Science.gov

Sample records for cross sectional household

  1. Household food security status in the Northeast of Iran: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Gholami, Ali; Foroozanfar, Zohre

    2015-01-01

    An important issue the world faces today is ensuring that households living in different countries have access to enough food to maintain a healthy life. Food insecurity is prevalent in both developed and developing countries. The objective of this study was to assess the household food security status and related factors among different rural districts of Neyshabur (A city in northeast of Iran). Of 5000 selected rural households 4647 were studied in this cross-sectional study. A validated short questionnaire (with six questions) was used to measure food security. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used for data analysis through SPSS software. In total, 2747 households (59.1%) were identified as food secure. The highest prevalence of food security was observed in Central district (62.3%) and the lowest was in Miyanjolgeh district (52.9%). Backward multiple logistic regression revealed that car ownership, presence of chronic disease in household and household income (per month) were significantly associated with food security in all of surveyed districts (p< 0.05). According to results of this study, lower than 60% of Neyshabur rural households were food secure and economic variables were the most important factors. Therefore, a special attention should be paid to this health problem in these regions.

  2. Storage and wastage of drug products in Jordanian households: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Abushanab, Amani S; Sweileh, Waleed M; Wazaify, Mayyada

    2013-06-01

    Appropriate household storage and use of drug products can reduce drug wastage and unnecessary hazards. We aimed to quantify the amounts and types of medications that were stored in Jordanian households and the extent of drug wastage in terms of the amount and cost of these medications. The setting was households in Amman, Jordan. This was a cross-sectional survey study using a pre-piloted questionnaire. Family members were interviewed in person about use of drug products, and where drug products were stored. The main outcomes were types, storage methods, cost and quantities of drug products in every household. Two hundred and forty-three households were approached, out of which 219 agreed to participate. A total of 2393 (mean 10.9, SD 5.2) drug products were recorded from the 219 households surveyed. A significant positive correlation was noted between the number of drug products in a household and family size (r = 0.19, P < 0.01), the level of the mother's education (r = 0.24, P < 0.01), the level of the father's education (r = 0.28, P < 0.01) and income (r = 0.14, P = 0.034). Eighty nine (40.6%) households had at least one child younger than 6 years of age, and 1122 (46.9%) drug products were stored in unsafe places in the houses, within the reach of children. More than a quarter of drug products (1509, 27.2%) were not in their original containers, 360 (15%) were unused since dispensing, 261 (10.9%) had expired and 44 (1.8%) had no clear expiry date. We estimated that the cost of drug wastage in the 219 households was US$5414. Paracetamol (202, 8.4%), diclofenac (98, 4.1%) and amoxicillin (79, 3.3%) were the most commonly reportedly stored individual drugs. Drug products are stored in large quantities in Jordanian households. Unsafe storage practices have the potential to pose safety hazards, especially to children. © 2012 The Authors. IJPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  3. A Cross-Sectional Study of Household Biomass Fuel Use among a Periurban Population in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Piddock, Katy C.; Gordon, Stephen B.; Ngwira, Andrew; Msukwa, Malango; Nadeau, Gilbert; Davis, Kourtney J.; Nyirenda, Moffat J.; Mortimer, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Rationale The Global Burden of Disease Study suggests almost 3.5 million people die as a consequence of household air pollution every year. Respiratory diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pneumonia in children are strongly associated with exposure to household air pollution. Smoke from burning biomass fuels for cooking, heating, and lighting is the main contributor to high household air pollution levels in low-income countries like Malawi. A greater understanding of biomass fuel use in Malawi should enable us to address household air pollution–associated communicable and noncommunicable diseases more effectively. Objectives To conduct a cross-sectional analysis of biomass fuel use and population demographics among adults in Blantyre, Malawi. Methods We used global positioning system–enabled personal digital assistants to collect data on location, age, sex, marital status, education, occupation, and fuel use. We describe these data and explore associations between demographics and reported fuel type. Measurements and Main Results A total of 16,079 adults participated (nine households refused); median age was 30 years, there was a similar distribution of men and women, 60% were married, and 62% received secondary school education. The most commonly reported occupation for men and women was “salaried employment” (40.7%) and “petty trader and marketing” (23.5%), respectively. Charcoal (81.5% of households), wood (36.5%), and electricity (29.1%) were the main fuels used at home. Only 3.9% of households used electricity exclusively. Lower educational and occupational attainment was associated with greater use of wood. Conclusions This large cross-sectional study has identified extensive use of biomass fuels in a typical sub-Saharan Africa periurban population in which women and people of lower socioeconomic status are disproportionately affected. Biomass fuel use is likely to be a major driver of existing communicable respiratory

  4. Risk factors for trachomatous trichiasis in children: cross-sectional household surveys in Southern Sudan.

    PubMed

    Ngondi, Jeremiah; Reacher, Mark H; Matthews, Fiona E; Brayne, Carol; Gatpan, Gideon; Becknell, Steven; Kur, Lucia; King, Jonathan; Callahan, Kelly; Emerson, Paul M

    2009-03-01

    We have previously documented blinding trachoma to be a serious public health problem in Southern Sudan, with an unusually high prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis (TT) among children. We aimed to investigate risk factors for TT in children in Southern Sudan. Cross-sectional surveys were undertaken in 11 districts between 2001 and 2006, and eligible participants were examined for trachoma signs. Risk factors were assessed through interviews and observations. Using logistic regression, associations between TT in children and potential risk factors were investigated. In total, 11155 children aged 1-14 years from 3950 households were included in the analysis. Overall prevalence of TT was 1.5% (95% CI 1.1-2.1). Factors independently associated with increased odds of TT in children aged 1-14 years were: increasing age (P(trend)<0.001); female gender (odds ratio=1.5; 95% CI 1.1-2.1); increasing proportion of children in the household with trachomatous inflammation-intense (TI) (P(trend)=0.002); and increasing number of adults in the household with TT (P(trend)<0.001). Our study revealed risk factors for TT in children consistent with those previously reported for TT in adults. While the associations of TT in children with TI in siblings and TT in adult relatives merit further investigation, there is an urgent need for trachoma prevention interventions and trichiasis surgery services that are tailored to cater for young children in Southern Sudan.

  5. Chronic disease concordance within Indian households: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shivani A; Dhillon, Preet K; Kondal, Dimple; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Kahol, Kashvi; Manimunda, Sathya Prakash; Purty, Anil J; Deshpande, Ajit; Negi, P C; Ladhani, Sulaiman; Toteja, Gurudayal Singh; Patel, Vikram; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2017-09-01

    The household is a potentially important but understudied unit of analysis and intervention in chronic disease research. We sought to estimate the association between living with someone with a chronic condition and one's own chronic condition status. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of population-based household- and individual-level data collected in 4 socioculturally and geographically diverse settings across rural and urban India in 2013 and 2014. Of 10,703 adults ages 18 years and older with coresiding household members surveyed, data from 7,522 adults (mean age 39 years) in 2,574 households with complete covariate information were analyzed. The main outcome measures were diabetes (fasting plasma glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL or taking medication), common mental disorder (General Health Questionnaire score ≥ 12), hypertension (blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg or taking medication), obesity (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2), and high cholesterol (total blood cholesterol ≥ 240 mg/dL or taking medication). Logistic regression with generalized estimating equations was used to model associations with adjustment for a participant's age, sex, education, marital status, religion, and study site. Inverse probability weighting was applied to account for missing data. We found that 44% of adults had 1 or more of the chronic conditions examined. Irrespective of familial relationship, adults who resided with another adult with any chronic condition had 29% higher adjusted relative odds of having 1 or more chronic conditions themselves (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.29; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.10-1.50). We also observed positive statistically significant associations of diabetes, common mental disorder, and hypertension with any chronic condition (aORs ranging from 1.19 to 1.61) in the analysis of all coresiding household members. Associations, however, were stronger for concordance of certain chronic conditions among coresiding household members. Specifically, we

  6. Association between household food access insecurity and nutritional status indicators among children aged <5 years in Nepal: results from a national, cross-sectional household survey.

    PubMed

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Ramakrishnareddy, N; Subramaniam, Mayoori

    2015-11-01

    To examine the association between household food insecurity score and Z-scores of childhood nutritional status indicators. Population-based, cross-sectional survey, Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2011. A nationally representative sample of 11 085 households selected by a two-stage, stratified cluster sampling design to interview eligible men and women. Children (n 2591) aged 0-60 months in a sub-sample of households selected for men's interview. Prevalence of moderate and severe household food insecurity was 23·2% and 19·0%, respectively, for children aged 0-60 months. Weighted prevalence rates for stunting (height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) <-2), wasting (weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ) <-2) and underweight (weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ) <-2) were 41·6% (95% CI 38·9, 44·3%), 11·5% (95% CI 9·8, 13·2%) and 30·1% (95% CI 27·5, 32·8%), respectively. Prevalences of stunting, severe stunting (HAZ<-3) and underweight by level of household food insecurity were statistically significant (P<0·001). By multiple linear regression analyses and after adjustment for sociodemographic, child and environmental factors, household food access insecurity score was associated with HAZ (β=-0·02, P=0·01) and WAZ (β=-0·01, P=0·01) but was not associated with WHZ and BMI-for-age Z-score. A 10-point increase in household food access insecurity score was associated with a decrease in HAZ of 0·2 (95% CI 0·05, 0·39) and decrease in WAZ of 0·1 (95% CI 0·03, 0·27). Our results from a nationally representative sample confirm the previously reported association of household food insecurity with stunting and underweight. Community nutrition interventions may use household food insecurity scales for identifying those households where children may be at risk of growth faltering.

  7. Under five diarrhea among model household and non model households in Hawassa, South Ethiopia: a comparative cross-sectional community based survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ethiopia has been implementing a community-level health intervention package (referred to as “Health Extension Program”) to improve the health of children in particular. However, its effect on the major childhood illnesses in Ethiopia has not been studied. This study was conducted to determine whether a fully-implemented health extension program reduces diarrhea in children under the age of five. Method A Community-based comparative cross-sectional study was carried out by comparing model households (i.e. households that fully implemented the health extension package) with non-model households (i.e. households that did not fully implement the health extension package). The study participants were mothers having children under the age of five. Data were collected through a household survey. A multiple logistic regression model was used to control known confounders. Result After controlling potential confounding factors using a logistic regression model, under five year children residing in non-model households, were more likely to have diarrhea in the two weeks preceding the survey compared to those residing in model households [AOR: 2.65, 95%CI (1.11, 6.27)]. Conclusion Diarrhea among under five children significantly reduced among families who fully implemented basic health packages. The finding suggests that being a model HH can have a positive impact on diarrhea morbidity among under five children. PMID:24555706

  8. Household characteristics and influenza vaccination uptake in the community-dwelling elderly: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Denise P.C.; Wong, Ngai Sze; Wong, Eliza L.Y.; Cheung, Annie W.L.; Lee, Shui Shan

    2015-01-01

    Elderly people are at higher risk of influenza diseases. The morbidity benefit of vaccination is often offset by its low and variable coverage in elderly people in the community. To assess household and individual factors associated with influenza vaccination uptake in the community-dwelling elderly of age ≥ 65, data from a cross-sectional Thematic Household Survey conducted in 2011/12 in Hong Kong were analysed, using vaccination in the past 12 months as the outcome variable. Households comprising an elderly person living with non-elderly member(s) of age ≤ 64 were also evaluated. Data fields included socio-demographics, household structures, health status, eligibility to financial subsidy, and subscription to health insurance. The influenza vaccination rate was 27% in 4204 elderly persons from 3224 households. Being male, being economically active, attaining primary education, having smoking behaviours were negatively associated with vaccination, while chronic illness and age ≥ 70 were positively associated factors. Elderly people living alone gave a variable rate of vaccination ranging from 16.4% in males of age 65–69 to 36.3% in females ≥ 70. Household size per se was not associated with vaccination, but a positive correlation could be seen if the household was composed of vaccinated non-elderly member(s). Influenza vaccination uptake in the community-dwelling elderly is dependent on both individual and household characteristics, the latter including the influence of vaccinated non-elderly member(s). The low vaccination coverage of “younger” (age 65–69) elderly men living alone is particularly worrisome. Interventions focusing on vulnerable elderly people and their social networks would be desirable. PMID:26844153

  9. Microbiological Evaluation of Household Drinking Water Treatment in Rural China Shows Benefits of Electric Kettles: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Alasdair; Tao, Yong; Luo, Qing; Zhong, Gemei; Romm, Jeff; Colford, John M; Ray, Isha

    2015-01-01

    In rural China ~607 million people drink boiled water, yet little is known about prevailing household water treatment (HWT) methods or their effectiveness. Boiling, the most common HWT method globally, is microbiologically effective, but household air pollution (HAP) from burning solid fuels causes cardiovascular and respiratory disease, and black carbon emissions exacerbate climate change. Boiled water is also easily re-contaminated. Our study was designed to identify the HWT methods used in rural China and to evaluate their effectiveness. We used a geographically stratified cross-sectional design in rural Guangxi Province to collect survey data from 450 households in the summer of 2013. Household drinking water samples were collected and assayed for Thermotolerant Coliforms (TTC), and physicochemical analyses were conducted for village drinking water sources. In the winter of 2013-2104, we surveyed 120 additional households and used remote sensors to corroborate self-reported boiling data. Our HWT prevalence estimates were: 27.1% boiling with electric kettles, 20.3% boiling with pots, 34.4% purchasing bottled water, and 18.2% drinking untreated water (for these analyses we treated bottled water as a HWT method). Households using electric kettles had the lowest concentrations of TTC (73% lower than households drinking untreated water). Multilevel mixed-effects regression analyses showed that electric kettles were associated with the largest Log10TTC reduction (-0.60, p<0.001), followed by bottled water (-0.45, p<0.001) and pots (-0.44, p<0.01). Compared to households drinking untreated water, electric kettle users also had the lowest risk of having TTC detected in their drinking water (risk ratio, RR = 0.49, 0.34-0.70, p<0.001), followed by bottled water users (RR = 0.70, 0.53-0.93, p<0.05) and households boiling with pots (RR = 0.74, 0.54-1.02, p = 0.06). As far as we are aware, this is the first HWT-focused study in China, and the first to quantify the

  10. Microbiological Evaluation of Household Drinking Water Treatment in Rural China Shows Benefits of Electric Kettles: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Alasdair; Tao, Yong; Luo, Qing; Zhong, Gemei; Romm, Jeff; Colford, John M.; Ray, Isha

    2015-01-01

    Background In rural China ~607 million people drink boiled water, yet little is known about prevailing household water treatment (HWT) methods or their effectiveness. Boiling, the most common HWT method globally, is microbiologically effective, but household air pollution (HAP) from burning solid fuels causes cardiovascular and respiratory disease, and black carbon emissions exacerbate climate change. Boiled water is also easily re-contaminated. Our study was designed to identify the HWT methods used in rural China and to evaluate their effectiveness. Methods We used a geographically stratified cross-sectional design in rural Guangxi Province to collect survey data from 450 households in the summer of 2013. Household drinking water samples were collected and assayed for Thermotolerant Coliforms (TTC), and physicochemical analyses were conducted for village drinking water sources. In the winter of 2013–2104, we surveyed 120 additional households and used remote sensors to corroborate self-reported boiling data. Findings Our HWT prevalence estimates were: 27.1% boiling with electric kettles, 20.3% boiling with pots, 34.4% purchasing bottled water, and 18.2% drinking untreated water (for these analyses we treated bottled water as a HWT method). Households using electric kettles had the lowest concentrations of TTC (73% lower than households drinking untreated water). Multilevel mixed-effects regression analyses showed that electric kettles were associated with the largest Log10TTC reduction (-0.60, p<0.001), followed by bottled water (-0.45, p<0.001) and pots (-0.44, p<0.01). Compared to households drinking untreated water, electric kettle users also had the lowest risk of having TTC detected in their drinking water (risk ratio, RR = 0.49, 0.34–0.70, p<0.001), followed by bottled water users (RR = 0.70, 0.53–0.93, p<0.05) and households boiling with pots (RR = 0.74, 0.54–1.02, p = 0.06). Conclusion As far as we are aware, this is the first HWT-focused study in

  11. Small scale water treatment practice and associated factors at Burie Zuria Woreda Rural Households, Northwest Ethiopia, 2015: cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Belay, Hailegebriel; Dagnew, Zewdu; Abebe, Nurilign

    2016-08-26

    Consuming unsafe water results in infections that lead to illness or death from water borne diseases. Though there is an increasing effort from Ethiopian government to access safe water still there are households with limited access of safe water as a result, they depend on rain, well and spring water source for domestic use. However, the water treatment practice with the available technology is not studied before in the study area. This study was conducted in rural area where there was no improved water source for domestic consumption. Households' access water from rain, spring, river and well water which need some ways of action to make water safe for the intended utilization termed as treatment. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess magnitude of small scale water treatment practices and associated factors at household level in Burie zuria woreda, North West Ethiopia, 2015. Community based cross-sectional study design with multi-stage sampling technique was used to evaluate water treatment practice and associated factors among rural households in Burie Zuria Woreda. A total of 797 households included in the study. Completeness of questionnaires were checked daily and data were coded and entered into Epi-Data and transported to SPSS version 16 software package for further analysis. Binary and multivariable logistic regression models fit to identify associated factors at 95 % CI and P-value <0.05. A total of 797 out of 846 participants responded to a questionnaire with a response rate of 94.2 %. The mean age of respondents was 44.9(SD ±10.7) years. Among the total study participants, 357(44.8 %) of them were practicing small scale water treatment at household level. Methods of water treatment at household level were; chlorine, boiling and let stand and settle. Associated factors were female headed households practice water treatment than male headed households (AOR = 1.80, 95 % CI = 1.24-2.62), educational status of being literate was associated

  12. Tobacco use in India: prevalence and predictors of smoking and chewing in a national cross sectional household survey

    PubMed Central

    Rani, M; Bonu, S; Jha, P; Nguyen, S; Jamjoum, L

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence and the socioeconomic and demographic correlates of tobacco consumption in India. Design: Cross sectional, nationally representative population based household survey. Subjects: 315 598 individuals 15 years or older from 91 196 households were sampled in National Family Health Survey-2 (1998–99). Data on tobacco consumption were elicited from household informants. Measures and methods: Prevalence of current smoking and current chewing of tobacco were used as outcome measures. Simple and two way cross tabulations and multivariate logistic regression analysis were the main analytical methods. Results: Thirty per cent of the population 15 years or older—47% men and 14% of women—either smoked or chewed tobacco, which translates to almost 195 million people—154 million men and 41million women in India. However, the prevalence may be underestimated by almost 11% and 1.5% for chewing tobacco among men and women, respectively, and by 5% and 0.5% for smoking among men and women, respectively, because of use of household informants. Tobacco consumption was significantly higher in poor, less educated, scheduled castes and scheduled tribe populations. The prevalence of tobacco consumption increased up to the age of 50 years and then levelled or declined. The prevalence of smoking and chewing also varied widely between different states and had a strong association with individual's sociocultural characteristics. Conclusion: The findings of the study highlight that an agenda to improve health outcomes among the poor in India must include effective interventions to control tobacco use. Failure to do so would most likely result in doubling the burden of diseases—both communicable and non-communicable—among India's teeming poor. There is a need for periodical surveys using more consistent definitions of tobacco use and eliciting information on different types of tobacco consumed. The study also suggests a need to adjust the

  13. Tobacco use in India: prevalence and predictors of smoking and chewing in a national cross sectional household survey.

    PubMed

    Rani, M; Bonu, S; Jha, P; Nguyen, S N; Jamjoum, L

    2003-12-01

    To estimate the prevalence and the socioeconomic and demographic correlates of tobacco consumption in India. Cross sectional, nationally representative population based household survey. 315 598 individuals 15 years or older from 91 196 households were sampled in National Family Health Survey-2 (1998-99). Data on tobacco consumption were elicited from household informants. Measures and methods: Prevalence of current smoking and current chewing of tobacco were used as outcome measures. Simple and two way cross tabulations and multivariate logistic regression analysis were the main analytical methods. Thirty per cent of the population 15 years or older-47% men and 14% of women-either smoked or chewed tobacco, which translates to almost 195 million people-154 million men and 41 million women in India. However, the prevalence may be underestimated by almost 11% and 1.5% for chewing tobacco among men and women, respectively, and by 5% and 0.5% for smoking among men and women, respectively, because of use of household informants. Tobacco consumption was significantly higher in poor, less educated, scheduled castes and scheduled tribe populations. The prevalence of tobacco consumption increased up to the age of 50 years and then levelled or declined. The prevalence of smoking and chewing also varied widely between different states and had a strong association with individual's sociocultural characteristics. The findings of the study highlight that an agenda to improve health outcomes among the poor in India must include effective interventions to control tobacco use. Failure to do so would most likely result in doubling the burden of diseases-both communicable and non-communicable-among India's teeming poor. There is a need for periodical surveys using more consistent definitions of tobacco use and eliciting information on different types of tobacco consumed. The study also suggests a need to adjust the prevalence estimates based on household informants.

  14. The multi-dimensional neighbourhood and health: a cross-sectional analysis of the Scottish Household Survey, 2001.

    PubMed

    Parkes, Alison; Kearns, Ade

    2006-03-01

    Neighbourhoods may influence the health of individual residents in different ways: via the social and physical environment, as well as through facilities and services. Not all factors may be equally important for all population subgroups. A cross-sectional analysis of the Scottish Household Survey 2001 examined a range of neighbourhood factors for links with three health outcomes and two health-related behaviours. The results support the hypothesis that the neighbourhood has a multi-dimensional impact on health. There was also some evidence that the relationship between neighbourhood factors and health varied according to the population subgroup, although not in a consistent manner.

  15. Association of household income and education with eating behaviors in Japanese adults: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Saki; Inayama, Takayo; Hata, Kikuko; Matsushita, Munehiro; Takahashi, Masaki; Harada, Kazuhiro; Arao, Takashi

    2016-01-22

    Socioeconomic inequalities as social determinants of health are important issues in public health and health promotion. However, the association between socioeconomic status and eating behaviors has been investigated poorly in Japanese adults. To fill this gap, the present study examines the association of eating behaviors with household income and education. The sample comprised 3,137 Japanese adults (1,580 men and 1,557 women) aged 30 to 59 years who responded to an Internet-based cross-sectional survey in 2014. Data on the following eating behaviors were collected via self-report: "taking care of one's diet for health," "eating vegetables," "frequency of eating breakfast," "frequency of family breakfasts," "frequency of family dinners," "using the information on nutrition labels," and "conversations with family or friends during meals." Self-reported data on socioeconomic status (household income and education) and demographic variables (gender, age, district of residence, marital status, residence status, and employment status) were also collected. The associations between eating behaviors and household income or education were tested using binomial logistic regression analysis with eating behaviors as dependent variables and household income and education as independent variables. A trend P -value was calculated for three categories of household income (less than 3,000,000 JPY, 3,000,000-7,000,000 JPY, and over 7,000,000 JPY) and education (junior high/high school, 2-year college, and 4-year college/graduate school). Higher household income and education were significantly associated with higher rates of eating vegetables, using the information on nutrition labels, and conversation with family or friends during meals in Japanese men and women. Higher household incomes were significantly associated with lower rates of frequency of family breakfasts in Japanese men and lower rates of frequency of family dinners in Japanese men and women. Higher socioeconomic

  16. Faecal contamination of household drinking water in Rwanda: A national cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Miles A; Nagel, Corey L; Rosa, Ghislaine; Iyakaremye, Laurien; Zambrano, Laura Divens; Clasen, Thomas F

    2016-11-15

    Unsafe drinking water is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, especially among young children in low-income settings. We conducted a national survey in Rwanda to determine the level of faecal contamination of household drinking water and risk factors associated therewith. Drinking water samples were collected from a nationally representative sample of 870 households and assessed for thermotolerant coliforms (TTC), a World Health Organization (WHO)-approved indicator of faecal contamination. Potential household and community-level determinants of household drinking water quality derived from household surveys, the 2012 Rwanda Population and Housing Census, and a precipitation dataset were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Widespread faecal contamination was present, and only 24.9% (95% CI 20.9-29.4%, n=217) of household samples met WHO Guidelines of having no detectable TTC contamination, while 42.5% (95% CI 38.0-47.1%, n=361) of samples had >100TTC/100mL and considered high risk. Sub-national differences were observed, with poorer water quality in rural areas and Eastern province. In multivariate analyses, there was evidence for an association between detectable contamination and increased open waste disposal in a sector, lower elevation, and water sources other than piped to household or rainwater/bottled. Risk factors for intermediate/high risk contamination (>10TTC/100mL) included low population density, increased open waste disposal, lower elevation, water sources other than piped to household or rainwater/bottled, and occurrence of an extreme rain event the previous day. Modelling suggests non-household-based risk factors are determinants of water quality in this setting, and these results suggest a substantial proportion of Rwanda's population are exposed to faecal contamination through drinking water.

  17. Injuries caused by pets in Asian urban households: a cross-sectional telephone survey

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Emily Y Y; Gao, Yang; Li, Liping; Lee, Po Yi

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Little is known about pet-related injuries in Asian populations. This study primarily aimed to investigate the incidence rate of pet-related household injuries in Hong Kong, an urban Chinese setting. Setting Cantonese-speaking non-institutionalised population of all ages in Hong Kong accessible by telephone land-line. Participants A total of 43 542 telephone numbers were dialled and 6570 residents successfully completed the interviews. Primary and secondary outcome measures Data of pet-related household injuries in the previous 12 months, pet ownership and socio-demographic characteristics were collected with a questionnaire. Direct standardisation of the incidence rates of pet-related household injuries by gender and age to the 2009 Hong Kong Population Census was estimated. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to estimate risks of socio-demographic factors and pet ownership for the injury. Results A total of 84 participants experienced pet-related household injuries in the past 12 months, with an overall person-based incidence rate of 1.28%. The majority of the victims were injured once (69.6%). Cats (51.6%) were the most common pets involved. Pet owners were at an extremely higher risk after controlling for other factors (adjusted OR: 52.0, 95% CI 22.1 to 98.7). Females, the unmarried, those with higher monthly household income and those living in lower-density housing were more likely to be injured by pets. Conclusions We project a pet-related household injury incidence rate of 1.24% in the general Hong Kong population, with 86 334 residents sustaining pet-related injuries every year. Pet ownership puts people at extremely high risk, especially the unmarried. Further studies should focus on educating pet owners to reduce pet-related injuries in urban Greater China. PMID:28110284

  18. Probable Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in Kenya and Its Associated Risk Factors: A Cross-Sectional Household Survey

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Rachel; Othieno, Caleb; Omollo, Raymond; Ongeri, Linnet; Sifuna, Peter; Mboroki, James Kingora; Kiima, David; Ogutu, Bernhards

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence of probable post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and its associated risk factors in a general household population in Kenya. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional household survey of mental disorders and their associated risk factors. The participants received a structured epidemiological assessment of common mental disorders, and symptoms of PTSD, accompanied by additional sections on socio-demographic data, life events, social networks, social supports, disability/activities of daily living, quality of life, use of health services, and service use. The study found that 48% had experienced a severe trauma, and an overall prevalence rate of 10.6% of probable PTSD, defined as a score of six or more on the trauma screening questionnaire (TSQ). The conditional probability of PTSD was 0.26. Risk factors include being female, single, self-employed, having experienced recent life events, having a common mental disorder (CMD)and living in an institution before age 16. The study indicates that probable PTSD is prevalent in this rural area of Kenya. The findings are relevant for the training of front line health workers, their support and supervision, for health management information systems, and for mental health promotion in state boarding schools. PMID:26516877

  19. Probable Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in Kenya and Its Associated Risk Factors: A Cross-Sectional Household Survey.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Rachel; Othieno, Caleb; Omollo, Raymond; Ongeri, Linnet; Sifuna, Peter; Mboroki, James Kingora; Kiima, David; Ogutu, Bernhards

    2015-10-26

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence of probable post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and its associated risk factors in a general household population in Kenya. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional household survey of mental disorders and their associated risk factors. The participants received a structured epidemiological assessment of common mental disorders, and symptoms of PTSD, accompanied by additional sections on socio-demographic data, life events, social networks, social supports, disability/activities of daily living, quality of life, use of health services, and service use. The study found that 48% had experienced a severe trauma, and an overall prevalence rate of 10.6% of probable PTSD, defined as a score of six or more on the trauma screening questionnaire (TSQ). The conditional probability of PTSD was 0.26. Risk factors include being female, single, self-employed, having experienced recent life events, having a common mental disorder (CMD)and living in an institution before age 16. The study indicates that probable PTSD is prevalent in this rural area of Kenya. The findings are relevant for the training of front line health workers, their support and supervision, for health management information systems, and for mental health promotion in state boarding schools.

  20. Quantifying the pediatric surgical need in Uganda: results of a nationwide cross-sectional, household survey.

    PubMed

    Butler, Elissa K; Tran, Tu M; Fuller, Anthony T; Brammell, Alexa; Vissoci, Joao Ricardo; de Andrade, Luciano; Makumbi, Fredrick; Luboga, Samuel; Muhumuza, Christine; Ssennono, Vincent F; Chipman, Jeffrey G; Galukande, Moses; Haglund, Michael M; Smith, Emily R

    2016-11-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of pediatric surgical conditions in low- and middle-income countries. Many children never seek medical care, thus the true prevalence of surgical conditions in children in Uganda is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of surgical conditions in children in Uganda. Using the Surgeons OverSeas Assessment of Surgical Need (SOSAS) survey, we enumerated 4248 individuals in 2315 households in 105 randomly selected clusters throughout Uganda. Children aged 0-18 were included if randomly selected from the household; for those who could not answer for themselves, parents served as surrogates. Of 2176 children surveyed, 160 (7.4 %) reported a currently untreated surgical condition. Lifetime prevalence of surgical conditions was 14.0 % (305/2176). The predominant cause of surgical conditions was trauma (48.4 %), followed by wounds (19.7 %), acquired deformities (16.2 %), and burns (12.5 %). Of 90 pediatric household deaths, 31.1 % were associated with a surgically treatable proximate cause of death (28/90 deaths). Although some trauma-related surgical burden among children can be adequately addressed at district hospitals, the need for diagnostics, human resources, and curative services for more severe trauma cases, congenital deformities, and masses outweighs the current capacity of hospitals and trained pediatric surgeons in Uganda.

  1. Household costs of seeking outpatient care in Egyptian children with diarrhea: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Barakat, Abeer; Halawa, Eman Fawzy

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Addressing difficulties of seeking and getting health care would lower the burden of diarrhea among ill children from developing countries as Egypt. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the economic burden of diarrhea associated with outpatient visits of children in Egypt by identifying the different types of related costs. Methods This cross-sectional clinic-based survey was done by interviewing parents of 763 children presenting with diarrhea to the outpatient clinics of Pediatric Hospital of Cairo University. Estimated costs included tangible costs (direct, indirect) and intangible costs (forms of suffering). Insurance status of the children was also described. Descriptive statistics were presented in frequency tables, median, minimum, maximum, interquartile range, mean and standard deviation, whenever appropriate. Results It was found that 90. 7% of the studied children were of low and middle socioeconomic standard with a median monthly family income of US$83 and a median monthly expenditure of LE US$79. The average direct and indirect costs of acute diarrhea per case were US$13.2±19.5 and US$11.3±93.1 respectively. The mean cost per diarrheal episode is US$24.5 which almost consumes 29.5% of the mean monthly income. About 61% of cases sought medical care before visiting our hospital, 43.6% of them visited more than one provider. Awareness about health insurance was found in 72.7% and coverage by a health insurance system in 33%. Of insured patients only 41.4% utilized the insurance services. Conclusion Diarrhea causes great socio-economic burden for families in Egypt, which could result in significant delay in seeking health care. PMID:23560125

  2. Intra-Household Nutritional Dynamics: A Cross-Sectional Study of Maasai Communities in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Pilla, Loretta; Dantas, Jaya A R

    2016-05-01

    To date, research on dietary consumption and nutritional outcomes of the Maasai in Kenya have failed to explore how gender dynamics and intra-household bargaining power affect dietary decisions. This exploratory qualitative study investigates the decision-making processes regarding eating habits and health-seeking behavior within Maasai families in Kenya, and how such roles currently support or conflict with maternal and child health (MCH) program activities in the field of nutritional education and practices. The data were collected from the three group ranches in Laikipia County in Kenya and draws on six focus group discussions with a total of 24 Maasai men and 24 Maasai women. Our research has documented that the dietary and health-seeking decisions of Maasai families are influenced by complex intra- and extra-household factors. Programmatic interventions need to examine decision-making processes within the context of multi-generational family dynamics and gender hierarchies to scale up community-driven interventions to ensure sustained behavior change. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Risk factors for domestic physical violence: national cross-sectional household surveys in eight southern African countries

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Neil; Ho-Foster, Ari; Mitchell, Steve; Scheepers, Esca; Goldstein, Sue

    2007-01-01

    Background The baseline to assess impact of a mass education-entertainment programme offered an opportunity to identify risk factors for domestic physical violence. Methods In 2002, cross-sectional household surveys in a stratified urban/rural last-stage random sample of enumeration areas, based on latest national census in Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Working door to door, interviewers contacted all adults aged 16–60 years present on the day of the visit, without sub-sampling. 20,639 adults were interviewed. The questionnaire in 29 languages measured domestic physical violence by the question "In the last year, have you and your partner had violent arguments where your partner beat, kicked or slapped you?" There was no measure of severity or frequency of physical violence. Results 14% of men (weighted based on 1,294/8,113) and 18% of women (weighted based on 2,032/11,063) reported being a victim of partner physical violence in the last year. There was no convincing association with age, income, education, household size and remunerated occupation. Having multiple partners was strongly associated with partner physical violence. Other associations included the income gap within households, negative attitudes about sexuality (for example, men have the right to sex with their girlfriends if they buy them gifts) and negative attitudes about sexual violence (for example, forcing your partner to have sex is not rape). Particularly among men, experience of partner physical violence was associated with potentially dangerous attitudes to HIV infection. Conclusion Having multiple partners was the most consistent risk factor for domestic physical violence across all countries. This could be relevant to domestic violence prevention strategies. PMID:17631689

  4. Costs and consequences of abortions to women and their households: a cross-sectional study in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Ilboudo, Patrick G C; Greco, Giulia; Sundby, Johanne; Torsvik, Gaute

    2015-05-01

    Little is known about the costs and consequences of abortions to women and their households. Our aim was to study both costs and consequences of induced and spontaneous abortions and complications. We carried out a cross-sectional study between February and September 2012 in Ouagadougou, the capital city of Burkina Faso. Quantitative data of 305 women whose pregnancy ended with either an induced or a spontaneous abortion were prospectively collected on sociodemographic, asset ownership, medical and health expenditures including pre-referral costs following the patient's perspective. Descriptive analysis and regression analysis of costs were performed. We found that women with induced abortion were often single or never married, younger, more educated and had earlier pregnancies than women with spontaneous abortion. They also tended to be more often under parents' guardianship compared with women with spontaneous abortion. Women with induced abortion paid much more money to obtain abortion and treatment of the resulting complications compared with women with spontaneous abortion: US$89 (44 252 CFA ie franc of the African Financial Community) vs US$56 (27 668 CFA). The results also suggested that payments associated with induced abortion were catastrophic as they consumed 15% of the gross domestic product per capita. Additionally, 11-16% of total households appeared to have resorted to coping strategies in order to face costs. Both induced and spontaneous abortions may incur high expenses with short-term economic repercussions on households' poverty. Actions are needed in order to reduce the financial burden of abortion costs and promote an effective use of contraceptives. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014.

  5. Inpatient care burden due to cancers in Anhui, China: a cross-sectional household survey.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ting; Cheng, Jing; Chai, Jing; Feng, Rui; Liang, Han; Shen, Xingrong; Sha, Rui; Wang, Debin

    2016-04-11

    The financial burden of cancers has profound effects and there is a clear need to explore the issue from different perspectives and for different population groups. This study aimed at investigating inpatient cancer care (ICC) burden in Anhui, a typical inland province of China. The study collected data through a household survey conducted during April to November, 2014 using cluster-randomized sampling and a structured questionnaire administered face-to-face by trained interviewers. The survey covered 60,678 urban and rural residents and 318 person-times of ICC during the past year. Age-adjusted annual person-times and days of ICC per thousand population added up to 4.24 and 76.78 respectively and urban residents showed significantly greater admission rates and length of stay than that of rural ones. Total ICC expenditures accounted for 13.30 % of all that of inpatient care for the whole population. Per-case direct and indirect costs of all types of cancers were estimated as 10365.1 and 929.9 RMB. Per-case total cost on ICC at township hospitals was 2142.3 RMB and at province level hospitals, 17133.0 RMB. Significant variations in per-case ICC expenditures also existed between patients with different household income and type of medical insurance systems, but patients suffering from different types of cancers. Out-of-pocket payment due to ICC turned out to be catastrophic for 20.6 % of all cancer patients and 65.2 % for other medical insurance, 45.6 % for enrollees of urban and rural medical insurance, 43.2 % for the 65 to 74 years old. Multi regression revealed statistically significant association between ICC costs and education, reimbursement ratio, household income and level of hospital. Cancers characterize low incidence, moderate service use and high expenses. There exist substantial differences between subgroups and part of these variations cannot be explained by pathological factors. ICC expenses are catastrophic in nature to a large part of patients

  6. Reconstructing the PMTCT cascade using cross-sectional household survey data: The PEARL Study

    PubMed Central

    CHI, Benjamin H.; TIH, Pius M.; ZANOLINI, Arianna; STINSON, Kathryn; EKOUEVI, Didier K.; COETZEE, David; WELTY, Thomas K.; BWEUPE, Maximillian; SHAFFER, Nathan; DABIS, Francois; STRINGER, Elizabeth M.; STRINGER, Jeffrey S A

    2016-01-01

    Background Given the ambitious targets to reduce pediatric AIDS worldwide, ongoing assessment of programs to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) is critical. The concept of a “PMTCT cascade” has been used widely to identify bottlenecks in program implementation; however, most efforts to reconstruct the cascade have relied on facility-based approaches that may limit external validity. Methods We analyzed data from the PEARL household survey, which measured PMTCT effectiveness in 26 communities across Zambia, South Africa, Cote d’Ivoire, and Cameroon. We recruited women who reported a delivery in the past two years. Among mothers confirmed to be HIV-infected at the time of survey, we reconstructed the PMTCT cascade with self-reported participant information. We also analyzed data about the child’s vital status; for those still alive, HIV testing was performed via DNA PCR. Results Of the 976 eligible women, only 355 (36%) completed every step of the PMTCT cascade. Among the 621 mother-child pairs who did not, 22 (4%) reported never seeking antenatal care, 103 (17%) were not tested for HIV during pregnancy, 395 (64%) reported testing but never received their HIV-positive result, 48 (8%) did not receive maternal antiretroviral prophylaxis, and 53 (9%) did not receive infant antiretroviral prophylaxis. The lowest prevalence of infant HIV infection or death was observed in those completing the cascade (10%, 95%CI: 7%–12%). Conclusions Future efforts to measure population PMTCT impact should incorporate dimensions explored in the PEARL Study – including HIV testing of HIV-exposed children in household surveys – to better understand program effectiveness. PMID:26068722

  7. Children, smoking households and exposure to second-hand smoke in the home in rural Australia: analysis of a national cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Longman, Jo M; Passey, Megan E

    2013-01-01

    This paper aimed to explore the association between rurality and (1) household smoking status and (2) home second-hand smoke exposure, in households with children aged 0-14 years. Cross-sectional study. Households across Australia. Households across the country were randomly selected to provide a nationally representative sample. Respondents were persons aged 12 years or older in each household who were next going to celebrate their birthday. Household smoking status and smoking inside the home. The 2010 Australian National Drug Strategy Household survey data were analysed to explore the prevalence of household smoking and home second-hand smoke exposure in rural and urban households with children. Multivariable logistic regression was used to explore the association of rurality with household smoking and with home second-hand smoke exposure, controlling for potential confounders. Households with children were more likely to be smoking households (35.4%, 95% CI 34.2% to 36.5%) than households without children (32.1%, 95% CI 31.3% to 32.8%). Both household smoking (43.6% (95% CI 41.5% to 45.7%) vs 31.4% (95% CI 30.0% to 32.8%)) and home second-hand smoke exposure (8.0% (95% CI 6.8% to 9.1%) vs 5.2% (95% CI 4.5% to 5.8%)) were significantly more common for rural children. In multivariate analyses controlling for confounding factors, rurality remained associated with smoking households (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.37), whereas it did not remain associated with children's home second-hand smoke exposure (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.35). Larger household size, low socioeconomic status and being a single-parent household were the main drivers of home second-hand smoke exposure. The proportion of smoking households with children, and the number of children regularly exposed to second-hand smoke in their homes remain important public health concerns. Smoking cessation support and tobacco control policies might benefit from targeting larger and/or socioeconomically

  8. Children, smoking households and exposure to second-hand smoke in the home in rural Australia: analysis of a national cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Longman, Jo M; Passey, Megan E

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This paper aimed to explore the association between rurality and (1) household smoking status and (2) home second-hand smoke exposure, in households with children aged 0–14 years. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Households across Australia. Participants Households across the country were randomly selected to provide a nationally representative sample. Respondents were persons aged 12 years or older in each household who were next going to celebrate their birthday. Primary outcome measures Household smoking status and smoking inside the home. Methodology The 2010 Australian National Drug Strategy Household survey data were analysed to explore the prevalence of household smoking and home second-hand smoke exposure in rural and urban households with children. Multivariable logistic regression was used to explore the association of rurality with household smoking and with home second-hand smoke exposure, controlling for potential confounders. Results Households with children were more likely to be smoking households (35.4%, 95% CI 34.2% to 36.5%) than households without children (32.1%, 95% CI 31.3% to 32.8%). Both household smoking (43.6% (95% CI 41.5% to 45.7%) vs 31.4% (95% CI 30.0% to 32.8%)) and home second-hand smoke exposure (8.0% (95% CI 6.8% to 9.1%) vs 5.2% (95% CI 4.5% to 5.8%)) were significantly more common for rural children. In multivariate analyses controlling for confounding factors, rurality remained associated with smoking households (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.37), whereas it did not remain associated with children's home second-hand smoke exposure (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.35). Larger household size, low socioeconomic status and being a single-parent household were the main drivers of home second-hand smoke exposure. Conclusions The proportion of smoking households with children, and the number of children regularly exposed to second-hand smoke in their homes remain important public health concerns. Smoking cessation support

  9. Household food insecurity and diet diversity after the major 2010 landslide disaster in Eastern Uganda: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Rukundo, Peter M; Andreassen, Bård A; Kikafunda, Joyce; Rukooko, Byaruhanga; Oshaug, Arne; Iversen, Per Ole

    2016-02-28

    In 2010, a landslide in Bududa, Eastern Uganda, killed about 350 people and nearly 1000 affected households were resettled in Kiryandongo, Western Uganda. A cross-sectional survey assessed household food insecurity and diet diversity among 1078 affected and controls. In Bududa, the affected had a lower adjusted mean score of food insecurity than controls - 9·2 (se 0·4) v. 12·3 (se 0·4) (P<0·01)--but higher diet diversity score (DDS) - 7·1 (se 0·1) v. 5·9 (se 0·1) (P<0·01). On controlling for disaster and covariates, recipients of relief food had higher food insecurity - 12·0 (se 0·6) v. 10·4 (se 0·3) (P=0·02)--whereas farmers had higher DDS - 6·6 (se 0·2) v. 5·6 (se 0·3) (P<0·01). Household size increased the likelihood of food insecurity (OR 1·15; 95% CI 1·00, 1·32; P<0·05) but reduced DDS (OR 0·93; 95% CI 0·87, <1·00; P=0·04). Low DDS was more likely in disaster affected (OR 4·22; 95% CI 2·65, 6·72; P<0·01) and farmers (OR 2·52; 95% CI 1·37, 4·64; P<0·01). In Kiryandongo, affected households had higher food insecurity - 12·3 (se 0·8) v. 2·6 (se 0·8) (P<0·01)--but lower DDS - 5·8 (se 0·3) v. 7·0 (se 0·3) (P=0·02). The latter reduced with increased age (OR 0·99; 95% CI 0·97, 1·00; P<0·05), lowest education (OR 0·54; 95% CI 0·31, 0·93; P=0·03), farmers (OR 0·59; 95 % CI 0·35, 0·98; P=0·04) and asset ownership (OR 0·56; 95% CI 0·39, 0·81; P<0·01). Addressing social protection could mitigate food insecurity.

  10. Health and happiness: cross-sectional household surveys in Finland, Poland and Spain.

    PubMed

    Miret, Marta; Caballero, Francisco Félix; Chatterji, Somnath; Olaya, Beatriz; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Koskinen, Seppo; Leonardi, Matilde; Haro, Josep Maria; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis

    2014-10-01

    To explore the associations between health and how people evaluate and experience their lives. We analysed data from nationally-representative household surveys originally conducted in 2011-2012 in Finland, Poland and Spain. These surveys provided information on 10 800 adults, for whom experienced well-being was measured using the Day Reconstruction Method and evaluative well-being was measured with the Cantril Self-Anchoring Striving Scale. Health status was assessed by questions in eight domains including mobility and self-care. We used multiple linear regression, structural equation models and multiple indicators/multiple causes models to explore factors associated with experienced and evaluative well-being. The multiple indicator/multiple causes model conducted over the pooled sample showed that respondents with younger age (effect size, β = 0.19), with higher levels of education (β = -0.12), a history of depression (β = -0.17), poor health status (β = 0.29) or poor cognitive functioning (β = 0.09) reported worse experienced well-being. Additional factors associated with worse evaluative well-being were male sex (β = -0.03), not living with a partner (β = 0.07), and lower occupational (β = -0.07) or income levels (β = 0.08). Health status was the factor most strongly correlated with both experienced and evaluative well-being, even after controlling for a history of depression, age, income and other sociodemographic variables. Health status is an important correlate of well-being. Therefore, strategies to improve population health would also improve people's well-being.

  11. Health and happiness: cross-sectional household surveys in Finland, Poland and Spain

    PubMed Central

    Miret, Marta; Caballero, Francisco Félix; Chatterji, Somnath; Olaya, Beatriz; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Koskinen, Seppo; Leonardi, Matilde; Haro, Josep Maria

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore the associations between health and how people evaluate and experience their lives. Methods We analysed data from nationally-representative household surveys originally conducted in 2011–2012 in Finland, Poland and Spain. These surveys provided information on 10 800 adults, for whom experienced well-being was measured using the Day Reconstruction Method and evaluative well-being was measured with the Cantril Self-Anchoring Striving Scale. Health status was assessed by questions in eight domains including mobility and self-care. We used multiple linear regression, structural equation models and multiple indicators/multiple causes models to explore factors associated with experienced and evaluative well-being. Findings The multiple indicator/multiple causes model conducted over the pooled sample showed that respondents with younger age (effect size, β = 0.19), with higher levels of education (β = −0.12), a history of depression (β = −0.17), poor health status (β = 0.29) or poor cognitive functioning (β = 0.09) reported worse experienced well-being. Additional factors associated with worse evaluative well-being were male sex (β = −0.03), not living with a partner (β = 0.07), and lower occupational (β = −0.07) or income levels (β = 0.08). Health status was the factor most strongly correlated with both experienced and evaluative well-being, even after controlling for a history of depression, age, income and other sociodemographic variables. Conclusion Health status is an important correlate of well-being. Therefore, strategies to improve population health would also improve people’s well-being. PMID:25378725

  12. Costs and consequences of abortions to women and their households: a cross-sectional study in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Ilboudo, Patrick G C; Greco, Giulia; Sundby, Johanne; Torsvik, Gaute

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the costs and consequences of abortions to women and their households. Our aim was to study both costs and consequences of induced and spontaneous abortions and complications. We carried out a cross-sectional study between February and September 2012 in Ouagadougou, the capital city of Burkina Faso. Quantitative data of 305 women whose pregnancy ended with either an induced or a spontaneous abortion were prospectively collected on sociodemographic, asset ownership, medical and health expenditures including pre-referral costs following the patient’s perspective. Descriptive analysis and regression analysis of costs were performed. We found that women with induced abortion were often single or never married, younger, more educated and had earlier pregnancies than women with spontaneous abortion. They also tended to be more often under parents’ guardianship compared with women with spontaneous abortion. Women with induced abortion paid much more money to obtain abortion and treatment of the resulting complications compared with women with spontaneous abortion: US$89 (44 252 CFA ie franc of the African Financial Community) vs US$56 (27 668 CFA). The results also suggested that payments associated with induced abortion were catastrophic as they consumed 15% of the gross domestic product per capita. Additionally, 11–16% of total households appeared to have resorted to coping strategies in order to face costs. Both induced and spontaneous abortions may incur high expenses with short-term economic repercussions on households’ poverty. Actions are needed in order to reduce the financial burden of abortion costs and promote an effective use of contraceptives. PMID:24829315

  13. Complex association between rural/urban residence, household wealth and women's overweight: evidence from 30 cross-sectional national household surveys in Africa.

    PubMed

    Madise, Nyovani Janet; Letamo, Gobopamang

    2017-01-01

    We sought to demonstrate that the relationship between urban or rural residence and overweight status among women in Sub-Saharan Africa is complex and confounded by wealth status. We applied multilevel logistic regression to data from 30 sub-Saharan African countries which were collected between 2006 and 2012 to examine the association between women's overweight status (body mass index ≥ 25) and household wealth, rural or urban place of residence, and their interaction. Macro-level statistics from United Nations agencies were used as contextual variables to assess the link between progress in globalization and patterns of overweight. Household wealth was associated with increased odds of being overweight in nearly all of the countries. Urban/rural living and household wealth had a complex association with women's overweight status, shown by 3 patterns. In one group of countries, characterised by low national wealth (median per capita gross national income (GNI) = $660 in 2012) and lower overall prevalence of female overweight (median = 24 per cent in 2010), high household wealth and urban living had independent associations with increased risks of being overweight. In the second group of less poor countries (median per capita GNI = $870) and higher national levels of female overweight (median = 29), there was a cross-over association where rural women had lower risks of overweight than urban women at lower levels of household wealth, but in wealthier households, rural women had higher risks of overweight than urban women. In the final group of countries, household wealth was an important predictor of overweight status, but the association between urban or rural place of residence and overweight status was not statistically significant. The median per capita GNI for this third group was $800 and national prevalence of female overweight was high (median = 32% in 2010). As nations develop and household wealth increases, rural African women

  14. A Cross-Sectional, Randomized Cluster Sample Survey of Household Vulnerability to Extreme Heat among Slum Dwellers in Ahmedabad, India

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Kathy V.; Azhar, Gulrez S.; Nair, Rajesh; Knowlton, Kim; Jaiswal, Anjali; Sheffield, Perry; Mavalankar, Dileep; Hess, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Extreme heat is a significant public health concern in India; extreme heat hazards are projected to increase in frequency and severity with climate change. Few of the factors driving population heat vulnerability are documented, though poverty is a presumed risk factor. To facilitate public health preparedness, an assessment of factors affecting vulnerability among slum dwellers was conducted in summer 2011 in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. Indicators of heat exposure, susceptibility to heat illness, and adaptive capacity, all of which feed into heat vulnerability, was assessed through a cross-sectional household survey using randomized multistage cluster sampling. Associations between heat-related morbidity and vulnerability factors were identified using multivariate logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to account for clustering effects. Age, preexisting medical conditions, work location, and access to health information and resources were associated with self-reported heat illness. Several of these variables were unique to this study. As sociodemographics, occupational heat exposure, and access to resources were shown to increase vulnerability, future interventions (e.g., health education) might target specific populations among Ahmedabad urban slum dwellers to reduce vulnerability to extreme heat. Surveillance and evaluations of future interventions may also be worthwhile. PMID:23778061

  15. Indoor household residual spraying program performance in Matabeleland South province, Zimbabwe: 2011 to 2012; a descriptive cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Chimberengwa, Pugie Tawanda; Masuka, Nyasha; Gombe, Notion Tafara; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Takundwa, Lucia; Bangure, Donewell

    2015-01-01

    Matabeleland South launched the malaria pre-elimination campaign in 2012 but provincial spraying coverage has failed to attain 95% target, with some districts still encountering malaria outbreaks. A study was conducted to evaluate program performance against achieving malaria pre-elimination. A descriptive cross sectional study was done in 5 districts carrying out IRS using the logical framework involving inputs, process, outputs and outcome evaluation. Health workers recruited into the study included direct program implementers, district and provincial program managers. An interviewer administered questionnaire, checklists, key informant interviewer guide and desk review of records were used to collect data. We enrolled 37 primary respondents and 5 key informants. Pre-elimination, Epidemic Preparedness and Response plans were absent in all districts. Shortages of inputs were reported by 97% of respondents, with districts receiving 80% of requested budget. Insecticides were procured centrally at national level. Spraying started late and districts failed to spray all targeted households by end of December. The province is using makeshift camps with inappropriate evaporation ponds where liquid DDT waste is not safely accounted for. The provincial IHRS coverage for 2011 was 84%. Challenges cited included; food shortages for spraymen, late delivery of inputs and poor state of IHRS equipment. The province has failed to achieve Malaria pre-elimination IRS coverage targets for 2011/12 season. Financial and logistical challenges led to delays in supply of program inputs, recruitment and training of sprayers. The Province should establish camping infrastructure with standard evaporation ponds to minimise contamination of the environment.

  16. A cross-sectional, randomized cluster sample survey of household vulnerability to extreme heat among slum dwellers in ahmedabad, india.

    PubMed

    Tran, Kathy V; Azhar, Gulrez S; Nair, Rajesh; Knowlton, Kim; Jaiswal, Anjali; Sheffield, Perry; Mavalankar, Dileep; Hess, Jeremy

    2013-06-18

    Extreme heat is a significant public health concern in India; extreme heat hazards are projected to increase in frequency and severity with climate change. Few of the factors driving population heat vulnerability are documented, though poverty is a presumed risk factor. To facilitate public health preparedness, an assessment of factors affecting vulnerability among slum dwellers was conducted in summer 2011 in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. Indicators of heat exposure, susceptibility to heat illness, and adaptive capacity, all of which feed into heat vulnerability, was assessed through a cross-sectional household survey using randomized multistage cluster sampling. Associations between heat-related morbidity and vulnerability factors were identified using multivariate logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to account for clustering effects. Age, preexisting medical conditions, work location, and access to health information and resources were associated with self-reported heat illness. Several of these variables were unique to this study. As sociodemographics, occupational heat exposure, and access to resources were shown to increase vulnerability, future interventions (e.g., health education) might target specific populations among Ahmedabad urban slum dwellers to reduce vulnerability to extreme heat. Surveillance and evaluations of future interventions may also be worthwhile.

  17. Knowledge, attitude and practice about malaria in south-western Saudi Arabia: A household-based cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Khairy, Sami; Al-Surimi, Khaled; Ali, Anna; Shubily, Hussam M; Al Walaan, Nisreen; Househ, Mowafa; El-Metwally, Ashraf

    2017-02-21

    This study aimed to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) concerning malaria and malaria prevention among rural populations residing in the southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. This was a household-based cross-sectional survey, using structured questionnaire that was developed and distributed among households selected randomly from 19 villages (clusters) located in a southwestern region of Saudi Arabia, north of the border with Yemen. The data collected were analyzed using SPSS version 20. A majority of respondents (98.4%) reported that they had heard about malaria, but only 21.7% reported that they had sufficient information about the disease. Surprisingly, the most popular source of information was the internet and social media (proportion responding positively in parenthesis) (25.5%), followed by family (21.7%), while information from health facilities contributed only 12.4%. A majority of respondents were aware that malaria is a communicable (89.1%) and deadly (70%) disease; however, only 30.2% of the respondents responded that malaria is a treatable disease. Almost all of the aware respondents (97.5%) were inclined to seek treatment from health facilities, and 63.2% preferred to seek treatment within 24h of presenting with symptoms. Regarding personal precautions, the most common practice adopted by respondents was indoor residual spraying IRS (47.3%), followed by anti-mosquito spraying (29.8%), mosquito bed nets (13.2%) and combined anti-mosquito sprays and nets on windows (4.7%). This KAP study did not show any statistically significant differences in KAP due to age; however the practices of preventive measures against malaria differed significantly by nationality (Saudi versus non-Saudi). We conclude that most populations living in the villages have an acceptable level of knowledge and awareness about malaria and seek timely treatment. However, the positive attitudes and practices in relation to personal protection and prevention

  18. The role of seasonality on the diet and household food security of pregnant women living in rural Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Briony; Watt, Kerrianne; Brimbecombe, Julie; Clough, Alan; Judd, Jenni; Lindsay, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the association of seasonality with dietary diversity, household food security and nutritional status of pregnant women in a rural district of northern Bangladesh. A cross-sectional study was conducted from February 2013 to February 2015. Data were collected on demographics, household food security (using the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale), dietary diversity (using the women's dietary diversity questionnaire) and mid-upper arm circumference. Descriptive statistics were used to explore demographics, dietary diversity, household food security and nutritional status, and inferential statistics were applied to explore the role of seasonality on diversity, household food security and nutritional status. Twelve villages of Pirganj sub-district, Rangpur District, northern Bangladesh. Pregnant women (n 288). Seasonality was found to be associated with dietary diversity (P=0·026) and household food security (P=0·039). Dietary diversity was significantly lower in summer (P=0·029) and spring (P=0·038). Food security deteriorated significantly in spring (P=0·006) and late autumn (P=0·009). Seasons play a role in women's household food security status and dietary diversity, with food security deteriorating during the lean seasons and dietary diversity deteriorating during the second 'lesser' lean season and the season immediately after. Interventions that aim to improve the diet of pregnant women from low-income, subsistence-farming communities need to recognise the role of seasonality on diet and food security and to incorporate initiatives to prevent seasonal declines.

  19. Child, maternal and household-level correlates of nutritional status: a cross-sectional study among young Samoan children.

    PubMed

    Choy, Courtney C; Desai, Mayur M; Park, Jennifer J; Frame, Elizabeth A; Thompson, Avery A; Naseri, Take; Reupena, Muagututia S; Duckham, Rachel L; Deziel, Nicole C; Hawley, Nicola L

    2017-05-01

    Young children are particularly vulnerable to malnutrition as nutrition transition progresses. The present study aimed to document the prevalence, coexistence and correlates of nutritional status (stunting, overweight/obesity and anaemia) in Samoan children aged 24-59 months. A cross-sectional community-based survey. Height and weight were used to determine prevalence of stunting (height-for-age Z-score +2) based on WHO growth standards. Anaemia was determined using an AimStrip Hemoglobin test system (Hb <110 g/l). Ten villages on the Samoan island of Upolu. Mother-child pairs (n 305) recruited using convenience sampling. Moderate or severe stunting was apparent in 20·3 % of children, 16·1 % were overweight/obese and 34·1 % were anaemic. Among the overweight/obese children, 28·6 % were also stunted and 42·9 % anaemic, indicating dual burden of malnutrition. Stunting was significantly less likely among girls (OR=0·41; 95 % CI 0·21, 0·79, P<0·01) than boys. Overweight/obesity was associated with higher family socio-economic status and decreased sugar intake (OR per 10 g/d=0·89, 95 % CI 0·80, 0·99, P=0·032). The odds of anaemia decreased with age and anaemia was more likely in children with an anaemic mother (OR=2·20; 95 % CI 1·22, 3·98, P=0·007). No child, maternal or household characteristic was associated with more than one of the nutritional status outcomes, highlighting the need for condition-specific interventions in this age group. The observed prevalences of stunting, overweight/obesity and anaemia suggest that it is critical to invest in nutrition and develop health programmes targeting early childhood growth and development in Samoa.

  20. Indoor household residual spraying program performance in Matabeleland South province, Zimbabwe: 2011 to 2012; a descriptive cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chimberengwa, Pugie Tawanda; Masuka, Nyasha; Gombe, Notion Tafara; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Takundwa, Lucia; Bangure, Donewell

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Matabeleland South launched the malaria pre-elimination campaign in 2012 but provincial spraying coverage has failed to attain 95% target, with some districts still encountering malaria outbreaks. A study was conducted to evaluate program performance against achieving malaria pre-elimination. Methods A descriptive cross sectional study was done in 5 districts carrying out IRS using the logical framework involving inputs, process, outputs and outcome evaluation. Health workers recruited into the study included direct program implementers, district and provincial program managers. An interviewer administered questionnaire, checklists, key informant interviewer guide and desk review of records were used to collect data. Results We enrolled 37 primary respondents and 5 key informants. Pre-elimination, Epidemic Preparedness and Response plans were absent in all districts. Shortages of inputs were reported by 97% of respondents, with districts receiving 80% of requested budget. Insecticides were procured centrally at national level. Spraying started late and districts failed to spray all targeted households by end of December. The province is using makeshift camps with inappropriate evaporation ponds where liquid DDT waste is not safely accounted for. The provincial IHRS coverage for 2011 was 84%. Challenges cited included; food shortages for spraymen, late delivery of inputs and poor state of IHRS equipment. Conclusion The province has failed to achieve Malaria pre-elimination IRS coverage targets for 2011/12 season. Financial and logistical challenges led to delays in supply of program inputs, recruitment and training of sprayers. The Province should establish camping infrastructure with standard evaporation ponds to minimise contamination of the environment. PMID:26015847

  1. Efficiency of Household Reactive Case Detection for Malaria in Rural Southern Zambia: Simulations Based on Cross-Sectional Surveys from Two Epidemiological Settings

    PubMed Central

    Searle, Kelly M.; Shields, Timothy; Hamapumbu, Harry; Kobayashi, Tamaki; Mharakurwa, Sungano; Thuma, Philip E.; Smith, David L.; Glass, Gregory; Moss, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Case detection and treatment are critical to malaria control and elimination as infected individuals who do not seek medical care can serve as persistent reservoirs for transmission. Methods Household malaria surveys were conducted in two study areas within Southern Province, Zambia in 2007 and 2008. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted approximately five times throughout the year in each of the two study areas. During study visits, adults and caretakers of children were administered a questionnaire and a blood sample was obtained for a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for malaria. These data were used to estimate the proportions of individuals with malaria potentially identified through passive case detection at health care facilities and those potentially identified through reactive case finding. Simulations were performed to extrapolate data from sampled to non-sampled households. Radii of increasing size surrounding households with an index case were examined to determine the proportion of households with an infected individual that would be identified through reactive case detection. Results In the 2007 high transmission setting, with a parasite prevalence of 23%, screening neighboring households within 500 meters of an index case could have identified 89% of all households with an RDT positive resident and 90% of all RDT positive individuals. In the 2008 low transmission setting, with a parasite prevalence of 8%, screening neighboring households within 500 meters of a household with an index case could have identified 77% of all households with an RDT positive resident and 76% of all RDT positive individuals. Conclusions Testing and treating individuals residing within a defined radius from an index case has the potential to be an effective strategy to identify and treat a large proportion of infected individuals who do not seek medical care, although the efficiency of this strategy is likely to decrease with declining parasite prevalence. PMID

  2. Efficiency of household reactive case detection for malaria in rural Southern Zambia: simulations based on cross-sectional surveys from two epidemiological settings.

    PubMed

    Searle, Kelly M; Shields, Timothy; Hamapumbu, Harry; Kobayashi, Tamaki; Mharakurwa, Sungano; Thuma, Philip E; Smith, David L; Glass, Gregory; Moss, William J

    2013-01-01

    Case detection and treatment are critical to malaria control and elimination as infected individuals who do not seek medical care can serve as persistent reservoirs for transmission. Household malaria surveys were conducted in two study areas within Southern Province, Zambia in 2007 and 2008. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted approximately five times throughout the year in each of the two study areas. During study visits, adults and caretakers of children were administered a questionnaire and a blood sample was obtained for a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for malaria. These data were used to estimate the proportions of individuals with malaria potentially identified through passive case detection at health care facilities and those potentially identified through reactive case finding. Simulations were performed to extrapolate data from sampled to non-sampled households. Radii of increasing size surrounding households with an index case were examined to determine the proportion of households with an infected individual that would be identified through reactive case detection. In the 2007 high transmission setting, with a parasite prevalence of 23%, screening neighboring households within 500 meters of an index case could have identified 89% of all households with an RDT positive resident and 90% of all RDT positive individuals. In the 2008 low transmission setting, with a parasite prevalence of 8%, screening neighboring households within 500 meters of a household with an index case could have identified 77% of all households with an RDT positive resident and 76% of all RDT positive individuals. Testing and treating individuals residing within a defined radius from an index case has the potential to be an effective strategy to identify and treat a large proportion of infected individuals who do not seek medical care, although the efficiency of this strategy is likely to decrease with declining parasite prevalence.

  3. Does material disadvantage explain the increased risk of adverse health, educational, and behavioural outcomes among children in lone parent households in Britain? A cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Nick

    2005-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that material disadvantage explains the increased risk among children and young people of adverse health, educational, and behavioural problems associated with living in lone parent households in Britain Secondary analysis of a cross sectional survey of a representative sample of British households with children and youthMain outcomes: Parent reported fair/poor health, longstanding illness and disability, statement of special educational needs, suspension and/or expulsion from school, and in trouble with the police. Data were available on 15 636 (8049 boys and 7587 girls) aged 0-18 years in 8541 households in the third sweep (2001) of the British government's families and children study Lone parenthood was associated with increased risk of health and educational problems, and antisocial behaviour among boys and girls in a logistic regression model adjusting for child's age alone. Adding age of main carer, number of dependent children, and child's rank in the household made little difference to the associations. Addition of housing tenure, household hardship index, and an interaction term for lone parenthood and hardship eliminated the relation with lone parenthood for all outcomes except parent reported health among girls. Similar results were obtained for households headed by lone parents for at least a year. An interaction effect of lone parenthood with hardship for parent reported health and statement of special educational needs was noted. Adverse effects of lone parenthood on health, education, and antisocial behaviour were apparently explained by material disadvantage in this cross sectional sample of British households with children and youth.

  4. A cross-sectional study of determinants of indoor environmental exposures in households with and without chronic exposure to biomass fuel smoke

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Burning biomass fuels indoors for cooking is associated with high concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and carbon monoxide (CO). More efficient biomass-burning stoves and chimneys for ventilation have been proposed as solutions to reduce indoor pollution. We sought to quantify indoor PM and CO exposures in urban and rural households and determine factors associated with higher exposures. A secondary objective was to identify chronic vs. acute changes in cardiopulmonary biomarkers associated with exposure to biomass smoke. Methods We conducted a census survey followed by a cross-sectional study of indoor environmental exposures and cardiopulmonary biomarkers in the main household cook in Puno, Peru. We measured 24-hour indoor PM and CO concentrations in 86 households. We also measured PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations gravimetrically for 24 hours in urban households and during cook times in rural households, and generated a calibration equation using PM2.5 measurements. Results In a census of 4903 households, 93% vs. 16% of rural vs. urban households used an open-fire stove; 22% of rural households had a homemade chimney; and <3% of rural households participated in a national program encouraging installation of a chimney. Median 24-hour indoor PM2.5 and CO concentrations were 130 vs. 22 μg/m3 and 5.8 vs. 0.4 ppm (all p<0.001) in rural vs. urban households. Having a chimney did not significantly reduce median concentrations in 24-hour indoor PM2.5 (119 vs. 137 μg/m3; p=0.40) or CO (4.6 vs. 7.2 ppm; p=0.23) among rural households with and without chimneys. Having a chimney did not significantly reduce median cook-time PM2.5 (360 vs. 298 μg/m3, p=0.45) or cook-time CO concentrations (15.2 vs. 9.4 ppm, p=0.23). Having a thatched roof (p=0.007) and hours spent cooking (p=0.02) were associated with higher 24-hour average PM concentrations. Rural participants had higher median exhaled CO (10 vs. 6 ppm; p=0.01) and exhaled carboxyhemoglobin (1.6% vs. 1.0%; p

  5. Household secondhand smoke exposure of elementary schoolchildren in Southern Taiwan and factors associated with their confidence in avoiding exposure: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure to household Secondhand Smoke (SHS) poses a major health threat to children after an indoor smoking ban was imposed in Taiwan. This study aimed to assess the household SHS exposure in elementary school children in southern Taiwan and the factors associated with their avoidance of SHS exposure before and after the implementation of Taiwan's new Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act in 2009. Methods In this cross-sectional school-based study, data on household SHS exposure, avoidance of SHS and related variables was obtained from the 2008 and 2009 Control of School-aged Children Smoking Study Survey. A random sample of 52 elementary schools was included. A total of 4450 3-6 graders (aged 8-13) completed the questionnaire. Regression models analyzed factors of children's self-confidence to avoid household SHS exposure. Results Over 50% of children were found to have lived with a family member who smoked in front of them after the new law enacted, and 35% of them were exposed to household SHS more than 4 days a week. Having a positive attitude toward smoking (β = -0.05 to -0.06) and high household SHS exposure (β = -0.34 to -0.47) were significantly associated with a lower avoidance of SHS exposure. Comparing to girls, boys had lower scores in their knowledge of tobacco hazards; and this factor was significantly related to their SHS avoidance (β = 0.13-0.14). Conclusions The intervention program should enhance school children do actively avoid exposure to SHS in home settings, and more importantly, provide tobacco hazard knowledge to male students to avoid exposure to household SHS for themselves. The results also provide further evidence that Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act should perhaps be extended to the family environment in order to protect children from the hazards of household SHS exposure. PMID:22251625

  6. Household secondhand smoke exposure of elementary schoolchildren in Southern Taiwan and factors associated with their confidence in avoiding exposure: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Yen, Yea-Yin; Lin, Pi-Li; Chiu, Chin-Hsuan; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Chen, Ted; Hu, Chih-Yang; Lin, Ya-Ying; Lee, Chien-Hung; Chen, Fu-Li

    2012-01-17

    Exposure to household Secondhand Smoke (SHS) poses a major health threat to children after an indoor smoking ban was imposed in Taiwan. This study aimed to assess the household SHS exposure in elementary school children in southern Taiwan and the factors associated with their avoidance of SHS exposure before and after the implementation of Taiwan's new Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act in 2009. In this cross-sectional school-based study, data on household SHS exposure, avoidance of SHS and related variables was obtained from the 2008 and 2009 Control of School-aged Children Smoking Study Survey. A random sample of 52 elementary schools was included. A total of 4450 3-6 graders (aged 8-13) completed the questionnaire. Regression models analyzed factors of children's self-confidence to avoid household SHS exposure. Over 50% of children were found to have lived with a family member who smoked in front of them after the new law enacted, and 35% of them were exposed to household SHS more than 4 days a week. Having a positive attitude toward smoking (β = -0.05 to -0.06) and high household SHS exposure (β = -0.34 to -0.47) were significantly associated with a lower avoidance of SHS exposure. Comparing to girls, boys had lower scores in their knowledge of tobacco hazards; and this factor was significantly related to their SHS avoidance (β = 0.13-0.14). The intervention program should enhance school children do actively avoid exposure to SHS in home settings, and more importantly, provide tobacco hazard knowledge to male students to avoid exposure to household SHS for themselves. The results also provide further evidence that Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act should perhaps be extended to the family environment in order to protect children from the hazards of household SHS exposure.

  7. Tobacco use in 3 billion individuals from 16 countries: an analysis of nationally representative cross-sectional household surveys.

    PubMed

    Giovino, Gary A; Mirza, Sara A; Samet, Jonathan M; Gupta, Prakash C; Jarvis, Martin J; Bhala, Neeraj; Peto, Richard; Zatonski, Witold; Hsia, Jason; Morton, Jeremy; Palipudi, Krishna M; Asma, Samira

    2012-08-18

    Despite the high global burden of diseases caused by tobacco, valid and comparable prevalence data for patterns of adult tobacco use and factors influencing use are absent for many low-income and middle-income countries. We assess these patterns through analysis of data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). Between Oct 1, 2008, and March 15, 2010, GATS used nationally representative household surveys with comparable methods to obtain relevant information from individuals aged 15 years or older in 14 low-income and middle-income countries (Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Mexico, Philippines, Poland, Russia, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay, and Vietnam). We compared weighted point estimates and 95% CIs of tobacco use between these 14 countries and with data from the 2008 UK General Lifestyle Survey and the 2006-07 US Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey. All these surveys had cross-sectional study designs. In countries participating in GATS, 48·6% (95% CI 47·6-49·6) of men and 11·3% (10·7-12·0) of women were tobacco users. 40·7% of men (ranging from 21·6% in Brazil to 60·2% in Russia) and 5·0% of women (0·5% in Egypt to 24·4% in Poland) in GATS countries smoked a tobacco product. Manufactured cigarettes were favoured by most smokers (82%) overall, but smokeless tobacco and bidis were commonly used in India and Bangladesh. For individuals who had ever smoked daily, women aged 55-64 years at the time of the survey began smoking at an older age than did equivalently aged men in most GATS countries. However, those individuals who had ever smoked daily and were aged 25-34-years when surveyed started to do so at much the same age in both sexes. Quit ratios were very low (<20% overall) in China, India, Russia, Egypt, and Bangladesh. The first wave of GATS showed high rates of smoking in men, early initiation of smoking in women, and low quit ratios, reinforcing the view that efforts to prevent initiation and promote

  8. Brucellosis and Coxiella burnetii Infection in Householders and Their Animals in Secure Villages in Herat Province, Afghanistan: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Akbarian, Zarif; Ziay, Ghulam; Schauwers, Willy; Noormal, Bashir; Saeed, Islam; Qanee, Abul Hussain; Shahab, Zabiullah; Dennison, Tania; Dohoo, Ian; Jackson, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Background Brucellosis and coxiellosis are known to be endemic in ruminant populations throughout Afghanistan, but information about their prevalence and factors that affect prevalence in householders and livestock under diverse husbandry systems and pastoral settings is sparse. Methods/Principal Findings We conducted a cross-sectional survey to investigate the seroprevalence of brucellosis and Coxiella burnetii in humans and livestock in six secure districts in Herat from 26th December 2012–17th January 2013. A total of 204 households with livestock were surveyed in six Kuchi and five sedentary type villages. Blood samples from 1,017 humans, 1,143 sheep, 876 goats and 344 cattle were tested for brucellosis and Q fever. About one in six households (15.7%) had at least one Brucella seropositive person, about one in eight households (12.3%) had at least one Brucella seropositive animal and about one in four (24.5%) had either seropositive animals or humans. Ninety-seven percent of households had at least one C. burnetii seropositive person and 98.5% of households had one or more C. burnetii seropositive animals. Forty- seven householders had serological evidence of exposure to both C. burnetii and Brucella and eight animals were serologically positive for both diseases. Drinking unpasteurised milk (OR 1.6), treating animals for ticks (OR 1.4), milking sheep (OR 1.4), male gender (OR 1.4) and seropositivity to Brucella (OR 4.3) were identified as risk factors for seropositivity to C. burnetii in householders. Household factors associated with households having either Brucella seropositive animals or humans were Kuchi households (OR 2.5), having ≤4 rooms in the house (OR 2.9) and not owning land (OR 2.9). Conclusions The results from this study provide baseline information for the planning and monitoring of future interventions against these diseases. The implementation of this study greatly improved collaboration, coordination and capability of veterinary and

  9. A cross-sectional analysis of pet-specific immunoglobulin E sensitization and allergic symptomatology and household pet keeping in a birth cohort population

    PubMed Central

    Wegienka, Ganesa; Havstad, Suzanne; Ownby, Dennis R.; Johnson, Christine C.; Zoratti, Edward M.

    2013-01-01

    It is unknown whether family members with detectable specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) and/or allergic symptoms to pets are more or less likely to reside in a household with pets. We cross-sectionally investigated potential relationships between family members' allergic sensitization and symptoms to dogs and cats and current household pet-keeping practices, using birth cohort data. Blood samples taken from children enrolled in a birth cohort and their biological mothers and fathers, when the children were aged 18 years, were assessed for sIgE to dog and cat allergens. Interviews assessed subjects' self-reported pet exposure symptoms, current household pet-keeping practices, and socioeconomic characteristics. Overall, household dog or cat keeping was not associated with sIgE to these animals and/or self-reported allergic symptoms in the presence of these animals, even after controlling for factors such as education and household income. In subgroup analyses, current household dog keeping among dog-symptomatic teens (n = 40) was significantly lower than among teens who were not dog symptomatic (n = 289), at 48.8 and 61.1%, respectively (p = 0.036). Current household cat keeping was significantly lower among cat-symptomatic mothers (n = 27) compared with mothers who were not cat symptomatic (n = 120), at 24.3 and 37.0%, respectively (p = 0.015). However, when considering those who were both sensitized and reported symptoms, only the mother and cat-keeping associations persisted (p = 0.049). When cat-sensitized mothers report allergic symptoms to cats, these pets may be less likely to be kept in homes. Elevated dog and cat allergen sIgE does not appear to be associated with the keeping of these pets. PMID:24169057

  10. A cross-sectional analysis of pet-specific immunoglobulin E sensitization and allergic symptomatology and household pet keeping in a birth cohort population.

    PubMed

    Ezell, Jerel M; Wegienka, Ganesa; Havstad, Suzanne; Ownby, Dennis R; Johnson, Christine C; Zoratti, Edward M

    2013-01-01

    It is unknown whether family members with detectable specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) and/or allergic symptoms to pets are more or less likely to reside in a household with pets. We cross-sectionally investigated potential relationships between family members' allergic sensitization and symptoms to dogs and cats and current household pet-keeping practices, using birth cohort data. Blood samples taken from children enrolled in a birth cohort and their biological mothers and fathers, when the children were aged 18 years, were assessed for sIgE to dog and cat allergens. Interviews assessed subjects' self-reported pet exposure symptoms, current household pet-keeping practices, and socioeconomic characteristics. Overall, household dog or cat keeping was not associated with sIgE to these animals and/or self-reported allergic symptoms in the presence of these animals, even after controlling for factors such as education and household income. In subgroup analyses, current household dog keeping among dog-symptomatic teens (n = 40) was significantly lower than among teens who were not dog symptomatic (n = 289), at 48.8 and 61.1%, respectively (p = 0.036). Current household cat keeping was significantly lower among cat-symptomatic mothers (n = 27) compared with mothers who were not cat symptomatic (n = 120), at 24.3 and 37.0%, respectively (p = 0.015). However, when considering those who were both sensitized and reported symptoms, only the mother and cat-keeping associations persisted (p = 0.049). When cat-sensitized mothers report allergic symptoms to cats, these pets may be less likely to be kept in homes. Elevated dog and cat allergen sIgE does not appear to be associated with the keeping of these pets.

  11. The in-home environment and household health: a cross-sectional study of informal urban settlements in northern México.

    PubMed

    Graham, Jay P; Corella Barud, Verónica; Avitia Diaz, Raquel; Gurian, Patrick

    2005-12-01

    People living in poverty make up nearly half of the global population and a large proportion of these individuals inhabit cities, living in informal settlements. However, only limited research on in-home environmental exposures and the associated health effects in these communities is available. This research investigates the home environment in unplanned settlements of a rapidly growing city on the U.S.-México border and its impact on the health of households with children under 12 years of age. A cross-sectional design was used to assess household exposures and health outcomes at the household level. A total of 202 households were selected from two informal settlements in the peri-urban region of Ciudad Juárez, México. The following variables were significantly associated with the report of at least one household member experiencing a health outcome in a two week period. Allergies were positively associated with insecticide use inside the home (adjusted Relative Odds (RO), 2.71; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.2-6.3). Respiratory problems were associated with households using a wood burning stove vs. a gas stove (adjusted RO, 5.64; 95% CI, 1.1-27.9). Diarrhea was negatively associated with presence of a flush toilet in the home (adjusted RO, 0.22; 95% CI,0.1-0.6). Finally, eye irritations were positively associated with indoor tobacco smoke (adjusted RO, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.1-4.5). This research highlights exposures associated with poor living conditions in informal settlements and their associations with detrimental effects on health. More efforts should be made to understand the dynamics of poor urban environments including the health effects of exposures linked with poor housing conditions.

  12. Water Quality, Sanitation, and Hygiene Conditions in Schools and Households in Dolakha and Ramechhap Districts, Nepal: Results from A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Akina; Sharma, Subodh; Gerold, Jana; Erismann, Séverine; Sagar, Sanjay; Koju, Rajendra; Schindler, Christian; Odermatt, Peter; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio

    2017-01-18

    This study assessed drinking water quality, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) conditions among 708 schoolchildren and 562 households in Dolakha and Ramechhap districts of Nepal. Cross-sectional surveys were carried out in March and June 2015. A Delagua water quality testing kit was employed on 634 water samples obtained from 16 purposively selected schools, 40 community water sources, and 562 households to examine water quality. A flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to test lead and arsenic content of the same samples. Additionally, a questionnaire survey was conducted to obtain WASH predictors. A total of 75% of school drinking water source samples and 76.9% point-of-use samples (water bottles) at schools, 39.5% water source samples in the community, and 27.4% point-of-use samples at household levels were contaminated with thermo-tolerant coliforms. The values of water samples for pH (6.8-7.6), free and total residual chlorine (0.1-0.5 mg/L), mean lead concentration (0.01 mg/L), and mean arsenic concentration (0.05 mg/L) were within national drinking water quality standards. The presence of domestic animals roaming inside schoolchildren's homes was significantly associated with drinking water contamination (adjusted odds ratio: 1.64; 95% confidence interval: 1.08-2.50; p = 0.02). Our findings call for an improvement of WASH conditions at the unit of school, households, and communities.

  13. Factors associated with the use of mosquito bed nets: results from two cross-sectional household surveys in Zambézia Province, Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Moon, Troy D; Hayes, Caleb B; Blevins, Meridith; Lopez, Melanie L; Green, Ann F; González-Calvo, Lazaro; Olupona, Omo

    2016-04-11

    Malaria remains a major threat to some 3.2 billion persons globally. Malaria contributes heavily to the overall disease burden in Mozambique and is considered endemic. A cornerstone of Mozambique's vector control strategy has been to strive for universal coverage of insecticide-treated nets (ITN). The study is a population-based cross-sectional survey of female heads-of-household in Zambézia Province, Mozambique conducted during August-September, 2010 and April-May, 2014. Analyses accounted for a stratified two-stage cluster sample design. Outcomes of interest included sleeping under a mosquito net during the previous night. Descriptive statistics were calculated for three oversampled districts and for the entire province. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate factors associated with both changes over time and increased mosquito bed net usage. Of the 3916 households interviewed in 2010 and 3906 households in 2014, 64.3% were in possession of at least one mosquito bed net. A higher proportion of households in Namacurra (90%) reported possession of a mosquito net, compared to Alto Molócuè (77%) and Morrumbala (34%), respectively in 2014. Of pregnant respondents, 58.6% reported sleeping under a mosquito net the previous night in 2010 compared to 68.4% in 2014. Fifty percent of children 0-59 months slept under a mosquito net the previous night in 2010 compared to 60% in 2014. Factors associated with use of a mosquito net for female head-of-household respondents were higher education, understanding Portuguese, larger household size, having electricity in the household, and larger household monthly income. As travel time to a health facility increased (per 1 h), respondents had 13% lower odds of sleeping under a mosquito net (OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.74-1.01, p = 0.07). Pregnant women in 2014 had a 2.4 times higher odds of sleeping under a bed net if they lived in Namacurra compared to Alto Molócuè (95% CI 0.91-6.32, p = 0.002 for district

  14. Factors associated with stunting among children according to the level of food insecurity in the household: a cross-sectional study in a rural community of Southeastern Kenya.

    PubMed

    Shinsugi, Chisa; Matsumura, Masaki; Karama, Mohamed; Tanaka, Junichi; Changoma, Mwatasa; Kaneko, Satoshi

    2015-04-30

    Chronic malnutrition or stunting among children under 5 years old is affected by several household environmental factors, such as food insecurity, disease burden, and poverty. However, not all children experience stunting even in food insecure conditions. To seek a solution at the local level for preventing stunting, a cross-sectional study was conducted in southeastern Kenya, an area with a high level of food insecurity. The study was based on a cohort organized to monitor the anthropometric status of children. A structured questionnaire collected information on the following: demographic characteristics, household food security based on the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS), household socioeconomic status (SES), and child health status. The associations between stunting and potential predictors were examined by bivariate and multivariate stepwise logistic regression analyses. Furthermore, analyses stratified by level of food security were conducted to specify factors associated with child stunting in different food insecure groups. Among 404 children, the prevalence of stunting was 23.3%. The percentage of households with severe food insecurity was 62.5%. In multivariative analysis, there was no statistically significant association with child stunting. However, further analyses conducted separately according to level of food security showed the following significant associations: in the severely food insecure households, feeding tea/porridge with milk (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR]: 3.22; 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI]: 1.43-7.25); age 2 to 3 years compared with 0 to 5 months old (aOR: 4.04; 95% CI: 1.01-16.14); in households without severe food insecurity, animal rearing (aOR: 3.24; 95% CI: 1.04-10.07); SES with lowest status as reference (aOR range: from 0.13 to 0.22). The number of siblings younger than school age was not significantly associated, but was marginally associated in the latter household group (aOR: 2.81; 95% CI: 0.92-8.58). Our

  15. Socio-economic determinants of household food security and women's dietary diversity in rural Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Harris-Fry, Helen; Azad, Kishwar; Kuddus, Abdul; Shaha, Sanjit; Nahar, Badrun; Hossen, Munir; Younes, Leila; Costello, Anthony; Fottrell, Edward

    2015-07-10

    There has been limited decline in undernutrition rates in South Asia compared with the rest of Asia and one reason for this may be low levels of household food security. However, the evidence base on the determinants of household food security is limited. To develop policies intended to improve household food security, improved knowledge of the determinants of household food security is required. Household data were collected in 2011 from a randomly selected sample of 2,809 women of reproductive age. The sample was drawn from nine unions in three districts of rural Bangladesh. Multinomial logistic regression was conducted to measure the relationship between selected determinants of household food security and months of adequate household food provisioning, and a linear regression to measure the association between the same determinants and women's dietary diversity score. The analyses found that land ownership, adjusted relative risk ratio (RRR) 0.28 (CI 0.18, 0.42); relative wealth (middle tertile 0.49 (0.29, 0.84) and top tertile 0.18 (0.10, 0.33)); women's literacy 0.64 (0.46, 0.90); access to media 0.49 (0.33, 0.72); and women's freedom to access the market 0.56 (0.36, 0.85) all significantly reduced the risk of food insecurity. Larger households increased the risk of food insecurity, adjusted RRR 1.46 (CI 1.02, 2.09). Households with vegetable gardens 0.20 (0.11, 0.31), rich households 0.46 (0.24, 0.68) and literate women 0.37 (0.20, 0.54) were significantly more likely to have better dietary diversity scores. Household food insecurity remains a key public health problem in Bangladesh, with households suffering food shortages for an average of one quarter of the year. Simple survey and analytical methods are able to identify numerous interlinked factors associated with household food security, but wealth and literacy were the only two determinants associated with both improved food security and dietary diversity. We cannot conclude whether improvements in all

  16. Individual and Household Level Risk Factors Associated with Malaria in Nchelenge District, a Region with Perennial Transmission: A Serial Cross-Sectional Study from 2012 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Pinchoff, Jessie; Chaponda, Mike; Shields, Timothy M; Sichivula, James; Muleba, Mbanga; Mulenga, Modest; Kobayashi, Tamaki; Curriero, Frank C; Moss, William J

    2016-01-01

    The scale-up of malaria control interventions has resulted in substantial declines in transmission in some but not all regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding factors associated with persistent malaria transmission despite control efforts may guide targeted interventions to high-risk areas and populations. Household malaria surveys were conducted in Nchelenge District, Luapula Province, in northern Zambia. Structures that appeared to be households were enumerated from a high-resolution satellite image and randomly sampled for enrollment. Households were enrolled into cross-sectional (single visit) or longitudinal (visits every other month) cohorts but analyses were restricted to cross-sectional visits and the first visit to longitudinal households. During study visits, a questionnaire was administered to adults and caretakers of children and a blood sample was collected for a malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) from all household residents. Characteristics associated with RDT positivity were analyzed using multi-level models. A total of 2,486 individuals residing within 742 households were enrolled between April 2012 and July 2015. Over this period, 51% of participants were RDT positive. Forty-three percent of all RDT positive individuals were between the ages of 5 and 17 years although this age group comprised only 30% of study participants. In a multivariable model, the odds being RDT positive were highest in 5-17 year olds and did not vary by season. Children 5-17 years of age had 8.83 higher odds of being RDT positive compared with those >18 years of age (95% CI: 6.13, 12.71); there was an interaction between age and report of symptoms, with an almost 50% increased odds of report of symptoms with decreasing age category (OR = 1.49; 95% CI 1.11, 2.00). Children and adolescents between the ages of 5 and 17 were at the highest risk of malaria infection throughout the year. School-based programs may be effective at targeting this high-risk group.

  17. Individual and Household Level Risk Factors Associated with Malaria in Nchelenge District, a Region with Perennial Transmission: A Serial Cross-Sectional Study from 2012 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Pinchoff, Jessie; Chaponda, Mike; Shields, Timothy M.; Sichivula, James; Muleba, Mbanga; Mulenga, Modest; Kobayashi, Tamaki; Curriero, Frank C.; Moss, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Background The scale-up of malaria control interventions has resulted in substantial declines in transmission in some but not all regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding factors associated with persistent malaria transmission despite control efforts may guide targeted interventions to high-risk areas and populations. Methods Household malaria surveys were conducted in Nchelenge District, Luapula Province, in northern Zambia. Structures that appeared to be households were enumerated from a high-resolution satellite image and randomly sampled for enrollment. Households were enrolled into cross-sectional (single visit) or longitudinal (visits every other month) cohorts but analyses were restricted to cross-sectional visits and the first visit to longitudinal households. During study visits, a questionnaire was administered to adults and caretakers of children and a blood sample was collected for a malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) from all household residents. Characteristics associated with RDT positivity were analyzed using multi-level models. Results A total of 2,486 individuals residing within 742 households were enrolled between April 2012 and July 2015. Over this period, 51% of participants were RDT positive. Forty-three percent of all RDT positive individuals were between the ages of 5 and 17 years although this age group comprised only 30% of study participants. In a multivariable model, the odds being RDT positive were highest in 5–17 year olds and did not vary by season. Children 5–17 years of age had 8.83 higher odds of being RDT positive compared with those >18 years of age (95% CI: 6.13, 12.71); there was an interaction between age and report of symptoms, with an almost 50% increased odds of report of symptoms with decreasing age category (OR = 1.49; 95% CI 1.11, 2.00). Conclusions Children and adolescents between the ages of 5 and 17 were at the highest risk of malaria infection throughout the year. School-based programs may be effective at

  18. Food Security in Households of People Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: A Cross-sectional Study in a Subdivision of Darjeeling District, West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Pallabi; Bhattacherjee, Sharmistha; Das, Dilip Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) adversely impacts food security in households of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Little research has focused on food insecurity among PLWHA in India. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of and factors relating to food security in households of PLWHA in the Siliguri subdivision of Darjeeling, West Bengal, India. A cross-sectional community-based study was carried out among 173 PLWHA residing in Siliguri and registered at the Anti-retroviral Therapy Centre of North Bengal Medical College & Hospital. Data was collected at the household level with interviews of PLWHA using a food security survey instrument. We analyzed the associations using logistic regression. The prevalence of household food security among the participants was 50.9% (88/173). Five years or more of schooling, higher socioeconomic class and males were found to be significantly associated with a higher likelihood of food security. A later stage of the disease and the presence of other family members with HIV/AIDS were significantly associated with a lower likelihood of food security. The major coping strategies to deal with food insecurity in the acute phase HIV infection included borrowing money (56.1%), followed by spousal support, loans from microfinance institutions, banks, or money lenders, borrowing food, or selling agricultural products. The present study revealed that only about half of households with PLWHA were food secure. Prior interventions relating to periods of food and economic crisis as well as strategies for sustaining food security and economic status are needed in this area.

  19. Food Security in Households of People Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: A Cross-sectional Study in a Subdivision of Darjeeling District, West Bengal

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) adversely impacts food security in households of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Little research has focused on food insecurity among PLWHA in India. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of and factors relating to food security in households of PLWHA in the Siliguri subdivision of Darjeeling, West Bengal, India. Methods: A cross-sectional community-based study was carried out among 173 PLWHA residing in Siliguri and registered at the Anti-retroviral Therapy Centre of North Bengal Medical College & Hospital. Data was collected at the household level with interviews of PLWHA using a food security survey instrument. We analyzed the associations using logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of household food security among the participants was 50.9% (88/173). Five years or more of schooling, higher socioeconomic class and males were found to be significantly associated with a higher likelihood of food security. A later stage of the disease and the presence of other family members with HIV/AIDS were significantly associated with a lower likelihood of food security. The major coping strategies to deal with food insecurity in the acute phase HIV infection included borrowing money (56.1%), followed by spousal support, loans from microfinance institutions, banks, or money lenders, borrowing food, or selling agricultural products. Conclusions: The present study revealed that only about half of households with PLWHA were food secure. Prior interventions relating to periods of food and economic crisis as well as strategies for sustaining food security and economic status are needed in this area. PMID:27499166

  20. Food insecurity and food consumption by season in households with children in an Arctic city: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Huet, Catherine; Ford, James D; Edge, Victoria L; Shirley, Jamal; King, Nia; Harper, Sherilee L

    2017-06-15

    High rates of food insecurity are documented among Inuit households in Canada; however, data on food insecurity prevalence and seasonality for Inuit households with children are lacking, especially in city centres. This project: (1) compared food consumption patterns for households with and without children, (2) compared the prevalence of food insecurity for households with and without children, (3) compared food consumption patterns and food insecurity prevalence between seasons, and (4) identified factors associated with food insecurity in households with children in Iqaluit, Nunavut, Canada. Randomly selected households were surveyed in Iqaluit in September 2012 and May 2013. Household food security status was determined using an adapted United States Department of Agriculture Household Food Security Survey Module. Univariable logistic regressions were used to examine unconditional associations between food security status and demographics, socioeconomics, frequency of food consumption, and method of food preparation in households with children by season. Households with children (n = 431) and without children (n = 468) participated in the survey. Food insecurity was identified in 32.9% (95% CI: 28.5-37.4%) of households with children; this was significantly higher than in households without children (23.2%, 95% CI: 19.4-27.1%). The prevalence of household food insecurity did not significantly differ by season. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the person responsible for food preparation, including low formal education attainment (ORSept = 4.3, 95% CI: 2.3-8.0; ORMay = 3.2, 95% CI: 1.8-5.8), unemployment (ORSept = 1.1, 95% CI: 1.1-1.3; ORMay = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1-1.5), and Inuit identity (ORSept = 8.9, 95% CI: 3.4-23.5; ORMay = 21.8, 95% CI: 6.6-72.4), were associated with increased odds of food insecurity in households with children. Fruit and vegetable consumption (ORSept = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.8; ORMay = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.2-0.9), as

  1. Quality of antenatal care and household wealth as determinants of institutional delivery in Pakistan: Results of a cross-sectional household survey.

    PubMed

    Agha, Sohail; Williams, Emma

    2016-07-19

    Pakistan has a high burden of maternal and newborn mortality, which would be largely preventable through appropriate antenatal and delivery care. While the influence of socio-economic status on institutional delivery is well established in the literature, relatively little is known about the relationship between the quality of antenatal care and institutional delivery. A household survey of 4,000 currently married women who had given birth in the two years before the survey was conducted in Sindh province in 2013. The survey collected data on socio-economic and demographic variables, the quality of antenatal care provided during a woman's last pregnancy and whether she delivered at a health facility. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals around independent variables for institutional delivery. In the multivariate analysis, a variable measuring quality of antenatal care showed the strongest association with institutional delivery. Moreover, there was a dose-response relationship between the number of elements of quality provided and the odds of institutional delivery: receiving one element of quality increased the odds of institutional delivery 1.7 times, receiving three elements increased the odds 3.8 times and receiving seven elements increased the odds 10.6 times. Household wealth had a statistically significant relationship with institutional delivery but the effect was weaker than that of quality of care. Urban-rural differentials in institutional delivery did not remain significant after adjusting for household wealth and education. The quality of antenatal care provided to a woman during her pregnancy is more strongly associated with institutional delivery than household wealth. Improving the quality of care at health facilities in Sindh should be the foremost priority. Improving the quality of antenatal care services is likely to contribute to rapid increases in skilled birth attendance and better health

  2. Shared Sanitation versus Individual Household Latrines in Urban Slums: A Cross-Sectional Study in Orissa, India

    PubMed Central

    Heijnen, Marieke; Routray, Parimita; Torondel, Belen; Clasen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A large and growing proportion of the global population rely on shared sanitation facilities despite evidence of a potential increased risk of adverse health outcomes compared with individual household latrines (IHLs). We sought to explore differences between households relying on shared sanitation versus IHLs in terms of demographics, sanitation facilities, and fecal exposure. We surveyed 570 households from 30 slums in Orissa, India, to obtain data on demographics, water, sanitation, and hygiene. Latrine spot-checks were conducted to collect data on indicators of use, privacy, and cleanliness. We collected samples of drinking water and hand rinses to assess fecal contamination. Households relying on shared sanitation were poorer and less educated than those accessing IHLs. Individuals in sharing households were more likely to practice open defecation. Shared facilities were less likely to be functional, less clean, and more likely to have feces and flies. No differences in fecal contamination of drinking water or hand-rinse samples were found. Important differences exist among households accessing shared facilities versus IHLs that may partly explain the apparent adverse health outcomes associated with shared sanitation. As these factors may capture differences in risk and promote sanitary improvements, they should be considered in future policy. PMID:26123953

  3. Shared Sanitation Versus Individual Household Latrines in Urban Slums: A Cross-Sectional Study in Orissa, India.

    PubMed

    Heijnen, Marieke; Routray, Parimita; Torondel, Belen; Clasen, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    A large and growing proportion of the global population rely on shared sanitation facilities despite evidence of a potential increased risk of adverse health outcomes compared with individual household latrines (IHLs). We sought to explore differences between households relying on shared sanitation versus IHLs in terms of demographics, sanitation facilities, and fecal exposure. We surveyed 570 households from 30 slums in Orissa, India, to obtain data on demographics, water, sanitation, and hygiene. Latrine spot-checks were conducted to collect data on indicators of use, privacy, and cleanliness. We collected samples of drinking water and hand rinses to assess fecal contamination. Households relying on shared sanitation were poorer and less educated than those accessing IHLs. Individuals in sharing households were more likely to practice open defecation. Shared facilities were less likely to be functional, less clean, and more likely to have feces and flies. No differences in fecal contamination of drinking water or hand-rinse samples were found. Important differences exist among households accessing shared facilities versus IHLs that may partly explain the apparent adverse health outcomes associated with shared sanitation. As these factors may capture differences in risk and promote sanitary improvements, they should be considered in future policy.

  4. Household food insecurity, diet, and weight status in a disadvantaged district of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Thuy Ngoc; Gallegos, Danielle; Ramsey, Rebecca

    2015-03-08

    Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical, economic and socially acceptable access to safe, sufficient, and adequately nutritious food in order to meet their dietary needs for an active and healthy life. For high income countries and those experiencing the nutrition transition, food security is not only about the quantity of available food but also the nutritional quality as related to over- and under-nutrition. Vietnam is currently undergoing this nutrition transition, and as a result the relationship between food insecurity, socio-demographic factors and weight status is complex. The primary objective of this study was to therefore measure the prevalence of household food insecurity in a disadvantaged urban district in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) in Vietnam using a more comprehensive tool. This study also aims to examine the relationships between food insecurity and socio-demographic factors, weight status, and food intakes. A cross-sectional study was conducted using multi-stage sampling. Adults who were mainly responsible for cooking were interviewed in 250 households. Data was collected on socioeconomic and demographic factors using previously validated tools. Food security was assessed using the Latin American and Caribbean Household Food Security Scale (ELCSA) tool and households were categorized as food secure or mildly, moderately or severely food insecure. Questions regarding food intake were based on routinely used and validated questions in HCMC, weight status was self-reported. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.87, showing the ELCSA had a good internal reliability. Approximately 34.4% of households were food insecure. Food insecurity was inversely related to total household income (OR = 0.09, 95% CI = 0.04 - 0.22) and fruit intakes (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.31 - 4.22). There was no association between weight and food security status. Despite rapid industrialization and modernization, food insecurity remains an important

  5. The Socio-economic Impact of Stroke on Households in Livingstone District, Zambia: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Mapulanga, M; Nzala, S; Mweemba, C

    2014-01-01

    Background: Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability. Stroke, which affects mostly the productive age group, leaves about 65% of its victims disabled, leads to increased loss of manpower both at individual and national levels. Little is known about the socio-economic burden of the disease in terms of its impacts on the individual, family and community both directly and indirectly in Sub-Sahara Africa region and Zambia at large. Aim: The study was aimed at assessing the socio-economic impact of stroke households in Livingstone district, Zambia. Subjects and Methods: A total of 50 households were randomly selected from the registers of Livingstone General Hospital. Self-administered questionnaires and focus group discussions were used to collect quantitative and qualitative data respectively. The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 16 (IBM Corporation) and content analysis. Chi-square test was used to make associations between variables. Results: The social impacts on the victim were depression, difficult to get along with, resentfulness, apathy, needy, separation, divorce, general marital problems, neglect on the part of the victim and fear. The economic impacts were loss of employment, reduced business activity and loss of business on the part of the victim. Economic activities such as food provision, payment of school fees, accommodation were affected as a result of stroke and this led to financial insecurities in households with lost incomes in form of salaries and businesses. The activities forgone by stroke households were food provision, housing and education. The study also revealed an association between period of stroke and relationship changes (P < 0.001). Gender and family relationship changes were highly associated (P < 0.00), as more females than males experienced relationship changes. Conclusion: The results of the present study show that stroke has considerable socio-economic impact on households in

  6. Water Quality, Sanitation, and Hygiene Conditions in Schools and Households in Dolakha and Ramechhap Districts, Nepal: Results from A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Akina; Sharma, Subodh; Gerold, Jana; Erismann, Séverine; Sagar, Sanjay; Koju, Rajendra; Schindler, Christian; Odermatt, Peter; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed drinking water quality, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) conditions among 708 schoolchildren and 562 households in Dolakha and Ramechhap districts of Nepal. Cross-sectional surveys were carried out in March and June 2015. A Delagua water quality testing kit was employed on 634 water samples obtained from 16 purposively selected schools, 40 community water sources, and 562 households to examine water quality. A flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to test lead and arsenic content of the same samples. Additionally, a questionnaire survey was conducted to obtain WASH predictors. A total of 75% of school drinking water source samples and 76.9% point-of-use samples (water bottles) at schools, 39.5% water source samples in the community, and 27.4% point-of-use samples at household levels were contaminated with thermo-tolerant coliforms. The values of water samples for pH (6.8–7.6), free and total residual chlorine (0.1–0.5 mg/L), mean lead concentration (0.01 mg/L), and mean arsenic concentration (0.05 mg/L) were within national drinking water quality standards. The presence of domestic animals roaming inside schoolchildren’s homes was significantly associated with drinking water contamination (adjusted odds ratio: 1.64; 95% confidence interval: 1.08–2.50; p = 0.02). Our findings call for an improvement of WASH conditions at the unit of school, households, and communities. PMID:28106779

  7. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Mothers/Caregivers on Household Water Treatment Methods in Northwest Ethiopia: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Bitew, Bikes Destaw; Gete, Yigzaw Kebede; Biks, Gashaw Andargie; Adafrie, Takele Tadesse

    2017-07-17

    In Ethiopia, ensuring safe drinking water remains a big challenge where waterborne diseases, including diarrhea cause a great harm in many rural communities. Limited knowledge, misinformation, negative attitude, and lack of experience toward best practices of alternative water treatment technologies were among the leading challenges. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from June 23 to 30, 2015, in Dabat District. The study participants were selected by using simple random sampling method. Questionnaire-based face-to-face interview technique of data collection was used by 20 data collectors under close supervision with six supervisors. From the total of 845 participants with mother-child paired 49.3%, 95% confidence interval [CI] (45.8, 52.5%) had good knowledge, and 54.8%, 95% CI (51.6, 58.3%) had favorable-attitude toward household water treatment. Only 23.1%, 95%CI (20, 26%) of the study participants had practiced household water treatment. Being an urban resident (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.58, 95% CI: [1.62, 4.11]), having good-knowledge (AOR: 2.62, 95% CI: [1.81, 3.79]), favorable attitude (AOR: 1.45, 95% CI: [1.01, 2.08]), and used unimproved water source (AOR: 1.67, 95% CI: [1.11, 2.50]) were factors associated with household water treatment practices in the district. Despite mothers/caregivers having a fairly good knowledge and positive attitude, their practice of treating drinking water at household level was quite low. Thus, well designed strategy for health education on effective water treatment methods through the national health extension program is recommended.

  8. Factors Influencing Attitude, Safety Behavior, and Knowledge regarding Household Waste Management in Guinea: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Mamady, Keita

    2016-01-01

    Waste indiscriminate disposal is recognized as an important cause of environmental pollution and is associated with health problems. Safe management and disposal of household waste are an important problem to the capital city of Guinea (Conakry). The objective of this study was to identify socioeconomic and demographic factors associated with practice, knowledge, and safety behavior of family members regarding household waste management and to produce a remedial action plan. I found that no education background, income, and female individuals were independently associated with indiscriminate waste disposal. Unplanned residential area was an additional factor associated with indiscriminate waste disposal. I also found that the community residents had poor knowledge and unsafe behavior in relation to waste management. The promotion of environmental information and public education and implementation of community action programs on disease prevention and health promotion will enhance environmental friendliness and safety of the community. PMID:27092183

  9. Cash transfers and social vulnerability in Bosnia: a cross-sectional study of households and listed beneficiaries.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Neil; Paredes-Solis, Sergio; Sherr, Lorraine; Cockcroft, Anne

    2013-06-01

    Promoted as a means of fueling markets and encouraging economic growth or recovery, cash transfers have become a popular approach to international assistance. The literature recognizes potential problems such as insecurity, corruption, misuse, gender inequality, market inflation, and ineffective targeting. We carried out population and beneficiary surveys in 1997 to evaluate the targeting of cash transfers in Bosnia soon after the end of the conflict. The population survey visited a random sample of clusters from population registers in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) and Republika Srpska (RS). A directly administered questionnaire asked households whether they received any cash handouts from the Municipal Welfare Office in the last year, and, if so, for what purpose, the amount, and how they used the money. We calculated coverage and inclusion and exclusion errors of the program. The field team also identified cash transfers beneficiaries from official lists of the program and attempted to contact a random sample of them to ask about their experience. It was not possible to confirm receipts of cash in one third of the sample of 840 named beneficiaries; 19% could not be traced and 17% of those found denied receiving any cash. In the general population survey of 7182 households, coverage rates with cash assistance (11% in BiH, 3% in RS) were at least 44% lower than those declared by the distribution agencies, with considerable variation between cantons. Exclusion errors were high: 83% of those eligible according to the program's income criterion did not receive any cash. Although sufficient cash was dispensed to reach every United Nations High Commission for Refugees priority 1 (most needy) household, only 13% of these households (278/2125) admitted receiving any cash. Inclusion errors were also high: 60% of all of those who received cash were not in the priority 1 category and 46% were not eligible according to the program's income criterion. Extrapolating from the

  10. Community Case Management of Childhood Diarrhea in a Setting with Declining Use of Oral Rehydration Therapy: Findings from Cross-Sectional Studies among Primary Household Caregivers, Kenya, 2007

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Christine K.; Blum, Lauren S.; Patel, Kinnery N.; Oria, Prisca A.; Feikin, Daniel R.; Laserson, Kayla F.; Wamae, Annah W.; Bartlett, Alfred V.; Breiman, Robert F.; Ram, Pavani K.

    2011-01-01

    We sought to determine factors associated with appropriate diarrhea case management in Kenya. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of caregivers of children < 5 years of age with diarrhea in rural Asembo and urban Kibera. In Asembo, 61% of respondents provided oral rehydration therapy (ORT), 45% oral rehydration solution (ORS), and 64% continued feeding. In Kibera, 75% provided ORT, 43% ORS, and 46% continued feeding. Seeking care at a health facility, risk perception regarding death from diarrhea, and treating a child with oral medications were associated with ORT and ORS use. Availability of oral medication was negatively associated. A minority of caregivers reported that ORS is available in nearby shops. In Kenya, household case management of diarrhea remains inadequate for a substantial proportion of children. Health workers have a critical role in empowering caregivers regarding early treatment with ORT and continued feeding. Increasing community ORS availability is essential to improving diarrhea management. PMID:22144458

  11. Household air pollution and the lung microbiome of healthy adults in Malawi: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Rylance, Jamie; Kankwatira, Anstead; Nelson, David E; Toh, Evelyn; Day, Richard B; Lin, Huaiying; Gao, Xiang; Dong, Qunfeng; Sodergren, Erica; Weinstock, George M; Heyderman, Robert S; Twigg, Homer L; Gordon, Stephen B

    2016-08-11

    Domestic combustion of biomass fuels, such as wood, charcoal, crop residue and dung causes Household Air Pollution (HAP). These inhaled particulates affect more than half of the world's population, causing respiratory problems such as infection and inflammatory lung disease. We examined whether the presence of black carbon in alveolar macrophages was associated with alterations in the lung microbiome in a Malawi population. Bronchoalveolar lavage samples from 44 healthy adults were sequenced using 16S rDNA amplification to assess microbial diversity, richness and relative taxa abundance. Individuals were classified as high or low particulate exposure as determined by questionnaire and the percentage of black carbon within their alveolar macrophages. Subjects in the low and high particulate groups did not differ in terms of source of fuels used for cooking or lighting. There was no difference in alpha or beta diversity by particulate group. Neisseria and Streptococcus were significantly more abundant in samples from high particulate exposed individuals, and Tropheryma was found less abundant. Petrobacter abundance was higher in people using biomass fuel for household cooking and lighting, compared with exclusive use of electricity. Healthy adults in Malawi exposed to higher levels of particulates have higher abundances of potentially pathogenic bacteria (Streptococcus, Neisseria) within their lung microbiome. Domestic biomass fuel use was associated with an uncommon environmental bacterium (Petrobacter) associated with oil-rich niches.

  12. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Echinococcal Infection in a Rural Area of Northern Chile: A Household-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Boufana, Belgees; Adones, Claudia; Bahamonde, Andrea; Abarca, Katia; Craig, Philip S.; Reiter-Owona, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Background Hydatidosis is a zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution caused by Echinococcus granulosus. Our study aimed to determine the prevalence of human and canine echinococcosis as well as the associated risk factors in a rural area of the Limarí province in northern Chile. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted between August and November 2009 using a stratified sampling design in each of the five districts of the province. In the selected villages, up to 10 households were sampled. Serum and fecal samples from an adult family member and a dog were collected from each participating household. Risk factors were assessed by standardized questionnaires. Seroprevalence was assessed using a multi-step approach: an ELISA for screening, IFA, IHA and western blot for confirmation of results, respectively. The prevalence of echinococcal infection in dogs was determined by coproantigen genus specific ELISA. Chi-square, Fisher tests and logistic regressions were used to assess risk factors for human seropositivity and dog copropositivity. A seroprevalence of 2.6% (10/403) and coproprevalence of 28% (26/93) was recorded for humans and dogs respectively. Contact with dogs and dog feces were risk factors for human seropositivity while dog copropositivity was associated with home slaughter of livestock (OR = 3.35; CI 90%: 1.16–6.85) and households de-worming dogs (OR = 2.82; CI 90%: 1.33–8.43). Conclusions/Significance Echinococcal infection of humans and their dogs is common in Limarí province. Risk factors for human seropositivity were related to contact with domestic dogs and their feces, whereas those for dogs were home slaughter of livestock and the practice of de-worming dogs. PMID:25167140

  13. Disparities between malaria infection and treatment rates: Evidence from a cross-sectional analysis of households in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Saran, Indrani; Cohen, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Background In Sub-Saharan Africa, both under-treatment and over-treatment of malaria are common since illnesses are often diagnosed and treated on the basis of symptoms. We investigate whether malaria treatment rates among febrile individuals correspond to observed patterns of malaria infection by age and by local prevalence. Methods and findings We use data on treatment of febrile illnesses from a household survey that was conducted between March and May 2012 in 92 villages in six districts in Eastern Uganda. All household members were also tested for malaria using a rapid diagnostic test. We show that both the age of the febrile individual and the village prevalence rate are strongly associated with the odds that a febrile patient was infected with malaria, but not with the odds of ACT treatment. Compared to individuals who were aged 15 or above, febrile individuals aged 5–14 had 3.21 times the odds of testing positive for malaria (95% CI: [2.36 4.37], P<0·001), and febrile individuals who were under age 5 had 2.66 times the odds of testing positive for malaria (95% CI: [1.99 3.56], P<0·001). However, ACT treatment rates for febrile illnesses were not significantly higher for either children ages 5–14 (Unadjusted OR: 1.19, 95% CI: [0.88 1.62], P = 0.255) or children under the age of 5 (Unadjusted OR: 1.24, 95% CI: [0.92 1.68], P = 0·154). A one standard deviation increase in the village malaria prevalence rate was associated with a 2.03 times higher odds that a febrile individual under the age of five tested positive for malaria (95% CI: [1.63 2.54], p<0·001), but was not significantly associated with the odds of ACT treatment (Un-adjusted OR: 0.83, 95% CI: [0.66 1.05], P = 0·113). We present some evidence that this discrepancy may be because caregivers do not suspect a higher likelihood of malaria infection, conditional on fever, in young children or in high-prevalence villages. Conclusion Our findings suggest that households have significant mis

  14. Household financial burden of phenylketonuria and its impact on treatment in China: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Zou, Hui; Ye, Fang; Wang, Kundi; Li, Xiaowen; Chen, Zhihua; Chen, Jie; Han, Bingjuan; Yu, Weimin; He, Chun; Shen, Ming

    2017-05-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a rare inborn disease, which, untreated, leading to severe neurobehavioral dysfunction. Considering its complexity, the management of PKU may bring a formidable economic burden to parents and caregivers. It is still unknown what the out-of-pocket expenses are for a patient with PKU in China. This paper explores the household financial burden of classical PKU and its impact on Chinese families in a quantitative manner for the first time. A non-interventional and observational study was conducted at the China-Japan Friendship Hospital, one of the national centers for inherited metabolic disorders in China. The medical and non-medical household financial burdens were consolidated into a questionnaire to evaluate the out-of-pocket costs (OOPCs) of PKU treatment and follow-up. The total OOPCs were USD$3766.1 (0y), USD$3795.2 (1-2 ys), USD$4657.7 (3-4 ys), USD$5979.9 (5-8 ys), and USD$5588.7 (9 ys and older) for PKU patients of different age groups. The median economic burden of classical PKU was 75.0 % of total annual family income (range 1.0-779.1 %), and 94.4 % of the families exceeding the threshold considered as catastrophic expenditure. There was a negative correlation between the financial burden and the proportion of time when Phe concentrations were in the desired target range (120-250 μmol/L) in 0-4-ys group (r = -0.474, p = 0.026). The management of PKU is associated with a severe financial burden on patients' families, which may lead to insufficient treatment or variation of blood Phe concentration. The current reimbursement policies are as yet inadequate. A national reimbursement system targeting treatment practices for PKU patients and other rare diseases across China is imperative.

  15. Analysis of dropout across the continuum of maternal health care in Tanzania: findings from a cross-sectional household survey.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Diwakar; LeFevre, Amnesty E; George, Asha; Mpembeni, Rose; Bazant, Eva; Rusibamayila, Neema; Killewo, Japhet; Winch, Peter J; Baqui, Abdullah H

    2017-03-16

    The 'continuum of care' is proposed as a key framework for the delivery of maternal, neonatal and child health services. This study examined the extent of dropout as well as factors associated with retention across the MNCH continuum from antenatal care (ANC), through skilled birth attendance (SBA), to postnatal care (PNC).We analyzed data from 1931 women who delivered in the preceding 2-14 months, from a two-stage cluster sampling household survey in four districts of Tanzania's Morogoro region. The survey was conducted in 2011 as a part of a baseline for an independent evaluation of a maternal health program. Using the Anderson model of health care seeking, we fitted logistic models for three transition stages in the continuum.Only 10% of women received the 'recommended' care package (4+ ANC visits, SBA, and 1+ PNC visit), while 1% reported not having care at any stage. Receipt of four ANC visits was positively associated with women being older in age (age 20-34 years-OR: 1.77, 95%CI: 1.22-2.56; age 35-49 years-2.03, 1.29-3.2), and knowledge of danger signs (1.75, 1.39 -2.1). A pro-rich bias was observed in facility-based deliveries (proxy for SBA), with women from the fourth (1.66, 1.12-2.47) and highest quintiles of household wealth (3.4, 2.04-5.66) and the top tertile of communities by wealth (2.9, 1.14-7.4). Higher rates of facility deliveries were also reported with antenatal complications (1.37, 1.05-1.79), and 4+ ANC visits (1.55, 1.14-2.09). Returning for PNC was highest among the wealthiest communities (2.25, 1.21-4.44); catchment areas of a new PNC program (1.89, 1.03-3.45); knowledge of danger signs (1.78, 1.13-2.83); community health worker counselling (4.22, 1.97-9.05); complicated delivery (3.25, 1.84-5.73); and previous health provider counselling on family planning (2.39, 1.71-3.35).Dropout from maternal care continuum is high, especially for the poorest, in rural Tanzania. Interactions with formal health system and perceived need for future

  16. Media Use, Sports Participation, and Well-Being in Adolescence: Cross-Sectional Findings From the UK Household Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Booker, Cara L.; Skew, Alexandra J.; Kelly, Yvonne J.; Sacker, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the relationship between selected types of screen-based media (SBM) use, total SBM use, sports participation, and markers of well-being. Methods. Data came from the youth panel (n = 4899) of Understanding Society, the UK Household Longitudinal Study, conducted in 2009. Well-being was measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and markers of happiness in different life domains. Results. The majority of young people used multiple types of SBM for at least 1 hour per day; only 30% participated in sports every day. Overall, young people with heavy SBM use were less happy than moderate users and more likely to have socioemotional difficulties. Chatting on social networking Web sites and game console use were associated with higher odds of socioemotional problems. Higher total SBM use was associated with lower odds of happiness and higher odds of socioemotional difficulties. Greater participation in sports was associated with higher odds of happiness and lower odds of socioemotional difficulties. Conclusions. Further longitudinal research could inform future interventions to reduce sedentary behavior and encourage healthy lifestyles among young people. PMID:25494209

  17. A cross-sectional study of exhaled carbon monoxide as a biomarker of recent household air pollution exposure

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Alison; Sanchez, Tiffany R.; Shahriar, Muhammad Hasan; Eunus, Mahbubul; Perzanowski, Matthew; Graziano, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    RATIONALE Household air pollution causes 3.5 million deaths annually. Personal exposure assessments required for examining health associations are expensive and require technical expertise, limiting the quality of research in resource-poor settings. OBJECTIVES To assess the feasibility of exhaled carbon monoxide and its relationship to continuous personal carbon monoxide monitoring and markers of respiratory health in female cooks primarily cooking with biomass fuels in Araihazar, Bangladesh. METHODS & MEASURES For a 24-hour period, exhaled carboxyhemoglobin (eCOHb) % saturation was measured before and after each cooking episode while simultaneous 24-hour personal carbon monoxide monitoring was conducted. The Coburn-Forester-Kane (CFK) equation was used to convert continuous personal CO exposures to predicted COHb % saturation. Respiratory symptoms were assessed by St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire, airway inflammation measured by exhaled breath condensate pH, and lung function determined by spirometry. Spearman's correlation was used to examine the relationship between eCOHb and CKF-derived COHb, EBC pH, and lung function variables. eCOHb % saturation was dichotomized around the median and odds ratios calculated for each respiratory symptom. MAIN RESULTS Measurement of eCOHb % saturation is feasible in a resource-poor setting. eCOHb % saturation responds to cooking episodes and demonstrates consistency when measured at the same time point 24-hours later, suggesting that eCOHb may be a sensitive biomarker of recent HAP exposures. PMID:26457622

  18. A cross-sectional study of exhaled carbon monoxide as a biomarker of recent household air pollution exposure.

    PubMed

    Lee, Alison; Sanchez, Tiffany R; Shahriar, Muhammad Hasan; Eunus, Mahbubul; Perzanowski, Matthew; Graziano, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    Household air pollution causes 3.5 million deaths annually. Personal exposure assessments required for examining health associations are expensive and require technical expertize, limiting the quality of research in resource-poor settings To assess the feasibility of exhaled carbon monoxide and its relationship to continuous personal carbon monoxide monitoring and markers of respiratory health in female cooks primarily cooking with biomass fuels in Araihazar, Bangladesh METHODS AND MEASURE: For a 24-h period, exhaled carboxyhemoglobin (eCOHb) % saturation was measured before and after each cooking episode while simultaneous 24-h personal carbon monoxide monitoring was conducted. The Coburn-Forester-Kane (CFK) equation was used to convert continuous personal CO exposures to predicted COHb % saturation. Respiratory symptoms were assessed by St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire, airway inflammation measured by exhaled breath condensate pH, and lung function determined by spirometry. Spearman's correlation was used to examine the relationship between eCOHb and CKF-derived COHb, EBC pH, and lung function variables. eCOHb % saturation was dichotomized around the median and odds ratios calculated for each respiratory symptom Measurement of eCOHb % saturation is feasible in a resource-poor setting. eCOHb % saturation responds to cooking episodes and demonstrates consistency when measured at the same time point 24-h later, suggesting that eCOHb may be a sensitive biomarker of recent HAP exposures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of residence and race on burden of travel for care: cross sectional analysis of the 2001 US National Household Travel Survey.

    PubMed

    Probst, Janice C; Laditka, Sarah B; Wang, Jong-Yi; Johnson, Andrew O

    2007-03-09

    Travel burden is a key element in conceptualizing geographic access to health care. Prior research has shown that both rural and minority populations bear disproportionate travel burdens. However, many studies are limited to specific types of patient or specific locales. The purpose of our study was to quantify geographic and race-based differences in distance traveled and time spent in travel for medical/dental care using representative national data. Data were drawn from 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS), a nationally representative, cross-sectional household survey conducted by the US Department of Transportation. Participants recorded all travel on a designated day; the overall response rate was 41%. Analyses were restricted to households reporting at least one trip for medical and/or dental care; 3,914 trips made by 2,432 households. Dependent variables in the analysis were road miles traveled, minutes spent traveling, and high travel burden, defined as more than 30 miles or 30 minutes per trip. Independent variables of interest were rural residence and race. Characteristics of the individual, the trip, and the community were controlled in multivariate analyses. The average trip for care in the US in 2001 entailed 10.2 road miles (16.4 kilometers) and 22.0 minutes of travel. Rural residents traveled further than urban residents in unadjusted analysis (17.5 versus 8.3 miles; 28.2 versus 13.4 km). Rural trips took 31.4% longer than urban trips (27.2 versus 20.7 minutes). Distance traveled did not vary by race. African Americans spent more time in travel than whites (29.1 versus 20.6 minutes); other minorities did not differ. In adjusted analyses, rural residence (odds ratio, OR, 2.67, 95% confidence interval, CI 1.39 5.1.5) was associated with a trip of 30 road miles or more; rural residence (OR, 1.80, CI 1.09 2.99) and African American race/ethnicity (OR 3.04. 95% CI 2.0 4.62) were associated with a trip lasting 30 minutes or longer. Rural residents

  20. Identifying risk factors for household burdens of road traffic fatalities: regression results from a cross-sectional survey in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lanying

    2016-11-29

    Road traffic fatalities (RTF) are among the top ten causes of deaths in the world. The risk factors for RTF fatal victims have been extensively characterized, but studies of household burden of RTF have been very few in number. Accordingly, this article investigates post-crash impacts on RTF victims' family members, including the adverse impacts of lost income, occupational disruption, unfavorable family dynamics, and residential relocation. Survey data from 1291 RTF family members interviewed in Taiwan in 2012 provide the evidence of impact used in this article. Twelve variables related to the family member's socio-demographic background were used to predict the scope of the adverse impact of a fatal crash in regression models developed for this analysis. RTF victims' spouses with relatively low personal incomes and strong dependence upon the crash victims were found to be most likely to experience a marked decrease in post- crash quality of life. RTF victims' family members who lived with few other adult cohabitants and had more juvenile dependents and were emotionally dependent on the victims were found to be quite likely to experience post- crash setbacks in occupational stability. RTF victims' family members who were emotionally dependent on the victims were found to be more likely to experience major family life disruptions. The younger the RTF victims' family members, and the more years since the crash, the higher the likelihood of residential relocation taking place. The results noted help identify those RTF victims' families that will most likely be adversely affected by the crash. The true societal costs of RTF crashes should include the adversities suffered by the fatal crash victims' families. Social welfare policies, mental health support, and timely supplemental resources should be made available to those surviving families most at risk of major life disruptions.

  1. Household ownership and use of insecticide treated nets among target groups after implementation of a national voucher programme in the United Republic of Tanzania: plausibility study using three annual cross sectional household surveys.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Kara; Marchant, Tanya; Nathan, Rose; Mponda, Hadji; Jones, Caroline; Bruce, Jane; Mshinda, Hassan; Schellenberg, Joanna Armstrong

    2009-07-02

    To evaluate the impact of the Tanzania National Voucher Scheme on the coverage and equitable distribution of insecticide treated nets, used to prevent malaria, to pregnant women and their infants. Plausibility study using three nationally representative cross sectional household and health facility surveys, timed to take place early, mid-way, and at the end of the roll out of the national programme. The Tanzania National Voucher Scheme was implemented in antenatal services, and phased in on a district by district basis from October 2004 covering all of mainland Tanzania in May 2006. 6115, 6260, and 6198 households (in 2005, 2006, and 2007, respectively) in a representative sample of 21 districts (out of a total of 113). A voucher worth $2.45 ( pound1.47, euro1.74) to be used as part payment for the purchase of a net from a local shop was given to every pregnant woman attending antenatal services. Insecticide treated net coverage was measured as household ownership of at least one net and use of a net the night before the survey. Socioeconomic distribution of nets was examined using an asset based index. Steady increases in net coverage indicators were observed over the three year study period. Between 2005 and 2007, household ownership of at least one net (untreated or insecticide treated) increased from 44% (2686/6115) to 65% (4006/6198; P<0.001), and ownership of at least one insecticide treated net doubled from 18% (1062/5961) to 36% (2229/6198) in the same period (P<0.001). Among infants under 1 year of age, use of any net increased from 33% (388/1180) to 56% (707/1272; P<0.001) and use of an insecticide treated net increased from 16% (188/1180) to 34% (436/1272; P<0.001). After adjusting for potential confounders, household ownership was positively associated with time since programme launch, although this association did not reach statistical significance (P=0.09). Each extra year of programme operation was associated with a 9 percentage point increase in

  2. Household biomass fuel use, asthma symptoms severity, and asthma underdiagnosis in rural schoolchildren in Nigeria: a cross-sectional observational study.

    PubMed

    Oluwole, Oluwafemi; Arinola, Ganiyu O; Huo, Dezheng; Olopade, Christopher O

    2017-01-05

    In 2014, the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) reported that the highest prevalence of symptoms of severe asthma was found in the low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), including Nigeria. While exposure to biomass fuel use may be an important risk factor in the development of asthma, its association with asthma symptoms severity has not been well-established. The aim of this study is to extend the spectrum of environmental risk factors that may be contributing towards increasing asthma morbidity, especially asthma symptoms severity in rural schoolchildren in Nigeria and to examine possible asthma underdiagnosis among this population. Authors conducted a cross-sectional survey in three rural communities in Nigeria. Asthma symptoms were defined according to the ISAAC criteria. Information on the types of household fuel used for cooking was used to determine household cooking fuel status. Asthma symptoms severity was defined based on frequencies of wheeze, day- and night-time symptoms, and speech limitations. Logistic regression analyses were used to explore associations. A total of 1,690 Nigerian schoolchildren participated in the study. Overall, 37 (2.2%) had diagnosed asthma and 413 (24.4%) had possible asthma (asthma-related symptoms but not diagnosed asthma). Children from biomass fuel households had higher proportion of possible asthma (27.7 vs. 22.2%; p < 0.05) and symptoms of severe asthma (18.2 vs. 7.6%; p = 0.048). In adjusted analyses, biomass fuel use was associated with increased odds of severe symptoms of asthma [odds ratios (OR) = 2.37; 95% CI: 1.16-4.84], but not with possible asthma (OR = 1.22; 95% CI: 0.95-1.56). In rural Nigerian children with asthma symptoms, the use of biomass fuel for cooking is associated with an increased risk of severe asthma symptoms. There is additional evidence that rural children might be underdiagnosed for asthma.

  3. Health-seeking behaviour in the city of Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of the Congo: results from a cross-sectional household survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Concerns about the occurrence of disease among household members generally initiate treatment-seeking actions. This study aims to identify the various treatment-seeking options of patients in Lubumbashi, analyze their health-seeking behaviour, identify determinants for the use of formal care, and analyze direct health care expenditure. Methods A cross-sectional survey of households in Lubumbashi was conducted in July 2010. Information was collected from a randomly selected sample of 251 households with at least one member who had been ill in the 2 weeks preceding the survey. Results Frequently used initial treatment-seeking options consist of self-medication based on modern medicines (54.6%), the use of first-line health services (23.1%) and hospitals (11.9%), with a perceived effectiveness of 51%, 83% and 91% respectively. If people go for a second option, then formal health care services are most often preferred. The majority (60%) of patients’ spontaneous itineraries reflect the expected functioning of a local health care system, with a patient flow characterised by the use of a first line health facility prior to the use of hospital-based services. Chronicity of the disease is the main determinant of seeking formal care. Analysis of care expenditure reveals that drugs are the only line of expenditure in the informal system and the main source of expenditure in the formal system; costs do not discriminate between first-line health services and hospitals, and the payment system is regressive since the poorest patients pay the same amounts as the richest. Conclusions This study points to the importance of self-medication as the first therapeutic option for the majority of patients in Lubumbashi, whatever the nature of the health problem. There is a lot of room to rationalise this practice. Although formal care is not common initial therapeutic option, it is the source of care most patients turn to, especially when they believe having a chronic

  4. Child mortality in the Democratic Republic of Congo: cross-sectional evidence of the effect of geographic location and prolonged conflict from a national household survey.

    PubMed

    Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Mandungu, Tumwaka P; Mbela, Kisumbula; Nzita, Kikhela P D; Kalambayi, Banza B; Kayembe, Kalambayi P; Emina, Jacques B O

    2014-03-20

    The child mortality rate is a good indicator of development. High levels of infectious diseases and high child mortality make the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) one of the most challenging environments for health development in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Recent conflicts in the eastern part of the country and bad governance have compounded the problem. This study aimed to examine province-level geographic variation in under-five mortality (U5M), accounting for individual- and household-level risk factors including environmental factors such as conflict. Our analysis used the nationally representative cross-sectional household sample of 8,992 children under five in the 2007 DRC Demographic and Health Survey. In the survey year, 1,005 deaths among this group were observed. Information on U5M was aggregated to the 11 provinces, and a Bayesian geo-additive discrete-time survival mixed model was used to map the geographic distribution of under-five mortality rates (U5MRs) at the province level, accounting for observable and unobservable risk factors. The overall U5MR was 159 per 1,000 live births. Significant associations with risk of U5M were found for <24 month birth interval [posterior odds ratio and 95% credible region: 1.14 (1.04, 1.26)], home birth [1.13 (1.01, 1.27)] and living with a single mother [1.16 (1.03, 1.33)]. Striking variation was also noted in the risk of U5M by province of residence, with the highest risk in Kasaï-Oriental, a non-conflict area of the DRC, and the lowest in the conflict area of North Kivu. This study reveals clear geographic patterns in rates of U5M in the DRC and shows the potential role of individual child, household and environmental factors, which are unexplained by the ongoing conflict. The displacement of mothers to safer areas may explain the lower U5MR observed at the epicentre of the conflict in North Kivu, compared with rates in conflict-free areas. Overall, the U5M maps point to a lack of progress towards the

  5. Child mortality in the Democratic Republic of Congo: cross-sectional evidence of the effect of geographic location and prolonged conflict from a national household survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The child mortality rate is a good indicator of development. High levels of infectious diseases and high child mortality make the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) one of the most challenging environments for health development in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Recent conflicts in the eastern part of the country and bad governance have compounded the problem. This study aimed to examine province-level geographic variation in under-five mortality (U5M), accounting for individual- and household-level risk factors including environmental factors such as conflict. Methods Our analysis used the nationally representative cross-sectional household sample of 8,992 children under five in the 2007 DRC Demographic and Health Survey. In the survey year, 1,005 deaths among this group were observed. Information on U5M was aggregated to the 11 provinces, and a Bayesian geo-additive discrete-time survival mixed model was used to map the geographic distribution of under-five mortality rates (U5MRs) at the province level, accounting for observable and unobservable risk factors. Results The overall U5MR was 159 per 1,000 live births. Significant associations with risk of U5M were found for < 24 month birth interval [posterior odds ratio and 95% credible region: 1.14 (1.04, 1.26)], home birth [1.13 (1.01, 1.27)] and living with a single mother [1.16 (1.03, 1.33)]. Striking variation was also noted in the risk of U5M by province of residence, with the highest risk in Kasaï-Oriental, a non-conflict area of the DRC, and the lowest in the conflict area of North Kivu. Conclusion This study reveals clear geographic patterns in rates of U5M in the DRC and shows the potential role of individual child, household and environmental factors, which are unexplained by the ongoing conflict. The displacement of mothers to safer areas may explain the lower U5MR observed at the epicentre of the conflict in North Kivu, compared with rates in conflict-free areas. Overall, the U5M maps point

  6. Respondents' recall of injury events: an investigation of recall bias in cross-sectional injury data from the Sudan Household Health Survey 2010.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, Safa; Abdelgadir, Nahid; Shahraz, Saeid; Bhalla, Kavi

    2015-01-01

    Recall bias is a well-documented limitation of population-based cross-sectional injury surveys. To fill some gaps in this area, we investigated the extent and nature of recall bias in Sudan Household Health Survey (SHHS 2010) injury data. The extent of incomplete recall was measured by comparing the total reported injuries over 12 months with the annualised number of injuries in the four weeks preceding the survey. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate the association of socio-demographic variables, injury attributes and interviewee characteristics with differential recall. Relevant interactions were tested. Overall, reported injuries were 33% of the expected. Injuries among children 1-4 years had lower odds of being reported to have occurred earlier than the four weeks preceding the survey than people aged 65 years and over (OR = 0.24, 95% CI 0.12-0.47). Injuries that received inpatient care in the first week were more likely to be recalled than those that did not receive care (OR = 2.07, 95% CI 1.14-3.75). Respondent's age was associated with differential recall. Differential injury recall should be considered when using SHHS 2010 to compare injury occurrence between children under five and older groups or at the level of health care received.

  7. Use of household ingredients as complementary medicines for perceived hypoglycemic benefit among Sri Lankan diabetic patients; a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Medagama, Arjuna Bandara; Senadhira, Danusha

    2015-01-01

    Background: Biologic based therapies are frequently used as complementary medicines in diabetes. The aim of this study was to identify the commonly used herbal remedies and their preparations in Sri Lankan patients with Type 2 diabetes. Methods: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study on 220 diabetic patients using herbal remedies for perceived glycemic benefit. Results: All the patients used their regular conventional medications together with herbal remedies. The most commonly used medication was metformin (91.4%). Ivy gourd (Coccinia grandis) was the most commonly used herbal remedy (32%), followed by crepe ginger (Costus speciosus) (25%) and bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) (20%). Herbal remedies used less frequently were finger millet (Eleusine corocana) (5%), anguna leaves (Wattakaka volubilis) (5%), goat weed (Scoparia dulcis) (4%), Salacia reticulata (4%), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) (3%) and tree turmeric (Coscinium fenestratum) (0.5%). None of the patients used commercially available over-the-counter herbal products. The common preparations were salads (72.8%), curries (12.8%), herbal tea (6%), and herbal porridges (6%). Conclusion: The practice of using household ingredients as complementary medicines is common in Sri Lanka. Few herbal remedies and their methods of preparation have limited evidence for efficacy. In view of the frequent use by diabetic patients each needs to be documented for reference and scientifically explored about their hypoglycemic potential. PMID:26401401

  8. Serum aflatoxin B₁-lysine adduct level in adult women from Eastern Province in Kenya depends on household socio-economic status: A cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Jef L; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Jones, Kelly

    2015-12-01

    Notwithstanding the growing concern about the negative impact of aflatoxin (AF) on human health, there is a dearth of evidence on the socio-economic determinants of AF exposure in low and middle income countries. We used detailed socio-economic data to quantify to what extent socio-economic characteristics explained differences in serum AFB1-lysine adduct level in adult women from a rural area in Kenya's Eastern Province. We first explored the relationship between serum aflatoxin level and a number of household, farm, and individual characteristics using cross-sectional data on 884 mothers (pregnant or with a child under 24 months). We then used regression analyses to estimate the extent to which the combined characteristics could predict serum aflatoxin levels. We finally used the estimated regression models to predict changes in AF level when changing a women's characteristics from the most disadvantaged group (setting all socio-economic characteristics to the lowest tertile) to the most advantaged group (highest tertile). AF was detected in all women. The median level of serum AB1-lysine adduct was 7.47 pg/mg albumin. Higher exposure levels were significantly associated with poverty: predicted serum aflatoxin levels in women living in the worst socio-economic conditions were 4.7-7.1 times higher than those with the best socio-economic status. The results of our study, the first to show the significant association between poverty and aflatoxin exposure, highlight the need to better understand the strategies used by better-off families to mitigate AF exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence and Characteristics of Smokers Interested in Internet-Based Smoking Cessation Interventions: Cross-sectional Findings From a National Household Survey

    PubMed Central

    Michie, Susan; Raupach, Tobias; West, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Background An accurate and up-to-date estimate of the potential reach of Internet-based smoking cessation interventions (ISCIs) would improve calculations of impact while an understanding of the characteristics of potential users would facilitate the design of interventions. Objective This study reports the prevalence and the sociodemographic, smoking, and Internet-use characteristics of smokers interested in using ISCIs in a nationally representative sample. Methods Data were collected using cross-sectional household surveys of representative samples of adults in England. Interest in trying an Internet site or “app” that was proven to help with stopping smoking was assessed in 1128 adult smokers in addition to sociodemographic characteristics, dependence, motivation to quit, previous attempts to quit smoking, Internet and handheld computer access, and recent types of information searched online. Results Of a representative sample of current smokers, 46.6% (95% CI 43.5%-49.6%) were interested in using an Internet-based smoking cessation intervention. In contrast, only 0.3% (95% CI 0%-0.7%) of smokers reported having used such an intervention to support their most recent quit attempt within the past year. After adjusting for all other background characteristics, interested smokers were younger (OR=0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.99), reported stronger urges (OR=1.29, 95% CI 1.10-1.51), were more motivated to quit within 3 months (OR=2.16, 95% CI 1.54-3.02), and were more likely to have made a quit attempt in the past year (OR=1.76, 95% CI 1.30-2.37), access the Internet at least weekly (OR=2.17, 95% CI 1.40-3.36), have handheld computer access (OR=1.65, 95% CI 1.22-2.24), and have used the Internet to search for online smoking cessation information or support in past 3 months (OR=2.82, 95% CI 1.20-6.62). There was no association with social grade. Conclusions Almost half of all smokers in England are interested in using online smoking cessation interventions, yet fewer than

  10. Assessing comorbidity and correlates of wasting and stunting among children in Somalia using cross-sectional household surveys: 2007 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Kinyoki, Damaris K; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Manda, Samuel O; Krainski, Elias T; Fuglstad, Geir-Arne; Moloney, Grainne M; Berkley, James A; Noor, Abdisalan M

    2016-03-09

    Wasting and stunting may occur together at the individual child level; however, their shared geographic distribution and correlates remain unexplored. Understanding shared and separate correlates may inform interventions. We aimed to assess the spatial codistribution of wasting, stunting and underweight and investigate their shared correlates among children aged 6-59 months in Somalia. Cross-sectional nutritional assessments surveys were conducted using structured interviews among communities in Somalia biannually from 2007 to 2010. A two-stage cluster sampling methodology was used to select children aged 6-59 months from households across three livelihood zones (pastoral, agropastoral and riverine). Using these data and environmental covariates, we implemented a multivariate spatial technique to estimate the codistribution and divergence of the risks and correlates of wasting and stunting at the 1 × 1 km spatial resolution. 73,778 children aged 6-59 months from 1066 survey clusters in Somalia. Observed pairwise child level empirical correlations were 0.30, 0.70 and 0.73 between weight-for-height and height-for-age; height-for-age and weight-for-age, and weight-for-height and weight-for-age, respectively. Access to foods with high protein content and vegetation cover, a proxy of rainfall or drought, were associated with lower risk of wasting and stunting. Age, gender, illness, access to carbohydrates and temperature were correlates of all three indicators. The spatial codistribution was highest between stunting and underweight with relative risk values ranging between 0.15 and 6.20, followed by wasting and underweight (range: 0.18-5.18) and lowest between wasting and stunting (range: 0.26-4.32). The determinants of wasting and stunting are largely shared, but their correlation is relatively variable in space. Significant hotspots of different forms of malnutrition occurred in the South Central regions of the country. Although nutrition response in Somalia has

  11. Assessing comorbidity and correlates of wasting and stunting among children in Somalia using cross-sectional household surveys: 2007 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Kinyoki, Damaris K; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Manda, Samuel O; Krainski, Elias T; Fuglstad, Geir-Arne; Moloney, Grainne M; Berkley, James A; Noor, Abdisalan M

    2016-01-01

    Objective Wasting and stunting may occur together at the individual child level; however, their shared geographic distribution and correlates remain unexplored. Understanding shared and separate correlates may inform interventions. We aimed to assess the spatial codistribution of wasting, stunting and underweight and investigate their shared correlates among children aged 6–59 months in Somalia. Setting Cross-sectional nutritional assessments surveys were conducted using structured interviews among communities in Somalia biannually from 2007 to 2010. A two-stage cluster sampling methodology was used to select children aged 6–59 months from households across three livelihood zones (pastoral, agropastoral and riverine). Using these data and environmental covariates, we implemented a multivariate spatial technique to estimate the codistribution and divergence of the risks and correlates of wasting and stunting at the 1×1 km spatial resolution. Participants 73 778 children aged 6–59 months from 1066 survey clusters in Somalia. Results Observed pairwise child level empirical correlations were 0.30, 0.70 and 0.73 between weight-for-height and height-for-age; height-for-age and weight-for-age, and weight-for-height and weight-for-age, respectively. Access to foods with high protein content and vegetation cover, a proxy of rainfall or drought, were associated with lower risk of wasting and stunting. Age, gender, illness, access to carbohydrates and temperature were correlates of all three indicators. The spatial codistribution was highest between stunting and underweight with relative risk values ranging between 0.15 and 6.20, followed by wasting and underweight (range: 0.18–5.18) and lowest between wasting and stunting (range: 0.26–4.32). Conclusions The determinants of wasting and stunting are largely shared, but their correlation is relatively variable in space. Significant hotspots of different forms of malnutrition occurred in the South Central

  12. Jet inclusive cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Del Duca, V.

    1992-11-01

    Minijet production in jet inclusive cross sections at hadron colliders, with large rapidity intervals between the tagged jets, is evaluated by using the BFKL pomeron. We describe the jet inclusive cross section for an arbitrary number of tagged jets, and show that it behaves like a system of coupled pomerons.

  13. The economic status of older people's households in urban and rural settings in Peru, Mexico and China: a 10/66 INDEP study cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Prince, Martin J; Lloyd-Sherlock, Peter; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Uwakwe, Richard; Acosta, Isaac; Liu, Zhaorui; Gallardo, Sara; Guerchet, Maelenn; Mayston, Rosie; de Oca, Veronica Montes; Wang, Hong; Ezeah, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Few data are available from middle income countries regarding economic circumstances of households in which older people live. Many such settings have experienced rapid demographic, social and economic change, alongside increasing pension coverage. Population-based household surveys in rural and urban catchment areas in Peru, Mexico and China. Participating households were selected from all households with older residents. Descriptive analyses were weighted back for sampling fractions and non-response. Household income and consumption were estimated from a household key informant interview. 877 Household interviews (3177 residents). Response rate 68 %. Household income and consumption correlated plausibly with other economic wellbeing indicators. Household Incomes varied considerably within and between sites. While multigenerational households were the norm, older resident's incomes accounted for a high proportion of household income, and older people were particularly likely to pool income. Differences in the coverage and value of pensions were a major source of variation in household income among sites. There was a small, consistent inverse association between household pension income and labour force participation of younger adult co-residents. The effect of pension income on older adults' labour force participation was less clear-cut. Historical linkage of social protection to formal employment may have contributed to profound late-life socioeconomic inequalities. Strategies to formalise the informal economy, alongside increases in the coverage and value of non-contributory pensions and transfers would help to address this problem.

  14. Financial burden of household out-of-pocket expenditures for prescription drugs: cross-sectional analysis based on national survey data.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Logan; Bereza, Basil G; Shim, Minsup; Grootendorst, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Commentaries on the adequacy of insurance coverage for prescription drugs available to Canadians have emphasized differences in the coverage provided by different provincial governments. Less is known about the actual financial burden of prescription drug spending and how this burden varies by province of residence, affluence and source of primary drug coverage. We used data from a nationally representative household expenditure survey to analyze the financial burden of prescription drugs. We focused on the drug budget share (defined as the share of the household budget spent on prescription drugs), considering how it varied by province, total household budget and likely primary source of drug insurance coverage (i.e., provincial government plan for senior citizens, social assistance plan or private coverage). We examined both "typical" households (at the median of the distribution of the drug budget share) and households with relatively large shares (in the top 5%). Finally, we estimated the percentage of households with catastrophic drug expenditures (defined as a drug budget share of 10% or more) and the average catastrophic drug expenditures. Senior, social assistance and general population households accounted for 21.1%, 8.9% and 69.9% of the sample of 14,430 respondents to the 2006 Survey of Household Spending, respectively. The median drug budget share in Canada was 1.1% for senior households (range 0.4% [Ontario] to 3.6% [Saskatchewan]) and 0.1% for both social assistance households and general population households, with little appreciable variation across provinces for these latter 2 categories. The 95th percentile drug budget share in Canada was 7.4% for senior households (range 3.5% [Ontario] to 12.7% [Saskatchewan]), 5.4% for social assistance households (range 2.3% [British Columbia] to 13.0% [Prince Edward Island]) and 2.6% for general population households (range 2.1% [Ontario] to 5.4% [Prince Edward Island]). The interprovincial range of the 95th

  15. Neutron cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This handbook displays curves of neutron cross sections in the energy range of 0.01 eV to 200 MeV (and associated information) as a function of incident neutron energy. Tables include reference to all data. Information on isomeric state production is also included. This book represents the fourth edition of what was previously known as BNL-325, Neutron Cross Sections, Volume 2, the third edition of which was published in 1976.

  16. Toys and toilets: cross-sectional study using children's toys to evaluate environmental faecal contamination in rural Bangladeshi households with different sanitation facilities and practices.

    PubMed

    Vujcic, Jelena; Ram, Pavani K; Hussain, Faruqe; Unicomb, Leanne; Gope, Partha Sarathi; Abedin, Jaynal; Mahmud, Zahid Hayat; Islam, M Sirajul; Luby, Stephen P

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate household faecal contamination using children's toys among 100 rural Bangladeshi households categorised as 'cleaner' (toilet that reliably separates faeces from the environment and no human faeces in/around living space) or 'less clean' (no toilet or toilet that does not reliably separate faeces from the environment and human faeces in/around living space). We distributed toy balls to each household and rinsed each study toy and a toy already owned by the household in 200 ml of Ringer's solution. We enumerated faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci from each rinse using membrane filtration methods. Study toys from 39 cleaner households had lower mean faecal coliform contamination than toys from 61 less clean households (2.4 log10 colony-forming units (CFU)/200 ml vs. 3.2 log10 CFU/200 ml, P = 0.03). However, wealth measures explained a portion of this relationship. Repeat measures were moderately variable [coefficient of variation (CV) = 6.5 between two toys in the household at the same time, CV = 37.6 between toys in the household at two different times 3-4 days apart]. Too few households owned a non-porous toy to compare groups without risk of bias. In rural Bangladesh, improved sanitation facilities and practices were associated with less environmental contamination. Whether this association is independent of household wealth and whether the difference in contamination improves child health merit further study. The variation found was typical for measures of environmental contamination, and requires large sample sizes to ascertain differences between groups with statistical significance. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Coverage of Adequately Iodized Salt Is Suboptimal and Rice Fortification Using Public Distribution Channels Could Reach Low-Income Households: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey of Anganwadi Center Catchment Areas in Telangana, India.

    PubMed

    Wirth, James P; Leyvraz, Magali; Sodani, Prahlad R; Aaron, Grant J; Sharma, Narottam D; Woodruff, Bradley A

    2016-01-01

    Food fortification is a cost-effective approach to prevent and control of micronutrient deficiencies in India. A cross-sectional survey of children 0-35 months of age residing in the catchment areas of anganwadi centers in the state of Telangana was conducted to assess the coverage of adequately iodized salt and the potential for rice fortification. Salt samples were collected and tested for iodine concentration using iodometric titration. Information on demographics, household rice consumption, and Telangana's rice sector was collected and interpreted. In households of selected children, 79% of salt samples were found to be adequately iodized. Salt brand and district were significant predictors of inadequately iodized salt. Daily rice consumption among children and women averaged 122 grams and 321 grams per day, respectively. Approximately 28% of households reported consuming rice produced themselves or purchased from a local farmer, 65% purchased rice from a market or shop, 6% got rice from a public distribution system site, and 2% obtained it from a rice mill. In the catchment areas of Telangana's anganwadi centers, there is significant variation in the coverage of adequately iodized salt by district. Future surveys in Telangana should measure the coverage of salt iodization in the general population using quantitative methods. Nonetheless, increasing the adequacy of iodization of smaller salt manufacturers would help achieve universal salt iodization in Telangana. Despite high consumption of rice, our findings suggest that large-scale market-based rice fortification is not feasible in Telangana due to a large proportion of households producing their own rice and highly fragmented rice distribution. Distributing fortified rice via Telangana's public distribution system may be a viable approach to target low-income households, but would only reach a small proportion of the population in Telangana.

  18. Coverage of Adequately Iodized Salt Is Suboptimal and Rice Fortification Using Public Distribution Channels Could Reach Low-Income Households: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey of Anganwadi Center Catchment Areas in Telangana, India

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, James P.; Leyvraz, Magali; Sodani, Prahlad R.; Aaron, Grant J.; Sharma, Narottam D.; Woodruff, Bradley A.

    2016-01-01

    Food fortification is a cost-effective approach to prevent and control of micronutrient deficiencies in India. A cross-sectional survey of children 0–35 months of age residing in the catchment areas of anganwadi centers in the state of Telangana was conducted to assess the coverage of adequately iodized salt and the potential for rice fortification. Salt samples were collected and tested for iodine concentration using iodometric titration. Information on demographics, household rice consumption, and Telangana’s rice sector was collected and interpreted. In households of selected children, 79% of salt samples were found to be adequately iodized. Salt brand and district were significant predictors of inadequately iodized salt. Daily rice consumption among children and women averaged 122 grams and 321 grams per day, respectively. Approximately 28% of households reported consuming rice produced themselves or purchased from a local farmer, 65% purchased rice from a market or shop, 6% got rice from a public distribution system site, and 2% obtained it from a rice mill. In the catchment areas of Telangana’s anganwadi centers, there is significant variation in the coverage of adequately iodized salt by district. Future surveys in Telangana should measure the coverage of salt iodization in the general population using quantitative methods. Nonetheless, increasing the adequacy of iodization of smaller salt manufacturers would help achieve universal salt iodization in Telangana. Despite high consumption of rice, our findings suggest that large-scale market-based rice fortification is not feasible in Telangana due to a large proportion of households producing their own rice and highly fragmented rice distribution. Distributing fortified rice via Telangana’s public distribution system may be a viable approach to target low-income households, but would only reach a small proportion of the population in Telangana. PMID:27447925

  19. The economic burden of chronic disease care faced by households in Ukraine: a cross-sectional matching study of angina patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death and disability worldwide, and their prevalence in lower- and middle-income countries (LMIC) is on the rise. The burden of chronic health expenditure born by patient households in these countries may be very high, particularly where out-of-pocket payments for health care are common. One such country where out-of-pocket payments are especially high is Ukraine. The financial impact of NCDs on households in this country has not been researched. Methods We set out to explore the burden of NCD care in Ukraine with a study of angina patients. Using data from the Ukraine World Health Survey of 2003 we employed the novel Coarsened Exact Matching approach to estimate the difference in out-of-pocket payment (OPP) for health care between households with a stable angina pectoris (a chronic form of IHD) patient and those without. The likelihood of engaging in catastrophic spending and using various distress financing mechanisms (e.g. sale of assets, borrowing) among angina households compared with non-angina households was also explored. Results Among angina patient households (n = 203), OPP occupied an average of 32% of household effective income. After matching, angina households experienced significantly higher monthly per capita OPP for health care (B = $2.84) and medicines (B = $2.94), but were not at significantly higher odds of engaging in catastrophic spending. Odds of engaging in ‘sale of assets’ (OR = 2.71) and ‘borrowing’ (OR = 1.68) to finance OPP were significantly higher among angina households. Conclusions The cost of chronic care in Ukraine places a burden on individual patient households. Households of angina patients are more likely to engage in distress financing to cover the cost of treatment, and a high proportion of patients do not acquire prescribed medicines because they cannot afford them. This warrants further research on the burden of NCD care in

  20. Head of household education level as a factor influencing whether delivery takes place in the presence of a skilled birth attendant in Busia, Uganda: a cross-sectional household study.

    PubMed

    Vallières, Frédérique; Hansen, Alexandria; McAuliffe, Eilish; Cassidy, Emma Louise; Owora, Paul; Kappler, Sam; Gathuru, Evelyn

    2013-02-21

    Assistance during delivery by a skilled attendant is recommended as a means to reduce child and maternal mortality. Globally, higher levels of maternal education have been associated with better health behaviours at delivery. However, given that heads of households tend to be the decision makers regarding accessing healthcare, some educated mothers may find themselves prevented from accessing healthcare at the point of delivery. We examined the association between head of household education level and health seeking behaviours at delivery across a sample of 392 households. Chi-squared analysis and odds ratios were calculated to measure the strength of the relationship between no, some primary, or some secondary or higher education attained by the head of household and the presence or absence of a skilled birth attendant at that child's birth, and whether the birth took place at a health facility. Heads of household (n = 392) were predominantly male (93.4% [(90.9%, 95.8%), a = 0.05]). We found a significant difference in skilled birth attendance between heads of households with some primary education and heads of household with some secondary education or higher (χ2 (1) = 6.231, p <0.05) whereby those with secondary or higher education were significantly more likely to seek a skilled birth attendant (OR = 1.5,[1.1,2.1]). The difference in health centre delivery between heads of household with a primary education and heads of household with a secondary or higher education was also significant (χ2 (1) = 7.519, p <0.05). Those with secondary or higher education were significantly more likely to deliver in a health facility (OR = 1.6,[1.2,2.1]). The results of our analysis, which identified the vast majority of heads of households as men, suggests that education, or rather limited or a lack of education for the head of household, may be a barrier to women's use of health care in Uganda and therefore reinforces the need to increase educational access among male heads

  1. Head of household education level as a factor influencing whether delivery takes place in the presence of a skilled birth attendant in Busia, Uganda: a cross-sectional household study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Assistance during delivery by a skilled attendant is recommended as a means to reduce child and maternal mortality. Globally, higher levels of maternal education have been associated with better health behaviours at delivery. However, given that heads of households tend to be the decision makers regarding accessing healthcare, some educated mothers may find themselves prevented from accessing healthcare at the point of delivery. Methods We examined the association between head of household education level and health seeking behaviours at delivery across a sample of 392 households. Chi-squared analysis and odds ratios were calculated to measure the strength of the relationship between no, some primary, or some secondary or higher education attained by the head of household and the presence or absence of a skilled birth attendant at that child’s birth, and whether the birth took place at a health facility. Results Heads of household (n = 392) were predominantly male (93.4% [(90.9%, 95.8%), a = 0.05]). We found a significant difference in skilled birth attendance between heads of households with some primary education and heads of household with some secondary education or higher (χ2 (1) = 6.231, p <0.05) whereby those with secondary or higher education were significantly more likely to seek a skilled birth attendant (OR = 1.5,[1.1,2.1]). The difference in health centre delivery between heads of household with a primary education and heads of household with a secondary or higher education was also significant (χ2 (1) = 7.519, p <0.05). Those with secondary or higher education were significantly more likely to deliver in a health facility (OR = 1.6,[1.2,2.1]). Conclusions The results of our analysis, which identified the vast majority of heads of households as men, suggests that education, or rather limited or a lack of education for the head of household, may be a barrier to women’s use of health care in Uganda and therefore

  2. Association of Household Savings and Expected Future Means with Delivery Using a Skilled Birth Attendant in Ghana and Nigeria: A Cross-Sectional Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Larissa; Yang, Fan; Otupiri, Easmon; Akinlo, Ambrose; Okunlola, Michael; Hindin, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study examined the association between household savings and related economic measures with utilization of skilled birth attendants (SBAs) at last birth among women living in peri-urban households (n = 381) in Ghana and Nigeria. Methods Data were drawn from the 2011-2014 Family Health and Wealth Study. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds of delivery with an SBA for individual and composite measures of household savings, expected financial means, debt, lending, and receipt of financial assistance, adjusting for demographic and reproductive characteristics. Results Seventy-three percent (73 %) of women delivered with an SBA during their last birth (89 %, Ghana; 63 %, Nigeria), and roughly one third (34 %) of households reported having any in-cash or in-kind savings. In adjusted analyses, women living in households with savings were significantly more likely to deliver with an SBA compared to women in households without any savings (aOR = 2.02, 95 % CI 1.09-3.73). There was also a consistent downward trend, although non-significant, in SBA utilization with worsening financial expectations in the coming year (somewhat vs. much better: aOR = 0.70, 95 % CI 0.40-1.22 and no change/worse vs. much better: aOR = 0.46, 95 % CI 0.12-1.83). Findings were null for measures relating to debt, lending, and financial assistance. Conclusion Coupling birth preparedness and complication readiness strategies with savings-led initiatives may improve SBA utilization in conjunction with targeting non-economic barriers to skilled care use.

  3. Associations of neighborhood concentrated poverty, neighborhood racial/ethnic composition, and indoor allergen exposures: a cross-sectional analysis of los angeles households, 2006-2008.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Rivera, Marlene; Kawachi, Ichiro; Bennett, Gary G; Subramanian, S V

    2014-08-01

    Although racial/ethnic, socioeconomic, and neighborhood factors have been linked to asthma, and the association between indoor allergens and asthma is well documented, few studies have examined the relationship between these factors and indoor allergens. We examined the frequency of reported indoor allergens and differences by racial/ethnic, socioeconomic, and neighborhood characteristics among a diverse sample of Los Angeles households. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyze the data from 723 households from wave 2 of the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey. The reported presence of rats, mice, cockroaches, mold, pets, and tobacco smoke were the primary outcomes of interest. Hispanic and Asian households had a nearly threefold increase in the odds of reporting cockroaches compared to non-Hispanic Whites (OR, 2.85; 95 % CI 1.38-5.88 and OR, 2.62; 95 % CI 1.02-6.73, respectively) even after adjusting for socioeconomic factors. Primary caregivers who had obtained a high school degree were significantly less likely to report the presence of mice and cockroaches compared to primary caregivers with less than a high school degree (OR, 0.19; 95 % CI 0.08-0.46 and OR, 0.39; 95 % CI 0.23-0.68, respectively). Primary caregivers with more than a high school degree were also less likely to report the presence of rats, mice, and cockroaches within their households, compared to those with less than a high school degree. Compared to renters, home owners were less likely to report the presence of mice, cockroaches, and mold within their households. At the neighborhood level, households located within neighborhoods of high concentrated poverty (where the average poverty rate is at least 50 %) were more likely to report the presence of mice and cockroaches compared to households in low concentrated poverty neighborhoods (average poverty rate is 10 % or less), after adjusting for individual race/ethnicity and socioeconomic characteristics. Our study

  4. Neighbour-shared versus communal latrines in urban slums: a cross-sectional study in Orissa, India exploring household demographics, accessibility, privacy, use and cleanliness.

    PubMed

    Heijnen, Marieke; Routray, Parimita; Torondel, Belen; Clasen, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    A growing proportion of the global population rely on shared sanitation facilities, despite their association with adverse health outcomes. We sought to explore differences between neighbour-shared and communal latrines in terms household demographics, accessibility, facilities and use. We conducted surveys among 295 households relying on shared sanitation in 30 slums in Orissa, India, 60.3% (178) of which relied on neighbour-shared latrines while the balance relied on communal latrines. We collected household demographic data, conducted latrine spot-checks and collected data on indicators of use, accessibility, privacy and cleanliness. Compared to neighbour-shared facilities, households relying on communal facilities were poorer, larger, less educated, less likely to have access to piped water and more likely to have a member practicing open defecation. Communal latrines were also less accessible, less likely to have water or a hand washing station on site and cleaned less frequently; they were more likely to have visible faeces and flies present. We found significant differences between neighbour-shared and communal facilities in terms of user demographics, access, facilities and cleanliness that could potentially explain differences in health. These findings highlight the need for a shared sanitation policy that focuses not just on the number of users, but also on maintenance, accessibility, cleanliness and provision of water and hand washing facilities. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. The government of Kenya cash transfer for orphaned and vulnerable children: cross-sectional comparison of household and individual characteristics of those with and without

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The ‘Cash Transfer to Orphans and Vulnerable Children’ (CT-OVC) in Kenya is a government-supported program intended to provide regular and predictable cash transfers (CT) to poor households taking care of OVC. CT programs can be an effective means of alleviating poverty and facilitating the attainment of an adequate standard of living for people’s health and well-being and other international human rights. The objective of this analysis was to compare the household socioeconomic status, school enrolment, nutritional status, and future outlook of orphaned and separated children receiving the CT compared to those not receiving a CT. Methods This project analyzes baseline data from a cohort of orphaned and separated children aged <19 years and non-orphaned children living in 300 randomly selected households (HH) in 8 Locations of Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. Baseline data were analyzed using multivariable logistic and Poisson regression comparing children in CT-HH vs. non-CT HH. Odds ratios are adjusted (AOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for guardian age and sex, child age and sex, and intra-HH correlation. Results Included in this analysis were data from 1481 children and adolescents in 300 HH (503 participants in CT, 978 in non-CT households). Overall there were 922 (62.3%) single orphans, 324 (21.9%) double orphans, and 210 (14.2%) participants had both parents alive and were living with them. Participants in CT-HH were less likely to have ≥2 pairs of clothes compared to non-CT HH (AOR: 0.32, 95% CI: 0.16-0.63). Those in CT HH were less likely to have missed any days of school in the preceding month (AOR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.42-0.94) and those aged <1-18 years in CT-HH were less likely to have height stunting for their age (AOR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.47-0.89). Participants aged at least 10 years in CT-HH were more likely to have a positive future outlook (AOR: 1.72, 95% CI: 1.12-2.65). Conclusions Children and adolescents in households receiving the CT

  6. Role of household factors in parental attitudes to pandemic influenza-related school closure in Japan: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Mitsuo; Kaneko, Minoru; Kawa, Shigeyuki

    2014-10-21

    To investigate how household background factors affect parental behavior during pandemic influenza-related school closures, we determined associations between such factors and three parental attitudes: "caring for the child", "taking leave from work", and "permitting out-of-home activities". A hypothetical pandemic influenza situation was presented and a questionnaire survey among households of 2146 schoolchildren from 6 schools was conducted. Odds ratios of background factors were estimated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Responses pertaining to 1510 children indicated that junior high school (OR = 0.11), both parents working (OR = 0.03), and family including grandparent(s) or other relatives (OR = 7.50) were factors associated with "caring for the child", and elementary school (OR = 2.28), special education school (OR = 3.18), and both parents working (OR = 5.74) were associated with "taking leave from work". Having an older sibling (OR = 0.74) and awareness of the technical term for school closure (OR = 0.73) were factors associated with "permitting out-of-home activities". Not only work status but also other household factors may be associated with parental behaviors during pandemic influenza-related school closures.

  7. Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations between Household Food Security and Child Anthropometry at Ages 5 and 8 Years in Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam123

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, Debbie L; Dearden, Kirk A; Crookston, Benjamin T; Fernald, Lia C; Stein, Aryeh D; Woldehanna, Tassew; Penny, Mary E; Behrman, Jere R

    2015-01-01

    Background: Poor childhood nutritional status has lifetime effects and food insecurity is associated with dietary practices that can impair nutritional status. Objectives: We assessed concurrent and subsequent associations between food insecurity and height-for-age z scores (HAZs) and body mass index–for-age z scores (BMI-Zs); evaluated associations with transitory and chronic food insecurity; and tested whether dietary diversity mediates associations between food insecurity and nutritional status. Methods: We used data from the Young Lives younger cohort composed of children in Ethiopia (n = 1757), India (n = 1825), Peru (n = 1844), and Vietnam (n = 1828) recruited in 2002 (round 1) at ∼1 y old, with subsequent data collection at 5 y in 2006 (round 2) and 8 y in 2009 (round 3). Results: Children from food-insecure households had significantly lower HAZs in all countries at 5 y (Ethiopia, −0.33; India, −0.53; Peru, −0.31; and Vietnam, −0.68 HAZ; all P < 0.001), although results were attenuated after controlling for potential confounders (Ethiopia, −0.21; India, −0.32; Peru, −0.14; and Vietnam, −0.27 HAZ; P < 0.01). Age 5 y food insecurity predicted the age 8 y HAZ, but did not add predictive power beyond HAZ at age 5 y in Ethiopia, India, or Peru. Age 5 y food insecurity predicted the age 8 y BMI-Z even after controlling for the 5 y BMI-Z, although associations were not significant after the inclusion of additional confounding variables (Ethiopia, P = 0.12; India, P = 0.29; Peru, P = 0.16; and Vietnam, P = 0.51). Chronically food-insecure households had significantly lower HAZs than households that were consistently food-secure, although BMI-Zs did not differ by chronic food-insecurity status. Dietary diversity mediated 18.8–30.5% of the association between food security and anthropometry in Vietnam, but mediated to a lesser degree (8.4–19.3%) in other countries. Conclusions: In 4 countries, food insecurity at 5 y of age was associated with

  8. Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations between Household Food Security and Child Anthropometry at Ages 5 and 8 Years in Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Debbie L; Dearden, Kirk A; Crookston, Benjamin T; Fernald, Lia C; Stein, Aryeh D; Woldehanna, Tassew; Penny, Mary E; Behrman, Jere R

    2015-08-01

    Poor childhood nutritional status has lifetime effects and food insecurity is associated with dietary practices that can impair nutritional status. We assessed concurrent and subsequent associations between food insecurity and height-for-age z scores (HAZs) and body mass index-for-age z scores (BMI-Zs); evaluated associations with transitory and chronic food insecurity; and tested whether dietary diversity mediates associations between food insecurity and nutritional status. We used data from the Young Lives younger cohort composed of children in Ethiopia (n = 1757), India (n = 1825), Peru (n = 1844), and Vietnam (n = 1828) recruited in 2002 (round 1) at ∼1 y old, with subsequent data collection at 5 y in 2006 (round 2) and 8 y in 2009 (round 3). Children from food-insecure households had significantly lower HAZs in all countries at 5 y (Ethiopia, -0.33; India, -0.53; Peru, -0.31; and Vietnam, -0.68 HAZ; all P < 0.001), although results were attenuated after controlling for potential confounders (Ethiopia, -0.21; India, -0.32; Peru, -0.14; and Vietnam, -0.27 HAZ; P < 0.01). Age 5 y food insecurity predicted the age 8 y HAZ, but did not add predictive power beyond HAZ at age 5 y in Ethiopia, India, or Peru. Age 5 y food insecurity predicted the age 8 y BMI-Z even after controlling for the 5 y BMI-Z, although associations were not significant after the inclusion of additional confounding variables (Ethiopia, P = 0.12; India, P = 0.29; Peru, P = 0.16; and Vietnam, P = 0.51). Chronically food-insecure households had significantly lower HAZs than households that were consistently food-secure, although BMI-Zs did not differ by chronic food-insecurity status. Dietary diversity mediated 18.8-30.5% of the association between food security and anthropometry in Vietnam, but mediated to a lesser degree (8.4-19.3%) in other countries. In 4 countries, food insecurity at 5 y of age was associated with both HAZ and BMI-Z at age 8 y, although the association was attenuated after

  9. Household sanitation and personal hygiene practices are associated with child stunting in rural India: a cross-sectional analysis of surveys.

    PubMed

    Rah, Jee Hyun; Cronin, Aidan A; Badgaiyan, Bhupendra; Aguayo, Victor M; Coates, Suzanne; Ahmed, Sarah

    2015-02-12

    Increasing evidence suggests that water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) practices affect linear growth in early childhood. We determined the association between household access to water, sanitation and personal hygiene practices with stunting among children aged 0-23 months in rural India. India. A total of 10 364, 34 639 and 1282 under-2s who participated in the 2005-2006 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), the 2011 Hunger and Malnutrition Survey (HUNGaMA) and the 2012 Comprehensive Nutrition Survey in Maharashtra (CNSM), respectively, were included in the analysis. The association between WASH indicators and child stunting was assessed using logistic regression models. The prevalence of stunting ranged from 25% to 50% across the three studies. Compared with open defecation, household access to toilet facility was associated with a 16-39% reduced odds of stunting among children aged 0-23 months, after adjusting for all potential confounders (NHFS-3 (OR=0.84, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.99); HUNGaMA (OR=0.84, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.91); CNSM (OR=0.61, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.85)). Household access to improved water supply or piped water was not in itself associated with stunting. The caregiver's self-reported practices of washing hands with soap before meals (OR=0.85, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.94) or after defecation (OR=0.86, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.93) were inversely associated with child stunting. However, the inverse association between reported personal hygiene practices and stunting was stronger among households with access to toilet facility or piped water (all interaction terms, p<0.05). Improved conditions of sanitation and hygiene practices are associated with reduced prevalence of stunting in rural India. Policies and programming aiming to address child stunting should encompass WASH interventions, thus shifting the emphasis from nutrition-specific to nutrition-sensitive programming. Future randomised trials are warranted to validate the causal association. Published by the BMJ

  10. Household sanitation and personal hygiene practices are associated with child stunting in rural India: a cross-sectional analysis of surveys

    PubMed Central

    Rah, Jee Hyun; Cronin, Aidan A; Badgaiyan, Bhupendra; Aguayo, Victor M; Coates, Suzanne; Ahmed, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Increasing evidence suggests that water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) practices affect linear growth in early childhood. We determined the association between household access to water, sanitation and personal hygiene practices with stunting among children aged 0–23 months in rural India. Setting India. Participants A total of 10 364, 34 639 and 1282 under-2s who participated in the 2005–2006 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), the 2011 Hunger and Malnutrition Survey (HUNGaMA) and the 2012 Comprehensive Nutrition Survey in Maharashtra (CNSM), respectively, were included in the analysis. Primary outcome measures The association between WASH indicators and child stunting was assessed using logistic regression models. Results The prevalence of stunting ranged from 25% to 50% across the three studies. Compared with open defecation, household access to toilet facility was associated with a 16–39% reduced odds of stunting among children aged 0–23 months, after adjusting for all potential confounders (NHFS-3 (OR=0.84, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.99); HUNGaMA (OR=0.84, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.91); CNSM (OR=0.61, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.85)). Household access to improved water supply or piped water was not in itself associated with stunting. The caregiver's self-reported practices of washing hands with soap before meals (OR=0.85, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.94) or after defecation (OR=0.86, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.93) were inversely associated with child stunting. However, the inverse association between reported personal hygiene practices and stunting was stronger among households with access to toilet facility or piped water (all interaction terms, p<0.05). Conclusions Improved conditions of sanitation and hygiene practices are associated with reduced prevalence of stunting in rural India. Policies and programming aiming to address child stunting should encompass WASH interventions, thus shifting the emphasis from nutrition-specific to nutrition-sensitive programming. Future

  11. Epidemiology of multimorbidity in China and implications for the healthcare system: cross-sectional survey among 162,464 community household residents in southern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Harry H X; Wang, Jia Ji; Wong, Samuel Y S; Wong, Martin C S; Li, Fang Jian; Wang, Pei Xi; Zhou, Zhi Heng; Zhu, Chun Yan; Griffiths, Sian M; Mercer, Stewart W

    2014-10-23

    China, like other countries, is facing a growing burden of chronic disease but the prevalence of multimorbidity and implications for the healthcare system have been little researched. We examined the epidemiology of multimorbidity in southern China in a large representative sample. The effects of multimorbidity and other factors on usual source of healthcare were also examined. We conducted a large cross-sectional survey among approximately 5% (N = 162,464) of the resident population in three prefectures in Guangdong province, southern China in 2011. A multistage, stratified random sampling was adopted. The study population had many similar characteristics to the national census population. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to collect self-report data on demographics, socio-economics, lifestyles, healthcare use, and health characteristics from paper-based medical reports. More than one in ten of the total study population (11.1%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 10.6 to 11.6) had two or more chronic conditions from a selection of 40 morbidities. The prevalence of multimorbidity increased with age (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.36, 95% CI 1.35 to 1.38 per five years). Female gender (aOR = 1.70, 95% CI 1.64 to 1.76), low education (aOR = 1.26, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.29), lack of medical insurance (aOR = 1.79, 95% CI 1.71 to 1.89), and unhealthy lifestyle behaviours were independent predictors of multimorbidity. Multimorbidity was associated with the regular use of secondary outpatient care in preference to primary care. Multimorbidity is now common in China. The reported preferential use of secondary care over primary care by patients with multimorbidity has many major implications. There is an urgent need to further develop a strong and equitable primary care system.

  12. Associations of food group and nutrient intake, diet quality, and meal sizes between adults and children in the same household: a cross-sectional analysis of U.S. households.

    PubMed

    Zuercher, Jennifer L; Wagstaff, David A; Kranz, Sibylle

    2011-11-28

    One might assume that individuals living in the same household have similar dietary intakes of food groups and nutrients. However, the manner in which an adult's dietary intake affects children's food consumption, diet quality (defined as meeting intake recommendations), and meal sizes is understudied to date. The objective of this study was to estimate these relationships between minor children and the female or male head of household. Dietary intakes of one randomly selected child of each age group (2-5, 6-11, or 12-18 years old (n = 2,380)) and that of the female/male head of household ((HH), proxy for mother and father) using multiple 24-hour recalls from the Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (CSFII) 1994-1996 was coded to reflect food group and nutrient density (servings/grams per 1,000 kcal). Linear or logistic regression models were used to determine the association between intakes, whether individuals' diets trended toward meeting her/his intake recommendations, and whether individuals were in the highest quintile for food group densities at four distinct eating occasions (breakfast, brunch/lunch, supper/dinner, or other) in each subject group. Stata's survey commands were used to fit linear or logistic regression models and obtain adjusted regression coefficients or odds ratios. Associations between food group/nutrient densities were significant but weak to moderate. Adults with diets that trended toward meeting their intake recommendations doubled the odds for children to have diets that trended toward meeting the recommendations; for many meals, adults consuming in the highest quintile for food group density predicted that children's intakes were also in the highest quintile. Female and male adults living in the same household significantly affect children's food group and nutrient intakes, diet quality, and meal sizes. There is an urgent need for in-depth analysis to elucidate the underlying mechanisms, especially for studies involving

  13. Quantum radar cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzagorta, Marco

    2010-06-01

    The radar cross section σC is an objective measure of the "radar visibility" of an object. As such, σC is an important concept for the correct characterization of the operational performance of radar systems. Furthermore, σC is equally essential for the design and development of stealth weapon systems and platforms. Recent years have seen the theoretical development of quantum radars, that is, radars that operate with a small number of photons. In this regime, the radar-target interaction is described through photon-atom scattering processes governed by the laws of quantum electrodynamics. As such, it is theoretically inconsistent to use the same σC to characterize the performance of a quantum radar. In this paper we define a quantum radar cross section σQ based on quantum electrodynamics and interferometric considerations. We discuss the theoretical challenges of defining σQ, as well as computer simulations of σC and σQ for simple targets.

  14. The effects of household income distribution on stroke prevalence and its risk factors of high blood pressure and smoking: a cross-sectional study in Saskatchewan, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bird, Yelena; Lemstra, Mark; Rogers, Marla

    2017-03-01

    Stroke is a major chronic disease and a common cause of adult disability and mortality. Although there are many known risk factors for stroke, lower income is not one that is often discussed. To determine the unadjusted and adjusted association of income distribution on the prevalence of stroke in Saskatchewan, Canada. Information was collected from the Canadian Community Health Survey conducted by Statistics Canada for 2000-2008. In total, 178 variables were analysed for their association with stroke. Prior to statistical adjustment, stroke was seven times more common for lower income residents than higher income residents. After statistical adjustment, only four covariates were independently associated with stroke prevalence, including having high blood pressure (odds ratio (OR) = 2.62; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.12-3.24), having a household income below CAD$30,000 per year (OR = 2.49; 95% CI = 1.88-3.29), being a daily smoker (OR = 1.36; 95% CI = 1.16-1.58) and being physically inactive (OR = 1.27; 95% CI = 1.13-1.43). After statistical adjustment, there were five covariates independently associated with high blood pressure prevalence, including having a household income below CAD$30,000 per year (OR = 1.52; 95% CI = 1.41-1.63). After statistical adjustment, there were five covariates independently associated with daily smoking prevalence, including having a household income below CAD$30,000 per year (OR = 1.29; 95% CI = 1.25-1.33). Knowledge of disparities in the prevalence, severity, disability and mortality of stroke is critically important to medical and public health professionals. Our study found that income distribution was strongly associated with stroke, its main disease intermediary - high blood pressure - and its main risk factor - smoking. As such, income is an important variable worthy of public debate as a modifiable risk factor for stroke.

  15. Determinants of stunting and severe stunting among Burundian children aged 6-23 months: evidence from a national cross-sectional household survey, 2014.

    PubMed

    Nkurunziza, Sandra; Meessen, Bruno; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Korachais, Catherine

    2017-07-25

    Burundi is one of the poorest countries and is among the four countries with the highest prevalence of stunting (58%) among children aged less than 5 years. This situation undermines the economic growth of the country as undernutrition is strongly associated with less schooling and reduced economic productivity. Identifying the determinants of stunting and severe stunting may help policy-makers to direct the limited Burundian resources to the most vulnerable segments of the population, and thus make it more cost effective. This study aimed to identify predictors of stunting and severe stunting among children aged less than two years in Burundi. The sample is made up of 6199 children aged 6 to 23 months with complete anthropometric measurements from the baseline survey of an impact evaluation study of the Performance-Based financing (PBF) scheme applied to nutrition services in Burundi from 2015 to 2017. Binary and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine stunting and severe stunting against a set of child, parental and household variables such as child's age or breastfeeding pattern, mother's age or knowledge of malnutrition, household size or socio-economic status. The prevalence of stunting and severe stunting were 53% [95%CI: 51.8-54.3] and 20.9% [95%CI: 19.9-22.0] respectively. Compared to children from 6-11 months, children of 12-17 months and 18-23 months had a higher risk of stunting (AdjOR:2.1; 95% CI: 1.8-2.4 and 3.2; 95% CI: 2.8-3.7). Other predictors for stunting were small babies (AdjOR=1.5; 95% CI: 1.3-1.7 for medium-size babies at birth and AdjOR=2.9; 95% CI: 2.4-3.6 for small-size babies at birth) and male children (AdjOR=1.5, 95% CI: 1.4-1.8). In addition, having no education for mothers (AdjOR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.2-2.1), incorrect mothers' child nutrition status assessment (AdjOR=3.3; 95% CI: 2.8-4), delivering at home (AdjOR=1.4; 95% CI: 1.2-1.6) were found to be predictors for stunting. More than to 2 under five children in the

  16. Factors associated with different types of birth attendants for home deliveries: an analysis of the cross-sectional 2010 South Sudan household survey

    PubMed Central

    Mugo, Ngatho S.; Agho, Kingsley E.; Zwi, Anthony B.; Dibley, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Background In South Sudan, birth deliveries attended by unskilled birth attendants put the mothers and their newborns at increased risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with delivery by unskilled birth attendants or by unassisted delivery. Design We examined data for 2,767 (weighted total) women aged 15–49 years who delivered at home 2 years prior to the South Sudan Household Health Survey 2010. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with delivery by unskilled birth attendants or by unassisted delivery. Results The prevalence of delivery by unskilled birth attendants was 19% [95% confidence interval (CI) 17.0, 20.5], by skilled birth attendants (SBAs) was 45% (95% CI 42.4, 47.0), and by unassisted delivery was 36% (95% CI 34.2, 38.6). After adjusting for potential confounders, the following factors were associated with the increased odds for unassisted delivery or delivery by an unskilled birth attendant: mothers with no schooling, who did not attend antenatal care (ANC) during pregnancy, who had lower quality of ANC services, from poor households, or who had no prior knowledge about obstetric danger signs. Conclusions We found that non-utilization of maternal health care services, such as ANC, was significantly associated with unattended birth delivery or delivery by unskilled health providers. The increased uptake of SBAs at delivery will require easier access to ANC services, health promotion on the importance and benefits of SBAs for delivery, targeting both mothers and their families, and the training and deployment of more SBAs across the country. PMID:27473675

  17. Prevalence of self-reported tuberculosis, knowledge about tuberculosis transmission and its determinants among adults in India: results from a nation-wide cross-sectional household survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Knowledge about symptoms and transmission of tuberculosis determines health seeking behavior and helps in prevention of tuberculosis transmission in the community. Such data is useful for policy makers to formulate information, education and communication strategies for tuberculosis control. Methods A secondary data analysis of India demographic and health survey, 2005/6 was carried out. Questions about self-reported tuberculosis, transmission and curability of tuberculosis were analysed. Correct knowledge (without misconceptions) about tuberculosis transmission was used as a dependant variable and the explanatory variables tested were: demographic data, education, wealth quintiles, frequency of exposure to media and the curability of tuberculosis. Determinants of correct knowledge without misconceptions were tested by univariate and multivariate analyses using national weighting factor to adjust for complex sampling design. Results A total of 109,070 households (response rate of 93.5%) and 198,718 participants (response rate of 91.6%) completed the survey. The samples of men and women interviewed were 74,360 and 124,358 respectively. Prevalence rate of self-reported tuberculosis was 445 per 100,000 usual household residents and 4.60 per 1,000 participants. The number of respondents who had “heard of an illness called tuberculosis” was 177,423 (89.3%). Of these 47,487 (26.8%) participants did not know and 55.5% knew about the correct mode of tuberculosis transmission i.e. “Through the air when coughing or sneezing”. The common misconceptions about transmission were “Through food” (32.4%), “Sharing utensils” (18.2%), and “Touching a person with tuberculosis” (12.3%). Only 52,617 (29.7%) participants had correct knowledge without misconceptions. Being male (aOR 1.17, 95% CIs 1.14, 1.21), being a Hindu (aOR 1.20, 95% CIs 1.14, 1.26) or Muslim (aOR 1.26, 95% CIs 1.18, 1.34), listening to radio (aOR 1.08, 95% CIs 1.04, 1.13) and

  18. Prevalence of self-reported tuberculosis, knowledge about tuberculosis transmission and its determinants among adults in India: results from a nation-wide cross-sectional household survey.

    PubMed

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Harsha Kumar, H N; Arokiasamy, John T

    2013-01-17

    Knowledge about symptoms and transmission of tuberculosis determines health seeking behavior and helps in prevention of tuberculosis transmission in the community. Such data is useful for policy makers to formulate information, education and communication strategies for tuberculosis control. A secondary data analysis of India demographic and health survey, 2005/6 was carried out. Questions about self-reported tuberculosis, transmission and curability of tuberculosis were analysed. Correct knowledge (without misconceptions) about tuberculosis transmission was used as a dependant variable and the explanatory variables tested were: demographic data, education, wealth quintiles, frequency of exposure to media and the curability of tuberculosis. Determinants of correct knowledge without misconceptions were tested by univariate and multivariate analyses using national weighting factor to adjust for complex sampling design. A total of 109,070 households (response rate of 93.5%) and 198,718 participants (response rate of 91.6%) completed the survey. The samples of men and women interviewed were 74,360 and 124,358 respectively. Prevalence rate of self-reported tuberculosis was 445 per 100,000 usual household residents and 4.60 per 1,000 participants. The number of respondents who had "heard of an illness called tuberculosis" was 177,423 (89.3%). Of these 47,487 (26.8%) participants did not know and 55.5% knew about the correct mode of tuberculosis transmission i.e. "Through the air when coughing or sneezing". The common misconceptions about transmission were "Through food" (32.4%), "Sharing utensils" (18.2%), and "Touching a person with tuberculosis" (12.3%). Only 52,617 (29.7%) participants had correct knowledge without misconceptions. Being male (aOR 1.17, 95% CIs 1.14, 1.21), being a Hindu (aOR 1.20, 95% CIs 1.14, 1.26) or Muslim (aOR 1.26, 95% CIs 1.18, 1.34), listening to radio (aOR 1.08, 95% CIs 1.04, 1.13) and "Tuberculosis can be cured" (aOR 1.47, 95% CIs 1.41, 1

  19. Disparities in modern contraception use among women in the Democratic Republic of Congo: a cross-sectional spatial analysis of provincial variations based on household survey data.

    PubMed

    Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Lukumu, Felly Kinziunga; Mantempa, Jocelyn Nzinunu; Kandala, Joseph Desire; Chirwa, Tobias

    2015-05-01

    This study investigates inequalities at the province level of the use of modern contraception and the proportion of short birth intervals among women in the DRC using data from the 2007 Demographic and Health Survey. Logistic regression and Bayesian geo-additive models were used. The posterior odds ratio and the associated 95% credible interval (95% CI) were estimated using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques. Posterior spatial effects were mapped at the province level with the associated posterior probability maps showing statistical significance at 5%. The overall rates of modern contraception use among the entire sample of women (15-49 years old; N = 7172) and youth (15-24 years old; N = 1389) were 5.7% and 6.0% respectively. However, there was striking variation in contraceptive use between the two groups across provinces with a clear east-to-west gradient. The highest use in the total sample was in Nord-Kivu (OR 1.32; 95% CI 1.12, 1.55) and Bas Congo provinces (1.47; 1.22, 1.78). For the youth, the highest use was observed in Nord-Kivu (1.19; 0.92, 1.65). In multivariate Bayesian geo-additive regression analyses among the entire sample of women, factors consistently associated with lower use of modern contraception were living in rural areas (0.71; 0.62, 0.82), living in low-income households (0.67; 0.54, 0.80) and having no education (0.83; 0.67, 0.97). For the youth sample, living in low-income households (0.57; 0.41, 0.84) and no breast-feeding (0.64; 0.47, 0.86) were consistently associated with a lower use of modern contraception. The study shows a distinct geographic pattern in the use of modern contraception in youth and the entire sample of women in the DRC, suggesting a potential role for socioeconomic factors, such as accessibility, affordability and availability, as well as environmental factors at the province level beyond individual-level risk factors.

  20. Determinants of stunting and severe stunting among under-fives in Tanzania: evidence from the 2010 cross-sectional household survey.

    PubMed

    Chirande, Lulu; Charwe, Deborah; Mbwana, Hadijah; Victor, Rose; Kimboka, Sabas; Issaka, Abukari Ibrahim; Baines, Surinder K; Dibley, Michael J; Agho, Kingsley Emwinyore

    2015-10-21

    Stunting is one of the main public health problems in Tanzania. It is caused mainly by malnutrition among children aged less than 5 years. Identifying the determinants of stunting and severe stunting among such children would help public health planners to reshape and redesign new interventions to reduce this health hazard. This study aimed to identify factors associated with stunting and severe stunting among children aged less than five years in Tanzania. The sample is made up of 7324 children aged 0-59 months, from the Tanzania Demographic and Health Surveys 2010. Analysis in this study was restricted to children who lived with the respondent (women aged 15-49 years). Stunting and severe stunting were examined against a set of individual-, household- and community-level factors using simple and multiple logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of stunting and severe stunting were 35.5% [95% Confidence interval (CI): 33.3-37.7] and 14.4% (95 % CI: 12.9-16.1) for children aged 0-23 months and 41.6% (95 % CI: 39.8-43.3) and 16.1% (95 % CI: 14.8-17.5) for children aged 0-59 months, respectively. Multivariable analyses showed that the most consistent significant risk factors for stunted and severely-stunted children aged 0-23 and 0-59 months were: mothers with no schooling, male children, babies perceived to be of small or average size at birth by their mothers and unsafe sources of drinking water [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for stunted children aged 0-23 months = 1.37; 95% CI: (1.07, 1.75)]; [AOR for severely stunted children aged 0-23 months = 1.50; 95% CI: (1.05, 2.14)], [AOR for stunted children aged 0-59 months = 1.42; 95% CI: (1.13, 1.79)] and [AOR for severely stunted children aged 0-59 months = 1.26; 95% CI: (1.09, 1.46)]. Community-based interventions are needed to reduce the occurrence of stunting and severe stunting in Tanzania. These interventions should target mothers with low levels of education, male children, small- or average

  1. Asymptomatic infection and unrecognised Ebola virus disease in Ebola-affected households in Sierra Leone: a cross-sectional study using a new non-invasive assay for antibodies to Ebola virus.

    PubMed

    Glynn, Judith R; Bower, Hilary; Johnson, Sembia; Houlihan, Catherine F; Montesano, Carla; Scott, Janet T; Semple, Malcolm G; Bangura, Mohammed S; Kamara, Alie Joshua; Kamara, Osman; Mansaray, Saidu H; Sesay, Daniel; Turay, Cecilia; Dicks, Steven; Wadoum, Raoul E Guetiya; Colizzi, Vittorio; Checchi, Francesco; Samuel, Dhan; Tedder, Richard S

    2017-06-01

    The frequency of asymptomatic infection with Ebola virus is unclear: previous estimates vary and there is no standard test. Asymptomatic infection with Ebola virus could contribute to population immunity, reducing spread. If people with asymptomatic infection are infectious it could explain re-emergences of Ebola virus disease (EVD) without known contact. We validated a new oral fluid anti-glycoprotein IgG capture assay among survivors from Kerry Town Ebola Treatment Centre and controls from communities unaffected by EVD in Sierra Leone. We then assessed the seroprevalence of antibodies to Ebola virus in a cross-sectional study of household contacts of the survivors. All household members were interviewed. Two reactive tests were required for a positive result, with a third test to resolve any discrepancies. The assay had a specificity of 100% (95% CI 98·9-100; 339 of 339 controls tested negative) and sensitivity of 95·9% (89·8-98·9; 93 of 97 PCR-confirmed survivors tested positive). Of household contacts not diagnosed with EVD, 47·6% (229 of 481) had high level exposure (direct contact with a corpse, body fluids, or a case with diarrhoea, vomiting, or bleeding). Among the contacts, 12·0% (95% CI 6·1-20·4; 11 of 92) with symptoms at the time other household members had EVD, and 2·6% (1·2-4·7; 10 of 388) with no symptoms tested positive. Among asymptomatic contacts, seropositivity was weakly correlated with exposure level. This new highly specific and sensitive assay showed asymptomatic infection with Ebola virus was uncommon despite high exposure. The low prevalence suggests asymptomatic infection contributes little to herd immunity in Ebola, and even if infectious, would account for few transmissions. Wellcome Trust ERAES Programme, Save the Children. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. New Arsenic Cross Section Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Kawano, Toshihiko

    2015-03-04

    This report presents calculations for the new arsenic cross section. Cross sections for 73,74,75 As above the resonance range were calculated with a newly developed Hauser-Feshbach code, CoH3.

  3. Facility-Based Delivery during the Ebola Virus Disease Epidemic in Rural Liberia: Analysis from a Cross-Sectional, Population-Based Household Survey

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Thomas; Kanjee, Zahir; Battistoli, Dale; Dorr, Lorenzo; Lorenzen, Breeanna; Thomson, Dana R.; Waters, Ami; Roberts, Ruth; Smith, Wilmot L.; Kraemer, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic has threatened access to basic health services through facility closures, resource diversion, and decreased demand due to community fear and distrust. While modeling studies have attempted to estimate the impact of these disruptions, no studies have yet utilized population-based survey data. Methods and Findings We conducted a two-stage, cluster-sample household survey in Rivercess County, Liberia, in March–April 2015, which included a maternal and reproductive health module. We constructed a retrospective cohort of births beginning 4 y before the first day of survey administration (beginning March 24, 2011). We then fit logistic regression models to estimate associations between our primary outcome, facility-based delivery (FBD), and time period, defined as the pre-EVD period (March 24, 2011–June 14, 2014) or EVD period (June 15, 2014–April 13, 2015). We fit both univariable and multivariable models, adjusted for known predictors of facility delivery, accounting for clustering using linearized standard errors. To strengthen causal inference, we also conducted stratified analyses to assess changes in FBD by whether respondents believed that health facility attendance was an EVD risk factor. A total of 1,298 women from 941 households completed the survey. Median age at the time of survey was 29 y, and over 80% had a primary education or less. There were 686 births reported in the pre-EVD period and 212 in the EVD period. The unadjusted odds ratio of facility-based delivery in the EVD period was 0.66 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.48–0.90, p-value = 0.010). Adjustment for potential confounders did not change the observed association, either in the principal model (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.70, 95%CI 0.50–0.98, p = 0.037) or a fully adjusted model (AOR = 0.69, 95%CI 0.50–0.97, p = 0.033). The association was robust in sensitivity analyses. The reduction in FBD during the EVD period was observed among

  4. Facility-Based Delivery during the Ebola Virus Disease Epidemic in Rural Liberia: Analysis from a Cross-Sectional, Population-Based Household Survey.

    PubMed

    Ly, John; Sathananthan, Vidiya; Griffiths, Thomas; Kanjee, Zahir; Kenny, Avi; Gordon, Nicholas; Basu, Gaurab; Battistoli, Dale; Dorr, Lorenzo; Lorenzen, Breeanna; Thomson, Dana R; Waters, Ami; Moore, Uriah G; Roberts, Ruth; Smith, Wilmot L; Siedner, Mark J; Kraemer, John D

    2016-08-01

    The Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic has threatened access to basic health services through facility closures, resource diversion, and decreased demand due to community fear and distrust. While modeling studies have attempted to estimate the impact of these disruptions, no studies have yet utilized population-based survey data. We conducted a two-stage, cluster-sample household survey in Rivercess County, Liberia, in March-April 2015, which included a maternal and reproductive health module. We constructed a retrospective cohort of births beginning 4 y before the first day of survey administration (beginning March 24, 2011). We then fit logistic regression models to estimate associations between our primary outcome, facility-based delivery (FBD), and time period, defined as the pre-EVD period (March 24, 2011-June 14, 2014) or EVD period (June 15, 2014-April 13, 2015). We fit both univariable and multivariable models, adjusted for known predictors of facility delivery, accounting for clustering using linearized standard errors. To strengthen causal inference, we also conducted stratified analyses to assess changes in FBD by whether respondents believed that health facility attendance was an EVD risk factor. A total of 1,298 women from 941 households completed the survey. Median age at the time of survey was 29 y, and over 80% had a primary education or less. There were 686 births reported in the pre-EVD period and 212 in the EVD period. The unadjusted odds ratio of facility-based delivery in the EVD period was 0.66 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.48-0.90, p-value = 0.010). Adjustment for potential confounders did not change the observed association, either in the principal model (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.70, 95%CI 0.50-0.98, p = 0.037) or a fully adjusted model (AOR = 0.69, 95%CI 0.50-0.97, p = 0.033). The association was robust in sensitivity analyses. The reduction in FBD during the EVD period was observed among those reporting a belief that health

  5. Difference between interaction cross sections and reaction cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Kohama, Akihisa; Iida, Kei; Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro

    2008-12-15

    We study the validity of the substitution of interaction cross sections for total reaction cross sections for a nucleus incident on a target nucleus at relativistic energies. We show that, for incident stable nuclei, the predicted difference between interaction and total reaction cross sections is large enough to probe the nuclear structure, particularly in a mass region of less than around 40. For analyses of the difference, we construct ''pseudo data'' for the reaction cross sections because empirical data are very limited at high energies. The construction of the pseudo data is based on our assumption that empirically unknown total reaction cross sections are precisely predicted by the phenomenological black-sphere model of nuclei that we developed recently. The comparison with the empirical interaction cross sections suggests a significant difference between the reaction and interaction cross sections for stable projectiles on a carbon target, which is of the order of 0-100 mb.

  6. Radar cross section of insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, J. R.

    1985-02-01

    X-band measurements of radar cross section as a function of the angle between insect body axis and the plane of polarization are presented. A finding of particular interest is that in larger insects, maximum cross section occurs when the E-vector is perpendicular to the body axis. A new range of measurements on small insects (aphids, and planthoppers) is also described, and a comprehensive summary of insect cross-section data at X-band is given.

  7. Radar Cross Section Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-30

    Radar 54 17. Measured Range Sidelobe Performance of Chirp Radar 56 18. Range and Cross Range Image of Target Dror.’ŕ Vehicle 57 19. Incoherent rms...the measured range resolution, 4.9 in, closely agrees with the theoretical performance for this weighting. The measured range sidelobe performance...Interval 4.89in. 2% kHz 300 kHz 310 kHz (b) Expanded Scale + 5 ft from Target Figure 17. Measured Range Sidelobe Performance of

  8. XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 8 XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database (Web, free access)   A web database is provided which can be used to calculate photon cross sections for scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production, as well as total attenuation coefficients, for any element, compound or mixture (Z <= 100) at energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV.

  9. Knowledge and practices towards rabies and determinants of dog rabies vaccination in households: a cross sectional study in an area with high dog bite incidents in Kakamega County, Kenya, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Mucheru, Gerald Mburu; Kikuvi, Gideon Mutie; Amwayi, Samuel Anyangu

    2014-01-01

    Introduction An estimated 55,000 people die from rabies annually. Factors promoting dog vaccination, estimates of vaccination coverage and knowledge on rabies are important for effective rabies control. We sought to establish these estimates at household (HH) level and whether rabies knowledge is associated with proper control practices. Methods Cross-sectional cluster survey with two-stage sampling was employed in Kakamega County to enroll HH members above 18 years. A set of questions related to rabies knowledge and practice were used to score participant response. Score above the sample mean was equated to adequate knowledge and proper practices respectively. Independent t-test was used to evaluate the differences of sample mean scores based on dog vaccination status. Bivariate analysis was used to associate knowledge to practices. Results Three hundred and ninety HHs enrolled and had a population of 754 dogs with 35% (n = 119) HH having vaccinated dogs within past 12 months. Overall mean score for knowledge was 7.0 (±2.8) with range (0-11) and 6.3 (±1.2) for practice with range (0-8). There was a statistically significant difference in mean knowledge (DF = 288, p < 0.01) and practice (DF = 283, p = 0.001) of HH with vaccinated dogs compared to ones with unvaccinated dogs. Participants with adequate rabies knowledge were more likely to have proper health seeking practices 139 (80%) (OR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.4-6.8) and proper handling practices of suspected rabid dog 327 (88%) (OR = 5.4, 95% CI = 2.7-10.6). Conclusion Rabies vaccination below the 80% recommended for herd immunity. Mass vaccination campaign needed. More innovative ways of translating knowledge into proper rabies control practice are warranted. PMID:25852798

  10. Cross sections at hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Paige, F.E.

    1982-01-01

    The predicted cross sections are given for new Z'/sup 0/ bosons, for the Drell-Yan continuum of ..mu../sup +/..mu../sup -/ pairs, for high p/sub T/ hadron jets, for high p/sub T/ single photons, and for the associated production of heavy quarks. These processes have been selected not to cover the most interesting physics, but to provide a representative selection of cross sections for which to compare various energies and luminosities.

  11. Comparison of substance use, subjective well-being and interpersonal relationships among young people in foster care and private households: a cross sectional analysis of the School Health Research Network survey in Wales

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Rhiannon E; Fletcher, Adam; Hewitt, Gillian; Murphy, Simon; Young, Honor; Moore, Graham F

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association of living in foster care (FC) with substance use and subjective well-being in a sample of secondary school students (11–16 years) in Wales in 2015/16, and to examine whether these associations are attenuated by the perceived quality of interpersonal relationships. Design Cross-sectional, population-based health behaviour and lifestyle questionnaire. Setting and participants Wales, UK; young people who took part in the 2015/16 School Health Research Network (SHRN) questionnaire (n=32 479). Primary outcome Health behaviours among young people in FC were compared with those from private households. Results The prevalence of all adverse outcomes was higher among young people in FC. Those in FC were significantly more likely to report mephedrone use (OR=9.24, 95% CI 5.60 to 15.34), multiple substance misuse behaviours (OR=3.72, 95% CI 2.30 to 6.00), poorer relationships with peers (RR=1.88, 95% CI 1.23 to 2.88) and teachers (RR=1.83, 95% CI 1.31 to 2.56), having experienced bullying (OR=1.80, 95% CI 1.38 to 2.35), dating violence (OR=1.66, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.43) and poor well-being (RR=1.72, 95% CI 1.20 to 2.46). The association between FC and substance use remained significant, though was attenuated after accounting for relationship variables. The association between FC and subjective well-being became non-significant after adjustment for relationship variables. Conclusions Young people living in FC experience significantly worse outcomes than young people not in care, likely due to a range of care and precare factors, which impact adversely on subsequent social relationships. The analyses are consistent with the hypothesis that the associations of FC with substance use and life satisfaction are partially explained by poorer quality social relationships. Large scale, longitudinal studies are required to investigate the relationship between being in care and health, educational and social outcomes. Mental health interventions

  12. Accurate Cross Sections for Microanalysis

    PubMed Central

    Rez, Peter

    2002-01-01

    To calculate the intensity of x-ray emission in electron beam microanalysis requires a knowledge of the energy distribution of the electrons in the solid, the energy variation of the ionization cross section of the relevant subshell, the fraction of ionizations events producing x rays of interest and the absorption coefficient of the x rays on the path to the detector. The theoretical predictions and experimental data available for ionization cross sections are limited mainly to K shells of a few elements. Results of systematic plane wave Born approximation calculations with exchange for K, L, and M shell ionization cross sections over the range of electron energies used in microanalysis are presented. Comparisons are made with experimental measurement for selected K shells and it is shown that the plane wave theory is not appropriate for overvoltages less than 2.5 V. PMID:27446747

  13. Neutrino cross-sections: Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Sánchez, F.

    2015-07-15

    Neutrino-nucleus cross-sections are as of today the main source of systematic errors for oscillation experiments together with neutrino flux uncertainties. Despite recent experimental and theoretical developments, future experiments require even higher precisions in their search of CP violation. We will review the experimental status and explore possible future developments required by next generation of experiments.

  14. Photoneutron cross sections for Au

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, O.; Utsunomiya, H.; Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Kondo, T.; Kamata, M.; Toyokawa, H.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Goko, S.; Nair, C.; Lui, Y.-W.

    2011-10-28

    Photoneutron cross sections were measured for Au in the entire energy range of the ({gamma},n) channel based on a direct neutron-counting technique with quasimonochromatic {gamma} rays produced in inverse Compton-scattering of laser photons with relativistic electrons. We present results of the measurement in comparison with the past data.

  15. Cross Sections for Planetary Escape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tully, C.

    2001-05-01

    Energetic charged-particle bombardment, dissociative recombination and photodissociation processes produce energetic recoil atoms which heat the thermosphere and can lead to escape from a planet affecting the evolution of the atmosphere. In describing these processes by Monte Carlo methods, many of the critical cross sections are not available in the energy range of interest, a few eV to 1 keV. Here we present our recent results for elastic collision and collisional dissociation cross sections relevant to Titan, Triton, Europa and the terrestrial planets [1,2]. Elastic and diffusion cross sections were calculated using both quantum mechanical techniques and the semiclassical JWKB approximation for the collision of ground state oxygen atoms in the energy range 1-10eV [2]. This involved calculation of phase shifts for each of the 18 molecular energy states of O2 which separate to two ground state O atoms. For an O thermosphere the total elastic cross section is close to that typically assumed but the escape depths are shown to be larger than those typically used. Dissociation cross sections of N + N2 were calculated using a semiclassical method, in the energy range 0-30eV. This required treating the vibrational motion quantum mechanically while the rotational and the relative translational motion were treated classically. The evolution of the system was calculated by simultaneous propagation of the classical as well as the quantal degrees of freedom. The solution to the classical part was carried out by solving Hamilton equations of motion using an effective London-Eyring-Polanyi-Sato potential energy surface, calculated by Laganá et al [3]. Propagation of the quantal wavefunction was carried out by solving the time dependent Schrödinger equation using the split operator technique with the help of the fast fourier transform which was used to calculate the second derivatives arising from the kinetic energy operator. This work was supported by NASA's Planetary

  16. Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 107 Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database (Web, free access)   This is a database primarily of total ionization cross sections of molecules by electron impact. The database also includes cross sections for a small number of atoms and energy distributions of ejected electrons for H, He, and H2. The cross sections were calculated using the Binary-Encounter-Bethe (BEB) model, which combines the Mott cross section with the high-incident energy behavior of the Bethe cross section. Selected experimental data are included.

  17. Parameters of Household Composition as Demographic Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akkerman, Abraham

    2005-01-01

    Cross-sectional data, such as Census statistics, enable the re-enactment of household lifecourse through the construction of the household composition matrix, a tabulation of persons in households by their age and by the age of their corresponding household-heads. Household lifecourse is represented in the household composition matrix somewhat…

  18. Cross Sections: No. 1 Hold section at Fr 24 Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cross Sections: No. 1 Hold section at Fr 24 Looking Fwd, No 1 Hold Section at Fr 28 Looking Aft, No 2 Hold Section at Fr 48 Looking Aft, No 3 Hold Section at Fr 70 Looking Aft, No 4 Hold Section at Fr 90 Looking Aft - General John Pope, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  19. Neutron cross sections: Book of curves

    SciTech Connect

    McLane, V.; Dunford, C.L.; Rose, P.F.

    1988-01-01

    Neuton Cross Sections: Book of Curves represents the fourth edition of what was previously known as BNL-325, Neutron Cross Sections, Volume 2, CURVES. Data is presented only for (i.e., intergrated) reaction cross sections (and related fission parameters) as a function of incident-neutron energy for the energy range 0.01 eV to 200 MeV. For the first time, isometric state production cross sections have been included. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Photoproduction total cross section and shower development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornet, F.; García Canal, C. A.; Grau, A.; Pancheri, G.; Sciutto, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The total photoproduction cross section at ultrahigh energies is obtained using a model based on QCD minijets and soft-gluon resummation and the ansatz that infrared gluons limit the rise of total cross sections. This cross section is introduced into the Monte Carlo system AIRES to simulate extended air showers initiated by cosmic ray photons. The impact of the new photoproduction cross section on common shower observables, especially those related to muon production, is compared with previous results.

  1. SNL RML recommended dosimetry cross section compendium

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, P.J.; Kelly, J.G.; Luera, T.F.; VanDenburg, J.

    1993-11-01

    A compendium of dosimetry cross sections is presented for use in the characterization of fission reactor spectrum and fluence. The contents of this cross section library are based upon the ENDF/B-VI and IRDF-90 cross section libraries and are recommended as a replacement for the DOSCROS84 multigroup library that is widely used by the dosimetry community. Documentation is provided on the rationale for the choice of the cross sections selected for inclusion in this library and on the uncertainty and variation in cross sections presented by state-of-the-art evaluations.

  2. [Fast neutron cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, G.F.

    1992-10-26

    From its inception, the Nuclear Data Project at the University of Michigan has concentrated on two major objectives: (1) to carry out carefully controlled nuclear measurements of the highest possible reliability in support of the national nuclear data program, and (2) to provide an educational opportunity for students with interests in experimental nuclear science. The project has undergone a successful transition from a primary dependence on our photoneutron laboratory to one in which our current research is entirely based on a unique pulsed 14 MeV fast neutron facility. The new experimental facility is unique in its ability to provide nanosecond bursts of 14 MeV neutrons under conditions that are clean'' and as scatter-free as possible, and is the only one of its type currently in operation in the United States. It has been designed and put into operation primarily by graduate students, and has met or exceeded all of its important initial performance goals. We have reached the point of its routine operation, and most of the data are now in hand that will serve as the basis for the first two doctoral dissertations to be written by participating graduate students. Our initial results on double differential neutron cross sections will be presented at the May 1993 Fusion Reactor Technology Workshop. We are pleased to report that, after investing several years in equipment assembly and optimization, the project has now entered its data production'' phase.

  3. Cross-Sectional Relationships Between Household Food Insecurity and Child BMI, Feeding Behaviors, and Public Assistance Utilization Among Head Start Children From Predominantly Hispanic and American Indian Communities in the CHILE Study.

    PubMed

    Trappmann, Jessica L; Jimenez, Elizabeth Yakes; Keane, Patricia C; Cohen, Deborah A; Davis, Sally M

    Associations between food insecurity and overweight/obesity, feeding behaviors, and public food assistance utilization have been explored to a greater extent among adults and adolescents than among young children. This cross-sectional study examines a subset of pre-intervention implementation data (n = 347) among families participating in the Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise (CHILE) study conducted in rural New Mexico among predominantly Hispanic and American Indian Head Start centers. No significant relationships emerged between food insecurity and child overweight/obesity, certain feeding behaviors, or public food assistance utilization. Additional research is necessary to understand relationships between food insecurity and child overweight/obesity status, use of public assistance benefits, and certain feeding behaviors among rural preschool-aged children in predominantly Hispanic and American Indian communities.

  4. Cross-Sectional Relationships Between Household Food Insecurity and Child BMI, Feeding Behaviors, and Public Assistance Utilization Among Head Start Children From Predominantly Hispanic and American Indian Communities in the CHILE Study

    PubMed Central

    Trappmann, Jessica L.; Jimenez, Elizabeth Yakes; Keane, Patricia C.; Cohen, Deborah A.; Davis, Sally M.

    2016-01-01

    Associations between food insecurity and overweight/obesity, feeding behaviors, and public food assistance utilization have been explored to a greater extent among adults and adolescents than among young children. This cross-sectional study examines a subset of pre-intervention implementation data (n = 347) among families participating in the Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise (CHILE) study conducted in rural New Mexico among predominantly Hispanic and American Indian Head Start centers. No significant relationships emerged between food insecurity and child overweight/obesity, certain feeding behaviors, or public food assistance utilization. Additional research is necessary to understand relationships between food insecurity and child overweight/obesity status, use of public assistance benefits, and certain feeding behaviors among rural preschool-aged children in predominantly Hispanic and American Indian communities. PMID:27547288

  5. Cross Sections: No 6 Hold Section at Fr 178 Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cross Sections: No 6 Hold Section at Fr 178 Looking Fwd, No 7 Hold Section at No 154 Looking Fwd, No 7 Hold Section at Fr 195 Looking Fwd Showing Trans 194, No 7 Hold Section at Fr 198 Looking Fwd - General John Pope, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  6. Cross-National Variations in the Division of Household Labor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Shannon N.; Greenstein, Theodore N.

    2004-01-01

    Using data from the International Social Justice Project, we describe the division of household labor in married couple households using a sample of 13 nations (N= 10,153). We find significant differences in the division of household labor based upon respondents nations of residence. We find support for the time availability approach; households…

  7. Vertically stabilized elongated cross-section tokamak

    DOEpatents

    Sheffield, George V.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a vertically stabilized, non-circular (minor) cross-section, toroidal plasma column characterized by an external separatrix. To this end, a specific poloidal coil means is added outside a toroidal plasma column containing an endless plasma current in a tokamak to produce a rectangular cross-section plasma column along the equilibrium axis of the plasma column. By elongating the spacing between the poloidal coil means the plasma cross-section is vertically elongated, while maintaining vertical stability, efficiently to increase the poloidal flux in linear proportion to the plasma cross-section height to achieve a much greater plasma volume than could be achieved with the heretofore known round cross-section plasma columns. Also, vertical stability is enhanced over an elliptical cross-section plasma column, and poloidal magnetic divertors are achieved.

  8. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Acetylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Mi-Young; Yoon, Jung-Sik; Cho, Hyuck; Karwasz, Grzegorz P.; Kokoouline, Viatcheslav; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2017-03-01

    Cross section data are compiled from the literature for electron collisions with the acetylene (HCCH) molecule. Cross sections are collected and reviewed for total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational and vibrational states, dissociation, ionization, and dissociative attachment. The data derived from swarm experiments are also considered. For each of these processes, the recommended values of the cross sections are presented. The literature has been surveyed through early 2016.

  9. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Methane

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Mi-Young Yoon, Jung-Sik; Cho, Hyuck; Itikawa, Yukikazu; Karwasz, Grzegorz P.; Kokoouline, Viatcheslav; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2015-06-15

    Cross section data are compiled from the literature for electron collisions with methane (CH{sub 4}) molecules. Cross sections are collected and reviewed for total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational and vibrational states, dissociation, ionization, and dissociative attachment. The data derived from swarm experiments are also considered. For each of these processes, the recommended values of the cross sections are presented. The literature has been surveyed through early 2014.

  10. Annular-Cross-Section CFE Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharnez, Rizwan; Sammons, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed continuous-flow-electrophoresis (CFE) chamber of annular cross section offers advantages over conventional CFE chamber, and wedge-cross-section chamber described in "Increasing Sensitivity in Continuous-Flow Electrophoresis" (MFS-26176). In comparison with wedge-shaped chamber, chamber of annular cross section virtually eliminates such wall effects as electro-osmosis and transverse gradients of velocity. Sensitivity enhanced by incorporating gradient maker and radial (collateral) flow.

  11. Annular-Cross-Section CFE Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharnez, Rizwan; Sammons, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed continuous-flow-electrophoresis (CFE) chamber of annular cross section offers advantages over conventional CFE chamber, and wedge-cross-section chamber described in "Increasing Sensitivity in Continuous-Flow Electrophoresis" (MFS-26176). In comparison with wedge-shaped chamber, chamber of annular cross section virtually eliminates such wall effects as electro-osmosis and transverse gradients of velocity. Sensitivity enhanced by incorporating gradient maker and radial (collateral) flow.

  12. Theoretical antideuteron-nucleus absorptive cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, W. W.; Norbury, J. W.; Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    Antideuteron-nucleus absorptive cross sections for intermediate to high energies are calculated using an ion-ion optical model. Good agreement with experiment (within 15 percent) is obtained in this same model for (bar p)-nucleus cross sections at laboratory energies up to 15 GeV. We describe a technique for estimating antinucleus-nucleus cross sections from NN data and suggest that further cosmic ray studies to search for antideuterons and other antinuclei be undertaken.

  13. Absolute cross sections of compound nucleus reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capurro, O. A.

    1993-11-01

    The program SEEF is a Fortran IV computer code for the extraction of absolute cross sections of compound nucleus reactions. When the evaporation residue is fed by its parents, only cumulative cross sections will be obtained from off-line gamma ray measurements. But, if one has the parent excitation function (experimental or calculated), this code will make it possible to determine absolute cross sections of any exit channel.

  14. Neutron capture cross section of 102Pd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, C. L.; Krane, K. S.

    2005-05-01

    The cross sections for radiative neutron capture by 102Pd have been deduced from a measurement of the γ rays emitted by 17.0-d 103Pd. The thermal cross section has been determined to be σ=1.82±0.20 b, and the effective resonance integral is I=23±4 b. We also report thermal and resonance capture cross sections for 108Pd and note possible inconsistencies with the presently accepted values of the 110Pd cross sections.

  15. Cross Section; Half Longitudinal Section Showing Middle Wall Reinforced with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cross Section; Half Longitudinal Section Showing Middle Wall Reinforced with Arch; Part Long Section Showing Inside of External Side Wall; East Entrance; Part Side South External; Part Reflected Plan of Soffite of Floor; Part Reflected Plan of Soffite of Roof - Blenheim Covered Bridge, Spanning Schoharie River, North Blenheim, Schoharie County, NY

  16. Neutrino flux predictions for cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hartz, Mark

    2015-05-15

    Experiments that measure neutrino interaction cross sections using accelerator neutrino sources require a prediction of the neutrino flux to extract the interaction cross section from the measured neutrino interaction rate. This article summarizes methods of estimating the neutrino flux using in-situ and ex-situ measurements. The application of these methods by current and recent experiments is discussed.

  17. Neutrino Cross Sections at Solar Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strigari, Louis

    2017-01-01

    I will review neutrino nucleus cross section measurements and uncertainties for energies applicable to solar neutrinos. I will discuss how these cross sections are important for interpreting solar neutrino experimental data, and highlight the most important neutrino-nucleus interactions that will be relevant for forthcoming dark matter direct detection experiments. NSF PHY-1522717.

  18. Absolute partial photoionization cross sections of ozone.

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, J.; Chemistry

    2008-04-01

    Despite the current concerns about ozone, absolute partial photoionization cross sections for this molecule in the vacuum ultraviolet (valence) region have been unavailable. By eclectic re-evaluation of old/new data and plausible assumptions, such cross sections have been assembled to fill this void.

  19. Cross-sectional anatomy for computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Farkas, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    This self-study guide recognizes that evaluation and interpretation of CT-images demands a firm understanding of both cross-sectional anatomy and the principles of computed tomography. The objectives of this book are: to discuss the basic principles of CT, to stress the importance of cross-sectional anatomy to CT through study of selected cardinal transverse sections of head, neck, and trunk, to explain orientation and interpretation of CT-images with the aid of corresponding cross-sectional preparations.

  20. International Evaluation of Neutron Cross Section Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, A. D.; Pronyaev, V. G.; Smith, D. L.; Larson, N. M.; Chen, Zhenpeng; Hale, G. M.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Gai, E. V.; Oh, Soo-Youl; Badikov, S. A.; Kawano, T.; Hofmann, H. M.; Vonach, H.; Tagesen, S.

    2009-12-01

    Neutron cross section standards are the basis for the determination of most neutron cross sections. They are used for both measurements and evaluations of neutron cross sections. Not many cross sections can be obtained absolutely - most cross sections are measured relative to the cross section standards and converted using evaluations of the standards. The previous complete evaluation of the neutron cross section standards was finished in 1987 and disseminated as the NEANDC/INDC and ENDF/B-VI standards. R-matrix model fits for the light elements and non-model least-squares fits for all the cross sections in the evaluation were the basis of the combined fits for all of the data. Some important reactions and constants are not standards, but they assist greatly in the determination of the standard cross sections and reduce their uncertainties - these data were also included in the combined fits. The largest experimental database used in the evaluation was prepared by Poenitz and included about 400 sets of experimental data with covariance matrices of uncertainties that account for all cross-energy, cross-reaction and cross-material correlations. For the evaluation GMA, a least-squares code developed by Poenitz, was used to fit all types of cross sections (absolute and shape), their ratios, spectrum-averaged cross sections and thermal constants in one full analysis. But, the uncertainties derived in this manner, and especially those obtained in the R-matrix model fits, have been judged to be too low and unrealistic. These uncertainties were substantially increased prior to their release in the recommended data files of 1987. Modified percentage uncertainties were reassigned by the United States Cross Section Evaluation Working Group's Standards Subcommittee for a wide range of energies, and no covariance (or correlation) matrices were supplied at that time. The need to re-evaluate the cross section standards is based on the appearance of a significant amount of precise

  1. Nucleon-Nucleon Total Cross Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.

    2008-01-01

    The total proton-proton and neutron-proton cross sections currently used in the transport code HZETRN show significant disagreement with experiment in the GeV and EeV energy ranges. The GeV range is near the region of maximum cosmic ray intensity. It is therefore important to correct these cross sections, so that predictions of space radiation environments will be accurate. Parameterizations of nucleon-nucleon total cross sections are developed which are accurate over the entire energy range of the cosmic ray spectrum.

  2. Ultrahigh-energy photonuclear cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Gandhi, R.; Sarcevic, I.; Burrows, A. ); Durand, L.; Pi, H. )

    1990-07-01

    We present results of calculations of the total inelastic photon-air cross sections at ultrahigh energies (up to 10{sup 8} GeV in the laboratory) of relevance to on-going cosmic-ray experiments. The calculations take into account the high-energy QCD structure of the photon and are performed for a variety of photon and proton structure functions. The total inelastic photon-air cross section is obtained from the photon-proton jet cross section via an eikonalization procedure using a QCD-based diffractive model. The results are discussed in the context of the apparent excess muon content of air showers associated with point sources.

  3. K-shell photoionization cross-sections.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daltabuit, E.; Cox, D. P.

    1972-01-01

    Approximate values for the threshold energies, threshold cross sections, and energy dependence of the cross sections for K-shell photoionization are tabulated for H, He, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, and S in all stages of ionization. The approximation of these data is based on the assumptions that the threshold energy is a simple function of the nuclear charge and the number of electrons present in the atom, and that the threshold values and energy dependence of the cross sections are determined only by the threshold energy.

  4. Cross Section Evaluations for Arsenic Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Pruet, J; McNabb, D P; Ormand, W E

    2005-03-10

    The authors present an evaluation of cross sections describing reactions with neutrons incident on the arsenic isotopes with mass numbers 75 and 74. Particular attention is paid to (n,2n) reactions. The evaluation for {sup 75}As, the only stable As isotope, is guided largely by experimental data. Evaluation for {sup 74}As is made through calculations with the EMPIRE statistical-model reaction code. Cross sections describing the production and destruction of the 26.8 ns isomer in {sup 74}As are explicitly considered. Uncertainties and covariances in some evaluated cross sections are also estimated.

  5. Neutron Capture Cross Section of 239Pu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosby, S.; Arnold, C.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Chyzh, A.; Couture, A.; Henderson, R.; Jandel, M.; Kwan, E.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rusev, G.; Ullmann, J. L.; Wu, C. Y.

    2014-05-01

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) has been used to measure the 239Pu(n,γ) cross section from 10 eV to the keV region. Three experimental run conditions were used to characterize the prompt fission γ-ray spectrum across the entire energy regime, measure the cross section in the resolved resonance region, and obtain necessary count rate well into the keV region. The preliminary cross sections are in good agreement with current evaluations from 10 eV to 80 keV.

  6. Energy dependence of fusion cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Bang, J.M.; Ferreira, L.S.; Maglione, E.; Hansteen, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Observed enhancements of fusion cross sections at low energies are explained as caused by an underestimate of beam energy due to an overestimate of the stopping energy loss. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  7. A nuclear cross section data handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, H.O.M.

    1989-12-01

    Isotopic information, reaction data, data availability, heating numbers, and evaluation information are given for 129 neutron cross-section evaluations, which are the source of the default cross sections for the Monte Carlo code MCNP. Additionally, pie diagrams for each nuclide displaying the percent contribution of a given reaction to the total cross section are given at 14 MeV, 1 MeV, and thermal energy. Other information about the evaluations and their availability in continuous-energy, discrete-reaction, and multigroup forms is provided. The evaluations come from ENDF/B-V, ENDL85, and the Los Alamos Applied Nuclear Science Group T-2. Graphs of all neutron and photon production cross-section reactions for these nuclides have been categorized and plotted. 21 refs., 5 tabs.

  8. Bibliography of photoabsorption cross-section data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, R. D.; Kieffer, L. J.

    1970-01-01

    This bibliography contains only references which report a measured or calculated photoabsorption cross section (relative or normalized) in regions of continuous absorption. The bibliography is current as of January 1, 1970.

  9. The radar cross section of dielectric disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, D. M.

    1982-01-01

    A solution is presented for the backscatter (nonstatic) radar cross section of dielectric disks of arbitrary shape, thickness and dielectric constant. The result is obtained by employing a Kirchhoff type approximation to obtain the fields inside the disk. The internal fields induce polarization and conduction currents from which the scattered fields and the radar cross section can be computed. The solution for the radar cross section obtained in this manner is shown to agree with known results in the special cases of normal incidence, thin disks and perfect conductivity. The solution can also be written as a product of the reflection coefficient of an identically oriented slab times the physical optics solution for the backscatter cross section of a perfectly conducting disk of the same shape. This result follows directly from the Kirchhoff type approximation without additional assumptions.

  10. Dijet cross sections in photoproduction at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ZEUS Collaboration; Breitweg, J.; et al.

    Dijet cross sections are presented using photoproduction data obtained with the ZEUS detector during 1994. These measurements represent an extension of previous results, as the higher statistics allow cross sections to be measured at higher jet transverse energy ( ETjet). Jets are identified in the hadronic final state using three different algorithms, and the cross sections compared to complete next-to-leading order QCD calculations. Agreement with these calculations is seen for the pseudorapidity dependence of the direct photon events with ETjet > 6 GeV and of the resolved photon events with ETjet > 11 GeV. Calculated cross sections for resolved photon processes with 6 GeV < ETjet < 11 GeV lie below the data.

  11. Capture cross sections on unstable nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonchev, A. P.; Escher, J. E.; Scielzo, N.; Bedrossian, P.; Ilieva, R. S.; Humby, P.; Cooper, N.; Goddard, P. M.; Werner, V.; Tornow, W.; Rusev, G.; Kelley, J. H.; Pietralla, N.; Scheck, M.; Savran, D.; Löher, B.; Yates, S. W.; Crider, B. P.; Peters, E. E.; Tsoneva, N.; Goriely, S.

    2017-09-01

    Accurate neutron-capture cross sections on unstable nuclei near the line of beta stability are crucial for understanding the s-process nucleosynthesis. However, neutron-capture cross sections for short-lived radionuclides are difficult to measure due to the fact that the measurements require both highly radioactive samples and intense neutron sources. Essential ingredients for describing the γ decays following neutron capture are the γ-ray strength function and level densities. We will compare different indirect approaches for obtaining the most relevant observables that can constrain Hauser-Feshbach statistical-model calculations of capture cross sections. Specifically, we will consider photon scattering using monoenergetic and 100% linearly polarized photon beams. Challenges that exist on the path to obtaining neutron-capture cross sections for reactions on isotopes near and far from stability will be discussed.

  12. Benchmark cross sections for bottom quark production

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, E.L.

    1988-01-07

    A summary is presented of theoretical expectations for the total cross sections for bottom quark production, for longitudinal and transverse momentum distributions, and for b, /bar b/ momentum correlations at Fermilab fixed target and collider energies.

  13. MODELING AND FISSION CROSS SECTIONS FOR AMERICIUM.

    SciTech Connect

    ROCHMAN, D.; HERMAN, M.; OBLOZINSKY, P.

    2005-05-01

    This is the final report of the work performed under the LANL contract on the modeling and fission cross section for americium isotopes (May 2004-June 2005). The purpose of the contract was to provide fission cross sections for americium isotopes with the nuclear reaction model code EMPIRE 2.19. The following work was performed: (1) Fission calculations capability suitable for americium was implemented to the EMPIRE-2.19 code. (2) Calculations of neutron-induced fission cross sections for {sup 239}Am to {sup 244g}Am were performed with EMPIRE-2.19 for energies up to 20 MeV. For the neutron-induced reaction of {sup 240}Am, fission cross sections were predicted and uncertainties were assessed. (3) Set of fission barrier heights for each americium isotopes was chosen so that the new calculations fit the experimental data and follow the systematics found in the literature.

  14. The radar cross section of dielectric disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    A solution is presented for the backscatter (monostatic) radar cross section of dielectric disks of arbitrary shape, thickness, and dielectric constant. The result is obtained by employing a Kirchhoff-type approximation to obtain the fields inside the disk. The internal fields induce polarization and conduction currents from which the scattered fields and the radar cross section can be computed. The solution for the radar cross section obtained in this manner will be shown to agree with known results in the special cases of normal incidence, thin disks, and perfect conductivity. It will also be shown that the solution can be written as a product of the reflection coefficient of an identically oriented slab times the physical optics solution for the backscatter cross section of a perfectly conducting disk of the same shape. This result follows directly from the Kirchhoff-type approximation without additional assumptions.

  15. A cross-sectional study of factors associated with dog ownership in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Knobel, Darryn L; Laurenson, M Karen; Kazwala, Rudovick R; Boden, Lisa A; Cleaveland, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Background Mass vaccination of owned domestic dogs is crucial for the control of rabies in sub-Saharan Africa. Knowledge of the proportion of households which own dogs, and of the factors associated with dog ownership, is important for the planning and implementation of rabies awareness and dog vaccination programmes, and for the promotion of responsible dog ownership. This paper reports the results of a cross-sectional study of dog ownership by households in urban and rural communities in the United Republic of Tanzania. Results Fourteen percent (202) of 1,471 households surveyed were identified as dog-owning, with an average of 2.4 dogs per dog-owning household. The percentage of dog-owning households was highest in inland rural areas (24%) and lowest in coastal urban communities (7%). The overall human:dog ratio was 14:1. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that households which owned cattle, sheep or goats were much more likely to own dogs than households with no livestock. Muslim households were less likely to own dogs than Christian households, although this effect of religion was not seen among livestock-owning households. Households were more likely to own a dog if the head of the household was male; if they owned a cat; or if they owned poultry. Dog ownership was also broadly associated with larger, wealthier households. Conclusion The human:dog ratios in Tanzania are similar to those reported elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa, although cultural and geographic variation is evident. Estimation of the number of owned dogs, and identification of household predictors of dog ownership, will enable targeted planning of rabies control efforts. PMID:18230137

  16. Ultraviolet absorption cross sections of hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. L.; Rohatgi, N. K.; Demore, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    Absorption cross-sections of hydrogen peroxide vapor and of neutral aqueous solutions of hydrogen peroxide were measured in the wavelength range from 195 to 350 nm at 296 K. The spectrophotometric procedure is described, and the reported cross-sections are compared with values obtained by other researchers. Photodissociation coefficients of atmospheric H2O2 were calculated for direct absorption of unscattered solar radiation, and the vertical distributions of these coefficients are shown for various solar zenith angles.

  17. High precision neutron inelastic cross section measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olacel, A.; Belloni, F.; Borcea, C.; Boromiza, M.; Dessagne, Ph.; Henning, G.; Kerveno, M.; Negret, A.; Nyman, M.; Pirovano, E.; Plompen, A.

    2017-06-01

    High precision neutron inelastic scattering cross section data are very important for the development of the new generation of nuclear reactors (Gen IV). Our experiments, performed using the GELINA neutron source and the GAINS spectrometer of the European Commission Joint Research Center, Geel, produce highly reliable and precise cross section data. We will present the details of the setup and the data analysis technique allowing production of such unique results, and we will show examples of two experimental results.

  18. Reaction cross sections of unstable nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ozawa, Akira

    2006-11-02

    Experimental studies on reaction cross sections are reviewed. The recent developments of radioactive nuclear beams have enabled us to measure reaction cross-sections for unstable nuclei. Using Glauber-model analysis, effective nuclear matter density distributions of unstable nuclei can be studied. Recent measurements in RIBLL at IMP and RIPS at RIKEN are introduced. The effective matter density distributions for 14-18C are also mentioned.

  19. Shuttle orbiter radar cross-sectional analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, D. W.; James, R.

    1979-01-01

    Theoretical and model simulation studies on signal to noise levels and shuttle radar cross section are described. Pre-mission system calibrations, system configuration, and postmission system calibration of the tracking radars are described. Conversion of target range, azimuth, and elevation into radar centered east north vertical position coordinates are evaluated. The location of the impinging rf energy with respect to the target vehicles body axis triad is calculated. Cross section correlation between the two radars is presented.

  20. 46 CFR 64.25 - Cross section.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cross section. 64.25 Section 64.25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING...) Circular; or (b) Other than circular and stress analyzed experimentally by the method contained in UG-101...

  1. 46 CFR 64.25 - Cross section.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cross section. 64.25 Section 64.25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING...) Circular; or (b) Other than circular and stress analyzed experimentally by the method contained in UG-101...

  2. abo-cross: Hydrogen broadening cross-section calculator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barklem, P. S.; Anstee, S. D.; O'Mara, B. J.

    2015-07-01

    Line broadening cross sections for the broadening of spectral lines by collisions with neutral hydrogen atoms have been tabulated by Anstee & O'Mara (1995), Barklem & O'Mara (1997) and Barklem, O'Mara & Ross (1998) for s-p, p-s, p-d, d-p, d-f and f-d transitions. abo-cross, written in Fortran, interpolates in these tabulations to make these data more accessible to the end user. This code can be incorporated into existing spectrum synthesis programs or used it in a stand-alone mode to compute line broadening cross sections for specific transitions.

  3. Reduction Methods for Total Reaction Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, P. R. S.; Mendes Junior, D. R.; Canto, L. F.; Lubian, J.; de Faria, P. N.

    2016-03-01

    The most frequently used methods to reduce fusion and total reaction excitation functions were investigated in a very recent paper Canto et al. (Phys Rev C 92:014626, 2015). These methods are widely used to eliminate the influence of masses and charges in comparisons of cross sections for weakly bound and tightly bound systems. This study reached two main conclusions. The first is that the fusion function method is the most successful procedure to reduce fusion cross sections. Applying this method to theoretical cross sections of single channel calculations, one obtains a system independent curve (the fusion function), that can be used as a benchmark to fusion data. The second conclusion was that none of the reduction methods available in the literature is able to provide a universal curve for total reaction cross sections. The reduced single channel cross sections keep a strong dependence of the atomic and mass numbers of the collision partners, except for systems in the same mass range. In the present work we pursue this problem further, applying the reduction methods to systems within a limited mass range. We show that, under these circumstances, the reduction of reaction data may be very useful.

  4. Undergraduate Measurements of Neutron Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, S. F.; Vanhoy, J. R.; French, A. J.; Santonil, Z. C.; Crider, B. P.; Peters, E. E.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Prados-Estévez, F. M.; Ross, T. J.; Yates, S. W.

    Undergraduate students at the University of Dallas have investigated basic properties of nuclei through γ-ray and neutron spectroscopy following neutron scattering. The former has been used primarily for nuclear structure investigations, while the latter has been used to measure neutron scattering cross sections important for fission reactor applications. A series of (n,n') and (n,n'γ) measurements have been made on 54Fe and 56Fe to determine neutron cross sections for scattering to excited levels in these nuclei. The former provides the cross sections directly and the latter are used to deduce inelastic neutron scattering cross sections by measuring the γ-ray production cross sections to states not easily resolved in neutron spectroscopy. All measurements have been completed at the University of Kentucky Accelerator Laboratory using a 7-MV Model CN Van de Graaff accelerator, along with the neutron production and neutron and γ-ray detection systems located there. Students participate in accelerator operation, experimental setup, data acquisition, and data analyses. An overview of the research program and student contributions is presented.

  5. Absorption cross sections of stratospheric molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    Two classes of molecular species must be considered in a calculation of photochemical rates in the stratosphere. The first class consists of molecular oxygen and ozone, while the second class contains the remainder of the minor constituents. If accurate values of the transmitted fluxes are required at large optical depths, the cross sections for molecular oxygen and ozone must be known to within a few per cent at least. On the other hand, the photochemical rates for the minor species are given simply by the relevant cross sections. A review of published cross sections is presented, giving attention to molecular oxygen, ozone, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitrous oxide, nitric acid, ammonia, water vapor, hydrogen peroxide, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and sulfur dioxide.

  6. The cross section for double Compton scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Employing elementary methods in nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics, the cross section for gamma sub 0 + e yields e + gamma + gamma is computed for arbitrary energy in the spectrum of the outgoing photons. The final result is given, differential in the energy of one of these photons, for the case where the incident photon is unpolarized and has energy E sub 0 much less than mc-squared, a polarization sum and angular integration being performed for the final-state photons. The cross section has a simple algebraic form resulting from contributions from the sum of squared direct and exchange amplitudes; interference terms from these amplitudes do not contribute to the angular-integrated cross section.

  7. Prospects for Precision Neutrino Cross Section Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Deborah A.

    2016-01-28

    The need for precision cross section measurements is more urgent now than ever before, given the central role neutrino oscillation measurements play in the field of particle physics. The definition of precision is something worth considering, however. In order to build the best model for an oscillation experiment, cross section measurements should span a broad range of energies, neutrino interaction channels, and target nuclei. Precision might better be defined not in the final uncertainty associated with any one measurement but rather with the breadth of measurements that are available to constrain models. Current experience shows that models are better constrained by 10 measurements across different processes and energies with 10% uncertainties than by one measurement of one process on one nucleus with a 1% uncertainty. This article describes the current status of and future prospects for the field of precision cross section measurements considering the metric of how many processes, energies, and nuclei have been studied.

  8. Algorithmic analysis of quantum radar cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzagorta, Marco; Venegas-Andraca, Salvador

    2015-05-01

    Sidelobe structures on classical radar cross section graphs are a consequence of discontinuities in the surface currents. In contrast, quantum radar theory states that sidelobe structures on quantum radar cross section graphs are due to quantum interference. Moreover, it is conjectured that quantum sidelobe structures may be used to detect targets oriented off the specular direction. Because of the high data bandwidth expected from quantum radar, it may be necessary to use sophisticated quantum signal analysis algorithms to determine the presence of stealth targets through the sidelobe structures. In this paper we introduce three potential quantum algorithmic techniques to compute classical and quantum radar cross sections. It is our purpose to develop a computer science-oriented tool for further physical analysis of quantum radar models as well as applications of quantum radar technology in various fields.

  9. Top differential cross section measurements (Tevatron)

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Andreas W.

    2012-01-01

    Differential cross sections in the top quark sector measured at the Fermilab Tevatron collider are presented. CDF used 2.7 fb{sup -1} of data and measured the differential cross section as a function of the invariant mass of the t{bar t} system. The measurement shows good agreement with the standard model and furthermore is used to derive limits on the ratio {kappa}/M{sub Pl} for gravitons which decay to top quarks in the Randall-Sundrum model. D0 used 1.0 fb{sup -1} of data to measure the differential cross section as a function of the transverse momentum of the top-quark. The measurement shows a good agreement to the next-to-leading order perturbative QCD prediction and various other standard model predictions.

  10. Improving activation cross section data with TALYS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzysiuk, Nataliia; Koning, Arjan

    2017-09-01

    Needs for accurate (n,x) activation cross sections for fusion technology have been considered with reference to the current status of the TENDL library. The current work is focused on improving activation cross section data for nuclear reactions relevant mainly for fusion and astrophysical needs. The fits have been performed with the TALYS-1.8 code by means of nuclear model parameter variation, mostly for the optical model and level densities, followed by comparison to recent experimental data taken from EXFOR and other evaluated nuclear databases. The updated cross section data are going to be adopted into the new version of TENDL. The improvements have been performed both for differential as well as integral data sets.

  11. Covariance Evaluation Methodology for Neutron Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Herman,M.; Arcilla, R.; Mattoon, C.M.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Oblozinsky, P.; Pigni, M.; Pritychenko, b.; Songzoni, A.A.

    2008-09-01

    We present the NNDC-BNL methodology for estimating neutron cross section covariances in thermal, resolved resonance, unresolved resonance and fast neutron regions. The three key elements of the methodology are Atlas of Neutron Resonances, nuclear reaction code EMPIRE, and the Bayesian code implementing Kalman filter concept. The covariance data processing, visualization and distribution capabilities are integral components of the NNDC methodology. We illustrate its application on examples including relatively detailed evaluation of covariances for two individual nuclei and massive production of simple covariance estimates for 307 materials. Certain peculiarities regarding evaluation of covariances for resolved resonances and the consistency between resonance parameter uncertainties and thermal cross section uncertainties are also discussed.

  12. New Parameterization of Neutron Absorption Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, Ram K.; Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1997-01-01

    Recent parameterization of absorption cross sections for any system of charged ion collisions, including proton-nucleus collisions, is extended for neutron-nucleus collisions valid from approx. 1 MeV to a few GeV, thus providing a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for any system of collision pairs (charged or uncharged). The parameters are associated with the physics of the problem. At lower energies, optical potential at the surface is important, and the Pauli operator plays an increasingly important role at intermediate energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than earlier published results.

  13. Infrared absorption cross sections of alternative CFCs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clerbaux, Cathy; Colin, Reginald; Simon, Paul C.

    1994-01-01

    Absorption cross sections have obtained in the infrared atmospheric window, between 600 and 1500 cm(exp -1), for 10 alternative hydrohalocarbons: HCFC-22, HCFC-123, HCFC-124, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, HCFC-225ca, HCFC-225cb, HFC-125, HFC-134a, and HFC-152a. The measurements were made at three temperatures (287K, 270K and 253K) with a Fourier transform spectrometer operating at 0.03 cm(exp -1) apodized resolution. Integrated cross sections are also derived for use in radiative models to calculate the global warming potentials.

  14. Cross section for 246Cm subbarrier fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, A. A.; Bergman, A. A.; Berlev, A. I.; Koptelov, E. A.; Samylin, B. F.; Trufanov, A. M.; Fursov, B. I.; Shorin, V. S.

    2010-10-01

    The cross section for 246Cm fission induced by neutrons of energy in the range 0.1 eV-20 keV was measured by the neutron lead slowing-down spectrometer (LSDS-100) of the Institute for Nuclear Research (INR, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow). The parameters of the resonance area and of the fission width were evaluated for several low-lying s-wave neutron resonances. The parameters of the intermediate structure in the cross section for the subbarrier fusion of 246Cm nuclei were found. The results obtained in this way were compared with available experimental data and with recommended evaluated data.

  15. Optical Model and Cross Section Uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Herman,M.W.; Pigni, M.T.; Dietrich, F.S.; Oblozinsky, P.

    2009-10-05

    Distinct minima and maxima in the neutron total cross section uncertainties were observed in model calculations using spherical optical potential. We found this oscillating structure to be a general feature of quantum mechanical wave scattering. Specifically, we analyzed neutron interaction with 56Fe from 1 keV up to 65 MeV, and investigated physical origin of the minima.We discuss their potential importance for practical applications as well as the implications for the uncertainties in total and absorption cross sections.

  16. Multigroup cross section library for GFR2400

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čerba, Štefan; Vrban, Branislav; Lüley, Jakub; Haščík, Ján; Nečas, Vladimír

    2017-09-01

    In this paper the development and optimization of the SBJ_E71 multigroup cross section library for GFR2400 applications is discussed. A cross section processing scheme, merging Monte Carlo and deterministic codes, was developed. Several fine and coarse group structures and two weighting flux options were analysed through 18 benchmark experiments selected from the handbook of ICSBEP and based on performed similarity assessments. The performance of the collapsed version of the SBJ_E71 library was compared with MCNP5 CE ENDF/B VII.1 and the Korean KAFAX-E70 library. The comparison was made based on integral parameters of calculations performed on full core homogenous models.

  17. New Parameterization of Neutron Absorption Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Ram K.; Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1997-06-01

    Recent parameterization of absorption cross sections for any system of charged ion collisions, including proton-nucleus collisions, is extended for neutron-nucleus collisions valid from approx. 1 MeV to a few GeV, thus providing a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for any system of collision pairs (charged or uncharged). The parameters are associated with the physics of the problem. At lower energies, optical potential at the surface is important, and the Pauli operator plays an increasingly important role at intermediate energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than earlier published results.

  18. Precise neutron inelastic cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Negret, Alexandru

    2012-11-20

    The design of a new generation of nuclear reactors requires the development of a very precise neutron cross section database. Ongoing experiments performed at dedicated facilities aim to the measurement of such cross sections with an unprecedented uncertainty of the order of 5% or even smaller. We give an overview of such a facility: the Gamma Array for Inelastic Neutron Scattering (GAINS) installed at the GELINA neutron source of IRMM, Belgium. Some of the most challenging difficulties of the experimental approach are emphasized and recent results are shown.

  19. Universal Parameterization of Absorption Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.

    1999-01-01

    Our prior nuclear absorption cross sections model is extended for light systems (A less than or equal to 4) where either both projectile and target are light particles or one is a light particle and the other is a medium or heavy nucleus. The agreement with experiment is excellent for these cases as well. Present work in combination with our original model provides a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for light, medium, and heavy systems, a very valuable input for radiation protection studies.

  20. Neutron Capture Cross Section of 239Pu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosby, S.; Arnold, C.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rusev, G.; Ullmann, J. L.; Chyzh, A.; Henderson, R.; Kwan, E.; Wu, C. Y.

    2014-09-01

    The 239Pu(n,γ) cross section has been measured over the energy range 10 eV - 10 keV using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) as part of a campaign to produce precision (n,γ) measurements on 239Pu in the keV region. Fission coincidences were measured with a PPAC and used to characterize the prompt fission γ-ray spectrum in this region. The resulting spectra will be used to better characterize the fission component of another experiment with a thicker target to extend the (n,γ) cross section measurement well into the keV region.

  1. Total cross sections for +/-atom collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gien, T. T.

    1987-03-01

    The total cross sections for electron and positron scatterings by lithium, sodium, and potassium in the intermediate energy range from 40 to 1000 eV are calculated using the modified Glauber and second Born approximations. A model potential approach is developed to enable an exact inclusion of the core-interaction effects. Within this approach, the positron cross sections are predicted to be somewhat smaller than those of electron scattering. Calculations have also been performed with the consideration of the inert-core and frozen-core assumption and the use of the Clementi wave function to represent the target electrons. Comparison to existing experimental data is made.

  2. Cross Sections From Scalar Field Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Dick, Frank; Norman, Ryan B.; Nasto, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    A one pion exchange scalar model is used to calculate differential and total cross sections for pion production through nucleon- nucleon collisions. The collisions involve intermediate delta particle production and decay to nucleons and a pion. The model provides the basic theoretical framework for scalar field theory and can be applied to particle production processes where the effects of spin can be neglected.

  3. Reaction cross section of 22C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togano, Yasuhiro; Samurai Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    Reaction cross section of 22C on a carbon target at an energy of 240 MeV/nucleon have been measured by using the transmission method. The most neutron-rich carbon isotopes 22C is a candidate of a two-neutron halo nucleus. Tanaka et al. [1] measured the reaction cross section of 22C on a hydrogen target at 40 MeV/nucleon. It is showed 22C to have a large matter radius of 5 . 9 +/- 0 . 9 fm, which is much larger than the ones of carbon isotopes with N <= 14 , suggesting 22C is the halo nucleus. This reported radius has a large uncertainty due to a lack of statistics. To deduce a more accurate matter radius of 22C, the measurement of reaction cross section with higher statistics at a higher beam energy are required. The experiment was performed by using the SAMURAI spectrometer at RIBF. The 22C beam at 240 MeV/nucleon was impinged on a carbon target, and the reaction product was identified by using SAMURAI spectrometer. In the present talk, the extracted reaction cross section and derived matter density distribution of 22C will be presented.

  4. Cotton fibre cross-section properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    From a structural perspective the cotton fibre is a singularly discrete, elongated plant cell with no junctions or inter-cellular boundaries. Its form in nature is essentially unadulterated from the field to the spinning mill where its cross-section properties, as for any textile fibre, are central ...

  5. Photoelectric absorption cross sections with variable abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balucinska-Church, Monika; Mccammon, Dan

    1992-01-01

    Polynomial fit coefficients have been obtained for the energy dependences of the photoelectric absorption cross sections of 17 astrophysically important elements. These results allow the calculation of X-ray absorption in the energy range 0.03-10 keV in material with noncosmic abundances.

  6. Cross-sectional structural parameters from densitometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleek, Tammy M.; Whalen, Robert T.

    2002-01-01

    Bone densitometry has previously been used to obtain cross-sectional properties of bone from a single X-ray projection across the bone width. Using three unique projections, we have extended the method to obtain the principal area moments of inertia and orientations of the principal axes at each scan cross-section along the length of the scan. Various aluminum phantoms were used to examine scanner characteristics to develop the highest accuracy possible for in vitro non-invasive analysis of cross-sectional properties. Factors considered included X-ray photon energy, initial scan orientation, the angle spanned by the three scans (included angle), and I(min)/I(max) ratios. Principal moments of inertia were accurate to within +/-3.1% and principal angles were within +/-1 degrees of the expected value for phantoms scanned with included angles of 60 degrees and 90 degrees at the higher X-ray photon energy (140 kVp). Low standard deviations in the error (0.68-1.84%) also indicate high precision of calculated measurements with these included angles. Accuracy and precision decreased slightly when the included angle was reduced to 30 degrees. The method was then successfully applied to a pair of excised cadaveric tibiae. The accuracy and insensitivity of the algorithms to cross-sectional shape and changing isotropy (I(min)/I(max)) values when various included angles are used make this technique viable for future in vivo studies.

  7. Cross-sectional structural parameters from densitometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleek, Tammy M.; Whalen, Robert T.

    2002-01-01

    Bone densitometry has previously been used to obtain cross-sectional properties of bone from a single X-ray projection across the bone width. Using three unique projections, we have extended the method to obtain the principal area moments of inertia and orientations of the principal axes at each scan cross-section along the length of the scan. Various aluminum phantoms were used to examine scanner characteristics to develop the highest accuracy possible for in vitro non-invasive analysis of cross-sectional properties. Factors considered included X-ray photon energy, initial scan orientation, the angle spanned by the three scans (included angle), and I(min)/I(max) ratios. Principal moments of inertia were accurate to within +/-3.1% and principal angles were within +/-1 degrees of the expected value for phantoms scanned with included angles of 60 degrees and 90 degrees at the higher X-ray photon energy (140 kVp). Low standard deviations in the error (0.68-1.84%) also indicate high precision of calculated measurements with these included angles. Accuracy and precision decreased slightly when the included angle was reduced to 30 degrees. The method was then successfully applied to a pair of excised cadaveric tibiae. The accuracy and insensitivity of the algorithms to cross-sectional shape and changing isotropy (I(min)/I(max)) values when various included angles are used make this technique viable for future in vivo studies.

  8. Neutron capture cross section of Am241

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandel, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Bond, E. M.; Chadwick, M. B.; Clement, R. R.; Couture, A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Haight, R. C.; Kawano, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Parker, W. E.; Wu, C. Y.; Becker, J. A.

    2008-09-01

    The neutron capture cross section of Am241 for incident neutrons from 0.02 eV to 320 keV has been measured with the detector for advanced neutron capture experiments (DANCE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The thermal neutron capture cross section was determined to be 665±33 b. Our result is in good agreement with other recent measurements. Resonance parameters for En<12 eV were obtained using an R-matrix fit to the measured cross section. The results are compared with values from the ENDF/B-VII.0, Mughabghab, JENDL-3.3, and JEFF-3.1 evaluations. Γn neutron widths for the first three resonances are systematically larger by 5-15% than the ENDF/B-VII.0 values. The resonance integral above 0.5 eV was determined to be 1553±7 b. Cross sections in the resolved and unresolved energy regions above 12 eV were calculated using the Hauser-Feshbach theory incorporating the width-fluctuation correction of Moldauer. The calculated results agree well with the measured data, and the extracted averaged resonance parameters in the unresolved resonance region are consistent with those for the resolved resonances.

  9. Testing (Validating?) Cross Sections with ICSBEP Benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    Kahler, Albert C. III

    2012-06-28

    We discuss how to use critical benchmarks from the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments to determine the applicability of specific cross sections to the end-user's problem of interest. Particular attention is paid to making sure the selected suite of benchmarks includes the user's range of applicability (ROA).

  10. Future experimental programme for neutrino cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolognesi, Sara

    2017-09-01

    The neutrino-nucleus interaction modelling is crucial for a precise measurement of neutrino oscillations. The advantages and the drawbacks of the planned strategies to measure the neutrino-nucleus cross section with different detector technologies will be discussed. The present document summarizes a talk given on these topics at Neutrino 2016 conference.

  11. The Elusive p-air cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, M. M.

    2006-09-01

    For the $\\pbar p$ and $pp$ systems, we have used all of the extensive data of the Particle Data Group[K. Hagiwara {\\em et al.} (Particle Data Group), Phys. Rev. D 66, 010001 (2002).]. We then subject these data to a screening process, the ``Sieve'' algorithm[M. M. Block, physics/0506010.], in order to eliminate ``outliers'' that can skew a $\\chi^2$ fit. With the ``Sieve'' algorithm, a robust fit using a Lorentzian distribution is first made to all of the data to sieve out abnormally high $\\delchi$, the individual i$^{\\rm th}$ point's contribution to the total $\\chi^2$. The $\\chi^2$ fits are then made to the sieved data. We demonstrate that we cleanly discriminate between asymptotic $\\ln s$ and $\\ln^2s$ behavior of total hadronic cross sections when we require that these amplitudes {\\em also} describe, on average, low energy data dominated by resonances. We simultaneously fit real analytic amplitudes to the ``sieved'' high energy measurements of $\\bar p p$ and $pp$ total cross sections and $\\rho$-values for $\\sqrt s\\ge 6$ GeV, while requiring that their asymptotic fits smoothly join the the $\\sigma_{\\bar p p}$ and $\\sigma_{pp}$ total cross sections at $\\sqrt s=$4.0 GeV--again {\\em both} in magnitude and slope. Our results strongly favor a high energy $\\ln^2s$ fit, basically excluding a $\\ln s$ fit. Finally, we make a screened Glauber fit for the p-air cross section, using as input our precisely-determined $pp$ cross sections at cosmic ray energies.

  12. Sketching cross sections with a portable microcomputer

    SciTech Connect

    Kimberley, M.M.

    1985-02-01

    Computer applications have been carried to the field long ago by geophysicists and their dog houses. The advent of inexpensive battery-powered microcomputers promises to allow the field geologist to participate in this application. The field geologist may record data directly onto a computer-readable medium and calculate statistics or plot a cross section. A program for routine plotting of cross sections in the field has been developed and field-tested. The program proved to be useful to 30 computer-illiterate geologists on a 6-week mapping project in New Mexico. The program allows the user to control vertical exaggeration and displays the correct apparent dip along the chosen line of section. Cubic-spline interpolation is used to plot both topography and folded bedding planes. The program executes in Pascal on an Apple IIc in a few seconds.

  13. Tables of nuclear cross sections for galactic cosmic rays: Absorption cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    A simple but comprehensive theory of nuclear reactions is presented. Extensive tables of nucleon, deuteron, and heavy-ion absorption cross sections over a broad range of energies are generated for use in cosmic ray shielding studies. Numerous comparisons of the calculated values with available experimental data show agreement to within 3 percent for energies above 80 MeV/nucleon and within approximately 10 percent for energies as low as 30 MeV/nucleon. These tables represent the culmination of the development of the absorption cross section formalism and supersede the preliminary absorption cross sections published previously in NASA TN D-8107, NASA TP-2138, and NASA TM-84636.

  14. Tables of nuclear cross sections for galactic cosmic rays: Absorption cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.

    1985-05-01

    A simple but comprehensive theory of nuclear reactions is presented. Extensive tables of nucleon, deuteron, and heavy-ion absorption cross sections over a broad range of energies are generated for use in cosmic ray shielding studies. Numerous comparisons of the calculated values with available experimental data show agreement to within 3 percent for energies above 80 MeV/nucleon and within approximately 10 percent for energies as low as 30 MeV/nucleon. These tables represent the culmination of the development of the absorption cross section formalism and supersede the preliminary absorption cross sections published previously in NASA TN D-8107, NASA TP-2138, and NASA TM-84636.

  15. Absolute np and pp cross section determinations aimed at improving the standard for cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Laptev, Alexander B; Haight, Robert C; Tovesson, Fredrik; Arndt, Richard A; Briscoe, William J; Paris, Mark W; Strakovsky, Igor I; Workman, Ron L

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of present research is a keeping improvement of the standard for cross section measurements of neutron-induced reactions. The cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1000 MeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PW As) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-V11.0 and JENDL-4.0 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Also a comparison of evaluated data with recent experimental data was made to check a quality of evaluation. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

  16. Absolute np and pp Cross Section Determinations Aimed At Improving The Standard For Cross Section Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Laptev, A. B.; Haight, R. C.; Tovesson, F.; Arndt, R. A.; Briscoe, W. J.; Paris, M. W.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Workman, R. L.

    2011-06-01

    Purpose of present research is a keeping improvement of the standard for cross section measurements of neutron-induced reactions. The cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1 GeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PWAs) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL-4.0 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Also a comparison of evaluated data with recent experimental data was made to check a quality of evaluation. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

  17. Rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friese, Daniel H.; Beerepoot, Maarten T. P.; Ruud, Kenneth

    2014-11-01

    Rotational averaging of tensors is a crucial step in the calculation of molecular properties in isotropic media. We present a scheme for the rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections. We extend existing literature on rotational averaging to even-rank tensors of arbitrary order and derive equations that require only the number of photons as input. In particular, we derive the first explicit expressions for the rotational average of five-, six-, and seven-photon absorption cross sections. This work is one of the required steps in making the calculation of these higher-order absorption properties possible. The results can be applied to any even-rank tensor provided linearly polarized light is used.

  18. Rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections.

    PubMed

    Friese, Daniel H; Beerepoot, Maarten T P; Ruud, Kenneth

    2014-11-28

    Rotational averaging of tensors is a crucial step in the calculation of molecular properties in isotropic media. We present a scheme for the rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections. We extend existing literature on rotational averaging to even-rank tensors of arbitrary order and derive equations that require only the number of photons as input. In particular, we derive the first explicit expressions for the rotational average of five-, six-, and seven-photon absorption cross sections. This work is one of the required steps in making the calculation of these higher-order absorption properties possible. The results can be applied to any even-rank tensor provided linearly polarized light is used.

  19. Universal Parameterization of Absorption Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a simple universal parameterization of total reaction cross sections for any system of colliding nuclei that is valid for the entire energy range from a few AMeV to a few AGeV. The universal picture presented here treats proton-nucleus collision as a special case of nucleus-nucleus collision, where the projectile has charge and mass number of one. The parameters are associated with the physics of the collision system. In general terms, Coulomb interaction modifies cross sections at lower energies, and the effects of Pauli blocking are important at higher energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than all earlier published results.

  20. Proton Pair Production Cross Sections at BESIII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaorong

    Using data samples collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII collider, the Born cross section of e + e - to pbar{p} at 12 center-of-mass energies from 2232.4 to 3671.0 MeV is provided. The corresponding effective electromagnetic form factor of the proton is deduced under the assumption that the electric and magnetic form factors are equal. In addition, the ratio of electric to magnetic form factors are extracted for the data samples with larger statistics. The measured cross sections are in agreement with recent results from BaBar, improving the overall uncertainty by about 30%. The |GE/GM| ratios are close to unity and consistent with BaBar results in the same q2 region.

  1. Extinction cross section of a dielectric strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowerah, Subratananda; Chakrabarti, Aloknath

    1988-05-01

    The problem of scattering of a plane electromagnetic wave by a dielectric strip is formulated in terms of an uncoupled system of three-part Wiener-Hopf equations by using a set of approximate boundary conditions derived and utilized recently. The resulting Wiener-Hopf problems are solved approximately for sufficiently large values of the width of the strip by using Jones' method (1964). An analytical formula is derived for the excitation cross section of the strip under consideration from which numerical values are obtained in specific situations and the results are presented graphically. The radar cross section of the strip is also computed for several special circumstances and these are presented separately.

  2. Fusion cross sections measurements with MUSIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnelli, P. F. F.; Fernández Niello, J. O.; Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Rehm, K. E.; Albers, M.; Digiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Henderson, D.; Jiang, C. L.; Nusair, O.; Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R. C.; Ugalde, C.; Paul, M.; Alcorta, M.; Bertone, P. F.; Lai, J.; Marley, S. T.

    2014-09-01

    The interaction between exotic nuclei plays an important role for understanding the reaction mechanism of the fusion processes as well as for the energy production in stars. With the advent of radioactive beams new frontiers for fusion reaction studies have become accessible. We have performed the first measurements of the total fusion cross sections in the systems 10 , 14 , 15C + 12C using a newly developed active target-detector system (MUSIC). Comparison of the obtained cross sections with theoretical predictions show a good agreement in the energy region accessible with existing radioactive beams. This type of comparison allows us to calibrate the calculations for cases that cannot be studied in the laboratory with the current experimental capabilities. The high efficiency of this active detector system will allow future measurements with even more neutron-rich isotopes. The interaction between exotic nuclei plays an important role for understanding the reaction mechanism of the fusion processes as well as for the energy production in stars. With the advent of radioactive beams new frontiers for fusion reaction studies have become accessible. We have performed the first measurements of the total fusion cross sections in the systems 10 , 14 , 15C + 12C using a newly developed active target-detector system (MUSIC). Comparison of the obtained cross sections with theoretical predictions show a good agreement in the energy region accessible with existing radioactive beams. This type of comparison allows us to calibrate the calculations for cases that cannot be studied in the laboratory with the current experimental capabilities. The high efficiency of this active detector system will allow future measurements with even more neutron-rich isotopes. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE Office of Nuclear Physics under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 and the Universidad Nacional de San Martin, Argentina, Grant SJ10/39.

  3. Fusion cross sections and the new dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Swiatecki, W.J.

    1981-05-01

    The prediction of the need for an extra push over the interaction barrier in order to make the heavier nuclei fuse is made the basis of a simple algebraic theory for the energy-dependence of the fusion cross-section. A comparison with recent experiments promises to provide a quantitative test of the New Dynamics (the theory of macroscopic nuclear shape evolutions based on the one-body dissipation concept).

  4. {sup 231}Pa photofission cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Soldatov, A.S.; Rudnikov, V.E.; Smirenkin, G.N.

    1995-12-01

    The measurements of the {sup 231}Pa yield and cross section photofission in the energy range 7-9 MeV are presented. These measurements are a continuation of similar measurements performed for the {gamma}-ray energy range 4.8-7 MeV. The entire collection of experimental data which combine the results obtained in the present work and in Ref. 1 was analyzed.

  5. How to Calculate Colourful Cross Sections Efficiently

    SciTech Connect

    Gleisberg, Tanju; Hoeche, Stefan; Krauss, Frank

    2008-09-03

    Different methods for the calculation of cross sections with many QCD particles are compared. To this end, CSW vertex rules, Berends-Giele recursion and Feynman-diagram based techniques are implemented as well as various methods for the treatment of colours and phase space integration. We find that typically there is only a small window of jet multiplicities, where the CSW technique has efficiencies comparable or better than both of the other two methods.

  6. Inclusive jet cross section at D0

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharjee, M.

    1996-09-01

    Preliminary measurement of the central ({vert_bar}{eta}{vert_bar} {<=} 0.5) inclusive jet cross sections for jet cone sizes of 1.0, 0.7, and 0.5 at D{null} based on the 1992-1993 (13.7 {ital pb}{sup -1}) and 1994-1995 (90 {ital pb}{sup -1}) data samples are presented. Comparisons to Next-to-Leading Order (NLO) Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) calculations are made.

  7. Inclusive jet cross section measurement at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Pagliarone, C.

    1996-08-01

    The CDF Collaboration has measured the inclusive jet cross section using 1992-93 collider data at 1.8 TeV. The CDF measurement is in very good agreement with NLO QCD predictions for transverse energies (E{sub T}) below 200 GeV. However, it is systematically higher than NLO QCD predictions for E{sub T} above 200 GeV.

  8. Active-beam cross-sectional modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesnik, Carlos E. S.; Ortega-Morales, Miguel

    2000-06-01

    A finite-element based analysis for modeling active composite beams with embedded anisotropic actuation is presented. It is derived from three-dimensional electroelasticity, where the original problem is reduced via the variational asymptotic method. The resulting cross-sectional analysis takes into consideration passive and active anisotropic and nonhomogeneous materials, and represents general (thin-walled, thick-walled, solid) cross-sectional geometries. The formulation requires neither the costly use of 3-D finite element discretization nor the loss of accuracy inherent to any simplified representation of the cross section. The developed formulation is numerically implemented in VABS-A, and several numerical and experimental tests cases are used to support validation of the proposed theory. Also, the effect of the presence of a core in originally hallow configurations is presented and counter-intuitive conclusions are discussed. The generality of the method and accuracy of the results increase confidence at the design stage that the active beam structure will perform as expected and, consequently, should lower costs from experimental tests and further adjustments.

  9. Quality Quantification of Evaluated Cross Section Covariances

    SciTech Connect

    Varet, S.; Dossantos-Uzarralde, P.

    2015-01-15

    Presently, several methods are used to estimate the covariance matrix of evaluated nuclear cross sections. Because the resulting covariance matrices can be different according to the method used and according to the assumptions of the method, we propose a general and objective approach to quantify the quality of the covariance estimation for evaluated cross sections. The first step consists in defining an objective criterion. The second step is computation of the criterion. In this paper the Kullback-Leibler distance is proposed for the quality quantification of a covariance matrix estimation and its inverse. It is based on the distance to the true covariance matrix. A method based on the bootstrap is presented for the estimation of this criterion, which can be applied with most methods for covariance matrix estimation and without the knowledge of the true covariance matrix. The full approach is illustrated on the {sup 85}Rb nucleus evaluations and the results are then used for a discussion on scoring and Monte Carlo approaches for covariance matrix estimation of the cross section evaluations.

  10. Averaging cross section data so we can fit it

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.

    2014-10-23

    The 56Fe cross section we are interested in have a lot of fluctuations. We would like to fit the average of the cross section with cross sections calculated within EMPIRE. EMPIRE is a Hauser-Feshbach theory based nuclear reaction code, requires cross sections to be smoothed using a Lorentzian profile. The plan is to fit EMPIRE to these cross sections in the fast region (say above 500 keV).

  11. Predictors of indoor smoking at young children's homes--a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ulbricht, Sabina; Holdys, Josefine; Meyer, Christian; Kastirke, Nadin; Haug, Severin; John, Ulrich

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine factors associated with indoor smoking in homes (ISIH) using a sample of households with at least one child aged 3 or younger and at least one smoking adult. In a defined German region, all households (n = 3,570) with a child aged 3 or younger were invited to participate in a study that tested the efficacy of an intervention for reducing exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. In 1,282 households, at least one parent reported daily smoking. Among these, 917 (71.5 %) participated in the study. ISIH was defined as smoking 'in specific rooms only' or 'everywhere'. Cross-sectional data were analysed using regression analysis. Among the households, 37.5 % reported ISIH. ISIH was more likely if the youngest child had not visited a nursery (OR, 1.81; CI, 1.21-2.70) and if no private outdoor area was present (OR = 4.38, CI, 2.64-7.25). Lower household education level and partly unemployment in dual-parent households were associated with ISIH. Fostering nursery attendance and availability of a private outdoor area may protect young children living in household with smoking parents from environmental tobacco smoke.

  12. Preliminary cross section of Englebright Lake sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Noah P.; Hampton, Margaret A.

    2003-01-01

    Overview -- The Upper Yuba River Studies Program is a CALFED-funded, multidisciplinary investigation of the feasibility of introducing anadromous fish species to the Yuba River system upstream of Englebright Dam. Englebright Lake (Figure 1 on poster) is a narrow, 14-km-long reservoir located in the northern Sierra Nevada, northeast of Marysville, CA. The dam was completed in 1941 for the primary purpose of trapping sediment derived from mining operations in the Yuba River watershed. Possible management scenarios include lowering or removing Englebright Dam, which could cause the release of stored sediments and associated contaminants, such as mercury used extensively in 19th-century hydraulic gold mining. Transport of released sediment to downstream areas could increase existing problems including flooding and mercury bioaccumulation in sport fish. To characterize the extent, grain size, and chemistry of this sediment, a coring campaign was done in Englebright Lake in May and June 2002. More than twenty holes were drilled at 7 different locations along the longitudinal axis of the reservoir (Figure 4 on poster), recovering 6 complete sequences of post-reservoir deposition and progradation. Here, a longitudinal cross section of Englebright Lake is presented (Figure 5 on poster), including pre-dam and present-day topographic profiles, and sedimentologic sections for each coring site. This figure shows the deltaic form of the reservoir deposit, with a thick upper section consisting of sand and gravel overlying silt, a steep front, and a thinner lower section dominated by silt. The methodologies used to create the reservoir cross section are discussed in the lower part of this poster.

  13. Top Production Cross Sections at D0

    SciTech Connect

    Kvita, Jiri

    2009-07-01

    We report on measurements of the ttbar production cross section at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV at the D0 experiment during Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron collider. We use candidate events in lepton+jets and dilepton final states. In the most sensitive channel (lepton+jets channel), a neural network algorithm that uses lifetime information to identify b-quark jets is used to distinguish signal from background processes. We also present measurements of single top quark production at D0 using several multivariate techniques to separate signal from background.

  14. Critical behavior of cross sections at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dremin, I. M.

    2016-07-01

    Recent experimental data on elastic scattering of high energy protons show that the critical regime has been reached at LHC energies. The approach to criticality is demonstrated by increase of the ratio of elastic to total cross sections from ISR to LHC energies. At LHC it reaches the value which can result in principal change of the character of proton interactions. The treatment of new physics of hollowed toroid-like hadrons requires usage of another branch of the unitarity condition. Its further fate is speculated and interpreted with the help of the unitarity condition in combination with present experimental data. The gedanken experiments to distinguish between different possibilities are proposed.

  15. Neutron absorption cross section of uranium-236

    SciTech Connect

    Macklin, R.L.; Alexander, C.W.

    1988-11-01

    U-236 neutron absorption was measured as a function of neutron time-of-flight from 20 eV to 1 MeV. The neutron flux was monitored with a /sup 6/Li glass scintillator. Average cross sections from 3 keV to 1 MeV were derived. Estimated uncertainties were less than 5% below 600 keV and increased to 9.5% at 1 MeV. Resonance parametrization from 20 eV to a few keV remains to be done. 17 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Nuclear interaction cross sections for proton radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, M. B.; Jones, D. T. L.; Arendse, G. J.; Cowley, A. A.; Richter, W. A.; Lawrie, J. J.; Newman, R. T.; Pilcher, J. V.; Smit, F. D.; Steyn, G. F.; Koen, JW; Stander, JA

    Model calculations of proton-induced nuclear reaction cross sections are described for biologically-important targets. Measurements made at the National Accelerator Centre are presented for double-differential proton, deuteron, triton, helium-3 and alpha particle spectra, for 150 and 200 MeV protons incident on C, N, and O. These data are needed for Monte Carlo simulations of radiation transport and absorbed dose in proton therapy. Data relevant to the use of positron emission tomography to locate the Bragg peak are also described.

  17. Pion production cross sections and associated parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradbury, J. N.

    Negative pions have been used for radiotherapy at the meson factories LAMPF (USA), SIN (Switzerland), and TRIUMF (Canada) and have been planned for use at new meson facilities under construction (USSR) and at proposed dedicated medical facilities. Providing therapeutically useful dose rates of pions requires a knowledge of the pion production cross sections as a function of primary proton energy (500 to 1000 MeV), pion energy (less than or equal to100 MeV), production angle, and target material. The current status of the data base in this area is presented including theoretical guidelines for extrapolation purposes. The target material and geometry, as well as the proton and pion beam parameters, will affect the electron (and muon) contamination in the beam which may have an important effect on both the LET characteristics of the dose and the dose distribution. In addition to cross-section data, channel characteristics such as length of pion trajectory, solid-angle acceptance, and momentum analysis will affect dose rate, distribution, and quality. Such considerations are briefly addressed in terms of existing facilities and proposed systems.

  18. Total cross sections for neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinn, C. R.; Elster, Ch.; Thaler, R. M.; Weppner, S. P.

    1995-02-01

    Measurements of neutron total cross sections are both extensive and extremely accurate. Although they place a strong constraint on theoretically constructed models, there are relatively few comparisons of predictions with experiment. The total cross sections for neutron scattering from 16O and 40Ca are calculated as a function of energy from 50 to 700 MeV laboratory energy with a microscopic first-order optical potential derived within the framework of the Watson expansion. Although these results are aleady in qualitative agreement with the data, the inclusion of medium corrections to the propagator is essential to correctly predict the energy dependence given by the experiment. In the region between 100 and 200 MeV, where off-shell tρ calculations for both 16O and 40Ca overpredict the experiment, the modification due to the nuclear medium reduces the calculated values. Above 300 MeV these corrections are very small and depending on the employed nuclear mean field tend to compensate for the underprediction of the off-shell tρ results.

  19. Gifting and sharing cigarettes in a rural Chinese village: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Rich, Zachary C; Hu, Mi; Xiao, Shuiyuan

    2014-11-01

    Quantitative measurement of the prevalence of cigarette sharing and gifting in a town in rural China and evaluation of the impact of these practices on individual smoking habits and family expenditures. An interview-based cross-sectional study of 105 households in rural Hunan, China tabulated household cigarette gifting and expenditures. Individual smoking and cigarette sharing activities were also recorded among 198 household members aged >15 years who were resident for at least 6 months. With regard to sharing cigarettes, 92% of men and 19% of women reported being offered a cigarette within the past week. Among previous and current smokers who had attempted to quit smoking, 90% reported that their friends had tried to dissuade them from quitting by tempting them with cigarettes. Concerning gifting cigarettes, 74% of households reported sending packaged cigarettes as gifts during the Chinese New Year Festival at an average expense of 2.8% of household annual income. Although households received an average of 12.4% of their annual cigarette consumption in the form of gifts during the Chinese New Year Festival, no association was found between the amount of cigarettes received by a household and the annual cigarette consumption for that household. Both gifting and sharing cigarettes are common in rural China. Gifting of cigarettes during the New Year Festival is a significant expenditure affecting both smoking and non-smoking households and may be an opportunity for additional mass media marketing. Among current and former smokers, sharing cigarettes in China is a major impediment to smoking cessation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Accurate universal parameterization of absorption cross sections II--neutron absorption cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    1997-01-01

    A recent parameterization (here after referred as paper I, Ref. [4]) of absorption cross sections for any system of charged ions collisions including proton -nucleus collisions, is extended for neutron-nucleus collisions valid from approximately 1 MeV to a few GeV, thus providing a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for any system of collision pair (charged and/or uncharged). The parameters are associated with the physics of the problem. At lower energies, the optical potential at the surface is important and the Pauli operator plays an increasingly important role at intermediate energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than earlier published results.

  1. Accurate universal parameterization of absorption cross sections II — neutron absorption cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1997-06-01

    A recent parameterization (here after referred as paper I, Ref. [4]) of absorption cross sections for any system of charged ions collisions including proton -nucleus collisions, is extended for neutron-nucleus collisions valid from ˜ 1 MeV to a few GeV, thus providing a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for any system of collision pair (charged and/or uncharged). The parameters are associated with the physics of the problem. At lower energies, the optical potential at the surface is important and the Pauli operator plays an increasingly important role at intermediate energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than earlier published results.

  2. Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC) Cross Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This drawing shows a cross-section view of the test cell at the heart of the Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC) that flew on two Spacelab missions. The middle and lower drawings depict the volume of the silicone oil layer that served as the atmosphere as the steel ball rotated and an electrostatic field pulled the oil inward to mimic gravity's effects during the experiments. The GFFC thus produced flow patterns that simulated conditions inside the atmospheres of Jupiter and the Sun and other stars. The principal investigator was John Hart of the University of Colorado at Boulder. It was managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). An Acrobat PDF copy of this drawing is available at http://microgravity.nasa.gov/gallery. (Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center)

  3. Absolute photoneutron cross sections of Sm isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Gheorghe, I.; Glodariu, T.; Utsunomiya, H.; Filipescu, D.; Nyhus, H.-T.; Renstrom, T.; Tesileanu, O.; Shima, T.; Takahisa, K.; Miyamoto, S.

    2015-02-24

    Photoneutron cross sections for seven samarium isotopes, {sup 144}Sm, {sup 147}Sm, {sup 148}Sm, {sup 149}Sm, {sup 150}Sm, {sup 152}Sm and {sup 154}Sm, have been investigated near neutron emission threshold using quasimonochromatic laser-Compton scattering γ-rays produced at the synchrotron radiation facility NewSUBARU. The results are important for nuclear astrophysics calculations and also for probing γ-ray strength functions in the vicinity of neutron threshold. Here we describe the neutron detection system and we discuss the related data analysis and the necessary method improvements for adapting the current experimental method to the working parameters of the future Gamma Beam System of Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics facility.

  4. Neutrino Cross Sections at Supernova Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholberg, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Neutrinos with energies between a few and a few tens of MeV are relevant for a number of physics topics. Notably, this is the energy range corresponding to emission of neutrinos from supernovae. In addition, it is relevant for studies of solar, reactor and atmospheric neutrinos, as well as for physics using accelerator-produced neutrinos from pions or radioactive nuclei decaying at rest. Surprisingly, with the exception of interactions on electrons and protons, the interactions of neutrinos with matter in this energy range are quite poorly understood, both theoretically and experimentally. This talk will describe neutrino physics and astrophysics in the supernova-neutrino energy range, the state of knowledge of cross sections on relevant nuclei, and initiatives for experimental measurements.

  5. Lunar Radar Cross Section at Low Frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, P.; Kennedy, E. J.; Kossey, P.; McCarrick, M.; Kaiser, M. L.; Bougeret, J.-L.; Tokarev, Y. V.

    2002-01-01

    Recent bistatic measurements of the lunar radar cross-section have extended the spectrum to long radio wavelength. We have utilized the HF Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) radar facility near Gakona, Alaska to transmit high power pulses at 8.075 MHz to the Moon; the echo pulses were received onboard the NASA/WIND spacecraft by the WAVES HF receiver. This lunar radar experiment follows our previous use of earth-based HF radar with satellites to conduct space experiments. The spacecraft was approaching the Moon for a scheduled orbit perturbation when our experiment of 13 September 2001 was conducted. During the two-hour experiment, the radial distance of the satellite from the Moon varied from 28 to 24 Rm, where Rm is in lunar radii.

  6. Top cross section measurement at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Compostella, Gabriele; /INFN, CNAF /Padua U.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the latest measurements of the t{bar t} pair production cross section performed by the CDF Collaboration analyzing p{bar p} collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV from Fermilab Tevatron, as presented at the XVIII International Workshop on Deep-Inelastic Scattering and Related Subjects. In order to test Standard Model predictions, several analysis methods are explored and all the top decay channels are considered, to better constrain the properties of the top quark and to search for possible sources of new physics affecting the pair production mechanism. Experimental results using an integrated luminosity up to 5.1 fb{sup -1} are presented.

  7. Angle-averaged Compton cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Nickel, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    The scattering of a photon by an individual free electron is characterized by six quantities: ..cap alpha.. = initial photon energy in units of m/sub 0/c/sup 2/; ..cap alpha../sub s/ = scattered photon energy in units of m/sub 0/c/sup 2/; ..beta.. = initial electron velocity in units of c; phi = angle between photon direction and electron direction in the laboratory frame (LF); theta = polar angle change due to Compton scattering, measured in the electron rest frame (ERF); and tau = azimuthal angle change in the ERF. We present an analytic expression for the average of the Compton cross section over phi, theta, and tau. The lowest order approximation to this equation is reasonably accurate for photons and electrons with energies of many keV.

  8. Single-level resonance parameters fit nuclear cross-sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drawbaugh, D. W.; Gibson, G.; Miller, M.; Page, S. L.

    1970-01-01

    Least squares analyses of experimental differential cross-section data for the U-235 nucleus have yielded single level Breit-Wigner resonance parameters that fit, simultaneously, three nuclear cross sections of capture, fission, and total.

  9. Experiments on Antiprotons: Antiproton-Nucleon Cross Sections

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Chamberlain, Owen; Keller, Donald V.; Mermond, Ronald; Segre, Emilio; Steiner, Herbert M.; Ypsilantis, Tom

    1957-07-22

    In this paper experiments are reported on annihilation and scattering of antiprotons in H{sub 2}O , D{sub 2}O, and O{sub 2}. From the data measured it is possible to obtain an antiproton-proton and an antiproton-deuteron cross section at 457 Mev (lab). Further analysis gives the p-p and p-n cross sections as 104 mb for the p-p reaction cross section and 113 mb for the p-n reaction cross section. The respective annihilation cross sections are 89 and 74 mb. The Glauber correction necessary in order to pass from the p-d to the p-n cross section by subtraction of the p-p cross section is unfortunately large and somewhat uncertain. The data are compared with the p-p and p-n cross sections and with other results on p-p collisions.

  10. Total and ionization cross sections of electron scattering by fluorocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antony, B. K.; Joshipura, K. N.; Mason, N. J.

    2005-02-01

    Electron impact total cross sections (50-2000 eV) and total ionization cross sections (threshold to 2000 eV) are calculated for typical plasma etching molecules CF4, C2F4, C2F6, C3F8 and CF3I and the CFx (x = 1-3) radicals. The total elastic and inelastic cross sections are determined in the spherical complex potential formalism. The sum of the two gives the total cross section and the total inelastic cross section is used to calculate the total ionization cross sections. The present total and ionization cross sections are found to be consistent with other theories and experimental measurements, where they exist. Our total cross section results for CFx (x = 1-3) radicals presented here are first estimates on these species.

  11. Electron Elastic-Scattering Cross-Section Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 64 NIST Electron Elastic-Scattering Cross-Section Database (PC database, no charge)   This database provides values of differential elastic-scattering cross sections, corresponding total elastic-scattering cross sections, phase shifts, and transport cross sections for elements with atomic numbers from 1 to 96 and for electron energies between 50 eV and 20,000 eV (in steps of 1 eV).

  12. Mental Visualization of Objects from Cross-Sectional Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Bing; Klatzky, Roberta L.; Stetten, George D.

    2012-01-01

    We extended the classic anorthoscopic viewing procedure to test a model of visualization of 3D structures from 2D cross-sections. Four experiments were conducted to examine key processes described in the model, localizing cross-sections within a common frame of reference and spatiotemporal integration of cross sections into a hierarchical object…

  13. Inclusive Neutrino Cross Section Measurements at MINERvA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tice, Brian

    2012-10-01

    MINERvA part 4. The knowledge of inclusive neutrino cross sections is valuable for neutrino oscillation experiments. Determination of the A dependence of the cross section can help determine the role of nuclear effects in neutrino scattering, which is poorly known and difficult to model. Preliminary ratios of cross sections on carbon, iron and lead will be shown.

  14. Mental Visualization of Objects from Cross-Sectional Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Bing; Klatzky, Roberta L.; Stetten, George D.

    2012-01-01

    We extended the classic anorthoscopic viewing procedure to test a model of visualization of 3D structures from 2D cross-sections. Four experiments were conducted to examine key processes described in the model, localizing cross-sections within a common frame of reference and spatiotemporal integration of cross sections into a hierarchical object…

  15. Viscous Flow through Pipes of Various Cross-Sections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekner, John

    2007-01-01

    An interesting variety of pipe cross-sectional shapes can be generated, for which the Navier-Stokes equations can be solved exactly. The simplest cases include the known solutions for elliptical and equilateral triangle cross-sections. Students can find pipe cross-sections from solutions of Laplace's equation in two dimensions, and then plot the…

  16. Cross sectional study of osteoporosis among women.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Tripti; Verma, A K

    2013-04-01

    Osteoporosis is a major public health problem, associated with substantial morbidity and socio-economic burden. An early detection can help in reducing the fracture rates and overall socio-economic burden. The present study was carried out to screen the bone status (osteopenia and osteoporosis) above the age of 35 yrs in the women. A community based cross sectional study was carried out in 158 women by calculating WHO T-scores utilizing calcaneal QUS as diagnostic tool. The prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia was found to be 13.3% ± 5.29% and 48.1% ± 7.79% respectively. Statistical association of prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis was found to be significant with age group; gravida status; attainment of menopause; body weight and physically active status of the women. The statistical association was not significant in relation to the rank status of their husband, as well as dietary pattern of the women but still it has to be substantiated by conducting larger community based trials in future. The present study found that there was statistically significant relationship between age group and the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis. There was a negative correlation between age of the women and BMD. Besides age, gravida status and menopausal status have negative correlation with BMD while positive correlation with physically active lifestyle. The results were found to be non-significant in relation to rank status of husband and dietary pattern.

  17. Spectroscopy and Photoabsorption Cross Sections of FNO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burley, J. D.; Miller, C. E.; Johnston, H. S.

    1993-04-01

    The spectroscopy and photoabsorption cross sections of nitrosyl fluoride are investigated in the spectral region 350-180 nm. Results for 350-250 nm are in good agreement with the initial measurements of Johnston and Bertin and later measurements from Solgadi and Flament and Huber et al. The spectrum is assigned to a series of vibrational progressions which arise from (0, 0, 0)″ and involve excitation of the ν' 1 mode. Excitations to ( n, 0, 0)' and ( n, 0, 1)' make up the bulk of the spectrum, with promotions to ( n, 1, 0)', ( n, 0, 2)', and ( n, 1, 2)' becoming dominant at higher energies. Analysis of the spectrum results in values of ν' 1 = 1096 cm -1, ν' 2 = 480cm -1 and ν' 3 = 349 cm -1 for the excited state FNO frequencies. The experimental basis for the assignment of ν' 1 and ν' 3 is distinctly stronger than that for ν' 2. Below 250 nm, a broad, featureless continuum absorption is observed, which rises in intensity from σ = 1.77 × 10 -20cm 2 at 245 nm to 5.24 × 10 -19cm 2 at 180 nm.

  18. Abdominal sarcoidosis: cross-sectional imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Gezer, Naciye Sinem; Başara, Işıl; Altay, Canan; Harman, Mustafa; Rocher, Laurence; Karabulut, Nevzat; Seçil, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. The lungs and the lymphoid system are the most commonly involved organs. Extrapulmonary involvement is reported in 30% of patients, and the abdomen is the most common extrapulmonary site with a frequency of 50%–70%. Although intra-abdominal sarcoidosis is usually asymptomatic, its presence may affect the prognosis and treatment options. The lesions are less characteristic and may mimick neoplastic or infectious diseases such as lymphoma, diffuse metastasis, and granulomatous inflammation. The liver and spleen are the most common abdominal sites of involvement. Sarcoidosis of the gastrointestinal system, pancreas, and kidneys are extremely rare. Adenopathy which is most commonly found in the porta hepatis, exudative ascites, and multiple granulomatous nodules studding the peritoneum are the reported manifestations of abdominal sarcoidosis. Since abdominal sarcoidosis is less common and long-standing, unrecognized disease can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Imaging contributes to diagnosis and management of intra-abdominal sarcoidosis. In this report we reviewed the cross-sectional imaging findings of hepatobiliary, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary sarcoidosis. PMID:25512071

  19. Normalization of experimental electron cross sections.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdonina, N.; Felfli, Z.; Msezane, A. Z.

    1997-10-01

    Absolute experimental electron-impact differential cross sections (DCSs) can be obtained through an extrapolation of the relative generalized oscillator strength (GOS) values at some given impact energy E to zero momentum transfer squared K^2, the optical oscillator strength (OOS) [1]. We propose to normalize the relative experimental DCS data to the corresponding OOS value by extrapolating the GOS to K^2 = 0 without involving the nonphysical region. This is possible only by simultaneously increasing E and decreasing K^2 so that K^2 = 0 corresponds to E = ∞. Thus is avoided a divergence of fracd(GOS)d(K^2) at K^2 = 0 [2]. Another advantage of our method is that, over a wide range of small K^2 values the contribution of higher order terms of the Born series to the GOS function is negligible, contrary to the constant E case in which even order K^2 terms are non-Born [2]. Thus first Born approximation can be used to normalize relative experimental DCSs to the OOS. This method is applicable to both the excitation and ionization of atomic and molecular targets by electron impact. The latter case generalizes the method of ref. [3]. ^*Supported by AFOSR, NSF and DoE Div. of Chemical Sciences, OBES. ^1 E. N. Lassettre et al., J. Chem. Phys \\underline50, (1829) ^2 W. M. Huo, J. Chem. Phys \\underline71, 1593 (1979) ^3 A. Saenz, W Weyrich and P. Froelich, J. Phys. B \\underline29, 97 (1996)

  20. APPARATUS FOR MEASURING TOTAL NEUTRON CROSS SECTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Cranberg, L.

    1959-10-13

    An apparatus is described for measuring high-resolution total neutron cross sections at high counting rate in the range above 50-kev neutron energy. The pulsed-beam time-of-flight technique is used to identify the neutrons of interest which are produced in the target of an electrostatic accelerator. Energy modulation of the accelerator . makes it possible to make observations at 100 energy points simultaneously. 761O An apparatus is described for monitoring the proton resonance of a liquid which is particulariy useful in the continuous purity analysis of heavy water. A hollow shell with parallel sides defines a meander chamber positioned within a uniform magnetic fieid. The liquid passes through an inlet at the outer edge of the chamber and through a spiral channel to the central region of the chamber where an outlet tube extends into the chamber perpendicular to the magnetic field. The radiofrequency energy for the monitor is coupled to a coil positioned coaxially with the outlet tube at its entrance point within the chamber. The improvement lies in the compact mechanical arrangement of the monitor unit whereby the liquid under analysis is subjected to the same magnetic field in the storage and sensing areas, and the entire unit is shielded from external electrostatic influences.

  1. Cross-sectional imaging in Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Akira; Saotome, Takao; Yamasaki, Michio; Maeda, Kiyosumi; Nitta, Norihisa; Takahashi, Masashi; Tsujikawa, Tomoyuki; Fujiyama, Yoshihide; Murata, Kiyoshi; Sakamoto, Tsutomu

    2004-01-01

    The role of cross-sectional imaging in the diagnosis of Crohn disease has expanded with recent technologic advances in computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging that allow rapid acquisition of high-resolution images of the intestines. To acquire images of diagnostic quality, administration of a fairly large amount of intraluminal contrast agent prior to examination and scanning with intravenous contrast material injection are necessary. Both CT and MR imaging are reported to have a sensitivity of over 95% for the detection of Crohn disease; however, they may not allow early diagnosis. Colonoscopy and conventional enteroclysis studies are indicated for patients with early-stage disease. At more advanced stages, CT and MR imaging can help identify and characterize pathologically altered bowel segments as well as extraluminal lesions (eg, fistulas, abscesses, fibrofatty proliferation, increased vascularity of the vasa recta, mesenteric lymphadenopathy). These modalities can also clearly depict inflammatory lesion activity and conditions that require elective gastrointestinal surgery, thereby aiding in treatment planning. In the clinical setting, CT is currently the imaging modality of choice at most institutions; however, it is expected that MR imaging will soon play a comparable role. CT or MR imaging should be included in a comprehensive evaluation of patients with Crohn disease, along with conventional imaging and clinical and laboratory tests.

  2. [Fast neutron cross section measurements]. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, G.F.

    1992-10-26

    From its inception, the Nuclear Data Project at the University of Michigan has concentrated on two major objectives: (1) to carry out carefully controlled nuclear measurements of the highest possible reliability in support of the national nuclear data program, and (2) to provide an educational opportunity for students with interests in experimental nuclear science. The project has undergone a successful transition from a primary dependence on our photoneutron laboratory to one in which our current research is entirely based on a unique pulsed 14 MeV fast neutron facility. The new experimental facility is unique in its ability to provide nanosecond bursts of 14 MeV neutrons under conditions that are ``clean`` and as scatter-free as possible, and is the only one of its type currently in operation in the United States. It has been designed and put into operation primarily by graduate students, and has met or exceeded all of its important initial performance goals. We have reached the point of its routine operation, and most of the data are now in hand that will serve as the basis for the first two doctoral dissertations to be written by participating graduate students. Our initial results on double differential neutron cross sections will be presented at the May 1993 Fusion Reactor Technology Workshop. We are pleased to report that, after investing several years in equipment assembly and optimization, the project has now entered its ``data production`` phase.

  3. Graphs of the cross sections in the Alternate Monte Carlo Cross Section library at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Seamon, R.E.; Soran, P.D.

    1980-06-01

    Graphs of all neutron cross sections and photon production cross sections on the Alternate Monte Carlo Cross Section (AMCCS) library have been plotted along with local neutron heating numbers. The values of ..nu..-bar, the average number of neutrons per fission, are also plotted for appropriate isotopes.

  4. Graphs of the cross sections in the recommended Monte Carlo cross-section library at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Soran, P.D.; Seamon, R.E.

    1980-05-01

    Graphs of all neutron cross sections and photon production cross sections on the Recommended Monte Carlo Cross Section (RMCCS) library have been plotted along with local neutron heating numbers. Values for anti ..nu.., the average number of neutrons per fission, are also given.

  5. Allergic conjunctivitis: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, A; Piliego, F; Castegnaro, A; Lazzarini, D; La Gloria Valerio, A; Mattana, P; Fregona, I

    2015-06-01

    Ocular allergy is a common disease in daily practice. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate clinical aspects of and therapeutic approaches to ocular allergy in Italy. Of the 3685 patients affected by ocular allergy and enrolled by 304 ophthalmologists nationally, 3545 were eligible to be included in the statistical analysis. A questionnaire was administered in office to record demographic data, comorbidities, trigger factors, number of conjunctivitis episodes, and past treatments. Signs and symptoms were graded according to their severity, frequency, and duration. Mean age of enrolled patients was 38 ± 19 years. Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (55% of patients) was equally distributed among the different age groups, while perennial allergic conjunctivitis (18%) increased with age and vernal keratoconjunctivitis (9%) was more frequent under the age of 18. Itching and redness were reported in 90% and 85%, respectively; lid skin involvement was observed in 22% of cases and keratitis in 11%. Pollen sensitivities were indicated as the most frequent triggers; however, exposure to non-specific environmental conditions, pollutants, and cigarette smoke was frequently reported. Only 35% of patients underwent a diagnostic evaluation of specific allergic sensitization, with positive allergy tests found in 82% of this subset. With regard to treatment, topical decongestants were used in 43% of patients, corticosteroids in 41%, antihistamines in 29%, systemic antihistamines in 27%, and mast cell stabilizers in 15%. This survey provided useful epidemiological information regarding the clinical characteristics and treatment options of a large cohort of patients affected by different forms of ocular allergy. An understanding of ocular allergic disease, its incidence, demographics, and treatment paradigms provides important information towards understanding its pharmacoeconomics and burden on the national health system. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Cross-Sectional Survey on Newborn Screening in Wisconsin Amish and Mennonite Communities

    PubMed Central

    Sieren, Shelby; Grow, Meghan; GoodSmith, Matthew; Spicer, Gretchen; Deline, James; Zhao, Qianqian; Lindstrom, Mary J.; Harris, Anne Bradford; Rohan, Angela M.; Seroogy, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    Old order Amish and Mennonites, or Plain populations, are a growing minority in North America with unique health care delivery and access challenges coupled with higher frequencies of genetic disorders. The objective of this study was to determine newborn screening use and attitudes from western Wisconsin Plain communities. A cross-sectional survey, with an overall response rate of 25%, provided data representing 2,010 children. In households with children (n=297), the rate of newborn screening was 74% and all children were screened in 40% of these households. Lack of access to testing was the most common reason for not screening all children and parental age was inversely associated with testing. The majority of respondents reported some or more knowledge of screening, viewed screening as important, and had access to screening in their communities. Households with children who had never received newborn screening (26%) reported lower frequencies of favorable responses in all categories compared to households that had at least one child screened. The difference in access to newborn screening was less marked between the groups compared to differences on knowledge and consideration of its importance. Moreover, 55% of households who had never screened any of their children reported being unlikely or unsure of screening any future children. A focus on improving access to newborn screening alongside establishing approaches to change parental perceptions on the importance of newborn screening is necessary for increasing newborn screening in these Plain communities. PMID:26433724

  7. Cross-Sectional Survey on Newborn Screening in Wisconsin Amish and Mennonite Communities.

    PubMed

    Sieren, Shelby; Grow, Meghan; GoodSmith, Matthew; Spicer, Gretchen; Deline, James; Zhao, Qianqian; Lindstrom, Mary J; Harris, Anne Bradford; Rohan, Angela M; Seroogy, Christine M

    2016-04-01

    Old Order Amish and Mennonites, or Plain populations, are a growing minority in North America with unique health care delivery and access challenges coupled with higher frequencies of genetic disorders. The objective of this study was to determine newborn screening use and attitudes from western Wisconsin Plain communities. A cross-sectional survey, with an overall response rate of 25 %, provided data representing 2010 children. In households with children (n = 297), the rate of newborn screening was 74 % and all children were screened in 40 % of these households. Lack of access to testing was the most common reason for not screening all children and parental age was inversely associated with testing. The majority of respondents reported some or more knowledge of screening, viewed screening as important, and had access to screening in their communities. Households with children who had never received newborn screening (26 %) reported lower frequencies of favorable responses in all categories compared to households that had at least one child screened. The difference in access to newborn screening was less marked between the groups compared to differences on knowledge and consideration of its importance. Moreover, 55 % of households who had never screened any of their children reported being unlikely or unsure of screening any future children. A focus on improving access to newborn screening alongside establishing approaches to change parental perceptions on the importance of newborn screening is necessary for increasing newborn screening in these Plain communities.

  8. Premature adult mortality in urban Zambia: a repeated population-based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Rathod, Sujit D; Timæus, Ian M; Banda, Richard; Thankian, Kusanthan; Chilengi, Roma; Banda, Andrew; Lemba, Musonda; Stringer, Jeffrey S A; Chi, Benjamin H

    2016-03-03

    To measure the sex-specific and community-specific mortality rates for adults in Lusaka, Zambia, and to identify potential individual-level, household-level and community-level correlates of premature mortality. We conducted 12 survey rounds of a population-based cross-sectional study between 2004 and 2011, and collected data via a structured interview with a household head. Households in Lusaka District, Zambia, 2004-2011. 43,064 household heads (88% female) who enumerated 123,807 adult household members aged between 15 and 60 years. Premature adult mortality. The overall mortality rate was 16.2/1000 person-years for men and 12.3/1000 person-years for women. The conditional probability of dying between age 15 and 60 (45q15) was 0.626 for men and 0.537 for women. The top three causes of death for men and women were infectious in origin (ie, tuberculosis, HIV and malaria). We observed an over twofold variation of mortality rates between communities. The mortality rate was 1.98 times higher (95% CI 1.57 to 2.51) in households where a family member required nursing care, 1.44 times higher (95% CI 1.22 to 1.71) during the cool dry season, and 1.28 times higher (95% CI 1.06 to 1.54) in communities with low-cost housing. To meet Zambia's development goals, further investigation is needed into the factors associated with adult mortality. Mortality can potentially be reduced through focus on high-need households and communities, and improved infectious disease prevention and treatment services. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Crosstalk in rectangular cross-section heterogeneous multicore fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorova, Olga N.; Astapovich, Maxim S.; Semjonov, Sergey L.

    2016-09-01

    Using neighboring cores with different mode propagation constants (indexes) is a well-known way to reduce crosstalk in multicore fiber (MCF). However, in actual field-deployed fiber, random bends can cause a reduction in the difference between the mode indexes of neighboring cores, which consequently increases crosstalk. The level of crosstalk induced by bending in both rectangular cross-section and circular cross-section heterogeneous MCF with cores arranged in a line was investigated. The experimental results obtained indicate that in contrast to circular cross-section MCF, no bending-induced crosstalk occurs in rectangular cross-section MCF wound on the mandrel without special control of cross-section orientation. Thus, to eliminate undesirable bending-induced crosstalk in heterogeneous MCF a rectangular cross-section should be employed.

  10. Partial Photoneutron Cross Sections for 207,208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, T.; Utsunomiya, H.; Goriely, S.; Iwamoto, C.; Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Toyokawa, H.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Lui, Y.-W.; Hilaire, S.; Koning, A. J.

    2014-05-01

    Using linearly-polarized laser-Compton scattering γ-rays, partial E1 and M1 photoneutron cross sections along with total cross sections were determined for 207,208Pb at four energies near neutron threshold by measuring anisotropies in photoneutron emission. Separately, total photoneutron cross sections were measured for 207,208Pb with a high-efficiency 4π neutron detector. The partial cross section measurement provides direct evidence for the presence of pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) in 207,208Pb in the vicinity of neutron threshold. The strength of PDR amounts to 0.32%-0.42% of the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule. Several μN2 units of B(M1)↑ strength were observed in 207,208Pb just above neutron threshold, which correspond to M1 cross sections less than 10% of the total photoneutron cross sections.

  11. Color dipole cross section and inelastic structure function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Yu Seon; Kim, C. S.; Luu, Minh Vu; Reno, Mary Hall

    2014-11-01

    Instead of starting from a theoretically motivated form of the color dipole cross section in the dipole picture of deep inelastic scattering, we start with a parametrization of the deep inelastic structure function for electromagnetic scattering with protons, and then extract the color dipole cross section. Using the parametrizations of F 2(ξ = x or W 2 , Q 2) by Donnachie-Landshoff and Block et al., we find the dipole cross section from an approximate form of the presumed dipole cross section convoluted with the perturbative photon wave function for virtual photon splitting into a color dipole with massless quarks. The color dipole cross section determined this way reproduces the original structure function within about 10% for 0 .1 GeV2 ≤ Q 2 ≤10 GeV2. We discuss the dipole cross section at large and small dipole sizes and compare our results with other parametrizations.

  12. Total and partial photoneutron cross sections for Pb isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, T.; Utsunomiya, H.; Goriely, S.; Daoutidis, I.; Iwamoto, C.; Akimune, H.; Okamoto, A.; Yamagata, T.; Kamata, M.; Itoh, O.; Toyokawa, H.; Lui, Y.-W.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Hilaire, S.; Koning, A. J.

    2012-07-01

    Using quasimonochromatic laser-Compton scattering γ rays, total photoneutron cross sections were measured for 206,207,208Pb near neutron threshold with a high-efficiency 4π neutron detector. Partial E1 and M1 photoneutron cross sections along with total cross sections were determined for 207,208Pb at four energies near threshold by measuring anisotropies in photoneutron emission with linearly polarized γ rays. The E1 strength dominates over the M1 strength in the neutron channel where E1 photoneutron cross sections show extra strength of the pygmy dipole resonance in 207,208Pb near the neutron threshold corresponding to 0.32%-0.42% of the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule. Several μN2 units of B(M1)↑ strength were observed in 207,208Pb just above neutron threshold, which correspond to an M1 cross section less than 10% of the total photoneutron cross section.

  13. Coupled multigroup cross sections for hydrogen interactions in plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wienke, B. R.; Morel, J. E.; Cayton, T. E.; Howell, R. B.

    1985-10-01

    Using analytical fits to the experimental cross sections for H 3 H 2, and H 2+ interactions in plasmas, developed by Gryzinski, Riviere, Jones, and Freeman, we obtain coupled multigroup cross sections and rate coefficients for hydrogen transport applications. Multigroup cross sections and rate coefficients, for specified energy group boundaries, plasma particle and temperature profiles, and cylindrical plasma confinement radius, are generated against a spatially dependent, local Maxwellian scattering background. Cross sections are formatted for direct use in production multigroup S n, Monte Carlo, or specific transport applications. Ten coupled hydrogen reactions are included and resulting cross sections for ionization, scattering, and production can be coupled or decoupled. Reactions treated include H, H 2 ionization by electrons and protons, H, H 2 charge exchange, and H 2, H 2+ dissociative mechanisms. We detail the formalism used to compute effective cross sections and rates and give practicle results for two fusion reactors.

  14. Projectile and Lab Frame Differential Cross Sections for Electromagnetic Dissociation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Adamczyk, Anne; Dick, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Differential cross sections for electromagnetic dissociation in nuclear collisions are calculated for the first time. In order to be useful for three - dimensional transport codes, these cross sections have been calculated in both the projectile and lab frames. The formulas for these cross sections are such that they can be immediately used in space radiation transport codes. Only a limited amount of data exists, but the comparison between theory and experiment is good.

  15. Left atrial vascularised thrombus diagnosed by transoesophageal cross sectional echocardiography.

    PubMed Central

    Taams, M A; Gussenhoven, E J; Lancée, C T

    1987-01-01

    This report describes a patient with a Björk-Shiley mitral valve prosthesis in whom transoesophageal cross sectional echocardiography revealed a large vascularised mass within the left atrial appendage with smoke-like opacification of blood flow in the left atrium. Transoesophageal cross sectional echocardiography gave a detailed image of the lesion which was unobtainable with precordial cross sectional echocardiography. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 PMID:3426904

  16. Measured microwave scattering cross sections of three meteorite specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    Three meteorite specimens were used in a microwave scattering experiment to determine the scattering cross sections of stony meteorites and iron meteorites in the frequency range from 10 to 14 GHz. The results indicate that the stony meteorites have a microwave scattering cross section that is 30 to 50 percent of their projected optical cross section. Measurements of the iron meteorite scattering were inconclusive because of specimen surface irregularities.

  17. Analytical formulation of the quantum electromagnetic cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandsema, Matthew J.; Narayanan, Ram M.; Lanzagorta, Marco

    2016-05-01

    It has been found that the quantum radar cross section (QRCS) equation can be written in terms of the Fourier transform of the surface atom distribution of the object. This paper uses this form to provide an analytical formulation of the quantum radar cross section by deriving closed form expressions for various geometries. These expressions are compared to the classical radar cross section (RCS) expressions and the quantum advantages are discerned from the differences in the equations. Multiphoton illumination is also briefly discussed.

  18. High E{sub T} jet cross sections at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Flaugher, B.; CDF Collaboration

    1996-08-01

    The inclusive jet cross section for {ital p}{ital {anti p}} collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV as measured by the CDF collaboration will be presented. Preliminary CDF measurements of the {Sigma} E{sub T} cross section at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV and the central inclusive jet cross section at {radical}s = 0.630 TeV will also be shown.

  19. Cross section dependence of event rates at neutrino telescopes.

    PubMed

    Hussain, S; Marfatia, D; McKay, D W; Seckel, D

    2006-10-20

    We examine the dependence of event rates at neutrino telescopes on the neutrino-nucleon cross section for neutrinos with energy above 1 PeV, and contrast the results with those for cosmic ray experiments. Scaling of the standard model cross sections leaves the rate of upward events essentially unchanged. Details, such as detector depth and cross section inelasticity, can influence rates. Numerical estimates of upward shower, muon, and tau event rates in the IceCube detector confirm these results.

  20. Giant dipole resonance parameters with uncertainties from photonuclear cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plujko, V. A.; Capote, R.; Gorbachenko, O. M.

    2011-09-01

    Updated values and corresponding uncertainties of isovector giant dipole resonance (IVGDR or GDR) model parameters are presented that are obtained by the least-squares fitting of theoretical photoabsorption cross sections to experimental data. The theoretical photoabsorption cross section is taken as a sum of the components corresponding to excitation of the GDR and quasideuteron contribution to the experimental photoabsorption cross section. The present compilation covers experimental data as of January 2010.

  1. Late Entry into Primary School in Developing Societies: Findings from Cross-National Household Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko; Loaiza, Edilberto; Engle, Patrice L.

    2010-02-01

    Late entry into primary school is a widespread phenomenon in developing countries. Students who enter school late are more likely to repeat grades, drop out and perform more poorly. Yet the phenomenon has received little scholarly attention, and there is a dearth of cross-national data. In this paper, we draw on data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS2), a cross-national household survey conducted in developing countries. We first estimate the percentage of students entering primary school late across 38 countries in order to identify the countries in which the issue of late entry is most common. Secondly, we describe the background characteristics of students who are more likely to enter school late. We then employ multinominal logistic regression equations to predict the probability of late entry. Our findings highlight the need for policies to reduce late entry for children from disadvantaged backgrounds.

  2. Capture cross sections from (p,d) reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escher, J. E.; Burke, J. T.; Casperson, R. J.; Hughes, R. O.; Ota, S.; Scielzo, N. D.

    2017-09-01

    Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions involving unstable targets are important for many applications, but can often not be measured directly. Several indirect methods have been proposed to determine neutron capture cross sections for unstable isotopes. We consider an approach that aims at constraining statistical calculations of capture cross sections with data obtained from light-ion transfer reactions such as (p,d). We discuss the theoretical descriptions that have to be developed in order to extract meaningful cross section constraints from such data and show some benchmark results.

  3. Flow in tubes of non-circular cross-sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quadir, Raushan Ara

    Laminar, viscous, incompressible flow in tubes of noncircular cross sections is investigated. The specific aims of the investigation are (1) to look at the problems of both developing flow and fully developed flow, (2) to consider noncircular cross sections in a more systematic manner than has been done in the past, and (3) to develop a relatively simple finite element technique for producing accurate numerical solutions of flow in tubes of fairly arbitrary cross sections. Fully developed flow in tubes is governed by a Poisson type equation for the mainstream velocity. Both analytical and numerical solutions are considered. The cross sections studied include elliptic and rectangular cross sections of different aspect ratios, some triangular cross sections, and a series of crescent-shaped cross sections. The physical characteristics of the flow are examined in a systematic manner in order to determine how these characteristics are affected by certain geometrical features of the cross section. Solutions fall into three basic categories depending on the shape of the cross section. In the first category, which includes circular and elliptic cross sections, solutions are possible in closed form. In the second, including rectangular and some triangular cross sections, solutions are in the form of infinite series. In the third, including cross sections of more complicated or irregular shapes, only numerical solutions are possible. Results of calculations of velocity profiles, flow rate, pumping power, and friction factor are presented in a way which can be useful for engineering applications. In numerical studies of both developing and fully developed flow finite element techniques are used. Results are obtained for tubes of rectangular and elliptic cross sections of different aspect ratios, for tubes of crescent-shaped cross sections, and a tube whose cross section is an oval of Cassini. For fully developed flow, results are compared with the corresponding exact

  4. Proton-Air Cross Section and Extensive Air Showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, Ralf; Engel, Ralph; Müller, Steffen; Schüssler, Fabian; Unger, Michael

    2009-12-01

    Hadronic cross sections at ultra-high energy have a significant impact on the development of extensive air shower cascades. Therefore the interpretation of air shower data depends critically on hadronic interaction models that extrapolate the cross section from accelerator measurements to the highest cosmic ray energies. We discuss how extreme scenarios of cross section extrapolations can affect the interpretation of air shower data. We find that the theoretical uncertainty of the extrapolated proton-air cross section at ultra-high energies is much larger than suggested by the existing spread of available Monte Carlo model predictions. The impact on the depth of the shower maximum is demonstrated.

  5. Initial cross section for photodissociation of phosgene on Ag(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X.-L.; White, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    The initial cross section for UV photodissociation of phosgene (Cl2CO) on Ag(111) at 100 K has been measured. With photon energies greater than 2.6 eV, submonolayer Cl2CO is readily photodissociated to surface Cl(a) and gas phase CO(g). The evolution of CO during photodissociation is readily monitored and used to calculate the initial photodissociation rate and cross section. The cross section is higher than the gas phase absorption cross section and is in the range of 10-18-10-19 cm2. It depends on the wavelength and the Cl2CO coverage.

  6. Inclusive Cross Section Production of J/ψ in LEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osati, T.; Abubakri, B.

    2017-02-01

    Cross section production is one of the observable quantities in the hadronic systems. Inclusive cross section production J/ψ may be calculated through the use of the fragmentation c → J/ψ. In this paper we calculate the inclusive cross section production J/ψ about the pole of Z 0 in the e + e ‑ annihilation, through the lowest order regim of perturbative of QCD ananlyticaly. The obtained results arrive an excellent agreement with the exprimental data to produce the inclusive cross section production c → J/ψ.

  7. Neutron capture cross section of {sup 102}Pd

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, C.L.; Krane, K.S.

    2005-05-01

    The cross sections for radiative neutron capture by {sup 102}Pd have been deduced from a measurement of the {gamma} rays emitted by 17.0-d {sup 103}Pd. The thermal cross section has been determined to be {sigma}=1.82{+-}0.20 b, and the effective resonance integral is I=23{+-}4 b. We also report thermal and resonance capture cross sections for {sup 108}Pd and note possible inconsistencies with the presently accepted values of the {sup 110}Pd cross sections.

  8. Thermal Neutron Capture Cross Section of {sup 22}Ne

    SciTech Connect

    Belgya, T.; Uberseder, E.; Petrich, D.; Kaeppeler, F.

    2009-01-28

    The radiative thermal neutron capture cross section of the astrophysically important {sup 22}Ne nucleus has been measured at the guided cold neutron beam of the Budapest Research Reactor. High-pressure gas-bottles filled with mixtures of enriched {sup 22}Ne and CH{sub 4} were used. The cross section was determined by means of the comparator method, and an improved decay-scheme obtained in this work. The new value for the thermal neutron cross section is 52.7{+-}0.7 mb, 18% larger than the accepted value. The influence of the new cross section on the astrophysical reaction rate is under investigation.

  9. Neutron-capture Cross Sections from Indirect Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Escher, J E; Burke, J T; Dietrich, F S; Ressler, J J; Scielzo, N D; Thompson, I J

    2011-10-18

    Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions play an important role in models of astrophysical environments and simulations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Providing reliable cross section data remains a formidable task, and direct measurements have to be complemented by theoretical predictions and indirect methods. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f) reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

  10. Neutron Fission of 235,237,239U and 241,243Pu: Cross Sections, Integral Cross Sections and Cross Sections on Excited States

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, W; Britt, H C

    2003-07-10

    In a recent paper submitted to Phys. Rev. C they have presented estimates for (n,f) cross sections on a series of Thorium, Uranium and Plutonium isotopes over the range E{sub n} = 0.1-2.5 MeV. The (n,f) cross sections for many of these isotopes are difficult or impossible to measure in the laboratory. The cross sections were obtained from previous (t,pf) reaction data invoking a model which takes into account the differences between (t,pf) and (n,f) reaction processes, and which includes improved estimates for the neutron compound formation process. The purpose of this note is: (1) to compare the estimated cross sections to current data files in both ENDF and ENDL databases; (2) to estimate ratios of cross sections relatively to {sup 235}U integrated over the ''tamped flattop'' critical assembly spectrum that was used in the earlier {sup 237}U report; and (3) to show the effect on the integral cross sections when the neutron capturing state is an excited rotational state or an isomer. The isomer and excited state results are shown for {sup 235}U and {sup 237}U.

  11. Section Builder: A finite element tool for analysis and design of composite beam cross-sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarty, Uttam Kumar

    SectionBuilder is an innovative finite element based tool, developed for analysis and design of composite beam cross-sections. The tool can handle the cross-sections with parametric shapes and arbitrary configurations. It can also handle arbitrary lay-ups for predefined beam cross-section geometries in a consistent manner. The material properties for each layer of the cross-section can be defined on the basis of the design requirements. This tool is capable of dealing with multi-cell composite cross-sections with arbitrary lay-ups. It has also the benefit of handling the variation of thickness of skin and D-spars for beams such as rotor blades. A typical cross-section is considered as a collection of interconnected walls. Walls with arbitrary lay-ups based on predefined geometries and material properties are generated first. The complex composite beam cross-sections are developed by connecting the walls using various types of connectors. These connectors are compatible with the walls, i.e., the thickness of the layers of the walls must match with those of the connectors at the place of connection. Cross-sections are often reinforced by core material for constructing realistic rotor blade cross-sections. The tool has the ability to integrate core materials into the cross-sections. A mapped mesh is considered for meshing parametric shapes, walls and various connectors, whereas a free mesh is considered for meshing the core materials. A new algorithm based on the Delaunay refinement algorithm is developed for creating the best possible free mesh for core materials. After meshing the cross-section, the tool determines the sectional properties using finite element analysis. This tool computes sectional properties including stiffness matrix, compliance matrix, mass matrix, and principal axes. A visualization environment is integrated with the tool for visualizing the stress and strain distributions over the cross-section.

  12. Cross Sections for Inner-Shell Ionization by Electron Impact

    SciTech Connect

    Llovet, Xavier; Powell, Cedric J.; Salvat, Francesc; Jablonski, Aleksander

    2014-03-15

    An analysis is presented of measured and calculated cross sections for inner-shell ionization by electron impact. We describe the essentials of classical and semiclassical models and of quantum approximations for computing ionization cross sections. The emphasis is on the recent formulation of the distorted-wave Born approximation by Bote and Salvat [Phys. Rev. A 77, 042701 (2008)] that has been used to generate an extensive database of cross sections for the ionization of the K shell and the L and M subshells of all elements from hydrogen to einsteinium (Z = 1 to Z = 99) by electrons and positrons with kinetic energies up to 1 GeV. We describe a systematic method for evaluating cross sections for emission of x rays and Auger electrons based on atomic transition probabilities from the Evaluated Atomic Data Library of Perkins et al. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, UCRL-ID-50400, 1991]. We made an extensive comparison of measured K-shell, L-subshell, and M-subshell ionization cross sections and of Lα x-ray production cross sections with the corresponding calculated cross sections. We identified elements for which there were at least three (for K shells) or two (for L and M subshells) mutually consistent sets of cross-section measurements and for which the cross sections varied with energy as expected by theory. The overall average root-mean-square deviation between the measured and calculated cross sections was 10.9% and the overall average deviation was −2.5%. This degree of agreement between measured and calculated ionization and x-ray production cross sections was considered to be very satisfactory given the difficulties of these measurements.

  13. Total cross sections for positrons scattered elastically from helium based on new measurements of total ionization cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diana, L. M.; Chaplin, R. L.; Brooks, D. L.; Adams, J. T.; Reyna, L. K.

    1990-01-01

    An improved technique is presented for employing the 2.3m spectrometer to measure total ionization cross sections, Q sub ion, for positrons incident on He. The new ionization cross section agree with the values reported earlier. Estimates are also presented of total elastic scattering cross section, Q sub el, obtained by subtracting from total scattering cross sections, Q sub tot, reported in the literature, the Q sub ion and Q sub Ps (total positronium formation cross sections) and total excitation cross sections, Q sub ex, published by another researcher. The Q sub ion and Q sub el measured with the 3m high resolution time-of-flight spectrometer for 54.9eV positrons are in accord with the results from the 2.3m spectrometer. The ionization cross sections are in fair agreement with theory tending for the most part to be higher, especially at 76.3 and 88.5eV. The elastic cross section agree quite well with theory to the vicinity of 50eV, but at 60eV and above the experimental elastic cross sections climb to and remain at about 0.30 pi a sub o sq while the theoretical values steadily decrease.

  14. Electron induced inelastic and ionization cross section for plasma modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Pankaj; Mahato, Dibyendu; Kaur, Jaspreet; Antony, Bobby

    2016-09-01

    The present paper reports electron impact total inelastic and ionization cross section for silicon, germanium, and tin tetrahalides at energies varying from ionization threshold of the target to 5000 eV. These cross section data over a wide energy domain are very essential to understand the physico-chemical processes involved in various environments such as plasma modeling, semiconductor etching, atmospheric sciences, biological sciences, and radiation physics. However, the cross section data on the above mentioned molecules are scarce. In the present article, we report the computation of total inelastic cross section using spherical complex optical potential formalism and the estimation of ionization cross section through a semi-empirical method. The present ionization cross section result obtained for SiCl4 shows excellent agreement with previous measurements, while other molecules have not yet been investigated experimentally. Present results show more consistent behaviour than previous theoretical estimates. Besides cross sections, we have also studied the correlation of maximum ionization cross section with the square root of the ratio of polarizability to ionization potential for the molecules with known polarizabilities. A linear relation is observed between these quantities. This correlation is used to obtain approximate polarizability volumes for SiBr4, SiI4, GeCl4, GeBr4, and GeI4 molecules.

  15. On the measurement of absorption cross sections of gaseous media

    SciTech Connect

    Gamalii, V.F.; Toptygin, D.D.

    1995-02-01

    A new technique for experimental determination of integral absorption cross sections of gaseous media by the method of modulation intracavity laser spectroscopy (MILS) is proposed. A formula relating the integral absorption cross section to the spectral position of radiation spectral condensation peaks in the absorption line wings is derived. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Cross sections for scattering of electrons on BF_3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radmilovic-Radjenovic, M.; Varambhia, H. N.; Vranic, M.; Tennyson, J.; Petrovic, Z. Lj.

    2008-07-01

    We calculate cross sections for elastic scattering and electronic excitation of BF_3 molecules by low energy electrons. The R-Matrix code Quantemol-N has been used for calculations. The cross sections indicate the presence of a shape resonance of symmetry B_1 (A_2'' in D_3h) at around 4.5 eV.

  17. Analysis of cross sections using various nuclear potential

    SciTech Connect

    Aziz, Azni Abdul; Kassim, Hasan Abu; Yusof, Norhasliza; Muhammad Zamrun, F.

    2014-05-02

    The relevant astrophysical reaction rates which are derived from the reaction cross sections are necessary input to the reaction network. In this work, we analyse several theoretical models of the nuclear potential which give better prediction of the cross sections for some selected reactions.

  18. First measurement of the charged current cross section at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, T.; Andreev, V.; Andrieu, B.; Appuhn, R.-D.; Arpagaus, M.; Babaev, A.; Bán, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Barth, M.; Bassler, U.; Beck, H. P.; Behrend, H.-J.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Bergstein, H.; Bernardi, G.; Bernet, R.; Bertrand-Coremans, G.; Besançon, M.; Biddulph, P.; Bizot, J. C.; Blobel, V.; Borras, K.; Boudry, V.; Braemer, A.; Brasse, F.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Brune, C.; Büngener, L.; Bürger, J.; Büsser, F. W.; Buniatian, A.; Burke, S.; Buschhorn, G.; Campbell, A. J.; Carli, T.; Charles, F.; Clarke, D.; Clegg, A. B.; Colombo, M.; Coughlan, J. A.; Courau, A.; Coutures, Ch.; Cozzika, G.; Criegee, L.; Cussans, D. G.; Cvach, J.; Dagoret, S.; Dainton, J. B.; Danilov, M.; Dann, A. W. E.; Dau, W. D.; Daum, K.; David, M.; Deffur, E.; Delcourt, B.; Del Buono, L.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.; Dollfus, C.; Dowell, J. D.; Dreis, H. B.; Duboc, J.; Düllmann, D.; Dünger, O.; Duhm, H.; Ebert, J.; Ebert, T. R.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Ehrlichmann, H.; Eichenberger, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellison, R. J.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Evrard, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Feeken, D.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Ferrarotto, F.; Flamm, K.; Flauger, W.; Fleischer, M.; Flieser, M.; Flügge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Fominykh, B.; Forbush, M.; Formánek, J.; Foster, J. M.; Franke, G.; Fretwurst, E.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamerdinger, K.; Garvey, J.; Gayler, J.; Gebauer, M.; Gellrich, A.; Genzel, H.; Gerhards, R.; Goerlach, U.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Goldner, D.; Goodall, A. M.; Gorelov, I.; Goritchev, P.; Grab, C.; Grässler, H.; Grässler, R.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, G.; Gruber, C.; Haack, J.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Hamon, O.; Hampel, M.; Hanlon, E. M.; Hapke, M.; Haynes, W. J.; Heatherington, J.; Hedberg, V.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herma, R.; Herynek, I.; Hildesheim, W.; Hill, P.; Hilton, C. D.; Hladký, J.; Hoeger, K. C.; Höppner, M.; Huet, Ph.; Hufnagel, H.; Ibbotson, M.; Itterbeck, H.; Jabiol, M.-A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jacobsson, C.; Jaffre, M.; Janoth, J.; Jansen, T.; Jönsson, L.; Johannsen, K.; Johnson, D. P.; Johnson, L.; Jung, H.; Kalmus, P. I. P.; Kant, D.; Kazarian, S.; Kaschowitz, R.; Kasselmann, P.; Kathage, U.; Kaufmann, H. H.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kermiche, S.; Keuker, C.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Knies, G.; Ko, W.; Köhler, T.; Kolanoski, H.; Kole, F.; Kolya, S. D.; Korbel, V.; Korn, M.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S. K.; Krasny, M. W.; Krehbiel, H.; Krücker, D.; Krüger, U.; Krüner-Marquis, M.; Kubenka, J. P.; Küster, H.; Kuhlen, M.; Kurča, T.; Kurzhöfer, J.; Kuznik, B.; Lacour, D.; Lamarche, F.; Lander, R.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Lanius, P.; Laporte, J. F.; Lebedev, A.; Leverenz, C.; Levonian, S.; Ley, Ch.; Lindner, A.; Lindström, G.; Linsel, F.; Lipinski, J.; Loch, P.; Lohmander, H.; Lopez, G. C.; Lüers, D.; Lüke, D.; Magnussen, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mani, S.; Marage, P.; Marshall, R.; Martens, J.; Martin, R.; Martyn, H.-U.; Martyniak, J.; Masson, S.; Mavroidis, A.; Maxfield, S. J.; McMahon, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Mercer, D.; Merz, T.; Meyer, C. A.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Milone, V.; Milstead, D.; Moreau, F.; Morris, J. V.; Müller, G.; Murín, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Nawrath, G.; Newman, P. R.; Newton, D.; Neyret, D.; Nguyen, H. K.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nisius, R.; Nowak, G.; Noyes, G. W.; Nyberg-Werther, M.; Oberlack, H.; Obrock, U.; Olsson, J. E.; Panitch, A.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peppel, E.; Perez, E.; Phillips, J. P.; Pichler, Ch.; Pitzl, D.; Pope, G.; Prell, S.; Prosi, R.; Rädel, G.; Raupach, F.; Reimer, P.; Reinshagen, S.; Ribarics, P.; Riech, V.; Riedlberger, J.; Riess, S.; Rietz, M.; Robertson, S. M.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rosenbauer, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Royon, C.; Rüter, K.; Ruffer, M.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sahlmann, N.; Sanchez, E.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Savitsky, M.; Schacht, P.; Schleper, P.; von Schlippe, W.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, D.; Schöning, A.; Schröder, V.; Schulz, M.; Schwab, B.; Schwind, A.; Seehausen, U.; Sefkow, F.; Sell, R.; Semenov, A.; Shekelyan, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shooshtari, H.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Siegmon, G.; Siewert, U.; Sirois, Y.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Smirnov, P.; Smith, J. R.; Soloviev, Y.; Spitzer, H.; Staroba, P.; Steenbock, M.; Steffen, P.; Steinberg, R.; Stella, B.; Stephens, K.; Stier, J.; Stiewe, J.; Stösslein, U.; Strachota, J.; Straumann, U.; Struczinski, W.; Sutton, J. P.; Tapprogge, S.; Taylor, R. E.; Tchernyshov, V.; Thiebaux, C.; Thompson, G.; Tichomirov, I.; Truöl, P.; Turnau, J.; Tutas, J.; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallée, C.; Van Esch, P.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vartapetian, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vecko, M.; Verrecchia, P.; Villet, G.; Wacker, K.; Wagener, A.; Walker, I. W.; Walther, A.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Weber, M.; Wegener, D.; Wegner, A.; Wellisch, H. P.; West, L. R.; Willard, S.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.-G.; Wolff, Th.; Wright, A. E.; Wünsch, E.; Wulff, N.; Yiou, T. P.; Žáček, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zimmer, M.; Zimmermann, W.; Zomer, F.; Zuber, K.; H1 Collaboration

    1994-03-01

    The cross section of the charged current process e-p → ve + hadrons is measured at HERA for transverse momenta of the hadron system larger than 25 GeV. The size of the cross section exhibits the W propagator.

  19. Benchmark Calculations of Electron-Impact Differential Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, I.; Bostock, C. J.; Fursa, D. V.; Hines, C. W.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Stelbovics, A. T.

    2011-05-11

    The calculation of electron-atom excitation and ionization cross section is considered in both the non-relativistic and relativistic scattering theory. We consider electron collisions with H, He, Cs, and Hg. Differential cross sections for elastic scattering and ionization are presented.

  20. Learning of Cross-Sectional Anatomy Using Clay Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Kim, Ji-Young; Choe, Yeon Hyeon

    2009-01-01

    We incorporated clay modeling into gross anatomy and neuro-anatomy courses to help students understand cross-sectional anatomy. By making clay models, cutting them and comparing cut surfaces to CT and MR images, students learned how cross-sectional two-dimensional images were created from three-dimensional structure of human organs. Most students…

  1. Learning of Cross-Sectional Anatomy Using Clay Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Kim, Ji-Young; Choe, Yeon Hyeon

    2009-01-01

    We incorporated clay modeling into gross anatomy and neuro-anatomy courses to help students understand cross-sectional anatomy. By making clay models, cutting them and comparing cut surfaces to CT and MR images, students learned how cross-sectional two-dimensional images were created from three-dimensional structure of human organs. Most students…

  2. Cross sections for electron collisions with nitric oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Itikawa, Yukikazu

    2016-09-15

    Cross section data are reviewed for electron collisions with nitric oxide. Collision processes considered are total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational, vibrational, and electronic states, ionization, and dissociative electron attachment. After a survey of the literature (up to the end of 2015), recommended values of the cross section are determined, as far as possible.

  3. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Carbon Monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Itikawa, Yukikazu

    2015-03-15

    Cross section data are collected and reviewed for electron collisions with carbon monoxide. Collision processes included are total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational, vibrational and electronic states, ionization, and dissociation. For each process, recommended values of the cross sections are presented, when possible. The literature has been surveyed through to the end of 2013.

  4. Urban food insecurity in the context of high food prices: a community based cross sectional study in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Birhane, Tesfay; Shiferaw, Solomon; Hagos, Seifu; Mohindra, Katia Sarla

    2014-07-04

    High food prices have emerged as a major global challenge, especially for poor and urban households in low-income countries such as Ethiopia. However, there is little empirical evidence on urban food security and how people living in urban areas are coping with sustained high food prices. This study aims to address this gap by investigating the food insecurity situation in urban Ethiopia -a country experiencing sustained high food prices, high rates of urban poverty, and a growing urban population. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from January 18 to February 14, 2012. A total of 550 households were selected from three sub-cities of Addis Ababa using three-stage sampling technique. Data were collected using questionnaire based interview with household heads. Items in the questionnaire include, among others, basic socioeconomic variables, dietary diversity and coping strategies. Food security status of households was assessed by a Household Food Insecurity Access Score. Data analysis was done using SPSS software and both univariate and bivariate analysis were done. The study found that 75% of households were food insecure and 23% were in a state of hunger. Households with higher food insecurity scores tend to have lower dietary diversity and are less likely to consume high quality diets. Reduction in meal size and shifting to poor quality/less expensive/food types were among the common coping strategies to high food price used by households. Household incomes, occupational and educational status of household heads were significant determinants of food security. Food insecurity in Ethiopia is not only a rural problem. Urban food insecurity is a growing concern due to the toxic combination of high rates of urban poverty, high dependency of urban households on food supplied by the market, and fluctuating food prices. Household food insecurity was particularly high among low income households and those headed by uneducated, daily wagers and

  5. Urban food insecurity in the context of high food prices: a community based cross sectional study in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High food prices have emerged as a major global challenge, especially for poor and urban households in low-income countries such as Ethiopia. However, there is little empirical evidence on urban food security and how people living in urban areas are coping with sustained high food prices. This study aims to address this gap by investigating the food insecurity situation in urban Ethiopia -a country experiencing sustained high food prices, high rates of urban poverty, and a growing urban population. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from January 18 to February 14, 2012. A total of 550 households were selected from three sub-cities of Addis Ababa using three-stage sampling technique. Data were collected using questionnaire based interview with household heads. Items in the questionnaire include, among others, basic socioeconomic variables, dietary diversity and coping strategies. Food security status of households was assessed by a Household Food Insecurity Access Score. Data analysis was done using SPSS software and both univariate and bivariate analysis were done. Results The study found that 75% of households were food insecure and 23% were in a state of hunger. Households with higher food insecurity scores tend to have lower dietary diversity and are less likely to consume high quality diets. Reduction in meal size and shifting to poor quality/less expensive/food types were among the common coping strategies to high food price used by households. Household incomes, occupational and educational status of household heads were significant determinants of food security. Conclusion Food insecurity in Ethiopia is not only a rural problem. Urban food insecurity is a growing concern due to the toxic combination of high rates of urban poverty, high dependency of urban households on food supplied by the market, and fluctuating food prices. Household food insecurity was particularly high among low income households and those headed by

  6. Risk of child obesity from parental obesity: analysis of repeat national cross-sectional surveys.

    PubMed

    McLoone, Philip; Morrison, David S

    2014-04-01

    To estimate the potential to reduce childhood obesity through targeted interventions of overweight households. Cross-sectional nationally representative samples of the Scottish population. Households in Scotland during 2008 and 2009. A total of 1651 households with parents and children aged 2-15 years. The WHO cut-off points for adult body mass index (BMI): overweight (25 to <30 kg/m2) and obese (≥30 kg/m2). Overweight and obesity in childhood respectively defined as a BMI 85th to <95th percentile and ≥95th percentile based on 1990 reference centiles. Thirty-two percent (600/1849) of children and 75% (966/1290) of adults were overweight or obese. Seventy-five percent (1606/2128) of all children lived with a parent who was overweight or obese. Among obese children, 58% (185/318) lived with an obese parent. The population attributable risk percentage of child obesity associated with parental obesity was 32.5%. Targeting obese households would require substantial falls in adult weight and need to reach 38% of all children; it might achieve a reduction in the prevalence of childhood obesity of 14% in these households (from 26% to 12%). Targeting parents with BMI ≥ 40 might reduce the overall prevalence of child obesity by 9%. Such an intervention would require large weight loss, consistent with approaches used for morbidly obese adults; it would involve 4% of all children and lead to a reduction in the prevalence of obesity in these households from 57% to 16%. Family-based interventions for obesity would be most efficiently targeted at obese children whose parents are morbidly obese.

  7. Temperature-dependent high resolution absorption cross sections of propane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beale, Christopher A.; Hargreaves, Robert J.; Bernath, Peter F.

    2016-10-01

    High resolution (0.005 cm-1) absorption cross sections have been measured for pure propane (C3H8). These cross sections cover the 2550-3500 cm-1 region at five temperatures (from 296 to 700 K) and were measured using a Fourier transform spectrometer and a quartz cell heated by a tube furnace. Calibrations were made by comparison to the integrated cross sections of propane from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. These are the first high resolution absorption cross sections of propane for the 3 μm region at elevated temperatures. The cross sections provided may be used to monitor propane in combustion environments and in astronomical sources such as the auroral regions of Jupiter, brown dwarfs and exoplanets.

  8. Fission Cross Section Measurements of Actinides at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    F. Tovesson; A. B. Laptev; T. S. Hill

    2011-08-01

    Fission cross sections of a range of actinides have been measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in support of nuclear energy applications. By combining measurement at two LANSCE facilities, Lujan Center and the Weapons Neutron Research center (WNR), differential cross sections can be measured from sub-thermal energies up to 200 MeV. Incident neutron energies are determined using the time-of-flight method, and parallel-plate ionization chambers are used to measure fission cross sections relative to the 235U standard. Recent measurements include the 233, 238U, 239-242Pu, and 243Am neutron-induced fission cross sections. In this paper preliminary results for fission cross sections of 243Am and 233U will be presented.

  9. On river cross-sectional change in the Niger Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abam, T. K. S.; Omuso, W. O.

    2000-08-01

    A network of dominantly distributary river systems dissects the superficial deposits of the Niger Delta comprising alluvial sediments. Changes in river cross-sections are instigated mainly by bank failures, fluctuations in discharge, and bed degradation by fluvial processes. The relative importance of factors causing river cross-sectional change was ranked, based on a deterministic sensitivity technique involving partial differentiation of soil properties, flow characteristics, and geometrical parameters of the river channels. Analysis suggests that steep bank inclination and high flow velocity/discharge are the major causes of cross-sectional change, while interlocking of soil grains is the major erosion-restraining factor. Sensitivity coefficients were used further to generate susceptibility indices, indicating the vulnerability of channel cross-sections to change. Based on this, the risks of channel cross-sectional change were compared at different sites.

  10. Temperature-dependent absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicovich, J. M.; Wine, P. H.

    1988-01-01

    Relative absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor were measured over the temperature ranges 285-381 K for lambda = 230 nm-295 nm and 300-381 K for lambda = 193 nm-350 nm. The well established 298 K cross sections at 202.6 and 228.8 nm were used as an absolute calibration. A significant temperature dependence was observed at the important tropospheric photolysis wavelengths lambda over 300 nm. Measured cross sections were extrapolated to lower temperatures, using a simple model which attributes the observed temperature dependence to enhanced absorption by molecules possessing one quantum of O-O stretch vibrational excitation. Upper tropospheric photodissociation rates calculated using the extrapolated cross sections are about 25 percent lower than those calculated using currently recommended 298 K cross sections.

  11. Electron collision cross section sets of TMS and TEOS vapours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, S.; Takahashi, K.; Satoh, K.; Itoh, H.

    2017-05-01

    Reliable and detailed sets of electron collision cross sections for tetramethylsilane [TMS, Si(CH3)4] and tetraethoxysilane [TEOS, Si(OC2H5)4] vapours are proposed. The cross section sets of TMS and TEOS vapours include 16 and 20 kinds of partial ionization cross sections, respectively. Electron transport coefficients, such as electron drift velocity, ionization coefficient, and longitudinal diffusion coefficient, in those vapours are calculated by Monte Carlo simulations using the proposed cross section sets, and the validity of the sets is confirmed by comparing the calculated values of those transport coefficients with measured data. Furthermore, the calculated values of the ionization coefficient in TEOS/O2 mixtures are compared with measured data to confirm the validity of the proposed cross section set.

  12. DPA Cross Section Library FermiDPA 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Pronskikh, V. S.; Mokhov, N. V.

    2013-06-05

    DPA cross section library FermiDPA 1.0 based on the industry standard NRT model calculations is described. The library contains DPA cross sections for neutrons in the energy range 10$^{-5}$ eV 20 (150) MeV. Calculations used neutron-induced reaction cross sections from ENDFB-VII database of evaluated nuclear data. The NJOY99 nuclear data processing system's module HEATR was applied to calculate NRT model radiation damage cross sections. The FermiDPA 1.0 library is a database of 395 text files (for 395 known isotopes) with DPA cross sections. It is code-independent and can be implemented in any transport code.

  13. Fission cross section measurements of actinides at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Tovesson, Fredrik; Laptev, Alexander B; Hill, Tony S

    2010-01-01

    Fission cross sections of a range of actinides have been measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in support of nuclear energy applications. By combining measurement at two LANSCE facilities, Lujan Center and the Weapons Neutron Research center (WNR), differential cross sections can be measured from sub-thermal energies up to 200 MeV. Incident neutron energies are determined using the time-of-flight method, and parallel-plate ionization chambers are used to measure fission cross sections relative to the {sup 235}U standard. Recent measurements include the {sup 233,238}U, {sup 239,242}Pu and {sup 243}Am neutron-induced fission cross sections. In this paper preliminary results for cross section data of {sup 243}Am and {sup 233}U will be presented.

  14. Analytical approximations for X-ray cross sections 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggs, Frank; Lighthill, Ruth

    1988-08-01

    This report updates our previous work that provided analytical approximations to cross sections for both photoelectric absorption of photons by atoms and incoherent scattering of photons by atoms. This representation is convenient for use in programmable calculators and in computer programs to evaluate these cross sections numerically. The results apply to atoms of atomic numbers between 1 and 100 and for photon energies greater than or equal to 10 eV. The photoelectric cross sections are again approximated by four-term polynomials in reciprocal powers of the photon energy. There are now more fitting intervals, however, than were used previously. The incoherent-scattering cross sections are based on the Klein-Nishina relation, but use simpler approximate equations for efficient computer evaluation. We describe the averaging scheme for applying these atomic results to any composite material. The fitting coefficients are included in tables, and the cross sections are shown graphically.

  15. Temperature-dependent absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicovich, J. M.; Wine, P. H.

    1988-03-01

    Relative absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor were measured over the temperature ranges 285-381 K for lambda = 230 nm-295 nm and 300-381 K for lambda = 193 nm-350 nm. The well established 298 K cross sections at 202.6 and 228.8 nm were used as an absolute calibration. A significant temperature dependence was observed at the important tropospheric photolysis wavelengths lambda over 300 nm. Measured cross sections were extrapolated to lower temperatures, using a simple model which attributes the observed temperature dependence to enhanced absorption by molecules possessing one quantum of O-O stretch vibrational excitation. Upper tropospheric photodissociation rates calculated using the extrapolated cross sections are about 25 percent lower than those calculated using currently recommended 298 K cross sections.

  16. Manpower Planning Models. 2. Cross Sectional Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-03-01

    numerous places including Debreu and Herstein [1953 ]. Section 8 is essentially taken from Branchflower [1970]. The reader interested in pursuing the...in a Graded Manpower System," Man. Sei. (Theory) Vol. 20, pp 76-84 (1973). ’ Debreu, G. and Herstein , I. N., "Non-negative Square Matrices

  17. Health behaviours and mental health status of parents with intellectual disabilities: cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Emerson, E; Brigham, P

    2013-12-01

    The authors sought to: (1) estimate the prevalence of health behaviours, mental health and exposure to social determinants of poorer health among parents with and without intellectual disability; and (2) determine the extent to which between-group differences in health behaviours/status may be attributable to differential exposure to social determinants of poorer health. Cross sectional survey. Secondary analysis of confidentialized needs analysis data collected in three Primary Care Trusts in England on 46,023 households with young children. Households containing a parent with intellectual disabilities are at increased risk of: (1) poorer parental mental health, parental drug and alcohol abuse and smoking; (2) exposure to a range of environmental adversities. Controlling for the latter eliminated the increased risk of poorer health for single parent households headed by a person with intellectual disabilities. For two parent headed households, risk of poorer parental mental health remained elevated. The poorer health of parents with intellectual disability may be accounted for by their markedly greater risk of exposure to common social determinants of poorer health rather than being directly attributable to their intellectual disability. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cross-section adjustment techniques for BWR adaptive simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jessee, Matthew Anderson

    Computational capability has been developed to adjust multi-group neutron cross-sections to improve the fidelity of boiling water reactor (BWR) modeling and simulation. The method involves propagating multi-group neutron cross-section uncertainties through BWR computational models to evaluate uncertainties in key core attributes such as core k-effective, nodal power distributions, thermal margins, and in-core detector readings. Uncertainty-based inverse theory methods are then employed to adjust multi-group cross-sections to minimize the disagreement between BWR modeling predictions and measured plant data. For this work, measured plant data were virtually simulated in the form of perturbed 3-D nodal power distributions with discrepancies with predictions of the same order of magnitude as expected from plant data. Using the simulated plant data, multi-group cross-section adjustment reduces the error in core k-effective to less than 0.2% and the RMS error in nodal power to 4% (i.e. the noise level of the in-core instrumentation). To ensure that the adapted BWR model predictions are robust, Tikhonov regularization is utilized to control the magnitude of the cross-section adjustment. In contrast to few-group cross-section adjustment, which was the focus of previous research on BWR adaptive simulation, multigroup cross-section adjustment allows for future fuel cycle design optimization to include the determination of optimal fresh fuel assembly designs using the adjusted multi-group cross-sections. The major focus of this work is to efficiently propagate multi-group neutron cross-section uncertainty through BWR lattice physics calculations. Basic neutron cross-section uncertainties are provided in the form of multi-group cross-section covariance matrices. For energy groups in the resolved resonance energy range, the cross-section uncertainties are computed using an infinitely-dilute approximation of the neutron flux. In order to accurately account for spatial and

  19. Upper bound on the spin-flip cross section from unitarity, total cross section and the forward slope

    SciTech Connect

    Sakmar, I.A.

    1981-03-01

    For the spin 0--spin 1/2 particle scattering we give a method to construct an upper bound on the spin-flip cross section with the variational calculus using as constraints the total cross section, the forward slope and the full unitarity.

  20. Cross-Sectional Drawing Techniques And The Artist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, William A.

    1980-07-01

    Although Democritus, a Greek pholosopher of the fifth century B.C. described the use of cross-sections in analyzing a solid form, this method was not extensively developed in art until the Renaissance. The earliest treatise documenting the integration of the cross-section and linear perspective is Piero della Francesca's De prospective pingendi (c. 1480), in which a drawing of the human head is mathematically conceived and plotted by means of cross-section contours. Piero's method anticipates contemporary biostereometric techniques and current theories of visual perception. Outside of theoretical treatises the complete cross-section rarely occurs in art, though certain pictorial elements such as the religious halo can be interpreted as cross-sections. The chan-ging representation of the halo in art of the Medieval, Renaissance and Baroque periods parallels the development of the artist's concepts and techniques for representing form and space. During the Renaissance and Baroque periods the widespread use of contour hatching, a drawing technique based on the cross-section, indicates that the cross-section concept has played a greater role in pictorial representation than has generally been recognized.

  1. Diffusion cross sections for potassium ? and ? levels in rare gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahyaei-Moayyed, F.; Hickman, A. P.; Streater, A. D.

    1996-02-01

    We have used a light-induced drift (LID) experiment to determine ratios of cross sections for diffusion of potassium in the excited 0953-4075/29/3/011/img3, 0953-4075/29/3/011/img4 and the ground 0953-4075/29/3/011/img5 levels in five rare gases. The measured ratios are combined with the ground-state cross sections and statistically averaged excited cross sections, available from a previously reported light induced diffusive pulling experiment, to obtain the absolute cross sections for individual fine structure levels. We also report calculated cross sections based on available potential curves and a coupled-channel theory. Rough qualitative agreement is generally found between the absolute cross sections inferred from experiment and the theoretical values. The light-induced drift experiments, however, measure ratios of cross section differences that are highly sensitive to the potential curves. It is found that the available potential curves are not adequate for predicting these measured ratios.

  2. Cross Section Sensitivity and Propagated Errors in HZE Exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinbockel, John H.; Wilson, John W.; Blatnig, Steve R.; Qualls, Garry D.; Badavi, Francis F.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2005-01-01

    It has long been recognized that galactic cosmic rays are of such high energy that they tend to pass through available shielding materials resulting in exposure of astronauts and equipment within space vehicles and habitats. Any protection provided by shielding materials result not so much from stopping such particles but by changing their physical character in interaction with shielding material nuclei forming, hopefully, less dangerous species. Clearly, the fidelity of the nuclear cross-sections is essential to correct specification of shield design and sensitivity to cross-section error is important in guiding experimental validation of cross-section models and database. We examine the Boltzmann transport equation which is used to calculate dose equivalent during solar minimum, with units (cSv/yr), associated with various depths of shielding materials. The dose equivalent is a weighted sum of contributions from neutrons, protons, light ions, medium ions and heavy ions. We investigate the sensitivity of dose equivalent calculations due to errors in nuclear fragmentation cross-sections. We do this error analysis for all possible projectile-fragment combinations (14,365 such combinations) to estimate the sensitivity of the shielding calculations to errors in the nuclear fragmentation cross-sections. Numerical differentiation with respect to the cross-sections will be evaluated in a broad class of materials including polyethylene, aluminum and copper. We will identify the most important cross-sections for further experimental study and evaluate their impact on propagated errors in shielding estimates.

  3. Electron impact ionization cross sections of beryllium-tungsten clusters*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukuba, Ivan; Kaiser, Alexander; Huber, Stefan E.; Urban, Jan; Probst, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We report calculated electron impact ionization cross sections (EICSs) of beryllium-tungsten clusters, BenW with n = 1,...,12, from the ionization threshold to 10 keV using the Deutsch-Märk (DM) and the binary-encounter-Bethe (BEB) formalisms. The positions of the maxima of DM and BEB cross sections are mostly close to each other. The DM cross sections are more sensitive with respect to the cluster size. For the clusters smaller than Be4W they yield smaller cross sections than BEB and vice versa larger cross sections than BEB for clusters larger than Be6W. The maximum cross section values for the singlet-spin groundstate clusters range from 7.0 × 10-16 cm2 at 28 eV (BeW) to 54.2 × 10-16 cm2 at 43 eV (Be12W) for the DM cross sections and from 13.5 × 10-16 cm2 at 43 eV (BeW) to 38.9 × 10-16 cm2 at 43 eV (Be12W) for the BEB cross sections. Differences of the EICSs in different isomers and between singlet and triplet states are also explored. Both the DM and BEB cross sections could be fitted perfectly to a simple expression used in modeling and simulation codes in the framework of nuclear fusion research. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Atomic Cluster Collisions (7th International Symposium)", edited by Gerardo Delgado Barrio, Andrey Solov'Yov, Pablo Villarreal, Rita Prosmiti.Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjd/e2015-60583-7

  4. Review of electron impact excitation cross sections for copper atom

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, N.W.; Hazi, A.U.

    1982-02-01

    Excitation of atomic copper by electron impact plays an important role in the copper vapor laser and accurate cross sections are needed for understanding and modeling laser performance. During the past seven years, there have been several attempts to normalize the relative elastic and inelastic cross sections measured by Trajmar and coworkers. However, each of these efforts have yielded different cross sections, and the uncertainty in the correct normalization of the data has been a source of confusion and concern for the kinetic modeling efforts. This difficulty has motivated us to review previous work on the electron impact excitation of copper atom and to perform new calculations of the inelastic cross sections using the impact parameter method. In this memorandum we review the previous attempts to normalize the experimental data and provide a critical assessment of the accuracy of the resulting cross sections. We also present new theoretical cross sections for the electron impact excitation of the /sup 2/S ..-->.. /sup 2/P/sup 0/ and /sup 2/S ..-->.. /sup 2/D transitions in copper. When the experimental cross sections are renormalized to the results of the impact parameter calculations, they are a factor of three smaller than those published in the latest paper of Trajmar et. al. At impact energies above 60 eV the excitation cross sections obtained with the impact parameter method agree well with the results of the very recent, unpublished, close-coupling calculations of Henry. This agreement suggests that the present normalization of the experimental cross sections is probably the most reliable one obtained to date.

  5. Fission cross sections in the intermediate energy region

    SciTech Connect

    Lisowski, P.W.; Gavron, A.; Parker, W.E.; Ullmann, J.L.; Balestrini, S.J. ); Carlson, A.D.; Wasson, O.A. ); Hill, N.W. )

    1991-01-01

    Until recently there has been very little cross section data for neutron-induced fission in the intermediate energy region, primarily because no suitable neutron source has existed. At Los Alamos, the WNR target-4 facility provides a high-intensity source of neutrons nearly ideal for fission measurements extending from a fraction of a MeV to several hundred MeV. This paper summarizes the status of fission cross section data in the intermediate energy range (En > 30 MeV) and presents our fission cross section data for {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U compared to intranuclear cascade and statistical model predictions.

  6. Infrared absorption cross sections of propane broadened by hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, A.; Hargreaves, R. J.; Billinghurst, B.; Bernath, P. F.

    2017-09-01

    Fourier transform infrared absorption cross-sections of pure propane (C3H8) and propane broadened with H2 have been calculated from transmittance spectra recorded at temperatures from 292 K to 205 K. Transmittance spectra were recorded at the Canadian Light Source (CLS) Far-Infrared beamline, utilizing both the synchrotron source and the internal glowbar source. The absorption cross-sections have been calibrated to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) reference cross-sections of propane and can be used to interpret astronomical observations of giant planets such as Jupiter and Saturn as well as exoplanets.

  7. Actinide neutron-induced fission cross section measurements at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Tovesson, Fredrik K; Laptev, Alexander B; Hill, Tony S

    2010-01-01

    Fission cross sections of a range of actinides have been measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in support of nuclear energy applications in a wide energy range from sub-thermal energies up to 200 MeV. A parallel-plate ionization chamber are used to measure fission cross sections ratios relative to the {sup 235}U standard while incident neutron energies are determined using the time-of-flight method. Recent measurements include the {sup 233,238}U, {sup 239-242}Pu and {sup 243}Am neutron-induced fission cross sections. Obtained data are presented in comparison with ex isting evaluations and previous data.

  8. The 208Pb(n,γ) cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, H.; Rochow, W.; Käppeler, F.; Rauscher, T.

    2003-05-01

    The Maxwellian average neutron capture (MAC) cross section of 208Pb has been reinvestigated. With the activation technique cross section measurements were performed at 25, 30, 52, 104, 149, and 215 keV. At 30 keV we succeeded to measure the direct p-wave capture part of the 208Pb capture cross section. The s-process at the termination of the synthesis has been analyzed. Independent calculations of s- and r-process yield a consistent decomposition for the Pb and Bi isotopic s- and r-contributions.

  9. Neutron total scattering cross sections of elemental antimony

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.; Whalen, J.F.

    1982-11-01

    Neutron total cross sections are measured from 0.8 to 4.5 MeV with broad resolutions. Differential-neutron-elastic-scattering cross sections are measured from 1.5 to 4.0 MeV at intervals of 50 to 200 keV and at scattering angles distributed between 20 and 160 degrees. Lumped-level neutron-inelastic-scattering cross sections are measured over the same angular and energy range. The exPerimental results are discussed in terms of an optical-statistical model and are compared with respective values given in ENDF/B-V.

  10. How Couples Manage the Household: Work and Power in Cross-National Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treas, Judith; Tai, Tsui-o

    2012-01-01

    Despite many studies on the gendered division of housework, there is little research on how couples divide the work of household management. Relative resource theories of household bargaining inform analyses of who does the housework, but their applicability to household management is unclear, if only because management responsibility may be…

  11. How Couples Manage the Household: Work and Power in Cross-National Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treas, Judith; Tai, Tsui-o

    2012-01-01

    Despite many studies on the gendered division of housework, there is little research on how couples divide the work of household management. Relative resource theories of household bargaining inform analyses of who does the housework, but their applicability to household management is unclear, if only because management responsibility may be…

  12. A genetic algorithm to reduce stream channel cross section data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berenbrock, C.

    2006-01-01

    A genetic algorithm (GA) was used to reduce cross section data for a hypothetical example consisting of 41 data points and for 10 cross sections on the Kootenai River. The number of data points for the Kootenai River cross sections ranged from about 500 to more than 2,500. The GA was applied to reduce the number of data points to a manageable dataset because most models and other software require fewer than 100 data points for management, manipulation, and analysis. Results indicated that the program successfully reduced the data. Fitness values from the genetic algorithm were lower (better) than those in a previous study that used standard procedures of reducing the cross section data. On average, fitnesses were 29 percent lower, and several were about 50 percent lower. Results also showed that cross sections produced by the genetic algorithm were representative of the original section and that near-optimal results could be obtained in a single run, even for large problems. Other data also can be reduced in a method similar to that for cross section data.

  13. Section B, general view of steel cross with new World ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section B, general view of steel cross with new World Trade Center 7 in background, looking northwest. (BH) - World Trade Center Site, Bounded by Vesey, Church, Liberty Streets, & Route 9A, New York County, NY

  14. Photocopy of "sheet 6 of 8" showing cross section of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of "sheet 6 of 8" showing cross section of house, front elevation, fire finder stand, hip roof cap, and shiplap roof sheathing. - Badger Mountain Lookout, .125 mile northwest of Badger Mountain summit, East Wenatchee, Douglas County, WA

  15. Scaling Cross Sections for Ion-atom Impact Ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Igor D. Kaganovich; Edward Startsev; Ronald C. Davidson

    2003-06-06

    The values of ion-atom ionization cross sections are frequently needed for many applications that utilize the propagation of fast ions through matter. When experimental data and theoretical calculations are not available, approximate formulas are frequently used. This paper briefly summarizes the most important theoretical results and approaches to cross section calculations in order to place the discussion in historical perspective and offer a concise introduction to the topic. Based on experimental data and theoretical predictions, a new fit for ionization cross sections is proposed. The range of validity and accuracy of several frequently used approximations (classical trajectory, the Born approximation, and so forth) are discussed using, as examples, the ionization cross sections of hydrogen and helium atoms by various fully stripped ions.

  16. 12. CLOSEUP VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF SPILLWAY FIFTY FEET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. CLOSE-UP VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF SPILLWAY FIFTY FEET FROM LAKESHORE, SHOWING REMAINS OF SPILLWAY TIMBERS, LOOKING WEST - Three Bears Lake & Dams, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  17. Radiative neutron capture cross sections on 176Lu at DANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roig, O.; Jandel, M.; Méot, V.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A. J.; Haight, R. C.; Keksis, A. L.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.

    2016-03-01

    The cross section of the neutron capture reaction 176Lu(n ,γ ) has been measured for a wide incident neutron energy range with the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The thermal neutron capture cross section was determined to be (1912 ±132 ) b for one of the Lu natural isotopes, 176Lu. The resonance part was measured and compared to the Mughabghab's atlas using the R -matrix code, sammy. At higher neutron energies the measured cross sections are compared to ENDF/B-VII.1, JEFF-3.2, and BRC evaluated nuclear data. The Maxwellian averaged cross sections in a stellar plasma for thermal energies between 5 keV and 100 keV were extracted using these data.

  18. 20. CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF HORSE MESA, SHOWING RIGHT SPILLWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF HORSE MESA, SHOWING RIGHT SPILLWAY SUPERSTRUCTURE AND CONCRETE PLACEMENT LINES August 2, 1927 - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  19. 36. CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF ORIGINAL HORSE MESA DAM POWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF ORIGINAL HORSE MESA DAM POWER PLANT, LOOKING NORTH. ONLY TWO OF THE THREE UNITS ARE VISIBLE - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  20. Cross section for the subthreshold fission of {sup 236}U

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseev, A. A.; Bergman, A. A.; Berlev, A. I.; Koptelov, E. A.; Samylin, B. F.; Trufanov, A. M.; Fursov, B. I.; Shorin, V. S.

    2008-08-15

    The cross section for {sup 236}U fission in the neutron-energy range E{sub n} = 0.001-20 keV was measured by using the INR RAS (Institute of Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow) LSDS-100 neutron spectrometer of the lead slowing-down spectrometer type. The resonance fission areas of the resonances at 5.45 eV and 1.28 keV were found, and the fission widths of these resonances were evaluated. The cross section for the {sup 238}U(n, f) fission process was measured, and the threshold sensitivity of the LSDS-100 to small values of fission cross sections was estimated. The well-known intermediate structure in the cross section for the neutron-induced subbarrier fission of {sup 236}U was confirmed.

  1. Cross section for the subthreshold fission of 236U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, A. A.; Bergman, A. A.; Berlev, A. I.; Koptelov, E. A.; Samylin, B. F.; Trufanov, A. M.; Fursov, B. I.; Shorin, V. S.

    2008-08-01

    The cross section for 236U fission in the neutron-energy range E n = 0.001 20 keV was measured by using the INR RAS (Institute of Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow) LSDS-100 neutron spectrometer of the lead slowing-down spectrometer type. The resonance fission areas of the resonances at 5.45 eV and 1.28 keV were found, and the fission widths of these resonances were evaluated. The cross section for the 238U( n, f) fission process was measured, and the threshold sensitivity of the LSDS-100 to small values of fission cross sections was estimated. The well-known intermediate structure in the cross section for the neutron-induced subbarrier fission of 236U was confirmed.

  2. Superstructure Main Bridge, Cross Sections, Cantilever Structure Huey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Superstructure - Main Bridge, Cross Sections, Cantilever Structure - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  3. Total cross sections for ultracold neutrons scattered from gases

    DOE PAGES

    Seestrom, Susan Joyce; Adamek, Evan R.; Barlow, Dave; ...

    2017-01-30

    Here, we have followed up on our previous measurements of upscattering of ultracold neutrons (UCNs) from a series of gases by making measurements of total cross sections on the following gases hydrogen, ethane, methane, isobutene, n-butane, ethylene, water vapor, propane, neopentane, isopropyl alcohol, and 3He. The values of these cross sections are important for estimating the loss rate of trapped neutrons due to residual gas and are relevant to neutron lifetime measurements using UCNs. The effects of the UCN velocity and path-length distributions were accounted for in the analysis using a Monte Carlo transport code. Results are compared to ourmore » previous measurements and with the known absorption cross section for 3He scaled to our UCN energy. We find that the total cross sections for the hydrocarbon gases are reasonably described by a function linear in the number of hydrogen atoms in the molecule.« less

  4. Total cross sections for ultracold neutrons scattered from gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seestrom, S. J.; Adamek, E. R.; Barlow, D.; Blatnik, M.; Broussard, L. J.; Callahan, N. B.; Clayton, S. M.; Cude-Woods, C.; Currie, S.; Dees, E. B.; Fox, W.; Hoffbauer, M.; Hickerson, K. P.; Holley, A. T.; Liu, C.-Y.; Makela, M.; Medina, J.; Morley, D. J.; Morris, C. L.; Pattie, R. W.; Ramsey, J.; Roberts, A.; Salvat, D. J.; Saunders, A.; Sharapov, E. I.; Sjue, S. K. L.; Slaughter, B. A.; Walstrom, P. L.; Wang, Z.; Wexler, J.; Womack, T. L.; Young, A. R.; Vanderwerp, J.; Zeck, B. A.

    2017-01-01

    We have followed up on our previous measurements of upscattering of ultracold neutrons (UCNs) from a series of gases by making measurements of total cross sections on the following gases hydrogen, ethane, methane, isobutene, n -butane, ethylene, water vapor, propane, neopentane, isopropyl alcohol, and 3He . The values of these cross sections are important for estimating the loss rate of trapped neutrons due to residual gas and are relevant to neutron lifetime measurements using UCNs. The effects of the UCN velocity and path-length distributions were accounted for in the analysis using a Monte Carlo transport code. Results are compared to our previous measurements and with the known absorption cross section for 3He scaled to our UCN energy. We find that the total cross sections for the hydrocarbon gases are reasonably described by a function linear in the number of hydrogen atoms in the molecule.

  5. 56. CROSS SECTION OF POWERHOUSE, PROJECT 1933, EXHIBIT F, SANTA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. CROSS SECTION OF POWERHOUSE, PROJECT 1933, EXHIBIT F, SANTA ANA POWERHOUSE NO. 1. SCE drawing no. 5206856 (no date; FERC no. 1933-46). - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-1 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  6. 8. VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF THE EASTERNMOST WALL SEGMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF THE EASTERNMOST WALL SEGMENT THAT SHOWS THE TRENCHING AND 1960 PIPELINE CORRIDOR BETWEEN THE WALL SEGMENTS, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST - Rock Wall, North side of Battle Creek Canyon, Shingletown, Shasta County, CA

  7. 4. DETAIL VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURE, SHOWING EXTERIOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURE, SHOWING EXTERIOR FACINGS LINED WITH RUBBLE BACKING AND EARTH INFILL, LOOKING EAST - Rock Wall, North side of Battle Creek Canyon, Shingletown, Shasta County, CA

  8. A new technique for dosimetry reaction cross-section evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Badikov, S.A.

    2011-07-01

    Document available in abstract form only, full text of document follows: An objective of this paper is a unification of the procedure for dosimetry reaction cross-section evaluation. A set of requirements for the unified evaluation procedure is presented. A new code (ORTHO) was developed in order to meet these requirements. A statistical model, an algorithm, and the basic formulae employed in the code are described. The code was used for Ti48(n,p) reaction cross-section evaluation. The results of the evaluation are compared to International Reactor Dosimetry File (IRDF)-2002 data. The evaluated cross-sections and their correlations from this work are in good agreement with the IRDF-2002 evaluated data, whereas the uncertainties of the evaluated cross-sections are inconsistent. (authors)

  9. Neutral pion cross section measurement at K2K

    SciTech Connect

    Mariani, C.

    2007-12-21

    In this paper we report the measurement of the rate of the single {pi}{sup o} production in the K2K close detector. Neutral current single {pi}{sup o} production is measured in Oxygen, in the 1 KT detector. The cross section ratio relative to the total charged current cross section is found to be: 0.063{+-}0.001(stat.){+-}0.006(syst.) in good agreement with the Monte Carlo expectation. Inclusive charged current {pi}{sup o} production is measured in C{sub 8}H{sub 8}, in the SciBar detector, the cross section ratio for these processes relative to the charged current quasi elastic neutrino cross section is found to be 0.306{+-}0.023(stat.){+-}0.025(syst.) showing an excess of (39{+-}15)% (statistical and systematic error added in quadrature) with respect to the prediction of our reference Monte Carlo.

  10. Stellar (n ,γ ) cross sections of 23Na

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uberseder, E.; Heil, M.; Käppeler, F.; Lederer, C.; Mengoni, A.; Bisterzo, S.; Pignatari, M.; Wiescher, M.

    2017-02-01

    The cross section of the 23Na(n ,γ )24Na reaction was measured via the activation method at the Karlsruhe 3.7 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. NaCl samples were exposed to quasistellar neutron spectra at k T =5.1 and 25 keV produced via the 18O(p ,n )18F and 7Li(p ,n )7Be reactions, respectively. The derived capture cross sections <σ> kT =5 keV=9.1 ±0.3 mb and <σ> kT =25 keV=2.03 ±0.05 mb are significantly lower than reported in literature. These results were used to substantially revise the radiative width of the first 23Na resonance and to establish an improved set of Maxwellian average cross sections. The implications of the lower capture cross section for current models of s -process nucleosynthesis are discussed.

  11. Theory in Evaluation of Actinide Fission and Capture Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, J. Eric

    2005-05-24

    We discuss the possibilities and limitations of the use of theory as a tool in the evaluation of actinide fission and capture cross sections. We consider especially the target 235U as an example. We emphasize the roles of intermediate structure in the fission cross section and of level width fluctuations in both intermediate structure and fine structure, noting that these lead to a breakdown of Hauser-Feshbach theory at sub-barrier and near-barrier energies. At higher energies (where fluctuation-averaged Hauser-Feshbach theory is applicable) semi-quantitative and intuitive representations of transition state spectra and barrier level density functions have to be tested against experimental data wherever these are available. Adjustment of the fission cross section against inelastic scattering to the much better known levels of the residual nucleus should then lead to a fairly sound estimate of the capture cross section. We compare such estimates with evaluated and experimental data for 235U.

  12. Photocopy of longitudinal, cross sections and roof plan of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of longitudinal, cross sections and roof plan of the C.B. & Q. R.R. roundhouse and locomotive shops. June 1980. - Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, Roundhouse & Shops, Broadway & Spring Streets, Aurora, Kane County, IL

  13. Local Deplanation Of Double Reinforced Beam Cross Section Under Bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltov, Anguel; Yanakieva, Ana

    2015-12-01

    Bending of beams, double reinforced by means of thin composite layers, is considered in the study. Approximate numerical solution is proposed, considering transitional boundary areas, where smooth quadratic transition of the elasticity modulus and deformations take place. Deplanation of the cross section is also accounted for in the areas. Their thickness is found equalizing the total stiffness of the cross section and the layer stiffness. Deplanation of the cross section of the transitional area is determined via the longitudinal deformation in the reinforcing layer, accounting for the equilibrium between the internal and the external moment, generated by the longitudinal stresses in the cross section. A numerical example is given as an illustration demonstrating model's plausibility. The model allows the design and the calculation of recycled concrete beams double reinforced by means of thin layers. The approach is in agreement with modern design of nearly zero energy buildings (NZEB).

  14. Inelastic cross sections for electron interactions in liquid water

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, R.N.; Ritchie, R.H.; Turner, J.E.; Wright, H.A.

    1982-01-01

    The task was to develop a set of cross sections for electron inelastic processes in liquid water suitable for use in a Monte Carlo transport calculation. Results are plotted as inverse mean free paths vs electron energy. (DLC)

  15. Electron-Impact Total Ionization Cross Sections of Hydrocarbon Ions

    PubMed Central

    Irikura, Karl K.; Kim, Yong-Ki; Ali, M. A.

    2002-01-01

    The Binary-Encounter-Bethe (BEB) model for electron-impact total ionization cross sections has been applied to CH2+, CH3+, CH4+, C2H2+, C2H4+, C2H6+ and H3O+. The cross sections for the hydrocarbon ions are needed for modeling cool plasmas in fusion devices. No experimental data are available for direct comparison. Molecular constants to generate total ionization cross sections at arbitrary incident electron energies using the BEB formula are presented. A recent experimental result on the ionization of H3O+ is found to be almost 1/20 of the present theory at the cross section peak. PMID:27446718

  16. 28. CROSS SECTION OF A RECTANGULAR COKE OVEN SHOWING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. CROSS SECTION OF A RECTANGULAR COKE OVEN SHOWING THE INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF THE OVEN. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

  17. 15. Power plant elevations and cross sections, sheet 64 of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Power plant elevations and cross sections, sheet 64 of 130 - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  18. Hadronic cross sections, elastic slope and physical bounds

    SciTech Connect

    Fagundes, D. A.; Menon, M. J.

    2013-03-25

    An almost model-independent parametrization for the ratio of the total hadronic cross section to elastic slope is discussed. Its applicability in studies of asymptotia and analyses of extensive air shower in cosmic-ray physics is also outlined.

  19. Public perception of drinking water safety in South Africa 2002-2009: a repeated cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jim A; Yang, Hong; Rivett, Ulrike; Gundry, Stephen W

    2012-07-27

    In low and middle income countries, public perceptions of drinking water safety are relevant to promotion of household water treatment and to household choices over drinking water sources. However, most studies of this topic have been cross-sectional and not considered temporal variation in drinking water safety perceptions. The objective of this study is to explore trends in perceived drinking water safety in South Africa and its association with disease outbreaks, water supply and household characteristics. This repeated cross-sectional study draws on General Household Surveys from 2002-2009, a series of annual nationally representative surveys of South African households, which include a question about perceived drinking water safety. Trends in responses to this question were examined from 2002-2009 in relation to reported cholera cases. The relationship between perceived drinking water safety and organoleptic qualities of drinking water, supply characteristics, and socio-economic and demographic household characteristics was explored in 2002 and 2008 using hierarchical stepwise logistic regression. The results suggest that perceived drinking water safety has remained relatively stable over time in South Africa, once the expansion of improved supplies is controlled for. A large cholera outbreak in 2000-02 had no apparent effect on public perception of drinking water safety in 2002. Perceived drinking water safety is primarily related to water taste, odour, and clarity rather than socio-economic or demographic characteristics. This suggests that household perceptions of drinking water safety in South Africa follow similar patterns to those observed in studies in developed countries. The stability over time in public perception of drinking water safety is particularly surprising, given the large cholera outbreak that took place at the start of this period.

  20. Public perception of drinking water safety in South Africa 2002–2009: a repeated cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In low and middle income countries, public perceptions of drinking water safety are relevant to promotion of household water treatment and to household choices over drinking water sources. However, most studies of this topic have been cross-sectional and not considered temporal variation in drinking water safety perceptions. The objective of this study is to explore trends in perceived drinking water safety in South Africa and its association with disease outbreaks, water supply and household characteristics. Methods This repeated cross-sectional study draws on General Household Surveys from 2002–2009, a series of annual nationally representative surveys of South African households, which include a question about perceived drinking water safety. Trends in responses to this question were examined from 2002–2009 in relation to reported cholera cases. The relationship between perceived drinking water safety and organoleptic qualities of drinking water, supply characteristics, and socio-economic and demographic household characteristics was explored in 2002 and 2008 using hierarchical stepwise logistic regression. Results The results suggest that perceived drinking water safety has remained relatively stable over time in South Africa, once the expansion of improved supplies is controlled for. A large cholera outbreak in 2000–02 had no apparent effect on public perception of drinking water safety in 2002. Perceived drinking water safety is primarily related to water taste, odour, and clarity rather than socio-economic or demographic characteristics. Conclusion This suggests that household perceptions of drinking water safety in South Africa follow similar patterns to those observed in studies in developed countries. The stability over time in public perception of drinking water safety is particularly surprising, given the large cholera outbreak that took place at the start of this period. PMID:22834485

  1. Child Feces Disposal Practices in Rural Orissa: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Majorin, Fiona; Freeman, Matthew C.; Barnard, Sharmani; Routray, Parimita; Boisson, Sophie; Clasen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background An estimated 2.5 billion people worldwide lack access to improved sanitation facilities. While large-scale programs in some countries have increased latrine coverage, they sometimes fail to ensure optimal latrine use, including the safe disposal of child feces, a significant source of exposure to fecal pathogens. We undertook a cross-sectional study to explore fecal disposal practices among children in rural Orissa, India in villages where the Government of India's Total Sanitation Campaign had been implemented at least three years prior to the study. Methods and Findings We conducted surveys with heads of 136 households with 145 children under 5 years of age in 20 villages. We describe defecation and feces disposal practices and explore associations between safe disposal and risk factors. Respondents reported that children commonly defecated on the ground, either inside the household (57.5%) for pre-ambulatory children or around the compound (55.2%) for ambulatory children. Twenty percent of pre-ambulatory children used potties and nappies; the same percentage of ambulatory children defecated in a latrine. While 78.6% of study children came from 106 households with a latrine, less than a quarter (22.8%) reported using them for disposal of child feces. Most child feces were deposited with other household waste, both for pre-ambulatory (67.5%) and ambulatory (58.1%) children. After restricting the analysis to households owning a latrine, the use of a nappy or potty was associated with safe disposal of feces (OR 6.72, 95%CI 1.02–44.38) though due to small sample size the regression could not adjust for confounders. Conclusions In the area surveyed, the Total Sanitation Campaign has not led to high levels of safe disposal of child feces. Further research is needed to identify the actual scope of this potential gap in programming, the health risk presented and interventions to minimize any adverse effect. PMID:24586864

  2. Association between pregnancy intention and optimal breastfeeding practices in the Philippines: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ulep, Valerie Gilbert T; Borja, Maridel P

    2012-07-23

    The effect of pregnancy intention on post-natal practices like breastfeeding is still poorly understood in the Philippines. In this light, this study aims to determine the association between pregnancy intention and optimal breastfeeding practices in the Philippines. This is a cross-sectional study design using the 2003 Philippine National Demographic and Health Survey. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the independent association of pregnancy intention and optimal breastfeeding practices. The study includes 3,044 last-born children aged 6-36 months at the time of survey. Dead children were also included as long as their age of death satisfies the age criterion. Children born from mistimed pregnancies are more likely to have late breastfeeding initiation compared to children born from wanted pregnancies (OR = 1.44; 90%CI: 1.17-1.78). However, this occurs only among children belonging to households with low socio-economic status. Among children belonging to households with high socio-economic status, no significant effect of pregnancy intention on breastfeeding initiation was observed. Children born from unwanted pregnancies are less likely to have short breastfeeding duration (OR = 0.60; 90%CI: 0.48-0.76). However, this occurs only among children belonging to households with high socioeconomic status. No significant effect of pregnancy intention on breastfeeding duration was observed among children belonging to households with low socio-economic status. The findings of this study suggest that there are different effects of pregnancy intention on the two types of optimal breastfeeding practices examined. With regards to breastfeeding duration, it was found that among infants belonging to high SES, the odds of having short breastfeeding duration is lower among children born from unwanted pregnancies compared to children born from wanted one. Conversely, children belonging to low SES household, the odds of having late breastfeeding

  3. Absorption cross sections of the ClO dimer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huder, K. J.; DeMore, W. B.

    1995-01-01

    The absorption cross sections of the ClO dimer, ClOOCl, are important to the photochemistry of ozone depletion in the Antarctic. In this work, new measurements were made of the dimer cross sections at 195 K. the results yield somewhat lower values in the long wavelength region, compared to those currently recommended in the NASA data evaluation (JPL 94-26). The corresponding solar photodissociation rates in the Antarctic are reduced by about 40%.

  4. Top Quark Pair Production Cross Section at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Reinhild Yvonne

    2015-09-25

    The top quark, discovered in 1995 by the CDF and D0 collaborations at the Tevatron proton antiproton collider at Fermilab, has undergone intense studies in the last 20 years. Currently, CDF and D0 converge on their measurements of top-antitop quark production cross sections using the full Tevatron data sample. In these proceedings, the latest results on inclusive and differential measurements of top-antitop quark production cross sections at the Tevatron are reported.

  5. Gluon Saturation and the Total Proton-Air Cross Section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, F.; Durães, F. O.; Szpigel, S.; Navarra, F. S.

    In this work we propose a simple model for the total proton-air cross section, which is an improvement of the minijet model with the inclusion of a window in the pT-spectrum associated to the saturation physics. Our approach introduces a natural cutoff for the perturbative calculations which modifies the energy behavior of this component. The saturated component is calculated with a dipole model. The results are compared with experimental cross sections measured in cosmic ray experiments.

  6. Relativistic corrections in K-shell ionization cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Sheth, C.V.

    1984-03-01

    Relativistic effects on a modified version of Rutherford's scattering cross section are considered up to first-order in the Born approximation for relativistic velocities in the binary-encounter approximation (BEA). The predicted cross sections with protons as projectile are lower than the previous theoretical values at low energies and are seen to be in better agreement with measurements. An approximate relativistic correction factor which accounts for orbital electrons only is compared with exact Dirac corrections, within the BEA model.

  7. Enhancing the optical cross section of quantum antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingfeng; Zhou, Ming; Ying, Lei; Chen, Xuewen; Yu, Zongfu

    2017-01-01

    The classical radio-frequency antenna theory indicates that large cross sections can be realized through directional radiation. In this paper, a similar principle is applied in quantum systems, in which quantum antennas, constructed by a cluster of quantum two-level systems, explore the collective excitation of two-level systems to realize large directivity. Both the optical cross section and the coherent time can be dramatically enhanced in free space, far exceeding the case of a single two-level system.

  8. Experimental nuclear cross sections for spacecraft shield analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peelle, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Experiments have been performed to validate and to supplement the intranuclear cascade model as a method for estimating cross sections of importance to spacecraft shield design. The experimental situation is inconclusive particularly for neutron-producing reactions, but is relatively sound for reaction cross sections and for proton spectra at several hundred MeV at medium forward angles. Secondary photon contributions are imprecisely known.

  9. Asymptotic neutrino-nucleon cross section and saturation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Fiore, R.; Papa, A.; Jenkovszky, L.L.; Kotikov, A.V.; Paccanoni, F.

    2006-03-01

    In this paper we present a simple analytic expression for the (spin-averaged) neutrino-nucleon cross section for ultrahigh energies at twist-2, obtained as the asymptotic limit of our previous findings. This expression gives values for the cross section in remarkable numerical agreement with the previous numerical evaluation in the energy region relevant for forthcoming neutrino experiments. Moreover, we discuss the role and the relevance of saturation and recombination effects in our approach, in comparison with other recent suggestions.

  10. A Cross-Sectional Comparison of Army Advertising Attributes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    that identifies the needs and characteristics of individuals in the Armys’ prime market , as well as their exposure to Army advertising . One way the Army...U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences N Research Report 1578 A Cross-Sectional Comparison I of Army Advertising ...62785A 791 2105 H01 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) A Cross-Sectional Comparison of Army Advertising Attributes 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S

  11. Differential cross sections for positron-xenon elastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Marler, J. P.; Surko, C. M.; McEachran, R. P.; Stauffer, A. D.

    2006-06-15

    Absolute measurements of differential cross sections for the elastic scattering of positrons from xenon are made at 2, 5 and 8 eV using a trap-based beam and the technique of measuring scattering cross sections in a strong magnetic field. Calculations are carried out using the relativistic Dirac equations with a static plus polarization potential. Generally good absolute agreement is found between experiment and theory.

  12. Thermal neutron capture cross sections of tellurium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomandl, I.; Honzátko, J.; von Egidy, T.; Wirth, H.-F.; Belgya, T.; Lakatos, M.; Szentmiklósi, L.; Révay, Zs.; Molnár, G. L.; Firestone, R. B.; Bondarenko, V.

    2003-12-01

    New values for thermal neutron capture cross sections of the tellurium isotopes 122 Te , 124 Te , 125 Te , 126 Te , 128 Te , and 130 Te are reported. These values are based on a combination of newly determined partial γ -ray cross sections obtained from experiments on targets contained natural Te and γ intensities per capture of individual Te isotopes. Isomeric ratios for the thermal neutron capture on the even tellurium isotopes are also given.

  13. Photoproduction models for total cross section and shower development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornet, Fernando; Garcia Canal, Carlos; Grau, Agnes; Pancheri, Giulia; Sciutto, Sergio

    2015-08-01

    A model for the total photoproduction cross section, based on the ansatz that resummation of infrared gluons limits the rise induced by QCD minijets in all the total cross-sections, is used to simulate extended air showers initiated by cosmic rays with the AIRES simulation program. The impact on common shower observables, especially those related with muon production, is analysed and compared with the corresponding results obtained with previous photoproduction models.

  14. On the interweaving of partial cross sections of different parity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devries, P. L.; George, T. F.

    1979-01-01

    Partial cross sections of definite parity, calculated for electronic-rotational energy transfer in the F +H2 collision system, interweave with increasing total angular momentum J. An explanation, in terms of diabatic curve crossings induced by the centrifugal potential in the body-fixed coordinate system, predicts the interweaving to occur only in systems having half-integer J.

  15. Status of the Neutron Cross-Section Standards Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Carlson, Allan D.; Vonach, Herbert

    2005-05-01

    A new evaluation of the neutron cross-section standards is now underway. This evaluation has been supported by the Working Party on International Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC), the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG), and an International Atomic Energy Agency Coordinated Research Program (CRP). The CRP has had the dominant role in producing these evaluations. An important goal is to produce the standards needed for the upcoming new ENDF/B-VII library. Since most neutron cross-section measurements are made relative to neutron cross-section standards, the standards evaluation is of crucial importance. The standard reactions to be evaluated are: H(n,n), 3He(n,p), 6Li(n,t), 10B(n,α), 10B(n,α1γ), C(n,n), Au(n,γ), 235U(n,f), and 238U(n,f). These standards should receive international acceptance to ensure that all evaluation projects use the same set of standards. The last complete evaluation of the standards dates back almost 20 years. In the meantime quite a number of new and improved measurements have occurred for the cross-section standards. International efforts are presently underway to update the experimental database and to improve the evaluation process. Due to the need for high-energy standards, the energy range is being extended to 200 MeV for some of the cross-section standards.

  16. Photodissociation cross section of ClOOCl at 330 nm.

    PubMed

    Jin, Bing; Chen, I-Cheng; Huang, Wen-Tsung; Lien, Chien-Yu; Guchhait, Nikhil; Lin, Jim J

    2010-04-15

    The photolysis rate of ClOOCl is crucial in the catalytic destruction of polar stratospheric ozone. In this work, we determined the photodissociation cross section of ClOOCl at 330 nm with a molecular beam and with mass-resolved detection. The photodissociation cross section is the product of the absorption cross section and the dissociation quantum yield. We formed an effusive molecular beam of ClOOCl at a nozzle temperature of 200 or 250 K and determined its photodissociation probability by measuring the decrease of the ClOOCl intensity upon laser irradiation. By comparing with a reference molecule (Cl(2)), of which the absorption cross section and dissociation quantum yield are well-known, we determined the absolute photodissociation cross section of ClOOCl at 330 nm to be (2.31 +/- 0.11) x 10(-19) cm(2) at 200 K and (2.47 +/- 0.12) x 10(-19) cm(2) at 250 K. Impurity interference has been a well-recognized problem in conventional spectroscopic studies of ClOOCl; our mass-resolved measurement directly overcomes such a problem. This measurement of the ClOOCl photolysis cross section at 330 nm is particularly useful in constraining its atmospheric photolysis rate, which in the polar stratosphere peaks near this wavelength.

  17. Krypton charge exchange cross sections for Hall effect thruster models

    SciTech Connect

    Hause, Michael L.; Prince, Benjamin D.; Bemish, Raymond J.

    2013-04-28

    Following discharge from a Hall effect thruster, charge exchange occurs between ions and un-ionized propellant atoms. The low-energy cations produced can disturb operation of onboard instrumentation or the thruster itself. Charge-exchange cross sections for both singly and doubly charged propellant atoms are required to model these interactions. While xenon is the most common propellant currently used in Hall effect thrusters, other propellants are being considered, in particular, krypton. We present here guided-ion beam measurements and comparisons to semiclassical calculations for Kr{sup +} + Kr and Kr{sup 2+} + Kr cross sections. The measurements of symmetric Kr{sup +} + Kr charge exchange are in good agreement with both the calculations including spin-orbit effects and previous measurements. For the symmetric Kr{sup 2+} + Kr reaction, we present cross section measurements for center-of-mass energies between 1 eV and 300 eV, which spans energies not previously examined experimentally. These cross section measurements compare well with a simple one-electron transfer model. Finally, cross sections for the asymmetric Kr{sup 2+} + Kr {yields} Kr{sup +} + Kr{sup +} reaction show an onset near 12 eV, reaching cross sections near constant value of 1.6 A{sup 2} with an exception near 70-80 eV.

  18. General Constraints on Cross Sections Deduced from Surrogate Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, W

    2003-08-14

    Cross sections that cannot be measured in the laboratory, e.g. because the target lifetime is too short, can be inferred indirectly from a different reaction forming the same compound system, but with a more accessible beam/target combination (the ''surrogate-reaction'' technique). The reactions share the same compound system and a common decay mechanism, but they involve different formation processes. Therefore, an implicit constraint is imposed on the inferred cross section deduced from the measured surrogate-reaction data, through the common decay mechanism. In this paper, the mathematical consequences of this implicit constraint are investigated. General formulas are derived from upper and lower bounds on the inferred cross section, estimated from surrogate data in a procedure which does not require any modeling of the common decay process. As an example, the formulas developed here are applied to the case of the {sup 235}U(n,f) cross section, deduced from {sup 234}U(t,pf) surrogate data. The calculated bounds are not very tight in this particular case. However, by introducing a few qualitative assumptions about the physics of the fission process, meaningful bounds on the deduced cross section are obtained. Upper and lower limits for the cross-section ratio of the (n,f) reaction on the {sup 235}U isomer at E{sub x} = 77 eV relative to the (n,f) reaction on the ground state are also calculated. The generalization of this technique to other surrogate reactions is discussed.

  19. Thermoelastic damping in microrings with circular cross-section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pu; Fang, Yuming; Zhang, Jianrun

    2016-01-01

    Predicting thermoelastic damping (TED) is crucial in the design of high Q micro-resonators. Microrings are often critical components in many micro-resonators. Some analytical models for TED in microrings have already been developed in the past. However, the previous works are limited to the microrings with rectangular cross-section. The temperature field in the rectangular cross-section is one-dimensional. This paper deals with TED in the microrings with circular cross-section. The temperature field in the circular cross-section is two-dimensional. This paper first presents a 2-D analytical model for TED in the microrings with circular cross-section. Only the two-dimensional heat conduction in the circular cross-section is considered. The heat conduction along the circumferential direction of the microring is neglected in the 2-D model. Then the 2-D model has been extended to cover the circumferential heat conduction, and a 3-D analytical model for TED has been developed. The analytical results from the present 2-D and 3-D models show good agreement with the numerical results of FEM model. The limitations of the present 2-D analytical model are assessed.

  20. Coulomb and nuclear effects in breakup and reaction cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Descouvemont, P.; Canto, L. F.; Hussein, M. S.

    2017-01-01

    We use a three-body continuum discretized coupled channel (CDCC) model to investigate Coulomb and nuclear effects in breakup and reaction cross sections. The breakup of the projectile is simulated by a finite number of square integrable wave functions. First we show that the scattering matrices can be split in a nuclear term and in a Coulomb term. This decomposition is based on the Lippmann-Schwinger equation and requires the scattering wave functions. We present two different methods to separate both effects. Then, we apply this separation to breakup and reaction cross sections of 7Li+208Pb . For breakup, we investigate various aspects, such as the role of the α +t continuum, the angular-momentum distribution, and the balance between Coulomb and nuclear effects. We show that there is a large ambiguity in defining the Coulomb and nuclear breakup cross sections, since both techniques, although providing the same total breakup cross sections, strongly differ for the individual components. We suggest a third method which could be efficiently used to address convergence problems at large angular momentum. For reaction cross sections, interference effects are smaller, and the nuclear contribution is dominant above the Coulomb barrier. We also draw attention to different definitions of the reaction cross section which exist in the literature and which may induce small, but significant, differences in the numerical values.

  1. Updated ozone absorption cross section will reduce air quality compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofen, E. D.; Evans, M. J.; Lewis, A. C.

    2015-07-01

    Photometric ozone measurements rely upon an accurate value of the ozone absorption cross section at 253.65 nm. This has recently been reevaluated by Viallon et al. (2015) as 1.8 % smaller than the accepted value (Hearn, 1961) used for the preceding fifty years. Thus, ozone measurements that applied the older cross section systematically underestimate the amount of ozone in air. We correct the reported historical surface data from North America and Europe and find that this modest change in cross section has a significant impact on the number of locations that are out of compliance with air quality regulations if the air quality standards remain the same. We find 18, 23, and 20 % increases in the number of sites that are out of compliance with current US, Canadian, and European ozone air quality health standards for the year 2012. Should the new cross section value be applied, it would impact attainment of air quality standards and compliance with relevant clean air acts, unless the air quality target values themselves were also changed proportionately. We draw attention to how a small change in gas metrology has a global impact on attainment and compliance with legal air quality standards. We suggest that further laboratory work to evaluate the new cross section is needed and suggest three possible technical and policy responses should the new cross section be adopted.

  2. Updated ozone absorption cross section will reduce air quality compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofen, E. D.; Evans, M. J.; Lewis, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Photometric ozone measurements rely upon an accurate value of the ozone absorption cross section at 253.65 nm. This has recently been re-evaluated by Viallon et al. (2015) as 1.8 % smaller than the accepted value (Hearn, 1961) used for the preceding 50 years. Thus, ozone measurements that applied the older cross section systematically underestimate the amount of ozone in air. We correct the reported historical surface data from North America and Europe and find that this modest change in cross section has a significant impact on the number of locations that are out of compliance with air quality regulations if the air quality standards remain the same. We find 18, 23, and 20 % increases in the number of sites that are out of compliance with current US, Canadian, and European ozone air quality health standards for the year 2012. Should the new cross-section value be applied, it would impact attainment of air quality standards and compliance with relevant clean air acts, unless the air quality target values themselves were also changed proportionately. We draw attention to how a small change in gas metrology has a global impact on attainment and compliance with legal air quality standards. We suggest that further laboratory work to evaluate the new cross section is needed and suggest three possible technical and policy responses should the new cross section be adopted.

  3. Studies of 54,56Fe Neutron Scattering Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, S. F.; Vanhoy, J. R.; French, A. J.; Henderson, S. L.; Howard, T. J.; Pecha, R. L.; Santonil, Z. C.; Crider, B. P.; Liu, S.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Peters, E. E.; Prados-Estévez, F. M.; Ross, T. J.; Yates, S. W.

    2015-05-01

    Elastic and inelastic neutron scattering differential cross sections and γ-ray production cross sections have been measured on 54,56Fe at several incident energies in the fast neutron region between 1.5 and 4.7 MeV. All measurements were completed at the University of Kentucky Accelerator Laboratory (UKAL) using a 7-MV Model CN Van de Graaff accelerator, along with the neutron production and neutron and γ-ray detection systems located there. The facilities at UKAL allow the investigation of both elastic and inelastic scattering with nearly mono-energetic incident neutrons. Time-of-flight techniques were used to detect the scattered neutrons for the differential cross section measurements. The measured cross sections are important for fission reactor applications and also for testing global model calculations such as those found at ENDF, since describing both the elastic and inelastic scattering is important for determining the direct and compound components of the scattering mechanism. The γ-ray production cross sections are used to determine cross sections to unresolved levels in the neutron scattering experiments. Results from our measurements and comparisons to model calculations are presented.

  4. Electron cross-sections and transport in liquids and biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Ronald; Casey, M.; Cocks, D.; Konvalov, D.; Brunger, M. J.; Garcia, G.; Petrovic, Z.; McEachran, R.; Buckman, S. J.; de Urquijo, J.

    2016-09-01

    Modelling of electron induced processes in plasma medicine and radiation damage is reliant on accurate self-consistent sets of cross-sections for electrons in tissue. These cross-sections (and associated transport theory) must accurately account not only the electron-biomolecule interactions but also for the soft-condensed nature of tissue. In this presentation, we report on recent swarm experiments for electrons in gaseous water and tetrahydrofuran using the pulsed-Townsend experiment, and the associated development of self-consistent cross-section sets that arise from them. We also report on the necessary modifications to gas-phase cross-sections required to accurately treat electron transport in liquids. These modifications involve the treatment of coherent scattering and screening of the electron interaction potential as well as the development of a new transport theory to accommodate these cross-sections. The accuracy of the ab-initio cross-sections is highlighted through comparison of theory and experiment for electrons in liquid argon and xenon.

  5. Measured data used in the Watusi cross-section sets

    SciTech Connect

    Mustafa, M; Nethaway, D R

    1999-02-09

    In this document we list the experimental data that were used to make up the major cross- section sets that we use in the Watusi code to calculate the amount of detector activation in device tests. In order to use experimental data to make up a cross-section set, it is often necessary to extrapolate the cross sections down to either the threshold energy or to 0.01 keV, and to extrapolate up to 20 MeV. We then fit the data to a function so that we can get a smoothed set of interpolated values at up to 321 energy points. The combined data are then processed with the Hiroshima code into flux-weighted, group-averaged cross sections for use with the output from the different physics design codes. We typically use the standard 53 or 175 energy group structures. In a recent companion memo 1 we described the make up of all of the cross-section sets in detail, giving references to both the experimental data and the theoretical calculations that were used. The following sections have the experimental data, in the form of energy-cross section pairs, for the titanium, chromium, bromine, krypton, yttrium, zirconium, iodine, europium, lutetium, and bismuth sets. The other cross-section sets are not directly based on enough experimental data to warrant their listing here. Many of the reactions used in these sets are based on calculated cross sections. In making these calculations certain parameters are sometimes adjusted so that the calculated cross sections match experimental data. In some of these cases we have made a further normalization to give a closer agreement to selected experimental data, and such normalizations are noted in this document. In other cases no further normalization was made. In Table 1 we summarize the reactions for which we present the experimental data given in Tables 2-46. In Figs. 1-35 we show plots of the experimental data together with the actual excitation functions used in the cross-section sets. Some reactions in the current sets are based on

  6. The Dacha Debate: Household Agriculture and Labor Markets in Post-Socialist Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southworth, Caleb

    2006-01-01

    The paper examines the relationship among household agriculture, wages and household structure using panel data on urban households from 1994-2003. Experts using cross-sectional data differ on whether Russian "dachas" or garden houses are a survival strategy that households use in times of economic difficulty or a hobby of the more…

  7. The Dacha Debate: Household Agriculture and Labor Markets in Post-Socialist Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southworth, Caleb

    2006-01-01

    The paper examines the relationship among household agriculture, wages and household structure using panel data on urban households from 1994-2003. Experts using cross-sectional data differ on whether Russian "dachas" or garden houses are a survival strategy that households use in times of economic difficulty or a hobby of the more…

  8. 45. Cross Section through the Power House, from Construction Drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Cross Section through the Power House, from Construction Drawing 2042-F-23, entitled General Arrangement of Power Plant, Sections. (Original drawing, in the possession of Wyre Dick and Company, Livingston, New Jersey.) - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Engine Terminal, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  9. 44. Cross section of the Blacksmith Shop from Construction Drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Cross section of the Blacksmith Shop from Construction Drawing 2042-F-15, entitled Machine and Blacksmith Shop; Plan, Elevations, and Sections. (Original drawing, in the possession of Wyre Dick and Company, Livingston, New Jersey.) - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Engine Terminal, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  10. b Quark production cross sections and the b {minus} {bar b} correlated production cross section at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, B.T.; CDF Collaboration

    1993-09-01

    Recent results on b quark and B meson production cross sections have been obtained at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV proton-antiproton collisions using the Collider Detector Facility (CDF) at Fermilab, using the exclusive decay modes B{sup {+-}} {yields}J/{Psi} K{sup {+-}} and B{sup 0} {yields} J/{Psi} K*. Another measurement made using data from the 1988--89 run on the correlated b + {bar b} cross section is also presented.

  11. Determining the partial photoionization cross-sections of ethyl radicals.

    PubMed

    FitzPatrick, B L; Maienschein-Cline, M; Butler, L J; Lee, S-H; Lin, J J

    2007-12-13

    Using a crossed laser-molecular beam scattering apparatus, these experiments photodissociate ethyl chloride at 193 nm and detect the Cl and ethyl products, resolved by their center-of-mass recoil velocities, with vacuum ultraviolet photoionization. The data determine the relative partial cross-sections for the photoionization of ethyl radicals to form C2H5+, C2H4+, and C2H3+ at 12.1 and 13.8 eV. The data also determine the internal energy distribution of the ethyl radical prior to photoionization, so we can assess the internal energy dependence of the photoionization cross-sections. The results show that the C2H4++H and C2H3++H2 dissociative photoionization cross-sections strongly depend on the photoionization energy. Calibrating the ethyl radical partial photoionization cross-sections relative to the bandwidth-averaged photoionization cross-section of Cl atoms near 13.8 eV allows us to use these data in conjunction with literature estimates of the Cl atom photoionization cross-sections to put the present bandwidth-averaged cross-sections on an absolute scale. The resulting bandwidth-averaged cross-section for the photoionization of ethyl radicals to C2H5+ near 13.8 eV is 8+/-2 Mb. Comparison of our 12.1 eV data with high-resolution ethyl radical photoionization spectra allows us to roughly put the high-resolution spectrum on the same absolute scale. Thus, one obtains the photoionization cross-section of ethyl radicals to C2H5+ from threshold to 12.1 eV. The data show that the onset of the C2H4++H dissociative photoionization channel is above 12.1 eV; this result offers a simple way to determine whether the signal observed in photoionization experiments on complex mixtures is due to ethyl radicals. We discuss an application of the results for resolving the product branching in the O+allyl bimolecular reaction.

  12. Measurement of the 242Pu neutron capture cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckner, M. Q.; Wu, C. Y.; Henderson, R. A.; Bucher, B.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Baramsai, B.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; Mosby, S.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Ullmann, J. L.; Chyzh, A.; Dance Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Precision (n,f) and (n, γ) cross sections are important for the network calculations of the radiochemical diagnostic chain for the U.S. DOE's Stockpile Stewardship Program. 242Pu(n, γ) cross section is relevant to the network calculations of Pu and Am. Additionally, new reactor concepts have catalyzed considerable interest in the measurement of improved cross sections for neutron-induced reactions on key actinides. To date, little or no experimental data has been reported on 242Pu(n, γ) for incident neutron energy below 50 keV. A new measurement of the 242Pu(n, γ) reaction was performed with the DANCE together with an improved PPAC for fission-fragment detection at LANSCE during FY14. The relative scale of the 242Pu(n, γ) cross section spans four orders of magnitude for incident neutron energies from thermal to ~ 30 keV. The absolute scale of the 242Pu(n, γ) cross section is set according to the measured 239Pu(n,f) resonance at 7.8 eV; the target was spiked with 239Pu for this measurement. The absolute 242Pu(n, γ) neutron capture cross section is ~ 30% higher than the cross section reported in ENDF for the 2.7 eV resonance. Latest results to be reported. Funded by U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344 (LLNL) and DE-AC52-06NA25396 (LANL). U.S. DOE/NNSA Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development. Isotopes (ORNL).

  13. Inclined Bodies of Various Cross Sections at Supersonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Leland H.

    1958-01-01

    To aid in assessing effects of cross-sectional shape on body aerodynamics, the forces and moments have been measured for bodies with circular, elliptic, square, and triangular cross sections at Mach numbers 1.98 and 3.88. Results for bodies with noncircular cross sections have been compared with results for bodies of revolution having the same axial distribution of cross-sectional area (and, thus, the same equivalent fineness ratio). Comparisons have been made for bodies of fineness ratios 6 and 10 at angles of attack from 0 deg to about 20 deg and for Reynolds numbers, based on body length, of 4.0 x 10(exp 6) and 6.7 x 10(exp 6). The results of this investigation show that distinct aerodynamic advantages can be obtained by using bodies with noncircular cross sections. At certain angles of bank, bodies with elliptic, square, and triangular cross sections develop considerably greater lift and lift-drag ratios than equivalent bodies of revolution. For bodies with elliptic cross sections, lift and pitching-moment coefficients can be correlated with corresponding coefficients for equivalent circular bodies. It has been found that the ratios of lift and pitching-moment coefficients for an elliptic body to those for an equivalent circular body are practically constant with change in both angle of attack and Mach number. These lift and moment ratios are given very accurately by slender-body theory. As a result of this agreement, the method of NACA Rep. 1048 for computing forces and moments for bodies of revolution has been simply extended to bodies with elliptic cross sections. For the cases considered (elliptic bodies of fineness ratios 6 and 10 having cross-sectional axis ratios of 1.5 and 2), agreement of theory with experiment is very good. As a supplement to the force and moment results, visual studies of the flow over bodies have been made by use of the vapor-screen, sublimation, and white-lead techniques. Photographs from these studies are included in the report.

  14. High occurrence of food insecurity among urban Afghan refugees in Pakdasht, Iran 2008: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi, Morteza; Abdollahi, Zahra; Sheikholeslam, Robabeh; Kalantari, Nasser; Kavehi, Ziba; Neyestani, Tirang R

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to evaluate food security and its association with anthropometric measures among Afghan refugees living in Pakdasht, one of the main harbors of Afghan refugees in the neighborhood of Tehran. A total of 414 registered Afghan refugee households were recruited in a cross-sectional study. About 88% of households were food insecure. Unemployment and socioeconomic status were the major determinants of food insecurity among the refugee households. While about 58% of women were overweight/obese, the prevalence of underweight and wasting were remarkable in children (11.0% and 12.7%, respectively), indicating a recent malnutrition. Government and organizations working for refugees must focus their activities on empowering Afghan refugees.

  15. Improved empirical parameterization for projectile fragmentation cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, B.

    2017-03-01

    A new empirical parametrization is developed for calculating the fragment cross sections in projectile fragmentation reactions at high energies (>100 MeV/nucleon). The new parametrization, FRACS, consists of two main parts, i.e., the mass yield and the isobaric distribution, on the basis of previous parametrizations. The formalism for the mass yield is improved to describe the target and the projectile energy dependences observed in measured fragmentation cross sections. The parametrization of the isobaric distribution is also modified to reproduce recent experimental data. Furthermore, an additional term is proposed and first implemented in the FRACS parametrization to account for the evident odd-even staggering effect observed in many experimental cross sections. Comparisons with extensive cross sections measured in various fragmentation reactions reveal that FRACS is in much better agreement with experimental data and can reproduce measured cross sections in most cases within a factor of 1.84, which is a much smaller rms deviation as compared to that of the recent parametrization EPAX3.

  16. Determining (n,γ) cross sections using surrogate reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scielzo, Nicholas; Escher, Jutta

    2009-10-01

    Direct measurements of neutron-reaction cross sections on unstable nuclei are extremely challenging due to the difficulties associated with radioactive targets and neutron beams. Indirect methods, such as the surrogate reaction method, are currently the only feasible way to determine many of the cross sections for radioactive nuclei that are of interest to nuclear astrophysics, nuclear energy, and other applications. We have used the surrogate reaction method to determine (n,γ) cross sections for ^153,155,157Gd nuclei at energies up to 3 MeV through inelastic proton scattering on stable targets. The STARS/LiBerACE silicon and germanium detector arrays were used to detect γ rays in coincidence with the scattered protons to determine γ-ray exit-channel probabilities. Techniques are being explored to extract reliable cross sections at energies for which the Weisskopf-Ewing limit of the Hauser-Feshbach theory is not applicable. This measurement will provide the first determination of the (n,γ) cross section for ^153Gd, an s-process branch-point nucleus with a half-life of 240 days. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  17. Modelling interaction cross sections for intermediate and low energy ions.

    PubMed

    Toburen, L H; Shinpaugh, J L; Justiniano, E L B

    2002-01-01

    When charged particles slow in tissue they undergo electron capture and loss processes that can have profound effects on subsequent interaction cross sections. Although a large amount of data exists for the interaction of bare charged particles with atoms and molecules, few experiments have been reported for these 'dressed' particles. Projectile electrons contribute to an impact-parameter-dependent screening of the projectile charge that precludes straightforward scaling of energy loss cross sections from those of bare charged particles. The objective of this work is to develop an analytical model for the energy-loss-dependent effects of screening on differential ionisation cross sections that can be used in track structure calculations for high LET ions. As a first step a model of differential ionisation cross sections for bare ions has been combined with a simple screening model to explore cross sections for intermediate and low energy dressed ions in collisions with atomic and molecular gas targets. The model is described briefly and preliminary results compared to measured ejected electron energy spectra.

  18. Theoretical Formalism To Estimate the Positron Scattering Cross Section.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suvam; Dutta, Sangita; Naghma, Rahla; Antony, Bobby

    2016-07-21

    A theoretical formalism is introduced in this article to calculate the total cross sections for positron scattering. This method incorporates positron-target interaction in the spherical complex optical potential formalism. The study of positron collision has been quite subtle until now. However, recently, it has emerged as an interesting area due to its role in atomic and molecular structure physics, astrophysics, and medicine. With the present method, the total cross sections for simple atoms C, N, and O and their diatomic molecules C2, N2, and O2 are obtained and compared with existing data. The total cross section obtained in the present work gives a more consistent shape and magnitude than existing theories. The characteristic dip below 10 eV is identified due to the positronium formation. The deviation of the present cross section with measurements at energies below 10 eV is attributed to the neglect of forward angle-discrimination effects in experiments, the inefficiency of additivity rule for molecules, empirical treatment of positronium formation, and the neglect of annihilation reactions. In spite of these deficiencies, the present results show consistent behavior and reasonable agreement with previous data, wherever available. Besides, this is the first computational model to report positron scattering cross sections over the energy range from 1 to 5000 eV.

  19. Progress on FP13 Total Cross Section Measurements Capability

    SciTech Connect

    Ullmann, John Leonard; Couture, Aaron Joseph; Koehler, Paul E.; Mocko, Michal; Mosby, Shea Morgan; Wender, Stephen Arthur

    2016-09-26

    An accurate knowledge of the neutron capture cross section is important for many applications. Experimental measurements are important since theoretical calculations of capture have been notoriously difficult, with the ratio of measured to calculated cross sections often a factor of 2 or more in the 10 keV to 1 MeV region. However, a direct measurement of capture cannot be made on many interesting radioactive nuclides because of their short half-life or backgrounds caused by their nuclear decay. On the other hand, neutron transmission measurements of the total cross section are feasible for a wide range of radioactive nuclides since the detectors are far from the sample, and often are less sensitive to decay radiation. The parameters extracted from a total cross section measurement, which include the average resonance spacing, the neutron strength function, and the average total radiation width, (Γγ), provide tight constraints on the calculation of the capture cross section, and when applied produce much more accurate results. These measurements can be made using the intense epithermal neutron flux at the Lujan Center on relatively small quantities of target material. It was the purpose of this project to investigate and develop the capability to make these measurements. A great deal of progress was made towards establishing this capability during 2016, including setting up the flight path and obtaining preliminary results, but more work remains to be done.

  20. 242Pu absolute neutron-capture cross section measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckner, M. Q.; Wu, C. Y.; Henderson, R. A.; Bucher, B.; Chyzh, A.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Baramsai, B.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; Mosby, S.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Ullmann, J. L.

    2017-09-01

    The absolute neutron-capture cross section of 242Pu was measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center using the Detector for Advanced Neutron-Capture Experiments array along with a compact parallel-plate avalanche counter for fission-fragment detection. During target fabrication, a small amount of 239Pu was added to the active target so that the absolute scale of the 242Pu(n,γ) cross section could be set according to the known 239Pu(n,f) resonance at En,R = 7.83 eV. The relative scale of the 242Pu(n,γ) cross section covers four orders of magnitude for incident neutron energies from thermal to ≈ 40 keV. The cross section reported in ENDF/B-VII.1 for the 242Pu(n,γ) En,R = 2.68 eV resonance was found to be 2.4% lower than the new absolute 242Pu(n,γ) cross section.

  1. Electromagnetic Dissociation Cross Sections using Weisskopf-Ewing Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamczyk, Anne M.; Norbury, John W.

    2011-01-01

    It is important that accurate estimates of crew exposure to radiation are obtained for future long-term space missions. Presently, several space radiation transport codes exist to predict the radiation environment, all of which take as input particle interaction cross sections that describe the nuclear interactions between the particles and the shielding material. The space radiation transport code HZETRN uses the nuclear fragmentation model NUCFRG2 to calculate Electromagnetic Dissociation (EMD) cross sections. Currently, NUCFRG2 employs energy independent branching ratios to calculate these cross sections. Using Weisskopf-Ewing (WE) theory to calculate branching ratios, however, is more advantageous than the method currently employed in NUCFRG2. The WE theory can calculate not only neutron and proton emission, as in the energy independent branching ratio formalism used in NUCFRG2, but also deuteron, triton, helion, and alpha particle emission. These particles can contribute significantly to total exposure estimates. In this work, photonuclear cross sections are calculated using WE theory and the energy independent branching ratios used in NUCFRG2 and then compared to experimental data. It is found that the WE theory gives comparable, but mainly better agreement with data than the energy independent branching ratio. Furthermore, EMD cross sections for single neutron, proton, and alpha particle removal are calculated using WE theory and an energy independent branching ratio used in NUCFRG2 and compared to experimental data.

  2. Statistical Features of the Thermal Neutron Capture Cross Sections

    DOE PAGES

    Hussein, M. S.; Carlson, B. V.; Kerman, A. K.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we discuss the existence of huge thermal neutron capture cross sections in several nuclei. The values of the cross sections are several orders of magnitude bigger than expected at these very low energies. We lend support to the idea that this phenomenon is random in nature and is similar to what we have learned from the study of parity violation in the actinide region. The idea of statistical doorways is advanced as a unified concept in the delineation of large numbers in the nuclear world. The average number of maxima per unit mass, < nA > inmore » the capture cross section is calculated and related to the underlying cross section correlation function and found to be < nA > = 3/(π√2γA), where γA is a characteristic mass correlation width which designates the degree of remnant coherence in the system. Finally, we trace this coherence to nucleosynthesis which produced the nuclei whose neutron capture cross sections are considered here.« less

  3. Statistical Features of the Thermal Neutron Capture Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Hussein, M. S.; Carlson, B. V.; Kerman, A. K.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we discuss the existence of huge thermal neutron capture cross sections in several nuclei. The values of the cross sections are several orders of magnitude bigger than expected at these very low energies. We lend support to the idea that this phenomenon is random in nature and is similar to what we have learned from the study of parity violation in the actinide region. The idea of statistical doorways is advanced as a unified concept in the delineation of large numbers in the nuclear world. The average number of maxima per unit mass, < nA > in the capture cross section is calculated and related to the underlying cross section correlation function and found to be < nA > = 3/(π√2γA), where γA is a characteristic mass correlation width which designates the degree of remnant coherence in the system. Finally, we trace this coherence to nucleosynthesis which produced the nuclei whose neutron capture cross sections are considered here.

  4. Electron Impact Ionization Cross Sections in Rb and Cs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddish, T. J.; Lukomski, M.; Sutton, S.; Kedzierski, W.; McConkey, J. W.; Bartschat, K.; Bartlett, P. L.; Stelbovics, A. T.; Bray, I.

    2006-05-01

    We present a new atom trapping technique for determining absolute, total ionisation cross sections (TICS) out of an excited atom. The novel feature of this method is in utilizing Doppler cooling of neutral atoms to determine ionisation cross sections. This fluorescence-monitoring experiment, which is a variant of the `trap loss' technique, has enabled us to obtain the experimental electron impact ionisation cross sections out of the Cs 6^2P3/2 excited state between 7 - 400 eV. New CCC, R-Matrix with Pseudo-States (RMPS), and Born approximation single ionisation cross sections (SICS) are also presented for both the ground and excited states of Cs and Rb, and compared with the available experimental data. The comparison of the results reveals the importance of the autoionisation and multiple ionisation contributions to the TICS. The autoionisation contribution appears to be substantial for ionisation out of the Cs 6^2P and Rb 5^2P excited states; ˜ 3-4 larger than the direct ionisation contribution predicted by CCC at ˜ 30-50 eV. This surprising result shows the importance of multi-electron processes in determining the ionisation cross sections of heavy alkali atoms.

  5. Experience With the SCALE Criticality Safety Cross Section Libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, S.M.

    2000-08-21

    This report provides detailed information on the SCALE criticality safety cross-section libraries. Areas covered include the origins of the libraries, the data on which they are based, how they were generated, past experience and validations, and performance comparisons with measured critical experiments and numerical benchmarks. The performance of the SCALE criticality safety cross-section libraries on various types of fissile systems are examined in detail. Most of the performance areas are demonstrated by examining the performance of the libraries vs critical experiments to show general trends and weaknesses. In areas where directly applicable critical experiments do not exist, performance is examined based on the general knowledge of the strengths and weaknesses of the cross sections. In this case, the experience in the use of the cross sections and comparisons with the results of other libraries on the same systems are relied on for establishing acceptability of application of a particular SCALE library to a particular fissile system. This report should aid in establishing when a SCALE cross-section library would be expected to perform acceptably and where there are known or suspected deficiencies that would cause the calculations to be less reliable. To determine the acceptability of a library for a particular application, the calculational bias of the library should be established by directly applicable critical experiments.

  6. Cross-National Comparison of Attitudes toward Fathers' and Mothers' Participation in Household Tasks and Childcare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apparala, Malathi L.; Reifman, Alan; Munsch, Joyce

    2003-01-01

    Explored attitudes toward the division of fathers' and mothers' participation in childcare/household tasks using data from the Euro-barometer surveys that involved over 10,000 respondents from 13 European countries. Respondents were most likely to hold egalitarian views of household work and childcare when they were younger, female, and…

  7. Cross-National Comparison of Attitudes toward Fathers' and Mothers' Participation in Household Tasks and Childcare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apparala, Malathi L.; Reifman, Alan; Munsch, Joyce

    2003-01-01

    Explored attitudes toward the division of fathers' and mothers' participation in childcare/household tasks using data from the Euro-barometer surveys that involved over 10,000 respondents from 13 European countries. Respondents were most likely to hold egalitarian views of household work and childcare when they were younger, female, and…

  8. Pion photoproduction cross section at large momentum transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Sjoegren, Johan

    2015-02-27

    The Real Compton Scattering experiment was performed in Hall A at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. It was designed to measure, for Compton scattering and π0-photoproduction, the differential cross section over a range of kinematic points and the polarisation transfer to the proton at a single kinematic point. The full range of the experiment in Mandelstam variables t and s was 1.6-6.46 GeV2 and 4.82-10.92 GeV2 respectively with beam energies of 2-6 GeV. The motivation for the experiment is to test the cross section and polarisation transfer predictions of perturbative QCD versus that of predictions from Generalised Parton Distribution models. This thesis will give an overview of the pertinent theory, experimental setup in Hall A and the extracting of the π0-photoproduction cross section.

  9. Radiative neutron capture cross section from 236U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baramsai, B.; Jandel, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Bond, E. M.; Roman, A. R.; Rusev, G.; Walker, C. L.; Couture, A.; Mosby, S.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Ullmann, J. L.; Kawano, T.

    2017-08-01

    The 236U(n ,γ ) reaction cross section has been measured for the incident neutron energy range from 10 eV to 800 keV by using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) γ -ray calorimeter at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The cross section was determined with the ratio method, which is a technique that uses the 235U(n ,f ) reaction as a reference. The results of the experiment are reported in the resolved and unresolved resonance energy regions. Individual neutron resonance parameters were obtained below 1 keV incident energy by using the R -matrix code sammy. The cross section in the unresolved resonance region is determined with improved experimental uncertainty. It agrees with both ENDF/B-VII.1 and JEFF-3.2 nuclear data libraries. The results above 10 keV agree better with the JEFF-3.2 library.

  10. Cross-Sectional Transport Imaging in a Multijunction Solar Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Haegel, Nancy M.; Ke, Chi-Wen; Taha, Hesham; Guthrey, Harvey; Fetzer, C. M.; King, Richard

    2015-06-14

    Combining highly localized electron-beam excitation at a point with the spatial resolution capability of optical near-field imaging, we have imaged carrier transport in a cross-sectioned multijunction (GaInP/GaInAs/Ge) solar cell. We image energy transport associated with carrier diffusion throughout the full width of the middle (GaInAs) cell and luminescent coupling from point excitation in the top cell GaInP to the middle cell. Supporting cathodoluminescence and near-field photoluminescence measurements demonstrate excitation-dependent Fermi level splitting effects that influence cross-sectioned spectroscopy results as well as transport limitations on the spatial resolution of cross-sectional measurements.

  11. Large cross sections for transitions with a small energy difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, J. H.; Shakov, Kh. Kh.

    2009-05-01

    Cross sections for transitions between states with small differences in energy can be quite large. An example is the 1s-2p transition in atomic hydrogen caused by the impact of a fast charged particle [1] or a photon [3]. In such cases the actual cross section may become much larger than the simple geometric cross section. Such transitions are often difficult to observe in the laboratory. However, they can be evaluated numerically. This effect can be significant in analysis of astrophysical data, as pointed out by T. Nandi [2]. I discuss a few examples of calculations and give a physical explanation for this effect. [4pt] [1] J.H. McGuire, D. J. Land, J. G. Brennan and G. Basbas, Phys. Rev. A19, 2180 (1979).[0pt] [2] Kh.Kh. Shakov and J.H. McGuire, Phys. Rev. A67 033405 (2003). [0pt] [3] T. Nandi, private communication, 2008.

  12. Reaction cross sections of the deformed halo nucleus 31Ne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urata, Y.; Hagino, K.; Sagawa, H.

    2012-10-01

    Using the Glauber theory, we calculate reaction cross sections for the deformed halo nucleus 31Ne. To this end, we assume that the 31Ne nucleus takes the 30Ne+n structure. To take into account the rotational excitation of the core nucleus 30Ne, we employ the particle-rotor model (PRM). We compare the results to those in the adiabatic limit of PRM, that is, the Nilsson model, and show that the Nilsson model works reasonably well for the reaction cross sections of 31Ne. We also investigate the dependence of the reaction cross sections on the ground-state properties of 31Ne, such as the deformation parameter and the p-wave component in the ground-state wave function.

  13. Absorption Cross-Sections of Sodium Diatomic Molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Zeng-Shevan

    1985-01-01

    The absorption cross sections of sodium dimers were studied using a heat pipe over operating in the non-heat-pipe mode. Three wavelength regions were observed. They are in the red, the green-blue, and the near ultraviolet regions. The absorption cross section depends on the wavelength of the incident light. Representative peak values for the v"=0 progression in the red and green-blue regions are 2.59 A sup 2 (average value) and 11.77 A sup 2 (T sub ave=624 K). The value for the C greater than X transitions is several tenths A sup 2. The cross sections were measured from absorption spectra taken as a function of temperature.

  14. 63Ni (n ,γ ) cross sections measured with DANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigand, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Göbel, K.; Heftrich, T.; Jandel, M.; Käppeler, F.; Lederer, C.; Kivel, N.; Korschinek, G.; Krtička, M.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Ostermöller, J.; Plag, R.; Reifarth, R.; Schumann, D.; Ullmann, J. L.; Wallner, A.

    2015-10-01

    The neutron capture cross section of the s -process branch nucleus 63Ni affects the abundances of other nuclei in its region, especially 63Cu and 64Zn. In order to determine the energy-dependent neutron capture cross section in the astrophysical energy region, an experiment at the Los Alamos National Laboratory has been performed using the calorimetric 4 π BaF2 array DANCE. The (n ,γ ) cross section of 63Ni has been determined relative to the well-known 197Au standard with uncertainties below 15%. Various 63Ni resonances have been identified based on the Q value. Furthermore, the s -process sensitivity of the new values was analyzed with the new network calculation tool NETZ.

  15. High Energy Measurement of the Deuteron Photodisintegration Differential Cross Section

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte, Elaine

    2002-05-01

    New measurements of the high energy deuteron photodisintegration differential cross section were made at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, Virginia. Two experiments were performed. Experiment E96-003 was performed in experimental Hall C. The measurements were designed to extend the highest energy differential cross section values to 5.5 GeV incident photon energy at forward angles. This builds upon previous high energy measurements in which scaling consistent with the pQCD constituent counting rules was observed at 90 degrees and 70 degrees in the center of mass. From the new measurements, a threshold for the onset of constituent counting rule scaling seems present at transverse momentum approximately 1.3 GeV/c. The second experiment, E99-008, was performed in experimental Hall A. The measurements were designed to explore the angular distribution of the differential cross section at constant energy. The measurements were made symmetric about 90 degrees

  16. Neutron scattering cross section measurements for Fe56

    DOE PAGES

    Ramirez, A. P. D.; Vanhoy, J. R.; Hicks, S. F.; ...

    2017-06-09

    Elastic and inelastic differential cross sections for neutron scattering from 56Fe have been measured for several incident energies from 1.30 to 7.96 MeV at the University of Kentucky Accelerator Laboratory. Scattered neutrons were detected using a C6D6 liquid scintillation detector using pulse-shape discrimination and time-of-flight techniques. The deduced cross sections have been compared with previously reported data, predictions from evaluation databases ENDF, JENDL, and JEFF, and theoretical calculations performed using different optical model potentials using the TALYS and EMPIRE nuclear reaction codes. The coupled-channel calculations based on the vibrational and soft-rotor models are found to describe the experimental (n,n0) andmore » (n,n1) cross sections well.« less

  17. Phenomenological barrier parameters for total reaction cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phookan, C. K.; Kalita, K.

    2016-01-01

    A phenomenological formula for total reaction cross section is introduced for reactions induced by three types of projectiles. The formula is based on Wong's formula in which, the barrier parameters are calculated from the Bass, Aage Winther and the Akyuz Winther potentials. For the reactions studied, we find that a uniform correction of the barrier parameters can account for the total reaction cross section satisfactorily. An unusually large deviation of the barrier parameters is noticed for the reaction {}8{B} + {}^{58}{Ni}. Arguments are given that most likely the radius of the proton halo nucleus {}8{B} is not well accounted by the above potentials and hence, an increase in the effective radius of {}^8{B} is proposed. Analysis is also presented for the reaction {}^{11}{Li} + {}^{208}{Pb} by making the assumption that its reduced total reaction cross section lies on the same trajectory as that for other halo reactions.

  18. Lactiferous vessel detection from microscopic cross-sectional images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jariyawatthananon, Jirapath; Cooharojananone, Nagul; Lipikorn, Rajalida

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents the methods to detect and segment lactiferous vessels or rubber latex vessels from gray scale microscopic cross-sectional images using polynomial curve-fitting with maximum and minimum stationary points. Polynomial curve-fitting is used to detect the location of lactiferous vessels from an image of a non-dyed cross-sectional slice which was taken by a digital camera through microscope lens. The lactiferous vessels are then segmented from an image using maximum and minimum stationary points with morphological closing operation. Two species of rubber trees of age between one to two years old are sampled namely, RRIM600 and RRIT251. Two data sets contain 30 microscopic cross-sectional images of one-year old rubber tree's stems from each species are used in the experiments and the results reveal that most of the lactiferous vessel areas can be segmented correctly.

  19. Total cross sections of beauty and charmed mesons on protons

    SciTech Connect

    Fridman, A.; Meshkov, S.

    1991-06-01

    Using a simple scaling law we predict the values of the total cross sections {sigma}(B{plus_minus}p), {sigma}B{sub d,s}{sup 0}, {sigma}({bar B}{sub d,s}{sup 0}P), {sigma}(D{sub d,s}{sup {plus_minus}}P), {sigma}(D{sup 0}p), {sigma}({bar D}{sup 0}p) from known total K{sub p} cross sections. We assume that mesons with the same light valence quark, q, and differing only by their heavy valence quark content, Q, have total cross sections on protons which scale as the inverse of the nth power of the reduced mass of the meson. We predict that {sigma}(Q{bar q})p > {sigma}({bar Q}q)p.

  20. Pion Total Cross Section in Nucleon - Nucleon Collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.

    2009-01-01

    Total cross section parameterizations for neutral and charged pion production in nucleon - nucleon collisions are compared to experimental data over the projectile momentum range from threshold to 300 GeV. Both proton - proton and proton - neutron reactions are considered. Overall excellent agreement between parameterizations and experiment is found, except for notable disagreements near threshold. In addition, the hypothesis that the neutral pion production cross section can be obtained from the average charged pion cross section is checked. The theoretical formulas presented in the paper obey this hypothesis for projectile momenta below 500 GeV. The results presented provide a test of engineering tools used to calculate the pion component of space radiation.

  1. New Resonance Parameter Evaluation of Cl Neutron Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Sayer, R.O.; Guber, K.H.; Leal, L.C.; Larson, N.M.

    2005-05-24

    Better measurements and evaluations are needed for many elements where the existing evaluations or the underlying nuclear cross-section data are not sufficiently accurate for reliable calculation of criticality safety margins. Deficiencies in the existing ENDF/B-VI data evaluation for Cl led to our resonance parameter evaluation of Cl neutron cross sections in the resolved resonance region with the multilevel Reich-Moore R-matrix formalism. Our evaluation takes advantage of recent high-resolution capture and transmission measurements at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) as well as older total cross-section measurements at Karlsruhe (KFK) to extend the resolved resonance energy range to 1.2 MeV with much more accurate representation of the data than previous evaluations.

  2. Accurate universal parameterization of absorption cross sections III - light systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.

    1999-09-01

    Our prior nuclear absorption cross sections model [R.K. Tripathi, F.A. Cucinotta, J.W. Wilson, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 117 (1996) 347; R.K. Tripathi, J.W. Wilson, F.A. Cucinotta, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 129 (1997) 11] is extended for light systems ( A ⩽ 4) where either both projectile and target are light particles or one is light particle and the other is medium or heavy nucleus. The agreement with experiment is excellent for these cases as well. Present work in combination with our original model provides a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for light, medium and heavy systems. As a result the extended model can reliably be used in all studies where there is a need for absorption cross sections.

  3. Cross section versus time delay and trapping probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna-Acosta, G. A.; Fernández-Marín, A. A.; Méndez-Bermúdez, J. A.; Poli, Charles

    2016-07-01

    We study the behavior of the s-wave partial cross section σ (k), the Wigner-Smith time delay τ (k), and the trapping probability P (k) as function of the wave number k. The s-wave central square well is used for concreteness, simplicity, and to elucidate the controversy whether it shows true resonances. It is shown that, except for very sharp structures, the resonance part of the cross section, the trapping probability, and the time delay, reach their local maxima at different values of k. We show numerically that τ (k) > 0 at its local maxima, occurring just before the resonant part of the cross section reaches its local maxima. These results are discussed in the light of the standard definition of resonance.

  4. Electron impact double ionization cross sections of light elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talukder, M. R.; Haque, A. K. F.; Uddin, M. A.

    2009-06-01

    A simple user-friendly semiempirical model is proposed to calculate electron impact double ionization cross sections of He, Li, Li+, B+, C+, C3+, O, O2+, O3+, Ne, Ne+, Ne2+, Na, Mg, Al3+, S, and Arq+ (q=0-7) targets for the incident electron energies from threshold to 106 eV. The contributions in the total double ionization cross sections from the direct double ionization and inner-shell ionization processes are taken into account on the basis of experimental data considered. The results of the present analysis are compared with the available experimental data and theoretical calculations. The model is found successful for the description of experimental cross sections. Since, this model may be a prudent selection to meet the demand level in plasma modeling due to its simple inherent structure.

  5. Photoabsorption cross section of acetylene in the EUV region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C. Y. R.; Judge, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    The measurement of the absolute photoabsorption cross sections of C2H2 in the 175-740 A region by means of a double ionization chamber is reported. The continuum background source is the synchrotron radiation emitted by the Wisconsin 240 MeV electron storage ring. It is found that the cross sections range from 2 to a maximum of 36 Mb. Two new Rydberg series are identified and the cross section data are applied in the analysis of various sum rules. From the rules, it is shown that the data of C2H2 in the 580-1088 A range may be too low, while the measured ionization transition moment may be too high.

  6. Neutron scattering cross section measurements for 56Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, A. P. D.; Vanhoy, J. R.; Hicks, S. F.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Peters, E. E.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Harrison, T. D.; Howard, T. J.; Jackson, D. T.; Lenzen, P. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Pecha, R. L.; Rice, B. G.; Thompson, B. K.; Yates, S. W.

    2017-06-01

    Elastic and inelastic differential cross sections for neutron scattering from 56Fe have been measured for several incident energies from 1.30 to 7.96 MeV at the University of Kentucky Accelerator Laboratory. Scattered neutrons were detected using a C6D6 liquid scintillation detector using pulse-shape discrimination and time-of-flight techniques. The deduced cross sections have been compared with previously reported data, predictions from evaluation databases ENDF, JENDL, and JEFF, and theoretical calculations performed using different optical model potentials using the talys and empire nuclear reaction codes. The coupled-channel calculations based on the vibrational and soft-rotor models are found to describe the experimental (n ,n0 ) and (n ,n1 ) cross sections well.

  7. Inelastic cross sections for positron scattering from atomic hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, M.; Hofmann, A.; Raith, W.; Sperber, W.; Jacobsen, F.; Lynn, K.G.

    1994-12-31

    Positronium formation (Ps) cross sections for positrons impinging on atomic hydrogen were measured in the impact energy range from 13eV to 255eV at the High Intensity Positron (HIP) beam at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The Ps-formation cross section was found to rise rapidly from the threshold at 6.8eV to a maximum value of (2.98 {plus_minus} 0.18) {times} 10{sup {minus}16} cm{sup 2} for {approx} 15eV positrons. By 75eV it drops below the detection limit of 0.17 {times} 10{sup {minus}16} cm{sup 2} which is the present level of statistical uncertainty. The experiment was modified to enable the measurement of doubly differential scattering cross sections.

  8. Neutron Capture Cross Section Calculations with the Statistical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beard, Mary; Uberseder, Ethan; Wiescher, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Hauser-Feshbach (HF) cross sections are of enormous importance for a wide range of applications, from waste transmutation and nuclear technologies, to medical applications, and nuclear astrophysics. It is a well observed result that different nuclear input models sensitively affect HF cross section calculations. Less well-known however are the effects on calculations originating from model-specific implementation details (such as level density parameter, matching energy, backshift and giant dipole parameters), as well as effects from non-model aspects, such as experimental data truncation and transmission function energy binning. To investigate the effects or these various aspects, Maxwellian-averaged neutron capture cross sections have been calculated for approximately 340 nuclei. The relative effects of these model details will be discussed.

  9. Cross-sectional geometry of the dentary in bats.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Elizabeth R; Nicolay, Christopher W

    2006-01-01

    Bats exhibit remarkable diversity in dietary habits, with species specializing on insects, fruit, nectar, vertebrates and blood. Studies of larger mammals have shown that structural differences in dentary cross-sectional properties exist among species with different diets. Unfortunately, few of these studies have considered the role of phylogeny in shaping these apparent form-function associations. Here we ask whether a relationship exists between diet and dentary structure in bats when phylogenetic history is factored into the analysis. To answer this question, we compared results from phylogenetic generalized least squares (PGLS) and traditional (nonphylogenetic) regression analyses of dentary cross-sectional shape in frugivorous, nectarivorous, and insectivorous bats (253 individuals representing 72 species). Cross-sectional moments of inertia of the dentary between M(1) and M(2) were computed from bone densitometry scans of skeletal specimens. Traditional regressions of cross-sectional parameters against dentary length detected significant departures from isometry among frugivores. In contrast, PGLS analyses indicated that cross-sectional variables for each dietary group scaled with isometry. Thus, the allometric patterns illuminated by traditional statistics are linked to the phylogenetic structure of the sample. Identical patterns of significant differences in slopes and intercepts between frugivores and nectarivores emerged from both traditional and PGLS analyses. As predicted, the cross-sectional shape of the dentary in frugivores is consistent with increased resistance to torsion and bending, while that of nectarivores suggested a less resistant dentary. Although traditional and PGLS analyses yielded some similar results, the phylogenetic structure of a sample can drive apparent patterns of scaling and should be considered in comparative functional analyses.

  10. Stellar neutron capture cross sections of the Ba isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, F.; Wisshak, K.; Guber, K.; Käppeler, F.; Reffo, G.

    1994-11-01

    The neutron capture cross sections of 134Ba, 135Ba, 136Ba, and 137Ba were measured in the energy range from 5 to 225 keV at the Karlsruhe 3.75 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. Neutrons were produced via the 7Li (p,n)7 Be reaction by bombarding metallic Li targets with a pulsed proton beam. Capture events were registered with the Karlsruhe 4π barium fluoride detector. The cross section ratios were determined with an overall uncertainty of ~3%, an improvement by factors of 5 to 8 compared to existing data. Severe discrepancies were found with respect to previous results. As a new possibility in time of flight experiments, isomeric cross section ratios could be determined for 135Ba, 136Ba, and 137Ba. Maxwellian averaged neutron capture cross sections were calculated for thermal energies between kT=10 keV and 100 keV. These stellar cross sections were used in an s-process analysis. For the s-only isotopes 134Ba and 136Ba the Ns<σ> ratio was determined to 0.875+/-0.025. Hence, a significant branching of the s-process path at 134Cs can be claimed for the first time, in contrast to predictions from the classical approach. This branching yields information on the s-process temperature, indicating values around T8=2. The new cross sections are also important for the interpretation of barium isotopic anomalies, which were recently discovered in SiC grains of carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. Together with the results from previous experiments on tellurium and samarium, a general improvement of the Ns<σ> systematics in the mass range A=120-150 is achieved. This yields a more reliable separation of s- and r-process contributions for comparison with stellar observations, but reveals a 20% discrepancy with respect to the solar barium abundance.

  11. Low energy cross sections for electron scattering from tetrafluoroallene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Dhanoj; Choi, Heechol; Song, Mi-Young; Chakrabarti, Kalyan; Yoon, Jung-Sik

    2017-08-01

    We report elastic, total, excitation, differential and momentum-transfer cross sections for scattering of low-energy electrons by tetrafluoroallene (C3F4) using the close-coupling (CC) approximation in the R-matrix method with Quantemol-N. We have tested various target models initially to check for the convergence of the result and the final results are provided with the best target model. We have detected shape resonances of symmetry 2 E(2B1,2B2) at 3.08 eV and 3.71 eV with a close-coupling and static exchange models which is seen as a sharp feature in the elastic and momentum transfer cross sections. We also detected other resonances of symmetry 2 E at 11.26 eV and of symmetry 2A2 at 11.12 eV below the ionization threshold of the target respectively. The present elastic and total cross sections are compared with the elastic and total cross sections of allene (C3H4), propene (C3H6) and hexafluoropropene (C3F6) as there were no results available for C3F4. The effect of fluorination is clearly seen with the shape resonance for C3F4 getting slightly shifted to higher energies compared to allene. Finally, we also report the ionization cross section calculated using the Binary-Encounter Bethe (BEB) method. The present calculation is a maiden attempt to find cross sections for C3F4 molecule which could be useful for fluorocarbon plasma modeling.

  12. Cross sections for electron collisions with dimethyl ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugohara, R. T.; Homem, M. G. P.; Iga, I.; de Souza, G. L. C.; Machado, L. E.; Ferraz, J. R.; dos Santos, A. S.; Brescansin, L. M.; Lucchese, R. R.; Lee, M. T.

    2013-08-01

    We report a joint theoretical-experimental investigation of electron collision with dimethyl ether (DME) in the low- and intermediate-energy ranges. Experimental absolute differential, integral, and momentum-transfer cross sections for elastic e--DME scattering are reported in the 100-1000 eV energy range. Our measurements were performed using a crossed electron-beam-molecular-beam geometry. The angular distribution of the scattered electrons was converted to absolute cross section using the relative flow technique. Theoretically, elastic differential, integral, and momentum-transfer cross sections, as well as the grand-total and total absorption cross sections for electron collision with DME are calculated in the 1-1000 eV energy range. A single-center-expansion technique combined with the Padé approximant method is used in our calculations. A comparison between the present experimental and theoretical data shows very good agreement. Moreover, comparison with theoretical and experimental data for e--ethanol (an isomer of DME) scattering shows interesting isomeric effects.

  13. Hadronic absorption cross sections of B{sub c}

    SciTech Connect

    Lodhi, M. A. K.; Akram, Faisal; Irfan, Shaheen

    2011-09-15

    The cross sections of B{sub c} absorption by {pi} mesons are calculated using a hadronic Lagrangian based on the SU(5) flavor symmetry. Calculated cross sections are found to be in the ranges 2-7 mb and 0.2-2 mb for the processes B{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{yields}DB and B{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{yields}D*B*, respectively, when the monopole form factor is included. These results could be useful in calculating the production rate of B{sub c} mesons in relativistic heavy ion collisions.

  14. Differential Cross Sections for Proton-Proton Elastic Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, Ryan B.; Dick, Frank; Norbury, John W.; Blattnig, Steve R.

    2009-01-01

    Proton-proton elastic scattering is investigated within the framework of the one pion exchange model in an attempt to model nucleon-nucleon interactions spanning the large range of energies important to cosmic ray shielding. A quantum field theoretic calculation is used to compute both differential and total cross sections. A scalar theory is then presented and compared to the one pion exchange model. The theoretical cross sections are compared to proton-proton scattering data to determine the validity of the models.

  15. Cross section expansion for direct neutron radiative capture

    SciTech Connect

    Baye, D.

    2004-07-01

    Cross sections for neutron radiative capture multiplied by the relative velocity can be expressed as a Taylor expansion in powers of the relative energy. The coefficients of this expansion are expressed in the potential model as integrals involving solutions of the radial Schroedinger equation and of its inhomogeneous energy derivatives calculated at zero energy. Similarities and differences with charged-particle capture are emphasized. The {sup 12}C(n,{gamma}){sup 13}C capture reaction is treated as an example. The coefficients of the Taylor expansion lead to simple parametrizations of the experimental partial cross sections for neutron capture to each {sup 13}C bound state.

  16. Total cross section of electron scattering by fluorocarbon molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.; Ushiroda, S.; Kondo, Y.

    2008-12-01

    A compact linear electron transmission apparatus was used for the measurement of the total electron scattering cross section at 4-500 eV. Total cross sections of chlorofluorocarbon (CCl2F2), hydrochlorofluorocarbon (CHClF2), perfluoropropane (C3F8), perfluoro-n-pentane (C5F12), perfluoro-n-hexane (C6F14) and perfluoro-n-octane (C8F18) were obtained experimentally and compared with the values obtained from a theoretical calculation and semi-empirical model calculation.

  17. Measurements of multiphoton action cross sections for multiphoton microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Li-Chung; Horton, Nicholas G.; Wang, Ke; Chen, Shean-Jen; Xu, Chris

    2014-01-01

    We report quantitative measurements of two-, three-, and four-photon excitation action cross sections of several commonly used fluorophores and fluorescent proteins at three different excitation wavelengths of 800 nm, 1300 nm, and 1680 nm. The measured cross section values are consistent with simple quantum mechanic estimations. These values indicate that the optimum repetition rate for deep tissue 3-photon microscopy is approximately 1 to 2 MHz. We further demonstrate that it is feasible to perform 4-photon fluorescence microscopy of GFP labeled microglia in mouse brain in vivo at 1700 nm. 4-photon excitation increases the accessibility of fluorophores at the long wavelength spectral window of 1700 nm. PMID:25360361

  18. Analysis and Simulation of Quantum Radar Cross Section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kang; Xiao, Huai-Tie; Fan, Hong-Qi

    2014-03-01

    We derive a modified analytical expression of a quantum radar cross section (QRCS). Subsequently, we present a comparison between the QRCS and a classical radar cross section (RCS) and analyze the factors that can affect the intensity of the peak and side lobes. Simulation results on a flat rectangular plate demonstrate that QRCS has a similar structure to that of RCS. The analysis of side-lobe structure can benefit the design of quantum stealth platforms as well as the research on quantum radars.

  19. Cross section for {sup 246}Cm subbarrier fission

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseev, A. A.; Bergman, A. A.; Berlev, A. I.; Koptelov, E. A.; Samylin, B. F.; Trufanov, A. M.; Fursov, B. I.; Shorin, V. S.

    2010-10-15

    The cross section for {sup 246}Cm fission induced by neutrons of energy in the range 0.1 eV-20 keV was measured by the neutron lead slowing-down spectrometer (LSDS-100) of the Institute for Nuclear Research (INR, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow). The parameters of the resonance area and of the fission width were evaluated for several low-lying s-wave neutron resonances. The parameters of the intermediate structure in the cross section for the subbarrier fusion of {sup 246}Cm nuclei were found. The results obtained in this way were compared with available experimental data and with recommended evaluated data.

  20. New neutron cross section and fission yield data for SNManalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, R.B.; Molnar, G.L.; Revay, Zs.; Belgya, T.

    2003-05-28

    Neutron cross-section data are fundamental for the design ofnuclear interrogation systems, the maintenance of nuclear materials andwaste, and the understanding the consequences of nuclear catastrophe.Although a large body of nuclear data exists, it is often old,unreliable, or poorly determined. For several years we have collaborated,as part of an IAEA Coordinated Research Project, to precisely measure thepartial thermal neutron gamma ray cross sections for all elements fromhydrogen to uranium at the Budapest Reactor. These data will replace theunreliable tables of Lone et al [1], still widely in use, and will bepublished as an IAEA TECDOC.

  1. Inclusive charged particle cross sections in photoproduction at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abt, I.; Ahmed, T.; Andreev, V.; Aid, S.; Andrieu, B.; Appuhn, R.-D.; Arpagaus, M.; Babaev, A.; Bärwolff, H.; Bán, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bassler, U.; Beck, H. P.; Behrend, H.-J.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Bergstein, H.; Bernardi, G.; Bernet, R.; Bertrand-Coremans, G.; Besançon, M.; Biddulph, P.; Binder, E.; Bizot, J. C.; Blobel, V.; Borras, K.; Bosetti, P. C.; Boudry, V.; Bourdarios, C.; Braemer, A.; Brasse, F.; Braun, U.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Büngener, L.; Bürger, J.; Büsser, F. W.; Buniatian, A.; Burke, S.; Buschhorn, G.; Campbell, A. J.; Carli, T.; Charles, F.; Chyla, J.; Clarke, D.; Clegg, A. B.; Colombo, M.; Coughlan, J. A.; Courau, A.; Coutures, Ch.; Cozzika, G.; Criegee, L.; Cvach, J.; Dagoret, S.; Dainton, J. B.; Danilov, M.; Dann, A. W. E.; Dau, W. D.; David, M.; Deffur, E.; Delcourt, B.; Del Buono, L.; Devel, M.; De Roeck, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Dingus, P.; Dollfus, C.; Dowell, J. D.; Dreis, H. B.; Drescher, A.; Duboc, J.; Düllmann, D.; Dünger, O.; Duhm, H.; Ebbinghaus, R.; Eberle, M.; Ebert, J.; Ebert, T. R.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Ehrlichmann, H.; Eichenberger, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellis, N. N.; Ellison, R. J.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Evrard, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Feeken, D.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Fensome, I. F.; Ferencei, J.; Ferrarotto, F.; Flamm, K.; Flauger, W.; Fleischer, M.; Flieser, M.; Flügge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Fominykh, B.; Forbush, M.; Formánek, J.; Foster, J. M.; Franke, G.; Fretwurst, E.; Fuhrmann, P.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamerdinger, K.; Garvey, J.; Gayler, J.; Gebauer, M.; Gellrich, A.; Gennis, M.; Genzel, H.; Gerhards, R.; Godfrey, L.; Goerlach, U.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Goldner, D.; Goodall, A. M.; Gorelov, I.; Goritchev, P.; Grab, C.; Grässler, H.; Grässler, R.; Greenshaw, T.; Greif, H.; Grindhammer, G.; Gruber, A.; Gruber, C.; Haack, J.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Hamon, O.; Hampel, M.; Hanlon, E. M.; Hapke, M.; Harjes, J.; Haydar, R.; Haynes, W. J.; Heatherington, J.; Hedberg, V.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herma, R.; Herynek, I.; Hildesheim, W.; Hill, P.; Hilton, C. D.; Hladký, J.; Hoeger, K. C.; Höppner, M.; Huet, Ph.; Hufnagel, H.; Huot, N.; Ibbotson, M.; Itterbeck, H.; Jabiol, M.-A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jacobsson, C.; Jaffre, M.; Jansen, T.; Jönsson, L.; Johannsen, K.; Johnson, D. P.; Johnson, L.; Jung, H.; Kalmus, P. I. P.; Kant, D.; Kazarian, S.; Kaschowitz, R.; Kasselmann, P.; Kathage, U.; Kaufmann, H. H.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kermiche, S.; Keuker, C.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Knies, G.; Ko, W.; Köhler, T.; Kolanoski, H.; Kole, F.; Kolya, S. D.; Korbel, V.; Korn, M.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S. K.; Krasny, M. W.; Krehbiel, H.; Krücker, D.; Krüger, U.; Kubenka, J. P.; Küster, H.; Kuhlen, M.; Kurča, T.; Kurzhöfer, J.; Kuznik, B.; Lacour, D.; Lamarche, F.; Lander, R.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Langkau, R.; Lanius, P.; Laporte, J. F.; Lebedev, A.; Leuschner, A.; Leverenz, C.; Levonian, S.; Lewin, D.; Ley, Ch.; Lindner, A.; Lindström, G.; Linsel, F.; Lipinski, J.; Loch, P.; Lohmander, H.; Lopez, G. C.; Lüers, D.; Lüke, D.; Magnussen, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mani, S.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martens, J.; Martin, R.; Martyn, H.-U.; Martyniak, J.; Masson, S.; Mavroidis, A.; Maxfiedl, S. J.; McMahon, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Mercer, D.; Merz, T.; Meyer, C. A.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Monnier, E.; Moreau, F.; Moreels, J.; Morris, J. V.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Murray, S. A.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Newton, D.; Neyret, D.; Nguyen, H. K.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nisius, R.; Nowak, G.; Noyes, G. W.; Nyberg, M.; Oberlack, H.; Obrock, U.; Olsson, J. E.; Orenstein, S.; Ould-Saada, F.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peppel, E.; Peters, S.; Phillips, H. T.; Phillips, J. P.; Pichler, Ch.; Pilgram, W.; Pitzl, D.; Prell, S.; Prosi, R.; Rädel, G.; Raupach, F.; Rauschnabel, K.; Reimer, P.; Reinshagen, S.; Ribarics, P.; Riech, V.; Riedlberger, J.; Riess, S.; Rietz, M.; Robertson, S. M.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rosenbauer, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Royon, C.; Rudowicz, M.; Ruffer, M.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sahlmann, N.; Sanchez, E.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Savitsky, M.; Schacht, P.; Schleper, P.; von Schlippe, W.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, D.; Schmitz, W.; Schöning, A.; Schröder, V.; Schuhmann, E.; Schulz, M.; Schwab, B.; Schwind, A.; Scobel, W.; Seehausen, U.; Sell, R.; Semenov, A.; Shekelyan, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shooshtari, H.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Siegmon, G.; Siewert, U.; Sirois, Y.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Smirnov, P.; Smith, J. R.; Soloviev, Y.; Spitzer, H.; Steenbock, M.; Steffen, P.; Steinberg, R.; Stella, B.; Stephens, K.; Stier, J.; Stösslein, U.; Strachota, J.; Straumann, U.; Struczinski, W.; Sutton, J. P.; Taylor, R. E.; Tchernyshov, V.; Thiebaux, C.; Thompson, G.; Tichomirov, I.; Truöl, P.; Turnau, J.; Tutas, J.; Urban, L.; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallée, C.; Van Esch, P.; Vartapetian, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vecko, M.; Verrecchia, P.; Vick, R.; Villet, G.; Vogel, E.; Wacker, K.; Walker, I. W.; Walther, A.; Weber, G.; Wegener, D.; Wegner, A.; Wellisch, H. P.; West, L. R.; Willard, S.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.-G.; Wolff, Th.; Womersley, L. A.; Wright, A. E.; Wulff, N.; Yiou, T. P.; Žáček, J.; Zeitnitz, C.; Ziaeepour, H.; Zimmer, M.; Zimmermann, W.; Zomer, F.; H1 Collaboration

    1994-05-01

    Cross sections are presented for the inclusive production of charged particles measured in electron-proton collisions at low Q2 with the H1 detector at HERA. The transverse momentum distribution extends up to 8 GeV/ c. Its shape is found to be harder than that observed in overlinepp collisions at comparable centre-of-mass energies √S γp ≈ √S overlinepp ≈ 200 GeV, and also harder than in γp collisions at lower energies √ Sγp ≈ 18 GeV. Results from quantum chromodynamics (QCD) calculations agree with the measured transverse momentum and pseudorapidity cross sections.

  2. Charge Influence on Mini Black Hole's Cross Section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caraça, R. S.; Malheiro, M.

    In this work we study the electric charge effect on the cross section production of charged mini black holes (MBH) in accelerators. We analyze the charged MBH solution using the fat brane approximation in the context of the ADD model. The maximum charge-mass ratio condition for the existence of a horizon radius is discussed. We show that the electric charge causes a decrease in this radius and, consequently, in the cross section. This reduction is negligible for protons and light-ions but can be important for heavy-ions.

  3. Uncertainty quantification in fission cross section measurements at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Tovesson, F.

    2015-01-09

    Neutron-induced fission cross sections have been measured for several isotopes of uranium and plutonium at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) over a wide range of incident neutron energies. The total uncertainties in these measurements are in the range 3–5% above 100 keV of incident neutron energy, which results from uncertainties in the target, neutron source, and detector system. The individual sources of uncertainties are assumed to be uncorrelated, however correlation in the cross section across neutron energy bins are considered. The quantification of the uncertainty contributions will be described here.

  4. Uncertainty Quantification in Fission Cross Section Measurements at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Tovesson, F.

    2015-01-15

    Neutron-induced fission cross sections have been measured for several isotopes of uranium and plutonium at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) over a wide range of incident neutron energies. The total uncertainties in these measurements are in the range 3–5% above 100 keV of incident neutron energy, which results from uncertainties in the target, neutron source, and detector system. The individual sources of uncertainties are assumed to be uncorrelated, however correlation in the cross section across neutron energy bins are considered. The quantification of the uncertainty contributions will be described here.

  5. Uncertainty quantification in fission cross section measurements at LANSCE

    DOE PAGES

    Tovesson, F.

    2015-01-09

    Neutron-induced fission cross sections have been measured for several isotopes of uranium and plutonium at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) over a wide range of incident neutron energies. The total uncertainties in these measurements are in the range 3–5% above 100 keV of incident neutron energy, which results from uncertainties in the target, neutron source, and detector system. The individual sources of uncertainties are assumed to be uncorrelated, however correlation in the cross section across neutron energy bins are considered. The quantification of the uncertainty contributions will be described here.

  6. The solar neutrino capture cross section for 81Br

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haxton, W. C.

    1981-09-01

    The solar neutrino capture rate for the reaction 81Br + νe --> 81Kr + e- is calculated for the standard solar and weak interaction models. The results show that the capture cross section is dominated by the lowest Gamow-Teller transition to the metastable 1/2- (0.190 MeV) state in 81Kr. As the inverse electron capture rate for this transition has been measured recently, one can then argue that the cross section is well determined experimentally. Thus uncertainties in nuclear physics should not be an obstacle to the recently proposed 81Br radiochemical measurement of the 7Be solar neutrino flux. Present address.

  7. Inelastic cross sections from gamma-ray measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Ronald Owen

    2010-12-06

    Measurements of gamma rays following neutron induced reactions have been studied with the Germanium Array for Neutron-induced Excitations (GEANIE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) for many years. Gamma-ray excitation functions and coincidence studies provide insight into nuclear reaction mechanisms as well as expanding our knowledge of energy levels and gamma-rays. Samples studied with Ge detectors at LANSCE range from Be to Pu. Fe, Cr and Ti have been considered for use as reference cross sections. An overview of the measurements and efforts to create a reliable neutron-induced gamma-ray reference cross section will be presented.

  8. Evaluation of the /sup 238/U neutron total cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.; Poenitz, W.P.; Howerton, R.J.

    1982-12-01

    Experimental energy-averaged neutron total cross sections of /sup 238/U were evaluated from 0.044 to 20.0 MeV using regorous numerical methods. The evaluated results are presented together with the associated uncertainties and correlation matrix. They indicate that this energy-averaged neutron total cross section is known to better than 1% over wide energy regions. There are somwewhat larger uncertainties at low energies (e.g., less than or equal to 0.2 MeV), near 8 MeV and above 15 MeV. The present evaluation is compard with values given in ENDF/B-V.

  9. Iterative cross section sequence graph for handwritten character segmentation.

    PubMed

    Dawoud, Amer

    2007-08-01

    The iterative cross section sequence graph (ICSSG) is an algorithm for handwritten character segmentation. It expands the cross section sequence graph concept by applying it iteratively at equally spaced thresholds. The iterative thresholding reduces the effect of information loss associated with image binarization. ICSSG preserves the characters' skeletal structure by preventing the interference of pixels that causes flooding of adjacent characters' segments. Improving the structural quality of the characters' skeleton facilitates better feature extraction and classification, which improves the overall performance of optical character recognition (OCR). Experimental results showed significant improvements in OCR recognition rates compared to other well-established segmentation algorithms.

  10. Absolute Photoionization Cross Sections of Two Cyclic Ketones: Cyclopentanone & Cyclohexanone.

    PubMed

    Price, Chelsea; Fathi, Yasmin; Meloni, Giovanni

    2017-02-23

    Absolute photoionization cross sections for cyclopentanone and cyclohexanone, as well as partial ionization cross sections for the dissociative ionized fragments, are presented in this investigation. Experiments are performed via a multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometer utilizing VUV synchrotron radiation supplied by the Advanced Light Source of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. These results allow the quantification of these species that is relevant to investigate the kinetics and combustion reactions of potential biofuels. The CBS-QB3 calculated values for the adiabatic ionization energies agree well with the experimental values and the identification of possible dissociative fragments is discussed for both systems.

  11. Neutron removal cross section as a measure of neutron skin

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, D. Q.; Ma, Y. G.; Cai, X. Z.; Tian, W. D.; Wang, H. W.

    2010-04-15

    We study the relation between neutron removal cross section (sigma{sub -N}) and neutron skin thickness for finite neutron-rich nuclei using the statistical abrasion ablation model. Different sizes of neutron skin are obtained by adjusting the diffuseness parameter of neutrons in the Fermi distribution. It is demonstrated that there is a good linear correlation between sigma{sub -N} and the neutron skin thickness for neutron-rich nuclei. Further analysis suggests that the relative increase of neutron removal cross section could be used as a quantitative measure for neutron skin thickness in neutron-rich nuclei.

  12. Cross-sectional imaging of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Loevner, Laurie A; Kaplan, Summer L; Cunnane, Mary Elizabeth; Moonis, Gul

    2008-08-01

    Directed imaging is useful in assessing the thyroid gland. Nuclear scintigraphy reveals functional information about the thyroid gland, while cross-sectional imaging, including ultrasound, CT, and MR imaging provide important adjunctive anatomic information about the thyroid as well as about related structures in the neck, including the presence or absence of cervical and mediastinal lymphadenopathy, or extension of thyroid disease into adjacent soft tissues or the mediastinum. This article reviews the anatomy and physiology of the thyroid gland and addresses issues related to diseases affecting the thyroid gland, with an emphasis on neoplasms and the role of cross-sectional MR and CT imaging in the assessment of thyroid neoplasia.

  13. Measurements of (n,{gamma}) cross sections with small samples

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, P.E.; Kaeppeler, F.

    1995-02-05

    Neutron capture cross section data for certain isotopes of very small natural abundance are crucial for a better understanding of the s- and p-processes of nucleosynthesis. Also, recent work has shown that many previous (n,{gamma}) measurements need to be extended to lower neutron energies and that the accuracy of some previous data need to be improved. At Los Alamos we have developed a system for measuring (n,{gamma}) cross sections on samples as small as 1 mg. We give examples of measurements made with this apparatus and discuss the nuclear astrophysics motivation for these and future measurements.

  14. Measurements of (n,{gamma}) cross sections with small samples

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, P.E.; Kaeppeler, F.

    1994-09-01

    Neutron capture cross section data for certain isotopes of very small natural abundance are crucial for a better understanding of the s- and p-processes of nucleosynthesis. Also, recent work has shown that many previous (n,{gamma}) measurements need to be extended to lower neutron energies and that the accuracy of some previous data need to be improved. At Los Alamos the authors have developed a system for measuring (n,{gamma}) cross sections on samples as small as 1 mg. They give examples of measurements made with this apparatus and discuss the nuclear astrophysics motivation for these and future measurements.

  15. Partial photoneutron cross section measurements on 209Bi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gheorghe, Ioana; Filipescu, Dan; Katayama, Seitaro; Utsunomiya, Hiroaki; Belyshev, Sergey; Stopani, Konstantin; Varlamov, Vladimir; Shima, Tatsushi; Lui, Yiu-Wing; Amano, Sho; Miyamoto, Shuji

    2017-09-01

    New data of total and partial (γ,xn) cross sections with x = 1-3 are proposed to be measured by direct neutron multiplicity sorting using Laser Compton scattering (LCS) gamma ray beams at the ELI-NP to solve long standing discrepancies between existing Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (USA) and France Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay photonuclear data. Pioneering experiments are currently performed at the NewSUBARU facility. We present here preliminary results on 209Bi(g,xn) cross section measurements.

  16. The 237U(n,f) Cross Section

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, W; Britt, H C; Wilhelmy, J B

    2003-03-03

    The purpose of this note is to combine existing information on the {sup 237}U(n,f) cross section to determine if some consistency can be obtained for the neutron induced fission excitation of {sup 237}U. The neutron induced fission cross section of the 6.8 day {sup 237}U was measured directly by McNally et al. in 1968 using the Pommard nuclear device test. At the same time critical assembly measurements were done at Los Alamos using the Flattop assembly. A previous measurement was also made at LASL in 1954 with two different neutron sources, each peaked near 200 keV. The results were 0.66 {+-} 0.10 b and 0.70 {+-} 0.07 b for the (n,f) cross section. More recently Younes and Britt have reanalyzed direct reaction charged particle data of Cramer and Britt that had determined the fission probability of the {sup 238}U compound nucleus as a function of nuclear excitation energy. They have combined fission probabilities with calculated neutron absorption cross sections, including corrections for the differences in angular momentum between the direct and neutron induced reactions. From this analysis they have extracted equivalent {sup 237}U(n,f) cross sections. The technique for extracting surrogate (n,f) cross sections from (t,pf) data has been demonstrated in a recent publication for the test case {sup 235}U(n,f). In addition to this experimental information, Lynn and Hayes have recently done a new theoretical study of the fission cross sections for a series of isotopes in this region. A summary plot of the data is shown in Fig. 1. Below 0.5 MeV the McNally, Cowan, and Younes-Britt results are in reasonable agreement. The average cross section in the Younes-Britt results, for En = 0.1 to 0.4 MeV, is 0.80 times the McNally values which is well within the errors of the McNally experiment. Above 0.5 MeV the McNally results diverge toward higher values. It should be noted that this divergence begins approximately at the {sup 237}Np threshold and that {sup 237}Np is the

  17. Light ray tracing through a leaf cross section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, R.; Silva, L. F.

    1973-01-01

    A light ray, incident at about 5 deg to the normal, is geometrically plotted through the drawing of the cross section of a soybean leaf using Fresnel's equations and Snell's law. The optical mediums of the leaf considered for ray tracing are: air, cell sap, chloroplast, and cell wall. The ray is also drawn through the same leaf cross section with cell wall and air as the only optical mediums. The values of the reflection and transmission found from the ray tracing tests agree closely with the experimental results obtained using a Beckman Dk-2A Spectroreflector.

  18. Measurement of correlated b quark cross sections at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdes, D.; CDF Collaboration

    1994-09-01

    Using data collected during the 1992--93 collider run at Fermilab, CDF has made measurements of correlated b quark cross section where one b is detected from a muon from semileptonic decay and the second b is detected with secondary vertex techniques. We report on measurements of the cross section as a function of the momentum of the second b and as a function of the azimuthal separation of the two b quarks, for transverse momentum of the initial b quark greater than 15 GeV. Results are compared to QCD predictions.

  19. SU-E-I-43: Photoelectric Cross Section Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Haga, A; Nakagawa, K; Kotoku, J; Horikawa, Y

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The importance of the precision in photoelectric cross-section value increases for recent developed technology such as dual energy computed tomography, in which some reconstruction algorithms require the energy dependence of the photo-absorption in each material composition of human being. In this study, we revisited the photoelectric cross-section calculation by self-consistent relativistic Hartree-Fock (HF) atomic model and compared with that widely distributed as “XCOM database” in National Institute of Standards and Technology, which was evaluated with localdensity approximation for electron-exchange (Fock)z potential. Methods: The photoelectric cross section can be calculated with the electron wave functions in initial atomic state (bound electron) and final continuum state (photoelectron). These electron states were constructed based on the selfconsistent HF calculation, where the repulsive Coulomb potential from the electron charge distribution (Hartree term) and the electron exchange potential with full electromagnetic interaction (Fock term) were included for the electron-electron interaction. The photoelectric cross sections were evaluated for He (Z=2), Be (Z=4), C (Z=6), O (Z=8), and Ne (Z=10) in energy range of 10keV to 1MeV. The Result was compared with XCOM database. Results: The difference of the photoelectric cross section between the present calculation and XCOM database was 8% at a maximum (in 10keV for Be). The agreement tends to be better as the atomic number increases. The contribution from each atomic shell has a considerable discrepancy with XCOM database except for K-shell. However, because the photoelectric cross section arising from K-shell is dominant, the net photoelectric cross section was almost insensitive to the different handling in Fock potential. Conclusion: The photoelectric cross-section program has been developed based on the fully self-consistent relativistic HF atomic model. Due to small effect on the Fock

  20. Ozone absorption cross section measurements in the Wulf bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Stuart M.; Hupalo, Peter; Mauersberger, Konrad

    1993-01-01

    A tandem dual-beam spectrometer has been developed to determine ozone absorption cross sections for 13 selected wavelengths between 750 and 975 nm at room temperature. The increasingly pronounced structure in this region may interfere with atmospheric trace gas transitions that are useful for remote sensing and complicate the measurement of aerosols. Ozone concentrations were determined by absorption at the common HeNe laser transition near 632.8 nm using the absolute cross section reported previously. The overall accuracy of these room temperature measurements is generally better than 2 percent. A synoptic near-IR spectrum scaled to these measurements is employed for comparison with results of previous studies.

  1. Neutron capture cross section standards for BNL 325, Fourth Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.

    1981-01-01

    This report evaluates the experimental data and recommends values for the thermal neutron cross sections and resonance integrals for the neutron capture reactions: /sup 55/Mn(n,..gamma..), /sup 59/Co(n,..gamma..) and /sup 197/Au(n,..gamma..). The failure of lithium and boron as standards due to the natural variation of the absorption cross sections of these elements is discussed. The Westcott convention, which describes the neutron spectrum as a thermal Maxwellian distribution with an epithermal component, is also discussed.

  2. Housing, income inequality and child injury mortality in Europe: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Sengoelge, M; Hasselberg, M; Ormandy, D; Laflamme, L

    2014-03-01

    Child poverty rates are compared throughout Europe to monitor how countries are caring for their children. Child poverty reduction measures need to consider the importance of safe living environments for all children. In this study we investigate how European country-level economic disparity and housing conditions relate to one another, and whether they differentially correlate with child injury mortality. We used an ecological, cross-sectional study design of 26 European countries of which 20 high-income and 6 upper-middle-income. Compositional characteristics of the home and its surroundings were extracted from the 2006 European Union Income Social Inclusion and Living Conditions Database (n = 203,000). Mortality data of children aged 1-14 years were derived from the World Health Organization Mortality Database. The main outcome measure was age standardized cause-specific injury mortality rates analysed by income inequality and housing and neighbourhood conditions. Nine measures of housing and neighbourhood conditions highly differentiating European households at country level were clustered into three dimensions, labelled respectively housing, neighbourhood and economic household strain. Income inequality significantly and positively correlated with housing strain (r = 0.62, P = 0.001) and household economic strain (r = 0.42, P = 0.009) but not significantly with neighbourhood strain (r = 0.34, P = 0.087). Child injury mortality rates correlated strongly with both country-level income inequality and housing strain, with very small age-specific differences. In the European context housing, neighbourhood and household economic strains worsened with increasing levels of income inequality. Child injury mortality rates are strongly and positively associated with both income inequality and housing strain, suggesting that housing material conditions could play a role in the association between income inequality and child health. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Inequality and inequity in healthcare utilization in urban Nepal: a cross-sectional observational study

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Eiko; Gilmour, Stuart; Yoneoka, Daisuke; Gautam, Ghan Shyam; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Shrestha, Pradeep Krishna; Shibuya, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Inequality in access to quality healthcare is a major health policy challenge in many low- and middle-income countries. This study aimed to identify the major sources of inequity in healthcare utilization using a population-based household survey from urban Nepal. A cross-sectional survey was conducted covering 9177 individuals residing in 1997 households in five municipalities of Kathmandu valley between 2011 and 2012. The concentration index was calculated and a decomposition method was used to measure inequality in healthcare utilization, along with a horizontal inequity index (HI) to estimate socioeconomic inequalities in healthcare utilization. Results showed a significant pro-rich distribution of general healthcare utilization in all service providers (Concentration Index: 0.062, P < 0.001; HI: 0.029, P < 0.05) and private service providers (Concentration Index: 0.070, P < 0.001; HI: 0.030, P < 0.05). The pro-rich distribution of probability in general healthcare utilization was attributable to inequalities in the level of household economic status (percentage contribution: 67.8%) and in the self-reported prevalence of non-communicable diseases such as hypertension (36.7%) and diabetes (14.4%). Despite the provision of free services by public healthcare providers, our analysis found no evidence of the poor making more use of public health services (Concentration Index: 0.041, P = 0.094). Interventions to reduce the household economic burden of major illnesses, coupled with improvement in the management of public health facilities, warrant further attention by policy-makers. PMID:26856362

  4. Propagation of sound waves in tubes of noncircular cross section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, W. B.

    1986-01-01

    Plane-acoustic-wave propagation in small tubes with a cross section in the shape of a flattened oval is described. Theoretical descriptions of a plane wave propagating in a tube with circular cross section and between a pair of infinite parallel plates, including viscous and thermal damping, are expressed in similar form. For a wide range of useful duct sizes, the propagation constant (whose real and imaginary parts are the amplitude attenuation rate and the wave number, respectively) is very nearly the same function of frequency for both cases if the radius of the circular tube is the same as the distance between the parallel plates. This suggests that either a circular-cross-section model or a flat-plate model can be used to calculate wave propagation in flat-oval tubing, or any other shape tubing, if its size is expressed in terms of an equivalent radius, given by g = 2 x (cross-sectional area)/(length of perimeter). Measurements of the frequency response of two sections of flat-oval tubing agree with calculations based on this idea. Flat-plate formulas are derived, the use of transmission-line matrices for calculations of plane waves in compound systems of ducts is described, and examples of computer programs written to carry out the calculations are shown.

  5. The global economic and regulatory determinants of household food waste generation: A cross-country analysis.

    PubMed

    Chalak, Ali; Abou-Daher, Chaza; Chaaban, Jad; Abiad, Mohamad G

    2016-02-01

    Food is generally wasted all along the supply chain, with an estimated loss of 35percent generated at the consumer level. Consequently, household food waste constitutes a sizable proportion of the total waste generated throughout the food supply chain. Yet such wastes vary drastically between developed and developing countries. Using data collected from 44 countries with various income levels, this paper investigates the impact of legislation and economic incentives on household food waste generation. The obtained results indicate that well-defined regulations, policies and strategies are more effective than fiscal measures in mitigating household food waste generation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 42. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION AND PLAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION AND PLAN LAYOUT OF PART I, SECTION 8, BUILDINGS NO. H-1 TO H-10 INCL., GRINDING, MANUFACTURING AREA, PLANT B AS OF 4-24-44.' From the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Industrial Facilities Inventory, Holston Ordnance Works, Kingsport, Tennessee. Plant B, Parts II, III. (NashVille, TN: Office of the District Engineer, 1944). - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  7. 35. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION OF PART ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION OF PART III, SECTION 1, EQUIPMENT LAYOUT, BUILDINGS E-1 TO E-10 INCL., WASHING, MANUFACTURING AREA, PLANT 'B'.' From the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Industrial Facilities Inventory, Holston Ordnance Works, Kingsport, Tennessee. Plant B, Parts II, III. (Nashville, TN: Office of the District Engineer, 1944). - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  8. 34. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION AND PLAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION AND PLAN LAYOUT OF PART I, SECTION B, BUILDINGS NO. E-1 TO E-10 INCL., WASHING, MANUFACTURING AREA, PLANT B AS OF 4-24-44.' From the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Industrial Facilities Inventory, Holston Ordnance Works, Kingsport, Tennessee. Plant B, Parts II, III. (Nashville, TN: Office of the District Engineer, 1944). - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  9. Radial Eigenmodes for a Toroidal Waveguide with Rectangular Cross Section

    SciTech Connect

    Rui Li

    2012-07-01

    In applying mode expansion to solve the CSR impedance for a section of toroidal vacuum chamber with rectangular cross section, we identify the eigenvalue problem for the radial eigenmodes which is different from that for cylindrical structures. In this paper, we present the general expressions of the radial eigenmodes, and discuss the properties of the eigenvalues on the basis of the Sturm-Liouville theory.

  10. 29. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION AND PLAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION AND PLAN LAYOUT OF PART I, SECTION 8, BUILDINGS NO. D-1 TO D-10 INCL., NITRATION, MANUFACTURING AREA, PLANT B AS OF 4-24-44.' From the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Industrial Facilities Inventory, Holston Ordnance Works, Kingsport, Tennessee. Plant B, Parts II, III. (Nashville, TN: Office of the District Engineer, 1944). - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  11. 30. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION OF PART ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION OF PART III, SECTION 1, EQUIPMENT LAYOUT, BUILDINGS D-1 TO D-10 INCL., NITRATION, MANUFACTURING AREA, PLANT 'B'.' From U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Industrial Facilities Inventory, Holston Ordnance Works, Kingsport, Tennessee. Plant B, Parts II, III. (Nashville, TN: Office of the District Engineer, 1944). - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  12. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, China, Radar Cross Section Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-03

    Section" (translated microstrip elements, to the extent possible. In order to by Ruan Yingzheng et al.), Electronics Industry Pub- reduce RCS further... ELECTRONICA SINICA] in Chinese Vol 18 No 6, difficult. There is a great deal of theoretical and experi- Nov 90 pp 92-96 [MS received Jul 89, revised Dec 89...34] 2. E. F. Knott, et al., "Radar Scattering Cross Section" [Excerpts] Abstract (Ruan Yingzheng, et al., editors), Electronics Industry Publishing

  13. Froissart bound on inelastic cross section without unknown constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, André; Roy, S. M.

    2015-04-01

    Assuming that axiomatic local field theory results hold for hadron scattering, André Martin and S. M. Roy recently obtained absolute bounds on the D wave below threshold for pion-pion scattering and thereby determined the scale of the logarithm in the Froissart bound on total cross sections in terms of pion mass only. Previously, Martin proved a rigorous upper bound on the inelastic cross-section σinel which is one-fourth of the corresponding upper bound on σtot, and Wu, Martin, Roy and Singh improved the bound by adding the constraint of a given σtot. Here we use unitarity and analyticity to determine, without any high-energy approximation, upper bounds on energy-averaged inelastic cross sections in terms of low-energy data in the crossed channel. These are Froissart-type bounds without any unknown coefficient or unknown scale factors and can be tested experimentally. Alternatively, their asymptotic forms, together with the Martin-Roy absolute bounds on pion-pion D waves below threshold, yield absolute bounds on energy-averaged inelastic cross sections. For example, for π0π0 scattering, defining σinel=σtot-(σπ0π0→π0π0+σπ0π0→π+π-) , we show that for c.m. energy √{s }→∞, σ¯ inel(s ,∞)≡s ∫s∞d s'σinel(s')/s'2≤(π /4 )(mπ)-2[ln (s /s1)+(1 /2 )ln ln (s /s1)+1 ]2 where 1 /s1=34 π √{2 π }mπ-2 . This bound is asymptotically one-fourth of the corresponding Martin-Roy bound on the total cross section, and the scale factor s1 is one-fourth of the scale factor in the total cross section bound. The average over the interval (s,2s) of the inelastic π0π0 cross section has a bound of the same form with 1 /s1 replaced by 1 /s2=2 /s1.

  14. 8. Photograph of a line drawing. SHEET 8, CROSS SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photograph of a line drawing. SHEET 8, CROSS SECTION ON LINE EE; 9-16-1940. Assembly Building for Tank Plant for the Chrysler Corporation, Macomb County, Michigan. Delineator: E.B. - Detroit Arsenal, 6501 East Eleven Mile Road, Warren, Macomb County, MI

  15. Evaluation of the neutron cross sections for Pu-240

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, L.W.; Arthur, E.D.

    1987-04-01

    The present evaluation is proposed to supersede the ENDF/B-V, Revision 2 file for /sup 240/Pu. In this work, resonance parameters, cross sections, energy distributions, and angular distributions have been modified. These changes are outlined in detail and appropriate references included. 37 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. 11. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION OF GAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION OF GAS PRODUCER.' From George R. Cooper (Wilputte Corporation). 'Operating Overview of a Producer Gas Plant (12 Machines) at Kingsport, Tennessee.' Presented at the Fifth Annual International Conference on Coal Gasification, Liquefaction and Conversion to Electricity. University of Pittsburgh, August 2, 1978. - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, Producer Gas Plant, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  17. Differential cross section for the double photoionization of Mg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Naby, Shahin A.; Pindzola, M. S.; Colgan, J.

    2015-01-01

    The time-dependent close-coupling (TDCC) method is used to calculate the energy and angle triple differential cross section for the double photoionization of Mg(3{{s}2}) at a photon energy of 55.49 eV to compare with recent converged close-coupling (CCC) calculations and in support of recent experiments at ELETTRA. Comparisons are made between the TDCC, CCC, and experimental results for equal energy sharing at scattering angles of 0{}^\\circ , 30{}^\\circ , and 60{}^\\circ , and for unequal energy sharing at 0{}^\\circ and 30{}^\\circ . Comparisons are made between the TDCC and CCC results for equal and unequal energy sharing at 90{}^\\circ . In addition, TDCC, CCC, and experimental results are compared for complex scattering amplitudes and the TDCC method is used to calculate single energy differential cross sections at photon energies of 30, 35, 40, 45, and 55.49 eV. Although there are scattering angles in the triple differential cross sections at 55.49 eV at which the TDCC, CCC, and experimental results are quite different, the overall agreement between the theories and experiment is reasonable for such small cross sections.

  18. 18. Cross section of Mormon Flat Dam completed. Structure on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Cross section of Mormon Flat Dam completed. Structure on parapet contains the operating mechanisms for the penstock gates. Power house is not yet under construction. Photographer unknown, 1926. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  19. 23. Cross section of newly completed concrete channel and trestle ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Cross section of newly completed concrete channel and trestle supported steel flume, 1919. Courtesy of the Mandeville Department of Special Collections, Central Library, University of California, San Diego. - Lake Hodges Flume, Along San Dieguito River between Lake Hodges & San Dieguito Reservoir, Rancho Santa Fe, San Diego County, CA

  20. Photodissociation of Acetaldehyde and the Photoionization Cross Section of HCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shubert, V. Alvin; Pratt, Stephen T.

    2010-06-01

    Acetaldehyde was photodissociated with near UV laser light, and the methyl (CH_3) and formyl (HCO) radical fragments were photoionized with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light. The fragments were detected by using both time of flight mass spectrometry and velocity ion map imaging. With the former technique, simultaneous detection of both fragments provided the intensity of HCO+ relative to CH_3+ with I(HCO+)/I(CH_3+) ≈ 0.8. Because the absolute photoionization cross section of the CH_3 radical has been characterized (≈ 5 Mb) at the VUV energies of interest, the absolute photoionization cross section of HCO could be determined from the intensity ratio, yielding an HCO cross section of ≈ 4 Mb at 10.3 eV. However, because some of the HCO fragments could be formed with enough internal energy to undergo secondary dissociation, velocity ion map imaging was employed to determine the extent of any secondary dissociation that occurred. The translational energy distributions obtained for both the CH_3 and HCO fragments are nearly identical, indicating that no HCO fragments underwent secondary dissociation. A surprising result was the smaller photoionization cross section of HCO relative to CH_3. Comparison to the isoelectronic species of NO will be discussed and a potential explanation will be offered for this observation. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences under contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  1. Experimental absolute cross section for photoionization of Xe^7+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schippers, S.; Müller, A.; Esteves, D.; Habibi, M.; Aguilar, A.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.

    2010-03-01

    Collision processes with highly charged xenon ions are of interest for UV-radiation generation in plasma discharges, for fusion research and for space craft propulsion. Here we report results for the photoionization of Xe^7+ ionsootnotetextS. Schippers et al., J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. (in print) which were measured at the photon-ion end station of ALS beamline 10.0.1. As compared with the only previous experimental studyootnotetextJ. M. Bizau et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 435 (2000) of this reaction, the present cross sections were obtained at higher energy resolution (50--80 meV vs. 200--500 meV) and on an absolute cross section scale. In the experimental photon energy range of 95--145 eV the cross section is dominated by resonances associated with 4d->5f excitation and subsequent autoionization. The most prominent feature in the measured spectrum is the 4d^9,s,f, resonance at 121.14±0.02 eV which reaches a peak cross section of 1.2 Gb at 50 meV photon energy spread. The experimental resonance strength of 160 Mb eV (corresponding to an absorption oscillator strength of 1.46) is in fair agreement with the theoretical result^2.

  2. Neutron capture cross section of {sup 241}Am

    SciTech Connect

    Jandel, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Bond, E. M.; Chadwick, M. B.; Clement, R. R.; Couture, A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Haight, R. C.; Kawano, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Parker, W. E.; Wu, C. Y.; Becker, J. A.

    2008-09-15

    The neutron capture cross section of {sup 241}Am for incident neutrons from 0.02 eV to 320 keV has been measured with the detector for advanced neutron capture experiments (DANCE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The thermal neutron capture cross section was determined to be 665{+-}33 b. Our result is in good agreement with other recent measurements. Resonance parameters for E{sub n}<12 eV were obtained using an R-matrix fit to the measured cross section. The results are compared with values from the ENDF/B-VII.0, Mughabghab, JENDL-3.3, and JEFF-3.1 evaluations. {gamma}{sub n} neutron widths for the first three resonances are systematically larger by 5-15% than the ENDF/B-VII.0 values. The resonance integral above 0.5 eV was determined to be 1553{+-}7 b. Cross sections in the resolved and unresolved energy regions above 12 eV were calculated using the Hauser-Feshbach theory incorporating the width-fluctuation correction of Moldauer. The calculated results agree well with the measured data, and the extracted averaged resonance parameters in the unresolved resonance region are consistent with those for the resolved resonances.

  3. Cross sections for low-energy inelastic H + Na collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Belyaev, A. K.; Barklem, P. S.; Dickinson, A. S.; Gadea, F. X.

    2010-03-15

    Full quantum-scattering calculations are reported for low-energy near-threshold inelastic collision cross sections for H+Na. The calculations include transitions between all levels up to and including the ionic state (ion-pair production) for collision energies from the threshold up to 10 eV. These results are important for astrophysical modeling of spectra in stellar atmospheres. Results for the 3s-3p excitation are carefully examined using three different quantum chemistry input data sets, and large differences are found near the threshold. The differences are found to be predominantly due to differences in the radial coupling rather than potentials and are also found not to relate to differences in couplings in a simple manner. In fact, of the three input couplings, the two that are most similar give the cross sections with the largest differences. The 3s-3p cross sections show orbiting resonances which have been seen in earlier studies, while Feshbach resonances associated with closed channels were also found to be present in the low-energy cross sections for some transitions.

  4. Extinction and backscatter cross sections of biological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, M. E.; Hahn, D. V.; Carr, A. K.; Limsui, D.; Carter, C. C.; Boggs, N. T.; Jackman, J.

    2008-04-01

    Aerosol backscatter and extinction cross-sections are required to model and evaluate the performance of both active and passive detection systems. A method has been developed that begins with laboratory measurements of thin films and suspensions of biological material to obtain the complex index refraction of the biological material from the UV to the LWIR. Using that result with particle size distribution and shape information as inputs to T-matrix or discrete dipole approximation (DDA) calculations yields the extinction cross-section and backscatter cross section as a function of wavelength. These are important inputs to the lidar equation. In a continuing effort to provide validated optical cross-sections, measurements have been made on a number of high purity biological species in the laboratory as well as measurements of material released at recent field tests. The resulting observed differences between laboratory and field measurements aid in distinguishing between intrinsic and extrinsic effects, which can affect the characteristic signatures of important biological aerosols. A variety of biological and test aerosols are examined, including Bacillus atrophaeus (BG), and Erwina, ovalbumin, silica and polystyrene.

  5. e+e- → charm cross sections via ISR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakhlova, Galina

    2010-06-01

    We discuss recent measurements of exclusive e+e- cross sections for charmed hadron final states near threshold performed by Belle and BABAR. The results are based on a study of events with initial-state-radiation photons in a large data sample collected with the Belle and BABAR detectors at the γ(4S) resonance and nearby continuum.

  6. Nerve cross-sectional area in extremes of age.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Michael S; Mayans, David R; Gillson, Natalie A; Griffin, Leah P; Walker, Francis O

    2013-06-01

    Nerve cross-sectional area reference values have been reported for many nerves, but there have been few studies in pediatric and geriatric populations. This study was conducted to determine the influence of age on nerve cross-sectional area. Thirty-two children (3 months to 16 years) and 20 geriatric adults (67-92 years) without known neurologic conditions underwent bilateral ultrasound to measure the area of the following nerves: median at the wrist and forearm; ulnar at the wrist and elbow; radial in the spiral groove; sciatic in the distal thigh; fibular at the knee; tibial at the knee and ankle; and sural at the ankle. In general, nerve cross-sectional area increased with age. Nerve size correlated most closely with age, but a correlation was also seen with body mass index. Nerve cross-sectional area increases with age, which is important to note when using ultrasound to evaluate children and geriatric patients. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. C+C Fusion Cross Sections Measurements for Nuclear Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Carnelli, P. F. F.; Rehm, K. E.; Albers, M.; Alcorta, M.; Bertone, P. F.; Digiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Fernandez Niello, J. O.; Henderson, D.; Jiang, C. L.; Lai, J.; Marley, S. T.; Nusair, O.; Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R. C.; Paul, M.; Ugalde, C.

    2015-06-01

    Total fusion cross section of carbon isotopes were obtained using the newly developed MUSIC detector. MUSIC is a highly efficient, active target-detector system designed to measure fusion excitation functions with radioactive beams. The present measurements are relevant for understanding x-ray superbursts. The results of the first MUSIC campaign as well as the astrophysical implications are presented in this work.

  8. A Cross-Sectional Study of Cognitive Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grippin, Pauline; And Others

    Students in grades K, 1, 3, and 5 were administered the Rod and Frame Test (RFT), the Matching Familiar Figures (MFF) Test, and the Piagetian tasks of Discontinuous Quantity, Class Inclusion, Multiplication of Classes, and Multiplication of Relations. Cross-sectional trends were found in all tasks with older children being less impulsive, more…

  9. Applications of cross sections for electron-molecule collision processes

    SciTech Connect

    Cartwright, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    The role of electron-molecule collision cross sections is discussed for the study of the ionospheric and auroral processes in planetary atmospheres and of discharge-pumped lasers. These two areas emphasize the importance of further theoretical and experimental studies concerning electron-impact processes. 13 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs. (WRF)

  10. Radar cross sections of standard and complex shape targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohel, M. S.

    1974-01-01

    The theoretical, analytical, and experimental results are described for radar cross sections (RCS) of different-shaped targets. Various techniques for predicting RCS are given, and RCS of finite standard targets are presented. Techniques used to predict the RCS of complex targets are made, and the RCS complex shapes are provided.

  11. RZ calculations for self shielded multigroup cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Li, M.; Sanchez, R.; Zmijarevic, I.; Stankovski, Z.

    2006-07-01

    A collision probability method has been implemented for RZ geometries. The method accounts for white albedo, specular and translation boundary condition on the top and bottom surfaces of the geometry and for a white albedo condition on the outer radial surface. We have applied the RZ CP method to the calculation of multigroup self shielded cross sections for Gadolinia absorbers in BWRs. (authors)

  12. 35. 'Firing Pier, Cross Sections, Looking South,' submitted 29 December ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. 'Firing Pier, Cross Sections, Looking South,' submitted 29 December 1941 by John Brackett, Consulting Engineer, to Public Works Department, Bureau of Yards & Docks. PW Drawing 3874-46, Y&D Drawing 190848. Scale 1/8' = 1'. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  13. The total neutron cross section of liquid para-hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celli, M.; Rhodes, N.; Soper, A. K.; Zoppi, M.

    1999-12-01

    We have measured, using the pulsed neutron source ISIS, the total neutron cross section of liquid para-hydrogen in the vicinity of the triple point. The experimental results compare only qualitatively with the results of the Young and Koppel theory. However, a much better agreement is found once modifications are included in the model which effectively take into account the intermolecular interactions.

  14. Cross-Sectional Imaging for Inflammatory Arthropathy of the Pelvis.

    PubMed

    Alian, Ali; Omar, Hythem; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2017-06-01

    Inflammatory arthropathy predominantly affecting the axial skeleton can cause pain, stiffness, disability, and ankylosis. This article discusses the use of cross-sectional imaging in the domain of inflammatory pelvic and axial arthropathy highlighting the key distinguishing features of common known diseases and their differential diagnoses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Complex Correlation Calculation of e-H Total Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Temkin, Aaron; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Calculation of e - H total and elastic partial wave cross sections is being carried out using the complex correlation variational T-matrix method. In this preliminary study, elastic partial wave phase shifts are calculated with the correlation functions which are confined to be real. In that case the method reduces to the conventional optical potential approach with projection operators.

  16. Inclusive neutrino cross section measurements at MINERvA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratchford, Jasmine; Minerva Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The MINERvA experiment is a precision neutrino experiment designed to improve our understanding of the neutrino-nucleus interaction. The experiment uses a fully active scintillation detector to allow full event reconstruction and includes passive targets helium, water, carbon, iron and lead. Preliminary measurements of inclusive cross section ratios of lead to iron will be shown.

  17. Quasi-Elastic Neutrino Cross Sections with MINERvA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walding, Joe; Minerva Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The MINERvA experiment will measure neutrino and antineutrino quasi-elastic scattering on helium, water, carbon, iron, and lead for neutrinos in the few GeV range. We will present preliminary results for quasi-elastic cross sections in the few GeV range on carbon. Supported in part by the US NSF.

  18. Stellar neutron capture cross sections of the tin isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Wisshak, K.; Voss, F.; Theis, C.; Kaeppeler, F.; Guber, K.; Kazakov, L.; Kornilov, N.; Reffo, G.

    1996-09-01

    The neutron capture cross sections of {sup 114}Sn, {sup 115}Sn, {sup 116}Sn, {sup 117}Sn, {sup 118}Sn, and {sup 120}Sn were measured in the energy range from 3 to 225 keV at the Karlsruhe 3.75 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. Neutrons were produced via the {sup 7}Li({ital p},{ital n}){sup 7}Be reaction using a pulsed proton beam. Capture events were registered with the Karlsruhe 4{pi} barium fluoride detector. The experiment was complicated by the small ({ital n},{gamma}) cross sections of the proton magic tin isotopes and by the comparably low enrichment of the rare isotopes {sup 114}Sn and {sup 115}Sn. Despite significant corrections for capture of scattered neutrons and for isotopic impurities, the high efficiency and the spectroscopic quality of the BaF{sub 2} detector allowed the determination of the cross-section ratios with overall uncertainties of 1{endash}2{percent}, five times smaller compared to existing data. Based on these results, Maxwellian averaged ({ital n},{gamma}) cross sections were calculated for thermal energies between {ital kT}=10 and 100 keV. These data are used for a discussion of the solar tin abundance and for an improved determination of the isotopic {ital s}- and {ital r}-process components. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  19. Skin Diseases: Cross-section of human skin

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Cross-section of human skin Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Logical Images, Inc. I n the areas of skin health and skin diseases, the NIH's National Institute ...

  20. Fission, total and neutron capture cross section measurements at ORELA

    SciTech Connect

    Guber, K.H.; Spencer, R.R.; Leal, L.C.; Larson, D.C.; Dos Santos, G.; Harvey, J.A.; Hill, N.W.

    1998-08-01

    In support of the Nuclear Criticality Predictability Program established in response to the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board Recommendation 93-2, time-of-flight (TOF) measurements of the fission cross sections of {sup 233}U in the neutron energy range from 0.36 eV to several hundred keV have been initiated at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA). Also total and capture cross sections of Al, Cl, and K in the energy range from about 100 eV to several hundred keV have been measured or are under way. The goal is to derive accurate cross section representations for the materials involved in criticality calculations of fuel storage, transportation, etc., configurations. Additional high-resolution measurements of the total cross sections of {sup 233}U below a few keV neutron energy are being planned for 1998, as well as for the other involved material. Evaluated data files in ENDF-6 format will be processed into formats for use in criticality analysis and utilized in benchmark data testing. Finally the data will be submitted for inclusion in ENDF/B.