. Major findings of this study for mutation R723G were i), a >40% increase in fiber stiffness in rigor with a 2.9-fold increase in stiffness per myosin head (S( *)(rigor R723G) = 0.84 pN/nm S( *)(rigor WT) = 0.29 pN/nm); and ii), a significant increase in force per head (F( *)(10 degrees C), 1.99 pN vs. 1.49 pN = 1.3-fold increase; F( *)(20 degrees C), 2.56 pN vs. 1.92 pN = 1.3-fold increase) as well as stiffness per head during isometric steady-state contraction (S( *)(active10 degrees C), 0.52 pN/nm vs. 0.28 pN/nm = 1.9-fold increase). Similar changes were found for mutation R719W (2.6-fold increase in S( *)(rigor); 1.8-fold increase in F( *)(10 degrees C), 1.6-fold in F( *)(20 degrees C); twofold increase in S( *)(active10 degrees C)). Changes in active cross-bridge cycling kinetics could not account for the increase in force and active stiffness. For the above estimates the previously determined fraction of mutated myosin in the biopsies was taken into account. Data for wild-type myosin of slow soleus muscle fibers support previous

  7. Gap winds and their effects on regional oceanography Part I: Cross Sound, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladd, Carol; Cheng, Wei

    2016-10-01

    Gap-wind events flowing from Cross Sound in the eastern Gulf of Alaska (GOA) were examined using QuikSCAT wind data. The average duration of an event is 3.6 days with the longest event recorded in the QuikSCAT dataset being 12 days. Daily offshore directed winds with speeds >10 m s-1 are more common during the winter months (October-March), averaging 20.0 days per year, and less common during the summer (April - September), averaging 2.8 days per year. Interannual variability in the frequency of gap-wind events is correlated with El Niño. During gap-wind events, the spatial scales of high off-shore directed winds (>10 m s-1) reach almost 200 km off-shore and 225 km along the shelf break, suggesting that the winds directly influence both the shelf (20-65 km wide) and the off-shore waters. A model experiment suggests that a gap-wind event can result in eddy formation and changes in circulation and water properties. Increased entrainment of water from below the mixed layer due to the gap-wind event implies that mixed-layer nitrate concentrations could increase on the order of 5-10 μmole/l, potentially enhancing primary production in the region. An accompanying paper discusses part II of our study (Ladd et al., 2016) focusing on gap-wind events in the western GOA around Kodiak Island.

  8. Brain regions involved in swallowing: Evidence from stroke patients in a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Dehaghani, Shiva Ebrahimian; Yadegari, Fariba; Asgari, Ali; Chitsaz, Ahmad; Karami, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Limited data available about the mechanisms of dysphagia and areas involving swallow after brain damage; accordingly it is hard to predict which cases are more likely to develop swallowing dysfunction based on the neuroimaging. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between brain lesions and dysphagia in a sample of acute conscious stroke patients. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 113 acute conscious stroke patients (69 male mean [standard deviation (SD)] age 64.37 [15.1]), participated in this study. Two neurologists and one radiologist localized brain lesions according to neuroimaging of the patients. Swallowing functions were assessed clinically by an expert speech pathologist with the Mann Assessment of Swallowing Ability (MASA). The association of brain region and swallowing problem was statistically evaluated using Chi-square test. Results: Mean (SD) MASA score for the dysphagic patients was 139.61 (29.77). Swallowing problem was significantly more prevalent in the right primary sensory (P = 0.03), right insula (P = 0.005), and right internal capsule (P = 0.05). Conclusion: It may be concluded from these findings that the right hemisphere lesions associated with occurring dysphagia. Further studies using more advanced diagnostic tools on big samples particularly in a perspective structure are needed. PMID:27904591

  9. Cross correlation between seismicity and reservoir water level changes in the Koyna - Warna region, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D, R. V.; Kumar, J. P.; Chadha, R. K.

    2011-12-01

    Koyna -Warna region in Western India is known to be the largest case of the Reservoir Triggered Seismicity (RTS) in the world with a M6.3 earthquake occurring in 1967. The seismicity is still continuing after forty five years of impoundment of the Koyna reservoir in 1961 and twenty five years of impoundment of Warna reservoir in 1985. The best correlations between the pore pressure diffusion and seismicity are those associated with reservoir induced seismicity. In this work the cross-correlation between seismicity and the daily water level changes in both Koyna and Warna reservoirs have been studied. Based on the obtained correlation coefficient and the time lag the range of the hydraulic conductivity is calculated. The results also indicate the active role of Warna reservoir in recent day's seismic activity. This range of hydraulic diffusivity values are used to calculate the pore pressure changes due to both the reservoirs. In this work the automatic formulation using the Matlab have been developed for pore pressure computations from the beginning of the impoundment at different time intervals to study the pore pressure changes with depth The GUI utility is useful in any field applications for understanding the pore pressure changes and its sphere of influence in triggering seismicity

  10. Testing for evolution in scaling relations of galaxy clusters: cross analysis between X-ray and SZ observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferramacho, L. D.; Blanchard, A.

    2011-09-01

    Aims: We present predicted Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) properties of known X-ray clusters of galaxies for which gas temperature measurements are available. The reference sample was compiled from the BAX database for X-ray clusters. Methods: The Sunyaev-Zeldovich signal is predicted according to two different scaling laws for the mass-temperature relation in clusters: a standard relation and an evolving relation that reproduces well the evolution of the X-ray temperature distribution function in a concordance cosmology. Using a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) analysis we examine the values of the recovered parameters and their uncertainties. Results: The evolving case can be clearly distinguished from the non-evolving case, showing that SZ measurements will indeed be efficient in constraining the thermal history of the intra-cluster gas. However, significant bias appears in the measured values of the evolution parameter for high SZ threshold owing to selection effects.

  11. The central region of the Fornax cluster. I. A catalog and photometric properties of galaxies in selected CCD fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilker, M.; Kissler-Patig, M.; Richtler, T.; Infante, L.; Quintana, H.

    1999-01-01

    We present a photometric catalog (based on V and I photometry) of galaxies in the central regions of the Fornax galaxy cluster. Our 11 CCD fields cover 0.17 square degrees in total. The limiting surface brightness is around 24 mag arcsec(-2) , similar to that of \\cite[Ferguson's (1989]{ferg}) catalog, whereas our limiting total magnitude is around V =~ 22 mag, about two magnitudes fainter. It is the surface brightness limit, however, that prevents us from detecting the counterparts of the faintest Local Group dwarf spheroidals. The photometric properties of all objects are presented as a catalog (Appendix A). The properties and fit parameters of the surface brightness profiles for a sub-sample are presented as a second catalog (Appendix B)(1) . We can only add 4 new dwarf galaxies to Ferguson's catalog. However, we confirm that the dwarf galaxies in Fornax follow a similar surface brightness - magnitude relation as the Local Group dwarfs. They also follow the color (metallicity) - magnitude relation seen in other galaxy clusters. A formerly suspected excess of dwarf galaxies surrounding the central giant cD galaxy NGC 1399 can finally be ruled out. An enhanced density of objects around NGC 1399 can indeed be seen, but it appears displaced with respect to the central galaxy and is identified as a background cluster at z=0.11 in Paper II of these series, which will discuss spectroscopic results for our sample. The tables of Appendix A and Appendix B are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html.

  12. THE HIGH-VELOCITY MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS IN MASSIVE CLUSTER-FORMING REGION G10.6-0.4

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Hauyu Baobab; Ho, Paul T. P.; Zhang Qizhou E-mail: pho@asiaa.sinica.edu.t

    2010-12-20

    We report the arcsecond resolution Submillimeter Array observations of the {sup 12}CO (2-1) transition in the massive cluster-forming region G10.6-0.4. In these observations, the high-velocity {sup 12}CO emission is resolved into individual outflow systems, which have a typical size scale of a few arcseconds. These molecular outflows are energetic and are interacting with the ambient molecular gas. By inspecting the shock signatures traced by CH{sub 3}OH, SiO, and HCN emissions, we suggest that abundant star formation activities are distributed over the entire 0.5 pc scale dense molecular envelope. The star formation efficiency over one global free-fall timescale (of the 0.5 pc molecular envelope, {approx}10{sup 5} years) is about a few percent. The total energy feedback of these high-velocity outflows is higher than 10{sup 47} erg, which is comparable to the total kinetic energy in the rotational motion of the dense molecular envelope. From order-of-magnitude estimations, we suggest that the energy injected from the protostellar outflows is capable of balancing the turbulent energy dissipation. No high-velocity bipolar molecular outflow associated with the central OB cluster is directly detected, which can be due to the photoionization.

  13. Cluster analysis of Landslide Vulnerable region on an urban Area in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Yonghee; Lee, Sangeun; Kim, Myoungsoo; Baek, Jongrak

    2016-04-01

    Mountain areas occupy about 65% of the territory in South Korea. Due to the rapid population growth and urbanization, many cities suffer from the limitation in space, and hence the commercial buildings, educational facilities, and housing settlement areas continue to stretch until the bottom of the mountain. In result, residents become more and more vulnerable to landslides and debris flow. This led to the central government to perceiving the need for strengthening regulations relevant to urban planning. In order to consider risks due to landslides and debris flow in the stage of urban planning, present authors suggested the strategies, including: first, selecting priority areas necessary to manage landslide-related disasters strictly; second, establishing the integrated management system useful to offer technical assistances to persons in charge of urban planning in the areas; third, promoting disaster awareness programs with those persons along with the central government. As the first attempt, this study mainly discusses the GIS-application procedures in which authors selected the priority areas, which are summarized: 1. Collect the landslide historical data for the period 1999 - 2012 when the disasters particularly threatened the whole country. 2. Define the areas with the one-kilometer radius around the landslide occurrence places. 3. Exclude the areas where population is less than 100 persons per 1 km2. 4. Exclude the areas where mountains with Grade I or II of landslide risk (announced by the Korea Forest Service) go below a certain portion of the area. 5. Carry out the cluster analysis with the remaining areas 6. Classify the types at the standpoint of landslide disaster risk management. Through the procedures, this study obtained a total of 86 priority areas, which were also classified into 24 areas - Type A (high population exposure and mid landslide occurrence likelihood) -, 25 areas - Type B (mid population exposure and high landslide occurrence

  14. Resonance Region Cross-Section Data Advancements for Nuclear Criticality Safety Applications and ENDF/B-VII.1

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, Michael E; Leal, Luiz C; Guber, Klaus H; Arbanas, Goran; Wiarda, Dorothea; Sayer, Royce O; Derrien, Herve; HARVEY, JACK

    2011-01-01

    ORNL has completed new resonance region cross-section evaluations with covariance data to support nuclear criticality safety applications. This paper summarizes some of the most recent cross-section evaluations that have been completed and will be made available to process into nuclear data libraries for use with radiation transport codes. Specifically, the paper summarizes the work that has been completed for {sup 35}Cl, {sup 37}Cl , {sup 50}Cr, {sup 52}Cr, {sup 53}Cr, {sup 54}Cr, {sup 39}K, {sup 41}K, {sup 19}F, {sup 55}Mn, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 60}Ni, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, and {sup 239}Pu. Many of the new cross-section evaluations are based on new differential data measurements in the resonance region. Furthermore, corresponding covariance data analyses have been performed in conjunction with the resonance evaluation effort thereby providing a consistent set of covariance data to complement the resonance region cross-section evaluations. As a result, the new cross-section evaluations with covariance data can be used to support sensitivity/uncertainty analyses for criticality safety applications.

  15. [Profile distribution of soil aggregates organic carbon in primary forests in Karst cluster-peak depression region].

    PubMed

    Lu, Ling-Xiao; Song, Tong-Qing; Peng, Wan-Xia; Zeng, Fu-Ping; Wang, Ke-Lin; Xu, Yun-Lei; Yu, Zi; Liu, Yan

    2012-05-01

    Soil profiles were collected from three primary forests (Itoa orientalis, Platycladus orientalis, and Radermachera sinica) in Karst cluster-peak depression region to study the composition of soil aggregates, their organic carbon contents, and the profile distribution of the organic carbon. In the three forests, >2 mm soil aggregates were dominant, occupying about 76% of the total. The content of soil total organic carbon ranged from 12.73 to 68.66 g x kg(-1), with a significant difference among the forests. The organic carbon content in <1 mm soil aggregates was slightly higher than that in >2 mm soil aggregates, but most of soil organic carbon was stored in the soil aggregates with greater particle sizes. About 70% of soil organic carbon came from >2 mm soil aggregates. There was a significant positive relationship between the contents of 2-5 and 5-8 mm soil aggregates and the content of soil organic carbon. To increase the contents of 2-8 mm soil aggregates could effectively improve the soil carbon sequestration in Karst region. In Itoa orientalis forest, 2-8 mm soil aggregates accounted for 46% of the total, and the content of soil total organic carbon reached to 37.62 g x kg(-1), which implied that Itoa orientalis could be the suitable tree species for the ecological restoration in Karst region.

  16. Characterization of the 5' region of the Leishmania infantum LORIEN/MAT2 gene cluster and role of LORIEN flanking regions in post-transcriptional regulation.

    PubMed

    García-Estrada, Carlos; Pérez-Pertejo, Yolanda; Ordóñez, David; Balaña-Fouce, Rafael; Reguera, Rosa M

    2008-09-01

    LORIEN (encoding a protein that contains a SP-RING/Miz zinc-finger motif present in a group of proteins involved in the Small Ubiquitin-related Modifier -SUMO- conjugation pathway) and MAT2 (encoding the methionine adenosyltransferase -MAT-) genes are arranged as two alternating copies in a head-to-tail configuration, with the LORIEN gene as the first copy of the cluster. The 5880bp preceding the first LORIEN gene copy were compared to the same region of L. major, showing a 93% identity between them. Bioinformatic analysis of this region predicted the presence of a 747-bp ORF encoding a hypothetical protein of 248 amino acids. Transcription of this ORF was confirmed by run-on assays and RT-PCR. Expression of the LORIEN gene was tested in both the promastigote and amastigote stages. Transcription arrest evidenced that LORIEN mRNA stability was very similar in both stages of the parasite life cycle. Protein synthesis inhibition by cycloheximide led to an increase in the steady-state levels of LORIEN transcripts only during the promastigote stage, pointing out to the existence of different stage-dependent mechanisms operating on the post-transcriptional regulation of this gene. The role of the LORIEN untranslated regions (5'UTR and 3'UTR) in post-transcriptional regulation was analysed using the luciferase (luc) reporter gene. Results evidenced that the 5'UTR was responsible for a low reporter gene expression, whereas the intergenic region (IR) between LORIEN and MAT2 genes provided high luc levels. However, the 3'UTR seemed to lack regulatory elements. Basing on these results, a model of regulation for the LORIEN gene is proposed.

  17. Differential regulation of AChR clustering in the polar and equatorial region of murine muscle spindles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yina; Lin, Shuo; Karakatsani, Andromachi; Rüegg, Markus A; Kröger, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Intrafusal fibers of muscle spindles are innervated in the central region by afferent sensory axons and at both polar regions by efferent γ-motoneurons. We previously demonstrated that both neuron-muscle contact sites contain cholinergic synapse-like specialisation, including aggregates of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR). In this study we tested the hypothesis that agrin and its receptor complex (consisting of LRP4 and the tyrosine kinase MuSK) are involved in the aggregation of AChRs in muscle spindles, similar to their role at the neuromuscular junction. We show that agrin, MuSK and LRP4 are concentrated at the contact site between the intrafusal fibers and the sensory- and γ-motoneuron, respectively, and that they are expressed in the cell bodies of proprioceptive neurons in dorsal root ganglia. Moreover, agrin and LRP4, but not MuSK, are expressed in γ-motoneuron cell bodies in the ventral horn of the spinal cord. In agrin- and in MuSK-deficient mice, AChR aggregates are absent from the polar regions. In contrast, the subcellular concentration of AChRs in the central region where the sensory neuron contacts the intrafusal muscle fiber is apparently unaffected. Skeletal muscle-specific expression of miniagrin in agrin(-/-) mice in vivo is sufficient to restore the formation of γ-motoneuron endplates. These results show that agrin and MuSK are major determinants during the formation of γ-motoneuron endplates but appear dispensable for the aggregation of AChRs at the central region. Our results therefore suggest different molecular mechanisms for AChR clustering within two domains of intrafusal fibers. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Clustering of health-related behaviors, health outcomes and demographics in Dutch adolescents: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Busch, Vincent; Van Stel, Henk F; Schrijvers, Augustinus J P; de Leeuw, Johannes R J

    2013-12-04

    Recent studies show several health-related behaviors to cluster in adolescents. This has important implications for public health. Interrelated behaviors have been shown to be most effectively targeted by multimodal interventions addressing wider-ranging improvements in lifestyle instead of via separate interventions targeting individual behaviors. However, few previous studies have taken into account a broad, multi-disciplinary range of health-related behaviors and connected these behavioral patterns to health-related outcomes. This paper presents an analysis of the clustering of a broad range of health-related behaviors with relevant demographic factors and several health-related outcomes in adolescents. Self-report questionnaire data were collected from a sample of 2,690 Dutch high school adolescents. Behavioral patterns were deducted via Principal Components Analysis. Subsequently a Two-Step Cluster Analysis was used to identify groups of adolescents with similar behavioral patterns and health-related outcomes. Four distinct behavioral patterns describe the analyzed individual behaviors: 1- risk-prone behavior, 2- bully behavior, 3- problematic screen time use, and 4- sedentary behavior. Subsequent cluster analysis identified four clusters of adolescents. Multi-problem behavior was associated with problematic physical and psychosocial health outcomes, as opposed to those exerting relatively few unhealthy behaviors. These associations were relatively independent of demographics such as ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status. The results show that health-related behaviors tend to cluster, indicating that specific behavioral patterns underlie individual health behaviors. In addition, specific patterns of health-related behaviors were associated with specific health outcomes and demographic factors. In general, unhealthy behavior on account of multiple health-related behaviors was associated with both poor psychosocial and physical health. These findings have

  19. Clustering of health-related behaviors, health outcomes and demographics in Dutch adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies show several health-related behaviors to cluster in adolescents. This has important implications for public health. Interrelated behaviors have been shown to be most effectively targeted by multimodal interventions addressing wider-ranging improvements in lifestyle instead of via separate interventions targeting individual behaviors. However, few previous studies have taken into account a broad, multi-disciplinary range of health-related behaviors and connected these behavioral patterns to health-related outcomes. This paper presents an analysis of the clustering of a broad range of health-related behaviors with relevant demographic factors and several health-related outcomes in adolescents. Methods Self-report questionnaire data were collected from a sample of 2,690 Dutch high school adolescents. Behavioral patterns were deducted via Principal Components Analysis. Subsequently a Two-Step Cluster Analysis was used to identify groups of adolescents with similar behavioral patterns and health-related outcomes. Results Four distinct behavioral patterns describe the analyzed individual behaviors: 1- risk-prone behavior, 2- bully behavior, 3- problematic screen time use, and 4- sedentary behavior. Subsequent cluster analysis identified four clusters of adolescents. Multi-problem behavior was associated with problematic physical and psychosocial health outcomes, as opposed to those exerting relatively few unhealthy behaviors. These associations were relatively independent of demographics such as ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status. Conclusions The results show that health-related behaviors tend to cluster, indicating that specific behavioral patterns underlie individual health behaviors. In addition, specific patterns of health-related behaviors were associated with specific health outcomes and demographic factors. In general, unhealthy behavior on account of multiple health-related behaviors was associated with both poor psychosocial

  20. Longshore-drift dispersed, storm-generated cross-stratified sandstone from some Cretaceous shallow marine strata, Rocky Mountain region

    SciTech Connect

    Gustason, E.R. )

    1990-05-01

    Most Cretaceous shallow marine strata of the Rocky Mountain region are characterized by asymmetrical upward-coarsening and upward-thickening sequences. The strata typically contain similar lithofacies (i.e., normally graded planar parallel laminated claystone, siltstone, and sandstone; hummocky cross-stratified sandstone; symmetrical and asymmetrical ripple cross-lamination; and trough and planar tublar cross-stratified sandstone) and display an upward increase in the thickness and frequency of sharp-based sandstone beds that grade into amalgamated cross-stratified sandstone. Most workers agree that sharp-based sandstone beds and hummocky cross-stratified sandstone are storm generated. However, the origin of trough and planar tabular cross-stratified sandstone is controversial. Most workers interpret these sedimentary structures as deposited from either storm-generated traction currents or combined flow currents on the shelf, tide-generated traction currents, or tidally dispersed, storm-generated suspension clouds. Detailed analysis of three-dimensional outcrops has revealed several significant features of these sedimentary structures that indicate they may have been deposited by longshore drift dispersed, storm-generated suspension clouds. Sets of trough and planar cross-stratified sandstone form medium-scale discontinuous, irregularly shaped sand bodies, bound by erosional surfaces and composed of unidirectional dip-oriented cross strata. Individual cross stratum commonly have a sigmoidal shape, are bound by either reactivation surfaces or mudstone drapes, and contain normally graded concordant laminae. Top-set laminae, are truncated by the upper set boundary, whereas bottom-set laminae, become asymptotic to the lower set boundary and commonly are reworked and overlain by wave generated, ripple cross-lamination or mudstone drapes.

  1. TECHNIQUES TO ASSESS CROSS-BORDER AIR POLLUTION AND APPLICATION TO A U.S.-MEXICO BORDER REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A year-long assessment of cross-border air pollution was conducted in the eastmost section of the US-Mexico border region, known as the Lower Rio Grande Valley, in South Texas. Measurements were conducted on the US side and included fine particle mass (PM2.5) and elemental com...

  2. TECHNIQUES TO ASSESS CROSS-BORDER AIR POLLUTION AND APPLICATION TO A U.S.-MEXICO BORDER REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A year-long assessment of cross-border air pollution was conducted in the eastmost section of the US-Mexico border region, known as the Lower Rio Grande Valley, in South Texas. Measurements were conducted on the US side and included fine particle mass (PM2.5) and elemental com...

  3. Modeled Neutron Induced Nuclear Reaction Cross Sections for Radiochemistry in the region of Iriduim and Gold

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, R D; Dietrich, F S; Kelley, K; Escher, J; Bauer, R; Mustafa, M

    2008-02-26

    We have developed a set of modeled nuclear reaction cross sections for use in radiochemical diagnostics. Systematics for the input parameters required by the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model were developed and used to calculate neutron induced nuclear reaction cross sections for targets ranging from osmium (Z = 76) to gold (Z = 79). Of particular interest are the cross sections on Ir and Au including reactions on isomeric targets.

  4. Sandpile-based model for capturing magnitude distributions and spatiotemporal clustering and separation in regional earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batac, Rene C.; Paguirigan, Antonino A., Jr.; Tarun, Anjali B.; Longjas, Anthony G.

    2017-04-01

    We propose a cellular automata model for earthquake occurrences patterned after the sandpile model of self-organized criticality (SOC). By incorporating a single parameter describing the probability to target the most susceptible site, the model successfully reproduces the statistical signatures of seismicity. The energy distributions closely follow power-law probability density functions (PDFs) with a scaling exponent of around -1. 6, consistent with the expectations of the Gutenberg-Richter (GR) law, for a wide range of the targeted triggering probability values. Additionally, for targeted triggering probabilities within the range 0.004-0.007, we observe spatiotemporal distributions that show bimodal behavior, which is not observed previously for the original sandpile. For this critical range of values for the probability, model statistics show remarkable comparison with long-period empirical data from earthquakes from different seismogenic regions. The proposed model has key advantages, the foremost of which is the fact that it simultaneously captures the energy, space, and time statistics of earthquakes by just introducing a single parameter, while introducing minimal parameters in the simple rules of the sandpile. We believe that the critical targeting probability parameterizes the memory that is inherently present in earthquake-generating regions.

  5. Geographic clustering of diabetic lower-extremity amputations in low-income regions of California.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Carl D; Schriger, David L; Raffetto, Brian; Davis, Anna C; Zingmond, David; Roby, Dylan H

    2014-08-01

    For patients suffering from diabetes and other chronic conditions, a large body of work demonstrates income-related disparities in access to coordinated preventive care. Much less is known about associations between poverty and consequential negative health outcomes. Few studies have assessed geographic patterns that link household incomes to major preventable complications of chronic diseases. Using statewide facility discharge data for California in 2009, we identified 7,973 lower-extremity amputations in 6,828 adults with diabetes. We mapped amputations based on residential ZIP codes and used data from the Census Bureau to produce corresponding maps of poverty rates. Comparisons of the maps show amputation "hot spots" in lower-income urban and rural regions of California. Prevalence-adjusted amputation rates varied tenfold between high-income and low-income regions. Our analysis does not support detailed causal inferences. However, our method for mapping complication hot spots using public data sources may help target interventions to the communities most in need. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  6. Food consumption patterns in the Waterloo Region, Ontario, Canada: a cross-sectional telephone survey

    PubMed Central

    Nesbitt, Andrea; Majowicz, Shannon; Finley, Rita; Pollari, Frank; Pintar, Katarina; Marshall, Barbara; Cook, Angela; Sargeant, Jan; Wilson, Jeff; Ribble, Carl; Knowles, Lewinda

    2008-01-01

    Background The demographics and lifestyles of Canadians are changing, thereby influencing food choices and food preparation in the home. Although different dietary practices are associated with increased risk of foodborne illness, our ability to evaluate food consumption trends and assess risks associated with foodborne illness is limited by lack of data on current eating habits and consumer food safety practices. The objective of this study was to describe, for the first time, the food consumption patterns in a Canadian-based population from a food safety perspective, in order to establish baseline data on actual food intake of individuals. Method A cross-sectional telephone survey of 2,332 randomly selected residents of Waterloo Region, Ontario, Canada (C-EnterNet pilot site) was conducted between November 2005 and March 2006. Food intake was assessed using a 7-day dietary recall method. Results Certain food items were consumed more than others among the same food groups, and consumption of many food items varied by gender and age. Specific foods considered high-risk for the transmission of certain enteric pathogens were significantly more likely to be consumed by males (i.e. unpasteurized juice, bean sprouts, and undercooked meat) and elderly individuals (i.e. undercooked eggs). The majority of households prepared and consumed most meals at home, allocating an average of 44 minutes to prepare a meal. Conclusion Baseline data on actual food intake is useful to public health professionals and food safety risk assessors for developing communication messages to consumers and in foodborne outbreak investigations. PMID:18950509

  7. Empathy and burnout of emergency professionals of a health region: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Yuguero, Oriol; Forné, Carles; Esquerda, Montserrat; Pifarré, Josep; Abadías, María José; Viñas, Joan

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the association between levels of empathy and burnout of emergency professionals in all the assistance levels.A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in the health region of Lleida and the Pyrenees with 100 professionals from the field of Urgency. Participation reached 40.8%. Empathy and burnout were measured using the Spanish versions of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE) and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) respectively. The total MBI score and its 3 dimensions (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment) were analyzed. The JSPE and MBI scores were categorized into tertiles that were identified as "low," "moderate," and "high" levels.The median (interquartile range) was 112 (102-123) and 37 (27-53.5) for the JSPE and MBI scores respectively. Professionals with high burnout (MBI≥47) showed the lowest levels of empathy, that is, JSPE score of 105 (98-114); those with moderate burnout (31≤MBI < 47) had a JSPE score of 114 (104.5-120.5); and those with low burnout (MBI < 31) had a JSPE score of 120.5 (105.8-127.2). In addition, the highest levels of empathy were associated with the lowest levels of burnout, especially in depersonalization, and to a lesser extent in personal accomplishment. There were no differences in empathy and burnout for any of the other study variables.Our findings suggest that the empathy of emergency professionals is associated with burnout. Hence, reducing professional burnout could help keep emergency professionals' empathy levels high, which in turn would ensure a better quality of care. Nevertheless, it would be necessary to carry out prospective studies to describe the profiles of burnout and empathy as well as their association and evolution.

  8. Rapid detection of regionally clustered germ-line BRCA1 mutations by multiplex heteroduplex analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gayther, S.A.; Harrington, P.; Russell, P.

    1996-03-01

    Germ-line mutations of the BRCA1 gene are responsible for a substantial proportion of families with multiple cases of early-onset breast and/or ovarian cancer. Since the isolation of BRCA1 last year, >65 distinct mutations scattered throughout the coding region have been detected, making analysis of the gene time consuming and technically challenging. We have developed a multiplex heteroduplex analysis that is designed to analyze one-quarter of the coding sequence in a single-step screening procedure and that will detect {approximately}50% of all BRCA1 mutations so far reported in breast/ovarian cancer families. We have used this technique to analyze BRCA1 in 162 families with a history of breast and/or ovarian cancer and identified 12 distinct mutations in 35 families. 20 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Clustering of Risk Behaviors and their Social Determinants among Primary School Learners in Beijing, China: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Ji, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies in developed countries reveal that poor lifestyle choices triggering diseases typically cluster among children. However, there is insufficient evidence on the clustering of risk behaviors among children in developing countries. This study aimed to determine the clustering of risk behaviors and their social determinants among 4th-and 5th -grade learners in Beijing, China. Methods: The sample comprised of 967 learners from six primary schools enrolled migrant and resident learners by two-stage stratified cluster sampling. Prevalence denoted the risk behaviors and their clustering. A log-linear model was used to explore the clustering patterns. Ordinal logistic regression determined the influence of demographic characteristics, school environment, and family context on behavioral clustering. Results: The prevalence of none, one, two, and three or more risk factors was 61.2%, 20.0%, 10.8%, and 8.1% for infectious diseases and 46.0%, 30.6%, 15.4%, and 8.0% for chronic diseases, respectively. Some behaviors appeared dependent and were more likely to be observed together. The three most influential factors for infectious diseases were school type (odds ratio [OR] =4.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.00–6.66), school located in an inner suburb (OR = 0.27, 95% CI 0.18–0.38), and gender (OR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.42–0.74). Regarding risk behaviors for chronic diseases, clustering was not associated with household registration status and number of appliances, but was significantly associated with school type (OR = 5.36, 95% CI 3.72–7.73), school located in an inner suburb (OR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.43–0.81), and gender (OR = 0.61, 95% CI 0.47–0.78). School environment variables were the most significant contributor to the number of risk behaviors. Conclusions: The characteristics of schools enrolling migrants and residents influenced the number of risk behaviors. Therefore, improved school conditions and integrated behavioral interventions are

  10. Integral cross sections for π-p interaction in the 3,3 resonance region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, E.; Paul, M.; Schechter, M.; Altman, A.; Jennings, B. K.; Wagner, G. J.; Fazel, N.; Johnson, R. R.; Suen, N.; Fraenkel, Z.

    1993-03-01

    Total cross sections for the π-p single charge exchange and 20° “partial-total” cross sections have been measured between 126 and 202 MeV pion energy. The former are about 4% below similar results of Bugg et al. and (5-10)% below predictions made with currently accepted phase shifts. The latter agree quite well with calculations.

  11. Crossing the Date Line: Perspectives of Canadian Students Studying Education in an Australian Regional University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dann, Chris; Allen, Bill; Readman, Kylie

    2009-01-01

    The research reported here aims to develop understandings around the expectations and perceptions of Canadian students entering a Graduate Diploma of Education program in an Australian university. The study align well with the theme of "crossing borders", as the study focuses on international students "crossing borders" to…

  12. A point mutation in the [2Fe–2S] cluster binding region of the NAF-1 protein (H114C) dramatically hinders the cluster donor properties

    SciTech Connect

    Tamir, Sagi; Eisenberg-Domovich, Yael; Conlan, Andrea R.; Stofleth, Jason T.; Lipper, Colin H.; Paddock, Mark L.; Mittler, Ron; Jennings, Patricia A.; Livnah, Oded Nechushtai, Rachel

    2014-06-01

    NAF-1 has been shown to be related with human health and disease, is upregulated in epithelial breast cancer and suppression of its expression significantly suppresses tumor growth. It is shown that replacement of the single His ligand with Cys resulted in dramatic changes to the properties of its 2Fe-2S clusters without any global crystal structural changes. NAF-1 is an important [2Fe–2S] NEET protein associated with human health and disease. A mis-splicing mutation in NAF-1 results in Wolfram Syndrome type 2, a lethal childhood disease. Upregulation of NAF-1 is found in epithelial breast cancer cells, and suppression of NAF-1 expression by knockdown significantly suppresses tumor growth. Key to NAF-1 function is the NEET fold with its [2Fe–2S] cluster. In this work, the high-resolution structure of native NAF-1 was determined to 1.65 Å resolution (R factor = 13.5%) together with that of a mutant in which the single His ligand of its [2Fe–2S] cluster, His114, was replaced by Cys. The NAF-1 H114C mutant structure was determined to 1.58 Å resolution (R factor = 16.0%). All structural differences were localized to the cluster binding site. Compared with native NAF-1, the [2Fe–2S] clusters of the H114C mutant were found to (i) be 25-fold more stable, (ii) have a redox potential that is 300 mV more negative and (iii) have their cluster donation/transfer function abolished. Because no global structural differences were found between the mutant and the native (wild-type) NAF-1 proteins, yet significant functional differences exist between them, the NAF-1 H114C mutant is an excellent tool to decipher the underlying biological importance of the [2Fe–2S] cluster of NAF-1 in vivo.

  13. Clustering oxbow lakes in the Upper-Tisza Region on the basis of stable isotope measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babka, Beáta; Futó, István; Szabó, Szilárd

    2011-11-01

    SummarySeveral times a year the River Tisza floods areas between dikes, fills the oxbow lakes on the floodplain and changes their water. However the water addition in the oxbow lakes does not only take place through flooding; it is also likely that water can seep under the surface through the gravelled layers of the old river-beds, and furthermore, precipitation also plays a role. Our goal with this study is to acquire a full, comprehensive picture of the water addition of the oxbow lakes in the Upper-Tisza Region. Surface and groundwater samples were taken from the River Tisza, the oxbow lakes and the boreholes around four oxbow lakes, and stabile isotope ratios were measured. We can get information on the origin, the evaporation and the state of the waters, and the depth of the water table with the help of δ18O VSMOW (‰) and δD VSMOW (‰). During the examination the question we addressed was how oxbow lakes can be classified according to their water addition on the basis of their stable isotope ratios. The results from the Tisza and the oxbow lakes, as well as the results from the oxbow lakes on the reclaimed side and the floodplain are also isolated.

  14. Clustering of low usage codons in the translation initiation region of hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian-hua; Su, Jun-hong; Chen, Hao-tai; Zhang, Jie; Ma, Li-na; Ding, Yao-zhong; Stipkovits, Laszlo; Szathmary, Susan; Pejsak, Zygmunt; Liu, Yong-sheng

    2013-08-01

    The adaptation of the overall codon usage pattern of hepatitis C virus (HCV) to that of human is estimated by the synonymous codon usage value (RSCU). The synonymous codon usage biases for the translation initiation region (TIR) of this virus are also analyzed by calculation of usage fluctuation of each synonymous codon along the TIR (the first 30 codon sites of the whole coding sequence of HCV). As for the overall codon usage pattern of HCV, this virus has a significant tendency to delete the codons with CpG or TpA dinucleotides. Turning to the adaptation of the overall codon usage of HCV to that of human, over half part of codons has a similar usage pattern between this virus and human, suggesting that the host cellular environment of the overall codon usage pattern influences the formation of codon usage for HCV. In addition, there is no obvious phenomenon that the codons with relatively low energy tend to be highly selected in the TIR of HCV, suggesting that the synonymous codon usage patterns for the TIR of HCV might be not affected by the secondary structure of nucleotide sequence, however, the formation of synonymous codons usage in the TIR of HCV is influenced by the overall codon usage patterns of human to some degree.

  15. Cross-Regional Differences in Meeting the Challenge of Teacher Salary Increase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derkachev, P. V.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of studies on the correlations of teacher pay to regional economics and to regional factors affecting the size of teacher salaries. It describes the basic pay indicators for teachers in the regions: absolute salary, teacher pay level as compared to the average regional salary, and ratio of salary to the cost of a…

  16. Cross sections for H+ and H atoms colliding with Li in the low-keV-energy region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera-Trujillo, R.; Sabin, John R.; Deumens, E.; Öhrn, Y.

    2008-07-01

    State-to-state, summed charge transfer and stopping cross sections in collisions of protons and neutral hydrogen atoms with lithium atoms have been studied at collision energies ranging from 10to25keV . Cross sections were calculated using electron-nuclear dynamics (END), which is a nonadiabatic, time-dependent, direct approach for the study of ion-atom-molecule interaction processes. Our results show good agreement when compared to available theoretical and experimental data. We find that the charge transfer cross section for protons shows a bump and a maximum as a function of the projectile energy, both of them as a result of the large probability for capture into the projectile 2p orbital. The bump corresponds to a projectile energy of approximately Ep˜0.7keV , and results from the electron capture probability in the low impact parameter region of approximately btilde 2.0a.u. The maximum occurs at Ep˜5keV as a result of the larger capture probability in the intermediate impact parameter region near btilde 8a.u. A similar behavior is found for the electron loss cross section for hydrogen projectiles. We find that the beam charge fraction, for all the energies considered, is nearly neutral. We also find that the largest contribution to the stopping cross section is for impact parameters around btilde 5a.u. Finally, we report the total, electronic, and nuclear stopping cross sections to be within a factor of 2 of the reported values in the SRIM 06 code (SRIM stands for stopping and range of ions in matter) and other available experimental data. The largest discrepancy is due to the charge transfer process as well as to a transient LiH+ molecular ion formed in the low projectile energy region.

  17. [Relationships between soil and environment in peak-cluster depression areas of Karst region based on canonical correspondence analysis].

    PubMed

    Yue, Yue-Min; Wang, Ke-Lin; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Hong-Song; Wang, Min

    2008-05-01

    Karst region is a typical ecological fragile zone, with small environmental and anti-interference capability. Many environment factors, such as different land use, elevation and topographic relief, have significant influence on spatial variability of soil properties, resulting in abnormal fragments of landscape and severe rocky desertification. The method of canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was employed to reveal the relationships between soil and environment in peak-cluster depression areas of karst region, using the samples from field survey in Guzhou. Results show that spatial variability of TN, AN, SOC, AP, AK and C/N are greater than TP, TK, and pH, with the similar trend among TN, AN and SOC. Furthermore, CCA shows that SOC, TN and AN have high correlation with bare rock rate and grade, AK and vegetation type, together with the significant correlation between C/N and soil depth, while the environment has little effect on TK, TP and pH. Environmental factors that affect soil properties are listed as the following order: land use > vegetation type > bare rock rate > aspect > soil depth > elevation. Except TK and pH, soil properties are significantly affected by different land-use types.

  18. Level crossings and zero-field splitting in the {Cr8}-cubane spin-cluster studied using inelastic neutron scattering and magnetization

    SciTech Connect

    Vaknin, D.; Garlea, Vasile O; Demmel, F.; Mamontov, Eugene; Nojiri, H; Martin, Catalin; Chiorescu, Irinel; Qiu, Y.; Luban, M.; Kogerler, P.; Fielden, J.; Engelhardt, L; Rainey, C

    2010-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering (INS) in variable magnetic field and high-field magnetization measurements in the millikelvin temperature range were performed to gain insight into the low-energy magnetic excitation spectrum and the field-induced level crossings in the molecular spin cluster {Cr8}-cubane. These complementary techniques provide consistent estimates of the lowest level-crossing field. The overall features of the experimental data are explained using an isotropic Heisenberg model, based on three distinct exchange interactions linking the eight CrIII paramagnetic centers (spins s = 3/2), that is supplemented with a relatively large molecular magnetic anisotropy term for the lowest S = 1 multiplet. It is noted that the existence of the anisotropy is clearly evident from the magnetic field dependence of the excitations in the INS measurements, while the magnetization measurements are not sensitive to its effects.

  19. Level crossings and zero-field splitting in the {Cr8}-cubane spin cluster studied using inelastic neutron scattering and magnetization.

    PubMed

    Vaknin, D; Garlea, V O; Demmel, F; Mamontov, E; Nojiri, H; Martin, C; Chiorescu, I; Qiu, Y; Kögerler, P; Fielden, J; Engelhardt, L; Rainey, C; Luban, M

    2010-11-24

    Inelastic neutron scattering (INS) in variable magnetic field and high-field magnetization measurements in the millikelvin temperature range were performed to gain insight into the low-energy magnetic excitation spectrum and the field-induced level crossings in the molecular spin cluster {Cr(8)}-cubane. These complementary techniques provide consistent estimates of the lowest level-crossing field. The overall features of the experimental data are explained using an isotropic Heisenberg model, based on three distinct exchange interactions linking the eight Cr(III) paramagnetic centers (spins s = 3/2), that is supplemented with a relatively large molecular magnetic anisotropy term for the lowest S = 1 multiplet. It is noted that the existence of the anisotropy is clearly evident from the magnetic field dependence of the excitations in the INS measurements, while the magnetization measurements are not sensitive to its effects.

  20. Molecular epidemiology of Coxiella burnetii in French livestock reveals the existence of three main genotype clusters and suggests species-specific associations as well as regional stability.

    PubMed

    Joulié, Aurelien; Sidi-Boumedine, Karim; Bailly, Xavier; Gasqui, Patrick; Barry, Séverine; Jaffrelo, Lydia; Poncet, Charles; Abrial, David; Yang, Elise; Leblond, Agnès; Rousset, Elodie; Jourdain, Elsa

    2017-03-01

    Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. In domestic ruminants, Q fever main clinical manifestations are abortions. Although the clinical signs may differ between ruminant species, C. burnetii's genetic diversity remains understudied in enzootic areas. Here, we focused on France, where Q fever is enzootic, with the aims to (a) identify potential associations between C. burnetii genotypes and ruminant host species; (b) assess the distribution of C. burnetii genotypes both within French farms and across France's major livestock-farming regions; and (c) suggest a subset of markers for future genotypic studies. We used DNA samples collected between 2006 and 2015 from 301 females (160 cows, 76 ewes, 65 goats) aborted of Q fever within 7 different farming regions. C. burnetii diversity was determined using a multiple-locus variable-number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) considering 17 markers. Using a phylogenetic approach, we identified 3 main genotypic clusters divided into 12 sub-clusters. These clusters were significantly associated with ruminant species: almost all the cattle genotypes were found in a "cattle-specific" cluster whereas small ruminants genotypes essentially grouped into the two other clusters. The clusters also proved stable over space and time, some genotypes being more specifically observed in certain farming regions. We also observed some within-farm diversity but this diversity was restricted to a same genotypic cluster. Finally, we identified 6 MLVA markers that maximized the representativeness of the diversity described. Overall, we highlighted that molecular epidemiology is a relevant approach to assess C. burnetii's genetic diversity and to reveal the existence of species-specific associations and regional stability. These results will be valuable in the field to trace genotype circulation among ruminants and from ruminants to humans. Ultimately, the potential links between genotypes and virulence traits need

  1. Improved absorption cross-sections of oxygen in the wavelength region 205-240 nm of the Herzberg continuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshino, K.; Cheung, A. S.-C.; Esmond, J. R.; Parkinson, W. H.; Freeman, D. E.

    1988-01-01

    The laboratory values of the Herzberg continuum absorption cross-section of oxygen at room temperature from Cheung et al. (1986) and Jenouvrier et al. (1986) are compared and analyzed. It is found that there is no discrepancy between the absolute values of these two sets of independent measurements. The values are combined in a linear least-squares fit to obtain improved values of the Herzberg continuum cross-section of oxygen at room temperature throughout the wavelength region 205-240 nm. The results are compared with in situ and other laboratory measurements.

  2. Malaria Prevalence, Spatial Clustering and Risk Factors in a Low Endemic Area of Eastern Rwanda: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Bizimana, Jean Pierre; Agaba, Steven; Dukuzumuremyi, Javier; Baas, Lisette; de Dieu Harelimana, Jean; Mens, Petra F.; Boer, Kimberly R.; de Vries, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Rwanda reported significant reductions in malaria burden following scale up of control intervention from 2005 to 2010. This study sought to; measure malaria prevalence, describe spatial malaria clustering and investigate for malaria risk factors among health-centre-presumed malaria cases and their household members in Eastern Rwanda. Methods A two-stage health centre and household-based survey was conducted in Ruhuha sector, Eastern Rwanda from April to October 2011. At the health centre, data, including malaria diagnosis and individual level malaria risk factors, was collected. At households of these Index cases, a follow-up survey, including malaria screening for all household members and collecting household level malaria risk factor data, was conducted. Results Malaria prevalence among health centre attendees was 22.8%. At the household level, 90 households (out of 520) had at least one malaria-infected member and the overall malaria prevalence for the 2634 household members screened was 5.1%. Among health centre attendees, the age group 5–15 years was significantly associated with an increased malaria risk and a reported ownership of ≥4 bednets was significantly associated with a reduced malaria risk. At the household level, age groups 5–15 and >15 years and being associated with a malaria positive index case were associated with an increased malaria risk, while an observed ownership of ≥4 bednets was associated with a malaria risk-protective effect. Significant spatial malaria clustering among household cases with clusters located close to water- based agro-ecosystems was observed. Conclusions Malaria prevalence was significantly higher among health centre attendees and their household members in an area with significant household spatial malaria clustering. Circle surveillance involving passive case finding at health centres and proactive case detection in households can be a powerful tool for identifying household level malaria burden

  3. Imaging of diffuse H I absorption structure in the SSA22 proto-cluster region at z = 3.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mawatari, Ken; Inoue, Akio K.; Yamada, Toru; Hayashino, Tomoki; Otsuka, Takuya; Matsuda, Yuichi; Umehata, Hideki; Ouchi, Masami; Mukae, Shiro

    2017-01-01

    Using galaxies as background light sources to map intervening Lyα absorption is a novel approach to study the interplay among galaxies, the circum-galactic medium (CGM), and the intergalactic medium (IGM). Introducing a new measure of z = 3.1 H I Lyα absorption relative to the cosmic mean, ΔNB497, estimated from photometric data of star-forming galaxies at 3.3 ⪉ z ⪉ 3.5, we have made two-dimensional ΔNB497 maps in the z = 3.1 SSA22 proto-cluster region and two control fields (SXDS and GOODS-N fields) with a spatial resolution of ˜5 comoving Mpc. The ΔNB497 measurements in the SSA22 field are systematically larger than those in the control fields, and this H I absorption enhancement extends more than 50 comoving Mpc. The field-averaged (i.e., ˜50 comoving Mpc scale) ΔNB497 and the overdensity of Lyα emitters (LAEs) seem to be correlated, while there is no clear dependency of the ΔNB497 on the local LAE overdensity in a few comoving Mpc scale. These results suggest that diffuse H I gas spreads out in/around the SSA22 proto-cluster. We have also found an enhancement of ΔNB497 at a projected distance <100 physical kpc from the nearest z = 3.1 galaxies at least in the SSA22 field, which is probably due to H I gas associated with the CGM of individual galaxies. The H I absorption enhancement in the CGM-scale tends to be weaker around galaxies with stronger Lyα emission, which suggests that the Lyα escape fraction from galaxies depends on hydrogen neutrality in the CGM.

  4. Exploring the crowded central region of ten Galactic globular clusters using EMCCDs. Variable star searches and new discoveries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figuera Jaimes, R.; Bramich, D. M.; Skottfelt, J.; Kains, N.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Horne, K.; Dominik, M.; Alsubai, K. A.; Bozza, V.; Calchi Novati, S.; Ciceri, S.; D'Ago, G.; Galianni, P.; Gu, S.-H.; Harpsøe, K. B. W.; Haugbølle, T.; Hinse, T. C.; Hundertmark, M.; Juncher, D.; Korhonen, H.; Mancini, L.; Popovas, A.; Rabus, M.; Rahvar, S.; Scarpetta, G.; Schmidt, R. W.; Snodgrass, C.; Southworth, J.; Starkey, D.; Street, R. A.; Surdej, J.; Wang, X.-B.; Wertz, O.

    2016-04-01

    Aims: We aim to obtain time-series photometry of the very crowded central regions of Galactic globular clusters; to obtain better angular resolution thanhas been previously achieved with conventional CCDs on ground-based telescopes; and to complete, or improve, the census of the variable star population in those stellar systems. Methods: Images were taken using the Danish 1.54-m Telescope at the ESO observatory at La Silla in Chile. The telescope was equipped with an electron-multiplying CCD, and the short-exposure-time images obtained (ten images per second) were stacked using the shift-and-add technique to produce the normal-exposure-time images (minutes). Photometry was performed via difference image analysis. Automatic detection of variable stars in the field was attempted. Results: The light curves of 12 541 stars in the cores of ten globular clusters were statistically analysed to automatically extract the variable stars. We obtained light curves for 31 previously known variable stars (3 long-period irregular, 2 semi-regular, 20 RR Lyrae, 1 SX Phoenicis, 3 cataclysmic variables, 1 W Ursae Majoris-type and 1 unclassified) and we discovered 30 new variables (16 long-period irregular, 7 semi-regular, 4 RR Lyrae, 1 SX Phoenicis and 2 unclassified). Fluxes and photometric measurements for these stars are available in electronic form through the Strasbourg astronomical Data Center. Based on data collected by the MiNDSTEp team with the Danish 1.54m telescope at ESO's La Silla observatory in Chile.Full Table 1 is only available at CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/588/A128

  5. Cross correlation in real-time for data reduction, data control, and solution convergence in regional moment-tensor inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Convers, Jaime A.; Custodio, Susana

    2017-04-01

    Proper seismic information that takes advantage of the faster acquired regional seismic data is becoming increasingly achievable and pertinent. Timely and reliable solutions nowadays can be inferred due to low latency, high reliability of regional data transmission, and increasing computing capabilities at local networks. Seismic products such as regional moment-tensor solutions are now more than ever achievable and valuable for hazard mitigation entities. High-quality moment-tensor solutions rely on high-quality data that are evenly distributed around the epicenter. However, this is seldom the case for coastal areas close to offshore seismic sources. Due to geographical constraints, in these regions the azimuthal gap is large, a feature that cannot be mitigated by dense onshore instrumentation . This characteristic often has a negative impact on the confidence of results and on the increase of the latency of rapid moment-tensor solutions at regional scales. As part of the adaptation of regional moment-tensor inversion of earthquakes offshore southwest Iberia, using the KIWI moment-tensor inversion tools, we examine the use of cross-correlation between neighbor stations as an automated tool for data reduction, quality control and as an advantageous tool for faster converging moment-tensor inversion solutions. We examine intermediate size earthquakes and use cross-correlations between stations to produce an automated first-order data quality assessment aiming at avoiding problematic stations and reducing redundant information. We used synthetic distributions of cross-correlations to obtain guidelines and benchmarks for the classification of data , thus benefitting subsequent regional moment-tensor calculations. We also examine the impact of this method on the convergence and reliability of solutions. We apply the developed method to SouthWest Europe, offshore Chile and the Pacific Northwest. For these settings, we review the different outcomes of the moment

  6. A cross-sectional retrospective analysis of the regionalization of complex surgery.

    PubMed

    Studnicki, James; Craver, Christopher; Blanchette, Christopher M; Fisher, John W; Shahbazi, Sara

    2014-08-16

    The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) system has assigned a surgical complexity level to each of its medical centers by specifying requirements to perform standard, intermediate or complex surgical procedures. No study to similarly describe the patterns of relative surgical complexity among a population of United States (U.S) civilian hospitals has been completed. single year, retrospective, cross-sectional. the study used Florida Inpatient Discharge Data from short-term acute hospitals for calendar year 2009. Two hundred hospitals with 2,542,920 discharges were organized into four quartiles (Q 1, 2, 3, 4) based on the number of complex procedures per hospital. The VHA surgical complexity matrix was applied to assign relative complexity to each procedure. The Clinical Classification Software (CCS) system assigned complex procedures to clinically meaningful groups. For outcome comparisons, propensity score matching methods adjusted for the surgical procedure, age, gender, race, comorbidities, mechanical ventilator use and type of admission. in-hospital mortality and length-of-stay (LOS). Only 5.2% of all inpatient discharges involve a complex procedure. The highest volume complex procedure hospitals (Q4) have 49.8% of all discharges but 70.1% of all complex procedures. In the 133,436 discharges with a primary complex procedure, 374 separate specific procedures are identified, only about one third of which are performed in the lowest volume complex procedure (Q1) hospitals. Complex operations of the digestive, respiratory, integumentary and musculoskeletal systems are the least concentrated and proportionately more likely to occur in the lower volume hospitals. Operations of the cardiovascular system and certain technology dependent miscellaneous diagnostic and therapeutic procedures are the most concentrated in high volume hospitals. Organ transplants are only done in Q4 hospitals. There were no significant differences in in-hospital mortality rates and the

  7. A cross-sectional retrospective analysis of the regionalization of complex surgery

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) system has assigned a surgical complexity level to each of its medical centers by specifying requirements to perform standard, intermediate or complex surgical procedures. No study to similarly describe the patterns of relative surgical complexity among a population of United States (U.S) civilian hospitals has been completed. Methods Design: single year, retrospective, cross-sectional. Setting/Participants: the study used Florida Inpatient Discharge Data from short-term acute hospitals for calendar year 2009. Two hundred hospitals with 2,542,920 discharges were organized into four quartiles (Q 1, 2, 3, 4) based on the number of complex procedures per hospital. The VHA surgical complexity matrix was applied to assign relative complexity to each procedure. The Clinical Classification Software (CCS) system assigned complex procedures to clinically meaningful groups. For outcome comparisons, propensity score matching methods adjusted for the surgical procedure, age, gender, race, comorbidities, mechanical ventilator use and type of admission. Main Outcome Measures: in-hospital mortality and length-of-stay (LOS). Results Only 5.2% of all inpatient discharges involve a complex procedure. The highest volume complex procedure hospitals (Q4) have 49.8% of all discharges but 70.1% of all complex procedures. In the 133,436 discharges with a primary complex procedure, 374 separate specific procedures are identified, only about one third of which are performed in the lowest volume complex procedure (Q1) hospitals. Complex operations of the digestive, respiratory, integumentary and musculoskeletal systems are the least concentrated and proportionately more likely to occur in the lower volume hospitals. Operations of the cardiovascular system and certain technology dependent miscellaneous diagnostic and therapeutic procedures are the most concentrated in high volume hospitals. Organ transplants are only done in Q4 hospitals

  8. Empirical Fit to Inelastic Electron-Deuteron and Electron-Neutron Resonance Region Transverse Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Bosted; M. E. Christy

    2007-11-08

    An empirical fit is described to measurements of inclusive inelastic electron-deuteron cross sections in the kinematic range of four-momentum transfer $0 \\le Q^2<10$ GeV$^2$ and final state invariant mass $1.2<3$ GeV. The deuteron fit relies on a fit of the ratio $R_p$ of longitudinal to transverse cross sections for the proton, and the assumption $R_p=R_n$. The underlying fit parameters describe the average cross section for proton and neutron, with a plane-wave impulse approximation (PWIA) used to fit to the deuteron data. Pseudo-data from MAID 2007 were used to constrain the average nucleon cross sections for $W<1.2$ GeV. The mean deviation of data from the fit is 3\\%, with less than 5\\% of the data points deviating from the fit by more than 10\\%.

  9. Dynamics and characteristics of electric-field structures in the auroral return current region observed by Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marklund, G. T.; Karlsson, T.; Figueiredo, S.; Johansson, T.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; André, M.; Buchert, S.; Kistler, L. M.

    2006-02-01

    The temporal evolution and other characteristics of intense quasi-static electric fields in the return current region are discussed using Cluster observations. A narrow-scale, divergent electric field, the high-altitude signature of a positive U-shaped potential structure, was observed at the poleward edge of the central plasma sheet, close to magnetic midnight at a geocentric distance of about 4.2 Earth radii. Its acceleration potential increased from less than 1 to 3 kV on a 100 s timescale, similar to the formation time for ionospheric plasma density holes, and consistent with previous results for this kind of structure. In the adjacent upward current region, an energy decrease in inverted-V ions was observed some minutes prior to this. The inverted-V potential decrease was roughly equal to the subsequent perpendicular potential increase in the return current region, suggesting that a potential redistribution took place between the two adjacent current branches. Other characteristics of this and three other return current structures are summarized, to illustrate both common and different features of these. The structures are characterized by (all values have been mapped to the ionospheric level) peak electric-field magnitudes of ap1 V m-1, bipolar or unipolar profiles, occurrence at plasma boundaries associated with plasma density gradients, perpendicular scale sizes of ap10 km, downward field-aligned currents of ap10 μA m-2, and upward electron beams with characteristic energies of a few hundred to a few thousand eV. The bipolar and unipolar electric-field profiles are proposed to reflect whether plasma populations, dense enough to support upward field-aligned currents (by which the return current can close) exist on both sides, or on one side only of the boundary.

  10. Embedding-Free Method for Preparation of Cross-Sections of Organic Materials for Micro Chemical Analysis Using Gas Cluster Ion Beam Sputtering.

    PubMed

    Mihara, Ichiro; Havelund, Rasmus; Gilmore, Ian S

    2017-05-02

    We present a novel in situ mask method for the preparation of cross-sections of organic materials such as polymer multilayer films suitable for chemical imaging of buried interfaces. We demonstrate this method on a model buried interface system consisting of a piece of Scotch tape adhered to a PET substrate and a protective film used in consumer packaging. A high dose of gallium from a focused ion beam (FIB) was used to produce a damaged overlayer on the surface of the organic sample. The damaged layer has a significantly slower sputter rate compared to the native undamaged organic material. Therefore, during gas cluster ion beam (GCIB) depth profiling experiments the damaged layer functions as a mask, protecting the sample beneath and producing a cross-section at the edge of the mask. The FIB itself cannot be used directly to prepare the cross-section since the organic materials are easily damaged. A four step workflow is described including a final cleaning procedure to remove redeposited material from the cross-section. The workflow is completed in a few hours for samples up to 100 μm thickness. The method does not require sample embedding and is suited to automated analysis, which can be important benefits for industrial analysis where a variety of samples are analyzed routinely.

  11. A Chandra Study of the Rosette Star-forming Complex. III. The NGC 2237 Cluster and the Region's Star Formation History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junfeng; Feigelson, Eric D.; Townsley, Leisa K.; Broos, Patrick S.; Román-Zúñiga, Carlos G.; Lada, Elizabeth; Garmire, Gordon

    2010-06-01

    We present high spatial resolution Chandra X-ray images of the NGC 2237 young stellar cluster on the periphery of the Rosette Nebula. We detect 168 X-ray sources, 80% of which have stellar counterparts in USNO, Two Micron All Sky Survey, and deep FLAMINGOS images. These constitute the first census of the cluster members with 0.2 <~ M <~ 2 M sun. Star locations in near-infrared color-magnitude diagrams indicate a cluster age around 2 Myr with a visual extinction of 1 <~ AV <~ 3 at 1.4 kpc, the distance of the Rosette Nebula's main cluster NGC 2244. We derive the K-band luminosity function and the X-ray luminosity function of the cluster, which indicate a population ~400-600 stars. The X-ray-selected sample shows a K-excess disk frequency of 13%. The young Class II counterparts are aligned in an arc ~3 pc long suggestive of a triggered formation process induced by the O stars in NGC 2244. The diskless Class III sources are more dispersed. Several X-ray emitting stars are located inside the molecular cloud and around gaseous pillars projecting from the cloud. These stars, together with a previously unreported optical outflow originating inside the cloud, indicate that star formation is continuing at a low level and the cluster is still growing. This X-ray view of young stars on the western side of the Rosette Nebula complements our earlier studies of the central cluster NGC 2244 and the embedded clusters on the eastern side of the Nebula. The large-scale distribution of the clusters and molecular material is consistent with a scenario in which the rich central NGC 2244 cluster formed first, and its expanding H II region triggered the formation of the now-unobscured satellite clusters Rosette Molecular Cloud (RMC) XA and NGC 2237. A large swept-up shell material around the H II region is now in a second phase of collect-and-collapse fragmentation, leading to the recent formation of subclusters. Other clusters deeper in the molecular cloud appear unaffected by the

  12. A CHANDRA STUDY OF THE ROSETTE STAR-FORMING COMPLEX. III. THE NGC 2237 CLUSTER AND THE REGION'S STAR FORMATION HISTORY

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Junfeng; Feigelson, Eric D.; Townsley, Leisa K.; Broos, Patrick S.; Garmire, Gordon; Roman-Zuniga, Carlos G.; Lada, Elizabeth

    2010-06-10

    We present high spatial resolution Chandra X-ray images of the NGC 2237 young stellar cluster on the periphery of the Rosette Nebula. We detect 168 X-ray sources, 80% of which have stellar counterparts in USNO, Two Micron All Sky Survey, and deep FLAMINGOS images. These constitute the first census of the cluster members with 0.2 {approx}< M {approx}< 2 M {sub sun}. Star locations in near-infrared color-magnitude diagrams indicate a cluster age around 2 Myr with a visual extinction of 1 {approx}< A{sub V} {approx}< 3 at 1.4 kpc, the distance of the Rosette Nebula's main cluster NGC 2244. We derive the K-band luminosity function and the X-ray luminosity function of the cluster, which indicate a population {approx}400-600 stars. The X-ray-selected sample shows a K-excess disk frequency of 13%. The young Class II counterparts are aligned in an arc {approx}3 pc long suggestive of a triggered formation process induced by the O stars in NGC 2244. The diskless Class III sources are more dispersed. Several X-ray emitting stars are located inside the molecular cloud and around gaseous pillars projecting from the cloud. These stars, together with a previously unreported optical outflow originating inside the cloud, indicate that star formation is continuing at a low level and the cluster is still growing. This X-ray view of young stars on the western side of the Rosette Nebula complements our earlier studies of the central cluster NGC 2244 and the embedded clusters on the eastern side of the Nebula. The large-scale distribution of the clusters and molecular material is consistent with a scenario in which the rich central NGC 2244 cluster formed first, and its expanding H II region triggered the formation of the now-unobscured satellite clusters Rosette Molecular Cloud (RMC) XA and NGC 2237. A large swept-up shell material around the H II region is now in a second phase of collect-and-collapse fragmentation, leading to the recent formation of subclusters. Other clusters deeper

  13. Product PCNPsurv or the "reduced" evaporation residue cross section σER/σfusion for "hot" fusion reactions studied with the dynamical cluster-decay model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chopra, Sahila; Kaur, Arshdeep; Hemdeep, Gupta, Raj K.

    2016-04-01

    The product PCNPsurv of compound nucleus (CN) fusion probability PCN and survival probability Psurv is calculated to determine the reduced evaporation residue cross section σER/σfusion , denoted σERreduced, with (total) fusion cross section σfusion given as a sum of CN-formation cross section σCN and non-CN cross section σnCN for each reaction, where σCN is the sum of evaporation residue cross section σER and fusion-fission cross section σff and σnCN, if not measured, is estimated empirically as the difference between measured and calculated σfusion. Our calculations of PCN and Psurv, based on the dynamical cluster-decay model, were successfully made for some 17 "hot" fusion reactions, forming different CN of mass numbers ACN˜100 -300 , with deformations of nuclei up to hexadecapole deformations and "compact" orientations for both coplanar (Φc=0∘ ) and noncoplanar (Φc≠0∘ ) configurations, using various different nuclear interaction potentials. Interesting variations of σERreduced with CN excitation energy E*, fissility parameter χ , CN mass ACN, and Coulomb parameter Z1Z2 show that, independent of entrance channel, different isotopes of CN, and nuclear interaction potentials used, the dominant quantity in the product is Psurv, which classifies all the studied CN into three groups of weakly fissioning, radioactive, and strongly fissioning superheavy nuclei, with relative magnitudes of σERreduced˜1 , ˜10-6 , and ˜10-11 , which, like for PCN, get further grouped in two dependencies of (i) weakly fissioning and strongly fissioning superheavy nuclei decreasing with increasing E* and (ii) radioactive nuclei increasing with increasing E*.

  14. Absolute Rayleigh scattering cross sections of gases and freons of stratospheric interest in the visible and ultraviolet regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SHARDANAND; Rao, A. D. P.

    1977-01-01

    The laboratory measurements of absolute Rayleigh scattering cross sections as a function wavelength are reported for gas molecules He, Ne, Ar, N2, H2, O2, CO2, CH4 and for vapors of most commonly used freons CCl2F2, CBrF3, CF4, and CHClf2. These cross sections are determined from the measurements of photon scattering at an angle of 54 deg 44 min which yield the absolute values independent of the value of normal depolarization ratios. The present results show that in the spectral range 6943-3638A deg, the values of the Rayleigh scattering cross section can be extrapolated from one wavelength to the other using 1/lambda (4) law without knowing the values of the polarizabilities. However, such an extrapolation can not be done in the region of shorter wavelengths.

  15. RoCaSCA: A contour tracing grid-based algorithm to identify similarity regions and clusters in spatial geographical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazenberg, P.; Torfs, P. J. J. F.; Leijnse, H.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2012-04-01

    Over the last decades the amount of spatial geographic data obtained from satellite and radar remote sensing, geographical and other types of spatial information has increased tremendously, making it impossible for a user to examine all in detail. Therefore, a considerable amount of research has focused on smart and efficient solutions to segment a spatial image into its dominant regions, extracting most essential information. The current research presents a new spatial image cluster identification method. The delineation of clusters is performed in two separate steps. First, we identify a regions outer contour using the properties of a rotating carpenter square. Secondly, we define all inner pixels belonging to a cluster based on the same principle, excluding inner contour regions if necessary. As such, a cluster identification method will be presented which has considerable similarity to some of the tracing type and connected component image segmentation algorithms developed in the literature during the last decade. However, since the characteristic shape of a carpenter square can easily be extended, the algorithm presented here does not strictly label neighboring pixels to the same component only. On the contrary, our algorithm is able to connect non-neighboring pixels for varying pixel distances as well. In addition, since our algorithm takes a continuous grid as input, it is possible to define transition pixels, that connect pixels that belong to a given cluster. Therefore, this newly developed algorithm presents a link between the traditional image segmentation methods implemented on binary grids and the partitional density and grid-based cluster identification methods that use continuous datasets. We will demonstrate the impact of this new cluster identification method for a number of typical geophysical cases ranging from global drought identification to weather radar based precipitation cell delineation.

  16. Dental-to-velar perceptual assimilation: A cross-linguistic study of the perception of dental stop+/1/ clusters

    PubMed Central

    Hallé, Pierre A.; Best, Catherine T.

    2009-01-01

    French listeners perceive illegal /tl/ and /dl/ clusters as legal /kl/ and /gl/, suggesting that /dl, tl/ undergo “phonotactic perceptual assimilation” to the phonetically most similar permissible clusters [Hallé et al., J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. (1998)]. However, without a comparison to native speakers of a language allowing initial /tl, dl/, other explanations remain open (e.g., universal phonetic biases). Experiment 1 compared native French and Hebrew listeners on perception of Hebrew /tl/-/kl/ and /dl/-/gl/. On a language-specific phonotactics account, these contrasts should be difficult for listeners whose language disallows initial /tl, dl/ while allowing /kl, gl/(French), but not for listeners whose language permits all four clusters (Hebrew). Indeed, French but not Hebrew listeners showed difficulty discriminating /tl/-/kl/, and tended to categorize the initial consonant of /tl/ as /k/; analogous effects for /dl/-/gl/ were weaker. Experiment 2 tested speakers of American English, which also disallows initial /tl, dl/ but realizes stop-voicing differently than French or Hebrew, to examine possible contributions of language-specific phonetic settings. Their performance was similar to that of French listeners, though they had significantly greater difficulty with /dl-/gl/. The results support the proposal of language-specific phonotactic perceptual assimilation, with modest contributions from language-specific phonetic settings. PMID:17550188

  17. The Substellar Mass Function in the Central Region of the Open Cluster Praesepe from Deep LBT Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W.; Boudreault, S.; Goldman, B.; Henning, Th.; Caballero, J. A.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.

    2011-12-01

    Studies of the mass function (MF) of open clusters of different ages allow us to probe the efficiency with which brown dwarfs (BDs) are evaporated from clusters to populate the field. Surveys in old clusters (age gtrsim 100 Myr) do not suffer so severely from several problems encountered in young clusters, such as intra-cluster extinction and large uncertainties in BD models. Here we present the results of a deep photometric survey to study the MF of the old open cluster Praesepe (age 590+150-120 Myr and distance 190+6.0-5.8 pc), down to a 5σ detection limit at i˜25.6 mag (˜40 MJup). We identify 62 cluster member candidates, of which 40 are substellar, from comparison with predictions from a dusty atmosphere model. The MF rises from the substellar boundary until ˜60 MJup and then declines. This is quite different from the form inferred for other open clusters older than 50 Myr, but seems to be similar to those found in very young open cluster, whose MFs peak at ˜10 MJup. Either Praesepe really does have a different MF from other clusters or they had similar initial MFs but have differed in their dynamical evolution. We further have identified six foreground T dwarf candidates towards Praesepe, which require follow-up spectroscopy to confirm their nature.

  18. Correlation of Intermediate Energy Proton- and Neutron-Induced Fission Cross Sections in the Lead-Bismuth Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Andrey N.; Eismont, Vilen P.; Filatov, Nikolay P.; Kirillov, Sergey N.; Blomgren, Jan; Condé, Henri; Olsson, Nils; Duijvestijn, Marieke; Koning, Arjan

    2005-05-01

    Neutron- and proton-induced fission cross-sections of the lead isotopes 204,206-208Pb and 205Tl in the intermediate energy region have been measured at the Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala, Sweden. Average fissilities of the composite nuclei and the dependence on the nucleon energy and the parameter Z2/A were determined. On this basis, the correlation between the proton- and neutron-induced fission cross sections has been established in the atomic mass region A ˜ 200 and for nucleon energies above 50 MeV, where shell effects do not play a very significant role. The correlation is discussed in the frame of results from calculations by the code TALYS.

  19. Electron Tomographic Analysis of Cytoskeletal Cross-Bridges in the Paranodal Region of the Node of Ranvier in Peripheral Nerves

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Guy A.; Sosinsky, Gina E.; Ghassemzadeh, Sassan; Perez, Alex; Jones, Ying; Ellisman, Mark H.

    2008-01-01

    The node of Ranvier is a site for ionic conductances along myelinated nerves and governs the saltatory transmission of action potentials. Defects in the cross-bridging and spacing of the cytoskeleton is a prominent pathologic feature in diseases of the peripheral nerve. Electron tomography was used to examine cytoskeletal-cytoskeletal, membrane-cytoskeletal, and heterologous cell connections in the paranodal region of the node of Ranvier in peripheral nerves. Focal attachment of cytoskeletal filaments to each other and to the axolemma and paranodal membranes of the Schwann cell via narrow cross-bridges was visualized in both neuronal and glial cytoplasms. A subset of intermediate filaments associates with the cytoplasmic surfaces of supramolecular complexes of transmembrane structures that are presumed to include known and unknown junctional proteins. Mitochondria were linked to both microtubules and neurofilaments in the axoplasm and to neighboring smooth endoplasmic reticulum by narrow cross-bridges. Tubular cisternae in the glial cytoplasm were also linked to the paranodal glial cytoplasmic loop juxtanodal membrane by short cross-bridges. In the extracellular matrix between axon and Schwann cell, junctional bridges formed long cylinders inking the two membranes. Interactions between cytoskeleton, membranes, and extracellular matrix associations in the paranodal region is likely critical not only for scaffolding, but also for intracellular and extracellular communication. PMID:18096402

  20. Motion of small cross-channel clusters on W(2 1 1) surface: A density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurczyszyn, L.; Antczak, G.

    2014-04-01

    The adsorption and diffusion of cross-channel ad-dimers and ad-trimers was investigated using ab-initio DFT calculations. In contrast to in-channel dimers, the motion of cross-channel dimers proceeds one ad-atom at the time with an activation energy comparable to observed for quasi-isolated ad-atoms. The separation of ad-atoms by the surface channel wall lowers, but not eliminates, ad-atoms interactions. Pair interactions show long-range oscillatory behavior with an electronic origin. The short range interactions are modified by creation of straight and staggered direct bonds. Motion of ad-trimers proceeds in the same fashion as for cross-channel ad-dimers.

  1. High spin structures in the A ≈ 40 mass region: from superdeformation to extreme deformation and clusterization (an example of 28Si)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasjev, A. V.; Ray, D.

    2017-06-01

    The search for extremely deformed structures in the yrast and near-yrast region of 28Si has been performed within the cranked relativistic mean field theory up to spin I = 20ħ. The fingerprints of clusterization are seen (well pronounced) in the superdeformed (hyperdeformed) configurations.

  2. A coincidence measurement of the D(gamma, pp pi(-)) cross section in the region of the Delta resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quraan, Maher A.

    Photonuclear reactions are excellent means for understanding final state interactions (FSI). The photon interacts only electromagnetically, allowing a clean separation of the strong interaction channels in the final state. The availability of high duty factor electron machines and large acceptance detectors in the past decade have allowed a further investigation of these effects covering wider regions of phase space. In this experiment, we have successfully measured the D(/gamma, pp/pi/sp-) reaction cross section at the Saskatchewan Accelerator Laboratory (SAL) utilizing the Saskatchewan- Alberta Large Acceptance Detector (SALAD). This is the first measurement of the /gamma D /to pp/pi/sp--cross section covering a wide range of phase space with an attempt to study the FSI's and the /Delta - N interaction that has successfully reproduced the normalizations. The cross section for this reaction is compared to the calculation of J. M. Laget. Laget's theory is quite successful in describing the shapes of the distributions. as well as the overall magnitude of the cross section. The different FSI's and the /Delta - N interaction have an overall effect of 10%-15% on the single differential cross section, with the calculation that includes /Delta - N interaction having the best normalization compared to the data.

  3. Empirical fit to inelastic electron-deuteron and electron-neutron resonance region transverse cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Bosted, P. E.; Christy, M. E.

    2008-06-15

    An empirical fit is described to measurements of inclusive inelastic electron-deuteron cross sections in the kinematic range of four-momentum transfer 0{<=}Q{sup 2}<10 GeV{sup 2} and final state invariant mass 1.1cross sections for the proton, and the assumption R{sub p}=R{sub n}. The underlying fit parameters describe the average cross section for a free proton and a free neutron, with a plane-wave impulse approximation used to fit to the deuteron data. Additional fit parameters are used to fill in the dip between the quasi-elastic peak and the {delta}(1232) resonance. The mean deviation of data from the fit is 3%, with less than 4% of the data points deviating from the fit by more than 10%.